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Sample records for binding protein family

  1. Comparison of the Folding Mechanism of Highly Homologous Proteins in the Lipid-binding Protein Family

    EPA Science Inventory

    The folding mechanism of two closely related proteins in the intracellular lipid binding protein family, human bile acid binding protein (hBABP) and rat bile acid binding protein (rBABP) were examined. These proteins are 77% identical (93% similar) in sequence Both of these singl...

  2. Comparison of the Folding Mechanism of Highly Homologous Proteins in the Lipid-binding Protein Family

    EPA Science Inventory

    The folding mechanism of two closely related proteins in the intracellular lipid binding protein family, human bile acid binding protein (hBABP) and rat bile acid binding protein (rBABP) were examined. These proteins are 77% identical (93% similar) in sequence Both of these singl...

  3. An Ancient Family of RNA-Binding Proteins: Still Important!

    PubMed

    Wells, Melissa L; Perera, Lalith; Blackshear, Perry J

    2017-04-01

    RNA-binding proteins are important modulators of mRNA stability, a crucial process that determines the ultimate cellular levels of mRNAs and their encoded proteins. The tristetraprolin (TTP) family of RNA-binding proteins appeared early in the evolution of eukaryotes, and has persisted in modern eukaryotes. The domain structures and biochemical functions of family members from widely divergent lineages are remarkably similar, but their mRNA 'targets' can be very different, even in closely related species. Recent gene knockout studies in species as distantly related as plants, flies, yeasts, and mice have demonstrated crucial roles for these proteins in a wide variety of physiological processes. Inflammatory and hematopoietic phenotypes in mice have suggested potential therapeutic approaches for analogous human disorders.

  4. Calcineurin homologous protein: a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein family

    PubMed Central

    Vadnagara, Komal; Moe, Orson W.; Babich, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) belongs to an evolutionarily conserved Ca2+-binding protein subfamily. The CHP subfamily is composed of CHP1, CHP2, and CHP3, which in vertebrates share significant homology at the protein level with each other and between other Ca2+-binding proteins. The CHP structure consists of two globular domains containing from one to four EF-hand structural motifs (calcium-binding regions composed of two helixes, E and F, joined by a loop), the myristoylation, and nuclear export signals. These structural features are essential for the function of the three members of the CHP subfamily. Indeed, CHP1–CHP3 have multiple and diverse essential functions, ranging from the regulation of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger protein function, to carrier vesicle trafficking and gene transcription. The diverse functions attributed to the CHP subfamily rendered an understanding of its action highly complex and often controversial. This review provides a comprehensive and organized examination of the properties and physiological roles of the CHP subfamily with a view to revealing a link between CHP diverse functions. PMID:22189947

  5. Xenopus interspersed RNA families, Ocr and XR, bind DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Guttridge, K L; Smith, L D

    1995-05-01

    Interspersed RNA makes up two-thirds of cytoplasmic polyadenylated RNA in Xenopus and sea urchin eggs. Although it has no known function, previous work has suggested that at least one family of interspersed RNA, XR, binds Xenopus oocyte proteins, and can influence the rate of translation. We have used two Xenopus repeat families, Ocr and XR, to explore their protein binding abilities. Ocr RNA binds the same pattern of highly abundant oocyte proteins that XR RNA binds, which are believed to be messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle proteins. In addition, we show that Ocr RNA binds the Oct-60 protein, a member of the POU-domain family of transcription factors found in Xenopus oocytes. Using a 32 base pair sequence from the XR repeat in a DNA affinity column two proteins were isolated, 66 kDa and 92 kDa, that together form a complex with XR DNA. One of these proteins (92 kDa) also binds XR RNA. We suggest that the role of at least a subset of interspersed RNAs in development may be to bind, and sequester in the cytoplasm, DNA-binding proteins until the end of oogenesis.

  6. The latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein (LTBP) family.

    PubMed Central

    Oklü, R; Hesketh, R

    2000-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) cytokines are a multi-functional family that exert a wide variety of effects on both normal and transformed mammalian cells. The secretion and activation of TGFbetas is regulated by their association with latency-associated proteins and latent TGFbeta binding proteins (LTBPs). Over the past few years, three members of the LTBP family have been identified, in addition to the protoype LTBP1 first sequenced in 1990. Three of the LTBP family are expressed in a variety of isoforms as a consequence of alternative splicing. This review summarizes the differences between the isoforms in terms of the effects on domain structure and hence possible function. The close identity between LTBPs and members of the fibrillin family, mutations in which have been linked directly to Marfan's syndrome, suggests that anomalous expression of LTBPs may be associated with disease. Recent data indicating that differential expression of LTBP1 isoforms occurs during the development of coronary heart disease is considered, together with evidence that modulation of LTBP function, and hence of TGFbeta activity, is associated with a variety of cancers. PMID:11104663

  7. APP Protein Family Signaling at the Synapse: Insights from Intracellular APP-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Guénette, Suzanne; Strecker, Paul; Kins, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying amyloid precursor protein family (APP/APP-like proteins, APLP) function in the nervous system can be achieved by studying the APP/APLP interactome. In this review article, we focused on intracellular APP interacting proteins that bind the YENPTY internalization motif located in the last 15 amino acids of the C-terminal region. These proteins, which include X11/Munc-18-interacting proteins (Mints) and FE65/FE65Ls, represent APP cytosolic binding partners exhibiting different neuronal functions. A comparison of FE65 and APP family member mutant mice revealed a shared function for APP/FE65 protein family members in neurogenesis and neuronal positioning. Accumulating evidence also supports a role for membrane-associated APP/APLP proteins in synapse formation and function. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that APP/APLP C-terminal interacting proteins transmit APP/APLP-dependent signals at the synapse. Herein, we compare our current knowledge of the synaptic phenotypes of APP/APLP mutant mice with those of mice lacking different APP/APLP interaction partners and discuss the possible downstream effects of APP-dependent FE65/FE65L or X11/Mint signaling on synaptic vesicle release, synaptic morphology and function. Given that the role of X11/Mint proteins at the synapse is well-established, we propose a model highlighting the role of FE65 protein family members for transduction of APP/APLP physiological function at the synapse.

  8. The Overlap of Small Molecule and Protein Binding Sites within Families of Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Fred P.; Sali, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions are challenging targets for modulation by small molecules. Here, we propose an approach that harnesses the increasing structural coverage of protein complexes to identify small molecules that may target protein interactions. Specifically, we identify ligand and protein binding sites that overlap upon alignment of homologous proteins. Of the 2,619 protein structure families observed to bind proteins, 1,028 also bind small molecules (250–1000 Da), and 197 exhibit a statistically significant (p<0.01) overlap between ligand and protein binding positions. These “bi-functional positions”, which bind both ligands and proteins, are particularly enriched in tyrosine and tryptophan residues, similar to “energetic hotspots” described previously, and are significantly less conserved than mono-functional and solvent exposed positions. Homology transfer identifies ligands whose binding sites overlap at least 20% of the protein interface for 35% of domain–domain and 45% of domain–peptide mediated interactions. The analysis recovered known small-molecule modulators of protein interactions as well as predicted new interaction targets based on the sequence similarity of ligand binding sites. We illustrate the predictive utility of the method by suggesting structural mechanisms for the effects of sanglifehrin A on HIV virion production, bepridil on the cellular entry of anthrax edema factor, and fusicoccin on vertebrate developmental pathways. The results, available at http://pibase.janelia.org, represent a comprehensive collection of structurally characterized modulators of protein interactions, and suggest that homologous structures are a useful resource for the rational design of interaction modulators. PMID:20140189

  9. The Cbl proteins are binding partners for the Cool/Pix family of p21-activated kinase-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Flanders, James A; Feng, Qiyu; Bagrodia, Shubha; Laux, Maria T; Singavarapu, Avinash; Cerione, Richard A

    2003-08-28

    Members of the Cool protein family contain SH3, Dbl, and pleckstrin homology domains and are binding partners for the p21-activated kinase (PAK). Using the yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Cbl-b as a Cool family binding partner. We co-immunoprecipitated endogenous Cool and Cbl-b from a variety of breast cancer cell lines. The Cool-Cbl-b interaction requires the SH3 domain of Cool and competes with the binding of PAK to Cool proteins. Expression of Cbl-b effectively blocks the ability of Cool-2 to stimulate PAK, thus providing an additional mechanism, aside from catalyzing receptor ubiquitination, by which Cbl-b acts as a negative regulator for signaling activities requiring PAK activation.

  10. A mosquito hemolymph odorant-binding protein family member specifically binds juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il Hwan; Pham, Van; Jablonka, Willy; Goodman, Walter G; Ribeiro, José M C; Andersen, John F

    2017-09-15

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of insect development and reproduction. In adult mosquitoes, it is essential for maturation of the ovary and normal male reproductive behavior, but how JH distribution and activity is regulated after secretion is unclear. Here, we report a new type of specific JH-binding protein, given the name mosquito juvenile hormone-binding protein (mJHBP), which circulates in the hemolymph of pupal and adult Aedes aegypti males and females. mJHBP is a member of the odorant-binding protein (OBP) family, and orthologs are present in the genomes of Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquito species. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that mJHBP specifically binds JH II and JH III but not eicosanoids or JH derivatives. mJHBP was crystallized in the presence of JH III and found to have a double OBP domain structure reminiscent of salivary "long" D7 proteins of mosquitoes. We observed that a single JH III molecule is contained in the N-terminal domain binding pocket that is closed in an apparent conformational change by a C-terminal domain-derived α-helix. The electron density for the ligand indicated a high occupancy of the natural 10R enantiomer of JH III. Of note, mJHBP is structurally unrelated to hemolymph JHBP from lepidopteran insects. A low level of expression of mJHBP in Ae. aegypti larvae suggests that it is primarily active during the adult stage where it could potentially influence the effects of JH on egg development, mating behavior, feeding, or other processes.

  11. Two cytosolic protein families implicated in lipid-binding: main structural and functional features.

    PubMed

    Schoentgen, F; Bucquoy, S; Seddiqi, N; Jollès, P

    1993-12-01

    1. According to the important biological role of fatty acids and phospholipids in cell membranes, two cytosolic proteins implicated in their binding and transport in brain were considered, namely: Fatty Acid-Binding Protein and basic 21 kDa protein. 2. They were reviewed as well as their related protein families. 3. Although the two protein groups do not present significant sequence homologies, they share several similar properties and might thus be implicated in common physiological functions.

  12. A fusicoccin binding protein belongs to the family of 14-3-3 brain protein homologs.

    PubMed Central

    Korthout, H A; de Boer, A H

    1994-01-01

    The fusicoccin binding protein (FCBP) is a highly conserved plasma membrane protein present in all higher plants tested thus far. It exhibits high- and low-affinity binding for the fungal toxin fusicoccin (FC). We purified the active FCBP from a fraction highly enriched in plasma membrane by selective precipitation and anion exchange chromatography. After SDS-PAGE, the two FCBP subunits of 30 and 31 kD were detected as major bands. Amino acid sequence analysis of the 31-kD polypeptide displayed a high degree of identity with so-called 14-3-3 proteins, a class of mammalian brain proteins initially described as regulators of neurotransmitter synthesis and protein kinase C inhibitors. Thereafter, we affinity purified the 30- and 31-kD FCBP subunits, using biotinylated FC in combination with a monomeric avidin column. Immunodecoration of these 30- and 31-kD FCBP subunits with polyclonal antibodies raised against a 14-3-3 homolog from yeast confirmed the identity of the FCBP as a 14-3-3 homolog. Similar to all 14-3-3 protein homologs, the FCBP seems to exist as a dimer in native form. Thus far, the FCBP is the only 14-3-3 homolog with a receptor-like function. The conserved structure of the 14-3-3 protein family is a further indication that the FCBP plays an important role in the physiology of higher plants. PMID:7827499

  13. Common recognition principles across diverse sequence and structural families of sialic acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Bhagavat, Raghu; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2014-01-01

    Sialic acids form a large family of 9-carbon monosaccharides and are integral components of glycoconjugates. They are known to bind to a wide range of receptors belonging to diverse sequence families and fold classes and are key mediators in a plethora of cellular processes. Thus, it is of great interest to understand the features that give rise to such a recognition capability. Structural analyses using a non-redundant data set of known sialic acid binding proteins was carried out, which included exhaustive binding site comparisons and site alignments using in-house algorithms, followed by clustering and tree computation, which has led to derivation of sialic acid recognition principles. Although the proteins in the data set belong to several sequence and structure families, their binding sites could be grouped into only six types. Structural comparison of the binding sites indicates that all sites contain one or more different combinations of key structural features over a common scaffold. The six binding site types thus serve as structural motifs for recognizing sialic acid. Scanning the motifs against a non-redundant set of binding sites from PDB indicated the motifs to be specific for sialic acid recognition. Knowledge of determinants obtained from this study will be useful for detecting function in unknown proteins. As an example analysis, a genome-wide scan for the motifs in structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteome identified 17 hits that contain combinations of the features, suggesting a possible function of sialic acid binding by these proteins.

  14. Eos and pegasus, two members of the Ikaros family of proteins with distinct DNA binding activities.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, J; Holmes, M; Chong, B; Crossley, M

    2000-12-08

    Members of the Ikaros family of transcription factors, Ikaros, Aiolos, and Helios, are expressed in lymphocytes and have been implicated in controlling lymphoid development. These proteins contain two characteristic clusters of zinc fingers, an N-terminal domain important for DNA recognition, and a C-terminal domain that mediates homo- and heterotypic associations between family members. The conservation of these domains is such that all three proteins recognize related DNA sequences, and all are capable of dimerizing with other family members. Here we describe two additional Ikaros family proteins, Eos and Pegasus. Eos is most highly related to Helios and shares its DNA binding and protein association properties. Pegasus is related to other Ikaros proteins in its C-terminal dimerization domain but contains a divergent N-terminal zinc finger domain. Pegasus self-associates and binds to other family members but recognizes distinct DNA-binding sites. Eos and Pegasus repress the expression of reporter genes containing their recognition elements. Our results suggest that these proteins may associate with previously described Ikaros family proteins in lymphoid cells and play additional roles in other tissues.

  15. Bacterial 5S rRNA-binding proteins of the CTC family.

    PubMed

    Gongadze, G M; Korepanov, A P; Korobeinikova, A V; Garber, M B

    2008-12-01

    The presence of CTC family proteins is a unique feature of bacterial cells. In the CTC family, there are true ribosomal proteins (found in ribosomes of exponentially growing cells), and at the same time there are also proteins temporarily associated with the ribosome (they are produced by the cells under stress only and incorporate into the ribosome). One feature is common for these proteins - they specifically bind to 5S rRNA. In this review, the history of investigations of the best known representatives of this family is described briefly. Structural organization of the CTC family proteins and their occurrence among known taxonomic bacterial groups are discussed. Structural features of 5S rRNA and CTC protein are described that predetermine their specific interaction. Taking into account the position of a CTC protein and its intermolecular contacts in the ribosome, a possible role of its complex with 5S rRNA in ribosome functioning is discussed.

  16. A Web-based classification system of DNA-binding protein families.

    PubMed

    Karmirantzou, M; Hamodrakas, S J

    2001-07-01

    Rational classification of proteins encoded in sequenced genomes is critical for making the genome sequences maximally useful for functional and evolutionary studies. The family of DNA-binding proteins is one of the most populated and studied amongst the various genomes of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes and the Web-based system presented here is an approach to their classification. The DnaProt resource is an annotated and searchable collection of protein sequences for the families of DNA-binding proteins. The database contains 3238 full-length sequences (retrieved from the SWISS-PROT database, release 38) that include, at least, a DNA-binding domain. Sequence entries are organized into families defined by PROSITE patterns, PRINTS motifs and de novo excised signatures. Combining global similarities and functional motifs into a single classification scheme, DNA-binding proteins are classified into 33 unique classes, which helps to reveal comprehensive family relationships. To maximize family information retrieval, DnaProt contains a collection of multiple alignments for each DNA-binding family while the recognized motifs can be used as diagnostically functional fingerprints. All available structural class representatives have been referenced. The resource was developed as a Web-based management system for online free access of customized data sets. Entries are fully hyperlinked to facilitate easy retrieval of the original records from the source databases while functional and phylogenetic annotation will be applied to newly sequenced genomes. The database is freely available for online search of a library containing specific patterns of the identified DNA-binding protein classes and retrieval of individual entries from our WWW server (http://kronos.biol.uoa.gr/~mariak/dbDNA.html).

  17. A calmodulin-binding/CGCG box DNA-binding protein family involved in multiple signaling pathways in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    We reported earlier that the tobacco early ethylene-responsive gene NtER1 encodes a calmodulin-binding protein (Yang, T., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 38467-38473). Here we demonstrate that there is one NtER1 homolog as well as five related genes in Arabidopsis. These six genes are rapidly and differentially induced by environmental signals such as temperature extremes, UVB, salt, and wounding; hormones such as ethylene and abscisic acid; and signal molecules such as methyl jasmonate, H(2)O(2), and salicylic acid. Hence, they were designated as AtSR1-6 (Arabidopsis thaliana signal-responsive genes). Ca(2+)/calmodulin binds to all AtSRs, and their calmodulin-binding regions are located on a conserved basic amphiphilic alpha-helical motif in the C terminus. AtSR1 targets the nucleus and specifically recognizes a novel 6-bp CGCG box (A/C/G)CGCG(G/T/C). The multiple CGCG cis-elements are found in promoters of genes such as those involved in ethylene signaling, abscisic acid signaling, and light signal perception. The DNA-binding domain in AtSR1 is located on the N-terminal 146 bp where all AtSR1-related proteins share high similarity but have no similarity to other known DNA-binding proteins. The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants.

  18. A calmodulin-binding/CGCG box DNA-binding protein family involved in multiple signaling pathways in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    We reported earlier that the tobacco early ethylene-responsive gene NtER1 encodes a calmodulin-binding protein (Yang, T., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 38467-38473). Here we demonstrate that there is one NtER1 homolog as well as five related genes in Arabidopsis. These six genes are rapidly and differentially induced by environmental signals such as temperature extremes, UVB, salt, and wounding; hormones such as ethylene and abscisic acid; and signal molecules such as methyl jasmonate, H(2)O(2), and salicylic acid. Hence, they were designated as AtSR1-6 (Arabidopsis thaliana signal-responsive genes). Ca(2+)/calmodulin binds to all AtSRs, and their calmodulin-binding regions are located on a conserved basic amphiphilic alpha-helical motif in the C terminus. AtSR1 targets the nucleus and specifically recognizes a novel 6-bp CGCG box (A/C/G)CGCG(G/T/C). The multiple CGCG cis-elements are found in promoters of genes such as those involved in ethylene signaling, abscisic acid signaling, and light signal perception. The DNA-binding domain in AtSR1 is located on the N-terminal 146 bp where all AtSR1-related proteins share high similarity but have no similarity to other known DNA-binding proteins. The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants.

  19. The RGK family: a regulatory tail of small GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kathleen

    2005-12-01

    RGK proteins are small Ras-related GTP-binding proteins that function as potent inhibitors of voltage-dependent calcium channels, and two members of the family, Gem and Rad, modulate Rho-dependent remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Within the Ras superfamily, RGK proteins have distinct structural and regulatory characteristics. It is an open question as to whether RGK proteins catalyze GTP hydrolysis in vivo. Binding of calmodulin and the 14-3-3 protein to RGK proteins controls downstream pathways. Here, we discuss the structural and functional properties of RGK proteins and highlight recent work by Beguin and colleagues addressing the mechanism of Gem regulation by calmodulin and 14-3-3.

  20. Familial abnormalities of thyroxine binding proteins: some problems of recognition and interpretation.

    PubMed Central

    Neild, J E; Byfield, P G; Lalloz, M R; Tait, D; Marigold, J H; Croft, D N; Slavin, B M

    1985-01-01

    A three generation family study was carried out after inappropriate treatment with radioactive iodine of a 50 year old woman with a raised serum total thyroxine concentration and free thyroxine index. Subsequent investigations showed that she and five members of her family had raised thyroxine binding globulin concentrations. Free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine concentrations were normal. Problems encountered in the recognition of this thyroxine binding protein disorder are discussed. Clinicians and clinical biochemists should be aware of these pitfalls and thus avoid further incorrect treatment on the basis of biochemical findings, even though free hormone estimations are now becoming readily available. PMID:3919066

  1. Comparison of ligand migration and binding in heme proteins of the globin family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karin, Nienhaus; Ulrich Nienhaus, G.

    2015-12-01

    The binding of small diatomic ligands such as carbon monoxide or dioxygen to heme proteins is among the simplest biological processes known. Still, it has taken many decades to understand the mechanistic aspects of this process in full detail. Here, we compare ligand binding in three heme proteins of the globin family, myoglobin, a dimeric hemoglobin, and neuroglobin. The combination of structural, spectroscopic, and kinetic experiments over many years by many laboratories has revealed common properties of globins and a clear mechanistic picture of ligand binding at the molecular level. In addition to the ligand binding site at the heme iron, a primary ligand docking site exists that ensures efficient ligand binding to and release from the heme iron. Additional, secondary docking sites can greatly facilitate ligand escape after its dissociation from the heme. Although there is only indirect evidence at present, a preformed histidine gate appears to exist that allows ligand entry to and exit from the active site. The importance of these features can be assessed by studies involving modified proteins (via site-directed mutagenesis) and comparison with heme proteins not belonging to the globin family.

  2. Chicken genome analysis reveals novel genes encoding biotin-binding proteins related to avidin family

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Einari A; Hytönen, Vesa P; Grapputo, Alessandro; Nordlund, Henri R; Kulomaa, Markku S; Laitinen, Olli H

    2005-01-01

    Background A chicken egg contains several biotin-binding proteins (BBPs), whose complete DNA and amino acid sequences are not known. In order to identify and characterise these genes and proteins we studied chicken cDNAs and genes available in the NCBI database and chicken genome database using the reported N-terminal amino acid sequences of chicken egg-yolk BBPs as search strings. Results Two separate hits showing significant homology for these N-terminal sequences were discovered. For one of these hits, the chromosomal location in the immediate proximity of the avidin gene family was found. Both of these hits encode proteins having high sequence similarity with avidin suggesting that chicken BBPs are paralogous to avidin family. In particular, almost all residues corresponding to biotin binding in avidin are conserved in these putative BBP proteins. One of the found DNA sequences, however, seems to encode a carboxy-terminal extension not present in avidin. Conclusion We describe here the predicted properties of the putative BBP genes and proteins. Our present observations link BBP genes together with avidin gene family and shed more light on the genetic arrangement and variability of this family. In addition, comparative modelling revealed the potential structural elements important for the functional and structural properties of the putative BBP proteins. PMID:15777476

  3. Chicken genome analysis reveals novel genes encoding biotin-binding proteins related to avidin family.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Einari A; Hytönen, Vesa P; Grapputo, Alessandro; Nordlund, Henri R; Kulomaa, Markku S; Laitinen, Olli H

    2005-03-18

    A chicken egg contains several biotin-binding proteins (BBPs), whose complete DNA and amino acid sequences are not known. In order to identify and characterise these genes and proteins we studied chicken cDNAs and genes available in the NCBI database and chicken genome database using the reported N-terminal amino acid sequences of chicken egg-yolk BBPs as search strings. Two separate hits showing significant homology for these N-terminal sequences were discovered. For one of these hits, the chromosomal location in the immediate proximity of the avidin gene family was found. Both of these hits encode proteins having high sequence similarity with avidin suggesting that chicken BBPs are paralogous to avidin family. In particular, almost all residues corresponding to biotin binding in avidin are conserved in these putative BBP proteins. One of the found DNA sequences, however, seems to encode a carboxy-terminal extension not present in avidin. We describe here the predicted properties of the putative BBP genes and proteins. Our present observations link BBP genes together with avidin gene family and shed more light on the genetic arrangement and variability of this family. In addition, comparative modelling revealed the potential structural elements important for the functional and structural properties of the putative BBP proteins.

  4. A novel family of carbohydrate-binding modules identified with Ruminococcus albus proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Morrison, Mark; Nelson, Karen E; Bayer, Edward A; Atamna, Nof; Lamed, Raphael

    2004-05-21

    We recently showed that some of the enzymes underpinning cellulose solubilization by Ruminococcus albus 8 lack the conventional type of dockerin module characteristic of cellulosomal proteins and instead, bear an "X" domain of unknown function at their C-termini. We have now subcloned and expressed six X domains and showed that five of them bind to xylan, chitin, microcrystalline and phosphoric-acid swollen cellulose, as well as more heterogenous substrates such as alfalfa cell walls, banana stem and wheat straw. The X domain that did not bind to these substrates was derived from a family-5 glycoside hydrolase (Cel5G), which possesses two X domains in tandem. Whereas the internal X domain failed to bind to the substrates, the recombinant dyad exhibited markedly enhanced binding relative to that observed for the C-terminal X domain alone. The evidence supports a distinctive carbohydrate-binding role of broad specificity for this type of domain, and we propose a novel family (designated family 37) of carbohydrate-binding modules that appear to be peculiar to R. albus.

  5. Characterization of the oxysterol-binding protein gene family in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Lynn-Miller, Ace; Lan, Que

    2011-01-01

    The oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and related proteins (ORPs) are sterol-binding proteins that may be involved in cellular sterol transportation, sterol metabolism and signal transduction pathways. Four ORP genes were cloned from Aedes aegypti. Based on amino acid sequence homology to human proteins, they are AeOSBP, AeORP1, AeORP8 and AeORP9. Splicing variants of AeOSBP and AeORP8 were identified. The temporal and spatial transcription patterns of members of the AeOSBP gene family through developmental stages and the gonotrophic cycle were profiled. AeORP1 transcription seemed to be head tissue-specific, whereas AeOSBP and AeORP9 expressions were induced by a blood meal. Furthermore, over-expression of AeORPs facilitated [3H]-cholesterol uptake in Aedes aegypti cultured Aag-2 cells. PMID:21699592

  6. Small GTP-binding proteins of the ras family: a conserved functional mechanism?

    PubMed

    Chardin, P

    1991-04-01

    Mutated ras genes can acquire a transforming potential and are frequently detected in human tumors. The mammalian ras gene family includes at least 35 distinct members that can be divided into three main groups on the basis of their sequence similarity to ras, rho, or rab genes. All these genes encode small GTP-binding proteins. Rho proteins are implicated in actin organization and control of cell shape, probably by interacting with the cytoskeleton and intracellular membranes. Rab proteins are involved in vesicular traffic, and appear to control the translocation of vesicles from donor to acceptor membranes. The precise function of ras proteins is unknown, although the prevailing view is that they act as transducers of mitogenic signals. We propose that ras proteins, by analogy with rho and rab, are involved in the lateral segregation of multi-protein complexes at the plasma membrane, and we suggest how this process may be important for mitogenic signal transduction.

  7. VH3 family antibodies bind domain D of staphylococcal protein A.

    PubMed

    Roben, P W; Salem, A N; Silverman, G J

    1995-06-15

    Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is a 45-kDa bacterial membrane protein that can interact with either Fc gamma, a constant region portion of IgG, or with the Fab portion that also mediates conventional Ag binding. In recent reports, SpA has been shown to specifically interact with Fab derived from the VH3 family and is little affected by VH CDR3, JH, or light chain usage. To identify a site on SpA responsible for VH3 Fab binding, we cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli the 61 amino acid sequence of SpA that represents domain D, and this small protein exhibited both the VH3 Fab and Fc gamma binding specificities. Surface plasmon resonance measurements demonstrated that domain D and native SpA had the strongest binding interactions with an IgM-kappa encoded by the germline configuration of the VH3 gene VH26c. In contrast, the apparent affinities for Fc gamma binding were at least fivefold weaker. A variant of domain D was also created that is devoid of the three-codon insertion that distinguishes domain D from all other domains in SpA. Although this deletion did not significantly affect the VH3 Fab-mediated SpA binding activity, it did improve the affinity of Fc gamma binding by an order of magnitude. These observations characterize a site on SpA responsible for binding interactions with B cell Ag receptors that are highly analogous to that of superantigens for T cell receptors.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis reveals dynamic evolution of the poly(A)-binding protein gene family in plants.

    PubMed

    Gallie, Daniel R; Liu, Renyi

    2014-11-25

    The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs and functions to maintain the integrity of the mRNA while promoting protein synthesis through its interaction with eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G and eIF4B. PABP is encoded by a single gene in yeast and marine algae but during plant evolution the PABP gene family expanded substantially, underwent sequence divergence into three subclasses, and acquired tissue-specificity in gene family member expression. Although such changes suggest functional specialization, the size of the family and its sequence divergence have complicated an understanding of which gene family members may be foundational and which may represent more recent expansions of the family to meet the specific needs of speciation. Here, we examine the evolution of the plant PABP gene family to provide insight into these aspects of the family that may yield clues into the function of individual family members. The PABP gene family had expanded to two members by the appearance of fresh water algae and four members in non-vascular plants. In lycophytes, the first sequence divergence yielding a specific class member occurs. The earliest members of the gene family share greatest similarity to those modern members whose expression is confined to reproductive tissues, suggesting that supporting reproductive-associated gene expression is the most conserved function of this family. A family member sharing similarity to modern vegetative-associated members first appears in gymnosperms. Further elaboration of the reproductive-associated and vegetative-associated members occurred during the evolution of flowering plants. Expansion of the plant PABP gene family began prior to the colonization of land. By the evolution of lycophytes, the first class member whose expression is confined to reproductive tissues in higher plants had appeared. A second class member whose expression is vegetative-associated appeared in

  9. The HMGN family of chromatin-binding proteins: dynamic modulators of epigenetic processes.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Jamie E; Deng, Tao; Bustin, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The HMGN family of proteins binds to nucleosomes without any specificity for the underlying DNA sequence. They affect the global and local structure of chromatin, as well as the levels of histone modifications and thus play a role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. This review focuses on the recent studies that provide new insights on the interactions between HMGN proteins, nucleosomes, and chromatin, and the effects of these interactions on epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin in time and space. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Identification of a novel SNF2/SWI2 protein family member, SRCAP, which interacts with CREB-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Johnston, H; Kneer, J; Chackalaparampil, I; Yaciuk, P; Chrivia, J

    1999-06-04

    The ability of cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) to function as a co-activator for a number of transcription factors appears to be mediated by its ability to act as a histone acetyltransferase and through its interaction with a number of other proteins (general transcription factors, histone acetyltransferases, and other co-activators). Here we report that CBP also interacts with a novel ATPase termed Snf2-Related CBP Activator Protein (SRCAP). Consistent with this activity, SRCAP contains the conserved ATPase domain found within members of the Snf2 family. Transfection experiments demonstrate that SRCAP is able to activate transcription when expressed as a Gal-SRCAP chimera and that SRCAP also enhances the ability of CBP to activate transcription. The adenoviral protein E1A was found to disrupt interaction between SRCAP and CBP possibly representing a mechanism for E1A-mediated transcriptional repression.

  11. Multiple Evolutionary Origins of Ubiquitous Cu2+ and Zn2+ Binding in the S100 Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Lucas C.; Donor, Micah T.; Prell, James S.

    2016-01-01

    The S100 proteins are a large family of signaling proteins that play critical roles in biology and disease. Many S100 proteins bind Zn2+, Cu2+, and/or Mn2+ as part of their biological functions; however, the evolutionary origins of binding remain obscure. One key question is whether divalent transition metal binding is ancestral, or instead arose independently on multiple lineages. To tackle this question, we combined phylogenetics with biophysical characterization of modern S100 proteins. We demonstrate an earlier origin for established S100 subfamilies than previously believed, and reveal that transition metal binding is widely distributed across the tree. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we found that Cu2+ and Zn2+ binding are common features of the family: the full breadth of human S100 paralogs—as well as two early-branching S100 proteins found in the tunicate Oikopleura dioica—bind these metals with μM affinity and stoichiometries ranging from 1:1 to 3:1 (metal:protein). While binding is consistent across the tree, structural responses to binding are quite variable. Further, mutational analysis and structural modeling revealed that transition metal binding occurs at different sites in different S100 proteins. This is consistent with multiple origins of transition metal binding over the evolution of this protein family. Our work reveals an evolutionary pattern in which the overall phenotype of binding is a constant feature of S100 proteins, even while the site and mechanism of binding is evolutionarily labile. PMID:27764152

  12. A cardiac myosin binding protein C mutation in the Maine Coon cat with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Meurs, Kathryn M; Sanchez, Ximena; David, Ryan M; Bowles, Neil E; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Reiser, Peter J; Kittleson, Judith A; Munro, Marcia J; Dryburgh, Keith; Macdonald, Kristin A; Kittleson, Mark D

    2005-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in young adults and is a familial disease in at least 60% of cases. Causative mutations have been identified in several sarcomeric genes, including the myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) gene. Although numerous causative mutations have been identified, the pathogenetic process is still poorly understood. A large animal model of familial HCM in the cat has been identified and may be used for additional study. As the first spontaneous large animal model of this familial disease, feline familial HCM provides a valuable model for investigators to evaluate pathophysiologic processes and therapeutic (pharmacologic or genetic) manipulations. The MYBPC3 gene was chosen as a candidate gene in this model after identifying a reduction in the protein in myocardium from affected cats in comparison to control cats (P<0.001). DNA sequencing was performed and sequence alterations were evaluated for evidence that they changed the amino acid produced, that the amino acid was conserved and that the protein structure was altered. We identified a single base pair change (G to C) in the feline MYBPC3 gene in affected cats that computationally alters the protein conformation of this gene and results in sarcomeric disorganization. We have identified a causative mutation in the feline MYBPC3 gene that results in the development of familial HCM. This is the first report of a spontaneous mutation causing HCM in a non-human species. It should provide a valuable model for evaluating pathophysiologic processes and therapeutic manipulations.

  13. An Arabidopsis family of six acyl-CoA-binding proteins has three cytosolic members.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Chye, Mee-Len

    2009-06-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene family of six members encodes acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs). These Arabidopsis ACBPs (designated ACBP1 to ACBP6) range in size from 10.4kDa to 73.1kDa and display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters, suggesting that they have different roles in plant lipid metabolism. In contrast, only the 10-kDa ACBPs have been well-characterized from other eukaryote species. Our previous studies have revealed that ACBP1 and ACBP2 are membrane-associated proteins, while ACBP3 is extracellularly-targeted. More recently, we have reported that the remaining three members in this protein family (namely ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6) are subcellularly localized to the cytosol in Arabidopsis. The subcellular localizations of ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6 in the cytosol were demonstrated using a number of different approaches incorporating biochemical fractionation, confocal microscopy of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing autofluorescence-tagged fusions and immunoelectron microscopy using ACBP-specific antibodies. Our results indicate that all three ACBPs in the cytosol are potential candidates for acyl-CoA binding and trafficking in plant cells. In this review, the functional redundancy and differences among the three cytosolic ACBPs are discussed by comparison of their light-regulated expression and substrate affinities to acyl-CoA esters, and from biochemical analyses on their knockout mutants and/or overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis. The transcriptionally light-induced ACBP4 and ACBP5, which encode the two largest forms of Arabidopsis ACBPs, bind oleoyl-CoA esters and likely transfer oleoyl-CoAs from the plastids (the site of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis) to the endoplasmic reticulum for the biosynthesis of non-plastidial membrane lipids in Arabidopsis.

  14. The Msi Family of RNA-Binding Proteins Function Redundantly as Intestinal Oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Yousefi, Maryam; Nakauka-Ddamba, Angela; Li, Fan; Vandivier, Lee; Parada, Kimberly; Woo, Dong-Hun; Wang, Shan; Naqvi, Ammar S; Rao, Shilpa; Tobias, John; Cedeno, Ryan J; Minuesa, Gerard; Y, Katz; Barlowe, Trevor S; Valvezan, Alexander; Shankar, Sheila; Deering, Raquel P; Klein, Peter S; Jensen, Shane T; Kharas, Michael G; Gregory, Brian D; Yu, Zhengquan; Lengner, Christopher J

    2015-12-22

    Members of the Msi family of RNA-binding proteins have recently emerged as potent oncoproteins in a range of malignancies. MSI2 is highly expressed in hematopoietic cancers, where it is required for disease maintenance. In contrast to the hematopoietic system, colorectal cancers can express both Msi family members, MSI1 and MSI2. Here, we demonstrate that, in the intestinal epithelium, Msi1 and Msi2 have analogous oncogenic effects. Further, comparison of Msi1/2-induced gene expression programs and transcriptome-wide analyses of Msi1/2-RNA-binding targets reveal significant functional overlap, including induction of the PDK-Akt-mTORC1 axis. Ultimately, we demonstrate that concomitant loss of function of both MSI family members is sufficient to abrogate the growth of human colorectal cancer cells, and Msi gene deletion inhibits tumorigenesis in several mouse models of intestinal cancer. Our findings demonstrate that MSI1 and MSI2 act as functionally redundant oncoproteins required for the ontogeny of intestinal cancers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transactive Response DNA-Binding Protein 43 Burden in Familial Alzheimer Disease and Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lippa, Carol F.; Rosso, Andrea L.; Stutzbach, Lauren D.; Neumann, Manuela; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) burden in familial forms of Alzheimer disease (FAD) and Down syndrome (DS) to determine whether TDP-43 inclusions are also present. Design Using standard immunohistochemical techniques, we examined brain tissue samples from 42 subjects with FAD and 14 with DS. Results We found pathological TDP-43 aggregates in 14.0% of participants (6 of 42 and 2 of 14 participants with FAD and DS, respectively). In both FAD and DS, TDP-43 immunoreactivity did not colocalize with neurofibrillary tangles. Occasionally participants with FAD or DS had TDP-43–positive neuropil threads or dots. Overall, the amygdala was most commonly affected, followed by the hippocampus, with no TDP-43 pathology in neocortical regions. A similar distribution of TDP-43 inclusions is seen in sporadic Alzheimer disease, but it differs from that seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Conclusions Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 pathology occurs in FAD and DS, similar to that observed in sporadic Alzheimer disease. Thus, pathological TDP-43 may contribute the cognitive impairments in familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer disease. PMID:20008652

  16. Biochemical Roles for Conserved Residues in the Bacterial Fatty Acid-binding Protein Family*

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Miller, Darcie J.; Jackson, Pamela; Nourse, Amanda; White, Stephen W.; Rock, Charles O.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid kinase (Fak) is a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacterial enzyme consisting of an ATP-binding protein (FakA) that phosphorylates the fatty acid bound to FakB. In Staphylococcus aureus, Fak is a global regulator of virulence factor transcription and is essential for the activation of exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids. The 1.2-Å x-ray structure of S. aureus FakB2, activity assays, solution studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and in vivo complementation were used to define the functions of the five conserved residues that define the FakB protein family (Pfam02645). The fatty acid tail is buried within the protein, and the exposed carboxyl group is bound by a Ser-93-fatty acid carboxyl-Thr-61-His-266 hydrogen bond network. The guanidinium of the invariant Arg-170 is positioned to potentially interact with a bound acylphosphate. The reduced thermal denaturation temperatures of the T61A, S93A, and H266A FakB2 mutants illustrate the importance of the hydrogen bond network in protein stability. The FakB2 T61A, S93A, and H266A mutants are 1000-fold less active in the Fak assay, and the R170A mutant is completely inactive. All FakB2 mutants form FakA(FakB2)2 complexes except FakB2(R202A), which is deficient in FakA binding. Allelic replacement shows that strains expressing FakB2 mutants are defective in fatty acid incorporation into phospholipids and virulence gene transcription. These conserved residues are likely to perform the same critical functions in all bacterial fatty acid-binding proteins. PMID:26774272

  17. Structural insights into nonvesicular lipid transport by the oxysterol binding protein homologue family.

    PubMed

    Tong, Junsen; Manik, Mohammad Kawsar; Yang, Huiseon; Im, Young Jun

    2016-08-01

    Sterols such as cholesterol in mammals and ergosterol in fungi are essential membrane components and play a key role in membrane function and in cell signaling. The intracellular distribution and processing of sterols and other phospholipids are in part carried out by oxysterol binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) in eukaryotes. Seven ORPs (Osh1-Osh7 proteins) in yeast have distinct functions in maintaining distribution, metabolism and signaling of intracellular lipids but they share at least one essential function. Significant progress has been made in understanding the ligand specificity and mechanism of non-vesicular lipid transport by ORPs. The unique structural features of Osh proteins explain the diversity and specificity of functions in PI(4)P-coupled lipid transport optimized in membrane contact sites. This review discusses the current advances in structural biology regarding this protein family and its potential functions, introducing them as the key players in the novel pathways of phosphoinositide-coupled directional transport of various lipids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon.

  18. Evolution of signal multiplexing by 14-3-3-binding 2R-ohnologue protein families in the vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tinti, Michele; Johnson, Catherine; Toth, Rachel; Ferrier, David E. K.; MacKintosh, Carol

    2012-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins regulate cellular responses to stimuli by docking onto pairs of phosphorylated residues on target proteins. The present study shows that the human 14-3-3-binding phosphoproteome is highly enriched in 2R-ohnologues, which are proteins in families of two to four members that were generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication at the origin of the vertebrates. We identify 2R-ohnologue families whose members share a ‘lynchpin’, defined as a 14-3-3-binding phosphosite that is conserved across members of a given family, and aligns with a Ser/Thr residue in pro-orthologues from the invertebrate chordates. For example, the human receptor expression enhancing protein (REEP) 1–4 family has the commonest type of lynchpin motif in current datasets, with a phosphorylatable serine in the –2 position relative to the 14-3-3-binding phosphosite. In contrast, the second 14-3-3-binding sites of REEPs 1–4 differ and are phosphorylated by different kinases, and hence the REEPs display different affinities for 14-3-3 dimers. We suggest a conceptual model for intracellular regulation involving protein families whose evolution into signal multiplexing systems was facilitated by 14-3-3 dimer binding to lynchpins, which gave freedom for other regulatory sites to evolve. While increased signalling complexity was needed for vertebrate life, these systems also generate vulnerability to genetic disorders. PMID:22870394

  19. Autoantibodies in canine masticatory muscle myositis recognize a novel myosin binding protein-C family member.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohua; Li, Zhi-fang; Brooks, Randolph; Komives, Elizabeth A; Torpey, Justin W; Engvall, Eva; Gonias, Steven L; Shelton, G Diane

    2007-10-01

    Inflammatory myopathies are a group of autoimmune diseases that affect muscles. In humans, the most common inflammatory myopathies are polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and inclusion body myositis. Autoantibodies may be found in humans with inflammatory myopathies, and these play an important role in diagnosis and disease classification. However, these Abs are typically not muscle specific. Spontaneously occurring canine inflammatory myopathies may be good parallel disorders and provide insights into human myositis. In dogs with inflammatory myopathy, muscle-specific autoantibodies have been found, especially in masticatory muscle myositis. We have identified the major Ag recognized by the autoantibodies in canine masticatory muscle myositis. This Ag is a novel member of the myosin binding protein-C family, which we call masticatory myosin binding protein-C (mMyBP-C). mMyBP-C is localized not only within the masticatory muscle fibers, but also at or near their cell surface, perhaps making it accessible as an immunogen. The gene for mMyBP-C also exists in humans, and mMyBP-C could potentially play a role in certain human inflammatory myopathies. Understanding the role of mMyBP-C in this canine inflammatory myopathy may advance our knowledge of mechanisms of autoimmune inflammatory muscle diseases, not only in dogs, but also in humans.

  20. Characterization of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein family in Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Oshima, Tomomi; Takahashi, Shuji; Ito, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein (Igfbp) family consists of six members designated Igfbp1-6. Igfbps are involved in many vital biological functions. They physically interact with IGFs (IGF1 and IGF2) and act as carriers, thereby protecting IGFs from proteolytic degradation. Thus, they function as modulators of IGF activity. Furthermore, Igfbps have been reported to have IGF-independent activities. They interact with other proteins, including cell surface proteins, extra-cellular matrix proteins, and potentially intracellular molecules. In Xenopus tropicalis (X. tropicalis), only four igfbp genes (igfbp1, igfbp2, igfbp4, and igfbp5) have been identified, and their expression is not well characterized. We report that X. tropicalis genome lacks the igfbp3 and igfbp6 genes based on synteny analyses. We also examined the spatio-temporal expression patterns of igfbp genes in early X. tropicalis development. Expression analyses indicated that they are differentially expressed during early development. Each igfbp gene showed a characteristic spatial expression pattern. Except for igfbp5, they demonstrated overlapping expression in the pronephros. The Xenopus pronephros is composed of four domains (i.e., the proximal tubule, intermediate tubule, distal tubule, and connecting tubule). Our results showed that at least two igfbp genes are co-expressed in all pronephric domains, suggesting that redundant functions of igfbp genes are required in early pronephric kidney development.

  1. Evolution of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family.

    PubMed

    Daza, Daniel Ocampo; Sundström, Görel; Bergqvist, Christina A; Duan, Cunming; Larhammar, Dan

    2011-06-01

    The evolution of the IGF binding protein (IGFBP) gene family has been difficult to resolve. Both chromosomal and serial duplications have been suggested as mechanisms for the expansion of this gene family. We have identified and annotated IGFBP sequences from a wide selection of vertebrate species as well as Branchiostoma floridae and Ciona intestinalis. By combining detailed sequence analysis with sequence-based phylogenies and chromosome information, we arrive at the following scenario: the ancestral chordate IGFBP gene underwent a local gene duplication, resulting in a gene pair adjacent to a HOX cluster. Subsequently, the gene family expanded in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidization (2R) resulting in the six IGFBP types that are presently found in placental mammals. The teleost fish ancestor underwent a third tetraploidization (3R) that further expanded the IGFBP repertoire. The five sequenced teleost fish genomes retain 9-11 of IGFBP genes. This scenario is supported by the phylogenies of three adjacent gene families in the HOX gene regions, namely the epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and the Ikaros and distal-less (DLX) transcription factors. Our sequence comparisons show that several important structural components in the IGFBPs are ancestral vertebrate features that have been maintained in all orthologs, for instance the integrin interaction motif Arg-Gly-Asp in IGFBP-2. In contrast, the Arg-Gly-Asp motif in IGFBP-1 has arisen independently in mammals. The large degree of retention of IGFBP genes after the ancient expansion of the gene family strongly suggests that each gene evolved distinct and important functions early in vertebrate evolution.

  2. Genome-wide identification and analysis of FK506-binding protein family gene family in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Mizhen; Sun, Xin; Li, Yu; Mu, Qian; Zhu, Xudong; Li, Pengyu; Fang, Jinggui

    2014-01-25

    The FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the large peptidyl-prolylcis-trans isomerase superfamily. FKBPs are known to be involved in many biological processes including hormone signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The availability of complete strawberry genome sequences allowed the identification of 23 FKBP genes by HMMER and blast analysis. Chromosome scaffold locations of these FKBP genes in the strawberry genome were determined and the protein domain and motif organization of FaFKBPs analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between strawberry FKBPs were also assessed. The expression profiles of FaFKBPs genes results revealed that most FaFKBPs were expressed in all tissues, while a few FaFKBPs were specifically expressed in some of the tissues. These data not only contribute to some better understanding of the complex regulation of the strawberry FKBP gene family, but also provide valuable information for further research in strawberry functional genomics.

  3. SECRET domain of variola virus CrmB protein can be a member of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins family.

    PubMed

    Antonets, Denis V; Nepomnyashchikh, Tatyana S; Shchelkunov, Sergei N

    2010-10-27

    Variola virus (VARV) the causative agent of smallpox, eradicated in 1980, have wide spectrum of immunomodulatory proteins to evade host immunity. Recently additional biological activity was discovered for VARV CrmB protein, known to bind and inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF) through its N-terminal domain homologous to cellular TNF receptors. Besides binding TNF, this protein was also shown to bind with high affinity several chemokines which recruit B- and T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells to sites of viral entry and replication. Ability to bind chemokines was shown to be associated with unique C-terminal domain of CrmB protein. This domain named SECRET (Smallpox virus-Encoded Chemokine Receptor) is unrelated to the host proteins and lacks significant homology with other known viral chemokine-binding proteins or any other known protein. De novo modelling of VARV-CrmB SECRET domain spatial structure revealed its apparent structural homology with cowpox virus CC-chemokine binding protein (vCCI) and vaccinia virus A41 protein, despite low sequence identity between these three proteins. Potential ligand-binding surface of modelled VARV-CrmB SECRET domain was also predicted to bear prominent electronegative charge which is characteristic to known orthopoxviral chemokine-binding proteins. Our results suggest that SECRET should be included into the family of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins and that it might have been evolved from the vCCI-like predecessor protein.

  4. SECRET domain of variola virus CrmB protein can be a member of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Variola virus (VARV) the causative agent of smallpox, eradicated in 1980, have wide spectrum of immunomodulatory proteins to evade host immunity. Recently additional biological activity was discovered for VARV CrmB protein, known to bind and inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF) through its N-terminal domain homologous to cellular TNF receptors. Besides binding TNF, this protein was also shown to bind with high affinity several chemokines which recruit B- and T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells to sites of viral entry and replication. Ability to bind chemokines was shown to be associated with unique C-terminal domain of CrmB protein. This domain named SECRET (Smallpox virus-Encoded Chemokine Receptor) is unrelated to the host proteins and lacks significant homology with other known viral chemokine-binding proteins or any other known protein. Findings De novo modelling of VARV-CrmB SECRET domain spatial structure revealed its apparent structural homology with cowpox virus CC-chemokine binding protein (vCCI) and vaccinia virus A41 protein, despite low sequence identity between these three proteins. Potential ligand-binding surface of modelled VARV-CrmB SECRET domain was also predicted to bear prominent electronegative charge which is characteristic to known orthopoxviral chemokine-binding proteins. Conclusions Our results suggest that SECRET should be included into the family of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins and that it might have been evolved from the vCCI-like predecessor protein. PMID:20979600

  5. Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of the linked RNA-binding and NOT1-binding domains in the tristetraprolin family of tandem CCCH zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Blackshear, Perry J; Perera, Lalith

    2014-04-01

    In humans, the tristetraprolin or TTP family of CCCH tandem zinc finger (TZF) proteins comprises 3 members, encoded by the genes ZFP36, ZFP36L1, and ZFP36L2. These proteins have direct orthologues in essentially all vertebrates studied, with the exception of birds, which appear to lack a version of ZFP36. Additional family members are found in rodents, amphibians, and fish. In general, the encoded proteins contain 2 critical macromolecular interaction domains: the CCCH TZF domain, which is necessary for high-affinity binding to AU-rich elements in mRNA; and an extreme C-terminal domain that, in the case of TTP, interacts with NOT1, the scaffold of a large multi-protein complex that contains deadenylases. TTP and its related proteins act by first binding to AU-rich elements in mRNA, and then recruiting deadenylases to the mRNA, where they can processively remove the adenosine residues from the poly(A) tail. Highly conserved TZF domains have been found in unicellular eukaryotes such as yeasts, and these domains can bind AU-rich elements that resemble those bound by the mammalian proteins. However, certain fungi appear to lack proteins with intact TZF domains, and the TTP family proteins that are expressed in other fungi often lack the characteristic C-terminal NOT1 binding domain found in the mammalian proteins. For these reasons, we investigated the phylogenetic distribution of the relevant sequences in available databases. Both domains are present in family member proteins from most lineages of eukaryotes, suggesting their mutual presence in a common ancestor. However, the vertebrate type of NOT1-binding domain is missing in most fungi, and the TZF domain itself has disappeared or degenerated in recently evolved fungi. Nonetheless, both domains are present together in the proteins from several unicellular eukaryotes, including at least 1 fungus, and they seem to have remained together during the evolution of metazoans.

  6. Phylogenetic Distribution and Evolution of the Linked RNA-Binding and NOT1-Binding Domains in the Tristetraprolin Family of Tandem CCCH Zinc Finger Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Lalith

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the tristetraprolin or TTP family of CCCH tandem zinc finger (TZF) proteins comprises 3 members, encoded by the genes ZFP36, ZFP36L1, and ZFP36L2. These proteins have direct orthologues in essentially all vertebrates studied, with the exception of birds, which appear to lack a version of ZFP36. Additional family members are found in rodents, amphibians, and fish. In general, the encoded proteins contain 2 critical macromolecular interaction domains: the CCCH TZF domain, which is necessary for high-affinity binding to AU-rich elements in mRNA; and an extreme C-terminal domain that, in the case of TTP, interacts with NOT1, the scaffold of a large multi-protein complex that contains deadenylases. TTP and its related proteins act by first binding to AU-rich elements in mRNA, and then recruiting deadenylases to the mRNA, where they can processively remove the adenosine residues from the poly(A) tail. Highly conserved TZF domains have been found in unicellular eukaryotes such as yeasts, and these domains can bind AU-rich elements that resemble those bound by the mammalian proteins. However, certain fungi appear to lack proteins with intact TZF domains, and the TTP family proteins that are expressed in other fungi often lack the characteristic C-terminal NOT1 binding domain found in the mammalian proteins. For these reasons, we investigated the phylogenetic distribution of the relevant sequences in available databases. Both domains are present in family member proteins from most lineages of eukaryotes, suggesting their mutual presence in a common ancestor. However, the vertebrate type of NOT1-binding domain is missing in most fungi, and the TZF domain itself has disappeared or degenerated in recently evolved fungi. Nonetheless, both domains are present together in the proteins from several unicellular eukaryotes, including at least 1 fungus, and they seem to have remained together during the evolution of metazoans. PMID:24697206

  7. The first structure from the SOUL/HBP family of heme-binding proteins, murine P22HBP.

    PubMed

    Dias, Jorge S; Macedo, Anjos L; Ferreira, Gloria C; Peterson, Francis C; Volkman, Brian F; Goodfellow, Brian J

    2006-10-20

    Murine p22HBP, a 22-kDa monomer originally identified as a cytosolic heme-binding protein ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, has 27% sequence identity to murine SOUL, a heme-binding hexamer specifically expressed in the retina. In contrast to murine SOUL, which binds one heme per subunit via coordination of the Fe(III)-heme to a histidine, murine p22HBP binds one heme molecule per subunit with no specific axial ligand coordination of the Fe(III)-heme. Using intrinsic protein fluorescence quenching, the values for the dissociation constants of p22HBP for hemin and protoporphyrin-IX were determined to be in the low nanomolar range. The three-dimensional structure of murine p22HBP, the first for a protein from the SOUL/HBP family, was determined by NMR methods to consist of a 9-stranded distorted beta-barrel flanked by two long alpha-helices. Although homologous domains have been found in three bacterial proteins, two of which are transcription factors, the fold determined for p22HBP corresponds to a novel alpha plus beta fold in a eukaryotic protein. Chemical shift mapping localized the tetrapyrrole binding site to a hydrophobic cleft formed by residues from helix alphaA and an extended loop. In an attempt to assess the structural basis for tetrapyrrole binding in the SOUL/HBP family, models for the p22HBP-protoporphyrin-IX complex and the SOUL protein were generated by manual docking and automated methods.

  8. The FTMap family of web servers for determining and characterizing ligand binding hot spots of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kozakov, Dima; Grove, Laurie E.; Hall, David R.; Bohnuud, Tanggis; Mottarella, Scott; Luo, Lingqi; Xia, Bing; Beglov, Dmitri; Vajda, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    FTMap is a computational mapping server that identifies binding hot spots of macromolecules, i.e., regions of the surface with major contributions to the ligand binding free energy. To use FTMap, users submit a protein, DNA, or RNA structure in PDB format. FTMap samples billions of positions of small organic molecules used as probes and scores the probe poses using a detailed energy expression. Regions that bind clusters of multiple probe types identify the binding hot spots, in good agreement with experimental data. FTMap serves as basis for other servers, namely FTSite to predict ligand binding sites, FTFlex to account for side chain flexibility, FTMap/param to parameterize additional probes, and FTDyn to map ensembles of protein structures. Applications include determining druggability of proteins, identifying ligand moieties that are most important for binding, finding the most bound-like conformation in ensembles of unliganded protein structures, and providing input for fragment based drug design. FTMap is more accurate than classical mapping methods such as GRID and MCSS, and is much faster than the more recent approaches to protein mapping based on mixed molecular dynamics. Using 16 probe molecules, the FTMap server finds the hot spots of an average size protein in less than an hour. Since FTFlex performs mapping for all low energy conformers of side chains in the binding site, its completion time is proportionately longer. PMID:25855957

  9. Ligand heterogeneity of the cysteine protease binding protein family in the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Marumo, Konomi; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Tomii, Kentaro; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Lysosomal soluble proteins are targeted to endosomes and lysosomes by specific receptors resident in the endoplasmic reticulum and/or the Golgi apparatus. The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica has a novel class of lysosomal targeting receptors, named the cysteine protease binding protein family (CPBF). Among 11 CPBFs (CPBF1-11), ligands for three members, CPBF1, CPBF6 and CPBF8, were previously shown to be cysteine proteases, α- and γ- amylases, and β-hexosaminidase and lysozymes, respectively. To further understand the heterogeneity of the ligands of CPBFs, we attempted to isolate and identify the ligands for other members of CPBFs, namely CPBF2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10 and 11, by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analysis. We found that CPBF2 and CPBF10 bound to α-amylases while CPBF7 bound to β-hexosaminidases. It is intriguing that cysteine protease are exclusively recognised by CPBF1, whereas three α-amylases and β-hexosaminidases are redundantly recognised by three and two CPBFs, respectively. It was shown by bioinformatics analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction that each CPBF contains six prepeptidase carboxyl-terminal domains, and the domain configuration is evolutionarily conserved among CPBFs. Taken together, CPBFs with unique and conserved domain organisation have a remarkable ligand heterogeneity toward cysteine protease and carbohydrate degradation enzymes. Further structural studies are needed to elucidate the structural basis of the ligand specificity.

  10. Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A1 Binds a Novel Protein Interaction Site on Anti-apoptotic B Cell Lymphoma Gene 2 Family Proteins.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Paulo H C; Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P; Hishiki, Asami; Sano, Renata; Matsuzawa, Yasuko; Yanagi, Hiroko; Munte, Claudia E; Chen, Ya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M; Kalbitzer, Hans R; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Reed, John C

    2016-07-01

    B cell lymphoma gene 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins are key regulators of programmed cell death and important targets for drug discovery. Pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins reciprocally modulate their activities in large part through protein interactions involving a motif known as BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3). Nur77 is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family that lacks a BH3 domain but nevertheless binds certain anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bfl-1, and Bcl-B), modulating their effects on apoptosis and autophagy. We used a combination of NMR spectroscopy-based methods, mutagenesis, and functional studies to define the interaction site of a Nur77 peptide on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins and reveal a novel interaction surface. Nur77 binds adjacent to the BH3 peptide-binding crevice, suggesting the possibility of cross-talk between these discrete binding sites. Mutagenesis of residues lining the identified interaction site on Bcl-B negated the interaction with Nur77 protein in cells and prevented Nur77-mediated modulation of apoptosis and autophagy. The findings establish a new protein interaction site with the potential to modulate the apoptosis and autophagy mechanisms governed by Bcl-2 family proteins.

  11. A family of ras-like GTP-binding proteins expressed in electromotor neurons.

    PubMed

    Ngsee, J K; Elferink, L A; Scheller, R H

    1991-02-05

    The cDNAs encoding seven low molecular weight (LMW) GTP-binding proteins were isolated from an electrode lobe library of the marine ray Discopyge ommata. Four were assigned as the ray homologues of previously identified LMW GTP-binding proteins rab1, ral, Krev, and rho. Three others showed unique sequences, including two exhibiting significant similarity to the yeast SEC4 protein. Northern analysis indicated that several of the transcripts are enriched in neural tissues with a moderate level of expression in cardiac muscle. This tissue distribution was corroborated with affinity purified antibodies against the LMW GTP-binding proteins. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the proteins co-purify with cholinergic synaptic vesicles. Immunohistochemical analysis confirms this localization. At least two of the proteins, oral and o-rho, are localized to the pre-synaptic terminals.

  12. MKBP, a Novel Member of the Small Heat Shock Protein Family, Binds and Activates the Myotonic Dystrophy Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Yuki; Hayashi, Yukiko; Nyu-i, Nobuo; Yoshida, Michihiko; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ishiura, Sho-ichi; Arahata, Kiichi; Ohno, Shigeo

    1998-01-01

    Muscle cells are frequently subjected to severe conditions caused by heat, oxidative, and mechanical stresses. The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) such as αB-crystallin and HSP27, which are highly expressed in muscle cells, have been suggested to play roles in maintaining myofibrillar integrity against such stresses. Here, we identified a novel member of the sHSP family that associates specifically with myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK). This DMPK-binding protein, MKBP, shows a unique nature compared with other known sHSPs: (a) In muscle cytosol, MKBP exists as an oligomeric complex separate from the complex formed by αB-crystallin and HSP27. (b) The expression of MKBP is not induced by heat shock, although it shows the characteristic early response of redistribution to the insoluble fraction like other sHSPs. Immunohistochemical analysis of skeletal muscle cells shows that MKBP localizes to the cross sections of individual myofibrils at the Z-membrane as well as the neuromuscular junction, where DMPK has been suggested to be concentrated. In vitro, MKBP enhances the kinase activity of DMPK and protects it from heat-induced inactivation. These results suggest that MKBP constitutes a novel stress-responsive system independent of other known sHSPs in muscle cells and that DMPK may be involved in this system by being activated by MKBP. Importantly, since the amount of MKBP protein, but not that of other sHSP family member proteins, is selectively upregulated in skeletal muscle from DM patients, an interaction between DMPK and MKBP may be involved in the pathogenesis of DM. PMID:9490724

  13. Specific DNA binding of the two chicken Deformed family homeodomain proteins, Chox-1.4 and Chox-a.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, H; Yokoyama, E; Kuroiwa, A

    1990-01-01

    The cDNA clones encoding two chicken Deformed (Dfd) family homeobox containing genes Chox-1.4 and Chox-a were isolated. Comparison of their amino acid sequences with another chicken Dfd family homeodomain protein and with those of mouse homologues revealed that strong homologies are located in the amino terminal regions and around the homeodomains. Although homologies in other regions were relatively low, some short conserved sequences were also identified. E. coli-made full length proteins were purified and used for the production of specific antibodies and for DNA binding studies. The binding profiles of these proteins to the 5'-leader and 5'-upstream sequences of Chox-1.4 and Chox-a coding regions were analyzed by immunoprecipitation and DNase I footprint assays. These two Chox proteins bound to the same sites in the 5'-flanking sequences of their coding regions with various affinities and their binding affinities to each site were nearly the same. The consensus sequences of the high and low affinity binding sites were TAATGA(C/G) and CTAATTTT, respectively. A clustered binding site was identified in the 5'-upstream of the Chox-a gene, suggesting that this clustered binding site works as a cis-regulatory element for auto- and/or cross-regulation of Chox-a gene expression. Images PMID:1970866

  14. Characterization of the dead ringer gene identifies a novel, highly conserved family of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, S L; Kortschak, R D; Kalionis, B; Saint, R

    1996-01-01

    We reported the identification of a new family of DNA-binding proteins from our characterization of the dead ringer (dri) gene of Drosophila melanogaster. We show that dri encodes a nuclear protein that contains a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that bears no similarity to known DNA-binding domains. A number of proteins were found to contain sequences homologous to this domain. Other proteins containing the conserved motif include yeast SWI1, two human retinoblastoma binding proteins, and other mammalian regulatory proteins. A mouse B-cell-specific regulator exhibits 75% identity with DRI over the 137-amino-acid DNA-binding domains of these proteins, indicating a high degree of conservation of this domain. Gel retardation and optimal binding site screens revealed that the in vitro sequence specificity of DRI is strikingly similar to that of many homeodomain proteins, although the sequence and predicted secondary structure do not resemble a homeodomain. The early general expression of dri and the similarity of DRI and homeodomain in vitro DNA-binding specificity compound the problem of understanding the in vivo specificity of action of these proteins. Maternally derived dri product is found throughout the embryo until germ band extension, when dri is expressed in a developmentally regulated set of tissues, including salivary gland ducts, parts of the gut, and a subset of neural cells. The discovery of this new, conserved DNA-binding domain offers an explanation for the regulatory activity of several important members of this class and predicts significant regulatory roles for the others. PMID:8622680

  15. Inhibitory Member of the Apoptosis-stimulating Proteins of the p53 Family (iASPP) Interacts with Protein Phosphatase 1 via a Noncanonical Binding Motif*

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Susana; Royer, Christophe; Lu, Min; Bergamaschi, Daniele; Lee, Wen Hwa; Lu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Although kinase mutations have been identified in various human diseases, much less is known about protein phosphatases. Here, we show that all apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP) family members can bind protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) via two distinct interacting motifs. ASPP2 interacts with PP1 through an RVXF PP1 binding motif, whereas the inhibitory member of the ASPP family (iASPP) interacts with PP1 via a noncanonical motif (RNYF) that is located within its Src homology 3 domain (SH3). Phe-815 is crucial in mediating iASPP/PP1 interaction, and iASPP(F815A) fails to inhibit the transcriptional and apoptotic function of p53. This study identifies iASPP as a new binding partner of PP1, interacting through a noncanonical PP1 binding motif. PMID:21998301

  16. Biosynthesis, secretion and extracellular localization of anchorin CII, a collagen-binding protein of the calpactin family.

    PubMed Central

    Pfäffle, M; Ruggiero, F; Hofmann, H; Fernández, M P; Selmin, O; Yamada, Y; Garrone, R; von der Mark, K

    1988-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of anchorin CII, a collagen-binding protein isolated originally from chondrocyte membranes, was previously determined by sequencing of cDNA and proteolytic fragments of the protein. Computer analysis of the protein sequence revealed four internal repeats of approximately 70-80 residues, each containing a highly conserved consensus sequence of 17 residues. These repeats show considerable homology with sequences in human and bovine calpactin, lipocortin, endonexin and protein II, which are members of a family of Ca2+- and phospholipid-binding proteins, as well as major substrates of tyrosine kinases. While these proteins have been located at the inner side of the plasma membrane of fibroblasts and epithelial cells, here we present experimental evidence that anchorin CII is at least partially released from cells and binds to the outer cell surface. Biosynthesis studies in cell-free systems and in cell culture indicate that anchorin CII is not processed, which is consistent with the absence of signal sequences from the protein. Yet, pulse-chase experiments show that anchorin is released into the culture medium of fibroblasts after 30 min, and in chondrocyte cultures after 20 h. Anchorin CII was located to the outer cell surface of chondrocytes by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed cell surface iodination as well as by antibody labeling both at light- and electron-microscopical level. The pericellular localization of anchorin CII is consistent with the notion that this protein is involved in the interaction of chondrocytes and fibroblasts with extracellular collagen. Images PMID:2847914

  17. Reticulomics: Protein-Protein Interaction Studies with Two Plasmodesmata-Localized Reticulon Family Proteins Identify Binding Partners Enriched at Plasmodesmata, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and the Plasma Membrane1

    PubMed Central

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Botchway, Stanley W.; Slade, Susan E.; Knox, Kirsten; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Oparka, Karl; Hawes, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a ubiquitous organelle that plays roles in secretory protein production, folding, quality control, and lipid biosynthesis. The cortical ER in plants is pleomorphic and structured as a tubular network capable of morphing into flat cisternae, mainly at three-way junctions, and back to tubules. Plant reticulon family proteins (RTNLB) tubulate the ER by dimerization and oligomerization, creating localized ER membrane tensions that result in membrane curvature. Some RTNLB ER-shaping proteins are present in the plasmodesmata (PD) proteome and may contribute to the formation of the desmotubule, the axial ER-derived structure that traverses primary PD. Here, we investigate the binding partners of two PD-resident reticulon proteins, RTNLB3 and RTNLB6, that are located in primary PD at cytokinesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Coimmunoprecipitation of green fluorescent protein-tagged RTNLB3 and RTNLB6 followed by mass spectrometry detected a high percentage of known PD-localized proteins as well as plasma membrane proteins with putative membrane-anchoring roles. Förster resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy assays revealed a highly significant interaction of the detected PD proteins with the bait RTNLB proteins. Our data suggest that RTNLB proteins, in addition to a role in ER modeling, may play important roles in linking the cortical ER to the plasma membrane. PMID:26353761

  18. The tricalbin C2 domains: lipid-binding properties of a novel, synaptotagmin-like yeast protein family.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Timothy A; Creutz, Carl E

    2004-04-06

    The tricalbins are a recently discovered family of Saccharomyces cerevisae proteins containing a predicted N-terminal transmembrane domain and at least three C2 domains. They are thought to be yeast homologues of synaptotagmin, a hypothesis supported by structural similarities and past studies that implicated tricalbins in processes of membrane trafficking and sorting. We expressed and purified constructs consisting of single tricalbin C2 domains, and assayed their ability to bind lipids in response to calcium. Protein-lipid overlay assays indicated that the C-terminal C2 domains (C2C) of tricalbins 1 and 3 bind numerous species of acidic phospholipid, including phosphatidylserine and several phosphoinositides, and the amount of protein bound was greatly enhanced in the presence of 1 mM calcium. Sedimentation assays using mixed phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylcholine (PS/PC) vesicles confirmed that the C2C domains of tricalbin 1 and 3 bind membranes in a calcium-responsive manner and showed that they are more sensitive to calcium than the C2A domain of synaptotagmin I. Both assays revealed that all of the C2 domains of tricalbin 2 are insensitive to calcium. Fluorimetric assays exploiting the position of naturally occurring tryptophans in tricalbin 1 C2C and tricalbin 3 C2C confirmed that these domains are capable of binding calcium and that this is coupled to the binding of acidic phospholipid. Combining this with past protein-protein interaction data, we theorize that the calcium-insensitive tricalbin 2 mediates the creation of hetero-oligomeric tricalbin complexes in which tricalbin 1 or 3 or both supply a calcium-dependent membrane binding activity.

  19. Cysteine protease-binding protein family 6 mediates the trafficking of amylases to phagosomes in the enteric protozoan Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Atsushi; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Phagocytosis plays a pivotal role in nutrient acquisition and evasion from the host defense systems in Entamoeba histolytica, the intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis. We previously reported that E. histolytica possesses a unique class of a hydrolase receptor family, designated the cysteine protease-binding protein family (CPBF), that is involved in trafficking of hydrolases to lysosomes and phagosomes, and we have also reported that CPBF1 and CPBF8 bind to cysteine proteases or β-hexosaminidase α-subunit and lysozymes, respectively. In this study, we showed by immunoprecipitation that CPBF6, one of the most highly expressed CPBF proteins, specifically binds to α-amylase and γ-amylase. We also found that CPBF6 is localized in lysosomes, based on immunofluorescence imaging. Immunoblot and proteome analyses of the isolated phagosomes showed that CPBF6 mediates transport of amylases to phagosomes. We also demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal cytosolic region of CPBF6 is engaged in the regulation of the trafficking of CPBF6 to phagosomes. Our proteome analysis of phagosomes also revealed new potential phagosomal proteins.

  20. Cysteine Protease-Binding Protein Family 6 Mediates the Trafficking of Amylases to Phagosomes in the Enteric Protozoan Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Atsushi; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis plays a pivotal role in nutrient acquisition and evasion from the host defense systems in Entamoeba histolytica, the intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis. We previously reported that E. histolytica possesses a unique class of a hydrolase receptor family, designated the cysteine protease-binding protein family (CPBF), that is involved in trafficking of hydrolases to lysosomes and phagosomes, and we have also reported that CPBF1 and CPBF8 bind to cysteine proteases or β-hexosaminidase α-subunit and lysozymes, respectively. In this study, we showed by immunoprecipitation that CPBF6, one of the most highly expressed CPBF proteins, specifically binds to α-amylase and γ-amylase. We also found that CPBF6 is localized in lysosomes, based on immunofluorescence imaging. Immunoblot and proteome analyses of the isolated phagosomes showed that CPBF6 mediates transport of amylases to phagosomes. We also demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal cytosolic region of CPBF6 is engaged in the regulation of the trafficking of CPBF6 to phagosomes. Our proteome analysis of phagosomes also revealed new potential phagosomal proteins. PMID:23509141

  1. A family of Rab27-binding proteins. Melanophilin links Rab27a and myosin Va function in melanosome transport.

    PubMed

    Strom, Molly; Hume, Alistair N; Tarafder, Abul K; Barkagianni, Eleni; Seabra, Miguel C

    2002-07-12

    The Rab27a GTPase regulates diverse processes involving lysosome-related organelles, including melanosome motility in melanocytes, and lytic granule release in cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Toward an understanding of Rab27a function, we searched for proteins that interact with Rab27a(GTP) using the yeast two-hybrid system and identified JFC1/Slp1, a protein of unknown function. JFC1/Slp1 and related proteins, including melanophilin, contain a conserved amino-terminal domain similar to the Rab3a-binding domain of Rabphilin-3. We used several methods to demonstrate that this conserved amino-terminal domain is a Rab27-binding domain. We show that this domain interacts directly, and in a GTP-dependent manner with Rab27a. Furthermore, overexpression of this domain in melanocytes results in perinuclear clustering of melanosomes, suggesting that this region is sufficient for interaction with, and perturbation of function of, Rab27a in a physiological context. Thus, we identified a novel family of Rab27-binding proteins. We also show that melanophilin associates with Rab27a and myosin Va on melanosomes in melanocytes, and present evidence that a domain within the carboxyl-terminal region of melanophilin interacts with the carboxyl-terminal tail of the melanocyte-specific splice isoform of myosin Va. Thus, melanophilin can associate simultaneously with activated Rab27a and myosin Va via distinct regions, and serve as a linker between these proteins.

  2. Metagenomics analysis reveals a new metallothionein family: Sequence and metal-binding features of new environmental cysteine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Ziller, Antoine; Yadav, Rajiv Kumar; Capdevila, Mercè; Reddy, Mondem Sudhakara; Vallon, Laurent; Marmeisse, Roland; Atrian, Silvia; Palacios, Òscar; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence

    2017-02-01

    Metallothioneins are cysteine-rich proteins, which function as (i) metal carriers in basal cell metabolism and (ii) protective metal chelators in conditions of metal excess. Metallothioneins have been characterized from different eukaryotic model and cultivable species. Presently, they are categorized in 15 families but evolutionary relationships between these metallothionein families remain unresolved. Several cysteine-rich protein encoding genes that conferred Cd-tolerance in Cd-sensitive yeast mutants have previously been isolated from soil eukaryotic metatranscriptomes. They were called CRPs for "cysteine-rich proteins". These proteins, of unknown taxonomic origins, share conserved cysteine motifs and could be considered as metallothioneins. In the present work, we analyzed these CRPs with respect to their amino acid sequence features and their metal-binding abilities towards Cd, Zn and Cu metal ions. Sequence analysis revealed that they share common features with different known metallothionein families, but also exhibit unique specific features. Noticeably, CRPs display two separate cysteine-rich domains which, when expressed separately in yeast, confer Cd-tolerance. The N-terminal domain contains some conserved atypical Cys motifs, such as one CCC and two CXCC ones. Five CRPs were expressed and purified as recombinant proteins and their metal-binding characteristics were studied. All these CRPs chelated Cd(II), Zn(II) and Cu(I), although displaying a better capacity for Zn(II) coordination. All CRPs are able to confer Cd-tolerance, and four of them confer Zn-tolerance in the Zn-sensitive zrc1Δ yeast mutant. We designated these CRPs as environmental metallothioneins belonging to a new formerly undescribed metallothionein family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Family of Insulin-Like Growth Factor II mRNA-Binding Proteins Represses Translation in Late Development

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Jan; Lykke-Andersen, Jens; Johnsen, Anders H.; Wewer, Ulla M.; Nielsen, Finn C.

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) that exhibit multiple attachments to the 5′ UTR from the translationally regulated IGF-II leader 3 mRNA but are unable to bind to the 5′ UTR from the constitutively translated IGF-II leader 4 mRNA. IMPs contain the unique combination of two RNA recognition motifs and four hnRNP K homology domains and are homologous to the Xenopus Vera and chicken zipcode-binding proteins. IMP localizes to subcytoplasmic domains in a growth-dependent and cell-specific manner and causes a dose-dependent translational repression of IGF-II leader 3 –luciferase mRNA. Mouse IMPs are produced in a burst at embryonic day 12.5 followed by a decline towards birth, and, similar to IGF-II, IMPs are especially expressed in developing epithelia, muscle, and placenta in both mouse and human embryos. The results imply that cytoplasmic 5′ UTR-binding proteins control IGF-II biosynthesis during late mammalian development. PMID:9891060

  4. The Crystal Structure of Rv0813c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals a New Family of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein-Like Proteins in Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, William; Haouz, Ahmed; Graña, Martin; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Betton, Jean-Michel; Cole, Stewart T.; Alzari, Pedro M.

    2007-01-01

    The gene Rv0813c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which codes for a hypothetical protein of unknown function, is conserved within the order Actinomycetales but absent elsewhere. The crystal structure of Rv0813c reveals a new family of proteins that resemble the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) found in eukaryotes. Rv0813c adopts the 10-stranded β-barrel fold typical of FABPs but lacks the double-helix insert that covers the entry to the binding site in the eukaryotic proteins. The barrel encloses a deep cavity, at the bottom of which a small cyclic ligand was found to bind to the hydroxyl group of Tyr192. This residue is part of a conserved Arg-X-Tyr motif much like the triad that binds the carboxylate group of fatty acids in FABPs. Most of the residues forming the internal surface of the cavity are conserved in homologous protein sequences found in CG-rich prokaryotes, strongly suggesting that Rv0813c is a member of a new family of bacterial FABP-like proteins that may have roles in the recognition, transport, and/or storage of small molecules in the bacterial cytosol. PMID:17172346

  5. A novel member of the rho family of small GTP-binding proteins is specifically required for cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Several members of the rho/rac family of small GTP-binding proteins are known to regulate the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton in various subcellular processes. We describe here a novel rac protein, racE, which is specifically required for cytokinesis, an actomyosin-mediated process. The racE gene was isolated in a molecular genetic screen devised to isolate genes required for cytokinesis in Dictyostelium. Phenotypic characterization of racE mutants revealed that racE is not essential for any other cell motility event, including phagocytosis, chemotaxis, capping, or development. Our data provide the first genetic evidence for the essential requirement of a rho-like protein, specifically in cytokinesis, and suggest a role for these proteins in coordinating cytokinesis with the mitotic events of the cell cycle. PMID:8682867

  6. Mutation analysis of inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci in young and familial pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Demir, Hande; Donner, Iikki; Kivipelto, Leena; Kuismin, Outi; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; De Menis, Ernesto; Karhu, Auli

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are neoplasms of the anterior pituitary lobe and account for 15-20% of all intracranial tumors. Although most pituitary tumors are benign they can cause severe symptoms related to tumor size as well as hypopituitarism and/or hypersecretion of one or more pituitary hormones. Most pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but it has been estimated that 5% of patients have a familial background. Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) predispose to hereditary pituitary neoplasia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that AIP mutations predispose to pituitary tumorigenesis through defective inhibitory GTP binding protein (Gαi) signaling. This finding prompted us to examine whether germline loss-of-function mutations in inhibitory guanine nucleotide (GTP) binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci are involved in genetic predisposition of pituitary tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first time GNAI genes are sequenced in order to examine the occurrence of inactivating germline mutations. Thus far, only somatic gain-of-function hot-spot mutations have been studied in these loci. Here, we have analyzed the coding regions of GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 in a set of young sporadic somatotropinoma patients (n = 32; mean age of diagnosis 32 years) and familial index cases (n = 14), thus in patients with a disease phenotype similar to that observed in AIP mutation carriers. In addition, expression of Gαi proteins was studied in human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and non-functional pituitary tumors. No pathogenic germline mutations affecting the Gαi proteins were detected. The result suggests that loss-of-function mutations of GNAI loci are rare or nonexistent in familial pituitary adenomas.

  7. Class II members of the poly(A) binding protein family exhibit distinct functions during Arabidopsis growth and development.

    PubMed

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds to the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs and contributes to their stability and translational efficiency. In plants, PABP is expressed from an unusually large gene family grouped into 3 classes that expanded during the evolution of land plants. Subsequent to expansion of the family, members diverged in their primary sequence and in expression. Further expansion of the family and divergence of its members in the Brassicaceae demonstrate the continued dynamic evolution of PABP in plants. In this study, the function of the widely-expressed class II PABP family members was examined to determine how individual class II members contribute to plant growth and development. Of the 3 class II PABP members, PAB2 and PAB4 contribute most to vegetative growth and vegetative-to-floral transition whereas PAB2, and the recently-evolved third class II member, PAB8, contribute to inflorescence and silique growth. Interestingly, although class I and class III PABP members are expressed specifically in reproductive organs, class II PABP members are also necessary for fertility in that the combinatorial loss of PAB2 and either PAB4 or PAB8 expression resulted in reduced fertility. Although all 3 class II members are required for protein expression, PAB4 contributes most to the steady-state level of a reporter mRNA and to protein expression. These findings suggest that class II PABP members are partially overlapping in function but also involved in distinct aspects of plant growth and development.

  8. Specific interactions between Dicer-like proteins and HYL1/DRB-family dsRNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hiraguri, Akihiro; Itoh, Riku; Kondo, Naoko; Nomura, Yasuko; Aizawa, Daisuke; Murai, Yusuke; Koiwa, Hisashi; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    Proteins that specifically bind double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) are involved in the regulation of cellular signaling events and gene expression, and are characterized by a conserved dsRNA-binding motif (dsRBM). Here we report the biochemical properties of nine such gene products, each containing one or two dsRBMs: four Arabidopsis Dicer-like proteins (DCL1-4), Arabidopsis HYL1 and four of its homologs (DRB2, DRB4, DRB5 and OsDRB1). DCL1, DCL3, HYL1 and the four HYL1 homologs exhibit significant dsRNA-binding activity, indicating that these proteins are involved in RNA metabolism. The dsRBMs from dsRBM-containing proteins (dsRBPs) also function as a protein-protein interaction domain and homo- and heterodimerization are essential for biological functioning of these proteins. We show that DRB4 interacts specifically with DCL4, and HYL1 most strongly interacts with DCL1. These results indicate that each HYL1/DRB family protein interacts with one specific partner among the four Dicer-like proteins. Localization studies using GFP fusion proteins demonstrate that DCL1, DCL4, HYL1 and DRB4 localize in the nucleus, while DRB2 is present in the cytoplasm. Subcellular localizations of HYL1, DRB4, DCL1 and DCL4 further strengthen the notion that HYL1 and DCL1, and DRB4 and DCL4, exist as complexes. The presented data suggest that each member of the HYL1/DRB protein family may individually modulate Dicer function through heterodimerization with a Dicer-like protein in vivo.

  9. Unique features of different members of the human guanylate-binding protein family.

    PubMed

    Tripal, Philipp; Bauer, Michael; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Mörtinger, Thomas; Hohenadl, Christine; Cornali, Emmanuelle; Thurau, Mathias; Stürzl, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are the most abundant cellular proteins expressed in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), with seven highly homologous members in humans, termed HuGBP-1 to HuGBP-7. To date, differential features that may indicate differential functions of these proteins have not been described. Here, we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of the different HuGBPs in endothelial cells (EC). IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induced the expression of HuGBP-1, HuGBP-2, and HuGBP-3 at similar high levels. In contrast, expression of HuGBP-4 and HuGBP-5 was robustly induced only by IFN-gamma and not by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Expression of HuGBP-6 and HuGBP-7 was not detected in EC under the various conditions examined. Investigating subcellular localization of the EC-expressed HuGBPs, HuGBP-1, HuGBP-3, and HuGBP-5 were exclusively detected in the cytoplasm, whereas HuGBP-2 and HuGBP-4 displayed a nucleocytoplasmic distribution. Treatment of the cells with IFN-gamma and aluminum fluoride caused rapid enrichment of HuGBP-1 and HuGBP-2 in the Golgi apparatus, as demonstrated by time-lapse microscopy and fluorescence analyses of GFP-tagged HuGBPs. HuGBP-3 and HuGBP-4 were never detected in the Golgi apparatus, whereas HuGBP-5 was constitutively enriched in this cytosolic compartment, irrespective of stimulation. These results assign a characteristic pattern of expression and subcellular localization to each of the HuGBPs, indicating for the first time that these proteins may have different cellular functions.

  10. Identification of the RNA recognition element of the RBPMS family of RNA-binding proteins and their transcriptome-wide mRNA targets

    PubMed Central

    Farazi, Thalia A.; Leonhardt, Carl S.; Mukherjee, Neelanjan; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Li, Song; Max, Klaas E.A.; Meyer, Cindy; Yamaji, Masashi; Cekan, Pavol; Jacobs, Nicholas C.; Gerstberger, Stefanie; Bognanni, Claudia; Larsson, Erik; Ohler, Uwe; Tuschl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies implicated the RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) family of proteins in oocyte, retinal ganglion cell, heart, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle development. These RNA-binding proteins contain a single RNA recognition motif (RRM), and their targets and molecular function have not yet been identified. We defined transcriptome-wide RNA targets using photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) in HEK293 cells, revealing exonic mature and intronic pre-mRNA binding sites, in agreement with the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of the proteins. Computational and biochemical approaches defined the RNA recognition element (RRE) as a tandem CAC trinucleotide motif separated by a variable spacer region. Similar to other mRNA-binding proteins, RBPMS family of proteins relocalized to cytoplasmic stress granules under oxidative stress conditions suggestive of a support function for mRNA localization in large and/or multinucleated cells where it is preferentially expressed. PMID:24860013

  11. Structural and evolutionary aspects of two families of non-catalytic domains present in starch and glycogen binding proteins from microbes, plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Janeček, Štefan; Svensson, Birte; MacGregor, E Ann

    2011-10-10

    Starch-binding domains (SBDs) comprise distinct protein modules that bind starch, glycogen or related carbohydrates and have been classified into different families of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). The present review focuses on SBDs of CBM20 and CBM48 found in amylolytic enzymes from several glycoside hydrolase (GH) families GH13, GH14, GH15, GH31, GH57 and GH77, as well as in a number of regulatory enzymes, e.g., phosphoglucan, water dikinase-3, genethonin-1, laforin, starch-excess protein-4, the β-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase and its homologues from sucrose non-fermenting-1 protein kinase SNF1 complex, and an adaptor-regulator related to the SNF1/AMPK family, AKINβγ. CBM20s and CBM48s of amylolytic enzymes occur predominantly in the microbial world, whereas the non-amylolytic proteins containing these modules are mostly of plant and animal origin. Comparison of amino acid sequences and tertiary structures of CBM20 and CBM48 reveals the close relatedness of these SBDs and, in some cases, glycogen-binding domains (GBDs). The families CBM20 and CBM48 share both an ancestral form and the mode of starch/glycogen binding at one or two binding sites. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that they exhibit independent behaviour, i.e. each family forms its own part in an evolutionary tree, with enzyme specificity (protein function) being well represented within each family. The distinction between CBM20 and CBM48 families is not sharp since there are representatives in both CBM families that possess an intermediate character. These are, for example, CBM20s from hypothetical GH57 amylopullulanase (probably lacking the starch-binding site 2) and CBM48s from the GH13 pullulanase subfamily (probably lacking the starch/glycogen-binding site 1). The knowledge gained concerning the occurrence of these SBDs and GBDs through the range of taxonomy will support future experimental research.

  12. Multimodular Penicillin-Binding Proteins: An Enigmatic Family of Orthologs and Paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Colette; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie

    1998-01-01

    The monofunctional penicillin-binding dd-peptidases and penicillin-hydrolyzing serine β-lactamases diverged from a common ancestor by the acquisition of structural changes in the polypeptide chain while retaining the same folding, three-motif amino acid sequence signature, serine-assisted catalytic mechanism, and active-site topology. Fusion events gave rise to multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). The acyl serine transferase penicillin-binding (PB) module possesses the three active-site defining motifs of the superfamily; it is linked to the carboxy end of a non-penicillin-binding (n-PB) module through a conserved fusion site; the two modules form a single polypeptide chain which folds on the exterior of the plasma membrane and is anchored by a transmembrane spanner; and the full-size PBPs cluster into two classes, A and B. In the class A PBPs, the n-PB modules are a continuum of diverging sequences; they possess a five-motif amino acid sequence signature, and conserved dicarboxylic amino acid residues are probably elements of the glycosyl transferase catalytic center. The PB modules fall into five subclasses: A1 and A2 in gram-negative bacteria and A3, A4, and A5 in gram-positive bacteria. The full-size class A PBPs combine the required enzymatic activities for peptidoglycan assembly from lipid-transported disaccharide-peptide units and almost certainly prescribe different, PB-module specific traits in peptidoglycan cross-linking. In the class B PBPs, the PB and n-PB modules cluster in a concerted manner. A PB module of subclass B2 or B3 is linked to an n-PB module of subclass B2 or B3 in gram-negative bacteria, and a PB module of subclass B1, B4, or B5 is linked to an n-PB module of subclass B1, B4, or B5 in gram-positive bacteria. Class B PBPs are involved in cell morphogenesis. The three motifs borne by the n-PB modules are probably sites for module-module interaction and the polypeptide stretches which extend between motifs 1 and 2 are sites for

  13. Polymer-based cell-free expression of ligand-binding family B G-protein coupled receptors without detergents

    PubMed Central

    Klammt, Christian; Perrin, Marilyn H; Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Renault, Ludovic; Krupa, Martin; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Stahlberg, Henning; Vale, Wylie; Choe, Senyon

    2011-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of intercellular signaling molecules and are estimated to be the target of more than 50% of all modern drugs. As with most integral membrane proteins (IMPs), a major bottleneck in the structural and biochemical analysis of GPCRs is their expression by conventional expression systems. Cell-free (CF) expression provides a relatively new and powerful tool for obtaining preparative amounts of IMPs. However, in the case of GPCRs, insufficient homogeneity of the targeted protein is a problem as the in vitro expression is mainly done with detergents, in which aggregation and solubilization difficulties, as well as problems with proper folding of hydrophilic domains, are common. Here, we report that using CF expression with the help of a fructose-based polymer, NV10 polymer (NVoy), we obtained preparative amounts of homogeneous GPCRs from the three GPCR families. We demonstrate that two GPCR B family members, corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors 1 and 2β are not only solubilized in NVoy but also have functional ligand-binding characteristics with different agonists and antagonists in a detergent-free environment as well. Our findings open new possibilities for functional and structural studies of GPCRs and IMPs in general. PMID:21465615

  14. Members of the meis1 and pbx homeodomain protein families cooperatively bind a cAMP-responsive sequence (CRS1) from bovine CYP17.

    PubMed

    Bischof, L J; Kagawa, N; Moskow, J J; Takahashi, Y; Iwamatsu, A; Buchberg, A M; Waterman, M R

    1998-04-03

    The mammalian Pbx homeodomain proteins provide specificity and increased DNA binding affinity to other homeodomain proteins. A cAMP-responsive sequence (CRS1) from bovine CYP17 has previously been shown to be a binding site for Pbx1. A member of a second mammalian homeodomain family, Meis1, is now also demonstrated to be a CRS1-binding protein upon purification using CRS1 affinity chromatography. CRS1 binding complexes from Y1 adrenal cell nuclear extract contain both Pbx1 and Meis1. This is the first transcriptional regulatory element reported as a binding site for members of the Meis1 homeodomain family. Pbx1 and Meis1 bind cooperatively to CRS1, whereas neither protein can bind this element alone. Mutagenesis of the CRS1 element indicates a binding site for Meis1 adjacent to the Pbx site. All previously identified Pbx binding partners have Pbx interacting motifs that contain a tryptophan residue amino-terminal to the homeodomain that is required for cooperative binding to DNA with Pbx. Members of the Meis1 family contain one tryptophan residue amino-terminal to the homeodomain, but site-directed mutagenesis indicates that this residue is not required for cooperative CRS1 binding with Pbx. Thus, the Pbx-Meis1 interaction is unique among Pbx complexes. Meis1 also cooperatively binds CRS1 with the Pbx homologs extradenticle from Drosophila melanogaster and ceh-20 from Caenorhabditis elegans, indicating that this interaction is evolutionarily conserved. Thus, CYP17 CRS1 is a transcriptional regulatory element containing both Pbx and Meis1 binding sites, which permit these two homeodomain proteins to bind and potentially regulate cAMP-dependent transcription through this sequence.

  15. The Drosophila Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 6 Family Member Has Two Isoforms and Is Potentially Involved in Embryonic Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Rodney; Oosthuysen, Brent; Cajee, Umar-Faruq; Mokgohloa, Lehlogonolo; Nweke, Ekene; Antunes, Ricardo Jorge; Coetzer, Theresa H. T.; Ntwasa, Monde

    2015-01-01

    The human retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6) is implicated in esophageal, lung, hepatocellular and colon cancers. Furthermore, RBBP6 was identified as a strong marker for colon cancer prognosis and as a predisposing factor in familial myeloproliferative neoplasms. Functionally, the mammalian protein interacts with p53 and enhances the activity of Mdm2, the prototypical negative regulator of p53. However, since RBBP6 (known as PACT in mice) exists in multiple isoforms and pact−/− mice exhibit a more severe phenotype than mdm2−/− mutants, it must possess some Mdm2-independent functions. The function of the invertebrate homologue is poorly understood. This is complicated by the absence of the Mdm2 gene in both Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. We have experimentally identified the promoter region of Snama, the Drosophila homologue, analyzed potential transcription factor binding sites and confirmed the existence of an additional isoform. Using band shift and co-immunoprecipitation assays combined with mass spectrometry, we found evidence that this gene may be regulated by, amongst others, DREF, which regulates hundreds of genes related to cell proliferation. The potential transcription factors for Snama fall into distinct functional groups, including anteroposterior embryonic patterning and nucleic acid metabolism. Significantly, previous work in mice shows that pact−/− induces an anteroposterior phenotype in embryos when rescued by simultaneous deletion of p53. Taken together, these observations indicate the significance of RBBP6 proteins in carcinogenesis and in developmental defects. PMID:25955646

  16. Association of Putative Members to Family of Mosquito Odorant Binding Proteins: Scoring Scheme Using Fuzzy Functional Templates and Cys Residue Positions

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Malini; Sankar, Kannan; Offmann, Bernard; Ramanathan, Sowdhamini

    2013-01-01

    Proteins may be related to each other very specifically as homologous subfamilies. Proteins can also be related to diverse proteins at the super family level. It has become highly important to characterize the existing sequence databases by their signatures to facilitate the function annotation of newly added sequences. The algorithm described here uses a scheme for the classification of odorant binding proteins on the basis of functional residues and Cys-pairing. The cysteine-based scoring scheme not only helps in unambiguously identifying families like odorant binding proteins (OBPs), but also aids in their classification at the subfamily level with reliable accuracy. The algorithm was also applied to yet another cysteine-rich family, where similar accuracy was observed that ensures the application of the protocol to other families. PMID:23908587

  17. Early Preclinical Changes in Hippocampal CREB-Binding Protein Expression in a Mouse Model of Familial Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ettcheto, Miren; Abad, Sonia; Petrov, Dmitry; Pedrós, Ignacio; Busquets, Oriol; Sánchez-López, Elena; Casadesús, Gemma; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Carro, Eva; Auladell, Carme; Olloquequi, Jordi; Pallàs, Merce; Folch, Jaume; Camins, Antoni

    2017-07-27

    The molecular basis of memory loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the main cause of senile dementia, is under investigation. In the present study, we have focused on the early hippocampal memory-related changes in APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice, a well-established mouse model of familial AD. It is well known that molecules like cAMP response element binding (CREB) and binding protein (CBP) play a crucial role in memory consolidation. We analyzed CBP on its transcriptional activity and protein levels, finding a significant downregulation of both of them at 3-month-old mice. In addition, the downregulation of this molecule was associated with a decrease on acetylation levels of histone H3 in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, the p-CREB levels, which are important for memory acquisition at 3 months in APP/PS1 mice, were downregulated. Furthermore, we suggest that early neuroinflammation, especially due to the Tnfα gene increased expression, could also be responsible to this process of memory loss. Given all the previously mentioned results, we propose that an early suitable treatment to prevent the evolution of the disease should include a combination of drugs, including anti-inflammatories, which may decrease glial activation and Tnfα levels, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors that increase cAMP levels.

  18. The CKK domain (DUF1781) binds microtubules and defines the CAMSAP/ssp4 family of animal proteins.

    PubMed

    Baines, Anthony J; Bignone, Paola A; King, Mikayala D A; Maggs, Alison M; Bennett, Pauline M; Pinder, Jennifer C; Phillips, Gareth W

    2009-09-01

    We describe a structural domain common to proteins related to human calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein1 (CAMSAP1). Analysis of the sequence of CAMSAP1 identified a domain near the C-terminus common to CAMSAP1 and two other mammalian proteins KIAA1078 and KIAA1543, which we term a CKK domain. This domain was also present in invertebrate CAMSAP1 homologues and was found in all available eumetazoan genomes (including cnidaria), but not in the placozoan Trichoplax adherens, nor in any nonmetazoan organism. Analysis of codon alignments by the sitewise likelihood ratio method gave evidence for strong purifying selection on all codons of mammalian CKK domains, potentially indicating conserved function. Interestingly, the Drosophila homologue of the CAMSAP family is encoded by the ssp4 gene, which is required for normal formation of mitotic spindles. To investigate function of the CKK domain, human CAMSAP1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and fragments including the CKK domain were expressed in HeLa cells. Both whole CAMSAP1 and the CKK domain showed localization coincident with microtubules. In vitro, both whole CAMSAP1-glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and CKK-GST bound to microtubules. Immunofluorescence using anti-CAMSAP1 antibodies on cerebellar granule neurons revealed a microtubule pattern. Overexpression of the CKK domain in PC12 cells blocked production of neurites, a process that requires microtubule function. We conclude that the CKK domain binds microtubules and represents a domain that evolved with the metazoa.

  19. The integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein ICAP-1 binds and regulates Rho family GTPases during cell spreading

    PubMed Central

    Degani, Simona; Balzac, Fiorella; Brancaccio, Mara; Guazzone, Simona; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Silengo, Lorenzo; Eva, Alessandra; Tarone, Guido

    2002-01-01

    Using two-hybrid screening, we isolated the integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein (ICAP-1), an interactor for the COOH terminal region of the β1A integrin cytoplasmic domain. To investigate the role of ICAP-1 in integrin-mediated adhesive function, we expressed the full-length molecule in NIH3T3 cells. ICAP-1 expression strongly prevents NIH3T3 cell spreading on extracellular matrix. This inhibition is transient and can be counteracted by coexpression of a constitutively activated mutant of Cdc42, suggesting that ICAP-1 acts upstream of this GTPase. In addition, we found that ICAP-1 binds both to Cdc42 and Rac1 in vitro, and its expression markedly inhibits activation of these GTPases during integrin-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin as detected by PAK binding assay. In the attempt to define the molecular mechanism of this inhibition, we show that ICAP-1 reduces both the intrinsic and the exchange factor–induced dissociation of GDP from Cdc42; moreover, purified ICAP-1 displaces this GTPase from cellular membranes. Together, these data show for the first time that ICAP-1 regulates Rho family GTPases during integrin-mediated cell matrix adhesion, acting as guanine dissociation inhibitor. PMID:11807099

  20. The integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein ICAP-1 binds and regulates Rho family GTPases during cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Degani, Simona; Balzac, Fiorella; Brancaccio, Mara; Guazzone, Simona; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Silengo, Lorenzo; Eva, Alessandra; Tarone, Guido

    2002-01-21

    Using two-hybrid screening, we isolated the integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein (ICAP-1), an interactor for the COOH terminal region of the beta1A integrin cytoplasmic domain. To investigate the role of ICAP-1 in integrin-mediated adhesive function, we expressed the full-length molecule in NIH3T3 cells. ICAP-1 expression strongly prevents NIH3T3 cell spreading on extracellular matrix. This inhibition is transient and can be counteracted by coexpression of a constitutively activated mutant of Cdc42, suggesting that ICAP-1 acts upstream of this GTPase. In addition, we found that ICAP-1 binds both to Cdc42 and Rac1 in vitro, and its expression markedly inhibits activation of these GTPases during integrin-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin as detected by PAK binding assay. In the attempt to define the molecular mechanism of this inhibition, we show that ICAP-1 reduces both the intrinsic and the exchange factor-induced dissociation of GDP from Cdc42; moreover, purified ICAP-1 displaces this GTPase from cellular membranes. Together, these data show for the first time that ICAP-1 regulates Rho family GTPases during integrin-mediated cell matrix adhesion, acting as guanine dissociation inhibitor.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in a model legume plant, Lotus japonicus: comparison with Arabidopsis ABC protein family.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2006-10-31

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins constitute a large family in plants with more than 120 members each in Arabidopsis and rice, and have various functions including the transport of auxin and alkaloid, as well as the regulation of stomata movement. In this report, we carried out genome-wide analysis of ABC protein genes in a model legume plant, Lotus japonicus. For analysis of the Lotus genome sequence, we devised a new method 'domain-based clustering analysis', where domain structures like the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and transmembrane domain (TMD), instead of full-length amino acid sequences, are used to compare phylogenetically each other. This method enabled us to characterize fragments of ABC proteins, which frequently appear in a draft sequence of the Lotus genome. We identified 91 putative ABC proteins in L. japonicus, i.e. 43 'full-size', 40 'half-size' and 18 'soluble' putative ABC proteins. The characteristic feature of the composition is that Lotus has extraordinarily many paralogs similar to AtMRP14 and AtPDR12, which are at least six and five members, respectively. Expression analysis of the latter genes performed with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed their putative involvement in the nodulation process.

  2. Genes encoding proteins with peritrophin A-type chitin-binding domains in Tribolium castaneum are grouped into three distinct families based on phylogeny, expression and function.

    PubMed

    Jasrapuria, Sinu; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Osman, Gamal; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2010-03-01

    This study is focused on the characterization and expression of genes in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, encoding proteins that possess one or more six-cysteine-containing chitin-binding domains related to the peritrophin A domain (ChtBD2). An exhaustive bioinformatics search of the genome of T. castaneum queried with ChtBD2 sequences yielded 13 previously characterized chitin metabolic enzymes and 29 additional proteins with signal peptides as well as one to 14 ChtBD2s. Using phylogenetic analyses, these additional 29 proteins were classified into three large families. The first family includes 11 proteins closely related to the peritrophins, each containing one to 14 ChtBD2s. These are midgut-specific and are expressed only during feeding stages. We propose the name "Peritrophic Matrix Proteins" (PMP) for this family. The second family contains eight proteins encoded by seven genes (one gene codes for 2 splice variants), which are closely related to gasp/obstructor-like proteins that contain 3 ChtBD2s each. The third family has ten proteins that are of diverse sizes and sequences with only one ChtBD2 each. The genes of the second and third families are expressed in non-midgut tissues throughout all stages of development. We propose the names "Cuticular Proteins Analogous to Peritophins 3" (CPAP3) for the second family that has three ChtBD2s and "Cuticular Proteins Analogous to Peritophins 1 (CPAP1) for the third family that has 1 ChtBD2. Even though proteins of both CPAP1 and CPAP3 families have the "peritrophin A" domain, they are expressed only in cuticle-forming tissues. We determined the exon-intron organization of the genes, encoding these 29 proteins as well as the domain organization of the encoded proteins with ChtBD2s. All 29 proteins have predicted cleavable signal peptides and ChtBD2s, suggesting that they interact with chitin in extracellular locations. Comparison of ChtBD2s-containing proteins in different insect species belonging to

  3. Identification and expression analysis of the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box gene family in Prunus mume.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhou, Yuzhen; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-10-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant development, especially flower and fruit development. However, little information on this gene family is available for Prunus mume, an ornamental and fruit tree widely cultivated in East Asia. To explore the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus and explore their functions in flower and fruit development, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in P. mume. Fifteen SBP-box genes were identified, and 11 of them contained an miR156 target site. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses revealed that different groups of SBP-box genes have undergone different evolutionary processes and varied in their length, structure, and motif composition. Purifying selection has been the main selective constraint on both paralogous and orthologous SBP-box genes. In addition, the sequences of orthologous SBP-box genes did not diverge widely after the split of P. mume and Prunus persica. Expression analysis of P. mume SBP-box genes revealed their diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Three duplicated SBP-box genes may have undergone subfunctionalization in Prunus. Most of the SBP-box genes showed high transcript levels in flower buds and young fruit. The four miR156-nontargeted genes were upregulated during fruit ripening. Together, these results provide information about the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus. The expression analysis lays the foundation for further research on the functions of SBP-box genes in P. mume and other Prunus species, especially during flower and fruit development.

  4. Arabidopsis ATPase family gene 1-like protein 1 is a calmodulin-binding AAA+-ATPase with a dual localization in chloroplasts and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bussemer, Johanna; Chigri, Fatima; Vothknecht, Ute C

    2009-07-01

    Members of the AAA(+)-ATPase superfamily (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) are found in all kingdoms of life and they are involved in very diverse cellular processes, including protein degradation, membrane fusion or cell division. The Arabidopsis genome encodes approximately 140 different proteins that are putative members of this superfamily, although the exact function of most of these proteins remains unknown. Using affinity chromatography on calmodulin-agarose with chloroplast proteins, we purified a 50 kDa protein encoded by AT4G30490 with similarity to the ATPase family gene 1 protein from yeast. Structural analysis showed that the protein possesses a single AAA-domain characteristic for members of the AAA(+)-ATPase superfamily and that this contains all features specific to proteins of the ATPase family gene 1-like subfamily. In vitro pull-down as well as cross-linking assays corroborate calcium-dependent binding of the protein to calmodulin. The calmodulin binding domain could be located to a region of 20 amino acids within the AAA-domain in close proximity to the Walker A motif. Our analysis further showed that the protein is localized in both mitochondria and chloroplasts, further supporting the incorporation of both endosymbiotic organelles into the calcium-signaling network of the cell. Localization of the same calmodulin-binding protein into mitochondria and chloroplasts could be a means to provide a coordinated regulation of processes in both organelles by calcium signals.

  5. Rabconnectin-3, a novel protein that binds both GDP/GTP exchange protein and GTPase-activating protein for Rab3 small G protein family.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Fumiko; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Masahiko; Deguchi-Tawarada, Maki; Takeuchi, Masakazu; Sasaki, Takuya; Takai, Yoshimi

    2002-03-22

    Rab3A, a member of the Rab3 small G protein family, regulates Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitter. The cyclical activation and inactivation of Rab3A are essential for the Rab3A action in exocytosis. GDP-Rab3A is activated to GTP-Rab3A by Rab3 GDP/GTP exchange protein (Rab3 GEP), and GTP-Rab3A is inactivated to GDP-Rab3A by Rab3 GTPase-activating protein (Rab3 GAP). It remains unknown how or in which step of the multiple exocytosis steps these regulators are activated and inactivated. We isolated here a novel protein that was co-immunoprecipitated with Rab3 GEP and GAP by their respective antibodies from the crude synaptic vesicle fraction of rat brain. The protein, named rabconnectin-3, bound both Rab3 GEP and GAP. The cDNA of rabconnectin-3 was cloned from a human cDNA library and its primary structure was determined. Human rabconnectin-3 consisted of 3,036 amino acids and showed a calculated M(r) of 339,753. It had 12 WD domains. Tissue and subcellular distribution analyses in rat indicated that rabconnectin-3 was abundantly expressed in the brain where it was enriched in the synaptic vesicle fraction. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that rabconnectin-3 was concentrated on synaptic vesicles at synapses. These results indicate that rabconnectin-3 serves as a scaffold molecule for both Rab3 GEP and GAP on synaptic vesicles.

  6. Molecular cloning of the microtubule-associated mechanochemical enzyme dynamin reveals homology with a new family of GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Obar, R A; Collins, C A; Hammarback, J A; Shpetner, H S; Vallee, R B

    1990-09-20

    A complementary DNA encoding the D100 polypeptide of rat brain dynamin--a force-producing, microtubule-activated nucleotide triphosphatase--has been cloned and sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequence includes a guanine nucleotide-binding domain that is homologous with those of a family of antiviral factors, inducible by interferon and known as Mx proteins, and with the product of the essential yeast vacuolar protein sorting gene VPS1. These relationships imply the existence of a new family of GTPases with physiological roles that may include microtubule-based motility and protein sorting.

  7. Identification and biochemical characterization of Rap2C, a new member of the Rap family of small GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Paganini, Simona; Guidetti, Gianni Francesco; Catricalà, Silvia; Trionfini, Piera; Panelli, Simona; Balduini, Cesare; Torti, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    The Rap family of small GTP-binding proteins is composed by four different members: Rap1A, Rap1B, Rap2A and Rap2B. In this work we report the identification and characterization of a fifth member of this family of small GTPases. This new protein is highly homologous to Rap2A and Rap2B, binds labeled GTP on nitrocellulose, and is recognized by a specific anti-Rap2 antibody, but not by an anti-Rap1 antibody. The protein has thus been named Rap2C. Binding of GTP to recombinant purified Rap2C was Mg(2+)-dependent. However, accurate comparison of the kinetics of nucleotide binding and release revealed that Rap2C bound GTP less efficiently and possessed slower rate of GDP release compared to the highly homologous Rap2B. Moreover, in the presence of Mg(2+), the relative affinity of Rap2C for GTP was only about twofold higher than that for GDP, while, under the same conditions, Rap2B was able to bind GTP with about sevenfold higher affinity than GDP. When expressed in eukaryotic cells, Rap2C localized at the plasma membrane, as dictated by the presence of a CAAX motif at the C-terminus. We found that Rap2C represented the predominant Rap2 protein expressed in circulating mononuclear leukocytes, but was not present in platelets. Importantly, Rap2C was found to be expressed in human megakaryocytes, suggesting that the protein may be down-regulated during platelets generation. This work demonstrates that Rap2C is a new member of the Rap2 subfamily of proteins, able to bind guanine nucleotides with peculiar properties, and differently expressed by various hematopoietic subsets. This new protein may therefore contribute to the still poorly clarified cellular events regulated by this subfamily of GTP-binding proteins.

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi EbfC defines a newly-identified, widespread family of bacterial DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Riley, Sean P; Bykowski, Tomasz; Cooley, Anne E; Burns, Logan H; Babb, Kelly; Brissette, Catherine A; Bowman, Amy; Rotondi, Matthew; Miller, M Clarke; DeMoll, Edward; Lim, Kap; Fried, Michael G; Stevenson, Brian

    2009-04-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, encodes a novel type of DNA-binding protein named EbfC. Orthologs of EbfC are encoded by a wide range of bacterial species, so characterization of the borrelial protein has implications that span the eubacterial kingdom. The present work defines the DNA sequence required for high-affinity binding by EbfC to be the 4 bp broken palindrome GTnAC, where 'n' can be any nucleotide. Two high-affinity EbfC-binding sites are located immediately 5' of B. burgdorferi erp transcriptional promoters, and binding of EbfC was found to alter the conformation of erp promoter DNA. Consensus EbfC-binding sites are abundantly distributed throughout the B. burgdorferi genome, occurring approximately once every 1 kb. These and other features of EbfC suggest that this small protein and its orthologs may represent a distinctive type of bacterial nucleoid-associated protein. EbfC was shown to bind DNA as a homodimer, and site-directed mutagenesis studies indicated that EbfC and its orthologs appear to bind DNA via a novel alpha-helical 'tweezer'-like structure.

  9. Biochemical characterization of PE_PGRS61 family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv reveals the binding ability to fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Monu; Meena, Laxman S

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The periodic binding of protein expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv with the host cell receptor molecules i.e. fibronectin (Fn) is gaining significance because of its adhesive properties. The genome sequencing of M. tuberculosis H37Rv revealed that the proline-glutamic (PE) proteins contain polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequences (PGRS) which have clinical importance in pathogenesis events when the host encounters M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The functional parts of PE_PGRS family proteins, have not been extensively studied in tuberculosis biology. Materials and Methods: Fibronectin (10 ng and 20 ng) were used for FnBP assay and its enzymatic activities were observed by using various protein concentrations. Results: Therefore, in the present work, we cloned, expressed, purified and identified a novel PE_PGRS61 (Rv3653) family protein in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our experiment, observation suggested that at particular concentrations of 10 ng and 20 ng of Fn exhibits optimum binding to the purified Fibronectin Binding Protein (FnBP), a PE_PGRS61 family protein at 0.20 μg and 0.25 μg concentrations, respectively. Moreover, for better understanding the computational analysis, the B-cell and T-cell epitopes prediction prospect some amino acid propensity scales with hydrophilicity and antigenic variation index at their respective locations. Conclusion: Thus, the current findings provide an opportunity to illuminate the functions of PE_PGRS61 family protein. So, in this point of view, it could be useful to develop a novel therapeutic approach or diagnostic pipeline through targeting these fibronectin binding protein (FnBP) expressing genes. PMID:27872707

  10. A metal-binding member of the late embryogenesis abundant protein family transports iron in the phloem of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Claudia; Berkowitz, Oliver; Stephan, Udo W; Hell, Rudiger

    2002-07-12

    The transport of metal micronutrients to developing organs in a plant is mediated primarily by the sieve elements. Ligands are thought to form complexes with the free ions in order to prevent cellular damage, but no binding partners have been unequivocally identified from plants so far. This study has used the phloem-mediated transport of micronutrients during the germination of the castor bean seedling to identify an iron transport protein (ITP). It is demonstrated that essentially all (55)Fe fed to seedlings is associated with the protein fraction of phloem exudate. It is shown that ITP carries iron in vivo and binds additional iron in vitro. ITP was purified to homogeneity from minute amounts of phloem exudate using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. It preferentially binds to Fe(3+) but not to Fe(2+) and also complexes Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+) in vitro. The corresponding cDNA of ITP was cloned using internal peptide fragments. The deduced protein of 96 amino acids shows high similarity to the stress-related family of late embryogenesis abundant proteins. Its predicted characteristics and its RNA expression pattern are consistent with a function in metal ion binding. The ITP from Ricinus provides the first identified micronutrient binding partner for phloem-mediated long distance transport in plants and is the first member of the late embryogenesis abundant protein family shown to have such a function.

  11. Temporal expression of the human alcohol dehydrogenase gene family during liver development correlates with differential promoter activation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 1, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, liver activator protein, and D-element-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, C; Snyder, R C; Paeper, B W; Duester, G

    1992-01-01

    The human class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family consists of ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3, which are sequentially activated in early fetal, late fetal, and postnatal liver, respectively. Analysis of ADH promoters revealed differential activation by several factors previously shown to control liver transcription. In cotransfection assays, the ADH1 promoter, but not the ADH2 or ADH3 promoter, was shown to respond to hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1), which has previously been shown to regulate transcription in early liver development. The ADH2 promoter, but not the ADH1 or ADH3 promoter, was shown to respond to CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha), a transcription factor particularly active during late fetal liver and early postnatal liver development. The ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3 promoters all responded to the liver transcription factors liver activator protein (LAP) and D-element-binding protein (DBP), which are most active in postnatal liver. For all three promoters, the activation by LAP or DBP was higher than that seen by HNF-1 or C/EBP alpha, and a significant synergism between C/EBP alpha and LAP was noticed for the ADH2 and ADH3 promoters when both factors were simultaneously cotransfected. A hierarchy of ADH promoter responsiveness to C/EBP alpha and LAP homo- and heterodimers is suggested. In all three ADH genes, LAP bound to the same four sites previously reported for C/EBP alpha (i.e., -160, -120, -40, and -20 bp), but DBP bound strongly only to the site located at -40 bp relative to the transcriptional start. Mutational analysis of ADH2 indicated that the -40 bp element accounts for most of the promoter regulation by the bZIP factors analyzed. These studies suggest that HNF-1 and C/EBP alpha help establish ADH gene family transcription in fetal liver and that LAP and DBP help maintain high-level ADH gene family transcription in postnatal liver. Images PMID:1620113

  12. Identification of the RNA recognition element of the RBPMS family of RNA-binding proteins and their transcriptome-wide mRNA targets.

    PubMed

    Farazi, Thalia A; Leonhardt, Carl S; Mukherjee, Neelanjan; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Li, Song; Max, Klaas E A; Meyer, Cindy; Yamaji, Masashi; Cekan, Pavol; Jacobs, Nicholas C; Gerstberger, Stefanie; Bognanni, Claudia; Larsson, Erik; Ohler, Uwe; Tuschl, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies implicated the RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) family of proteins in oocyte, retinal ganglion cell, heart, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle development. These RNA-binding proteins contain a single RNA recognition motif (RRM), and their targets and molecular function have not yet been identified. We defined transcriptome-wide RNA targets using photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) in HEK293 cells, revealing exonic mature and intronic pre-mRNA binding sites, in agreement with the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of the proteins. Computational and biochemical approaches defined the RNA recognition element (RRE) as a tandem CAC trinucleotide motif separated by a variable spacer region. Similar to other mRNA-binding proteins, RBPMS family of proteins relocalized to cytoplasmic stress granules under oxidative stress conditions suggestive of a support function for mRNA localization in large and/or multinucleated cells where it is preferentially expressed. © 2014 Farazi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. [A frame shift mutation, Arg346fs mutation, is identified in cardiac myosin-binding protein C gene in a Chinese family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-li; Liu, Wen-ling; Hu, Da-yi; Cui, Wei; Zhu, Tian-gang; Li, Cui-lan; Sun, Yi-hong; Li, Lei; Bian, Hong

    2005-04-13

    To explore the disease-causing gene mutation in Chinese with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 5 HCM families without consanguinity, including 5 probands, 2 males and 3 females, 28 sporadic HCM patients, 18 males and 10 females, and 80 healthy controls. The exons in the functional regions of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) were amplified with PCR and the amplified products were sequenced. A frame shift mutation-Arg346fs mutation in exon 13, the first mutation identified in Chinese-was discovered in one family with HCM. However, the members of the same HCM family with the Arg346fs mutation showed differences in phenotype and prognosis. Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) may be one of the main disease-causing genes. The heterogeneity of phenotype suggests that multiple factors may be involved in the pathogenesis.

  14. The importance of CELF control: molecular and biological roles of the CUG-BP, Elav-like family of RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Twishasri; Ladd, Andrea N

    2012-01-01

    RNA processing is important for generating protein diversity and modulating levels of protein expression. The CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF) of RNA-binding proteins regulate several steps of RNA processing in the nucleus and cytoplasm, including pre-mRNA alternative splicing, C to U RNA editing, deadenylation, mRNA decay, and translation. In vivo, CELF proteins have been shown to play roles in gametogenesis and early embryonic development, heart and skeletal muscle function, and neurosynaptic transmission. Dysregulation of CELF-mediated programs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human diseases affecting the heart, skeletal muscles, and nervous system.

  15. Dynamic conformational change regulates the protein-DNA recognition: an investigation on binding of a Y-family polymerase to its target DNA.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiakun; Liu, Fei; Maxwell, Brian A; Wang, Yong; Suo, Zucai; Wang, Haijun; Han, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Protein-DNA recognition is a central biological process that governs the life of cells. A protein will often undergo a conformational transition to form the functional complex with its target DNA. The protein conformational dynamics are expected to contribute to the stability and specificity of DNA recognition and therefore may control the functional activity of the protein-DNA complex. Understanding how the conformational dynamics influences the protein-DNA recognition is still challenging. Here, we developed a two-basin structure-based model to explore functional dynamics in Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Y-family polymerase IV (DPO4) during its binding to DNA. With explicit consideration of non-specific and specific interactions between DPO4 and DNA, we found that DPO4-DNA recognition is comprised of first 3D diffusion, then a short-range adjustment sliding on DNA and finally specific binding. Interestingly, we found that DPO4 is under a conformational equilibrium between multiple states during the binding process and the distributions of the conformations vary at different binding stages. By modulating the strength of the electrostatic interactions, the flexibility of the linker, and the conformational dynamics in DPO4, we drew a clear picture on how DPO4 dynamically regulates the DNA recognition. We argue that the unique features of flexibility and conformational dynamics in DPO4-DNA recognition have direct implications for low-fidelity translesion DNA synthesis, most of which is found to be accomplished by the Y-family DNA polymerases. Our results help complete the description of the DNA synthesis process for the Y-family polymerases. Furthermore, the methods developed here can be widely applied for future investigations on how various proteins recognize and bind specific DNA substrates.

  16. Prevention of cross-talk in conserved regulatory systems: identification of specificity determinants in RNA-binding anti-termination proteins of the BglG family

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Sebastian; Declerck, Nathalie; Diethmaier, Christine; Le Coq, Dominique; Aymerich, Stephane; Stülke, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Each family of signal transduction systems requires specificity determinants that link individual signals to the correct regulatory output. In Bacillus subtilis, a family of four anti-terminator proteins controls the expression of genes for the utilisation of alternative sugars. These regulatory systems contain the anti-terminator proteins and a RNA structure, the RNA anti-terminator (RAT) that is bound by the anti-terminator proteins. We have studied three of these proteins (SacT, SacY, and LicT) to understand how they can transmit a specific signal in spite of their strong structural homology. A screen for random mutations that render SacT capable to bind a RNA structure recognized by LicT only revealed a substitution (P26S) at one of the few non-conserved residues that are in contact with the RNA. We have randomly modified this position in SacT together with another non-conserved RNA-contacting residue (Q31). Surprisingly, the mutant proteins could bind all RAT structures that are present in B. subtilis. In a complementary approach, reciprocal amino acid exchanges have been introduced in LicT and SacY at non-conserved positions of the RNA-binding site. This analysis revealed the key role of an arginine side-chain for both the high affinity and specificity of LicT for its cognate RAT. Introduction of this Arg at the equivalent position of SacY (A26) increased the RNA binding in vitro but also resulted in a relaxed specificity. Altogether our results suggest that this family of anti-termination proteins has evolved to reach a compromise between RNA binding efficacy and specific interaction with individual target sequences. PMID:21278164

  17. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  18. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  19. The bldC Developmental Locus of Streptomyces coelicolor Encodes a Member of a Family of Small DNA-Binding Proteins Related to the DNA-Binding Domains of the MerR Family

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Alison C.; Servín-González, Luis; Kelemen, Gabriella H.; Buttner, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    The bldC locus, required for formation of aerial hyphae in Streptomyces coelicolor, was localized by map-based cloning to the overlap between cosmids D17 and D25 of a minimal ordered library. Subcloning and sequencing showed that bldC encodes a member of a previously unrecognized family of small (58- to 78-residue) DNA-binding proteins, related to the DNA-binding domains of the MerR family of transcriptional activators. BldC family members are found in a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Constructed ΔbldC mutants were defective in differentiation and antibiotic production. They failed to form an aerial mycelium on minimal medium and showed severe delays in aerial mycelium formation on rich medium. In addition, they failed to produce the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin, and bldC was shown to be required for normal and sustained transcription of the pathway-specific activator gene actII-orf4. Although ΔbldC mutants produced the tripyrrole antibiotic undecylprodigiosin, transcripts of the pathway-specific activator gene (redD) were reduced to almost undetectable levels after 48 h in the bldC mutant, in contrast to the bldC+ parent strain in which redD transcription continued during aerial mycelium formation and sporulation. This suggests that bldC may be required for maintenance of redD transcription during differentiation. bldC is expressed from a single promoter. S1 nuclease protection assays and immunoblotting showed that bldC is constitutively expressed and that transcription of bldC does not depend on any of the other known bld genes. The bldC18 mutation that originally defined the locus causes a Y49C substitution that results in instability of the protein. PMID:15629942

  20. The bldC developmental locus of Streptomyces coelicolor encodes a member of a family of small DNA-binding proteins related to the DNA-binding domains of the MerR family.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Alison C; Servín-González, Luis; Kelemen, Gabriella H; Buttner, Mark J

    2005-01-01

    The bldC locus, required for formation of aerial hyphae in Streptomyces coelicolor, was localized by map-based cloning to the overlap between cosmids D17 and D25 of a minimal ordered library. Subcloning and sequencing showed that bldC encodes a member of a previously unrecognized family of small (58- to 78-residue) DNA-binding proteins, related to the DNA-binding domains of the MerR family of transcriptional activators. BldC family members are found in a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Constructed DeltabldC mutants were defective in differentiation and antibiotic production. They failed to form an aerial mycelium on minimal medium and showed severe delays in aerial mycelium formation on rich medium. In addition, they failed to produce the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin, and bldC was shown to be required for normal and sustained transcription of the pathway-specific activator gene actII-orf4. Although DeltabldC mutants produced the tripyrrole antibiotic undecylprodigiosin, transcripts of the pathway-specific activator gene (redD) were reduced to almost undetectable levels after 48 h in the bldC mutant, in contrast to the bldC+ parent strain in which redD transcription continued during aerial mycelium formation and sporulation. This suggests that bldC may be required for maintenance of redD transcription during differentiation. bldC is expressed from a single promoter. S1 nuclease protection assays and immunoblotting showed that bldC is constitutively expressed and that transcription of bldC does not depend on any of the other known bld genes. The bldC18 mutation that originally defined the locus causes a Y49C substitution that results in instability of the protein.

  1. Structural analyses of the CRISPR protein Csc2 reveal the RNA-binding interface of the type I-D Cas7 family.

    PubMed

    Hrle, Ajla; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Sharma, Kundan; Ebert, Judith; Basquin, Claire; Urlaub, Henning; Marchfelder, Anita; Conti, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Upon pathogen invasion, bacteria and archaea activate an RNA-interference-like mechanism termed CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats). A large family of Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins mediates the different stages of this sophisticated immune response. Bioinformatic studies have classified the Cas proteins into families, according to their sequences and respective functions. These range from the insertion of the foreign genetic elements into the host genome to the activation of the interference machinery as well as target degradation upon attack. Cas7 family proteins are central to the type I and type III interference machineries as they constitute the backbone of the large interference complexes. Here we report the crystal structure of Thermofilum pendens Csc2, a Cas7 family protein of type I-D. We found that Csc2 forms a core RRM-like domain, flanked by three peripheral insertion domains: a lid domain, a Zinc-binding domain and a helical domain. Comparison with other Cas7 family proteins reveals a set of similar structural features both in the core and in the peripheral domains, despite the absence of significant sequence similarity. T. pendens Csc2 binds single-stranded RNA in vitro in a sequence-independent manner. Using a crosslinking - mass-spectrometry approach, we mapped the RNA-binding surface to a positively charged surface patch on T. pendens Csc2. Thus our analysis of the key structural and functional features of T. pendens Csc2 highlights recurring themes and evolutionary relationships in type I and type III Cas proteins.

  2. YbiB from Escherichia coli, the Defining Member of the Novel TrpD2 Family of Prokaryotic DNA-binding Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Daniel; Kaiser, Wolfgang; Stutz, Cian; Holinski, Alexandra; Mayans, Olga; Babinger, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present the crystal structure and biochemical characterization of Escherichia coli YbiB, a member of the hitherto uncharacterized TrpD2 protein family. Our results demonstrate that the functional diversity of proteins with a common fold can be far greater than predictable by computational annotation. The TrpD2 proteins show high structural homology to anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase (TrpD) and nucleoside phosphorylase class II enzymes but bind with high affinity (KD = 10–100 nm) to nucleic acids without detectable sequence specificity. The difference in affinity between single- and double-stranded DNA is minor. Results suggest that multiple YbiB molecules bind to one longer DNA molecule in a cooperative manner. The YbiB protein is a homodimer that, therefore, has two electropositive DNA binding grooves. But due to negative cooperativity within the dimer, only one groove binds DNA in in vitro experiments. A monomerized variant remains able to bind DNA with similar affinity, but the negative cooperative effect is eliminated. The ybiB gene forms an operon with the DNA helicase gene dinG and is under LexA control, being induced by DNA-damaging agents. Thus, speculatively, the TrpD2 proteins may be part of the LexA-controlled SOS response in bacteria. PMID:26063803

  3. Association analyses of vitamin D-binding protein gene with compression strength index variation in Caucasian nuclear families

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X.-H.; Xiong, D.-H.; Liu, X.-G.; Guo, Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, J.; Recker, R. R.; Deng, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study was conducted to test whether there exists an association between vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene and compression strength index (CSI) phenotype. Candidate gene association analyses were conducted in total sample, male subgroup, and female subgroup, respectively. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant association results were found in males, suggesting the importance of DBP gene polymorphisms on the variation in CSI especially in Caucasian males. Introduction CSI of the femoral neck (FN) is a newly developed phenotype integrating information about bone size, body size, and bone mineral density. It is considered to have the potential to improve the performance of risk assessment for hip fractures because it is based on a combination of phenotypic traits influencing hip fractures rather than a single trait. CSI is under moderate genetic determination (with a heritability of ~44% found in this study), but the relevant genetic study is still rather scarce. Methods Based on the known physiological role of DBP in bone biology and the relatively high heritability of CSI, we tested 12 SNPs of the DBP gene for association with CSI variation in 405 Caucasian nuclear families comprising 1,873 subjects from the Midwestern US. Association analyses were performed in the total sample, male and female subgroups, respectively. Results Significant associations with CSI were found with two SNPs (rs222029, P=0.0019; rs222020, P=0.0042) for the male subgroup. Haplotype-based association tests corroborated the single-SNP results. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the DBP gene might be one of the genetic factors influencing CSI phenotype in Caucasians, especially in males. PMID:19543766

  4. Myosin binding protein-C slow: a multifaceted family of proteins with a complex expression profile in fast and slow twitch skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Maegen A; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini

    2013-01-01

    Myosin Binding Protein-C slow (sMyBP-C) comprises a complex family of proteins expressed in slow and fast type skeletal muscles. Similar to its fast and cardiac counterparts, sMyBP-C functions to modulate the formation of actomyosin cross-bridges, and to organize and stabilize sarcomeric A- and M-bands. The slow form of MyBP-C was originally classified as a single protein, however several variants encoded by the single MYBPC1 gene have been recently identified. Alternative splicing of the 5' and 3' ends of the MYBPC1 transcript has led to the differential expression of small unique segments interspersed between common domains. In addition, the NH2-terminus of sMyBP-C undergoes complex phosphorylation. Thus, alternative splicing and phosphorylation appear to regulate the functional activities of sMyBP-C. sMyBP-C proteins are not restricted to slow twitch muscles, but they are abundantly expressed in fast twitch muscles, too. Using bioinformatic tools, we herein perform a systematic comparison of the known human and mouse sMyBP-C variants. In addition, using single fiber westerns and antibodies to a common region of all known sMyBP-C variants, we present a detailed and comprehensive characterization of the expression profile of sMyBP-C proteins in the slow twitch soleus and the fast twitch flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) mouse muscles. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that distinct sMyBP-C variants are co-expressed in the same fiber, and that their expression profile differs among fibers. Given the differential expression of sMyBP-C variants in single fibers, it becomes apparent that each variant or combination thereof may play unique roles in the regulation of actomyosin cross-bridges formation and the stabilization of thick filaments.

  5. A Novel C-Terminal CIB2 (Calcium and Integrin Binding Protein 2) Mutation Associated with Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss in a Hispanic Family.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kunjan; Giese, Arnaud P; Grossheim, J M; Hegde, Rashmi S; Hegde, Rashima S; Delio, Maria; Samanich, Joy; Riazuddin, Saima; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Cai, Jinlu; Ahmed, Zubair M; Morrow, Bernice E

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss is a complex disorder caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Previously, mutations in CIB2 have been identified as a common cause of genetic hearing loss in Pakistani and Turkish populations. Here we report a novel (c.556C>T; p.(Arg186Trp)) transition mutation in the CIB2 gene identified through whole exome sequencing (WES) in a Caribbean Hispanic family with non-syndromic hearing loss. CIB2 belongs to the family of calcium-and integrin-binding (CIB) proteins. The carboxy-termini of CIB proteins are associated with calcium binding and intracellular signaling. The p.(Arg186Trp) mutation is localized within predicted type II PDZ binding ligand at the carboxy terminus. Our ex vivo studies revealed that the mutation did not alter the interactions of CIB2 with Whirlin, nor its targeting to the tips of hair cell stereocilia. However, we found that the mutation disrupts inhibition of ATP-induced Ca2+ responses by CIB2 in a heterologous expression system. Our findings support p.(Arg186Trp) mutation as a cause for hearing loss in this Hispanic family. In addition, it further highlights the necessity of the calcium binding property of CIB2 for normal hearing.

  6. Two novel members of the ABLIM protein family, ABLIM-2 and -3, associate with STARS and directly bind F-actin.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Tomasa; Frank, Derk; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Bezprozvannaya, Svetlana; Pipes, G C Teg; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Richardson, James A; Katus, Hugo A; Olson, Eric N; Frey, Norbert

    2007-03-16

    In addition to regulating cell motility, contractility, and cytokinesis, the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role in the regulation of transcription and gene expression. We have previously identified a novel muscle-specific actin-binding protein, STARS (striated muscle activator of Rho signaling), which directly binds actin and stimulates serum-response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription. To further dissect the STARS/SRF pathway, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen of a skeletal muscle cDNA library using STARS as bait, and we identified two novel members of the ABLIM protein family, ABLIM-2 and -3, as STARS-interacting proteins. ABLIM-1, which is expressed in retina, brain, and muscle tissue, has been postulated to function as a tumor suppressor. ABLIM-2 and -3 display distinct tissue-specific expression patterns with the highest expression levels in muscle and neuronal tissue. Moreover, these novel ABLIM proteins strongly bind F-actin, are localized to actin stress fibers, and synergistically enhance STARS-dependent activation of SRF. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous ABLIM expression utilizing small interfering RNA significantly blunted SRF-dependent transcription in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. These findings suggest that the members of the novel ABLIM protein family may serve as a scaffold for signaling modules of the actin cytoskeleton and thereby modulate transcription.

  7. Penicillium purpurogenum produces a family 1 acetyl xylan esterase containing a carbohydrate-binding module: characterization of the protein and its gene.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Felipe; Caputo, Valentina; Peirano, Alessandra; Chavez, Renato; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Vandenberghe, Isabel; Claeyssens, Marc; Bull, Paulina; Ravanal, María Cristina; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2006-10-01

    At least three acetyl xylan esterases (AXE I, II and III) are secreted by Penicillium purpurogenum. This publication describes more detailed work on AXE I and its gene. AXE I binds cellulose but not xylan; it is glycosylated and inactivated by phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, showing that it is a serine esterase. The axe1 gene presents an open reading frame of 1278 bp, including two introns of 68 and 61 bp; it codes for a signal peptide of 31 residues and a mature protein of 351 amino acids (molecular weight 36,693). AXE I has a modular structure: a catalytic module at the amino terminus belonging to family 1 of the carbohydrate esterases, a linker rich in serines and threonines, and a family 1 carboxy terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM). The CBM is similar to that of AXE from Trichoderma reesei, (with a family 5 catalytic module) indicating that the genes for catalytic modules and CBMs have evolved separately, and that they have been linked by gene fusion. The promoter sequence of axe1 contains several putative sequences for binding of gene expression regulators also found in other family 1 esterase gene promoters. It is proposed that AXE I and II act in succession in xylan degradation; first, xylan is attacked by AXE I and other xylanases possessing CBMs (which facilitate binding to lignocellulose), followed by other enzymes acting mainly on soluble substrates.

  8. Comparative Genomics of the Odorant-Binding and Chemosensory Protein Gene Families across the Arthropoda: Origin and Evolutionary History of the Chemosensory System

    PubMed Central

    Rozas, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Chemoreception is a biological process essential for the survival of animals, as it allows the recognition of important volatile cues for the detection of food, egg-laying substrates, mates, or predators, among other purposes. Furthermore, its role in pheromone detection may contribute to evolutionary processes, such as reproductive isolation and speciation. This key role in several vital biological processes makes chemoreception a particularly interesting system for studying the role of natural selection in molecular adaptation. Two major gene families are involved in the perireceptor events of the chemosensory system: the odorant-binding protein (OBP) and chemosensory protein (CSP) families. Here, we have conducted an exhaustive comparative genomic analysis of these gene families in 20 Arthropoda species. We show that the evolution of the OBP and CSP gene families is highly dynamic, with a high number of gains and losses of genes, pseudogenes, and independent origins of subfamilies. Taken together, our data clearly support the birth-and-death model for the evolution of these gene families with an overall high gene turnover rate. Moreover, we show that the genome organization of the two families is significantly more clustered than expected by chance and, more important, that this pattern appears to be actively maintained across the Drosophila phylogeny. Finally, we suggest the homologous nature of the OBP and CSP gene families, dating back their most recent common ancestor after the terrestrialization of Arthropoda (380--450 Ma) and we propose a scenario for the origin and diversification of these families. PMID:21527792

  9. Comparative genomics of the odorant-binding and chemosensory protein gene families across the Arthropoda: origin and evolutionary history of the chemosensory system.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Filipe G; Rozas, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Chemoreception is a biological process essential for the survival of animals, as it allows the recognition of important volatile cues for the detection of food, egg-laying substrates, mates, or predators, among other purposes. Furthermore, its role in pheromone detection may contribute to evolutionary processes, such as reproductive isolation and speciation. This key role in several vital biological processes makes chemoreception a particularly interesting system for studying the role of natural selection in molecular adaptation. Two major gene families are involved in the perireceptor events of the chemosensory system: the odorant-binding protein (OBP) and chemosensory protein (CSP) families. Here, we have conducted an exhaustive comparative genomic analysis of these gene families in 20 Arthropoda species. We show that the evolution of the OBP and CSP gene families is highly dynamic, with a high number of gains and losses of genes, pseudogenes, and independent origins of subfamilies. Taken together, our data clearly support the birth-and-death model for the evolution of these gene families with an overall high gene turnover rate. Moreover, we show that the genome organization of the two families is significantly more clustered than expected by chance and, more important, that this pattern appears to be actively maintained across the Drosophila phylogeny. Finally, we suggest the homologous nature of the OBP and CSP gene families, dating back their most recent common ancestor after the terrestrialization of Arthropoda (380--450 Ma) and we propose a scenario for the origin and diversification of these families.

  10. Bacterial oligopeptide-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Monnet, V

    2003-10-01

    This review focuses on bacterial oligopeptide-binding proteins, which form part of the oligopeptide transport system belonging to the ATP-binding cassette family of transporters. Depending on the bacterial species, these binding proteins (OppA) capture peptides ranging in size from 2 to 18 amino acids from the environment and pass them on to the other components of the oligopeptide transport system for internalisation. Bacteria have developed several strategies to produce these binding proteins, which are periplasmic in Gram- bacteria and membrane-anchored in Gram+, with a higher stoichiometry (probably necessary for efficient transport) than the other components in the transport system. The expression of OppA-encoding genes is clearly modulated by external factors, especially nitrogen compounds, but the mechanisms of regulation are not always clear. The best-understood roles played by OppAs are internalisation of peptides for nutrition and recycling of muropeptides. It has, however, recently become clear that OppAs are also involved in sensing the external medium via specific or non-specific peptides.

  11. The IQD Family of Calmodulin-Binding Proteins Links Calcium Signaling to Microtubules, Membrane Subdomains, and the Nucleus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Plötner, Romina; Stamm, Gina; Hause, Gerd; Mitra, Dipannita; Abel, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) signaling and dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton are essential processes for the coordination and control of plant cell shape and cell growth. Calmodulin (CaM) and closely related calmodulin-like (CML) polypeptides are principal sensors of Ca2+ signals. CaM/CMLs decode and relay information encrypted by the second messenger via differential interactions with a wide spectrum of targets to modulate their diverse biochemical activities. The plant-specific IQ67 DOMAIN (IQD) family emerged as possibly the largest class of CaM-interacting proteins with undefined molecular functions and biological roles. Here, we show that the 33 members of the IQD family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) differentially localize, using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged proteins, to multiple and distinct subcellular sites, including microtubule (MT) arrays, plasma membrane subdomains, and nuclear compartments. Intriguingly, the various IQD-specific localization patterns coincide with the subcellular patterns of IQD-dependent recruitment of CaM, suggesting that the diverse IQD members sequester Ca2+-CaM signaling modules to specific subcellular sites for precise regulation of Ca2+-dependent processes. Because MT localization is a hallmark of most IQD family members, we quantitatively analyzed GFP-labeled MT arrays in Nicotiana benthamiana cells transiently expressing GFP-IQD fusions and observed IQD-specific MT patterns, which point to a role of IQDs in MT organization and dynamics. Indeed, stable overexpression of select IQD proteins in Arabidopsis altered cellular MT orientation, cell shape, and organ morphology. Because IQDs share biochemical properties with scaffold proteins, we propose that IQD families provide an assortment of platform proteins for integrating CaM-dependent Ca2+ signaling at multiple cellular sites to regulate cell function, shape, and growth. PMID:28115582

  12. Functional characterization of a redundant Plasmodium TRAP family invasin, TRAP-like protein, by aldolase binding and a genetic complementation test.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Kirsten; Nie, Hui; Kumar, Sumit; Daly, Thomas M; Bergman, Lawrence W; Matuschewski, Kai

    2008-06-01

    Efficient and specific host cell entry is of exquisite importance for intracellular pathogens. Parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa are highly motile and actively enter host cells. These functions are mediated by type I transmembrane invasins of the TRAP family that link an extracellular recognition event to the parasite actin-myosin motor machinery. We systematically tested potential parasite invasins for binding to the actin bridging molecule aldolase and complementation of the vital cytoplasmic domain of the sporozoite invasin TRAP. We show that the ookinete invasin CTRP and a novel, structurally related protein, termed TRAP-like protein (TLP), are functional members of the TRAP family. Although TLP is expressed in invasive stages, targeted gene disruption revealed a nonvital role during life cycle progression. This is the first genetic analysis of TLP, encoding a redundant TRAP family invasin, in the malaria parasite.

  13. Complex structure and biochemical characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP)-binding protein PstA, the founding member of a new signal transduction protein family.

    PubMed

    Campeotto, Ivan; Zhang, Yong; Mladenov, Miroslav G; Freemont, Paul S; Gründling, Angelika

    2015-01-30

    Signaling nucleotides are integral parts of signal transduction systems allowing bacteria to cope with and rapidly respond to changes in the environment. The Staphylococcus aureus PII-like signal transduction protein PstA was recently identified as a cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP)-binding protein. Here, we present the crystal structures of the apo- and c-di-AMP-bound PstA protein, which is trimeric in solution as well as in the crystals. The structures combined with detailed bioinformatics analysis revealed that the protein belongs to a new family of proteins with a similar core fold but with distinct features to classical PII proteins, which usually function in nitrogen metabolism pathways in bacteria. The complex structure revealed three identical c-di-AMP-binding sites per trimer with each binding site at a monomer-monomer interface. Although distinctly different from other cyclic-di-nucleotide-binding sites, as the half-binding sites are not symmetrical, the complex structure also highlighted common features for c-di-AMP-binding sites. A comparison between the apo and complex structures revealed a series of conformational changes that result in the ordering of two anti-parallel β-strands that protrude from each monomer and allowed us to propose a mechanism on how the PstA protein functions as a signaling transduction protein.

  14. EndB, a multidomain family 44 cellulase from Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17, binds to cellulose via a novel cellulose-binding module and to another R. flavefaciens protein via a dockerin domain.

    PubMed

    Rincón, M T; McCrae, S I; Kirby, J; Scott, K P; Flint, H J

    2001-10-01

    The mechanisms by which cellulolytic enzymes and enzyme complexes in Ruminococcus spp. bind to cellulose are not fully understood. The product of the newly isolated cellulase gene endB from Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 was purified as a His-tagged product after expression in Escherichia coli and found to be able to bind directly to crystalline cellulose. The ability to bind cellulose is shown to be associated with a novel cellulose-binding module (CBM) located within a region of 200 amino acids that is unrelated to known protein sequences. EndB (808 amino acids) also contains a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 44 and a C-terminal dockerin-like domain. Purified EndB is also shown to bind specifically via its dockerin domain to a polypeptide of ca. 130 kDa present among supernatant proteins from Avicel-grown R. flavefaciens that attach to cellulose. The protein to which EndB attaches is a strong candidate for the scaffolding component of a cellulosome-like multienzyme complex recently identified in this species (S.-Y. Ding et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:1945-1953, 2001). It is concluded that binding of EndB to cellulose may occur both through its own CBM and potentially also through its involvement in a cellulosome complex.

  15. Members of a Novel Protein Family Containing Microneme Adhesive Repeat Domains Act as Sialic Acid-binding Lectins during Host Cell Invasion by Apicomplexan Parasites*

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Nikolas; Santos, Joana M.; Liu, Yan; Palma, Angelina S.; Leon, Ester; Saouros, Savvas; Kiso, Makoto; Blackman, Michael J.; Matthews, Stephen; Feizi, Ten; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Numerous intracellular pathogens exploit cell surface glycoconjugates for host cell recognition and entry. Unlike bacteria and viruses, Toxoplasma gondii and other parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa actively invade host cells, and this process critically depends on adhesins (microneme proteins) released onto the parasite surface from intracellular organelles called micronemes (MIC). The microneme adhesive repeat (MAR) domain of T. gondii MIC1 (TgMIC1) recognizes sialic acid (Sia), a key determinant on the host cell surface for invasion by this pathogen. By complementation and invasion assays, we demonstrate that TgMIC1 is one important player in Sia-dependent invasion and that another novel Sia-binding lectin, designated TgMIC13, is also involved. Using BLAST searches, we identify a family of MAR-containing proteins in enteroparasitic coccidians, a subclass of apicomplexans, including T. gondii, suggesting that all these parasites exploit sialylated glycoconjugates on host cells as determinants for enteric invasion. Furthermore, this protein family might provide a basis for the broad host cell range observed for coccidians that form tissue cysts during chronic infection. Carbohydrate microarray analyses, corroborated by structural considerations, show that TgMIC13, TgMIC1, and its homologue Neospora caninum MIC1 (NcMIC1) share a preference for α2–3- over α2–6-linked sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine sequences. However, the three lectins also display differences in binding preferences. Intense binding of TgMIC13 to α2–9-linked disialyl sequence reported on embryonal cells and relatively strong binding to 4-O-acetylated-Sia found on gut epithelium and binding of NcMIC1 to 6′sulfo-sialyl Lewisx might have implications for tissue tropism. PMID:19901027

  16. Evolution of a family of metazoan active-site-serine enzymes from penicillin-binding proteins: a novel facet of the bacterial legacy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and β-lactamases (PBP-βLs) constitute a large family of serine proteases that perform essential functions in the synthesis and maintenance of peptidoglycan. Intriguingly, genes encoding PBP-βL homologs occur in many metazoan genomes including humans. The emerging role of LACTB, a mammalian mitochondrial PBP-βL homolog, in metabolic signaling prompted us to investigate the evolutionary history of metazoan PBP-βL proteins. Results Metazoan PBP-βL homologs including LACTB share unique structural features with bacterial class B low molecular weight penicillin-binding proteins. The amino acid residues necessary for enzymatic activity in bacterial PBP-βL proteins, including the catalytic serine residue, are conserved in all metazoan homologs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that metazoan PBP-βL homologs comprise four alloparalogus protein lineages that derive from α-proteobacteria. Conclusion While most components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery were dumped by early eukaryotes, a few PBP-βL proteins were conserved and are found in metazoans including humans. Metazoan PBP-βL homologs are active-site-serine enzymes that probably have distinct functions in the metabolic circuitry. We hypothesize that PBP-βL proteins in the early eukaryotic cell enabled the degradation of peptidoglycan from ingested bacteria, thereby maximizing the yield of nutrients and streamlining the cell for effective phagocytotic feeding. PMID:18226203

  17. The role of Mg2+ cofactor in the guanine nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis reactions of Rho family GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Zhang, Y; Wang, Z; Zheng, Y

    2000-08-18

    The biological activities of Rho family GTPases are controlled by their guanine nucleotide binding states in cells. Here we have investigated the role of Mg(2+) cofactor in the guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis processes of the Rho family members, Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA. Differing from Ras and Rab proteins, which require Mg(2+) for GDP and GTP binding, the Rho GTPases bind the nucleotides in the presence or absence of Mg(2+) similarly, with dissociation constants in the submicromolar concentration. The presence of Mg(2+), however, resulted in a marked decrease in the intrinsic dissociation rates of the nucleotides. The catalytic activity of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) appeared to be negatively regulated by free Mg(2+), and GEF binding to Rho GTPase resulted in a 10-fold decrease in affinity for Mg(2+), suggesting that one role of GEF is to displace bound Mg(2+) from the Rho proteins. The GDP dissociation rates of the GTPases could be further stimulated by GEF upon removal of bound Mg(2+), indicating that the GEF-catalyzed nucleotide exchange involves a Mg(2+)-independent as well as a Mg(2+)-dependent mechanism. Although Mg(2+) is not absolutely required for GTP hydrolysis by the Rho GTPases, the divalent ion apparently participates in the GTPase reaction, since the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates were enhanced 4-10-fold upon binding to Mg(2+), and k(cat) values of the Rho GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP)-catalyzed reactions were significantly increased when Mg(2+) was present. Furthermore, the p50RhoGAP specificity for Cdc42 was lost in the absence of Mg(2+) cofactor. These studies directly demonstrate a role of Mg(2+) in regulating the kinetics of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis and in the GEF- and GAP-catalyzed reactions of Rho family GTPases. The results suggest that GEF facilitates nucleotide exchange by destabilizing both bound nucleotide and Mg(2+), whereas RhoGAP utilizes the Mg(2+) cofactor to achieve high catalytic efficiency

  18. Genome-wide identification and analysis of FK506-binding protein gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Han, Jan; Liu, Dan; Wen, Xicheng; Li, Yu; Tao, Ran; Peng, Yongbin; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2014-02-25

    The FKBP protein family has prolyl isomerase activity and is related in function to cyclophilins. FKBPs are known to be involved in many biological processes including hormone signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The availability of complete peach genome sequences allowed the identification of 21 FKBP genes by HMMER and BLAST analyses. Scaffold locations of these FKBP genes in the peach genome were determined and the protein domain and motif organization of peach FKBPs were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between peach FKBPs were also assessed. The expression profiles of peach FKBP gene results revealed that most peach FKBPs were expressed in all tissues, while a few peach FKBPs were specifically expressed in some of the tissues. This data could contribute to better understanding of the complex regulation of the peach FKBP gene family, and also provide valuable information for further research in peach functional genomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An olive pollen protein with allergenic activity, Ole e 10, defines a novel family of carbohydrate-binding modules and is potentially implicated in pollen germination

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    CBMs (carbohydrate-binding modules) are the most common non-catalytic modules associated with enzymes active in plant cell-wall hydrolysis. They have been frequently identified by amino acid sequence alignments, but only a few have been experimentally established to have a carbohydrate-binding activity. A small olive pollen protein, Ole e 10 (10 kDa), has been described as a major inducer of type I allergy in humans. In the present study, the ability of Ole e 10 to bind several polysaccharides has been analysed by affinity gel electrophoresis, which demonstrated that the protein bound 1,3-β-glucans preferentially. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed binding to laminarin, at a protein/ligand ratio of 1:1. The interaction of Ole e 10 with laminarin induced a conformational change in the protein, as detected by CD and fluorescence analyses, and an increase of 3.6 °C in the thermal denaturation temperature of Ole e 10 in the presence of the glycan. These results, and the absence of alignment of the sequence of Ole e 10 with that of any classified CBM, indicate that this pollen protein defines a novel family of CBMs, which we propose to name CBM43. Immunolocalization of Ole e 10 in mature and germinating pollen by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated the co-localization of Ole e 10 and callose (1,3-β-glucan) in the growing pollen tube, suggesting a role for this protein in the metabolism of carbohydrates and in pollen tube wall re-formation during germination. PMID:15882149

  20. SVOP Is a Nucleotide Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia; Bajjalieh, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) and SV2-related protein (SVOP) are transporter-like proteins that localize to neurotransmitter-containing vesicles. Both proteins share structural similarity with the major facilitator (MF) family of small molecule transporters. We recently reported that SV2 binds nucleotides, a feature that has also been reported for another MF family member, the human glucose transporter 1 (Glut1). In the case of Glut1, nucleotide binding affects transport activity. In this study, we determined if SVOP also binds nucleotides and assessed its nucleotide binding properties. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed in vitro photoaffinity labeling experiments with the photoreactive ATP analogue, 8-azido-ATP[γ] biotin and purified recombinant SVOP-FLAG fusion protein. We found that SVOP is a nucleotide-binding protein, although both its substrate specificity and binding site differ from that of SV2. Within the nucleotides tested, ATP, GTP and NAD show same level of inhibition on SVOP-FLAG labeling. Dose dependent studies indicated that SVOP demonstrates the highest affinity for NAD, in contrast to SV2, which binds both NAD and ATP with equal affinity. Mapping of the binding site revealed a single region spanning transmembrane domains 9–12, which contrasts to the two binding sites in the large cytoplasmic domains in SV2A. Conclusions/Significance SVOP is the third MF family member to be found to bind nucleotides. Given that the binding sites are unique in SVOP, SV2 and Glut1, this feature appears to have arisen separately. PMID:19390693

  1. Evidence of mineralization activity and supramolecular assembly by the N-terminal sequence of ACCBP, a biomineralization protein that is homologous to the acetylcholine binding protein family.

    PubMed

    Amos, Fairland F; Ndao, Moise; Evans, John Spencer

    2009-12-14

    Several biomineralization proteins that exhibit intrinsic disorder also possess sequence regions that are homologous to nonmineral associated folded proteins. One such protein is the amorphous calcium carbonate binding protein (ACCBP), one of several proteins that regulate the formation of the oyster shell and exhibit 30% conserved sequence identity to the acetylcholine binding protein sequences. To gain a better understanding of the ACCBP protein, we utilized bioinformatic approaches to identify the location of disordered and folded regions within this protein. In addition, we synthesized a 50 AA polypeptide, ACCN, representing the N-terminal domain of the mature processed ACCBP protein. We then utilized this polypeptide to determine the mineralization activity and qualitative structure of the N-terminal region of ACCBP. Our bioinformatic studies indicate that ACCBP consists of a ten-stranded beta-sandwich structure that includes short disordered sequence blocks, two of which reside within the primarily helical and surface-accessible ACCN sequence. Circular dichroism studies reveal that ACCN is partially disordered in solution; however, ACCN can be induced to fold into an alpha helix in the presence of TFE. Furthermore, we confirm that the ACCN sequence is multifunctional; this sequence promotes radial calcite polycrystal growth on Kevlar threads and forms supramolecular assemblies in solution that contain amorphous-appearing deposits. We conclude that the partially disordered ACCN sequence is a putative site for mineralization activity within the ACCBP protein and that the presence of short disordered sequence regions within the ACCBP fold are essential for function.

  2. Mo-CBP3, an Antifungal Chitin-Binding Protein from Moringa oleifera Seeds, Is a Member of the 2S Albumin Family

    PubMed Central

    Freire, José E. C.; Vasconcelos, Ilka M.; Moreno, Frederico B. M. B.; Batista, Adelina B.; Lobo, Marina D. P.; Pereira, Mirella L.; Lima, João P. M. S.; Almeida, Ricardo V. M.; Sousa, Antônio J. S.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C. O.; Oliveira, José T. A.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.

    2015-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein from M. oleifera seeds that inhibits the germination and mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi. This protein is highly thermostable and resistant to pH changes, and therefore may be useful in the development of new antifungal drugs. However, the relationship of MoCBP3 with the known families of carbohydrate-binding domains has not been established. In the present study, full-length cDNAs encoding 4 isoforms of Mo-CBP3 (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2, Mo-CBP3-3 and Mo-CBP3-4) were cloned from developing seeds. The polypeptides encoded by the Mo-CBP3 cDNAs were predicted to contain 160 (Mo-CBP3-3) and 163 amino acid residues (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2 and Mo-CBP3-4) with a signal peptide of 20-residues at the N-terminal region. A comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Mo-CBP3 is a typical member of the 2S albumin family, as shown by the presence of an eight-cysteine motif, which is a characteristic feature of the prolamin superfamily. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that Mo-CBP3 is a mixture of isoforms that correspond to different mRNA products. The identification of Mo-CBP3 as a genuine member of the 2S albumin family reinforces the hypothesis that these seed storage proteins are involved in plant defense. Moreover, the chitin-binding ability of Mo-CBP3 reveals a novel functionality for a typical 2S albumin. PMID:25789746

  3. Mo-CBP3, an antifungal chitin-binding protein from Moringa oleifera seeds, is a member of the 2S albumin family.

    PubMed

    Freire, José E C; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Batista, Adelina B; Lobo, Marina D P; Pereira, Mirella L; Lima, João P M S; Almeida, Ricardo V M; Sousa, Antônio J S; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Oliveira, José T A; Grangeiro, Thalles B

    2015-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein from M. oleifera seeds that inhibits the germination and mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi. This protein is highly thermostable and resistant to pH changes, and therefore may be useful in the development of new antifungal drugs. However, the relationship of MoCBP3 with the known families of carbohydrate-binding domains has not been established. In the present study, full-length cDNAs encoding 4 isoforms of Mo-CBP3 (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2, Mo-CBP3-3 and Mo-CBP3-4) were cloned from developing seeds. The polypeptides encoded by the Mo-CBP3 cDNAs were predicted to contain 160 (Mo-CBP3-3) and 163 amino acid residues (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2 and Mo-CBP3-4) with a signal peptide of 20-residues at the N-terminal region. A comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Mo-CBP3 is a typical member of the 2S albumin family, as shown by the presence of an eight-cysteine motif, which is a characteristic feature of the prolamin superfamily. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that Mo-CBP3 is a mixture of isoforms that correspond to different mRNA products. The identification of Mo-CBP3 as a genuine member of the 2S albumin family reinforces the hypothesis that these seed storage proteins are involved in plant defense. Moreover, the chitin-binding ability of Mo-CBP3 reveals a novel functionality for a typical 2S albumin.

  4. Structural Determination of Functional Domains in Early B-cell Factor (EBF) Family of Transcription Factors Reveals Similarities to Rel DNA-binding Proteins and a Novel Dimerization Motif*

    PubMed Central

    Siponen, Marina I.; Wisniewska, Magdalena; Lehtiö, Lari; Johansson, Ida; Svensson, Linda; Raszewski, Grzegorz; Nilsson, Lennart; Sigvardsson, Mikael; Berglund, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The early B-cell factor (EBF) transcription factors are central regulators of development in several organs and tissues. This protein family shows low sequence similarity to other protein families, which is why structural information for the functional domains of these proteins is crucial to understand their biochemical features. We have used a modular approach to determine the crystal structures of the structured domains in the EBF family. The DNA binding domain reveals a striking resemblance to the DNA binding domains of the Rel homology superfamily of transcription factors but contains a unique zinc binding structure, termed zinc knuckle. Further the EBF proteins contain an IPT/TIG domain and an atypical helix-loop-helix domain with a novel type of dimerization motif. The data presented here provide insights into unique structural features of the EBF proteins and open possibilities for detailed molecular investigations of this important transcription factor family. PMID:20592035

  5. Interaction entropy for protein-protein binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaoxi; Yan, Yu N.; Yang, Maoyou; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions are at the heart of signal transduction and are central to the function of protein machine in biology. The highly specific protein-protein binding is quantitatively characterized by the binding free energy whose accurate calculation from the first principle is a grand challenge in computational biology. In this paper, we show how the interaction entropy approach, which was recently proposed for protein-ligand binding free energy calculation, can be applied to computing the entropic contribution to the protein-protein binding free energy. Explicit theoretical derivation of the interaction entropy approach for protein-protein interaction system is given in detail from the basic definition. Extensive computational studies for a dozen realistic protein-protein interaction systems are carried out using the present approach and comparisons of the results for these protein-protein systems with those from the standard normal mode method are presented. Analysis of the present method for application in protein-protein binding as well as the limitation of the method in numerical computation is discussed. Our study and analysis of the results provided useful information for extracting correct entropic contribution in protein-protein binding from molecular dynamics simulations.

  6. Selective toxicity of MKT-077 to cancer cells is mediated by its binding to the hsp70 family protein mot-2 and reactivation of p53 function.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, R; Sugihara, T; Yoshida, A; Nomura, H; Reddel, R R; Simpson, R; Maruta, H; Kaul, S C

    2000-12-15

    MKT-077, a cationic rhodacyanine dye analogue has been under preclinical cancer therapeutical trials because of its selective toxicity to cancer cells. Its cellular targets and mechanism of action remain poorly understood. Here we report that MKT-077 binds to an hsp70 family member, mortalin (mot-2), and abrogates its interactions with the tumor suppressor protein, p53. In cancer cells, but not in normal cells, MKT-077 induced release of wild-type p53 from cytoplasmically sequestered p53-mot-2 complexes and rescued its transcriptional activation function. Thus, MKT-077 may be particularly useful for therapy of cancers with wild-type p53.

  7. A family of genus-specific RNAs in tandem with DNA-binding proteins control expression of the badA major virulence factor gene in Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Tu, Nhan; Carroll, Ronan K; Weiss, Andy; Shaw, Lindsey N; Nicolas, Gael; Thomas, Sarah; Lima, Amorce; Okaro, Udoka; Anderson, Burt

    2017-04-01

    Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative zoonotic bacterium that causes infections in humans including endocarditis and bacillary angiomatosis. B. henselae has been shown to grow as large aggregates and form biofilms in vitro. The aggregative growth and the angiogenic host response requires the trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA. We examined the transcriptome of the Houston-1 strain of B. henselae using RNA-seq revealing nine novel, highly-expressed intergenic transcripts (Bartonella regulatory transcript, Brt1-9). The Brt family of RNAs is unique to the genus Bartonella and ranges from 194 to 203 nucleotides with high homology and stable predicted secondary structures. Immediately downstream of each of the nine RNA genes is a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding protein (transcriptional regulatory protein, Trp1-9) that is poorly transcribed under the growth conditions used for RNA-seq. Using knockdown or overexpressing strains, we show a role of both the Brt1 and Trp1 in the regulation of badA and also in biofilm formation. Based on these data, we hypothesize that Brt1 is a trans-acting sRNA that also serves as a cis-acting riboswitch to control the expression of badA. This family of RNAs together with the downstream Trp DNA-binding proteins represents a novel coordinated regulatory circuit controlling expression of virulence-associated genes in the bartonellae. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The binding specificity and affinity determinants of family 1 and family 3 cellulose binding modules

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiö, Janne; Sugiyama, Junji; Gustavsson, Malin; Fransson, Linda; Linder, Markus; Teeri, Tuula T.

    2003-01-01

    Cellulose binding modules (CBMs) potentiate the action of cellulolytic enzymes on insoluble substrates. Numerous studies have established that three aromatic residues on a CBM surface are needed for binding onto cellulose crystals and that tryptophans contribute to higher binding affinity than tyrosines. However, studies addressing the nature of CBM–cellulose interactions have so far failed to establish the binding site on cellulose crystals targeted by CBMs. In this study, the binding sites of CBMs on Valonia cellulose crystals have been visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Fusion of the CBMs with a modified staphylococcal protein A (ZZ-domain) allowed direct immuno-gold labeling at close proximity of the actual CBM binding site. The transmission electron microscopy images provide unequivocal evidence that the fungal family 1 CBMs as well as the family 3 CBM from Clostridium thermocellum CipA have defined binding sites on two opposite corners of Valonia cellulose crystals. In most samples these corners are worn to display significant area of the hydrophobic (110) plane, which thus constitutes the binding site for these CBMs. PMID:12522267

  9. RNA-binding proteins of the NXF (nuclear export factor) family and their connection with the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Mamon, L A; Ginanova, V R; Kliver, S F; Yakimova, A O; Atsapkina, A A; Golubkova, E V

    2017-04-01

    The mutual relationship between mRNA and the cytoskeleton can be seen from two points of view. On the one hand, the cytoskeleton is necessary for mRNA trafficking and anchoring to subcellular domains. On the other hand, cytoskeletal growth and rearrangement require the translation of mRNAs that are connected to the cytoskeleton. β-actin mRNA localization may influence dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton. In the cytoplasm, long-lived mRNAs exist in the form of RNP (ribonucleoprotein) complexes, where they interact with RNA-binding proteins, including NXF (Nuclear eXport Factor). Dm NXF1 is an evolutionarily conserved protein in Drosophila melanogaster that has orthologs in different animals. The universal function of nxf1 genes is the nuclear export of different mRNAs in various organisms. In this mini-review, we briefly discuss the evidence demonstrating that Dm NXF1 fulfils not only universal but also specialized cytoplasmic functions. This protein is detected not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm. It is a component of neuronal granules. Dm NXF1 marks nuclear division spindles during early embryogenesis and the dense body on one side of the elongated spermatid nuclei. The characteristic features of sbr mutants (sbr(10) and sbr(5) ) are impairment of chromosome segregation and spindle formation anomalies during female meiosis. sbr(12) mutant sterile males with immobile spermatozoa exhibit disturbances in the axoneme, mitochondrial derivatives and cytokinesis. These data allow us to propose that the Dm NXF1 proteins transport certain mRNAs in neurites and interact with localized mRNAs that are necessary for dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton.

  10. Binding of the RING polycomb proteins to specific target genes in complex with the grainyhead-like family of developmental transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Tuckfield, Annabel; Clouston, David R; Wilanowski, Tomasz M; Zhao, Lin-Lin; Cunningham, John M; Jane, Stephen M

    2002-03-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins represses homeotic gene expression through the assembly of multiprotein complexes on key regulatory elements. The mechanisms mediating complex assembly have remained enigmatic since most PcG proteins fail to bind DNA. We now demonstrate that the human PcG protein dinG interacts with CP2, a mammalian member of the grainyhead-like family of transcription factors, in vitro and in vivo. The functional consequence of this interaction is repression of CP2-dependent transcription. The CP2-dinG interaction is conserved in evolution with the Drosophila factor grainyhead binding to dring, the fly homologue of dinG. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that the grh-dring complex forms on regulatory elements of genes whose expression is repressed by grh but not on elements where grh plays an activator role. These observations reveal a novel mechanism by which PcG proteins may be anchored to specific regulatory elements in developmental genes.

  11. Plant disease resistance genes encode members of an ancient and diverse protein family within the nucleotide-binding superfamily.

    PubMed

    Meyers, B C; Dickerman, A W; Michelmore, R W; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Sobral, B W; Young, N D

    1999-11-01

    The nucleotide binding site (NBS) is a characteristic domain of many plant resistance gene products. An increasing number of NBS-encoding sequences are being identified through gene cloning, PCR amplification with degenerate primers, and genome sequencing projects. The NBS domain was analyzed from 14 known plant resistance genes and more than 400 homologs, representing 26 genera of monocotyledonous, dicotyle-donous and one coniferous species. Two distinct groups of diverse sequences were identified, indicating divergence during evolution and an ancient origin for these sequences. One group was comprised of sequences encoding an N-terminal domain with Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor homology (TIR), including the known resistance genes, N, M, L6, RPP1 and RPP5. Surprisingly, this group was entirely absent from monocot species in searches of both random genomic sequences and large collections of ESTs. A second group contained monocot and dicot sequences, including the known resistance genes, RPS2, RPM1, I2, Mi, Dm3, Pi-B, Xa1, RPP8, RPS5 and Prf. Amino acid signatures in the conserved motifs comprising the NBS domain clearly distinguished these two groups. The Arabidopsis genome is estimated to contain approximately 200 genes that encode related NBS motifs; TIR sequences were more abundant and outnumber non-TIR sequences threefold. The Arabidopsis NBS sequences currently in the databases are located in approximately 21 genomic clusters and 14 isolated loci. NBS-encoding sequences may be more prevalent in rice. The wide distribution of these sequences in the plant kingdom and their prevalence in the Arabidopsis and rice genomes indicate that they are ancient, diverse and common in plants. Sequence inferences suggest that these genes encode a novel class of nucleotide-binding proteins.

  12. Overexpression, purification and assessment of cyclosporin binding of a family of cyclophilins and cyclophilin-like proteins of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Marín-Menéndez, Alejandro; Bell, Angus

    2011-08-01

    Malaria represents a global health, economic and social burden of enormous magnitude. Chemotherapy is at the moment a largely effective weapon against the disease, but the appearance of drug-resistant parasites is reducing the effectiveness of most drugs. Finding new drug-target candidates is one approach to the development of new drugs. The family of cyclophilins may represent a group of potential targets. They are involved in protein folding and regulation due to their peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and/or chaperone activities. They also mediate the action of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A, which additionally has strong antimalarial activity. In the genome database of the most lethal human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum, 11 genes apparently encoding cyclophilin or cyclophilin-like proteins were found, but most of these have not yet been characterized. Previously a pET vector conferring a C-terminal His₆ tag was used for recombinant expression and purification of one member of the P. falciparum cyclophilin family in Escherichia coli. The approach here was to use an identical method to produce all of the other members of this family and thereby allow the most consistent functional comparisons. We were successful in generating all but three of the family, plus a single amino-acid mutant, in the same recombinant form as either full-length proteins or isolated cyclophilin-like domains. The recombinant proteins were assessed by thermal melt assay for correct folding and cyclosporin A binding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel abscisic acid- and dehydration-responsive gene family from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum encodes a plastid-targeted protein with DNA-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jonathan R; Hilbricht, Tobias; Salamini, Francesco; Bartels, Dorothea

    2002-06-01

    In the desiccation-tolerant resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst. the chloroplasts undergo major ultrastructural changes during dehydration, which are reversible upon rehydration. Such alterations argue the need for efficient protective/stabilising mechanisms to exist. Here we describe a novel gene family that is rapidly and transiently expressed in response to both dehydration and exogenously applied abscisic acid, mostly in the chloroplast-rich palisade layer on the adaxial side of the leaf. Analysis of the putative coding region suggests that the resulting protein is plastid-targeted. This was confirmed using a chimeric green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct in transgenic tobacco plants - hence the gene family is termed Plastid Targeted Protein ( CpPTP). Fluorescence microscopy also revealed that CpPTP was localised in structures similar to proplastid nucleoids in transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells. The ability of CpPTP to interact with DNA was demonstrated through a DNaseI protection assay. A structure-prediction programme suggests that the mature CpPTP is composed almost entirely of a pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues that form heptad repeats, which are the hallmarks of a coiled-coil domain. Given the localisation and DNA-binding property of the protein, we propose that CpPTP plays a role during the early stages of dehydration-induced chloroplast remodelling.

  14. Oxygen-binding haem proteins.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael T; Reeder, Brandon J

    2008-01-01

    Myoglobin and haemoglobin, the respiratory pigments of mammals and some molluscs, annelids and arthropods, belong to an ancient superfamily of haem-associated globin proteins. Members of this family share common structural and spectral features. They also share some general functional characteristics, such as the ability to bind ligands, e.g. O2, CO and NO, at the iron atom and to undergo redox changes. These properties are used in vivo to perform a wide range of biochemical and physiological roles. While it is acknowledged that the major role of haemoglobin is to bind oxygen reversibly and deliver it to the tissues, this is not its only function, while the often-stated role of myoglobin as an oxygen storage protein is possibly a misconception. Furthermore, haemoglobin and myoglobin express enzymic activities that are important to their function, e.g. NO dioxygenase activity or peroxidatic activity that may be partly responsible for pathophysiology following haemorrhage. Evidence for these functions is described, and the discussion extended to include proteins that have recently been discovered and that are expressed at low levels within the cell. These proteins are hexaco-ordinate, unlike haemoglobin and myoglobin, and are widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom (e.g. neuroglobins and cytoglobins). They may have specialist roles in oxygen delivery to particular sites within the cell but may also perform roles associated with O2 sensing and signalling and in responses to stress, e.g. protection from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Haemoglobins are also widespread in plants and bacteria and may serve similar protective functions.

  15. Lipid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    TWO MAIN FAMILIES OF LIPID BINDING PROTEINS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED IN PARASITIC PLATYHELMINTHES: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesize their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms. HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates. Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organization, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localization, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment.

  16. Lipid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminthes

    PubMed Central

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Two main families of lipid binding proteins have been identified in parasitic Platyhelminthes: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesize their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms. HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates. Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organization, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localization, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment. PMID:22988444

  17. Characterization of a gene family encoding SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin)-domain proteins with lectin-like and heme-binding properties from Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Mbanefo, Evaristus Chibunna; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Shuaibu, Mohammed Nasir; Cherif, Mahamoud Sama; Yu, Chuanxin; Wakao, Masahiro; Suda, Yasuo; Hirayama, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified a novel gene family dispersed in the genome of Schistosoma japonicum by retrotransposon-mediated gene duplication mechanism. Although many transcripts were identified, no homolog was readily identifiable from sequence information. Here, we utilized structural homology modeling and biochemical methods to identify remote homologs, and characterized the gene products as SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin)-domain containing proteins. A common extracellular domain in this family was structurally similar to SEA-domain. SEA-domain is primarily a structural domain, known to assist or regulate binding to glycans. Recombinant proteins from three members of this gene family specifically interacted with glycosaminoglycans with high affinity, with potential implication in ligand acquisition and immune evasion. Similar approach was used to identify a heme-binding site on the SEA-domain. The heme-binding mode showed heme molecule inserted into a hydrophobic pocket, with heme iron putatively coordinated to two histidine axial ligands. Heme-binding properties were confirmed using biochemical assays and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, which showed high affinity heme-binding (K D = 1.605×10(-6) M) and cognate spectroscopic attributes of hexa-coordinated heme iron. The native proteins were oligomers, antigenic, and are localized on adult worm teguments and gastrodermis; major host-parasite interfaces and site for heme detoxification and acquisition. The results suggest potential role, at least in the nucleation step of heme crystallization (hemozoin formation), and as receptors for heme uptake. Survival strategies exploited by parasites, including heme homeostasis mechanism in hemoparasites, are paramount for successful parasitism. Thus, assessing prospects for application in disease intervention is warranted.

  18. Adherence of the gram-positive bacterium Ruminococcus albus to cellulose and identification of a novel form of cellulose-binding protein which belongs to the Pil family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Pegden, R S; Larson, M A; Grant, R J; Morrison, M

    1998-11-01

    The adherence of Ruminococcus albus 8 to crystalline cellulose was studied, and an affinity-based assay was also used to identify candidate cellulose-binding protein(s). Bacterial adherence in cellulose-binding assays was significantly increased by the inclusion of either ruminal fluid or micromolar concentrations of both phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids in the growth medium, and the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to assays decreased the adherence of the bacterium to cellulose. A cellulose-binding protein with an estimated molecular mass following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of approximately 21 kDa, designated CbpC, was present in both cellobiose- and cellulose-grown cultures, and the relative abundance of this protein increased in response to growth on cellulose. Addition of 0.1% (wt/vol) CMC to the binding assays had an inhibitory effect on CbpC binding to cellulose, consistent with the notion that CbpC plays a role in bacterial attachment to cellulose. The nucleotide sequence of the cbpC gene was determined by a combination of reverse genetics and genomic walking procedures. The cbpC gene encodes a protein of 169 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 17,655 Da. The amino-terminal third of the CbpC protein possesses the motif characteristic of the Pil family of proteins, which are most commonly involved with the formation of type 4 fimbriae and other surface-associated protein complexes in gram-negative, pathogenic bacteria. The remainder of the predicted CbpC sequence was found to have significant identity with 72- and 75-amino-acid motifs tandemly repeated in the 190-kDa surface antigen protein of Rickettsia spp., as well as one of the major capsid glycoproteins of the Chlorella virus PBCV-1. Northern blot analysis showed that phenylpropionic acid and ruminal fluid increase cbpC mRNA abundance in cellobiose-grown cells. These results suggest that CbpC is a novel cellulose-binding protein that may be

  19. CELF Family RNA–Binding Protein UNC-75 Regulates Two Sets of Mutually Exclusive Exons of the unc-32 Gene in Neuron-Specific Manners in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Watanabe, Yohei; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    An enormous number of alternative pre–mRNA splicing patterns in multicellular organisms are coordinately defined by a limited number of regulatory proteins and cis elements. Mutually exclusive alternative splicing should be strictly regulated and is a challenging model for elucidating regulation mechanisms. Here we provide models of the regulation of two sets of mutually exclusive exons, 4a–4c and 7a–7b, of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated (unc)-32 gene, encoding the a subunit of V0 complex of vacuolar-type H+-ATPases. We visualize selection patterns of exon 4 and exon 7 in vivo by utilizing a trio and a pair of symmetric fluorescence splicing reporter minigenes, respectively, to demonstrate that they are regulated in tissue-specific manners. Genetic analyses reveal that RBFOX family RNA–binding proteins ASD-1 and FOX-1 and a UGCAUG stretch in intron 7b are involved in the neuron-specific selection of exon 7a. Through further forward genetic screening, we identify UNC-75, a neuron-specific CELF family RNA–binding protein of unknown function, as an essential regulator for the exon 7a selection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays specify a short fragment in intron 7a as the recognition site for UNC-75 and demonstrate that UNC-75 specifically binds via its three RNA recognition motifs to the element including a UUGUUGUGUUGU stretch. The UUGUUGUGUUGU stretch in the reporter minigenes is actually required for the selection of exon 7a in the nervous system. We compare the amounts of partially spliced RNAs in the wild-type and unc-75 mutant backgrounds and raise a model for the mutually exclusive selection of unc-32 exon 7 by the RBFOX family and UNC-75. The neuron-specific selection of unc-32 exon 4b is also regulated by UNC-75 and the unc-75 mutation suppresses the Unc phenotype of the exon-4b-specific allele of unc-32 mutants. Taken together, UNC-75 is the neuron-specific splicing factor and regulates both sets of the mutually exclusive exons of

  20. The Arabidopsis Putative Selenium-Binding Protein Family: Expression Study and Characterization of SBP1 as a Potential New Player in Cadmium Detoxification Processes1[W

    PubMed Central

    Dutilleul, Christelle; Jourdain, Agnès; Bourguignon, Jacques; Hugouvieux, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the putative selenium-binding protein (SBP) gene family is composed of three members (SBP1–SBP3). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that SBP1 expression was ubiquitous. SBP2 was expressed at a lower level in flowers and roots, whereas SBP3 transcripts were only detected in young seedling tissues. In cadmium (Cd)-treated seedlings, SBP1 level of expression was rapidly increased in roots. In shoots, SBP1 transcripts accumulated later and for higher Cd doses. SBP2 and SBP3 expression showed delayed or no responsiveness to Cd. In addition, luciferase (LUC) activity recorded on Arabidopsis lines expressing the LUC gene under the control of the SBP1 promoter further showed dynamic regulation of SBP1 expression during development and in response to Cd stress. Western-blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies raised against SBP1 showed that SBP1 protein accumulated in Cd-exposed tissues in correlation with SBP1 transcript amount. The sbp1 null mutant displayed no visible phenotype under normal and stress conditions that was explained by the up-regulation of SBP2 expression. SBP1 overexpression enhanced Cd accumulation in roots and reduced sensitivity to Cd in wild type and, more significantly, in Cd-hypersensitive cad mutants that lack phytochelatins. Similarly, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SBP1 expression led to increased Cd tolerance of the Cd-hypersensitive ycf1 mutant. In vitro experiments showed that SBP1 has the ability to bind Cd. These data highlight the importance of maintaining the adequate SBP protein level under healthy and stress conditions and suggest that, during Cd stress, SBP1 accumulation efficiently helps to detoxify Cd potentially through direct binding. PMID:18354042

  1. Pyrin binds the PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 protein, defining familial Mediterranean fever and PAPA syndrome as disorders in the same pathway.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Nitza G; Centola, Michael; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Hull, Keith M; Wood, Geryl; Wise, Carol A; Kastner, Daniel L

    2003-11-11

    Pyrin, the familial Mediterranean fever protein, is found in association with the cytoskeleton in myeloid/monocytic cells and modulates IL-1beta processing, NF-kappaB activation, and apoptosis. These effects are mediated in part through cognate interactions with the adaptor protein ASC, which shares an N-terminal motif with pyrin. We sought additional upstream regulators of inflammation by using pyrin as the bait in yeast two-hybrid assays. We now show that proline serine threonine phosphatase-interacting protein [PSTPIP1, or CD2-binding protein 1 (CD2BP1)], a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein involved in cytoskeletal organization, also interacts with pyrin. Recently, PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 mutations were shown to cause the syndrome of pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne (PAPA), a dominantly inherited autoinflammatory disorder mediated predominantly by granulocytes. Endogenous PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 and pyrin are coexpressed in monocytes and granulocytes and can be coimmunoprecipitated from THP-1 cells. The B box segment of pyrin was necessary and the B box/coiled-coil segment sufficient for this interaction, whereas the SH3 and coiled-coil domains of PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 were both necessary, but neither was sufficient, for pyrin binding. The Y344F PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 mutation, which blocks tyrosine phosphorylation, was associated with a marked reduction in pyrin binding in pervanadate-treated cells. PAPA-associated A230T and E250Q PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 mutations markedly increased pyrin binding as assayed by immunoprecipitation and, relative to WT, these mutants were hyperphosphorylated when coexpressed with c-Abl kinase. Consistent with the hypothesis that these mutations exert a dominant-negative effect on the previously reported activity of pyrin, we found increased IL-1beta production by peripheral blood leukocytes from a clinically active PAPA patient with the A230T PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 mutation and in cell lines transfected with both PAPA-associated mutants.

  2. Deletion of the gene family of small chlorophyll-binding proteins (ScpABCDE) offsets C/N homeostasis in Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Tibiletti, Tania; Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A; Matthijs, Hans C P; Niyogi, Krishna K; Funk, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    In the family of chlorophyll binding proteins, single helix small CAB-like proteins (SCPs) are found in all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. Here, we investigated the function of these stress-inducible proteins in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We compared physiological, proteome and transcriptome traits of a Photosystem I (PSI) deletion strain, which constitutively induces SCPs, and a PSI-less/ScpABCDE(-) without SCPs. The SCP mutant cells were larger in size, showed irregular thylakoid structure and differed in cell-surface morphology. Deletion of scp genes strongly affected the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balance, resulting in accumulation of carbohydrates and a decrease in N-rich compounds (proteins and chlorophyll). Data from transcriptomic and metabolomic experiments revealed a role of SCPs in the control of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Additionally, SCPs diminished formation of reactive oxygen species, thereby preventing damage within Photosystem II. We conclude that the lack of SCP-function to remove free chlorophyll under stress conditions has a large impact on the metabolism of the entire cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Divergent evolution and molecular adaptation in the Drosophila odorant-binding protein family: inferences from sequence variation at the OS-E and OS-F genes

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The Drosophila Odorant-Binding Protein (Obp) genes constitute a multigene family with moderate gene number variation across species. The OS-E and OS-F genes are the two phylogenetically closest members of this family in the D. melanogaster genome. In this species, these genes are arranged in the same genomic cluster and likely arose by tandem gene duplication, the major mechanism proposed for the origin of new members in this olfactory-system family. Results We have analyzed the genomic cluster encompassing OS-E and OS-F genes (Obp83 genomic region) to determine the role of the functional divergence and molecular adaptation on the Obp family size evolution. We compared nucleotide and amino acid variation across 18 Drosophila and 4 mosquito species applying a phylogenetic-based maximum likelihood approach complemented with information of the OBP three-dimensional structure and function. We show that, in spite the OS-E and OS-F genes are currently subject to similar and strong selective constraints, they likely underwent divergent evolution. Positive selection was likely involved in the functional diversification of new copies in the early stages after the gene duplication event; moreover, it might have shaped nucleotide variation of the OS-E gene concomitantly with the loss of functionally related members. Besides, molecular adaptation likely affecting the functional OBP conformational changes was supported by the analysis of the evolution of physicochemical properties of the OS-E protein and the location of the putative positive selected amino acids on the OBP three-dimensional structure. Conclusion Our results support that positive selection was likely involved in the functional differentiation of new copies of the OBP multigene family in the early stages after their birth by gene duplication; likewise, it might shape variation of some members of the family concomitantly with the loss of functionally related genes. Thus, the stochastic gene gain

  4. Crystal structure of the ligand-binding form of nanoRNase from Bacteroides fragilis, a member of the DHH/DHHA1 phosphoesterase family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Yuri; Nakagawa, Noriko; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Kim, Kwang; Montelione, Gaetano Thomas; Hunt, John Francis; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2013-08-19

    NanoRNase (Nrn) specifically degrades nucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphate and the very short RNA, nanoRNA, during the final step of mRNA degradation. The crystal structure of Nrn in complex with a reaction product GMP was determined. The overall structure consists of two domains that are interconnected by a flexible loop and form a cleft. Two Mn²⁺ ions are coordinated by conserved residues in the DHH motif of the N-terminal domain. GMP binds near the DHHA1 motif region in the C-terminal domain. Our structure enables us to predict the substrate-bound form of Nrn as well as other DHH/DHHA1 phosphoesterase family proteins.

  5. The EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein super-family: a genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Girard, F; Venail, J; Schwaller, B; Celio, M R

    2015-05-21

    In mice, 249 putative members of the superfamily of EF-hand domain Ca(2+)-binding proteins, manifesting great diversity in structure, cellular localization and functions have been identified. Three members in particular, namely, calbindin-D28K, calretinin and parvalbumin, are widely used as markers for specific neuronal subpopulations in different regions of the brain. The aim of the present study was to compile a comprehensive atlas of the gene-expression profiles of the entire EF-hand gene superfamily in the murine brain. This was achieved by a meticulous examination of the in-situ hybridization images in the Allen Brain Atlas database. Topographically, our analysis focused on the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex (barrel cortex in the primary somatosensory area), basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons and medulla, and on clearly identifiable sub-structures within each of these areas. The expression profiles of four family-members, namely hippocalcin-like 4, neurocalcin-δ, plastin 3 and tescalcin, that have not been hitherto reported, at either the mRNA (in-situ-hybridization) or the protein (immunohistochemical) levels, are now presented for the first time. The fruit of our analysis is a document in which the gene-expression profiles of all members of the EF-hand family genes are compared, and in which future possible neuronal markers for specific cells/brain areas are identified. The assembled information could afford functional clues to investigators, conducive to further experimental pursuit.

  6. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha is regulated by RBM38, a RNA-binding protein and a p53 family target, via mRNA translation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Yin, Tiffany; Jung, Yong-Sam; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xinbin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1), a heterodimeric transcription factor, consists of HIF1α and HIF1β and is necessary for cell growth and survival under a hypoxic condition. Thus, the level and activity of HIF1α needs to be tightly controlled. Indeed, HIF1α protein stability is controlled by prolyl hydroxylase and von Hippel-Lindau-mediated proteosomal degradation. However, it remains unclear whether HIF1α expression is controlled by other pathways. Here, we showed that RNA-binding protein RBM38, a target of the p53 family, regulates HIF1α expression via mRNA translation. Specifically, we showed that under a hypoxic condition, ectopic expression of RBM38 decreased, whereas knockdown of RBM38 increased, the level of HIF1α protein. We also showed that the rate of de novo HIF1α protein synthesis was increased by knockdown of RBM38. Additionally, we showed that RBM38 directly bound to HIF1α 5′ and 3′UTRs. Consistently, we showed that the rate of mRNA translation for a heterologous reporter that carries HIF1α 5′and/or 3′UTRs was increased upon knockdown of RBM38. Furthermore, we showed that knockdown of RBM38 increased, whereas ectopic expression of RBM38 decreased, the binding of eIF4E to HIF1α mRNA. Together, our data suggest that RBM38 is a novel translational regulator of HIF1α under a hypoxic condition. PMID:25622105

  7. SAP family proteins.

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Kurachi, Y

    2000-03-05

    Thus far, five members including Dlg, SAP97/hDlg, SAP90/PSD-95, SAP102, and PSD-93/chapsyn110 which belong to SAP family have been identified. Recent studies have revealed that these proteins play important roles in the localization and function of glutamate receptors and K(+) channels. Although most of them have been reported to be localized to the synapse, only one member, SAP97, is expressed also in the epithelial cells. In this review, we have summarized structural characters of SAP family proteins and discuss their functions in neurons and epithelial cells.

  8. Expression and characterization of maize ZBP14, a member of a new family of zinc-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, K; Jones, D; Howell, S; Soneji, Y; Martin, S; Aitken, A

    1995-01-01

    A maize gene (Mz2-12), with a deduced amino acid sequence similar to that of a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor from bovine brain, has been expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein (ZBP14) purified to homogeneity. The bovine protein was originally identified by Walsh's group and named PKC inhibitor-1 (PKCI-1). The recombinant maize protein (ZBP14) shares characteristics of bovine PKCI-1: it has similar secondary structure, is dimeric, and has a similar affinity for zinc. However, the maize ZBP14 had very little activity as an inhibitor of mammalian brain PKC, thus precluding zinc sequestration as the mechanism of inhibition. The biological role for the maize protein in plant kinase regulation is therefore unclear. In the presence of both maize ZBP14 and 14-3-3 protein (which inhibits PKC in the absence of diacylglycerol), the effects on PKC appeared to be synergistic. Images Figure 1 PMID:7717986

  9. The prion protein binds thiamine.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Berjanskii, Mark V; Hau, David; Li, Li; Huang, Alan; Lee, Rose; Gibbs, Ebrima; Ladner, Carol; Dong, Ying Wei; Abera, Ashenafi; Cashman, Neil R; Wishart, David S

    2011-11-01

    Although highly conserved throughout evolution, the exact biological function of the prion protein is still unclear. In an effort to identify the potential biological functions of the prion protein we conducted a small-molecule screening assay using the Syrian hamster prion protein [shPrP(90-232)]. The screen was performed using a library of 149 water-soluble metabolites that are known to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Using a combination of 1D NMR, fluorescence quenching and surface plasmon resonance we identified thiamine (vitamin B1) as a specific prion ligand with a binding constant of ~60 μM. Subsequent studies showed that this interaction is evolutionarily conserved, with similar binding constants being seen for mouse, hamster and human prions. Various protein construct lengths, both with and without the unstructured N-terminal region in the presence and absence of copper, were examined. This indicates that the N-terminus has no influence on the protein's ability to interact with thiamine. In addition to thiamine, the more biologically abundant forms of vitamin B1 (thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate) were also found to bind the prion protein with similar affinity. Heteronuclear NMR experiments were used to determine thiamine's interaction site, which is located between helix 1 and the preceding loop. These data, in conjunction with computer-aided docking and molecular dynamics, were used to model the thiamine-binding pharmacophore and a comparison with other thiamine binding proteins was performed to reveal the common features of interaction.

  10. A novel calmodulin-binding protein, belonging to the WD-repeat family, is localized in dendrites of a subset of CNS neurons

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    A rat brain synaptosomal protein of 110,000 M(r) present in a fraction highly enriched in adenylyl cyclase activity was microsequenced (Castets, F., G. Baillat, S. Mirzoeva, K. Mabrouk, J. Garin, J. d'Alayer, and A. Monneron. 1994. Biochemistry. 33:5063-5069). Peptide sequences were used to clone a cDNA encoding a novel, 780-amino acid protein named striatin. Striatin is a member of the WD-repeat family (Neer, E.J., C.J. Schmidt, R. Nambudripad, and T.F. Smith. 1994. Nature (Lond.). 371:297-300), the first one known to bind calmodulin (CaM) in the presence of Ca++. Subcellular fractionation shows that striatin is a membrane-associated, Lubrol-soluble protein. As analyzed by Northern blots, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry, striatin is localized in the central nervous system, where it is confined to a subset of neurons, many of which are associated with the motor system. In particular, striatin is conspicuous in the dorsal part of the striatum, as well as in motoneurons. Furthermore, striatin is essentially found in dendrites, but not in axons, and is most abundant in dendritic spines. We propose that striatin interacts, through its WD- repeat domain and in a CaM/Ca(++)-dependent manner, with one or several members of a surrounding cluster of molecules engaged in a Ca(++)- signaling pathway specific to excitatory synapses. PMID:8769426

  11. The lipocalin protein family: structure and function.

    PubMed Central

    Flower, D R

    1996-01-01

    The lipocalin protein family is a large group of small extracellular proteins. The family demonstrates great diversity at the sequence level; however, most lipocalins share three characteristic conserved sequence motifs, the kernel lipocalins, while a group of more divergent family members, the outlier lipocalins, share only one. Belying this sequence dissimilarity, lipocalin crystal structures are highly conserved and comprise a single eight-stranded continuously hydrogen-bonded antiparallel beta-barrel, which encloses an internal ligand-binding site. Together with two other families of ligand-binding proteins, the fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and the avidins, the lipocalins form part of an overall structural superfamily: the calycins. Members of the lipocalin family are characterized by several common molecular-recognition properties: the ability to bind a range of small hydrophobic molecules, binding to specific cell-surface receptors and the formation of complexes with soluble macromolecules. The varied biological functions of the lipocalins are mediated by one or more of these properties. In the past, the lipocalins have been classified as transport proteins; however, it is now clear that the lipocalins exhibit great functional diversity, with roles in retinol transport, invertebrate cryptic coloration, olfaction and pheromone transport, and prostaglandin synthesis. The lipocalins have also been implicated in the regulation of cell homoeostasis and the modulation of the immune response, and, as carrier proteins, to act in the general clearance of endogenous and exogenous compounds. PMID:8761444

  12. Differential expression and ligand binding indicate alternative functions for zebrafish polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and a family of pIgR-like (PIGRL) proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kortum, Amanda N.; Rodriguez-Nunez, Ivan; Yang, Jibing; Shim, Juyoung; Runft, Donna; O’Driscoll, Marci L; Haire, Robert N.; Cannon, John P.; Turner, Poem M.; Litman, Ronda T.; Kim, Carol H.; Neely, Melody N.; Litman, Gary W.; Yoder, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    The polymeric immunoglobulin (Ig) receptor (pIgR) is an integral transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in the mammalian immune response by transporting soluble polymeric Igs across mucosal epithelial cells. Single pIgR genes, which are expressed in lymphoid organs including mucosal tissues, have been identified in several teleost species. A single pigr gene has been identified on zebrafish chromosome 2 along with a large multigene family consisting of 29 pigr-like (PIGRL) genes. Full length transcripts from 10 different PIGRL genes that encode secreted and putative inhibitory membrane bound receptors have been characterized. Although PIGRL and pigr transcripts are detected in immune tissues, only PIGRL transcripts can be detected in lymphoid and myeloid cells. In contrast to pIgR which binds Igs, certain PIGRL proteins bind phospholipids. PIGRL transcript levels are increased after infection with Streptococcus iniae, suggesting a role for PIGRL genes during bacterial challenge. Transcript levels of PIGRL genes are decreased after infection with Snakehead rhabdovirus, suggesting that viral infection may suppress PIGRL function. PMID:24469064

  13. The guanylate-binding proteins: emerging insights into the biochemical properties and functions of this family of large interferon-induced guanosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Vestal, Deborah J; Jeyaratnam, Jonathan A

    2011-01-01

    Originally identified by their unusual ability to bind guanosine monophosphate (GMP) nucleotide agarose, the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were used extensively to promote our understanding of interferon-induced gene transcription and as markers of interferon responsiveness. Structural and biochemical analyses of human GBP-1 subsequently demonstrated that the GBPs are a unique subfamily of guanosine triphosphatase (GTPases) that hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to both guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and GMP. As members of the larger dynamin superfamily of GTPases, GBPs exhibit such properties as nucleotide-dependent oligomerization and concentration-dependent GTPase activity. Recently, progress has been made in assigning functions to members of the GBP family. While many of these functions involve protection against intracellular pathogens, a growing number of them are not directly related to pathogen protection. It is currently unclear how the unusual properties of GBPs contribute to this growing list of functions. As future studies uncover the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the GBPs, we will gain a greater understanding of how individual GBPs can mediate what currently appears to be a divergent set of functions.

  14. Fatty acid binding protein 3 (fabp3) is associated with insulin, lipids and cardiovascular phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome through epigenetic modifications in a northern european family population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) play regulatory roles at the nexus of lipid metabolism and signaling. Dyslipidemia in clinical manifestation frequently co-occurs with obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension in the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Animal studies have suggested FABPs play regulatory roles in expressing MetS phenotypes. In our family cohort of Northern European descent, transcript levels in peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) of a key FABPs, FABP3, is correlated with the MetS leading components. However, evidence supporting the functions of FABPs in humans using genetic approaches has been scarce, suggesting FABPs may be under epigenetic regulation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that CpG methylation status of a key regulator of lipid homeostasis, FABP3, is a quantitative trait associated with status of MetS phenotypes in humans. Methods We used a mass-spec based quantitative method, EpiTYPER®, to profile a CpG island that extends from the promoter to the first exon of the FABP3 gene in our family-based cohort of Northern European descent (n=517). We then conducted statistical analysis of the quantitative relationship of CpG methylation and MetS measures following the variance-component association model. Heritability of each methylation and the effect of age and sex on CpG methylation were also assessed in our families. Results We find that methylation levels of individual CpG units and the regional average are heritable and significantly influenced by age and sex. Regional methylation was strongly associated with plasma total cholesterol (p=0.00028) and suggestively associated with LDL-cholesterol (p=0.00495). Methylation at individual units was significantly associated with insulin sensitivity, lipid particle sizing and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.0028, corrected for multiple testing for each trait). Peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) expression of FABP3 in a separate group of subjects (n=128) negatively

  15. Molecular characterization of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene family from Citrus and the effect of fruit load on their expression

    PubMed Central

    Shalom, Liron; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Zur, Naftali; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a Citrus gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factor that contained a sequence complementary to miR156. Genes of the SPL family are known to play a role in flowering regulation and phase transition. In Citrus, the mRNA levels of the gene were significantly altered by fruit load in buds; under heavy fruit load (ON-Crop trees), known to suppress next year flowering, the mRNA levels were down-regulated, while fruit removal (de-fruiting), inducing next-year flowering, resulted in its up-regulation. In the current work, we set on to study the function of the gene. We showed that the Citrus SPL was able promote flowering independently of photoperiod in Arabidopsis, while miR156 repressed its flowering-promoting activity. In order to find out if fruit load affected the expression of additional genes of the SPL family, we identified and classified all SPL members in the Citrus genome, and studied their seasonal expression patterns in buds and leaves, and in response to de-fruiting. Results showed that two additional SPL-like genes and miR172, known to be induced by SPLs in Arabidopsis, were altered by fruit load. The relationships between these factors in relation to the fruit-load effect on Citrus flowering are discussed. PMID:26074947

  16. Familial 18q12.2 deletion supports the role of RNA-binding protein CELF4 in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Barone, Rita; Fichera, Marco; De Grandi, Mariaclara; Battaglia, Marta; Lo Faro, Valeria; Mattina, Teresa; Rizzo, Renata

    2017-04-13

    Deletion of 18q12.2 is an increasingly recognized condition with a distinct neuropsychiatric phenotype. Twenty-two patients have been described with overlapping neurobehavioral disturbances including developmental delay, intellectual disability of variable degree, seizures, motor coordination disorder, behavioral/emotional disturbances, and autism spectrum disorders. The CUGBP Elav-like family member 4 (CELF4) gene at 18q12.2 encodes a RNA-binding protein that links to RNA subsets involved in pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmission including almost 30% of potential autism-related genes. Haploinsufficiency of CELF4 was associated with an autism or autistic behavior diagnosis in two adult patients with de novo 18q12.2 deletions. We report on a girl and her mildly affected mother with a 275 kb deletion at 18q12.2 involving CELF4 and KIAA1328 whose disruption is not associated with any known disease. The child was diagnosed with syndromic intellectual disability and autism at 6 years of age. Her mother had minor dysmorphisms, mild intellectual disability, and autistic behavior. The deleted region reported in this family is one of the smallest so far reported at 18q12.2. This is also the first full clinical description of maternally inherited CELF4 haploinsufficiency. The present study refines the molecular and neuropsychiatric phenotype associated with 18q12.2 deletion leading to CELF4 haploinsufficiency and provides evidence for a role for CELF4 in brain development and autism spectrum disorders.

  17. Oligomerization and DNA-binding capacity of Pmr, a histone-like protein H1 (H-NS) family protein encoded on IncP-7 carbazole-degradative plasmid pCAR1.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chiho; Yun, Choong-Soo; Umeda, Takashi; Terabayashi, Tsuguno; Watanabe, Kazuya; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Pmr, a histone-like protein H1 (H-NS) family protein encoded on plasmid pCAR1, is a key factor in optimizing gene transcription on both pCAR1 and the host chromosome. To clarify the mode of function of Pmr, we performed gel filtration chromatography analysis and protein-protein cross-linking, and found that Pmr forms homo-oligomers, consisting of its homodimers. We also found, by atomic force microscopy, that Pmr has DNA-bridging capacity. From these results, Pmr was deduced to have features common to H-NS family proteins. Additionally, evaluating protein-DNA affinity is important to clarify the mode of function of Pmr, and hence we performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Though Pmr formed high-order protein-DNA complexes and did not show preference for nucleic acid sequences, the C-terminal region of Pmr did, suggesting that the DNA-binding affinity of Pmr can be evaluated by using its C-terminal region.

  18. SCOWLP classification: Structural comparison and analysis of protein binding regions

    PubMed Central

    Teyra, Joan; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Anders, Gerd; Pisabarro, M Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Background Detailed information about protein interactions is critical for our understanding of the principles governing protein recognition mechanisms. The structures of many proteins have been experimentally determined in complex with different ligands bound either in the same or different binding regions. Thus, the structural interactome requires the development of tools to classify protein binding regions. A proper classification may provide a general view of the regions that a protein uses to bind others and also facilitate a detailed comparative analysis of the interacting information for specific protein binding regions at atomic level. Such classification might be of potential use for deciphering protein interaction networks, understanding protein function, rational engineering and design. Description Protein binding regions (PBRs) might be ideally described as well-defined separated regions that share no interacting residues one another. However, PBRs are often irregular, discontinuous and can share a wide range of interacting residues among them. The criteria to define an individual binding region can be often arbitrary and may differ from other binding regions within a protein family. Therefore, the rational behind protein interface classification should aim to fulfil the requirements of the analysis to be performed. We extract detailed interaction information of protein domains, peptides and interfacial solvent from the SCOWLP database and we classify the PBRs of each domain family. For this purpose, we define a similarity index based on the overlapping of interacting residues mapped in pair-wise structural alignments. We perform our classification with agglomerative hierarchical clustering using the complete-linkage method. Our classification is calculated at different similarity cut-offs to allow flexibility in the analysis of PBRs, feature especially interesting for those protein families with conflictive binding regions. The hierarchical

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors target family landscape: A chemometrical approach to ligand selectivity based on protein binding site analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirard, Bernard

    2003-11-01

    The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors which over the last couple of years have been the focus of considerable research efforts aiming to identify compounds with well-defined selectivity profiles for the treatment of metabolic diseases. The ligand binding domains (LBD) of the three known PPAR subtypes exhibit between 60 and 70% sequence identity. To gain insight into the structural determinants of selectivity for the PPAR subtypes, a set of 13 crystal structures of PPAR LBD were classified, using the GRID/CPCA approach. As a result, nearly all of the crystal structures of each different PPAR subtype were found clustered in different regions of the CPCA score plots, and hydrophobic as well as steric interactions were identified as the major determinants of PPAR subtypes selectivity. Furthermore, interpretation of the GRID/CPCA model in structural terms led to the identification of LBD regions which could be targeted to improve the selectivity for a given PPAR subtype. Our findings are consistent with published structure-activity relationships for PPAR ligands as well as with site-directed mutagenesis results.

  20. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  1. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  2. Elevation of fatty acid-binding protein 4 is predisposed by family history of hypertension and contributes to blood pressure elevation.

    PubMed

    Ota, Hideki; Furuhashi, Masato; Ishimura, Shutaro; Koyama, Masayuki; Okazaki, Yusuke; Mita, Tomohiro; Fuseya, Takahiro; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Marenao; Yoshida, Hideaki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2012-10-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2), a lipid chaperone, is expressed in both adipocytes and macrophages. Recent studies have shown secretion of FABP4 from adipocytes and association of elevated serum FABP4 level with obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of FABP4 in essential hypertension. We first examined serum FABP4 concentrations in 18 normotensives (NT) and 30 nontreated essential hypertensives (EHT). The EHT were divided into 18 insulin-sensitive EHT (EHT-S) and 12 insulin-resistant EHT (EHT-R) based on their insulin-sensitivity index, the M value, determined by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique. In the second study, we determined FABP4 levels in 30 young NT men with or without a family history of hypertension (FH(+) and FH(-), respectively; n = 15 each). Serum FABP4 level was significantly higher in the EHT-R than in the NT, whereas elevation of FABP4 level in the EHT-S was not statistically significant. FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and triglycerides and negatively correlated with the M value. FABP4 level was an independent predictor of mean arterial pressure after adjustment of age, gender, and adiposity. The FH(+) group had a significantly lower level of M value and higher level of FABP4 than did the FH(-) group, and FABP4 concentration was an independent determinant of the M value. FABP4 contributes to blood pressure elevation and atherogenic metabolic phenotype in hypertensives, and the elevation of FABP4 is predisposed by a family history of hypertension.

  3. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) membrane recruitment 3, a member of the APC membrane recruitment family of APC-binding proteins, is a positive regulator of Wnt-β-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Brauburger, Katharina; Akyildiz, Senem; Ruppert, Jan G; Graeb, Michael; Bernkopf, Dominic B; Hadjihannas, Michel V; Behrens, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) membrane recruitment (Amer) family proteins Amer1/Wilms tumour gene on the X chromosome and Amer2 are binding partners of the APC tumour suppressor protein, and act as negative regulators in the Wnt signalling cascade. So far, nothing has been known about the third member of the family, Amer3. Here we show that Amer3 binds to the armadillo repeat domain of APC, similarly to Amer1 and Amer2. Amer3 also binds to the Wnt pathway regulator conductin/axin2. Furthermore, we identified Amer1 as binding partner of Amer3. Whereas Amer1 and Amer2 are linked to the plasma membrane by an N-terminal membrane localization domain, Amer3 lacks this domain. Amer3 localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus of epithelial cells, and this is dependent on specific nuclear import and export sequences. Functionally, exogenous Amer3 enhances the expression of a β-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent reporter gene, and knockdown of endogenous Amer3 reduces Wnt target gene expression in colorectal cancer cells. Thus, Amer3 acts as an activator of Wnt signalling, in contrast to Amer1 and Amer2, which are inhibitors, suggesting a nonredundant role of Amer proteins in the regulation of this pathway. Our data, together with those of previous studies, provide a comprehensive picture of similarities and differences within the Amer protein family. © 2013 FEBS.

  4. Allergenic relevance of nonspecific lipid transfer proteins 2: Identification and characterization of Api g 6 from celery tuber as representative of a novel IgE-binding protein family.

    PubMed

    Vejvar, Eva; Himly, Martin; Briza, Peter; Eichhorn, Stephanie; Ebner, Christof; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ferreira, Fatima; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2013-11-01

    Apium graveolens represents a relevant food allergen source linked with severe systemic reactions. We sought to identify an IgE-binding nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) in celery tuber. A low molecular weight protein exclusively present in celery tuber was purified and designated Api g 6. The entire protein sequence was obtained by MS and classified as member of the nsLTP2 family. Api g 6 is monomeric in solution with a molecular mass of 6936 Da. The alpha-helical disulfide bond-stabilized structure confers tremendous thermal stability (Tm > 90°C) and high resistance to gastrointestinal digestion. Endolysosomal degradation demonstrated low susceptibility and the presence of a dominant peptide cluster at the C-terminus. Thirty-eight percent of A. graveolens allergic patients demonstrated IgE reactivity to purified natural Api g 6 in ELISA and heat treatment did only partially reduce its allergenic activity. No correlation in IgE binding and limited cross-reactivity was observed with Api g 2 and Art v 3, nsLTP1 from celery stalks and mugwort pollen. Api g 6, a novel nsLTP2 from celery tuber represents the first well-characterized allergen in this protein family. Despite similar structural and physicochemical features as nsLTP1, immunological properties of Api g 6 are distinct which warrants its inclusion in molecule-based diagnosis of A. graveolens allergy. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  6. Data of protein-RNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wook; Park, Byungkyu; Choi, Daesik; Han, Kyungsook

    2017-02-01

    Despite the increasing number of protein-RNA complexes in structure databases, few data resources have been made available which can be readily used in developing or testing a method for predicting either protein-binding sites in RNA sequences or RNA-binding sites in protein sequences. The problem of predicting protein-binding sites in RNA has received much less attention than the problem of predicting RNA-binding sites in protein. The data presented in this paper are related to the article entitled "PRIdictor: Protein-RNA Interaction predictor" (Tuvshinjargal et al. 2016) [1]. PRIdictor can predict protein-binding sites in RNA as well as RNA-binding sites in protein at the nucleotide- and residue-levels. This paper presents four datasets that were used to test four prediction models of PRIdictor: (1) model RP for predicting protein-binding sites in RNA from protein and RNA sequences, (2) model RaP for predicting protein-binding sites in RNA from RNA sequence alone, (3) model PR for predicting RNA-binding sites in protein from protein and RNA sequences, and (4) model PaR for predicting RNA-binding sites in protein from protein sequence alone. The datasets supplied in this article can be used as a valuable resource to evaluate and compare different methods for predicting protein-RNA binding sites.

  7. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  8. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  9. Genes encoding proteins with peritrophin A-type chitin-binding domains in Tribolium castaneum are grouped into three distinct families based on phylogeny, expression and function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study is focused on the characterization and expression of genes in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, encoding proteins that possess six-cysteine-containing chitin-binding domains (CBDs) related to the peritrophin A domain (ChtBD2). An exhaustive bioinformatics search of the genome of...

  10. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  11. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, Gisela K.

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  12. Actin binding proteins and spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mruk, Dolores D

    2011-01-01

    Drebrin E, an actin-binding protein lacking intrinsic activity in the regulation of actin dynamics (e.g., polymerization, capping, nucleation, branching, cross-linking, bundling and severing), is known to recruit actin regulatory proteins to a specific cellular site. Herein, we critically evaluate recent findings in the field which illustrate that drebrin E works together with two other actin-binding proteins, namely Arp3 (actin-related protein 3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex that simultaneously controls actin nucleation for polymerization and branching of actin filaments) and Eps8 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 that controls capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments, as well as actin filament bundling) to regulate the homeostasis of F-actin filament bundles at the ectoplasmic specialization (ES), a testis-specific atypical adherens junction (AJ) in the seminiferous epithelium. This is mediated by the strict temporal and spatial expression of these three actin-binding proteins at the apical and basal ES at the Sertoli cell-spermatid (step 8–19) and Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface, respectively, during the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. In this Commentary, we put forth a possible model by which drebrin E may be acting as a platform upon which proteins (e.g., Arp3) that are needed to alter the conformation of actin filament bundles at the ES can be recruited to the site, thus facilitating changes in cell shape and cell position in the epithelium during spermiogenesis and spermiation. In short, drebrin E may be acting as a “logistic” distribution center to manage different regulatory proteins at the apical ES, thereby regulating the dynamics of actin filament bundles and modulating the plasticity of the apical ES. This would allow adhesion to be altered continuously throughout the epithelial cycle to accommodate spermatid movement in the seminiferous epithelium during spermiogenesis and spermiation. We also

  13. Structure and Function of Nematode RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kaymak, Ebru; Wee, L.M.; Ryder, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins are critical effectors of gene expression. They guide mRNA localization, translation, and stability, and potentially play a role in regulating mRNA synthesis. The structural basis for RNA recognition by RNA-binding proteins is the key to understanding how they target specific transcripts for regulation. Compared to other metazoans, nematode genomes contain a significant expansion in several RNA-binding protein families, including Pumilio-FBF (PUF), TTP-like zinc finger (TZF), and argonaute-like (AGO) proteins. Genetic data suggest that individual members of each family have distinct functions, presumably due to sequence variations that alter RNA binding specificity or protein interaction partners. In this review, we highlight example structures and identify the variable regions that likely contribute to functional divergence in nematodes. PMID:20418095

  14. Adherence of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Ruminococcus albus to Cellulose and Identification of a Novel Form of Cellulose-Binding Protein Which Belongs to the Pil Family of Proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Pegden, Randall S.; Larson, Marilynn A.; Grant, Richard J.; Morrison, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The adherence of Ruminococcus albus 8 to crystalline cellulose was studied, and an affinity-based assay was also used to identify candidate cellulose-binding protein(s). Bacterial adherence in cellulose-binding assays was significantly increased by the inclusion of either ruminal fluid or micromolar concentrations of both phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids in the growth medium, and the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to assays decreased the adherence of the bacterium to cellulose. A cellulose-binding protein with an estimated molecular mass following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ∼21 kDa, designated CbpC, was present in both cellobiose- and cellulose-grown cultures, and the relative abundance of this protein increased in response to growth on cellulose. Addition of 0.1% (wt/vol) CMC to the binding assays had an inhibitory effect on CbpC binding to cellulose, consistent with the notion that CbpC plays a role in bacterial attachment to cellulose. The nucleotide sequence of the cbpC gene was determined by a combination of reverse genetics and genomic walking procedures. The cbpC gene encodes a protein of 169 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 17,655 Da. The amino-terminal third of the CbpC protein possesses the motif characteristic of the Pil family of proteins, which are most commonly involved with the formation of type 4 fimbriae and other surface-associated protein complexes in gram-negative, pathogenic bacteria. The remainder of the predicted CbpC sequence was found to have significant identity with 72- and 75-amino-acid motifs tandemly repeated in the 190-kDa surface antigen protein of Rickettsia spp., as well as one of the major capsid glycoproteins of the Chlorella virus PBCV-1. Northern blot analysis showed that phenylpropionic acid and ruminal fluid increase cbpC mRNA abundance in cellobiose-grown cells. These results suggest that CbpC is a novel cellulose-binding protein that may be involved in

  15. A Crayfish Insulin-like-binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Ohad; Weil, Simy; Manor, Rivka; Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam; Sagi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Across the animal kingdom, the involvement of insulin-like peptide (ILP) signaling in sex-related differentiation processes is attracting increasing attention. Recently, a gender-specific ILP was identified as the androgenic sex hormone in Crustacea. However, moieties modulating the actions of this androgenic insulin-like growth factor were yet to be revealed. Through molecular screening of an androgenic gland (AG) cDNA library prepared from the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, we have identified a novel insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) termed Cq-IGFBP. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the deduced Cq-IGFBP was shown to share high sequence homology with IGFBP family members from both invertebrates and vertebrates. The protein also includes a sequence determinant proven crucial for ligand binding, which according to three-dimensional modeling is assigned to the exposed outer surface of the protein. Recombinant Cq-IGFBP (rCq-IGFBP) protein was produced and, using a “pulldown” methodology, was shown to specifically interact with the insulin-like AG hormone of the crayfish (Cq-IAG). Particularly, using both mass spectral analysis and an immunological tool, rCq-IGFBP was shown to bind the Cq-IAG prohormone. Furthermore, a peptide corresponding to residues 23–38 of the Cq-IAG A-chain was found sufficient for in vitro recognition by rCq-IGFBP. Cq-IGFBP is the first IGFBP family member shown to specifically interact with a gender-specific ILP. Unlike their ILP ligands, IGFBPs are highly conserved across evolution, from ancient arthropods, like crustaceans, to humans. Such conservation places ILP signaling at the center of sex-related phenomena in early animal development. PMID:23775079

  16. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression of active Ole e 3, a major allergen from olive-tree pollen and member of a novel family of Ca2+-binding proteins (polcalcins) involved in allergy.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, A; Villalba, M; Batanero, E; Rodríguez, R

    1998-12-01

    A cDNA encoding Ole e 3, a major allergen from olive-tree pollen, has been cloned and sequenced. A strategy based on two-step PCR amplification towards the 5' end and 3' end, with an internal specific primer, has been used. The isolated cDNA contains an open reading frame coding for a polypeptide of 84 amino acids, which is in agreement with the composition and molecular mass of the natural allergen, exhibiting two 12-residue segments homologous to Ca2+-binding sites of EF-hand type. The cDNA was inserted into the pET-11b expression vector and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein shows identical secondary structure to that of the natural allergen and is able to bind both IgE from sera of patients allergic to olive pollen and polyclonal antibodies raised against olive-pollen Ole e 3. The capacity of binding Ca2+ has been demonstrated for both natural and recombinant allergens. RNA transcripts of Ole e 3 were only detected in pollen tissue. Northern-blot and Western-blot analyses of poly(A)+ RNA and protein extracts, respectively, obtained from a variety of olive-tree-related and nonrelated mature pollens demonstrated the presence of Ole e 3 homologous proteins. This indicates a sequence conservation and widespread distribution for this family of Ca2+-binding proteins that can be responsible for allergenic cross-reactivity. We suggest the tentative generic name of polcalcins for the members of this family of Ca2+-binding proteins from pollen.

  18. HTLV-1 Tax Protein Stimulation of DNA Binding of bZIP Proteins by Enhancing Dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Susanne; Green, Michael R.

    1993-10-01

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  19. Engineering RNA-binding proteins for biology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

    2013-08-01

    RNA-binding proteins play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. Many have modular structures and combine relatively few common domains in various arrangements to recognize RNA sequences and/or structures. Recent progress in engineering the specificity of the PUF class RNA-binding proteins has shown that RNA-binding domains may be combined with various effector or functional domains to regulate the metabolism of targeted RNAs. Designer RNA-binding proteins with tailored sequence specificity will provide valuable tools for biochemical research as well as potential therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss the suitability of various RNA-binding domains for engineering RNA-binding specificity, based on the structural basis for their recognition. We also compare various protein engineering and design methods applied to RNA-binding proteins, and discuss future applications of these proteins.

  20. Isolation of a YAC clone covering a cluster of nine S100 genes on human chromosome 1q21: Rationale for a new nomenclature of the S100 calcium-binding protein family

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.W.; Wicki, R.; Engelkamp, D.

    1995-02-10

    S100 proteins are low-molecular-weight calcium-binding proteins of the EF- hand superfamily and appear to be involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. More than 10 members of the S100 protein family have been described from human sources so far. We have now isolated a YAC clone from human chromosome 1q21, on which 9 different genes coding for S100 calcium-binding proteins could be localized. Moreover, we have mapped the gene coding for S100P to human chromosome 4p16 and thereby completed the chromosomal assignments of all known human S100 genes. The clustered organization of S100 genes in the 1q21 region allows us to introduce a new logical nomenclature for these genes, which is based on the physical arrangement on the chromosomes. The new nomenclature should facilitate the further the understanding of this protein family and be easily expandable to other species. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Charged extracellular residues, conserved throughout a G-protein-coupled receptor family, are required for ligand binding, receptor activation, and cell-surface expression.

    PubMed

    Hawtin, Stuart R; Simms, John; Conner, Matthew; Lawson, Zoe; Parslow, Rosemary A; Trim, Julie; Sheppard, Andrew; Wheatley, Mark

    2006-12-15

    For G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in general, the roles of extracellular residues are not well defined compared with residues in transmembrane helices (TMs). Nevertheless, extracellular residues are important for various functions in both peptide-GPCRs and amine-GPCRs. In this study, the V(1a) vasopressin receptor was used to systematically investigate the role of extracellular charged residues that are highly conserved throughout a subfamily of peptide-GPCRs, using a combination of mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Of the 13 conserved charged residues identified in the extracellular loops (ECLs), Arg(116) (ECL1), Arg(125) (top of TMIII), and Asp(204) (ECL2) are important for agonist binding and/or receptor activation. Molecular modeling revealed that Arg(125) (and Lys(125)) stabilizes TMIII by interacting with lipid head groups. Charge reversal (Asp(125)) caused re-ordering of the lipids, altered helical packing, and increased solvent penetration of the TM bundle. Interestingly, a negative charge is excluded at this locus in peptide-GPCRs, whereas a positive charge is excluded in amine-GPCRs. This contrasting conserved charge may reflect differences in GPCR binding modes between peptides and amines, with amines needing to access a binding site crevice within the receptor TM bundle, whereas the binding site of peptide-GPCRs includes more extracellular domains. A conserved negative charge at residue 204 (ECL2), juxtaposed to the highly conserved disulfide bond, was essential for agonist binding and signaling. Asp(204) (and Glu(204)) establishes TMIII contacts required for maintaining the beta-hairpin fold of ECL2, which if broken (Ala(204) or Arg(204)) resulted in ECL2 unfolding and receptor dysfunction. This study provides mechanistic insight into the roles of conserved extracellular residues.

  2. Acyl-CoA binding proteins: multiplicity and function.

    PubMed

    Gossett, R E; Frolov, A A; Roths, J B; Behnke, W D; Kier, A B; Schroeder, F

    1996-09-01

    The physiological role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA is thought to be primarily in intermediary metabolism of fatty acids. However, recent data show that nM to microM levels of these lipophilic molecules are potent regulators of cell functions in vitro. Although long-chain fatty acyl-CoA are present at several hundred microM concentration in the cell, very little long-chain fatty acyl-CoA actually exists as free or unbound molecules, but rather is bound with high affinity to membrane lipids and/or proteins. Recently, there is growing awareness that cytosol contains nonenzymatic proteins also capable of binding long-chain fatty acyl-CoA with high affinity. Although the identity of the cytosolic long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding protein(s) has been the subject of some controversy, there is growing evidence that several diverse nonenzymatic cytosolic proteins will bind long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Not only does acyl-CoA binding protein specifically bind medium and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFA-CoA), but ubiquitous proteins with multiple ligand specificities such as the fatty acid binding proteins and sterol carrier protein-2 also bind LCFA-CoA with high affinity. The potential of these acyl-CoA binding proteins to influence the level of free LCFA-CoA and thereby the amount of LCFA-CoA bound to regulatory sites in proteins and enzymes is only now being examined in detail. The purpose of this article is to explore the identity, nature, function, and pathobiology of these fascinating newly discovered long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins. The relative contributions of these three different protein families to LCFA-CoA utilization and/or regulation of cellular activities are the focus of new directions in this field.

  3. Calcium-binding proteins and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckingham, K.; Lu, A. Q.; Andruss, B. F.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The known roles for calcium-binding proteins in developmental signaling pathways are reviewed. Current information on the calcium-binding characteristics of three classes of cell-surface developmental signaling proteins (EGF-domain proteins, cadherins and integrins) is presented together with an overview of the intracellular pathways downstream of these surface receptors. The developmental roles delineated to date for the universal intracellular calcium sensor, calmodulin, and its targets, and for calcium-binding regulators of the cytoskeleton are also reviewed.

  4. Calcium-binding proteins and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckingham, K.; Lu, A. Q.; Andruss, B. F.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The known roles for calcium-binding proteins in developmental signaling pathways are reviewed. Current information on the calcium-binding characteristics of three classes of cell-surface developmental signaling proteins (EGF-domain proteins, cadherins and integrins) is presented together with an overview of the intracellular pathways downstream of these surface receptors. The developmental roles delineated to date for the universal intracellular calcium sensor, calmodulin, and its targets, and for calcium-binding regulators of the cytoskeleton are also reviewed.

  5. Stage specific kinetoplast DNA-binding proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Castro, J E; Acosta-Viana, K; Guzmán-Marín, E; Rosado-Barrera, M E; Rosales-Encina, J L

    2000-09-18

    Knowledge regarding kinetoplast DNA organization in all members of the Trypanosomatid family is incomplete. Recently, the presence of kinetoplast-associated proteins in condensing kDNA networks in Crithidia fasciculata has been described and a role for these proteins in the maintenance of these complex structures was suggested. To investigate the presence of protein components in Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast, we previously described seven epimastigote kinetoplast-associated proteins. We report here the existence of kinetoplast binding proteins in amastigote and trypomastigote stages of T. cruzi, which could bind both mini and maxicircles components with a stage specific elements for every infective form of the parasite. We propose three major classes of kinetoplast-associated proteins related to the basic processes of this intricate disc structure and suggest a possible function of these binding proteins in the T. cruzi mitochondrial DNA organization.

  6. De-novo protein function prediction using DNA binding and RNA binding proteins as a test case.

    PubMed

    Peled, Sapir; Leiderman, Olga; Charar, Rotem; Efroni, Gilat; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Ofran, Yanay

    2016-11-21

    Of the currently identified protein sequences, 99.6% have never been observed in the laboratory as proteins and their molecular function has not been established experimentally. Predicting the function of such proteins relies mostly on annotated homologs. However, this has resulted in some erroneous annotations, and many proteins have no annotated homologs. Here we propose a de-novo function prediction approach based on identifying biophysical features that underlie function. Using our approach, we discover DNA and RNA binding proteins that cannot be identified based on homology and validate these predictions experimentally. For example, FGF14, which belongs to a family of secreted growth factors was predicted to bind DNA. We verify this experimentally and also show that FGF14 is localized to the nucleus. Mutating the predicted binding site on FGF14 abrogated DNA binding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of automated de-novo function prediction based on identifying function-related biophysical features.

  7. De-novo protein function prediction using DNA binding and RNA binding proteins as a test case

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Sapir; Leiderman, Olga; Charar, Rotem; Efroni, Gilat; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Ofran, Yanay

    2016-01-01

    Of the currently identified protein sequences, 99.6% have never been observed in the laboratory as proteins and their molecular function has not been established experimentally. Predicting the function of such proteins relies mostly on annotated homologs. However, this has resulted in some erroneous annotations, and many proteins have no annotated homologs. Here we propose a de-novo function prediction approach based on identifying biophysical features that underlie function. Using our approach, we discover DNA and RNA binding proteins that cannot be identified based on homology and validate these predictions experimentally. For example, FGF14, which belongs to a family of secreted growth factors was predicted to bind DNA. We verify this experimentally and also show that FGF14 is localized to the nucleus. Mutating the predicted binding site on FGF14 abrogated DNA binding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of automated de-novo function prediction based on identifying function-related biophysical features. PMID:27869118

  8. Haptenation: Chemical Reactivity and Protein Binding

    PubMed Central

    Chipinda, Itai; Hettick, Justin M.; Siegel, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Low molecular weight chemical (LMW) allergens are commonly referred to as haptens. Haptens must complex with proteins to be recognized by the immune system. The majority of occupationally related haptens are reactive, electrophilic chemicals, or are metabolized to reactive metabolites that form covalent bonds with nucleophilic centers on proteins. Nonelectrophilic protein binding may occur through disulfide exchange, coordinate covalent binding onto metal ions on metalloproteins or of metal allergens, themselves, to the major histocompatibility complex. Recent chemical reactivity kinetic studies suggest that the rate of protein binding is a major determinant of allergenic potency; however, electrophilic strength does not seem to predict the ability of a hapten to skew the response between Th1 and Th2. Modern proteomic mass spectrometry methods that allow detailed delineation of potential differences in protein binding sites may be valuable in predicting if a chemical will stimulate an immediate or delayed hypersensitivity. Chemical aspects related to both reactivity and protein-specific binding are discussed. PMID:21785613

  9. Monobodies and other synthetic binding proteins for expanding protein science.

    PubMed

    Sha, Fern; Salzman, Gabriel; Gupta, Ankit; Koide, Shohei

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic binding proteins are constructed using nonantibody molecular scaffolds. Over the last two decades, in-depth structural and functional analyses of synthetic binding proteins have improved combinatorial library designs and selection strategies, which have resulted in potent platforms that consistently generate binding proteins to diverse targets with affinity and specificity that rival those of antibodies. Favorable attributes of synthetic binding proteins, such as small size, freedom from disulfide bond formation and ease of making fusion proteins, have enabled their unique applications in protein science, cell biology and beyond. Here, we review recent studies that illustrate how synthetic binding proteins are powerful probes that can directly link structure and function, often leading to new mechanistic insights. We propose that synthetic proteins will become powerful standard tools in diverse areas of protein science, biotechnology and medicine.

  10. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%–8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein–RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein–RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions. PMID:26540053

  11. Chicken FK506-binding protein, FKBP65, a member of the FKBP family of peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases, is only partially inhibited by FK506.

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, B; MacDonald, J R; Bann, J G; Beck, K; Gambee, J E; Boswell, B A; Bächinger, H P

    1998-01-01

    The chicken FK506-binding protein FKBP65, a peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase, is a rough endoplasmic reticulum protein that contains four domains homologous to FKBP13, another rough endoplasmic reticulum PPIase. Analytical ultracentrifugation suggests that in FKBP65 these four domains are arranged in a linear extended structure with a length of about 26 nm and a diameter of about 3 nm. All four domains are therefore expected to be accessible to substrates. The specificity of FKBP65 towards a number of peptide substrates was determined. The specific activity of FKBP65 is generally lower than that of FKBP12 when expressed as a per domain activity. The substrate specificity of FKBP65 also differs from that of FKBP12. Inhibition studies show that only one of the four domains can be inhibited by FK506, a powerful inhibitor of all other known FKBPs. Furthermore, the same domain seems to be susceptible to inhibition by cyclosporin A. No other FKBPs were shown to be inhibited by cyclosporin A. It is also shown that FKBP65 can catalyse the re-folding of type III collagen in vitro with a kcat/Km = 4.3 x 10(3) M-1.s-1. PMID:9461498

  12. HIGH AFFINITY, DSRNA BINDING BY DISCONNECTED INTERACTING PROTEIN 1†

    PubMed Central

    Catanese, Daniel J.; Matthews, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Disconnected Interacting Protein 1 (DIP1) appears from sequence analysis and preliminary binding studies to be a member of the dsRNA-binding protein family. Of interest, DIP1 was shown previously to interact with and influence multiple proteins involved in transcription regulation in Drosophila melanogaster. We show here that the longest isoform of this protein, DIP1-c, exhibits a 500-fold preference for dsRNA over dsDNA of similar nucleotide sequence. Further, DIP1-c demonstrated very high affinity for a subset of dsRNA ligands, with binding in the picomolar range for VA1 RNA and miR-iab-4 precursor stem-loop, a potential physiological RNA target involved in regulating expression of its protein partner, Ultrabithorax. PMID:20643095

  13. Mercury-binding proteins of Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Roesijadi, G.; Morris, J. E.; Calabrese, A.

    1981-11-01

    Mytilus edulis possesses low molecular weight, mercury-binding proteins. The predominant protein isolated from gill tissue is enriched in cysteinyl residues (8%) and possesses an amino acid composition similar to cadmium-binding proteins of mussels and oysters. Continuous exposure of mussels to 5 ..mu..g/l mercury results in spillover of mercury from these proteins to high molecular weight proteins. Antibodies to these proteins have been isolated, and development of immunoassays is presently underway. Preliminary studies to determine whether exposure of adult mussels to mercury will result in induction of mercury-binding proteins in offspring suggest that such proteins occur in larvae although additional studies are indicated for a conclusive demonstration.

  14. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/.

  15. Functions of Intracellular Retinoid Binding-Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Multiple binding and transport proteins facilitate many aspects of retinoid biology through effects on retinoid transport, cellular uptake, metabolism, and nuclear delivery. These include the serum retinol binding protein sRBP (aka Rbp4), the plasma membrane sRBP receptor Stra6, and the intracellular retinoid binding-proteins such as cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBP) and cellular retinoic acid binding-proteins (CRABP). sRBP transports the highly lipophilic retinol through an aqueous medium. The major intracellular retinol-binding protein, CRBP1, likely enhances efficient retinoid use by providing a sink to facilitate retinol uptake from sRBP through the plasma membrane or via Stra6, delivering retinol or retinal to select enzymes that generate retinyl esters or retinoic acid, and protecting retinol/retinal from excess catabolism or opportunistic metabolism. Intracellular retinoic acid binding-proteins (CRABP1 and 2, and FABP5) seem to have more diverse functions distinctive to each, such as directing retinoic acid to catabolism, delivering retinoic acid to specific nuclear receptors, and generating non-canonical actions. Gene ablation of intracellular retinoid binding-proteins does not cause embryonic lethality or gross morphological defects. Metabolic and functional defects manifested in knockouts of CRBP1, CRBP2 and CRBP3, however, illustrate their essentiality to health, and in the case of CRBP2, to survival during limited dietary vitamin A. Future studies should continue to address the specific molecular interactions that occur between retinoid binding-proteins and their targets and their precise physiologic contributions to retinoid homeostasis and function. PMID:27830500

  16. Protein-protein interactions: scoring schemes and binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Yugandhar, K; Jemimah, Sherlyn

    2017-06-01

    Protein-protein interactions mediate several cellular functions, which can be understood from the information obtained using the three-dimensional structures of protein-protein complexes and binding affinity data. This review focuses on computational aspects of predicting the best native-like complex structure and binding affinities. The first part covers the prediction of protein-protein complex structures and the advantages of conformational searching and scoring functions in protein-protein docking. The second part is devoted to various aspects of protein-protein interaction thermodynamics, such as databases for binding affinities and other thermodynamic parameters, computational methods to predict the binding affinity using either the three-dimensional structures of complexes or amino acid sequences, and change in binding affinities of the complexes upon mutations. We provide the latest developments on protein-protein docking and binding affinity studies along with a list of available computational resources for understanding protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure and Function of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ralf R.; Leong, Steven R.; Flaggs, Gail W.; Gray, Patrick W.; Wright, Samuel D.; Mathison, John C.; Tobias, Peter S.; Ulevitch, Richard J.

    1990-09-01

    The primary structure of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), a trace plasma protein that binds to the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), was deduced by sequencing cloned complementary DNA. LBP shares sequence identity with another LPS binding protein found in granulocytes, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and with cholesterol ester transport protein of the plasma. LBP may control the response to LPS under physiologic conditions by forming high-affinity complexes with LPS that bind to monocytes and macrophages, which then secrete tumor necrosis factor. The identification of this pathway for LPS-induced monocyte stimulation may aid in the development of treatments for diseases in which Gram-negative sepsis or endotoxemia are involved.

  18. THE BINDING OF MYOGLOBIN BY PLASMA PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Lathem, Willoughby

    1960-01-01

    When added to dog plasma in vitro and in vivo, myoglobin was bound to plasma protein in a concentration which, maximally, averaged 21 ± 6 mg. per cent. Electrophoretically, bound myoglobin was separated from free myoglobin and migrated between alpha-2 and beta globulin. The electrophoretic characteristics of protein-bound myoglobin were similar to, although not identical with, those of protein-bound hemoglobin. The maximal binding capacity of plasma for myoglobin was less than for hemoglobin, which averaged 123 mg. per cent. At concentrations below the maximal binding capacity, from 15 to 50 per cent of the myoglobin was in the free, unbound state, differing from hemoglobin which was completely bound at all concentrations below the binding capacity. When myoglobin and hemoglobin were added together to plasma, hemoglobin appeared to interfere with the binding of myoglobin or to replace it at the binding sites. Myoglobin, however, did not appear to interfere with the binding of hemoglobin. These observations suggested that myoglobin and hemoglobin were bound at least in part by the same protein. When myoglobin was given intravenously, free myoglobin was excreted in the urine, whereas protein-bound myoglobin was not excreted. This suggests that protein-binding contributes to or determines the apparent renal threshold to myoglobin. PMID:14414439

  19. Identification of a gene linked to Rhizobium meliloti ntrA whose product is homologous to a family to ATP-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Albright, L M; Ronson, C W; Nixon, B T; Ausubel, F M

    1989-01-01

    The ntrA gene of Rhizobium meliloti has recently been identified and shown to be required for a diverse set of metabolic functions (C. W. Ronson, B. T. Nixon, L. M. Albright, and F. M. Ausubel, J. Bacteriol. 169:2424-2431, 1987). As a result of sequencing the ntrA gene and its flanking regions from R. meliloti, we identified an open reading frame directly upstream of ntrA, ORF1, whose predicted product is homologous to a superfamily of ATP-binding proteins involved in transport, cell division, nodulation, and DNA repair. The homology of ORF1 to this superfamily and its proximity to ntrA led us to investigate its role in symbiosis by mutagenesis and expression studies. We were unable to isolate an insertion mutation in ORF1, suggesting that ORF1 may code for an essential function. We identified the start of transcription for the ntrA gene in vegetative cells and bacteroids and showed that ORF1 and ntrA are transcriptionally unlinked. ORF1 appears to be in an operon with one or more upstream genes. Images PMID:2703463

  20. Clinical role of protein binding of quinolones.

    PubMed

    Bergogne-Bérézin, Eugénie

    2002-01-01

    Protein binding of antibacterials in plasma and tissues has long been considered a component of their pharmacokinetic parameters, playing a potential role in distribution, excretion and therapeutic effectiveness. Since the beginning of the 'antibacterial era', this factor has been extensively analysed for all antibacterial classes, showing that wide variations of the degree of protein binding occur even in the same antibacterial class, as with beta-lactams. As the understanding of protein binding grew, the complexity of the binding system was increasingly perceived and its dynamic character described. Studies of protein binding of the fluoroquinolones have shown that the great majority of these drugs exhibit low protein binding, ranging from approximately 20 to 40% in plasma, and that they are bound predominantly to albumin. The potential role in pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of binding of fluoroquinolones to plasma, tissue and intracellular proteins has been analysed, but it has not been established that protein binding has any significant direct or indirect impact on therapeutic effectiveness. Regarding the factors influencing the tissue distribution of antibacterials, physicochemical characteristics and the small molecular size of fluoroquinolones permit a rapid penetration into extravascular sites and intracellularly, with a rapid equilibrium being established between intravascular and extravascular compartments. The high concentrations of these drugs achieved in tissues, body fluids and intracellularly, in addition to their wide antibacterial spectrum, mean that fluoroquinolones have therapeutic effectiveness in a large variety of infections. The tolerability of quinolones has generally been reported as good, based upon long experience in using pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in clinical practice. Among more recently developed molecules, good tolerability has been reported for levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, but certain other new

  1. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Atshaves, B.P.; Martin, G.G.; Hostetler, H.A.; McIntosh, A.L.; Kier, A.B.; Schroeder, F.

    2010-01-01

    While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them for rapid removal in oxidative (mitochondria, peroxisomes) or storage (endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets) organelles. Mammals have a large (15 member) family of FABPs with multiple members occurring within a single cell type. The first described FABP, liver-FABP (L-FABP, or FABP1), is expressed in very high levels (2-5% of cytosolic protein) in liver as well as intestine and kidney. Since L-FABP facilitates uptake and metabolism of LCFAs in vitro and in cultured cells, it was expected that abnormal function or loss of L-FABP would reduce hepatic LCFA uptake/oxidation and thereby increase LCFAs available for oxidation in muscle and/or storage in adipose. This prediction was confirmed in vitro with isolated liver slices and cultured primary hepatocytes from L-FABP gene-ablated mice. Despite unaltered food consumption when fed a control diet ad libitum, the L-FABP null mice exhibited age- and sex-dependent weight gain and increased fat tissue mass. The obese phenotype was exacerbated in L-FABP null mice pair-fed a high fat diet. Taken together with other findings, these data suggest that L-FABP could have an important role in preventing age- or diet-induced obesity. PMID:20537520

  2. The Lepidoptera Odorant Binding Protein gene family: Gene gain and loss within the GOBP/PBP complex of moths and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Richard G; Große-Wilde, Ewald; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Butterflies and moths differ significantly in their daily activities: butterflies are diurnal while moths are largely nocturnal or crepuscular. This life history difference is presumably reflected in their sensory biology, and especially the balance between the use of chemical versus visual signals. Odorant Binding Proteins (OBP) are a class of insect proteins, at least some of which are thought to orchestrate the transfer of odor molecules within an olfactory sensillum (olfactory organ), between the air and odor receptor proteins (ORs) on the olfactory neurons. A Lepidoptera specific subclass of OBPs are the GOBPs and PBPs; these were the first OBPs studied and have well documented associations with olfactory sensilla. We have used the available genomes of two moths, Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori, and two butterflies, Danaus plexippus and Heliconius melpomene, to characterize the GOBP/PBP genes, attempting to identify gene orthologs and document specific gene gain and loss. First, we identified the full repertoire of OBPs in the M. sexta genome, and compared these with the full repertoire of OBPs from the other three lepidopteran genomes, the OBPs of Drosophila melanogaster and select OBPs from other Lepidoptera. We also evaluated the tissue specific expression of the M. sexta OBPs using an available RNAseq databases. In the four lepidopteran species, GOBP2 and all PBPs reside in single gene clusters; in two species GOBP1 is documented to be nearby, about 100 kb from the cluster; all GOBP/PBP genes share a common gene structure indicating a common origin. As such, the GOBP/PBP genes form a gene complex. Our findings suggest that (1) the lepidopteran GOBP/PBP complex is a monophyletic lineage with origins deep within Lepidoptera phylogeny, (2) within this lineage PBP gene evolution is much more dynamic than GOBP gene evolution, and (3) butterflies may have lost a PBP gene that plays an important role in moth pheromone detection, correlating with a shift from

  3. Novel protein families in archaean genomes.

    PubMed Central

    Ouzonis, C; Kyrpides, N; Sander, C

    1995-01-01

    In a quest for novel functions in archaea, all archaean hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs), as annotated in the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database, were used to search the latest databases for the identification of characterized homologues. Of the 95 hypothetical archaean ORFs, 25 were found to be homologous to another hypothetical archaean ORF, while 36 were homologous to non-archaean proteins, of which as many as 30 were homologous to a characterized protein family. Thus the level of sequence similarity in this set reaches 64%, while the level of function assignment is only 32%. Of the ORFs with predicted functions, 12 homologies are reported here for the first time and represent nine new functions and one gene duplication at an acetyl-coA synthetase locus. The novel functions include components of the transcriptional and translational apparatus, such as ribosomal proteins, modification enzymes and a translation initiation factor. In addition, new enzymes are identified in archaea, such as cobyric acid synthase, dCTP deaminase and the first archaean homologues of a new subclass of ATP binding proteins found in fungi. Finally, it is shown that the putative laminin receptor family of eukaryotes and an archaean homologue belong to the previously characterized ribosomal protein family S2 from eubacteria. From the present and previous work, the major implication is that archaea seem to have a mode of expression of genetic information rather similar to eukaryotes, while eubacteria may have proceeded into unique ways of transcription and translation. In addition, with the detection of proteins in various metabolic and genetic processes in archaea, we can further predict the presence of additional proteins involved in these processes. PMID:7899076

  4. Surface-Based Protein Binding Pocket Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E.; Jain, Ajay N.

    2011-01-01

    Protein similarity comparisons may be made on a local or global basis and may consider sequence information or differing levels of structural information. We present a local 3D method that compares protein binding site surfaces in full atomic detail. The approach is based on the morphological similarity method which has been widely applied for global comparison of small molecules. We apply the method to all-by-all comparisons two sets of human protein kinases, a very diverse set of ATP-bound proteins from multiple species, and three heterogeneous benchmark protein binding site data sets. Cases of disagreement between sequence-based similarity and binding site similarity yield informative examples. Where sequence similarity is very low, high pocket similarity can reliably identify important binding motifs. Where sequence similarity is very high, significant differences in pocket similarity are related to ligand binding specificity and similarity. Local protein binding pocket similarity provides qualitatively complementary information to other approaches, and it can yield quantitative information in support of functional annotation. PMID:21769944

  5. Antibacterial properties of the sperm-binding proteins and peptides of human epididymis 2 (HE2) family; salt sensitivity, structural dependence and their interaction with outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Yenugu, Suresh; Hamil, Katherine G; Birse, Charles E; Ruben, Steven M; French, Frank S; Hall, Susan H

    2003-01-01

    During passage through the epididymis, sperm interact with secreted epididymal proteins that promote maturation, including the acquisition of motility and fertilization competence. Viewed previously as distinct from sperm maturation, host defence capabilities are now recognized functions of the human epididymis 2 (HE2) family of sperm-binding proteins. We analysed the potent dose and time-dependent bactericidal activity of recombinant HE2alpha, HE2beta1 and HE2beta2 and found that the full-length proteins (10 microg/ml or approximately 1 microM) caused more than a 50% decrease in Escherichia coli colony forming units within 15 min. By contrast, human beta-defensin-1, at a similar concentration, required more than 90 min to exhibit similar antibacterial activity. The epididymis-specific lipocalin, LCN6, failed to kill bacteria. Higher concentrations (25-100 microg/ml) of HE2 proteins and a longer duration of treatment resulted in near total inhibition of bacterial growth. The C-terminal peptides of HE2alpha, HEbeta1 and HEbeta2 proteins exhibited antibacterial activity similar to their full-length counterparts, indicating that the antibacterial activity of HE2 proteins resides in these C-terminal regions. Antibacterial activities of HE2 proteins and peptides were slightly inhibited by NaCl concentrations of up to 150 mM, while human beta-defensin-1 activity was nearly eliminated. Reduction and alkylation of disulphide bonds in HE2 proteins and their C-terminal peptides abolished their antibacterial activity. Consistent with the ability to kill bacteria, full-length HE2 proteins and C-terminal peptides caused rapid dose-dependent permeabilization of outer and cytoplasmic E. coli membranes. A much longer exposure time was required for human beta-defensin-1-mediated permeabilization of membranes, suggesting a possible difference in mode of action compared with the HE2 antibacterial peptides. PMID:12628001

  6. Two novel mutations in myosin binding protein C slow causing distal arthrogryposis type 2 in two large Han Chinese families may suggest important functional role of immunoglobulin domain C2.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefu; Zhong, Bomeng; Han, Weitian; Zhao, Ning; Liu, Wei; Sui, Yu; Wang, Yawen; Lu, Yongping; Wang, Hong; Li, Jianxin; Jiang, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Distal arthrogryposes (DAs) are a group of disorders that mainly involve the distal parts of the limbs and at least ten different DAs have been described to date. DAs are mostly described as autosomal dominant disorders with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance, but recently autosomal recessive pattern was reported in distal arthrogryposis type 5D. Mutations in the contractile genes are found in about 50% of all DA patients. Of these genes, mutations in the gene encoding myosin binding protein C slow MYBPC1 were recently identified in two families with distal arthrogryposis type 1B. Here, we described two large Chinese families with autosomal dominant distal arthrogryposis type 2(DA2) with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Some unique overextension contractures of the lower limbs and some distinctive facial features were present in our DA2 pedigrees. We performed follow-up DNA sequencing after linkage mapping and first identified two novel MYBPC1 mutations (c.1075G>A [p.E359K] and c.956C>T [p.P319L]) responsible for these Chinese DA2 families of which one introduced by germline mosacism. Each mutation was found to cosegregate with the DA2 phenotype in each family but not in population controls. Both substitutions occur within C2 immunoglobulin domain, which together with C1 and the M motif constitute the binding site for the S2 subfragment of myosin. Our results expand the phenotypic spectrum of MYBPC1-related arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). We also proposed the possible molecular mechanisms that may underlie the pathogenesis of DA2 myopathy associated with these two substitutions in MYBPC1.

  7. Two Novel Mutations in Myosin Binding Protein C Slow Causing Distal Arthrogryposis Type 2 in Two Large Han Chinese Families May Suggest Important Functional Role of Immunoglobulin Domain C2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuefu; Zhong, Bomeng; Han, Weitian; Zhao, Ning; Liu, Wei; Sui, Yu; Wang, Yawen; Lu, Yongping; Wang, Hong; Li, Jianxin; Jiang, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Distal arthrogryposes (DAs) are a group of disorders that mainly involve the distal parts of the limbs and at least ten different DAs have been described to date. DAs are mostly described as autosomal dominant disorders with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance, but recently autosomal recessive pattern was reported in distal arthrogryposis type 5D. Mutations in the contractile genes are found in about 50% of all DA patients. Of these genes, mutations in the gene encoding myosin binding protein C slow MYBPC1 were recently identified in two families with distal arthrogryposis type 1B. Here, we described two large Chinese families with autosomal dominant distal arthrogryposis type 2(DA2) with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Some unique overextension contractures of the lower limbs and some distinctive facial features were present in our DA2 pedigrees. We performed follow-up DNA sequencing after linkage mapping and first identified two novel MYBPC1 mutations (c.1075G>A [p.E359K] and c.956C>T [p.P319L]) responsible for these Chinese DA2 families of which one introduced by germline mosacism. Each mutation was found to cosegregate with the DA2 phenotype in each family but not in population controls. Both substitutions occur within C2 immunoglobulin domain, which together with C1 and the M motif constitute the binding site for the S2 subfragment of myosin. Our results expand the phenotypic spectrum of MYBPC1-related arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). We also proposed the possible molecular mechanisms that may underlie the pathogenesis of DA2 myopathy associated with these two substitutions in MYBPC1. PMID:25679999

  8. Binding of S100 proteins to RAGE: an update.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Estelle; Fritz, Günter; Vetter, Stefan W; Heizmann, Claus W

    2009-06-01

    The Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) is a multi-ligand receptor of the immunoglobulin family. RAGE interacts with structurally different ligands probably through the oligomerization of the receptor on the cell surface. However, the exact mechanism is unknown. Among RAGE ligands are members of the S100 protein family. S100 proteins are small calcium binding proteins with high structural homology. Several members of the family have been shown to interact with RAGE in vitro or in cell-based assays. Interestingly, many RAGE ligands appear to interact with distinct domains of the extracellular portion of RAGE and to trigger various cellular effects. In this review, we summarize the modes of S100 protein-RAGE interaction with regard to their cellular functions.

  9. Specific binding of gibberellic acid by cytokinin-specific binding proteins: a new aspect of plant hormone-binding proteins with the PR-10 fold.

    PubMed

    Ruszkowski, Milosz; Sliwiak, Joanna; Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Barciszewski, Jakub; Sikorski, Michal; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins of class 10 (PR-10) are a family of plant proteins with the same fold characterized by a large hydrophobic cavity that allows them to bind various ligands, such as phytohormones. A subfamily with only ~20% sequence identity but with a conserved canonical PR-10 fold have previously been recognized as Cytokinin-Specific Binding Proteins (CSBPs), although structurally the binding mode of trans-zeatin (a cytokinin phytohormone) was found to be quite diversified. Here, it is shown that two CSBP orthologues from Medicago truncatula and Vigna radiata bind gibberellic acid (GA3), which is an entirely different phytohormone, in a conserved and highly specific manner. In both cases a single GA3 molecule is found in the internal cavity of the protein. The structural data derived from high-resolution crystal structures are corroborated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), which reveals a much stronger interaction with GA3 than with trans-zeatin and pH dependence of the binding profile. As a conclusion, it is postulated that the CSBP subfamily of plant PR-10 proteins should be more properly linked with general phytohormone-binding properties and termed phytohormone-binding proteins (PhBP).

  10. Characterization of a Single b-type Heme, FAD, and Metal Binding Sites in the Transmembrane Domain of Six-transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate (STEAP) Family Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Kleven, Mark D.; Dlakić, Mensur; Lawrence, C. Martin

    2015-01-01

    Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 3 (Steap3) is the major ferric reductase in developing erythrocytes. Steap family proteins are defined by a shared transmembrane domain that in Steap3 has been shown to function as a transmembrane electron shuttle, moving cytoplasmic electrons derived from NADPH across the lipid bilayer to the extracellular face where they are used to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ and potentially Cu2+ to Cu1+. Although the cytoplasmic N-terminal oxidoreductase domain of Steap3 and Steap4 are relatively well characterized, little work has been done to characterize the transmembrane domain of any member of the Steap family. Here we identify high affinity FAD and iron biding sites and characterize a single b-type heme binding site in the Steap3 transmembrane domain. Furthermore, we show that Steap3 is functional as a homodimer and that it utilizes an intrasubunit electron transfer pathway through the single heme moiety rather than an intersubunit electron pathway through a potential domain-swapped dimer. Importantly, the sequence motifs in the transmembrane domain that are associated with the FAD and metal binding sites are not only present in Steap2 and Steap4 but also in Steap1, which lacks the N-terminal oxidoreductase domain. This strongly suggests that Steap1 harbors latent oxidoreductase activity. PMID:26205815

  11. The binding domain structure of retinoblastoma-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Figge, J.; Breese, K.; Vajda, S.; Zhu, Q. L.; Eisele, L.; Andersen, T. T.; MacColl, R.; Friedrich, T.; Smith, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (Rb), a cellular growth suppressor, complexes with viral and cellular proteins that contain a specific binding domain incorporating three invariant residues: Leu-X-Cys-X-Glu, where X denotes a nonconserved residue. Hydrophobic and electrostatic properties are strongly conserved in this segment even though the nonconserved amino acids vary considerably from one Rb-binding protein to another. In this report, we present a diagnostic computer pattern for a high-affinity Rb-binding domain featuring the three conserved residues as well as the conserved physico-chemical properties. Although the pattern encompasses only 10 residues (with only 4 of these explicitly defined), it exhibits 100% sensitivity and 99.95% specificity in database searches. This implies that a certain pattern of structural and physico-chemical properties encoded by this short sequence is sufficient to govern specific Rb binding. We also present evidence that the secondary structural conformation through this region is important for effective Rb binding. PMID:8382993

  12. Inhibition of tristetraprolin deadenylation by poly(A) binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Rowlett, Robert M.; Chrestensen, Carol A.; Schroeder, Melanie J.; Harp, Mary G.; Pelo, Jared W.; Shabanowitz, Jeffery; DeRose, Robert; Hunt, Donald F.; Sturgill, Thomas W.; Worthington, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is the prototype for a family of RNA binding proteins that bind the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) messenger RNA AU-rich element (ARE), causing deadenylation of the TNF poly(A) tail, RNA decay, and silencing of TNF protein production. Using mass spectrometry sequencing we identified poly(A) binding proteins-1 and -4 (PABP1 and PABP4) in high abundance and good protein coverage from TTP immunoprecipitates. PABP1 significantly enhanced TNF ARE binding by RNA EMSA and prevented TTP-initiated deadenylation in an in vitro macrophage assay of TNF poly(A) stability. Neomycin inhibited TTP-promoted deadenylation at concentrations shown to inhibit the deadenylases poly(A) ribonuclease and CCR4. Stably transfected RAW264.7 macrophages overexpressing PABP1 do not oversecrete TNF; instead they upregulate TTP protein without increasing TNF protein production. The PABP1 inhibition of deadenylation initiated by TTP does not require the poly(A) binding regions in RRM1 and RRM2, suggesting a more complicated interaction than simple masking of the poly(A) tail from a 3′-exonuclease. Like TTP, PABP1 is a substrate for p38 MAP kinase. Finally, PABP1 stabilizes cotransfected TTP in 293T cells and prevents the decrease in TTP levels seen with p38 MAP kinase inhibition. These findings suggest several levels of functional antagonism between TTP and PABP1 that have implications for regulation of unstable mRNAs like TNF. PMID:18467502

  13. Sequence Discrimination by DNA-binding Domain of ETS Family Transcription Factor PU.1 Is Linked to Specific Hydration of Protein-DNA Interface*

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Gregory M. K.

    2012-01-01

    PU.1 is an essential transcription factor in normal hematopoietic lineage development. It recognizes a large number of promoter sites differing only in bases flanking a core consensus of 5′-GGAA-3′. DNA binding is mediated by its ETS domain, whose sequence selectivity directly corresponds to the transactivational activity and frequency of binding sites for full-length PU.1 in vivo. To better understand the basis of sequence discrimination, we characterized its binding properties to a high affinity and low affinity site. Despite sharing a homologous structural framework as confirmed by DNase I and hydroxyl radical footprinting, the two complexes exhibit striking heterogeneity in terms of hydration properties. High affinity binding is destabilized by osmotic stress, whereas low affinity binding is insensitive. Dimethyl sulfate footprinting showed that the major groove at the core consensus is protected in the high affinity complex but accessible in the low affinity one. Finally, destabilization of low affinity binding by salt is in quantitative agreement with the number of phosphate contacts but is substantially attenuated in high affinity binding. These observations support a mechanism of sequence discrimination wherein specifically bound water molecules couple flanking backbone contacts with base-specific interactions in a sequestered cavity at the core consensus. The implications of this model with respect to other ETS paralogs are discussed. PMID:22474303

  14. The Pfam protein families database.

    PubMed

    Finn, Robert D; Tate, John; Mistry, Jaina; Coggill, Penny C; Sammut, Stephen John; Hotz, Hans-Rudolf; Ceric, Goran; Forslund, Kristoffer; Eddy, Sean R; Sonnhammer, Erik L L; Bateman, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Pfam is a comprehensive collection of protein domains and families, represented as multiple sequence alignments and as profile hidden Markov models. The current release of Pfam (22.0) contains 9318 protein families. Pfam is now based not only on the UniProtKB sequence database, but also on NCBI GenPept and on sequences from selected metagenomics projects. Pfam is available on the web from the consortium members using a new, consistent and improved website design in the UK (http://pfam.sanger.ac.uk/), the USA (http://pfam.janelia.org/) and Sweden (http://pfam.sbc.su.se/), as well as from mirror sites in France (http://pfam.jouy.inra.fr/) and South Korea (http://pfam.ccbb.re.kr/).

  15. Resolving protein structure-function-binding site relationships from a binding site similarity network perspective.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Richa; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2017-03-25

    Functional annotation is seldom straightforward with complexities arising due to functional divergence in protein families or functional convergence between non-homologous protein families, leading to mis-annotations. An enzyme may contain multiple domains and not all domains may be involved in a given function, adding to the complexity in function annotation. To address this, we use binding site information from bound cognate ligands and catalytic residues, since it can help in resolving fold-function relationships at a finer level and with higher confidence. A comprehensive database of 2,020 fold-function-binding site relationships has been systematically generated. A network-based approach is employed to capture the complexity in these relationships, from which different types of associations are deciphered, that identify versatile protein folds performing diverse functions, same function associated with multiple folds and one-to-one relationships. Binding site similarity networks integrated with fold, function and ligand similarity information are generated to understand the depth of these relationships. Apart from the observed continuity in the functional site space, network properties of these revealed versatile families with topologically different or dissimilar binding sites and structural families that perform very similar functions. As a case study, subtle changes in the active site of a set of evolutionarily related superfamilies are studied using these networks. Tracing of such similarities in evolutionarily related proteins provide clues into the transition and evolution of protein functions. Insights from this study will be helpful in accurate and reliable functional annotations of uncharacterized proteins, poly-pharmacology and designing enzymes with new functional capabilities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Allosteric switch regulates protein–protein binding through collective motion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Colin A.; Pratihar, Supriya; Giller, Karin; Paulat, Maria; Becker, Stefan; Griesinger, Christian; Lee, Donghan; de Groot, Bert L.

    2016-01-01

    Many biological processes depend on allosteric communication between different parts of a protein, but the role of internal protein motion in propagating signals through the structure remains largely unknown. Through an experimental and computational analysis of the ground state dynamics in ubiquitin, we identify a collective global motion that is specifically linked to a conformational switch distant from the binding interface. This allosteric coupling is also present in crystal structures and is found to facilitate multispecificity, particularly binding to the ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) family of deubiquitinases. The collective motion that enables this allosteric communication does not affect binding through localized changes but, instead, depends on expansion and contraction of the entire protein domain. The characterization of these collective motions represents a promising avenue for finding and manipulating allosteric networks. PMID:26961002

  17. Folding funnels, binding funnels, and protein function.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C. J.; Kumar, S.; Ma, B.; Nussinov, R.

    1999-01-01

    Folding funnels have been the focus of considerable attention during the last few years. These have mostly been discussed in the general context of the theory of protein folding. Here we extend the utility of the concept of folding funnels, relating them to biological mechanisms and function. In particular, here we describe the shape of the funnels in light of protein synthesis and folding; flexibility, conformational diversity, and binding mechanisms; and the associated binding funnels, illustrating the multiple routes and the range of complexed conformers. Specifically, the walls of the folding funnels, their crevices, and bumps are related to the complexity of protein folding, and hence to sequential vs. nonsequential folding. Whereas the former is more frequently observed in eukaryotic proteins, where the rate of protein synthesis is slower, the latter is more frequent in prokaryotes, with faster translation rates. The bottoms of the funnels reflect the extent of the flexibility of the proteins. Rugged floors imply a range of conformational isomers, which may be close on the energy landscape. Rather than undergoing an induced fit binding mechanism, the conformational ensembles around the rugged bottoms argue that the conformers, which are most complementary to the ligand, will bind to it with the equilibrium shifting in their favor. Furthermore, depending on the extent of the ruggedness, or of the smoothness with only a few minima, we may infer nonspecific, broad range vs. specific binding. In particular, folding and binding are similar processes, with similar underlying principles. Hence, the shape of the folding funnel of the monomer enables making reasonable guesses regarding the shape of the corresponding binding funnel. Proteins having a broad range of binding, such as proteolytic enzymes or relatively nonspecific endonucleases, may be expected to have not only rugged floors in their folding funnels, but their binding funnels will also behave similarly

  18. Comparison of entropic contributions to binding in a "hydrophilic" versus "hydrophobic" ligand-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Syme, Neil R; Dennis, Caitriona; Bronowska, Agnieszka; Paesen, Guido C; Homans, Steve W

    2010-06-30

    In the present study we characterize the thermodynamics of binding of histamine to recombinant histamine-binding protein (rRaHBP2), a member of the lipocalin family isolated from the brown-ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The binding pocket of this protein contains a number of charged residues, consistent with histamine binding, and is thus a typical example of a "hydrophilic" binder. In contrast, a second member of the lipocalin family, the recombinant major urinary protein (rMUP), binds small hydrophobic ligands, with a similar overall entropy of binding in comparison with rRaHBP2. Having extensively studied ligand binding thermodynamics for rMUP previously, the data we obtained in the present study for HBP enables a comparison of the driving forces for binding between these classically distinct binding processes in terms of entropic contributions from ligand, protein, and solvent. In the case of rRaHBP2, we find favorable entropic contributions to binding from desolvation of the ligand; however, the overall entropy of binding is unfavorable due to a dominant unfavorable contribution arising from the loss of ligand degrees of freedom, together with the sequestration of solvent water molecules into the binding pocket in the complex. This contrasts with binding in rMUP where desolvation of the protein binding pocket makes a minor contribution to the overall entropy of binding given that the pocket is substantially desolvated prior to binding.

  19. Involvement of PCH family proteins in cytokinesis and actin distribution.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, J; Li, R

    2000-04-15

    Pombe Cdc15 homology (PCH) proteins constitute an extensive protein family whose members have been found in diverse eukaryotic organisms. These proteins are characterized by the presence of several conserved sequence and structural motifs. Recent studies in yeast and mammalian cultured cells have implicated these proteins in actin-based processes, in particular, cytokinesis. Here we review the recent findings on the in vivo localization, function, and binding partners of PCH family members. We also provide new microscopy data regarding the in vivo dynamics of a budding yeast PCH protein involved in cytokinesis.

  20. Facilitated diffusion of DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Klenin, Konstantin V; Merlitz, Holger; Langowski, Jörg; Wu, Chen-Xu

    2006-01-13

    The diffusion-controlled limit of reaction times for site-specific DNA-binding proteins is derived from first principles. We follow the generally accepted concept that a protein propagates via two competitive modes, a three-dimensional diffusion in space and a one-dimensional sliding along the DNA. However, our theoretical treatment of the problem is new. The accuracy of our analytical model is verified by numerical simulations. The results confirm that the unspecific binding of protein to DNA, combined with sliding, is capable to reduce the reaction times significantly.

  1. Drug protein binding and the nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gugler, R; Azarnoff, D L

    1976-01-01

    A reduction in plasma albumin concentration, as seen in patients with the nephrotic syndrome, is usually associated with a decrease in plasma protein binding of highly bound drugs. Therefore, the fraction of the unbound drug increases, but the absolute free concentration remains essentially unchanged due to a compensatory reduction in the steady state total plasma concentration. With phenytoin, protein binding and plasma albumin concentration are closely related, so that the degree of binding can be estimated without specific binding techniques. To be able to correctly interprete plasma levels the degree of protein binding should be known, since a reduced total concentration may be fully effective, if the free drug fraction is increased in hypoalbuminaemic patients. Although the mean steady state plasma concentration of highly bound drugs is not affected in the nephrotic syndrome, a greater fluctuation of the unbound level is observed between doses, offering a possible explanation for the increased incidence of toxicity in hypoalbuminaemic patients. As a consequence, shorter dosing intervals of these drugs seems to be advisable, rather than a reduction in the total daily dose. Reduced protein binding is accompanied by an increase in the total plasma clearance which is a function of the elimination rate constant and the volume of distribution.

  2. Plasmodium falciparum AMA-1 erythrocyte binding peptides implicate AMA-1 as erythrocyte binding protein.

    PubMed

    Urquiza, M; Suarez, J E; Cardenas, C; Lopez, R; Puentes, A; Chavez, F; Calvo, J C; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-10-15

    The role of AMA-1 during merozoite invasion has not yet been determined. However, reported experimental evidence suggests that this protein can be used, in particular as erythrocyte-binding protein, since, Fab fragments against this protein are able to block merozoite invasion. Using a previously described methodology, eight peptides with high binding activity to human erythrocyte, scattered along the different domains and having around 130 nM affinity constants, were identified in the Plasmodium falciparum AMA-1 protein. Their binding activity was sialic acid independent. Some of these peptides showed homology with the erythrocyte binding domains of one of the apical organelle protein family, MAEBL, identified in rodent malarial parasites. One of these peptides shares amino acid sequence with a previously reported B-cell epitope which induces antibodies to block parasite growth. The critical residues were identified for erythrocyte binding conserved peptides 4313 (DAEVAGTQYRLPSGKCPVFG), 4321 (VVDNWEKVCPRKNLQNAKFG), 4325 (MIKSAFLPTGAFKADRYKSH) and 4337 (WGEEKRASHTTPVLMEKPYY). All conserved peptides were able to block merozoite invasion of new RBC and development, suggesting that these peptides are involved in P. falciparum invasion.

  3. Computational search for aflatoxin binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    Aflatoxin is one of the mycotoxins that contaminate various food products. Among various aflatoxin types (B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1), aflatoxin B1 is the most important and the most toxic one. In this study, through computational screening, we found that several proteins may bind specifically with different type of aflatoxins. Combination of theoretical methods including target fishing, molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, MM/PBSA calculation were utilized to search for new aflatoxin B1 binding proteins. A recently developed method for calculating entropic contribution to binding free energy called interaction entropy (IE) was employed to compute the binding free energy between the protein and aflatoxin B1. Through comprehensive comparison, three proteins, namely, trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, GSK-3b, and Pim-1 were eventually selected as potent aflatoxin B1 binding proteins. GSK-3b and Pim-1 are drug targets of cancers or neurological diseases. GSK-3b is the strongest binder for aflatoxin B1.

  4. Phosphate binding sites identification in protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Parca, Luca; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ausiello, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Nearly half of known protein structures interact with phosphate-containing ligands, such as nucleotides and other cofactors. Many methods have been developed for the identification of metal ions-binding sites and some for bigger ligands such as carbohydrates, but none is yet available for the prediction of phosphate-binding sites. Here we describe Pfinder, a method that predicts binding sites for phosphate groups, both in the form of ions or as parts of other non-peptide ligands, in proteins of known structure. Pfinder uses the Query3D local structural comparison algorithm to scan a protein structure for the presence of a number of structural motifs identified for their ability to bind the phosphate chemical group. Pfinder has been tested on a data set of 52 proteins for which both the apo and holo forms were available. We obtained at least one correct prediction in 63% of the holo structures and in 62% of the apo. The ability of Pfinder to recognize a phosphate-binding site in unbound protein structures makes it an ideal tool for functional annotation and for complementing docking and drug design methods. The Pfinder program is available at http://pdbfun.uniroma2.it/pfinder. PMID:20974634

  5. Memory binding and white matter integrity in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Parra, Mario A; Saarimäki, Heini; Bastin, Mark E; Londoño, Ana C; Pettit, Lewis; Lopera, Francisco; Della Sala, Sergio; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-05-01

    Binding information in short-term and long-term memory are functions sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. They have been found to be affected in patients who meet criteria for familial Alzheimer's disease due to the mutation E280A of the PSEN1 gene. However, only short-term memory binding has been found to be affected in asymptomatic carriers of this mutation. The neural correlates of this dissociation are poorly understood. The present study used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether the integrity of white matter structures could offer an account. A sample of 19 patients with familial Alzheimer's disease, 18 asymptomatic carriers and 21 non-carrier controls underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and memory binding assessment. The short-term memory binding task required participants to detect changes across two consecutive screens displaying arrays of shapes, colours, or shape-colour bindings. The long-term memory binding task was a Paired Associates Learning Test. Performance on these tasks were entered into regression models. Relative to controls, patients with familial Alzheimer's disease performed poorly on both memory binding tasks. Asymptomatic carriers differed from controls only in the short-term memory binding task. White matter integrity explained poor memory binding performance only in patients with familial Alzheimer's disease. White matter water diffusion metrics from the frontal lobe accounted for poor performance on both memory binding tasks. Dissociations were found in the genu of corpus callosum which accounted for short-term memory binding impairments and in the hippocampal part of cingulum bundle which accounted for long-term memory binding deficits. The results indicate that white matter structures in the frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable to the early stages of familial Alzheimer's disease and their damage is associated with impairments in two memory binding functions known to

  6. Phage display screen for peptides that bind Bcl-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Joungmok; Cho, June-Haeng; Moon, Ji Young; Lee, Su-Jae; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2011-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins are key regulators of apoptosis associated with human disease, including cancer. Bcl-2 protein has been found to be overexpressed in many cancer cells. Therefore, Bcl-2 protein is a potential diagnostic target for cancer detection. In the present study, the authors have identified several Bcl-2 binding peptides with high affinity (picomolar range) from a 5-round M13 phage display library screening. These peptides can be used to develop novel diagnostic probes or potent inhibitors with diverse polyvalencies.

  7. HTLV-I Tax protein stimulation of DNA binding of bZIP proteins by enhancing dimerization.

    PubMed

    Wagner, S; Green, M R

    1993-10-15

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  8. Natural history of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kozbial, Piotr Z; Mushegian, Arcady R

    2005-01-01

    Background S-adenosylmethionine is a source of diverse chemical groups used in biosynthesis and modification of virtually every class of biomolecules. The most notable reaction requiring S-adenosylmethionine, transfer of methyl group, is performed by a large class of enzymes, S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases, which have been the focus of considerable structure-function studies. Evolutionary trajectories of these enzymes, and especially of other classes of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins, nevertheless, remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by computational comparison of sequences and structures of various S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins. Results Two widespread folds, Rossmann fold and TIM barrel, have been repeatedly used in evolution for diverse types of S-adenosylmethionine conversion. There were also cases of recruitment of other relatively common folds for S-adenosylmethionine binding. Several classes of proteins have unique unrelated folds, specialized for just one type of chemistry and unified by the theme of internal domain duplications. In several cases, functional divergence is evident, when evolutionarily related enzymes have changed the mode of binding and the type of chemical transformation of S-adenosylmethionine. There are also instances of functional convergence, when biochemically similar processes are performed by drastically different classes of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins. Comparison of remote sequence similarities and analysis of phyletic patterns suggests that the last universal common ancestor of cellular life had between 10 and 20 S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins from at least 5 fold classes, providing for S-adenosylmethionine formation, polyamine biosynthesis, and methylation of several substrates, including nucleic acids and peptide chain release factor. Conclusion We have observed several novel relationships between families that were not known to be related before, and defined 15

  9. Predicting Ca(2+)-binding sites in proteins.

    PubMed

    Nayal, M; Di Cera, E

    1994-01-18

    The coordination shell of Ca2+ ions in proteins contains almost exclusively oxygen atoms supported by an outer shell of carbon atoms. The bond-strength contribution of each ligating oxygen in the inner shell can be evaluated by using an empirical expression successfully applied in the analysis of crystals of metal oxides. The sum of such contributions closely approximates the valence of the bound cation. When a protein is embedded in a very fine grid of points and an algorithm is used to calculate the valence of each point representing a potential Ca(2+)-binding site, a typical distribution of valence values peaked around 0.4 is obtained. In 32 documented Ca(2+)-binding proteins, containing a total of 62 Ca(2+)-binding sites, a very small fraction of points in the distribution has a valence close to that of Ca2+. Only 0.06% of the points have a valence > or = 1.4. These points share the remarkable tendency to cluster around documented Ca2+ ions. A high enough value of the valence is both necessary (58 out of 62 Ca(2+)-binding sites have a valence > or = 1.4) and sufficient (87% of the grid points with a valence > or = 1.4 are within 1.0 A from a documented Ca2+ ion) to predict the location of bound Ca2+ ions. The algorithm can also be used for the analysis of other cations and predicts the location of Mg(2+)- and Na(+)-binding sites in a number of proteins. The valence is, therefore, a tool of pinpoint accuracy for locating cation-binding sites, which can also be exploited in engineering high-affinity binding sites and characterizing the linkage between structural components and functional energetics for molecular recognition of metal ions by proteins.

  10. Aspects of Protein, Chemistry, Part II: Oxygen-Binding Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Compares differences in function and behavior of two oxygen-binding proteins, myoglobin found in muscle and hemoglobin found in blood. Describes the mechanism of oxygen-binding and allosteric effect in hemoglobin; also describes the effect of pH on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (CS)

  11. Aspects of Protein, Chemistry, Part II: Oxygen-Binding Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Compares differences in function and behavior of two oxygen-binding proteins, myoglobin found in muscle and hemoglobin found in blood. Describes the mechanism of oxygen-binding and allosteric effect in hemoglobin; also describes the effect of pH on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (CS)

  12. Correlated rigid modes in protein families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striegel, D. A.; Wojtowicz, D.; Przytycka, T. M.; Periwal, V.

    2016-04-01

    A great deal of evolutionarily conserved information is contained in genomes and proteins. Enormous effort has been put into understanding protein structure and developing computational tools for protein folding, and many sophisticated approaches take structure and sequence homology into account. Several groups have applied statistical physics approaches to extracting information about proteins from sequences alone. Here, we develop a new method for sequence analysis based on first principles, in information theory, in statistical physics and in Bayesian analysis. We provide a complete derivation of our approach and we apply it to a variety of systems, to demonstrate its utility and its limitations. We show in some examples that phylogenetic alignments of amino-acid sequences of families of proteins imply the existence of a small number of modes that appear to be associated with correlated global variation. These modes are uncovered efficiently in our approach by computing a non-perturbative effective potential directly from the alignment. We show that this effective potential approaches a limiting form inversely with the logarithm of the number of sequences. Mapping symbol entropy flows along modes to underlying physical structures shows that these modes arise due to correlated compensatory adjustments. In the protein examples, these occur around functional binding pockets.

  13. The Pfam protein families database

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Robert D.; Mistry, Jaina; Tate, John; Coggill, Penny; Heger, Andreas; Pollington, Joanne E.; Gavin, O. Luke; Gunasekaran, Prasad; Ceric, Goran; Forslund, Kristoffer; Holm, Liisa; Sonnhammer, Erik L. L.; Eddy, Sean R.; Bateman, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Pfam is a widely used database of protein families and domains. This article describes a set of major updates that we have implemented in the latest release (version 24.0). The most important change is that we now use HMMER3, the latest version of the popular profile hidden Markov model package. This software is ∼100 times faster than HMMER2 and is more sensitive due to the routine use of the forward algorithm. The move to HMMER3 has necessitated numerous changes to Pfam that are described in detail. Pfam release 24.0 contains 11 912 families, of which a large number have been significantly updated during the past two years. Pfam is available via servers in the UK (http://pfam.sanger.ac.uk/), the USA (http://pfam.janelia.org/) and Sweden (http://pfam.sbc.su.se/). PMID:19920124

  14. The PDZ Domain of the LIM Protein Enigma Binds to β-Tropomyosin

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Pamela M.; Kenny, Daryn A.; Gill, Gordon N.

    1999-01-01

    PDZ and LIM domains are modular protein interaction motifs present in proteins with diverse functions. Enigma is representative of a family of proteins composed of a series of conserved PDZ and LIM domains. The LIM domains of Enigma and its most related family member, Enigma homology protein, bind to protein kinases, whereas the PDZ domains of Enigma and family member actin-associated LIM protein bind to actin filaments. Enigma localizes to actin filaments in fibroblasts via its PDZ domain, and actin-associated LIM protein binds to and colocalizes with the actin-binding protein α-actinin-2 at Z lines in skeletal muscle. We show that Enigma is present at the Z line in skeletal muscle and that the PDZ domain of Enigma binds to a skeletal muscle target, the actin-binding protein tropomyosin (skeletal β-TM). The interaction between Enigma and skeletal β-TM was specific for the PDZ domain of Enigma, was abolished by mutations in the PDZ domain, and required the PDZ-binding consensus sequence (Thr-Ser-Leu) at the extreme carboxyl terminus of skeletal β-TM. Enigma interacted with isoforms of tropomyosin expressed in C2C12 myotubes and formed an immunoprecipitable complex with skeletal β-TM in transfected cells. The association of Enigma with skeletal β-TM suggests a role for Enigma as an adapter protein that directs LIM-binding proteins to actin filaments of muscle cells. PMID:10359609

  15. Ice-Binding Proteins and Their Function.

    PubMed

    Bar Dolev, Maya; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter L

    2016-06-02

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are a diverse class of proteins that assist organism survival in the presence of ice in cold climates. They have different origins in many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, diatoms, plants, insects, and fish. This review covers the gamut of IBP structures and functions and the common features they use to bind ice. We discuss mechanisms by which IBPs adsorb to ice and interfere with its growth, evidence for their irreversible association with ice, and methods for enhancing the activity of IBPs. The applications of IBPs in the food industry, in cryopreservation, and in other technologies are vast, and we chart out some possibilities.

  16. Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 has an interdigitated double Tudor domain with DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weibin; Wang, Jinfeng; Perrett, Sarah; Feng, Yingang

    2014-02-21

    Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1) is a tumor and leukemia suppressor that binds both methylated histone tails and DNA. Our previous studies indicated that RBBP1 possesses a Tudor domain, which cannot bind histone marks. In order to clarify the function of the Tudor domain, the solution structure of the RBBP1 Tudor domain was determined by NMR and is presented here. Although the proteins are unrelated, the RBBP1 Tudor domain forms an interdigitated double Tudor structure similar to the Tudor domain of JMJD2A, which is an epigenetic mark reader. This indicates the functional diversity of Tudor domains. The RBBP1 Tudor domain structure has a significant area of positively charged surface, which reveals a capability of the RBBP1 Tudor domain to bind nucleic acids. NMR titration and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicate that the RBBP1 Tudor domain binds both double- and single-stranded DNA with an affinity of 10-100 μM; no apparent DNA sequence specificity was detected. The DNA binding mode and key interaction residues were analyzed in detail based on a model structure of the Tudor domain-dsDNA complex, built by HADDOCK docking using the NMR data. Electrostatic interactions mediate the binding of the Tudor domain with DNA, which is consistent with NMR experiments performed at high salt concentration. The DNA-binding residues are conserved in Tudor domains of the RBBP1 protein family, resulting in conservation of the DNA-binding function in the RBBP1 Tudor domains. Our results provide further insights into the structure and function of RBBP1.

  17. Computational analysis of maltose binding protein translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinappi, Mauro; Cecconi, Fabio; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    We propose a computational model for the study of maltose binding protein translocation across α-hemolysin nanopores. The phenomenological approach simplifies both the pore and the polypeptide chain; however it retains the basic structural protein-like properties of the maltose binding protein by promoting the correct formation of its native key interactions. By considering different observables characterising the channel blockade and molecule transport, we verified that MD simulations reproduce qualitatively the behaviour observed in a recent experiment. Simulations reveal that blockade events consist of a capture stage, to some extent related to the unfolding kinetics, and a single file translocation process in the channel. A threshold mechanics underlies the process activation with a critical force depending on the protein denaturation state. Finally, our results support the simple interpretation of translocation via first-passage statistics of a driven diffusion process of a single reaction coordinate.

  18. Expression of the sucrose binding protein from soybean: renaturation and stability of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Carolina S; Luz, Dirce F; Oliveira, Marli L; Baracat-Pereira, Maria C; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Fontes, Elizabeth P B

    2007-03-01

    The sucrose binding protein (SBP) belongs to the cupin family of proteins and is structurally related to vicilin-like storage proteins. In this investigation, a SBP isoform (GmSBP2/S64) was expressed in E. coli and large amounts of the protein accumulated in the insoluble fraction as inclusion bodies. The renatured protein was studied by circular dichroism (CD), intrinsic fluorescence, and binding of the hydrophobic probes ANS and Bis-ANS. The estimated content of secondary structure of the renatured protein was consistent with that obtained by theoretical modeling with a large predominance of beta-strand structure (42%) over the alpha-helix (9.9%). The fluorescence emission maximum of 303 nm for SBP2 indicated that the fluorescent tryptophan was completely buried within a highly hydrophobic environment. We also measured the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of sucrose binding by fluorescence titration using the refolded protein. The low sucrose binding affinity (K(d)=2.79+/-0.22 mM) of the renatured protein was similar to that of the native protein purified from soybean seeds. Collectively, these results indicate that the folded structure of the renatured protein was similar to the native SBP protein. As a member of the bicupin family of proteins, which includes highly stable seed storage proteins, SBP2 was fairly stable at high temperatures. Likewise, it remained folded to a similar extent in the presence or absence of 7.6M urea or 6.7 M GdmHCl. The high stability of the renatured protein may be a reminiscent property of SBP from its evolutionary relatedness to the seed storage proteins.

  19. Exploring the binding dynamics of BAR proteins.

    PubMed

    Kabaso, Doron; Gongadze, Ekaterina; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Kreft, Marko; Van Rienen, Ursula; Zorec, Robert; Iglič, Aleš

    2011-09-01

    We used a continuum model based on the Helfrich free energy to investigate the binding dynamics of a lipid bilayer to a BAR domain surface of a crescent-like shape of positive (e.g. I-BAR shape) or negative (e.g. F-BAR shape) intrinsic curvature. According to structural data, it has been suggested that negatively charged membrane lipids are bound to positively charged amino acids at the binding interface of BAR proteins, contributing a negative binding energy to the system free energy. In addition, the cone-like shape of negatively charged lipids on the inner side of a cell membrane might contribute a positive intrinsic curvature, facilitating the initial bending towards the crescent-like shape of the BAR domain. In the present study, we hypothesize that in the limit of a rigid BAR domain shape, the negative binding energy and the coupling between the intrinsic curvature of negatively charged lipids and the membrane curvature drive the bending of the membrane. To estimate the binding energy, the electric potential at the charged surface of a BAR domain was calculated using the Langevin-Bikerman equation. Results of numerical simulations reveal that the binding energy is important for the initial instability (i.e. bending of a membrane), while the coupling between the intrinsic shapes of lipids and membrane curvature could be crucial for the curvature-dependent aggregation of negatively charged lipids near the surface of the BAR domain. In the discussion, we suggest novel experiments using patch clamp techniques to analyze the binding dynamics of BAR proteins, as well as the possible role of BAR proteins in the fusion pore stability of exovesicles.

  20. Comparison of a fungal (family I) and bacterial (family II) cellulose-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Tomme, P; Driver, D P; Amandoron, E A; Miller, R C; Antony, R; Warren, J; Kilburn, D G

    1995-01-01

    A family II cellulose-binding domain (CBD) of an exoglucanase/xylanase (Cex) from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi was replaced with the family I CBD of cellobiohydrolase I (CbhI) from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Expression of the hybrid gene in Escherichia coli yielded up to 50 mg of the hybrid protein, CexCBDCbhI, per liter of culture supernatant. The hybrid was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on cellulose. The relative association constants (Kr) for the binding of Cex, CexCBDCbhI, the catalytic domain of Cex (p33), and CbhI to bacterial microcrystalline cellulose (BMCC) were 14.9, 7.8, 0.8, and 10.6 liters g-1, respectively. Cex and CexCBDCbhI had similar substrate specificities and similar activities on crystalline and amorphous cellulose. Both released predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose from amorphous cellulose. CexCBDCbhI was two to three times less active than Cex on BMCC, but significantly more active than Cex on soluble cellulose and on xylan. Unlike Cex, the hybrid protein neither bound to alpha-chitin nor released small particles from dewaxed cotton fibers. PMID:7635821

  1. A complex of nuclear proteins mediates SR protein binding to a purine-rich splicing enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Yeakley, J M; Morfin, J P; Rosenfeld, M G; Fu, X D

    1996-01-01

    A purine-rich splicing enhancer from a constitutive exon has been shown to shift the alternative splicing of calcitonin/CGRP pre-mRNA in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that the native repetitive GAA sequence comprises the optimal enhancer element and specifically binds a saturable complex of proteins required for general splicing in vitro. This complex contains a 37-kDa protein that directly binds the repetitive GAA sequence and SRp40, a member of the SR family of non-snRNP splicing factors. While purified SR proteins do not stably bind the repetitive GAA element, exogenous SR proteins become associated with the GAA element in the presence of nuclear extracts and stimulate GAA-dependent splicing. These results suggest that repetitive GAA sequences enhance splicing by binding a protein complex containing a sequence-specific RNA binding protein and a general splicing activator that, in turn, recruit additional SR proteins. This type of mechanism resembles the tra/tra-2-dependent recruitment of SR proteins to the Drosophila doublesex alternative splicing regulatory element. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8755518

  2. Calling cards for DNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoyi; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David

    2007-01-01

    Identifying genomic targets of transcription factors is fundamental for understanding transcriptional regulatory networks. Current technology enables identification of all targets of a single transcription factor, but there is no realistic way to achieve the converse: identification of all proteins that bind to a promoter of interest. We have developed a method that promises to fill this void. It employs the yeast retrotransposon Ty5, whose integrase interacts with the Sir4 protein. A DNA-binding protein fused to Sir4 directs insertion of Ty5 into the genome near where it binds; the Ty5 becomes a “calling card” the DNA-binding protein leaves behind in the genome. We constructed customized calling cards for seven transcription factors of yeast by including in each Ty5 a unique DNA sequence that serves as a “molecular bar code.” Ty5 transposition was induced in a population of yeast cells, each expressing a different transcription factor–Sir4 fusion and its matched, bar-coded Ty5, and the calling cards deposited into selected regions of the genome were identified, revealing the transcription factors that visited that region of the genome. In each region we analyzed, we found calling cards for only the proteins known to bind there: In the GAL1–10 promoter we found only calling cards for Gal4; in the HIS4 promoter we found only Gcn4 calling cards; in the PHO5 promoter we found only Pho4 and Pho2 calling cards. We discuss how Ty5 calling cards might be implemented for mapping all targets of all transcription factors in a single experiment. PMID:17623806

  3. The RNA-binding landscapes of two SR proteins reveal unique functions and binding to diverse RNA classes.

    PubMed

    Änkö, Minna-Liisa; Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Brandl, Holger; Curk, Tomaz; Gorup, Crtomir; Henry, Ian; Ule, Jernej; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2012-01-01

    The SR proteins comprise a family of essential, structurally related RNA binding proteins. The complexity of their RNA targets and specificity of RNA recognition in vivo is not well understood. Here we use iCLIP to globally analyze and compare the RNA binding properties of two SR proteins, SRSF3 and SRSF4, in murine cells. SRSF3 and SRSF4 binding sites mapped to largely non-overlapping target genes, and in vivo consensus binding motifs were distinct. Interactions with intronless and intron-containing mRNAs as well as non-coding RNAs were detected. Surprisingly, both SR proteins bound to the 3' ends of the majority of intronless histone transcripts, implicating SRSF3 and SRSF4 in histone mRNA metabolism. In contrast, SRSF3 but not SRSF4 specifically bound transcripts encoding numerous RNA binding proteins. Remarkably, SRSF3 was shown to modulate alternative splicing of its own as well as three other transcripts encoding SR proteins. These SRSF3-mediated splicing events led to downregulation of heterologous SR proteins via nonsense-mediated decay. SRSF3 and SRSF4 display unique RNA binding properties underlying diverse cellular regulatory mechanisms, with shared as well as unique coding and non-coding targets. Importantly, CLIP analysis led to the discovery that SRSF3 cross-regulates the expression of other SR protein family members.

  4. The RNA-binding landscapes of two SR proteins reveal unique functions and binding to diverse RNA classes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The SR proteins comprise a family of essential, structurally related RNA binding proteins. The complexity of their RNA targets and specificity of RNA recognition in vivo is not well understood. Here we use iCLIP to globally analyze and compare the RNA binding properties of two SR proteins, SRSF3 and SRSF4, in murine cells. Results SRSF3 and SRSF4 binding sites mapped to largely non-overlapping target genes, and in vivo consensus binding motifs were distinct. Interactions with intronless and intron-containing mRNAs as well as non-coding RNAs were detected. Surprisingly, both SR proteins bound to the 3' ends of the majority of intronless histone transcripts, implicating SRSF3 and SRSF4 in histone mRNA metabolism. In contrast, SRSF3 but not SRSF4 specifically bound transcripts encoding numerous RNA binding proteins. Remarkably, SRSF3 was shown to modulate alternative splicing of its own as well as three other transcripts encoding SR proteins. These SRSF3-mediated splicing events led to downregulation of heterologous SR proteins via nonsense-mediated decay. Conclusions SRSF3 and SRSF4 display unique RNA binding properties underlying diverse cellular regulatory mechanisms, with shared as well as unique coding and non-coding targets. Importantly, CLIP analysis led to the discovery that SRSF3 cross-regulates the expression of other SR protein family members. PMID:22436691

  5. Computational Investigation of Glycosylation Effects on a Family 1 Carbohydrate-binding Module*

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Courtney B.; Talib, M. Faiz; McCabe, Clare; Bu, Lintao; Adney, William S.; Himmel, Michael E.; Crowley, Michael F.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are ubiquitous components of glycoside hydrolases, which degrade polysaccharides in nature. CBMs target specific polysaccharides, and CBM binding affinity to cellulose is known to be proportional to cellulase activity, such that increasing binding affinity is an important component of performance improvement. To ascertain the impact of protein and glycan engineering on CBM binding, we use molecular simulation to quantify cellulose binding of a natively glycosylated Family 1 CBM. To validate our approach, we first examine aromatic-carbohydrate interactions on binding, and our predictions are consistent with previous experiments, showing that a tyrosine to tryptophan mutation yields a 2-fold improvement in binding affinity. We then demonstrate that enhanced binding of 3–6-fold over a nonglycosylated CBM is achieved by the addition of a single, native mannose or a mannose dimer, respectively, which has not been considered previously. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a single, artificial glycan on the anterior of the CBM, with the native, posterior glycans also present, can have a dramatic impact on binding affinity in our model, increasing it up to 140-fold relative to the nonglycosylated CBM. These results suggest new directions in protein engineering, in that modifying glycosylation patterns via heterologous expression, manipulation of culture conditions, or introduction of artificial glycosylation sites, can alter CBM binding affinity to carbohydrates and may thus be a general strategy to enhance cellulase performance. Our results also suggest that CBM binding studies should consider the effects of glycosylation on binding and function. PMID:22147693

  6. Computational Investigation of Glycosylation Effects on a Family 1 Carbohydrate-Binding Module

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C. B.; Talib, M. F.; McCabe, C.; Bu, L.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-27

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are ubiquitous components of glycoside hydrolases, which degrade polysaccharides in nature. CBMs target specific polysaccharides, and CBM binding affinity to cellulose is known to be proportional to cellulase activity, such that increasing binding affinity is an important component of performance improvement. To ascertain the impact of protein and glycan engineering on CBM binding, we use molecular simulation to quantify cellulose binding of a natively glycosylated Family 1 CBM. To validate our approach, we first examine aromatic-carbohydrate interactions on binding, and our predictions are consistent with previous experiments, showing that a tyrosine to tryptophan mutation yields a 2-fold improvement in binding affinity. We then demonstrate that enhanced binding of 3-6-fold over a nonglycosylated CBM is achieved by the addition of a single, native mannose or a mannose dimer, respectively, which has not been considered previously. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a single, artificial glycan on the anterior of the CBM, with the native, posterior glycans also present, can have a dramatic impact on binding affinity in our model, increasing it up to 140-fold relative to the nonglycosylated CBM. These results suggest new directions in protein engineering, in that modifying glycosylation patterns via heterologous expression, manipulation of culture conditions, or introduction of artificial glycosylation sites, can alter CBM binding affinity to carbohydrates and may thus be a general strategy to enhance cellulase performance. Our results also suggest that CBM binding studies should consider the effects of glycosylation on binding and function.

  7. A lipopolysaccharide-binding domain of the Campylobacter fetus S-layer protein resides within the conserved N terminus of a family of silent and divergent homologs.

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, J; Tummuru, M K; Blaser, M J

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus cells can produce multiple S-layer proteins ranging from 97 to 149 kDa, with a single form predominating in cultured cells. We have cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli a sapA homolog, sapA2, which encodes a full-length 1,109-amino-acid (112-kDa) S-layer protein. Comparison with the two previously cloned sapA homologs has demonstrated two regions of identity, approximately 70 bp before the open reading frame (ORF) and proceeding 550 bp into the ORF and immediately downstream of the ORF. The entire genome contains eight copies of each of these conserved regions. Southern analyses has demonstrated that sapA2 existed as a complete copy within the genome in all strains examined, although Northern (RNA) analysis has demonstrated that sapA2 was not expressed in the C. fetus strain from which it was cloned. Further Southern analyses revealed increasing sapA diversity as probes increasingly 3' within the ORF were used. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and then Southern blotting with the conserved N-terminal region of the sapA homologs as a probe showed that these genes were tightly clustered on the chromosome. Deletion mutagenesis revealed that the S-layer protein bound serospecifically to the C. fetus lipopolysaccharide via its conserved N-terminal region. These data indicated that the S-layer proteins shared functional activity in the conserved N terminus but diverged in a semiconservative manner for the remainder of the molecule. Variation in S-layer protein expression may involve rearrangement of complete gene copies from a single large locus containing multiple sapA homologs. PMID:7896695

  8. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax induces expression of the Rel-related family of kappa B enhancer-binding proteins: evidence for a pretranslational component of regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Arima, N; Molitor, J A; Smith, M R; Kim, J H; Daitoku, Y; Greene, W C

    1991-01-01

    The Tax protein of the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) serves as a potent transcriptional activator of its own long terminal repeat as well as select cellular genes, including interleukin-2 and the alpha subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor. Tax activation of these two growth-related genes appears to involve the induced nuclear expression of DNA-binding proteins that specifically engage related kappa B enhancer elements present in the 5' regulatory regions of these genes. In human T cells, kappa B enhancer-binding activity has been discerned as an unexpectedly large family of UV cross-linked nucleoprotein adducts, termed p50, p55, p75, and p85. The protein components of each of these DNA-protein adducts have been shown to share structural similarity with the v-rel oncogene product. The p55 adduct is composed of the 50-kDa subunit of NF-kappa B derived from a 105-kDa precursor polypeptide, while the p50 adduct contains a smaller protein that is closely related to NF-kappa B p50. The p75 adduct contains the 65-kDa subunit of NF-kappa B, while the p85 adduct is composed of the human c-rel proto-oncogene product. We now demonstrate that HTLV-I Tax, in the absence of other viral pX gene products, is capable of inducing the nuclear expression of all four of these kappa B-binding proteins in human T cells, with most marked effects involving c-Rel and NF-kappa B p65. Tax induction of the nuclear expression of c-Rel and NF-kappa B p50 is regulated, at least in part, at a pretranslational level involving increases in c-rel and NF-kappa B p105 mRNA expression. To study the pattern of expression of these kappa B-specific proteins in cells infected with the whole HTLV-I, seven cloned HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines were established from the peripheral blood of patients with adult T-cell leukemia. Of note, only three of these seven cell lines produced Tax, and c-rel mRNA and nuclear protein expression was confined to these three cell lines. In contrast, NF-kappa B p50

  9. Supervised Protein Family Classification and New Family Construction

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Gangman; Thon, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The goal of protein family classification is to group proteins into families so that proteins within the same family have common function or are related by ancestry. While supervised classification algorithms are available for this purpose, most of these approaches focus on assigning unclassified proteins to known families but do not allow for progressive construction of new families from proteins that cannot be assigned. Although unsupervised clustering algorithms are also available, they do not make use of information from known families. By computing similarities between proteins based on pairwise sequence comparisons, we develop supervised classification algorithms that achieve improved accuracy over previous approaches while allowing for construction of new families. We show that our algorithm has higher accuracy rate and lower mis-classification rate when compared to algorithms that are based on the use of multiple sequence alignments and hidden Markov models, and our algorithm performs well even on families with very few proteins and on families with low sequence similarity. A software program implementing the algorithm (SClassify) is available online (http://faculty.cse.tamu.edu/shsze/sclassify). PMID:22876787

  10. The Binding of Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins and Erythrocyte Invasion Proteins to Aldolase Is Enhanced by Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Suraya A.; Martin, Stephen R.; Howell, Steven A.; Grainger, Munira; Moon, Robert W.; Green, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Aldolase has been implicated as a protein coupling the actomyosin motor and cell surface adhesins involved in motility and host cell invasion in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. It binds to the cytoplasmic domain (CTD) of type 1 membrane proteins of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family. Other type 1 membrane proteins located in the apical organelles of merozoites, the form of the parasite that invades red blood cells, including apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and members of the erythrocyte binding ligand (EBL) and reticulocyte binding homologue (RH) protein families have been implicated in host cell binding and invasion. Using a direct binding method we confirm that TRAP and merozoite TRAP (MTRAP) bind aldolase and show that the interaction is mediated by more than just the C-terminal six amino acid residues identified previously. Single amino acid substitutions in the MTRAP CTD abolished binding to aldolase. The CTDs of AMA1 and members of the EBL and RH protein families also bound to aldolase. MTRAP competed with AMA1 and RH4 for binding to aldolase, indicating overlapping binding sites. MTRAP CTD was phosphorylated in vitro by both calcium dependent kinase 1 (CDPK1) and protein kinase A, and this modification increased the affinity of binding to aldolase by ten-fold. Phosphorylation of the CTD of members of the EBL and RH protein families also increased their affinity for aldolase in some cases. To examine whether or not MTRAP expressed in asexual blood stage parasites is phosphorylated, it was tagged with GFP, purified and analysed, however no phosphorylation was detected. We propose that CTD binding to aldolase may be dynamically modulated by phosphorylation, and there may be competition for aldolase binding between different CTDs. The use and efficiency of alternate invasion pathways may be determined by the affinity of adhesins and cell invasion proteins for aldolase, in addition to their host ligand specificity. PMID

  11. The Binding of Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins and Erythrocyte Invasion Proteins to Aldolase Is Enhanced by Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Suraya A; Martin, Stephen R; Howell, Steven A; Grainger, Munira; Moon, Robert W; Green, Judith L; Holder, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Aldolase has been implicated as a protein coupling the actomyosin motor and cell surface adhesins involved in motility and host cell invasion in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. It binds to the cytoplasmic domain (CTD) of type 1 membrane proteins of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family. Other type 1 membrane proteins located in the apical organelles of merozoites, the form of the parasite that invades red blood cells, including apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and members of the erythrocyte binding ligand (EBL) and reticulocyte binding homologue (RH) protein families have been implicated in host cell binding and invasion. Using a direct binding method we confirm that TRAP and merozoite TRAP (MTRAP) bind aldolase and show that the interaction is mediated by more than just the C-terminal six amino acid residues identified previously. Single amino acid substitutions in the MTRAP CTD abolished binding to aldolase. The CTDs of AMA1 and members of the EBL and RH protein families also bound to aldolase. MTRAP competed with AMA1 and RH4 for binding to aldolase, indicating overlapping binding sites. MTRAP CTD was phosphorylated in vitro by both calcium dependent kinase 1 (CDPK1) and protein kinase A, and this modification increased the affinity of binding to aldolase by ten-fold. Phosphorylation of the CTD of members of the EBL and RH protein families also increased their affinity for aldolase in some cases. To examine whether or not MTRAP expressed in asexual blood stage parasites is phosphorylated, it was tagged with GFP, purified and analysed, however no phosphorylation was detected. We propose that CTD binding to aldolase may be dynamically modulated by phosphorylation, and there may be competition for aldolase binding between different CTDs. The use and efficiency of alternate invasion pathways may be determined by the affinity of adhesins and cell invasion proteins for aldolase, in addition to their host ligand specificity.

  12. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-02-17

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS.

  13. Functional interactions between polypyrimidine tract binding protein and PRI peptide ligand containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Miguel B; Ascher, David B; Gooding, Clare; Lang, Emma; Maude, Hannah; Turner, David; Llorian, Miriam; Pires, Douglas E V; Attig, Jan; Smith, Christopher W J

    2016-08-15

    Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that plays roles in most stages of the life-cycle of pre-mRNA and mRNAs in the nucleus and cytoplasm. PTBP1 has four RNA binding domains of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) family, each of which can bind to pyrimidine motifs. In addition, RRM2 can interact via its dorsal surface with proteins containing short peptide ligands known as PTB RRM2 interacting (PRI) motifs, originally found in the protein Raver1. Here we review our recent progress in understanding the interactions of PTB with RNA and with various proteins containing PRI ligands. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Candidate SNP Markers of Familial and Sporadic Alzheimer's Diseases Are Predicted by a Significant Change in the Affinity of TATA-Binding Protein for Human Gene Promoters.

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, Petr; Chadaeva, Irina; Rasskazov, Dmitry A; Sharypova, Ekaterina; Kashina, Elena V; Drachkova, Irina; Zhechev, Dmitry; Ponomarenko, Mikhail P; Savinkova, Ludmila K; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    While year after year, conditions, quality, and duration of human lives have been improving due to the progress in science, technology, education, and medicine, only eight diseases have been increasing in prevalence and shortening human lives because of premature deaths according to the retrospective official review on the state of US health, 1990-2010. These diseases are kidney cancer, chronic kidney diseases, liver cancer, diabetes, drug addiction, poisoning cases, consequences of falls, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as one of the leading pathologies. There are familial AD of hereditary nature (~4% of cases) and sporadic AD of unclear etiology (remaining ~96% of cases; i.e., non-familial AD). Therefore, sporadic AD is no longer a purely medical problem, but rather a social challenge when someone asks oneself: "What can I do in my own adulthood to reduce the risk of sporadic AD at my old age to save the years of my lifespan from the destruction caused by it?" Here, we combine two computational approaches for regulatory SNPs: Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator for sequence analysis and a PubMed-based keyword search for articles on the biochemical markers of diseases. Our purpose was to try to find answers to the question: "What can be done in adulthood to reduce the risk of sporadic AD in old age to prevent the lifespan reduction caused by it?" As a result, we found 89 candidate SNP markers of familial and sporadic AD (e.g., rs562962093 is associated with sporadic AD in the elderly as a complication of stroke in adulthood, where natural marine diets can reduce risks of both diseases in case of the minor allele of this SNP). In addition, rs768454929, and rs761695685 correlate with sporadic AD as a comorbidity of short stature, where maximizing stature in childhood and adolescence as an integral indicator of health can minimize (or even eliminate) the risk of sporadic AD in the elderly. After validation by clinical protocols, these candidate SNP markers may become

  15. Candidate SNP Markers of Familial and Sporadic Alzheimer's Diseases Are Predicted by a Significant Change in the Affinity of TATA-Binding Protein for Human Gene Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Petr; Chadaeva, Irina; Rasskazov, Dmitry A.; Sharypova, Ekaterina; Kashina, Elena V.; Drachkova, Irina; Zhechev, Dmitry; Ponomarenko, Mikhail P.; Savinkova, Ludmila K.; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    While year after year, conditions, quality, and duration of human lives have been improving due to the progress in science, technology, education, and medicine, only eight diseases have been increasing in prevalence and shortening human lives because of premature deaths according to the retrospective official review on the state of US health, 1990-2010. These diseases are kidney cancer, chronic kidney diseases, liver cancer, diabetes, drug addiction, poisoning cases, consequences of falls, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as one of the leading pathologies. There are familial AD of hereditary nature (~4% of cases) and sporadic AD of unclear etiology (remaining ~96% of cases; i.e., non-familial AD). Therefore, sporadic AD is no longer a purely medical problem, but rather a social challenge when someone asks oneself: “What can I do in my own adulthood to reduce the risk of sporadic AD at my old age to save the years of my lifespan from the destruction caused by it?” Here, we combine two computational approaches for regulatory SNPs: Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator for sequence analysis and a PubMed-based keyword search for articles on the biochemical markers of diseases. Our purpose was to try to find answers to the question: “What can be done in adulthood to reduce the risk of sporadic AD in old age to prevent the lifespan reduction caused by it?” As a result, we found 89 candidate SNP markers of familial and sporadic AD (e.g., rs562962093 is associated with sporadic AD in the elderly as a complication of stroke in adulthood, where natural marine diets can reduce risks of both diseases in case of the minor allele of this SNP). In addition, rs768454929, and rs761695685 correlate with sporadic AD as a comorbidity of short stature, where maximizing stature in childhood and adolescence as an integral indicator of health can minimize (or even eliminate) the risk of sporadic AD in the elderly. After validation by clinical protocols, these candidate SNP markers may

  16. Sequence analysis of the AAA protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    The AAA protein family, a recently recognized group of Walker-type ATPases, has been subjected to an extensive sequence analysis. Multiple sequence alignments revealed the existence of a region of sequence similarity, the so-called AAA cassette. The borders of this cassette were localized and within it, three boxes of a high degree of conservation were identified. Two of these boxes could be assigned to substantial parts of the ATP binding site (namely, to Walker motifs A and B); the third may be a portion of the catalytic center. Phylogenetic trees were calculated to obtain insights into the evolutionary history of the family. Subfamilies with varying degrees of intra-relatedness could be discriminated; these relationships are also supported by analysis of sequences outside the canonical AAA boxes: within the cassette are regions that are strongly conserved within each subfamily, whereas little or even no similarity between different subfamilies can be observed. These regions are well suited to define fingerprints for subfamilies. A secondary structure prediction utilizing all available sequence information was performed and the result was fitted to the general 3D structure of a Walker A/GTPase. The agreement was unexpectedly high and strongly supports the conclusion that the AAA family belongs to the Walker superfamily of A/GTPases. PMID:9336829

  17. Novel xylan-binding properties of an engineered family 4 carbohydrate-binding module.

    PubMed

    Cicortas Gunnarsson, Lavinia; Montanier, Cedric; Tunnicliffe, Richard B; Williamson, Mike P; Gilbert, Harry J; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva; Ohlin, Mats

    2007-09-01

    Molecular engineering of ligand-binding proteins is commonly used for identification of variants that display novel specificities. Using this approach to introduce novel specificities into CBMs (carbohydrate-binding modules) has not been extensively explored. Here, we report the engineering of a CBM, CBM4-2 from the Rhodothermus marinus xylanase Xyn10A, and the identification of the X-2 variant. As compared with the wild-type protein, this engineered module displays higher specificity for the polysaccharide xylan, and a lower preference for binding xylo-oligomers rather than binding the natural decorated polysaccharide. The mode of binding of X-2 differs from other xylan-specific CBMs in that it only has one aromatic residue in the binding site that can make hydrophobic interactions with the sugar rings of the ligand. The evolution of CBM4-2 has thus generated a xylan-binding module with different binding properties to those displayed by CBMs available in Nature.

  18. Computational characterization of TTHA0379: A potential glycerophosphocholine binding protein of Ugp ATP-binding cassette transporter.

    PubMed

    Chandravanshi, Monika; Gogoi, Prerana; Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad

    2016-11-05

    For the de novo biosynthesis of phospholipids, byproducts such as sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) of glycerophospholipid metabolic pathway are imported inside the cell by an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter known as UgpABCE. Of which, UgpA and UgpE constitutes the transmembrane domains (TMDs), UgpC forms the dimer of ATP-hydrolyzing component and UgpB is the periplasmic substrate binding protein. Structurally, UgpABCE transporter displays similarity to the maltose ABC transporter of Escherichia coli; thus, has been grouped into the CUT1 (Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-1) family of bacterial ABC transporters. Being a member of CUT1 family, several Ugp (Uptake glycerol phosphate) protein sequences in biological database(s) exhibit sequence and structure similarity to sugar ABC transporters and have been annotated as sugar binding proteins; one of such proteins is TTHA0379 from Thermus thermophilus HB8. Here, in this study, we used computational method(s) to distinguish UgpB and sugar binding proteins based on their primary and tertiary structure features. A comprehensive analysis of these proteins indicates that they are evolutionarily related to each other having common conserved features at their primary and tertiary structure levels. However, they display differences at their active sites owing to the dissimilarity in their ligand preferences. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of TTHA0379 along with UgpB and sugar binding proteins reveals that both the groups of proteins forms two distinct clades and TTHA0379 groups with UgpB proteins. Furthermore, analysis of the ligand binding pocket shows that all the essential features of glycerophosphocholine binding protein i.e. UgpB, are conserved in TTHA0379 as well. Combining these features, here, we designate TTHA0379 to be a GPC binding protein.

  19. Structural elucidation of transmembrane domain zero (TMD0) of EcdL: A multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein revealed by atomistic simulation.

    PubMed

    Bera, Krishnendu; Rani, Priyanka; Kishor, Gaurav; Agarwal, Shikha; Kumar, Antresh; Singh, Durg Vijay

    2017-09-20

    ATP-Binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an extensive role in the translocation of diverse sets of biologically important molecules across membrane. EchnocandinB (antifungal) and EcdL protein of Aspergillus rugulosus are encoded by the same cluster of genes. Co-expression of EcdL and echinocandinB reflects tightly linked biological functions. EcdL belongs to Multidrug Resistance associated Protein (MRP) subfamily of ABC transporters with an extra transmembrane domain zero (TMD0). Complete structure of MRP subfamily comprising of TMD0 domain, at atomic resolution is not known. We hypothesized that the transportation of echonocandinB is mediated via EcdL protein. Henceforth, it is pertinent to know the topological arrangement of TMD0, with other domains of protein and its possible role in transportation of echinocandinB. Absence of effective template for TMD0 domain lead us to model by I-TASSER, further structure has been refined by multiple template modelling using homologous templates of remaining domains (TMD1, NBD1, TMD2, NBD2). The modelled structure has been validated for packing, folding and stereochemical properties. MD simulation for 0.1 μs has been carried out in the biphasic environment for refinement of modelled protein. Non-redundant structures have been excavated by clustering of MD trajectory. The structural alignment of modelled structure has shown Z-score -37.9; 31.6, 31.5 with RMSD; 2.4, 4.2, 4.8 with ABC transporters; PDB ID 4F4C, 4M1 M, 4M2T, respectively, reflecting the correctness of structure. EchinocandinB has been docked to the modelled as well as to the clustered structures, which reveals interaction of echinocandinB with TMD0 and other TM helices in the translocation path build of TMDs.

  20. Transcription Factors NRF2 and NF-κB Are Coordinated Effectors of the Rho Family, GTP-binding Protein RAC1 during Inflammation*

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, Antonio; Martín-Moldes, Zaira; Ye, Jianping; Lastres-Becker, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The small GTPase protein RAC1 participates in innate immunity by activating a complex program that includes cytoskeleton remodeling, chemotaxis, activation of NADPH oxidase, and modulation of gene expression. However, its role in regulating the transcriptional signatures that in term control the cellular inflammatory profiles are not well defined. Here we investigated the functional and mechanistic connection between RAC1 and the transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), master regulator of the anti-oxidant response. Lipopolysaccharide and constitutively active RAC1Q61L mutant induced the anti-oxidant enzyme heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through activation of NRF2. The use of KEAP1-insensitive NRF2 mutants indicated that RAC1 regulation of NRF2 is KEAP1-independent. Interestingly, NRF2 overexpression inhibited, whereas a dominant-negative mutant of NRF2 exacerbated RAC1-dependent activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), suggesting that NRF2 has an antagonistic effect on the NF-κB pathway. Moreover, we found that RAC1 acts through NF-κB to induce NRF2 because either expression of a dominant negative mutant of IκBα that leads to NF-κB degradation or the use of p65-NF-κB-deficient cells demonstrated lower NRF2 protein levels and basally impaired NRF2 signature compared with control cells. In contrast, NRF2-deficient cells showed increased p65-NF-κB protein levels, although the mRNA levels remain unchanged, indicating post-translational alterations. Our results demonstrate a new mechanism of modulation of RAC1 inflammatory pathway through a cross-talk between NF-κB and NRF2. PMID:24759106

  1. Phylointeractomics reconstructs functional evolution of protein binding

    PubMed Central

    Kappei, Dennis; Scheibe, Marion; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Bluhm, Alina; Gossmann, Toni Ingolf; Dietz, Sabrina; Dejung, Mario; Herlyn, Holger; Buchholz, Frank; Mann, Matthias; Butter, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Molecular phylogenomics investigates evolutionary relationships based on genomic data. However, despite genomic sequence conservation, changes in protein interactions can occur relatively rapidly and may cause strong functional diversification. To investigate such functional evolution, we here combine phylogenomics with interaction proteomics. We develop this concept by investigating the molecular evolution of the shelterin complex, which protects telomeres, across 16 vertebrate species from zebrafish to humans covering 450 million years of evolution. Our phylointeractomics screen discovers previously unknown telomere-associated proteins and reveals how homologous proteins undergo functional evolution. For instance, we show that TERF1 evolved as a telomere-binding protein in the common stem lineage of marsupial and placental mammals. Phylointeractomics is a versatile and scalable approach to investigate evolutionary changes in protein function and thus can provide experimental evidence for phylogenomic relationships. PMID:28176777

  2. Effect of FGF-binding Protein 3 on Vascular Permeability*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wentao; Chen, Yifan; Swift, Matthew R.; Tassi, Elena; Stylianou, Dora C.; Gibby, Krissa A.; Riegel, Anna T.; Wellstein, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 1 (FGF-BP1 is BP1) is involved in the regulation of embryonic development, tumor growth, and angiogenesis by mobilizing endogenous FGFs from their extracellular matrix storage. Here we describe a new member of the FGF-BP family, human BP3. We show that the hBP3 protein is secreted from cells, binds to FGF2 in vitro and in intact cells, and inhibits FGF2 binding to heparin. To determine the function of hBP3 in vivo, hBP3 was transiently expressed in chicken embryos and resulted in >50% lethality within 24 h because of vascular leakage. The onset of vascular permeability was monitored by recording the extravasation kinetics of FITC-labeled 40-kDa dextran microperfused into the vitelline vein of 3-day-old embryos. Vascular permeability increased as early as 8 h after expression of hBP3. The increased vascular permeability caused by hBP3 was prevented by treatment of embryos with PD173074, a selective FGFR kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, a C-terminal 66-amino acid fragment (C66) of hBP3, which contains the predicted FGF binding domain, still inhibited binding of FGF2 to heparin similar to full-length hBP3. However, expression of the C66 fragment did not increase vascular permeability on its own, but required the administration of exogenous FGF2 protein. We conclude that the FGF binding domain and the heparin binding domain are necessary for the hBP3 interaction with endogenous FGF and the activation of FGFR signaling in vivo. PMID:18669637

  3. Thiol Dioxygenases: Unique Families of Cupin Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, C. R.; Karplus, P. A.; Dominy, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Proteins in the cupin superfamily have a wide range of biological functions in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. Although proteins in the cupin superfamily show very low overall sequence similarity, they all contain two short but partially conserved cupin sequence motifs separated by a less conserved intermotif region that varies both in length and amino acid sequence. Furthermore, these proteins all share a common architecture described as a 6-stranded β-barrel core, and this canonical cupin or “jelly roll” β-barrel is formed with cupin motif 1, the intermotif region, and cupin motif 2 each forming two of the core six β-strands in the folded protein structure. The recently obtained crystal structures of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), with contains conserved cupin motifs, show that it has the predicted canonical cupin β-barrel fold. Although there had been no reports of CDO activity in prokaryotes, we identified a number of bacterial cupin proteins of unknown function that share low similarity with mammalian CDO and that conserve many residues in the active site pocket of CDO. Putative bacterial CDOs predicted to have CDO activity were shown to have similar substrate specificity and kinetic parameters as eukaryotic CDOs. Information gleaned from crystal structures of mammalian CDO along with sequence information for homologs shown to have CDO activity facilitated the identification of a CDO family fingerprint motif. One key feature of the CDO fingerprint motif is that the canonical metal-binding glutamate residue in cupin motif 1 is replaced by a cysteine (in mammalian CDOs) or by a glycine (bacterial CDOs). The recent report that some putative bacterial CDO homologs are actually 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases suggests that the CDO family may include proteins with specificities for other thiol substrates. A paralog of CDO in mammals was also identified and shown to be the other mammalian thiol dioxygenase, cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). A tentative

  4. Structural Signatures of Enzyme Binding Pockets from Order-Independent Surface Alignment: A Study of Metalloendopeptidase and NAD Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dundas, Joe; Adamian, Larisa; Liang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Detecting similarities between local binding surfaces can facilitate identification of enzyme binding sites, prediction of enzyme functions, as well as aid in our understanding of enzyme mechanisms. A challenging task is to construct a template of local surface characteristics for a specific enzyme function or binding activity, as the size and shape of binding surfaces of a biochemical function often varies. Here we introduce the concept of signature binding pockets, which captures information about preserved and varied atomic positions at multi-resolution levels. For proteins with complex enzyme binding and activity, multiple signatures arise naturally in our model, which form a signature basis set that characterize this class of proteins. Both signatures and signature basis set can be automatically constructed by a method called Solar (Signature Of Local Active Regions). This method is based on a sequence order independent alignment of computed binding surface pockets. Solar also provides a structure based multiple sequence fragment alignment (MSFA) to facilitate interpretation of computed signatures. For studying a family of evolutionary related proteins, we show that for metzincin metalloendopeptidase, which has a broad spectrum of substrate binding, signature and basis set pockets can be used to discriminate metzincins from other enzymes, to predict the subclass of enzyme functions, and to identify the specific binding surfaces. For studying unrelated proteins which have evolved to bind to the same NAD co-factor, signatures of NAD binding pockets can be constructed and can be used to predict NAD binding proteins and to locate NAD binding pockets. By measuring preservation ratio and location variation, our method can identify residues and atoms important for binding affinity and specificity. In both cases, we show that signatures and signature basis set reveal significant biological insight. PMID:21145898

  5. DAZ Family Proteins, Key Players for Germ Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xia-Fei; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Wang, Lin-Qing; Yin, Shen; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    DAZ family proteins are found almost exclusively in germ cells in distant animal species. Deletion or mutations of their encoding genes usually severely impair either oogenesis or spermatogenesis or both. The family includes Boule (or Boll), Dazl (or Dazla) and DAZ genes. Boule and Dazl are situated on autosomes while DAZ, exclusive of higher primates, is located on the Y chromosome. Deletion of DAZ gene is the most common causes of infertility in humans. These genes, encoding for RNA binding proteins, contain a highly conserved RNA recognition motif and at least one DAZ repeat encoding for a 24 amino acids sequence able to bind other mRNA binding proteins. Basically, Daz family proteins function as adaptors for target mRNA transport and activators of their translation. In some invertebrate species, BOULE protein play a pivotal role in germline specification and a conserved regulatory role in meiosis. Depending on the species, DAZL is expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and/or pre-meiotic and meiotic germ cells of both sexes. Daz is found in fetal gonocytes, spermatogonia and spermatocytes of adult testes. Here we discuss DAZ family genes in a phylogenic perspective, focusing on the common and distinct features of these genes, and their pivotal roles during gametogenesis evolved during evolution.

  6. Protein family classification using sparse Markov transducers.

    PubMed

    Eskin, E; Grundy, W N; Singer, Y

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for classifying proteins into families using sparse Markov transducers (SMTs). Sparse Markov transducers, similar to probabilistic suffix trees, estimate a probability distribution conditioned on an input sequence. SMTs generalize probabilistic suffix trees by allowing for wild-cards in the conditioning sequences. Because substitutions of amino acids are common in protein families, incorporating wildcards into the model significantly improves classification performance. We present two models for building protein family classifiers using SMTs. We also present efficient data structures to improve the memory usage of the models. We evaluate SMTs by building protein family classifiers using the Pfam database and compare our results to previously published results.

  7. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.D.; Scott-Craig, J.S.

    1999-10-26

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is presented. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with vectors and seeds from the plants.

  8. Neisseria meningitis GNA1030 is a ubiquinone-8 binding protein.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Danilo; Golfieri, Giacomo; Brier, Sébastien; Castagnini, Marta; Veggi, Daniele; Bottomley, Matthew James; Delany, Isabel; Norais, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Bexsero, a new vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB), is composed of 3 main recombinant proteins and an outer membrane vesicle component. One of the main bactericidal antigens, neisseria heparin binding antigen (NHBA), is present as a fusion protein with the accessory protein genome-derived neisserial antigen (GNA) 1030 to further increase its immunogenicity. The gene encoding for GNA1030 is present and highly conserved in all Neisseria strains, and although orthologs are present in numerous species, its biologic function is unknown. Native mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate that GNA1030 forms a homodimer associated with 2 molecules of ubiquinone-8 (Ub8), a cofactor mainly involved in the electron transport chain and with antioxidant properties. Disc diffusion assays on the wild-type and knockout mutant of GNA1030, in the presence of various compounds, suggested that GNA1030 is not involved in oxidative stress or electron chain transport per se, although it contributes to constitutive refilling of the inner membrane with Ub8. These studies shed light on an accessory protein present in Bexsero and reveal functional insights into the family of related proteins. On the basis of our findings, we propose to name the protein neisseria ubiquinone binding protein (NUbp).

  9. Polynucleotides encoding TRF1 binding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Kim, Sahn-Ho

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel telomere associated protein (Trf1-interacting nuclear protein 2 "Tin2") that hinders the binding of Trf1 to its specific telomere repeat sequence and mediates the formation of a Tin2-Trf1-telomeric DNA complex that limits telomerase access to the telomere. Also included are the corresponding nucleic acids that encode the Tin2 of the present invention, as well as mutants of Tin2. Methods of making, purifying and using Tin2 of the present invention are described. In addition, drug screening assays to identify drugs that mimic and/or complement the effect of Tin2 are presented.

  10. Selective protein covalent binding and target organ toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S D; Pumford, N R; Khairallah, E A; Boekelheide, K; Pohl, L R; Amouzadeh, H R; Hinson, J A

    1997-03-01

    Protein covalent binding by xenobiotic metabolites has long been associated with target organ toxicity but mechanistic involvement of such binding has not been widely demonstrated. Modern biochemical, molecular, and immunochemical approaches have facilitated identification of specific protein targets of xenobiotic covalent binding. Such studies have revealed that protein covalent binding is not random, but rather selective with respect to the proteins targeted. Selective binding to specific cellular target proteins may better correlate with toxicity than total protein covalent binding. Current research is directed at characterizing and identifying the targeted proteins and clarifying the effect of such binding on their structure, function, and potential roles in target organ toxicity. The approaches employed to detect and identify the tartgeted proteins are described. Metabolites of acetaminophen, halothane, and 2,5-hexanedione form covalently bound adducts to recently identified protein targets. The selective binding may influence homeostatic or other cellular responses which in turn contribute to drug toxicity, hypersensitivity, or autoimmunity.

  11. Structural basis for protein–protein interactions in the 14-3-3 protein family

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaowen; Lee, Wen Hwa; Sobott, Frank; Papagrigoriou, Evangelos; Robinson, Carol V.; Grossmann, J. Günter; Sundström, Michael; Doyle, Declan A.; Elkins, Jonathan M.

    2006-01-01

    The seven members of the human 14-3-3 protein family regulate a diverse range of cell signaling pathways by formation of protein–protein complexes with signaling proteins that contain phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues within specific sequence motifs. Previously, crystal structures of three 14-3-3 isoforms (zeta, sigma, and tau) have been reported, with structural data for two isoforms deposited in the Protein Data Bank (zeta and sigma). In this study, we provide structural detail for five 14-3-3 isoforms bound to ligands, providing structural coverage for all isoforms of a human protein family. A comparative structural analysis of the seven 14-3-3 proteins revealed specificity determinants for binding of phosphopeptides in a specific orientation, target domain interaction surfaces and flexible adaptation of 14-3-3 proteins through domain movements. Specifically, the structures of the beta isoform in its apo and peptide bound forms showed that its binding site can exhibit structural flexibility to facilitate binding of its protein and peptide partners. In addition, the complex of 14-3-3 beta with the exoenzyme S peptide displayed a secondary structural element in the 14-3-3 peptide binding groove. These results show that the 14-3-3 proteins are adaptable structures in which internal flexibility is likely to facilitate recognition and binding of their interaction partners. PMID:17085597

  12. Sterol Carrier Protein-2: Binding Protein for Endocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Liedhegner, Elizabeth Sabens; Vogt, Caleb D.; Sem, Daniel S.; Cunningham, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, consisting of eCB ligands and the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R), subserves retrograde, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the brain. eCB signaling occurs “on-demand,” thus the processes regulating synthesis, mobilization and degradation of eCBs are also primary mechanisms for the regulation of CB1R activity. The eCBs, N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are poorly soluble in water. We hypothesize that their aqueous solubility, and, therefore, their intracellular and transcellular distribution, are facilitated by protein binding. Using in silico docking studies, we have identified the nonspecific lipid binding protein, sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2), as a potential AEA binding protein. The docking studies predict that AEA and AM404 associate with SCP-2 at a putative cholesterol binding pocket with ΔG values of −3.6 and −4.6 kcal/mol, respectively. These values are considerably higher than cholesterol (−6.62 kcal/mol) but consistent with a favorable binding interaction. In support of the docking studies, SCP-2-mediated transfer of cholesterol in vitro is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of AEA; and heterologous expression of SCP-2 in HEK 293 cells increases time-related accumulation of AEA in a temperature-dependent fashion. These results suggest that SCP-2 facilitates cellular uptake of AEA. However, there is no effect of SCP-2 transfection on the cellular accumulation of AEA determined at equilibrium or the IC50 values for AEA, AM404 or 2-AG to inhibit steady state accumulation of radiolabelled AEA. We conclude that SCP-2 is a low affinity binding protein for AEA that can facilitate its cellular uptake but does not contribute significantly to intracellular sequestration of AEA. PMID:24510313

  13. Novel retinoid-binding proteins from filarial parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Sani, B P; Vaid, A; Comley, J C; Montgomery, J A

    1985-01-01

    The present study deals with the discovery and partial characterization of specific binding proteins for retinol and retinoic acid from filarial parasites (worms of the superfamily Filarioidea), including those from two species of Onchocerca. These binding proteins, which are distinct in their physicochemical properties and in the mode of ligand interactions from the host-tissue retinoid-binding proteins, may be involved in the mediation of the putative biological roles of retinoids in the control of parasitic growth, differentiation and reproduction. Parasite retinol-binding protein and retinoic acid-binding protein exhibited specificity for binding retinol and retinoic acid respectively. Both the binding proteins showed an s20,w value of 2.0 S. On gel filtration, both proteins were retarded to a position corresponding to the same molecular size (19.0 kDa). On preparative columns, the parasite binding proteins exhibited isoelectric points at pH 5.7 and 5.75. Unlike the retinoid-binding proteins of mammalian and avian origin, the parasite retinoid-binding proteins showed a lack of mercurial sensitivity in ligand binding. The comparative amounts of retinoic acid-binding protein in five parasites, Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca gibsoni, Dipetalonema viteae, Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis, were between 2.7 and 3.1 pmol of retinoic acid bound/mg of extractable protein. However, the levels of parasite retinol-binding protein were between 4.8 and 5.8 pmol/mg, which is considerably higher than the corresponding levels of cellular retinol-binding protein of mammalian and avian origin. Both retinol- and retinoic acid-binding-protein levels in O. volvulus-infected human nodules and O. gibsoni-infected bovine nodules were similar to their levels in mammalian tissues. Also, these nodular binding proteins, like the host-binding proteins, exhibited mercurial sensitivity to ligand interactions. PMID:3004410

  14. Interaction of Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT (PIAS) Proteins with the TATA-binding Protein, TBP*

    PubMed Central

    Prigge, Justin R.; Schmidt, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Transcription activators often recruit promoter-targeted assembly of a pre-initiation complex; many repressors antagonize recruitment. These activities can involve direct interactions with proteins in the pre-initiation complex. We used an optimized yeast two-hybrid system to screen mouse pregnancy-associated libraries for proteins that interact with TATA-binding protein (TBP). Screens revealed an interaction between TBP and a single member of the zinc finger family of transcription factors, ZFP523. Two members of the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family, PIAS1 and PIAS3, also interacted with TBP in screens. Endogenous PIAS1 and TBP co-immunoprecipitated from nuclear extracts, suggesting the interaction occurred in vivo. In vitro-translated PIAS1 and TBP coimmunopreciptated, which indicated that other nuclear proteins were not required for the interaction. Deletion analysis mapped the PIAS-interacting domain of TBP to the conserved TBPCORE and the TBP-interacting domain on PIAS1 to a 39-amino acid C-terminal region. Mammals issue seven known PIAS proteins from four pias genes, pias1, pias3, piasx, and piasy, each with different cell type-specific expression patterns; the TBP-interacting domain reported here is the only part of the PIAS C-terminal region shared by all seven PIAS proteins. Direct analyses indicated that PIASx and PIASy also interacted with TBP. Our results suggest that all PIAS proteins might mediate situation-specific regulatory signaling at the TBP interface and that previously unknown levels of complexity could exist in the gene regulatory interplay between TBP, PIAS proteins, ZFP523, and other transcription factors. PMID:16522640

  15. Expansion of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family in legumes: a case study of Lupinus angustifolius L. FLOWERING LOCUS T homologs, LanFTc1 and LanFTc2.

    PubMed

    Książkiewicz, Michał; Rychel, Sandra; Nelson, Matthew N; Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan

    2016-10-21

    The Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) family, is a major controller of flowering in response to photoperiod, vernalization and light quality. In legumes, FT evolved into three, functionally diversified clades, FTa, FTb and FTc. A milestone achievement in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) domestication was the loss of vernalization responsiveness at the Ku locus. Recently, one of two existing L. angustifolius homologs of FTc, LanFTc1, was revealed to be the gene underlying Ku. It is the first recorded involvement of an FTc homologue in vernalization. The evolutionary basis of this phenomenon in lupin has not yet been deciphered. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones carrying LanFTc1 and LanFTc2 genes were localized in different mitotic chromosomes and constituted sequence-specific landmarks for linkage groups NLL-10 and NLL-17. BAC-derived superscaffolds containing LanFTc genes revealed clear microsyntenic patterns to genome sequences of nine legume species. Superscaffold-1 carrying LanFTc1 aligned to regions encoding one or more FT-like genes whereas superscaffold-2 mapped to a region lacking such a homolog. Comparative mapping of the L. angustifolius genome assembly anchored to linkage map localized superscaffold-1 in the middle of a 15 cM conserved, collinear region. In contrast, superscaffold-2 was found at the edge of a 20 cM syntenic block containing highly disrupted collinearity at the LanFTc2 locus. 118 PEBP-family full-length homologs were identified in 10 legume genomes. Bayesian phylogenetic inference provided novel evidence supporting the hypothesis that whole-genome and tandem duplications contributed to expansion of PEBP-family genes in legumes. Duplicated genes were subjected to strong purifying selection. Promoter analysis of FT genes revealed no statistically significant sequence similarity between duplicated copies; only RE-alpha and CCAAT-box motifs were

  16. Biologically active protein fragments containing specific binding regions of serum albumin or related proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, biologically active protein fragments can be constructed which contain only those specific portions of the serum albumin family of proteins such as regions known as subdomains IIA and IIIA which are primarily responsible for the binding properties of the serum albumins. The artificial serums that can be prepared from these biologically active protein fragments are advantageous in that they can be produced much more easily than serums containing the whole albumin, yet still retain all or most of the original binding potential of the full albumin proteins. In addition, since the protein fragment serums of the present invention can be made from non-natural sources using conventional recombinant DNA techniques, they are far safer than serums containing natural albumin because they do not carry the potentially harmful viruses and other contaminants that will be found in the natural substances.

  17. Invited review: Architectures and mechanisms of ATP binding cassette proteins.

    PubMed

    Hopfner, Karl-Peter

    2016-08-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) ATPases form chemo-mechanical engines and switches that function in a broad range of biological processes. Most prominently, a very large family of integral membrane NTPases-ABC transporters-catalyzes the import or export of a diverse molecules across membranes. ABC proteins are also important components of the chromosome segregation, recombination, and DNA repair machineries and regulate or catalyze critical steps of ribosomal protein synthesis. Recent structural and mechanistic studies draw interesting architectural and mechanistic parallels between diverse ABC proteins. Here, I review this state of our understanding how NTP-dependent conformational changes of ABC proteins drive diverse biological processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 492-504, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Drug Discovery Toward Antagonists of Methyl-Lysine Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Herold, J. Martin; Ingerman, Lindsey A; Gao, Cen; Frye, Stephen V

    2011-01-01

    The recognition of methyl-lysine and -arginine residues on both histone and other proteins by specific “reader” elements is important for chromatin regulation, gene expression, and control of cell-cycle progression. Recently the crucial role of these reader proteins in cancer development and dedifferentiation has emerged, owing to the increased interest among the scientific community. The methyl-lysine and -arginine readers are a large and very diverse set of effector proteins and targeting them with small molecule probes in drug discovery will inevitably require a detailed understanding of their structural biology and mechanism of binding. In the following review, the critical elements of methyl-lysine and -arginine recognition will be summarized with respect to each protein family and initial results in assay development, probe design, and drug discovery will be highlighted. PMID:22145013

  19. Severe and rapidly progressing cognitive phenotype in a SCA17-family with only marginally expanded CAG/CAA repeats in the TATA-box binding protein gene: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) confine a group of rare and heterogeneous disorders, which present with progressive ataxia and numerous other features e.g. peripheral neuropathy, macular degeneration and cognitive impairment, and a subset of these disorders is caused by CAG-repeat expansions in their respective genes. The diagnosing of the SCAs is often difficult due to the phenotypic overlap among several of the subtypes and with other neurodegenerative disorders e.g. Huntington’s disease. Case presentation We report a family in which the proband had rapidly progressing cognitive decline and only subtle cerebellar symptoms from age 42. Sequencing of the TATA-box binding protein gene revealed a modest elongation of the CAG/CAA-repeat of only two repeats above the non-pathogenic threshold of 41, confirming a diagnosis of SCA17. Normally, repeats within this range show reduced penetrance and result in a milder disease course with slower progression and later age of onset. Thus, this case presented with an unusual phenotype. Conclusions The current case highlights the diagnostic challenge of neurodegenerative disorders and the need for a thorough clinical and paraclinical examination of patients presenting with rapid cognitive decline to make a precise diagnosis on which further genetic counseling and initiation of treatment modalities can be based. PMID:22889412

  20. Genetic Association Analysis of ATP Binding Cassette Protein Family Reveals a Novel Association of ABCB1 Genetic Variants with Epilepsy Risk, but Not with Drug-Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Shabeesh; Bharathan, Sumitha Prameela; Vellichiramal, Neetha Nanoth; Sathyan, Sanish; Joseph, Vijai; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath; Banerjee, Moinak

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorders that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures due to widely different etiologies. Multidrug resistance remains a major issue in clinical epileptology, where one third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. Role of efflux transporters in multidrug resistant epilepsy has been attributed to drug-resistant epilepsy although, with discrepant observation in genetic studies. These discrepancies could be attributed to variety of factors such as variable definition of the anti-epileptic drug (AED)-resistance, variable epilepsy phenotypes and ethnicities among the studies. In the present study we inquired the role of multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants in determining AED-resistance and susceptibility to epilepsy in three well-characterized cohorts comprising of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) (prototype for AED-resistant epilepsy); juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) (prototype for AED-responsive epilepsy); and healthy non-epileptic controls, in 738 subjects of Malayalam speaking south Indian ancestry. ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants were not found to be associated with drug resistance when AED-resistant and AED-responsive cohorts were compared. However, a significant association was observed between ABCB1 (C3435T) rs1045642 and risk of having epilepsy (MTLE-HS and JME pooled cohort; genotypic p-value = 0.0002; allelic p-value = 0.004). This association was seen persistent with MTLE-HS (genotypic p-value = 0.0008; allelic p-value = 0.004) and also with JME (genotypic p-value = 0.01; allelic p-value = 0.05) cohort individually. In-silico functional prediction indicated that ABCB1 rs1045642 has a deleterious impact on protein coding function and in splicing regulation. We conclude that the ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants do not confer to AED-resistance in the study population. However, ABCB1 rs1045642 increases vulnerability to epilepsy with

  1. Binding of transition metals to S100 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gilston, Benjamin A.; Skaar, Eric P.; Chazin, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    The S100 proteins are a unique class of EF-hand Ca2+ binding proteins distributed in a cell-specific, tissue-specific, and cell cycle-specific manner in humans and other vertebrates. These proteins are distinguished by their distinctive homodimeric structure, both intracellular and extracellular functions, and the ability to bind transition metals at the dimer interface. Here we summarize current knowledge of S100 protein binding of Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ ions, focusing on binding affinities, conformational changes that arise from metal binding, and the roles of transition metal binding in S100 protein function. PMID:27430886

  2. The dataset for protein-RNA binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiufeng; Li, Haotian; Huang, Yangyu; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a non-redundant protein-RNA binding benchmark dataset derived from the available protein-RNA structures in the Protein Database Bank. It consists of 73 complexes with measured binding affinity. The experimental conditions (pH and temperature) for binding affinity measurements are also listed in our dataset. This binding affinity dataset can be used to compare and develop protein-RNA scoring functions. The predicted binding free energy of the 73 complexes from three available scoring functions for protein-RNA docking has a low correlation with the binding Gibbs free energy calculated from Kd.

  3. Specific protein-protein binding in many-component mixtures of proteins.

    PubMed

    Sear, Richard P

    2004-06-01

    Proteins must bind to specific other proteins in vivo in order to function. The proteins are required to bind to only one or a few other proteins of the few thousand proteins typically present in vivo. To quantify this requirement we introduce a property of proteins called the capability. The capability is the maximum number of specific-binding interactions possible in a mixture, or in other words the size of largest sustainable interactome. This calculation of the maximum number possible is closely analogous to the work of Shannon and others on the maximum rate of communication through noisy channels. Using a simple model of proteins, we find specific binding to be a demanding function in the sense that it demands that the binding sites of the proteins be encoded by long sequences of elements, and the requirement for specific binding then strongly constrains these sequences.

  4. Polymeric ADAM protein mimics interrogate mammalian sperm-egg binding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younjoo; Sampson, Nicole S

    2009-03-23

    The sperm proteins ADAM2 and ADAM3, members of the ADAM family of proteins, have been implicated in mammalian sperm-egg binding. However, elucidating their roles is complex because of the interdependence of ADAM protein expression in the testis. Hence, multivalent probes containing the three-amino acid binding sequence of ADAM2, glutamate-cysteine-aspartate (ECD), and ADAM3, glutamine-cysteine-aspartate (QCD), were designed, synthesized, and tested to investigate gamete interactions. In this work, ECD polymer mimics were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization with a faster initiating ruthenium catalyst than previously used. Polymers containing 100 copies of the ECD peptide mimic were found to be the best inhibitors of fertilization. The multivalent QCD polymers were also tested as inhibitors of fertilization. The structure-activity profile was the same as ECD polymers, but the overall potency was lower. Both ECD and QCD polymers require the presence of beta(1) integrin to inhibit fertilization. Next, triblock ABA and ABC copolymers containing both ECD and QCD ligands were synthesized with 96 monomer spacers as their B blocks. Although these polymers had lower densities of ECD and QCD peptides, their potencies correlated with the potencies of their corresponding homopolymers. In addition, no synergy between ECD and QCD mimics was observed. All the data suggest that QCD and ECD bind to the same complex of proteins that includes beta(1) integrin.

  5. O-glycosylation effects on family 1 carbohydrate-binding module solution structures.

    PubMed

    Happs, Renee M; Guan, Xiaoyang; Resch, Michael G; Davis, Mark F; Beckham, Gregg T; Tan, Zhongping; Crowley, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    Family 1 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are ubiquitous components of multimodular fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides and bind specifically to cellulose. Native glycosylation of family 1 CBMs has been shown to substantially impact multiple physical properties, including thermal and proteolytic stability and cellulose binding affinity. To gain molecular insights into the changes in CBM properties upon glycosylation, solution structures of two glycoforms of a Trichoderma reesei family 1 CBM were studied by NMR spectroscopy: a glycosylated family 1 CBM with a mannose group attached to both Thr1 and Ser3 and a second family 1 CBM with single mannose groups attached to Thr1, Ser3 and Ser14. The structures clearly reveal that monosaccharides at both Ser3 and Ser14 on family 1 CBMs present additional cellulose binding platforms, similar to well-characterized aromatic residues at the binding interface, which align to the cellulose surface. These results are in agreement with previous experimental work demonstrating that glycans at Ser3 and Ser14 impart significant improvements in binding affinity. Additionally, detailed analysis of the NMR structures and molecular simulations indicates that the protein backbone of the CBM is not significantly altered by attachment of monosaccharides, and that the mannose attached to Ser14 may be more flexible than the mannose at Ser3. Overall, the present study reveals how family 1 CBM structures are affected by covalent attachment of monosaccharides, which are likely important post-translational modifications of these common subdomains of fungal plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Structural data have been deposited in the RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB codes: 2MWJ and 2MWK) and the BioMagRes Bank (BMRB codes: 25331 and 25332) for CBM_M2 and CBM_M3, respectively. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A Structural Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Briony E.; McCarthy, Peter; Norton, Raymond S.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6) bind insulin-like growth factors-I and -II (IGF-I and IGF-II) with high affinity. These binding proteins maintain IGFs in the circulation and direct them to target tissues, where they promote cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival via the type 1 IGF receptor. IGFBPs also interact with many other molecules, which not only influence their modulation of IGF action but also mediate IGF-independent activities that regulate processes such as cell migration and apoptosis by modulating gene transcription. IGFBPs-1 to -6 are structurally similar proteins consisting of three distinct domains, N-terminal, linker, and C-terminal. There have been major advances in our understanding of IGFBP structure in the last decade and a half. While there is still no structure of an intact IGFBP, several structures of individual N- and C-domains have been solved. The structure of a complex of N-BP-4:IGF-I:C-BP-4 has also been solved, providing a detailed picture of the structural features of the IGF binding site and the mechanism of binding. Structural studies have also identified features important for interaction with extracellular matrix components and integrins. This review summarizes structural studies reported so far and highlights features important for binding not only IGF but also other partners. We also highlight future directions in which structural studies will add to our knowledge of the role played by the IGFBP family in normal growth and development, as well as in disease. PMID:22654863

  7. A novel family of katanin-like 2 protein isoforms (KATNAL2), interacting with nucleotide-binding proteins Nubp1 and Nubp2, are key regulators of different MT-based processes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ververis, Antonis; Christodoulou, Andri; Christoforou, Maria; Kamilari, Christina; Lederer, Carsten W; Santama, Niovi

    2016-01-01

    Katanins are microtubule (MT)-severing AAA proteins with high phylogenetic conservation throughout the eukaryotes. They have been functionally implicated in processes requiring MT remodeling, such as spindle assembly in mitosis and meiosis, assembly/disassembly of flagella and cilia and neuronal morphogenesis. Here, we uncover a novel family of katanin-like 2 proteins (KATNAL2) in mouse, consisting of five alternatively spliced isoforms encoded by the Katnal2 genomic locus. We further demonstrate that in vivo these isoforms are able to interact with themselves, with each other and moreover directly and independently with MRP/MinD-type P-loop NTPases Nubp1 and Nubp2, which are integral components of centrioles, negative regulators of ciliogenesis and implicated in centriole duplication in mammalian cells. We find KATNAL2 localized on interphase MTs, centrioles, mitotic spindle, midbody and the axoneme and basal body of sensory cilia in cultured murine cells. shRNAi of Katnal2 results in inefficient cytokinesis and severe phenotypes of enlarged cells and nuclei, increased numbers of centrioles and the manifestation of aberrant multipolar mitotic spindles, mitotic defects, chromosome bridges, multinuclearity, increased MT acetylation and an altered cell cycle pattern. Silencing or stable overexpression of KATNAL2 isoforms drastically reduces ciliogenesis. In conclusion, KATNAL2s are multitasking enzymes involved in the same cell type in critically important processes affecting cytokinesis, MT dynamics, and ciliogenesis and are also implicated in cell cycle progression.

  8. Phosphorylation of native porcine olfactory binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Nagnan-Le Meillour, Patricia; Le Danvic, Chrystelle; Brimau, Fanny; Chemineau, Philippe; Michalski, Jean-Claude

    2009-07-01

    The identification of various isoforms of olfactory binding proteins is of major importance to elucidate their involvement in detection of pheromones and other odors. Here, we report the characterization of the phosphorylation of OBP (odorant binding protein) and Von Ebner's gland protein (VEG) from the pig, Sus scrofa. After labeling with specific antibodies raised against the three types of phosphorylation (Ser, Thr, Tyr), the phosphate-modified residues were mapped by using the beta-elimination followed by Michael addition of dithiothreitol (BEMAD) method. Eleven phosphorylation sites were localized in the pOBP sequence and nine sites in the VEG sequence. OBPs are secreted by Bowman's gland cells in the extracellular mucus lining the nasal cavity. After tracking the secretion pathway in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of these cells, we hypothesize that these proteins may be phosphorylated by ectokinases that remain to be characterized. The existence of such a regulatory mechanism theoretically increases the number of OBP variants, and it suggests a more specific role for OBPs in odorant coding than the one of odorant solubilizer and transporter.

  9. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  10. Copper-binding protein in Mimulus guttatus

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, N.J.; Thurman, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    A Cu-binding protein has been purified from the roots of Mimulus guttatus using gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and anion exchange chromatography on DEAE Biogel A. The protein has similar properties to putative metallothioneins (MTS) purified from other angiosperms. Putative MT was estimated by measuring the relative percentage incorporation of (/sup 35/S) into fractions containing the protein after HPLC on SW 3000-gel. In the roots of both Cu-tolerant and non tolerant plants synthesis of putative MT is induced by increased Cu concentration in the nutrient solution. The relative percentage incorporation of (/sup 35/S) into putative MT is significantly higher in extracts from the roots of Cu-tolerant than non tolerant M. guttatus after growth in 1 ..mu..M Cu suggesting involvement in the mechanism of tolerance. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Cation specific binding with protein surface charges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Berk; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Biological organization depends on a sensitive balance of noncovalent interactions, in particular also those involving interactions between ions. Ion-pairing is qualitatively described by the law of “matching water affinities.” This law predicts that cations and anions (with equal valence) form stable contact ion pairs if their sizes match. We show that this simple physical model fails to describe the interaction of cations with (molecular) anions of weak carboxylic acids, which are present on the surfaces of many intra- and extracellular proteins. We performed molecular simulations with quantitatively accurate models and observed that the order K+ < Na+ < Li+ of increasing binding affinity with carboxylate ions is caused by a stronger preference for forming weak solvent-shared ion pairs. The relative insignificance of contact pair interactions with protein surfaces indicates that thermodynamic stability and interactions between proteins in alkali salt solutions is governed by interactions mediated through hydration water molecules. PMID:19666545

  12. A putative GTP binding protein homologous to interferon-inducible Mx proteins performs an essential function in yeast protein sorting.

    PubMed

    Rothman, J H; Raymond, C K; Gilbert, T; O'Hara, P J; Stevens, T H

    1990-06-15

    Members of the Mx protein family promote interferon-inducible resistance to viral infection in mammals and act by unknown mechanisms. We identified an Mx-like protein in yeast and present genetic evidence for its cellular function. This protein, the VPS1 product, is essential for vacuolar protein sorting, normal organization of intracellular membranes, and growth at high temperature, implying that Mx-like proteins are engaged in fundamental cellular processes in eukaryotes. Vps1p contains a tripartite GTP binding motif, which suggests that binding to GTP is essential to its role in protein sorting. Vps1p-specific antibody labels punctate cytoplasmic structures that condense to larger structures in a Golgi-accumulating sec7 mutant; thus, Vps1p may associate with an intermediate organelle of the secretory pathway.

  13. Interactome map uncovers phosphatidylserine transport by oxysterol-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kenji; Anand, Kanchan; Chiapparino, Antonella; Kumar, Arun; Poletto, Mattia; Kaksonen, Marko; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2013-09-12

    The internal organization of eukaryotic cells into functionally specialized, membrane-delimited organelles of unique composition implies a need for active, regulated lipid transport. Phosphatidylserine (PS), for example, is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and then preferentially associates--through mechanisms not fully elucidated--with the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Lipids can travel via transport vesicles. Alternatively, several protein families known as lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs) can extract a variety of specific lipids from biological membranes and transport them, within a hydrophobic pocket, through aqueous phases. Here we report the development of an integrated approach that combines protein fractionation and lipidomics to characterize the LTP-lipid complexes formed in vivo. We applied the procedure to 13 LTPs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the six Sec14 homology (Sfh) proteins and the seven oxysterol-binding homology (Osh) proteins. We found that Osh6 and Osh7 have an unexpected specificity for PS. In vivo, they participate in PS homeostasis and the transport of this lipid to the plasma membrane. The structure of Osh6 bound to PS reveals unique features that are conserved among other metazoan oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs) and are required for PS recognition. Our findings represent the first direct evidence, to our knowledge, for the non-vesicular transfer of PS from its site of biosynthesis (the endoplasmic reticulum) to its site of biological activity (the plasma membrane). We describe a new subfamily of OSBPs, including human ORP5 and ORP10, that transfer PS and propose new mechanisms of action for a protein family that is involved in several human pathologies such as cancer, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome.

  14. Disorder and function: a review of the dehydrin protein family

    PubMed Central

    Graether, Steffen P.; Boddington, Kelly F.

    2014-01-01

    Dehydration proteins (dehydrins) are group 2 members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family. The protein architecture of dehydrins can be described by the presence of three types of conserved sequence motifs that have been named the K-, Y-, and S-segments. By definition, a dehydrin must contain at least one copy of the lysine-rich K-segment. Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, and salinity cause the upregulation of dehydrin mRNA and protein levels. Despite the large body of genetic and protein evidence of the importance of these proteins in stress response, the in vivo protective mechanism is not fully known. In vitro experimental evidence from biochemical assays and localization experiments suggests multiple roles for dehydrins, including membrane protection, cryoprotection of enzymes, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Membrane binding by dehydrins is likely to be as a peripheral membrane protein, since the protein sequences are highly hydrophilic and contain many charged amino acids. Because of this, dehydrins in solution are intrinsically disordered proteins, that is, they have no well-defined secondary or tertiary structure. Despite their disorder, dehydrins have been shown to gain structure when bound to ligands such as membranes, and to possibly change their oligomeric state when bound to ions. We review what is currently known about dehydrin sequences and their structures, and examine the various ligands that have been shown to bind to this family of proteins. PMID:25400646

  15. Competitive protein binding assay for piritrexim

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, J.L. Jr.; Ringstad, J.L.; Sigel, C.W. )

    1989-09-01

    A competitive protein binding assay for piritrexim (PTX, 1) that makes use of a commercially available radioassay kit for methotrexate has been developed. After it is selectively extracted from plasma, PTX competes with ({sup 125}I)methotrexate for binding to dihydrofolate reductase isolated from Lactobacillus casei. Free drug is separated from bound drug by adsorption to dextran-coated charcoal. Piritrexim is measurable over a range of 0.01 to 10.0 micrograms/mL in plasma with a coefficient of variation less than 15%. The limit of sensitivity of the assay is approximately 2 ng/mL. An excellent correlation between this assay and a previously published HPLC method was found.

  16. Difference in DNA-binding abilities of Fur-homolog DNA binding protein from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Angshuman

    2016-10-01

    Gonorrhea is a severe disease infecting both men and women worldwide. The causative agent of the disease is Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The organism mostly affects human beings in iron restricted environments. In such an environment the organism produces a set of proteins which are mostly absent in iron rich environments. The expressions of the genes for the proteins are regulated by the transcription factor (TF) belonging to the Fur family. Interestingly, the same TF acts as the activator and repressor of genes. In this present work, an attempt has been made to analyze the molecular details of the differential DNA-binding activities of the TF from Neisseria gonorrhoeae to come up with a plausible molecular reason behind the difference DNA binding activities of the same TF. Computational modelling technique was used to build the three dimensional structure of the TF. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to determine the binding interactions between the TF and the promoter DNA. With the help of the computational techniques, the biochemical reason behind the different modes of DNA binding by the TF was analyzed. Results from this analysis may be useful to future drug development endeavours to curtail the spread of Gonorrhea.

  17. Structural and binding studies of SAP-1 protein with heparin.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vikash K; Mandal, Rahul S; Puniya, Bhanwar L; Kumar, Rahul; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-03-01

    SAP-1 is a low molecular weight cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) which belongs to type-2 cystatins family. SAP-1 protein purified from human seminal plasma (HuSP) has been shown to inhibit cysteine and serine proteases and exhibit interesting biological properties, including high temperature and pH stability. Heparin is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan (with varied chain length) which interacts with a number of proteins and regulates multiple steps in different biological processes. As an anticoagulant, heparin enhances inhibition of thrombin by the serpin antithrombin III. Therefore, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to improve our understanding of the binding interaction between heparin and SAP-1 (protease inhibitor). SPR data suggest that SAP-1 binds to heparin with a significant affinity (KD = 158 nm). SPR solution competition studies using heparin oligosaccharides showed that the binding of SAP-1 to heparin is dependent on chain length. Large oligosaccharides show strong binding affinity for SAP-1. Further to get insight into the structural aspect of interactions between SAP-1 and heparin, we used modelled structure of the SAP-1 and docked with heparin and heparin-derived polysaccharides. The results suggest that a positively charged residue lysine plays important role in these interactions. Such information should improve our understanding of how heparin, present in the reproductive tract, regulates cystatins activity.

  18. Phage Orf Family Recombinases: Conservation of Activities and Involvement of the Central Channel in DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Fiona A.; Malay, Ali D.; Trotter, Alexander J.; Wilson, Lindsay A.; Barradell-Black, Michael M. H.; Bowers, Laura Y.; Reed, Patricia; Hillyar, Christopher R. T.; Yeo, Robert P.; Sanderson, John M.; Heddle, Jonathan G.; Sharples, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that λ Orf is a recombination mediator, promoting nucleation of either bacterial RecA or phage Redβ recombinases onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bound by SSB protein. We have identified a diverse family of Orf proteins that includes representatives implicated in DNA base flipping and those fused to an HNH endonuclease domain. To confirm a functional relationship with the Orf family, a distantly-related homolog, YbcN, from Escherichia coli cryptic prophage DLP12 was purified and characterized. As with its λ relative, YbcN showed a preference for binding ssDNA over duplex. Neither Orf nor YbcN displayed a significant preference for duplex DNA containing mismatches or 1-3 nucleotide bulges. YbcN also bound E. coli SSB, although unlike Orf, it failed to associate with an SSB mutant lacking the flexible C-terminal tail involved in coordinating heterologous protein-protein interactions. Residues conserved in the Orf family that flank the central cavity in the λ Orf crystal structure were targeted for mutagenesis to help determine the mode of DNA binding. Several of these mutant proteins showed significant defects in DNA binding consistent with the central aperture being important for substrate recognition. The widespread conservation of Orf-like proteins highlights the importance of targeting SSB coated ssDNA during lambdoid phage recombination. PMID:25083707

  19. Novel Bioluminescent Binding Assays for Ligand–Receptor Interaction Studies of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Family

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ge; Shao, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Zeng-Guang; Liu, Ya-Li; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed novel bioluminescent binding assays for several protein/peptide hormones to study their interactions with receptors using the so far brightest NanoLuc reporter. To validate the novel bioluminescent binding assay using a variety of protein/peptide hormones, in the present work we applied it to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family using the prototype member FGF2 as an example. A fully active recombinant FGF2 retaining a unique exposed cysteine (Cys) residue was chemically conjugated with an engineered NanoLuc carrying a unique exposed Cys residue at the C-terminus via formation of an intermolecular disulfide linkage. The NanoLuc-conjugated FGF2 (FGF2-Luc) retained high binding affinity to the overexpressed FGFR1 and the endogenous FGF receptor with the calculated dissociation constants of 161 ± 21 pM (n = 3) and 25 ± 4 pM (n = 3), respectively. In competition binding assays using FGF2-Luc as a tracer, receptor-binding potencies of wild-type or mutant FGF2s were accurately quantified. Thus, FGF2-Luc represents a novel non-radioactive tracer for the quantitative measurement of ligand–receptor interactions in the FGF family. These data suggest that the novel bioluminescent binding assay can be applied to a variety of protein/peptide hormones for ligand–receptor interaction studies. PMID:27414797

  20. Association of polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) and fatty acid-binding protein-3 and fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) with fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Nafikov, R A; Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Noack, K; Garrick, D J; Koehler, K J; Minick-Bormann, J; Reecy, J M; Spurlock, D E; Beitz, D C

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop tools for genetic selection of animals producing milk with a lower concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The reasons for changing milk fatty acid (FA) composition were to improve milk technological properties, such as for production of more spreadable butter, and milk nutritional value with respect to the potentially adverse effects of SFA on human health. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) fatty acid transport protein gene and fatty acid binding protein (FABP)-3 and FABP-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) would affect the selectivity of FA uptake into, and FA redistribution inside, mammary epithelial cells, resulting in altered FA composition of bovine milk. The objectives of our study were to discover genetic polymorphisms in SLC27A6, FABP3, and FABP4, and to test those polymorphisms for associations with milk FA composition. The results showed that after pairwise comparisons between SLC27A6 haplotypes for significantly associated traits, haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.37 weight percentage (wt%) lower SFA concentration, 0.091 lower SFA:UFA ratio, and 0.17 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0) concentration, but 1.37 wt% higher UFA and 1.24 wt% higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Pairwise comparisons between FABP4 haplotypes for significantly associated traits showed that haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.04 wt% lower SFA concentration, 0.079 lower SFA:UFA ratio, 0.15 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0), and 0.27 wt% lower myristic acid (14:0) concentrations, but 1.04 wt% higher UFA and 0.91 wt% higher MUFA concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Percentages of genetic variance explained by H3 versus H1 haplotype substitutions for SLC27A6 and FABP4 ranged from 2.50 to 4.86% and

  1. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    DOEpatents

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is set forth in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 1. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 2. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors and seeds from said plants.

  2. Computational Design of DNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thyme, Summer; Song, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of engineered and naturally occurring sequence perturbations to protein-DNA interfaces requires accurate computational modeling technologies. It has been well established that computational design to accommodate small numbers of DNA target site substitutions is possible. This chapter details the basic method of design used in the Rosetta macromolecular modeling program that has been successfully used to modulate the specificity of DNA-binding proteins. More recently, combining computational design and directed evolution has become a common approach for increasing the success rate of protein engineering projects. The power of such high-throughput screening depends on computational methods producing multiple potential solutions. Therefore, this chapter describes several protocols for increasing the diversity of designed output. Lastly, we describe an approach for building comparative models of protein-DNA complexes in order to utilize information from homologous sequences. These models can be used to explore how nature modulates specificity of protein-DNA interfaces and potentially can even be used as starting templates for further engineering.

  3. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  4. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  5. Genes encoding calmodulin-binding proteins in the Arabidopsis genome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Vaka S.; Ali, Gul S.; Reddy, Anireddy S N.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the recently completed Arabidopsis genome sequence indicates that approximately 31% of the predicted genes could not be assigned to functional categories, as they do not show any sequence similarity with proteins of known function from other organisms. Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous and multifunctional Ca(2+) sensor, interacts with a wide variety of cellular proteins and modulates their activity/function in regulating diverse cellular processes. However, the primary amino acid sequence of the CaM-binding domain in different CaM-binding proteins (CBPs) is not conserved. One way to identify most of the CBPs in the Arabidopsis genome is by protein-protein interaction-based screening of expression libraries with CaM. Here, using a mixture of radiolabeled CaM isoforms from Arabidopsis, we screened several expression libraries prepared from flower meristem, seedlings, or tissues treated with hormones, an elicitor, or a pathogen. Sequence analysis of 77 positive clones that interact with CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner revealed 20 CBPs, including 14 previously unknown CBPs. In addition, by searching the Arabidopsis genome sequence with the newly identified and known plant or animal CBPs, we identified a total of 27 CBPs. Among these, 16 CBPs are represented by families with 2-20 members in each family. Gene expression analysis revealed that CBPs and CBP paralogs are expressed differentially. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis has a large number of CBPs including several plant-specific ones. Although CaM is highly conserved between plants and animals, only a few CBPs are common to both plants and animals. Analysis of Arabidopsis CBPs revealed the presence of a variety of interesting domains. Our analyses identified several hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome as CaM targets, suggesting their involvement in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling networks.

  6. Genes encoding calmodulin-binding proteins in the Arabidopsis genome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Vaka S.; Ali, Gul S.; Reddy, Anireddy S N.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the recently completed Arabidopsis genome sequence indicates that approximately 31% of the predicted genes could not be assigned to functional categories, as they do not show any sequence similarity with proteins of known function from other organisms. Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous and multifunctional Ca(2+) sensor, interacts with a wide variety of cellular proteins and modulates their activity/function in regulating diverse cellular processes. However, the primary amino acid sequence of the CaM-binding domain in different CaM-binding proteins (CBPs) is not conserved. One way to identify most of the CBPs in the Arabidopsis genome is by protein-protein interaction-based screening of expression libraries with CaM. Here, using a mixture of radiolabeled CaM isoforms from Arabidopsis, we screened several expression libraries prepared from flower meristem, seedlings, or tissues treated with hormones, an elicitor, or a pathogen. Sequence analysis of 77 positive clones that interact with CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner revealed 20 CBPs, including 14 previously unknown CBPs. In addition, by searching the Arabidopsis genome sequence with the newly identified and known plant or animal CBPs, we identified a total of 27 CBPs. Among these, 16 CBPs are represented by families with 2-20 members in each family. Gene expression analysis revealed that CBPs and CBP paralogs are expressed differentially. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis has a large number of CBPs including several plant-specific ones. Although CaM is highly conserved between plants and animals, only a few CBPs are common to both plants and animals. Analysis of Arabidopsis CBPs revealed the presence of a variety of interesting domains. Our analyses identified several hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome as CaM targets, suggesting their involvement in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling networks.

  7. Genes encoding calmodulin-binding proteins in the Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vaka S; Ali, Gul S; Reddy, Anireddy S N

    2002-03-22

    Analysis of the recently completed Arabidopsis genome sequence indicates that approximately 31% of the predicted genes could not be assigned to functional categories, as they do not show any sequence similarity with proteins of known function from other organisms. Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous and multifunctional Ca(2+) sensor, interacts with a wide variety of cellular proteins and modulates their activity/function in regulating diverse cellular processes. However, the primary amino acid sequence of the CaM-binding domain in different CaM-binding proteins (CBPs) is not conserved. One way to identify most of the CBPs in the Arabidopsis genome is by protein-protein interaction-based screening of expression libraries with CaM. Here, using a mixture of radiolabeled CaM isoforms from Arabidopsis, we screened several expression libraries prepared from flower meristem, seedlings, or tissues treated with hormones, an elicitor, or a pathogen. Sequence analysis of 77 positive clones that interact with CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner revealed 20 CBPs, including 14 previously unknown CBPs. In addition, by searching the Arabidopsis genome sequence with the newly identified and known plant or animal CBPs, we identified a total of 27 CBPs. Among these, 16 CBPs are represented by families with 2-20 members in each family. Gene expression analysis revealed that CBPs and CBP paralogs are expressed differentially. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis has a large number of CBPs including several plant-specific ones. Although CaM is highly conserved between plants and animals, only a few CBPs are common to both plants and animals. Analysis of Arabidopsis CBPs revealed the presence of a variety of interesting domains. Our analyses identified several hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome as CaM targets, suggesting their involvement in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling networks.

  8. Alignment-free ultra-high-throughput comparison of druggable protein-ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Weill, Nathanaël; Rognan, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Inferring the biological function of a protein from its three-dimensional structure as well as explaining why a drug may bind to various targets is of crucial importance to modern drug discovery. Here we present a generic 4833-integer vector describing druggable protein-ligand binding sites that can be applied to any protein and any binding cavity. The fingerprint registers counts of pharmacophoric triplets from the Calpha atomic coordinates of binding-site-lining residues. Starting from a customized data set of diverse protein-ligand binding site pairs, the most appropriate metric and a similarity threshold could be defined for similar binding sites. The method (FuzCav) has been used in various scenarios: (i) screening a collection of 6000 binding sites for similarity to different queries; (ii) classifying protein families (serine endopeptidases, protein kinases) by binding site diversity; (iii) discriminating adenine-binding cavities from decoys. The fingerprint generation and comparison supports ultra-high throughput (ca. 1000 measures/s), does not require prior alignment of protein binding sites, and is able to detect local similarity among subpockets. It is thus particularly well suited to the functional annotation of novel genomic structures with low sequence identity to known X-ray templates.

  9. Neurodegeneration and RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    De Conti, Laura; Baralle, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    In the eukaryotic nucleus, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a very important role in the life cycle of both coding and noncoding RNAs. As soon as they are transcribed, in fact, all RNA molecules within a cell are bound by distinct sets of RBPs that have the task of regulating its correct processing, transport, stability, and function/translation up to its final degradation. These tasks are particularly important in cells that have a complex RNA metabolism, such as neurons. Not surprisingly, therefore, recent findings have shown that the misregulation of genes involved in RNA metabolism or the autophagy/proteasome pathway plays an important role in the onset and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we aim to review the recent advances that link neurodegenerative processes and RBP proteins. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1394. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1394 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  10. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins--an Update.

    PubMed

    Bach, Leon A

    2015-12-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is essential for normal growth and development, and its perturbation is implicated in a number of diseases. IGF activity is finely regulated by a family of six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). 1GFBPs usually inhibit IGF actions but may enhance them under certain conditions. Additionally, IGFBPs bind non-IGF ligands in the extracellular space, cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, thereby modulating cell proliferation, survival and migration in an IGF-independent manner. IGFBP activity is regulated by transcriptional mechanisms as well as by post-translational modifications and proteolysis. Understanding the balance between the various actions of IGFBPs in vivo may lead to novel insights into disease processes and possible IGFBP-based therapeutics.

  11. Lineage-specific expansion of DNA-binding transcription factor families

    PubMed Central

    Charoensawan, Varodom; Wilson, Derek; Teichmann, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    DNA-binding domains (DBDs) are essential components of sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs). We have investigated the distribution of all known DBDs in more than 500 completely sequenced genomes from the three major superkingdoms (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota) and documented conserved and specific DBD occurrence in diverse taxonomic lineages. By combining DBD occurrence in different species with taxonomic information, we have developed an automatic method for inferring the origins of DBD families and their specific combinations with other protein families in TFs. We found only three out of 131 (2%) DBD families shared by the three superkingdoms. PMID:20675012

  12. A novel missense variant (Gln220Arg) of GNB4 encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 in a Japanese family with autosomal dominant motor and sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shiroh; Morikawa, Takuya; Fujioka, Ryuta; Noda, Kazuhito; Kosaka, Kengo; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Shibata, Hiroki

    2017-09-01

    Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease F (CMTDIF) is an autosomal dominant hereditary form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) caused by variations in the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 gene (GNB4). We examined two Japanese familial cases with CMT. Case 1 was a 49-year-old male whose chief complaint was slowly progressive gait disturbance and limb dysesthesia that appeared at the age of 47. On neurological examination, he showed hyporeflexia or areflexia, distal limb muscle weakness, and distal sensory impairment with lower dominancy. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy with reduced action potentials in the lower limbs. Case 2 was an 80-year-old man, Case 1's father, who reported difficulty in riding a bicycle at the age of 76. On neurological examination, he showed areflexia in the upper and lower limbs. Distal sensory impairment in the lower limbs was also observed. Nerve conduction studies revealed mainly axonal involvement. Exome sequencing identified a novel heterozygous nonsynonymous variant (NM_021629.3:c.659T > C [p.Gln220Arg]) in GNB4 exon 8, which is known to be responsible for CMT. Sanger sequencing confirmed that both patients are heterozygous for the variation, which causes an amino acid substitution, Gln220Arg, in the highly conserved region of the WD40 domain of GNB4. The frequency of this variant in the Exome Aggregation Consortium Database was 0.000008247, and we confirmed its absence in 502 Japanese control subjects. We conclude that this novel GNB4 variant is causative for CMTDIF in these patients, who represent the first record of the disease in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Identification of residues in the human guanylate-binding protein 1 critical for nucleotide binding and cooperative GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Praefcke, Gerrit J K; Kloep, Stephan; Benscheid, Utz; Lilie, Hauke; Prakash, Balaji; Herrmann, Christian

    2004-11-12

    The guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) form a group of interferon-gamma inducible GTP-binding proteins which belong to the family of dynamin-related proteins. Like other members of this family, human guanylate-binding protein 1 (hGBP1) shows nucleotide-dependent oligomerisation that stimulates the GTPase activity of the protein. A unique feature of the GBPs is their ability to hydrolyse GTP to GDP and GMP. In order to elucidate the relationship between these findings, we designed point mutants in the phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) as well as in the switch I and switch II regions of the protein based on the crystal structure of hGBP1. These mutant proteins were analysed for their interaction with guanine nucleotides labeled with a fluorescence dye and for their ability to hydrolyse GTP in a cooperative manner. We identified mutations of amino acid residues that decrease GTPase activity by orders of magnitude a part of which are conserved in GTP-binding proteins. In addition, mutants in the P-loop were characterized that strongly impair binding of nucleotide. In consequence, together with altered GTPase activity and given cellular nucleotide concentrations this results in hGBP1 mutants prevailingly resting in the nucleotide-free (K51A and S52N) or the GTP bound form (R48A), respectively. Using size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation we addressed the impact on protein oligomerisation. In summary, mutants of hGBP1 were identified and biochemically characterized providing hGBP1 locked in defined states in order to investigate their functional role in future cell biology studies.

  14. Expression and characterization of rat kallikrein-binding protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, J X; Chao, L; Zhou, G; Chao, J

    1993-01-01

    Rat kallikrein-binding protein is a novel serine-proteinase inhibitor that forms a covalent complex with tissue kallikrein. We have purified rat kallikrein-binding protein and cloned the cDNA and the gene encoding rat kallikrein-binding protein [Chao, Chai, Chen, Xiong, Chao, Woodley-Miller, Wang, Lu and Chao (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 16394-16401; Chai, Ma, Murray, Chao and Chao (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 16029-16036]. In the present study, we have expressed rat kallikrein-binding protein in Escherichia coli with a T7-polymerase/promoter expression system. A high level of expression was detected by an e.l.i.s.a. with an average of 24.2 mg of recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein per 1 of culture. The recombinant protein appeared as a major protein in a crude extract of Escherichia coli on SDS/PAGE. It showed a molecular mass of 43 kDa and was recognized by polyclonal antibody to the native rat kallikrein-binding protein in Western-blot analysis. The recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein has been purified to apparent homogeneity by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, hydroxyapatite Bio-Gel HPHT and Mono P 5/5 column chromatography. The purified recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein showed immunological identity with the native rat kallikrein-binding protein purified from rat serum, in a specific e.l.i.s.a. To confirm the fidelity of the expression, the N-terminal ten amino acids of the recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein were sequenced and were shown to match perfectly with those of the native rat kallikrein-binding protein. The purified recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein formed SDS- and heat-stable complexes with rat tissue kallikrein (rK1) and T-kininogenase (rK10) in vitro, but not with other enzymes in the rat kallikrein gene family, such as tonin (rK2) and S3 protein (rK9), which indicates enzyme-specific binding. The properties of the recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein including its size, charge, complex formation with target enzymes

  15. Vaccinia Virus N1l Protein Resembles a B Cell Lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) Family Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyagi, M.; Zhai, D.; Jin, C.; Aleshin, A.E.; Stec, B.; Reed, J.C.; Liddington, R.C.; /Burnham Inst.

    2007-07-03

    Poxviruses encode immuno-modulatory proteins capable of subverting host defenses. The poxvirus vaccinia expresses a small 14-kDa protein, N1L, that is critical for virulence. We report the crystal structure of N1L, which reveals an unexpected but striking resemblance to host apoptotic regulators of the B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. Although N1L lacks detectable Bcl-2 homology (BH) motifs at the sequence level, we show that N1L binds with high affinity to the BH3 peptides of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in vitro, consistent with a role for N1L in modulating host antiviral defenses.

  16. Comparison of Entropic Contributions to Binding in a “Hydrophilic” versus “Hydrophobic” Ligand−Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we characterize the thermodynamics of binding of histamine to recombinant histamine-binding protein (rRaHBP2), a member of the lipocalin family isolated from the brown-ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The binding pocket of this protein contains a number of charged residues, consistent with histamine binding, and is thus a typical example of a “hydrophilic” binder. In contrast, a second member of the lipocalin family, the recombinant major urinary protein (rMUP), binds small hydrophobic ligands, with a similar overall entropy of binding in comparison with rRaHBP2. Having extensively studied ligand binding thermodynamics for rMUP previously, the data we obtained in the present study for HBP enables a comparison of the driving forces for binding between these classically distinct binding processes in terms of entropic contributions from ligand, protein, and solvent. In the case of rRaHBP2, we find favorable entropic contributions to binding from desolvation of the ligand; however, the overall entropy of binding is unfavorable due to a dominant unfavorable contribution arising from the loss of ligand degrees of freedom, together with the sequestration of solvent water molecules into the binding pocket in the complex. This contrasts with binding in rMUP where desolvation of the protein binding pocket makes a minor contribution to the overall entropy of binding given that the pocket is substantially desolvated prior to binding. PMID:20524663

  17. Mutational Insights into the Roles of Amino Acid Residues in Ligand Binding for Two Closely Related Family 16 Carbohydrate Binding Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Xiaoyun; Agarwal, Vinayak; Dodd, Dylan; Bae, Brian; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nair, Satish K.; Cann, Isaac K.O.

    2010-11-22

    Carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) are specialized proteins that bind to polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5ACBM16-1/CBM16-2 bind to glucose-, mannose-, and glucose/mannose-configured substrates. The crystal structures of the two proteins represent the only examples in CBM family 16, and studies that evaluate the roles of amino acid residues in ligand binding in this family are lacking. In this study, we probed the roles of amino acids (selected based on CBM16-1/ligand co-crystal structures) on substrate binding. Two tryptophan (Trp-20 and Trp-125) and two glutamine (Gln-81 and Gln-93) residues are shown to be critical in ligand binding. Additionally, several polar residues that flank the critical residues also contribute to ligand binding. The CBM16-1 Q121E mutation increased affinity for all substrates tested, whereas the Q21G and N97R mutants exhibited decreased substrate affinity. We solved CBM/substrate co-crystal structures to elucidate the molecular basis of the increased substrate binding by CBM16-1 Q121E. The Gln-121, Gln-21, and Asn-97 residues can be manipulated to fine-tune ligand binding by the Man5A CBMs. Surprisingly, none of the eight residues investigated was absolutely conserved in CBM family 16. Thus, the critical residues in the Man5A CBMs are either not essential for substrate binding in the other members of this family or the two CBMs are evolutionarily distinct from the members available in the current protein database. Man5A is dependent on its CBMs for robust activity, and insights from this study should serve to enhance our understanding of the interdependence of its catalytic and substrate binding modules.

  18. Identification of a novel DNA-binding protein to osmotin promoter.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Ling, J; Li, D; Hasegawa, P M; Bressan, R A

    1998-12-01

    One novel osmotin promoter, binding-protein (OPBP1) gene, was isolated from salt-adapted tobacco suspension cells using yeast one-hybrid system. The OPBP1 interacted specifically in vivo with FA, a DNA sequence from the 5 upstream region of osmotin gene, which was essential for osmotin responsiveness. The deduced amino acid sequence of OPBP1 contained a conserved motif of a new gene family, AP2 family. This protein did not contain the typical motif found in the most known DNA-binding proteins and transcription factors.

  19. Exhaustive enumeration of protein domain families.

    PubMed

    Heger, Andreas; Holm, Liisa

    2003-05-02

    Domains are considered as the basic units of protein folding, evolution, and function. Decomposing each protein into modular domains is thus a basic prerequisite for accurate functional classification of biological molecules. Here, we present ADDA, an automatic algorithm for domain decomposition and clustering of all protein domain families. We use alignments derived from an all-on-all sequence comparison to define domains within protein sequences based on a global maximum likelihood model. In all, 90% of domain boundaries are predicted within 10% of domain size when compared with the manual domain definitions given in the SCOP database. A representative database of 249,264 protein sequences were decomposed into 450,462 domains. These domains were clustered on the basis of sequence similarities into 33,879 domain families containing at least two members with less than 40% sequence identity. Validation against family definitions in the manually curated databases SCOP and PFAM indicates almost perfect unification of various large domain families while contamination by unrelated sequences remains at a low level. The global survey of protein-domain space by ADDA confirms that most large and universal domain families are already described in PFAM and/or SMART. However, a survey of the complete set of mobile modules leads to the identification of 1479 new interesting domain families which shuffle around in multi-domain proteins. The data are publicly available at ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/contrib/heger/adda.

  20. Analysis of substructural variation in families of enzymatic proteins with applications to protein function prediction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Structural variations caused by a wide range of physico-chemical and biological sources directly influence the function of a protein. For enzymatic proteins, the structure and chemistry of the catalytic binding site residues can be loosely defined as a substructure of the protein. Comparative analysis of drug-receptor substructures across and within species has been used for lead evaluation. Substructure-level similarity between the binding sites of functionally similar proteins has also been used to identify instances of convergent evolution among proteins. In functionally homologous protein families, shared chemistry and geometry at catalytic sites provide a common, local point of comparison among proteins that may differ significantly at the sequence, fold, or domain topology levels. Results This paper describes two key results that can be used separately or in combination for protein function analysis. The Family-wise Analysis of SubStructural Templates (FASST) method uses all-against-all substructure comparison to determine Substructural Clusters (SCs). SCs characterize the binding site substructural variation within a protein family. In this paper we focus on examples of automatically determined SCs that can be linked to phylogenetic distance between family members, segregation by conformation, and organization by homology among convergent protein lineages. The Motif Ensemble Statistical Hypothesis (MESH) framework constructs a representative motif for each protein cluster among the SCs determined by FASST to build motif ensembles that are shown through a series of function prediction experiments to improve the function prediction power of existing motifs. Conclusions FASST contributes a critical feedback and assessment step to existing binding site substructure identification methods and can be used for the thorough investigation of structure-function relationships. The application of MESH allows for an automated, statistically rigorous procedure

  1. Flies expand the repertoire of protein structures that bind ice.

    PubMed

    Basu, Koli; Graham, Laurie A; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2015-01-20

    An antifreeze protein (AFP) with no known homologs has been identified in Lake Ontario midges (Chironomidae). The midge AFP is expressed as a family of isoforms at low levels in adults, which emerge from fresh water in spring before the threat of freezing temperatures has passed. The 9.1-kDa major isoform derived from a preproprotein precursor is glycosylated and has a 10-residue tandem repeating sequence xxCxGxYCxG, with regularly spaced cysteines, glycines, and tyrosines comprising one-half its 79 residues. Modeling and molecular dynamics predict a tightly wound left-handed solenoid fold in which the cysteines form a disulfide core to brace each of the eight 10-residue coils. The solenoid is reinforced by intrachain hydrogen bonds, side-chain salt bridges, and a row of seven stacked tyrosines on the hydrophobic side that forms the putative ice-binding site. A disulfide core is also a feature of the similar-sized beetle AFP that is a β-helix with seven 12-residue coils and a comparable circular dichroism spectrum. The midge and beetle AFPs are not homologous and their ice-binding sites are radically different, with the latter comprising two parallel arrays of outward-pointing threonines. However, their structural similarities is an amazing example of convergent evolution in different orders of insects to cope with change to a colder climate and provide confirmation about the physical features needed for a protein to bind ice.

  2. Flies expand the repertoire of protein structures that bind ice

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Koli; Graham, Laurie A.; Campbell, Robert L.; Davies, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    An antifreeze protein (AFP) with no known homologs has been identified in Lake Ontario midges (Chironomidae). The midge AFP is expressed as a family of isoforms at low levels in adults, which emerge from fresh water in spring before the threat of freezing temperatures has passed. The 9.1-kDa major isoform derived from a preproprotein precursor is glycosylated and has a 10-residue tandem repeating sequence xxCxGxYCxG, with regularly spaced cysteines, glycines, and tyrosines comprising one-half its 79 residues. Modeling and molecular dynamics predict a tightly wound left-handed solenoid fold in which the cysteines form a disulfide core to brace each of the eight 10-residue coils. The solenoid is reinforced by intrachain hydrogen bonds, side-chain salt bridges, and a row of seven stacked tyrosines on the hydrophobic side that forms the putative ice-binding site. A disulfide core is also a feature of the similar-sized beetle AFP that is a β-helix with seven 12-residue coils and a comparable circular dichroism spectrum. The midge and beetle AFPs are not homologous and their ice-binding sites are radically different, with the latter comprising two parallel arrays of outward-pointing threonines. However, their structural similarities is an amazing example of convergent evolution in different orders of insects to cope with change to a colder climate and provide confirmation about the physical features needed for a protein to bind ice. PMID:25561557

  3. Protein CTC from Aquifex aeolicus possesses a full-sized 5S rRNA-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Korobeinikova, A V; Shestakov, S A; Korepanov, A P; Garber, M B; Gongadze, G M

    2009-03-01

    Ribosomal 5S RNA is the only identified target for proteins of the CTC family. All known proteins of this family, except for CTC from Aquifex aeolicus, contain a full-sized 5S rRNA-binding domain. In the present study a mistake in the published A. aeolicus genome is corrected. It has been demonstrated that the ctc gene of this organism encodes the protein with a full-length 5S rRNA-binding domain. This protein binds specifically to the bacterial 5S rRNA. Thereby, our data show that CTC A. aeolicus is not an exception from the other known CTC proteins.

  4. Structural basis for cooperative DNA binding by two dimers of the multidrug-binding protein QacR

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Maria A.; Miller, Marshall C.; Grkovic, Steve; Brown, Melissa H.; Skurray, Ronald A.; Brennan, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus multidrug-binding protein QacR represses transcription of the qacA multidrug transporter gene and is induced by multiple structurally dissimilar drugs. QacR is a member of the TetR/CamR family of transcriptional regulators, which share highly homologous N-terminal DNA-binding domains connected to seemingly non-homologous ligand-binding domains. Unlike other TetR members, which bind ∼15 bp operators, QacR recognizes an unusually long 28 bp operator, IR1, which it appears to bind cooperatively. To elucidate the DNA-binding mechanism of QacR, we determined the 2.90 Å resolution crystal structure of a QacR–IR1 complex. Strikingly, our data reveal that the DNA recognition mode of QacR is distinct from TetR and involves the binding of a pair of QacR dimers. In this unique binding mode, recognition at each IR1 half-site is mediated by a complement of DNA contacts made by two helix–turn–helix motifs. The inferred cooperativity does not arise from cross-dimer protein–protein contacts, but from the global undertwisting and major groove widening elicited by the binding of two QacR dimers. PMID:11867549

  5. The protein kinase C family.

    PubMed

    Azzi, A; Boscoboinik, D; Hensey, C

    1992-09-15

    Protein kinase C represents a structurally homologous group of proteins similar in size, structure and mechanism of activation. They can modulate the biological function of proteins in a rapid and reversible manner. Protein kinase C participates in one of the major signal transduction systems triggered by the external stimulation of cells by various ligands including hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors. Hydrolysis of membrane inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C or of phosphatidylcholine, generates sn-1,2-diacylglycerol, considered the physiological activator of this kinase. Other agents, such as arachidonic acid, participate in the activation of some of these proteins. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters and related compounds is not physiological and may be responsible, at least in part, for their tumor-promoting activity. The cellular localization of the different calcium-activated protein kinases, their substrate and activator specificity are dissimilar and thus their role in signal transduction is unlike. A better understanding of the exact cellular function of the different protein kinase C isoenzymes requires the identification and characterization of their physiological substrates.

  6. BindML/BindML+: Detecting Protein-Protein Interaction Interface Propensity from Amino Acid Substitution Patterns.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing; La, David; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of protein-protein interaction sites in a protein structure provides important information for elucidating the mechanism of protein function and can also be useful in guiding a modeling or design procedures of protein complex structures. Since prediction methods essentially assess the propensity of amino acids that are likely to be part of a protein docking interface, they can help in designing protein-protein interactions. Here, we introduce BindML and BindML+ protein-protein interaction sites prediction methods. BindML predicts protein-protein interaction sites by identifying mutation patterns found in known protein-protein complexes using phylogenetic substitution models. BindML+ is an extension of BindML for distinguishing permanent and transient types of protein-protein interaction sites. We developed an interactive web-server that provides a convenient interface to assist in structural visualization of protein-protein interactions site predictions. The input data for the web-server are a tertiary structure of interest. BindML and BindML+ are available at http://kiharalab.org/bindml/ and http://kiharalab.org/bindml/plus/ .

  7. The ADF/cofilin family: actin-remodeling proteins.

    PubMed

    Maciver, Sutherland K; Hussey, Patrick J

    2002-01-01

    The ADF/cofilins are a family of actin-binding proteins expressed in all eukaryotic cells so far examined. Members of this family remodel the actin cytoskeleton, for example during cytokinesis, when the actin-rich contractile ring shrinks as it contracts through the interaction of ADF/cofilins with both monomeric and filamentous actin. The depolymerizing activity is twofold: ADF/cofilins sever actin filaments and also increase the rate at which monomers leave the filament's pointed end. The three-dimensional structure of ADF/cofilins is similar to a fold in members of the gelsolin family of actin-binding proteins in which this fold is typically repeated three or six times; although both families bind polyphosphoinositide lipids and actin in a pH-dependent manner, they share no obvious sequence similarity. Plants and animals have multiple ADF/cofilin genes, belonging in vertebrates to two types, ADF and cofilins. Other eukaryotes (such as yeast, Acanthamoeba and slime moulds) have a single ADF/cofilin gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the ADF/cofilins reveals that, with few exceptions, their relationships reflect conventional views of the relationships between the major groups of organisms.

  8. A calmodulin binding protein from Arabidopsis is induced by ethylene and contains a DNA-binding motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Reddy, V. S.; Golovkin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a key calcium sensor in all eukaryotes, regulates diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. To isolate CaM binding proteins involved in ethylene signal transduction, we screened an expression library prepared from ethylene-treated Arabidopsis seedlings with 35S-labeled CaM. A cDNA clone, EICBP (Ethylene-Induced CaM Binding Protein), encoding a protein that interacts with activated CaM was isolated in this screening. The CaM binding domain in EICBP was mapped to the C-terminus of the protein. These results indicate that calcium, through CaM, could regulate the activity of EICBP. The EICBP is expressed in different tissues and its expression in seedlings is induced by ethylene. The EICBP contains, in addition to a CaM binding domain, several features that are typical of transcription factors. These include a DNA-binding domain at the N terminus, an acidic region at the C terminus, and nuclear localization signals. In database searches a partial cDNA (CG-1) encoding a DNA-binding motif from parsley and an ethylene up-regulated partial cDNA from tomato (ER66) showed significant similarity to EICBP. In addition, five hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome also showed a very high sequence similarity with EICBP, indicating that there are several EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis. The structural features of EICBP are conserved in all EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis, suggesting that they may constitute a new family of DNA binding proteins and are likely to be involved in modulating gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

  9. A calmodulin binding protein from Arabidopsis is induced by ethylene and contains a DNA-binding motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Reddy, V. S.; Golovkin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a key calcium sensor in all eukaryotes, regulates diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. To isolate CaM binding proteins involved in ethylene signal transduction, we screened an expression library prepared from ethylene-treated Arabidopsis seedlings with 35S-labeled CaM. A cDNA clone, EICBP (Ethylene-Induced CaM Binding Protein), encoding a protein that interacts with activated CaM was isolated in this screening. The CaM binding domain in EICBP was mapped to the C-terminus of the protein. These results indicate that calcium, through CaM, could regulate the activity of EICBP. The EICBP is expressed in different tissues and its expression in seedlings is induced by ethylene. The EICBP contains, in addition to a CaM binding domain, several features that are typical of transcription factors. These include a DNA-binding domain at the N terminus, an acidic region at the C terminus, and nuclear localization signals. In database searches a partial cDNA (CG-1) encoding a DNA-binding motif from parsley and an ethylene up-regulated partial cDNA from tomato (ER66) showed significant similarity to EICBP. In addition, five hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome also showed a very high sequence similarity with EICBP, indicating that there are several EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis. The structural features of EICBP are conserved in all EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis, suggesting that they may constitute a new family of DNA binding proteins and are likely to be involved in modulating gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

  10. Neuronal calcium-binding proteins and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Eyles, D W; McGrath, J J; Reynolds, G P

    2002-09-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) such as calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin are used as immunohistochemical markers for discrete neuronal subpopulations. They are particularly useful in identifying the various subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons that control output from prefrontal and cingulate cortices as well as from the hippocampus. The strategic role these interneurons play in regulating output from these three crucial brain regions has made them a focus for neuropathological investigation in schizophrenia. The number of pathological reports detailing subtle changes in these CBP-containing interneurons in patients with schizophrenia is rapidly growing. These proteins however are more than convenient neuronal markers. They confer survival advantages to neurons and can increase the neuron's ability to sustain firing. These properties may be important in the subtle pathophysiology of nondegenerative phenomena such as schizophrenia. The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to the functional properties of CBPs and to examine the emerging literature reporting alterations in these proteins in schizophrenia as well as draw some conclusions about the significance of these findings.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of ETS-family DNA-binding in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gong-Hong; Badis, Gwenael; Berger, Michael F; Kivioja, Teemu; Palin, Kimmo; Enge, Martin; Bonke, Martin; Jolma, Arttu; Varjosalo, Markku; Gehrke, Andrew R; Yan, Jian; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Turunen, Mikko; Taipale, Mikko; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Ukkonen, Esko; Hughes, Timothy R; Bulyk, Martha L; Taipale, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Members of the large ETS family of transcription factors (TFs) have highly similar DNA-binding domains (DBDs)—yet they have diverse functions and activities in physiology and oncogenesis. Some differences in DNA-binding preferences within this family have been described, but they have not been analysed systematically, and their contributions to targeting remain largely uncharacterized. We report here the DNA-binding profiles for all human and mouse ETS factors, which we generated using two different methods: a high-throughput microwell-based TF DNA-binding specificity assay, and protein-binding microarrays (PBMs). Both approaches reveal that the ETS-binding profiles cluster into four distinct classes, and that all ETS factors linked to cancer, ERG, ETV1, ETV4 and FLI1, fall into just one of these classes. We identify amino-acid residues that are critical for the differences in specificity between all the classes, and confirm the specificities in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) for a member of each class. The results indicate that even relatively small differences in in vitro binding specificity of a TF contribute to site selectivity in vivo. PMID:20517297

  12. Protein function annotation using protein domain family resources.

    PubMed

    Das, Sayoni; Orengo, Christine A

    2016-01-15

    As a result of the genome sequencing and structural genomics initiatives, we have a wealth of protein sequence and structural data. However, only about 1% of these proteins have experimental functional annotations. As a result, computational approaches that can predict protein functions are essential in bridging this widening annotation gap. This article reviews the current approaches of protein function prediction using structure and sequence based classification of protein domain family resources with a special focus on functional families in the CATH-Gene3D resource.

  13. DNA familial binding profiles made easy: comparison of various motif alignment and clustering strategies.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Shaun; Auron, Philip E; Benos, Panayiotis V

    2007-03-30

    Transcription factor (TF) proteins recognize a small number of DNA sequences with high specificity and control the expression of neighbouring genes. The evolution of TF binding preference has been the subject of a number of recent studies, in which generalized binding profiles have been introduced and used to improve the prediction of new target sites. Generalized profiles are generated by aligning and merging the individual profiles of related TFs. However, the distance metrics and alignment algorithms used to compare the binding profiles have not yet been fully explored or optimized. As a result, binding profiles depend on TF structural information and sometimes may ignore important distinctions between subfamilies. Prediction of the identity or the structural class of a protein that binds to a given DNA pattern will enhance the analysis of microarray and ChIP-chip data where frequently multiple putative targets of usually unknown TFs are predicted. Various comparison metrics and alignment algorithms are evaluated (a total of 105 combinations). We find that local alignments are generally better than global alignments at detecting eukaryotic DNA motif similarities, especially when combined with the sum of squared distances or Pearson's correlation coefficient comparison metrics. In addition, multiple-alignment strategies for binding profiles and tree-building methods are tested for their efficiency in constructing generalized binding models. A new method for automatic determination of the optimal number of clusters is developed and applied in the construction of a new set of familial binding profiles which improves upon TF classification accuracy. A software tool, STAMP, is developed to host all tested methods and make them publicly available. This work provides a high quality reference set of familial binding profiles and the first comprehensive platform for analysis of DNA profiles. Detecting similarities between DNA motifs is a key step in the comparative study

  14. Glycan Masking of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein for Probing Protein Binding Function and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Joel; Gurumoorthy, Sairam; Gibson, Claire; Melcher, Martin; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Wang, Ruobing; Schief, William R.; Smith, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Glycan masking is an emerging vaccine design strategy to focus antibody responses to specific epitopes, but it has mostly been evaluated on the already heavily glycosylated HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Here this approach was used to investigate the binding interaction of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) and the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) and to evaluate if glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens would focus the antibody response on key interaction surfaces. Four variants of PVDBPII were generated and probed for function and immunogenicity. Whereas two PvDBPII glycosylation variants with increased glycan surface coverage distant from predicted interaction sites had equivalent binding activity to wild-type protein, one of them elicited slightly better DARC-binding-inhibitory activity than wild-type immunogen. Conversely, the addition of an N-glycosylation site adjacent to a predicted PvDBP interaction site both abolished its interaction with DARC and resulted in weaker inhibitory antibody responses. PvDBP is composed of three subdomains and is thought to function as a dimer; a meta-analysis of published PvDBP mutants and the new DBPII glycosylation variants indicates that critical DARC binding residues are concentrated at the dimer interface and along a relatively flat surface spanning portions of two subdomains. Our findings suggest that DARC-binding-inhibitory antibody epitope(s) lie close to the predicted DARC interaction site, and that addition of N-glycan sites distant from this site may augment inhibitory antibodies. Thus, glycan resurfacing is an attractive and feasible tool to investigate protein structure-function, and glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens might contribute to P. vivax vaccine development. PMID:23853575

  15. Prediction of zinc finger DNA binding protein.

    PubMed

    Nakata, K

    1995-04-01

    Using the neural network algorithm with back-propagation training procedure, we analysed the zinc finger DNA binding protein sequences. We incorporated the characteristic patterns around the zinc finger motifs TFIIIA type (Cys-X2-5-Cys-X12-13-His-X2-5-His) and the steroid hormone receptor type (Cys-X2-5-Cys-X12-15-Cys-X2-5-Cys-X15-16-Cys-X4-5-Cys-X8-10- Cys-X2-3-Cys) in the neural network algorithm. The patterns used in the neural network were the amino acid pattern, the electric charge and polarity pattern, the side-chain chemical property and subproperty patterns, the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity patterns and the secondary structure propensity pattern. Two consecutive patterns were also considered. Each pattern was incorporated in the single layer perceptron algorithm and the combinations of patterns were considered in the two-layer perceptron algorithm. As for the TFIIIA type zinc finger DNA binding motifs, the prediction results of the two-layer perceptron algorithm reached up to 96.9% discrimination, and the prediction results of the discriminant analysis using the combination of several characters reached up to 97.0%. As for the steroid hormone receptor type zinc finger, the prediction results of neural network algorithm and the discriminant analyses reached up to 96.0%.

  16. Penicillin-binding proteins in Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Because some Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, are β-lactam-producing bacteria, they have to have some self-resistant mechanism. The β-lactam biosynthetic gene clusters include genes for β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), suggesting that these are involved in self-resistance. However, direct evidence for the involvement of β-lactamases does not exist at the present time. Instead, phylogenetic analysis revealed that PBPs in Streptomyces are distinct in that Streptomyces species have much more PBPs than other Actinobacteria, and that two to three pairs of similar PBPs are present in most Streptomyces species examined. Some of these PBPs bind benzylpenicillin with very low affinity and are highly similar in their amino-acid sequences. Furthermore, other low-affinity PBPs such as SCLAV_4179 in Streptomyces clavuligerus, a β-lactam-producing Actinobacterium, may strengthen further the self-resistance against β-lactams. This review discusses the role of PBPs in resistance to benzylpenicillin in Streptomyces belonging to Actinobacteria.

  17. Latent TGF-β-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Ian B.; Horiguchi, Masahito; Zilberberg, Lior; Dabovic, Branka; Hadjiolova, Krassimira; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The LTBPs (or latent transforming growth factor β binding proteins) are important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that interact with fibrillin microfibrils and have a number of different roles in microfibril biology. There are four LTBPs isoforms in the human genome (LTBP-1, -2, -3, and -4), all of which appear to associate with fibrillin and the biology of each isoform is reviewed here. The LTBPs were first identified as forming latent complexes with TGFβ by covalently binding the TGFβ propeptide (LAP) via disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum. LAP in turn is cleaved from the mature TGFβ precursor in the trans golgi network but LAP and TGFβ remain strongly bound through non-covalent interactions. LAP, TGFβ, and LTBP together form the large latent complex (LLC). LTBPs were originally thought to primarily play a role in maintaining TGFβ latency and targeting the latent growth factor to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but it has also been shown that LTBP-1 participates in TGFβ activation by integrins and may also regulate activation by proteases and other factors. LTBP-3 appears to have a role in skeletal formation including tooth development. As well as having important functions in TGFβ regulation, TGFβ-independent activities have recently been identified for LTBP-2 and LTBP-4 in stabilizing microfibril bundles and regulating elastic fiber assembly. PMID:25960419

  18. Calcyclin Binding Protein/Siah-1 Interacting Protein Is a Hsp90 Binding Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Agnieszka; Bieganowski, Paweł; Prus, Wiktor; Krzemień-Ojak, Łucja; Kądziołka, Beata; Fabczak, Hanna; Filipek, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone activity is tightly regulated by interaction with many co-chaperones. Since CacyBP/SIP shares some sequence homology with a known Hsp90 co-chaperone, Sgt1, in this work we performed a set of experiments in order to verify whether CacyBP/SIP can interact with Hsp90. By applying the immunoprecipitation assay we have found that CacyBP/SIP binds to Hsp90 and that the middle (M) domain of Hsp90 is responsible for this binding. Furthermore, the proximity ligation assay (PLA) performed on HEp-2 cells has shown that the CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 complexes are mainly localized in the cytoplasm of these cells. Using purified proteins and applying an ELISA we have shown that Hsp90 interacts directly with CacyBP/SIP and that the latter protein does not compete with Sgt1 for the binding to Hsp90. Moreover, inhibitors of Hsp90 do not perturb CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 binding. Luciferase renaturation assay and citrate synthase aggregation assay with the use of recombinant proteins have revealed that CacyBP/SIP exhibits chaperone properties. Also, CacyBP/SIP-3xFLAG expression in HEp-2 cells results in the appearance of more basic Hsp90 forms in 2D electrophoresis, which may indicate that CacyBP/SIP dephosphorylates Hsp90. Altogether, the obtained results suggest that CacyBP/SIP is involved in regulation of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery. PMID:27249023

  19. Protein family classification using sparse markov transducers.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Eleazar; Noble, William Stafford; Singer, Yoram

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for classifying proteins into families based on short subsequences of amino acids using a new probabilistic model called sparse Markov transducers (SMT). We classify a protein by estimating probability distributions over subsequences of amino acids from the protein. Sparse Markov transducers, similar to probabilistic suffix trees, estimate a probability distribution conditioned on an input sequence. SMTs generalize probabilistic suffix trees by allowing for wild-cards in the conditioning sequences. Since substitutions of amino acids are common in protein families, incorporating wild-cards into the model significantly improves classification performance. We present two models for building protein family classifiers using SMTs. As protein databases become larger, data driven learning algorithms for probabilistic models such as SMTs will require vast amounts of memory. We therefore describe and use efficient data structures to improve the memory usage of SMTs. We evaluate SMTs by building protein family classifiers using the Pfam and SCOP databases and compare our results to previously published results and state-of-the-art protein homology detection methods. SMTs outperform previous probabilistic suffix tree methods and under certain conditions perform comparably to state-of-the-art protein homology methods.

  20. IQGAP1 Interaction with RHO Family Proteins Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Kazem; Fansa, Eyad K.; Amin, Ehsan; Dvorsky, Radovan; Gremer, Lothar; Willbold, Dieter; Schmitt, Lutz; Timson, David J.; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    IQ motif-containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) plays a central role in the physical assembly of relevant signaling networks that are responsible for various cellular processes, including cell adhesion, polarity, and transmigration. The RHO family proteins CDC42 and RAC1 have been shown to mainly interact with the GAP-related domain (GRD) of IQGAP1. However, the role of its RASGAP C-terminal (RGCT) and C-terminal domains in the interactions with RHO proteins has remained obscure. Here, we demonstrate that IQGAP1 interactions with RHO proteins underlie a multiple-step binding mechanism: (i) a high affinity, GTP-dependent binding of RGCT to the switch regions of CDC42 or RAC1 and (ii) a very low affinity binding of GRD and a C terminus adjacent to the switch regions. These data were confirmed by phosphomimetic mutation of serine 1443 to glutamate within RGCT, which led to a significant reduction of IQGAP1 affinity for CDC42 and RAC1, clearly disclosing the critical role of RGCT for these interactions. Unlike CDC42, an extremely low affinity was determined for the RAC1-GRD interaction, suggesting that the molecular nature of IQGAP1 interaction with CDC42 partially differs from that of RAC1. Our study provides new insights into the interaction characteristics of IQGAP1 with RHO family proteins and highlights the complementary importance of kinetic and equilibrium analyses. We propose that the ability of IQGAP1 to interact with RHO proteins is based on a multiple-step binding process, which is a prerequisite for the dynamic functions of IQGAP1 as a scaffolding protein and a critical mechanism in temporal regulation and integration of IQGAP1-mediated cellular responses. PMID:27815503

  1. Ion Binding Energies Determining Functional Transport of ClC Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tao; Guo, Xu; Zou, Xian-Wu; Sang, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    The ClC-type proteins, a large family of chloride transport proteins ubiquitously expressed in biological organisms, have been extensively studied for decades. Biological function of ClC proteins can be reflected by analyzing the binding situation of Cl- ions. We investigate ion binding properties of ClC-ec1 protein with the atomic molecular dynamics simulation approach. The calculated electrostatic binding energy results indicate that Cl- at the central binding site Scen has more binding stability than the internal binding site Sint. Quantitative comparison between the latest experimental heat release data isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and our calculated results demonstrates that chloride ions prefer to bind at Scen than Sint in the wild-type ClC-ec1 structure and prefer to bind at Sext and Scen than Sint in mutant E148A/E148Q structures. Even though the chloride ions make less contribution to heat release when binding to Sint and are relatively unstable in the Cl- pathway, they are still part contributors for the Cl- functional transport. This work provides a guide rule to estimate the importance of Cl- at the binding sites and how chloride ions have influences on the function of ClC proteins.

  2. Oncogenic potential of TAR RNA binding protein TRBP and its regulatory interaction with RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.

    PubMed Central

    Benkirane, M; Neuveut, C; Chun, R F; Smith, S M; Samuel, C E; Gatignol, A; Jeang, K T

    1997-01-01

    TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) belongs to an RNA binding protein family that includes the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), Drosophila Staufen and Xenopus xlrbpa. One member of this family, PKR, is a serine/threonine kinase which has anti-viral and anti-proliferative effects. In this study we show that TRBP is a cellular down-regulator of PKR function. Assaying expression from an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone, we found that PKR inhibited viral protein synthesis and that over-expression of TRBP effectively countered this inhibition. In intracellular and in cell-free assays we show that TRBP directly inhibits PKR autophosphorylation through an RNA binding-independent pathway. Biologically, TRBP serves a growth-promoting role; cells that overexpress TRBP exhibit transformed phenotypes. Our results demonstrate the oncogenic potential of TRBP and are consistent with the notion that intracellular PKR function contributes physiologically towards regulating cellular proliferation. PMID:9034343

  3. Structural and Functional Characterization of the VQ Protein Family and VQ Protein Variants from Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Xinjian; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Proteins containing the FxxxVQxhTG or VQ motif interact with WRKY transcription factors. Although VQ proteins have been reported in several plants, knowledge about their structures, functions and evolution is still very limited. Here, we report structural and functional analysis of the VQ protein family from soybean. Like Arabidopsis homologues, soybean VQ proteins bind only Group I and IIc WRKY proteins and a substantial number of their genes are responsive to stress-associated phytohormones. Overexpression of some soybean VQ genes in Arabidopsis had strong effects on plant growth, development, disease resistance and heat tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis, sequence alignment and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the region immediately upstream of the FxxxVQxhTG motif also affects binding to WRKY proteins. Consistent with a larger WRKY-binding VQ domain, soybean VQ22 protein from cultivated soybean contains a 4-amino acid deletion in the region preceding its VQ motif that completely abolishes its binding to WRKY proteins. By contrast, the 4-amino acid deletion is absent in the VQ22 protein from wild soybean species (Glycine soja). Overexpression of wild soybean VQ22 in cultivated soybean inhibited growth, particularly after cold treatment. Thus, the mutation of soybean VQ22 is associated with advantageous phenotypes and may have been positively selected during evolution. PMID:27708406

  4. Protein function annotation by local binding site surface similarity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E; Varela, Rocco; Jain, Ajay N

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of protein crystal structures exist for proteins whose function cannot be confidently determined from sequence similarity. Surflex-PSIM, a previously reported surface-based protein similarity algorithm, provides an alternative method for hypothesizing function for such proteins. The method now supports fully automatic binding site detection and is fast enough to screen comprehensive databases of protein binding sites. The binding site detection methodology was validated on apo/holo cognate protein pairs, correctly identifying 91% of ligand binding sites in holo structures and 88% in apo structures where corresponding sites existed. For correctly detected apo binding sites, the cognate holo site was the most similar binding site 87% of the time. PSIM was used to screen a set of proteins that had poorly characterized functions at the time of crystallization, but were later biochemically annotated. Using a fully automated protocol, this set of 8 proteins was screened against ∼60,000 ligand binding sites from the PDB. PSIM correctly identified functional matches that predated query protein biochemical annotation for five out of the eight query proteins. A panel of 12 currently unannotated proteins was also screened, resulting in a large number of statistically significant binding site matches, some of which suggest likely functions for the poorly characterized proteins.

  5. Structural delineation of stem-loop RNA binding by human TAF15 protein

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Maruthi; Ganguly, Akshay Kumar; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2015-01-01

    Human TATA binding protein associated factor 2 N (TAF15) and Fused in sarcoma (FUS) are nucleic acid binding proteins belonging to the conserved FET family of proteins. They are involved in diverse processes such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA transport, and DNA binding. The absence of information regarding the structural mechanism employed by the FET family in recognizing and discriminating their cognate and non-cognate RNA targets has hampered the attainment of consensus on modes of protein-RNA binding for this family. Our study provides a molecular basis of this RNA recognition using a combination of solution-state NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of TAF15-RRM solution structure and its binding with stem-loop RNA has yielded conclusive evidence of a non-canonical mode of RNA recognition. Rather than classical stacking interactions that occur across nitrogen bases and aromatic amino acids on ribonucleoprotein sites, moderate-affinity hydrogen bonding network between the nitrogen bases in the stem-loop RNA and a concave face on the RRM surface primarily mediate TAF15-RRM RNA interaction. We have compared the binding affinities across a set of single-stranded RNA oligonucleotides to conclusively establish that RNA binding is dependent upon structural elements in the RNA rather than sequence. PMID:26612539

  6. Identification of VPS13C as a Galectin-12-Binding Protein That Regulates Galectin-12 Protein Stability and Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ri-Yao; Xue, Huiting; Yu, Lan; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio; Monaco, Anthony P.; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-12, a member of the galectin family of β-galactoside-binding animal lectins, is preferentially expressed in adipocytes and required for adipocyte differentiation in vitro. This protein was recently found to regulate lipolysis, whole body adiposity, and glucose homeostasis in vivo. Here we identify VPS13C, a member of the VPS13 family of vacuolar protein sorting-associated proteins highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution, as a major galectin-12-binding protein. VPS13C is upregulated during adipocyte differentiation, and is required for galectin-12 protein stability. Knockdown of Vps13c markedly reduces the steady-state levels of galectin-12 by promoting its degradation through primarily the lysosomal pathway, and impairs adipocyte differentiation. Our studies also suggest that VPS13C may have a broader role in protein quality control. The regulation of galectin-12 stability by VPS13C could potentially be exploited for therapeutic intervention of obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:27073999

  7. Identification of VPS13C as a Galectin-12-Binding Protein That Regulates Galectin-12 Protein Stability and Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ri-Yao; Xue, Huiting; Yu, Lan; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio; Monaco, Anthony P; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-12, a member of the galectin family of β-galactoside-binding animal lectins, is preferentially expressed in adipocytes and required for adipocyte differentiation in vitro. This protein was recently found to regulate lipolysis, whole body adiposity, and glucose homeostasis in vivo. Here we identify VPS13C, a member of the VPS13 family of vacuolar protein sorting-associated proteins highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution, as a major galectin-12-binding protein. VPS13C is upregulated during adipocyte differentiation, and is required for galectin-12 protein stability. Knockdown of Vps13c markedly reduces the steady-state levels of galectin-12 by promoting its degradation through primarily the lysosomal pathway, and impairs adipocyte differentiation. Our studies also suggest that VPS13C may have a broader role in protein quality control. The regulation of galectin-12 stability by VPS13C could potentially be exploited for therapeutic intervention of obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  8. Detection of secondary binding sites in proteins using fragment screening

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, R. Frederick; Verdonk, Marcel L.; Saini, Harpreet K.; Tickle, Ian J.; Jhoti, Harren

    2015-01-01

    Proteins need to be tightly regulated as they control biological processes in most normal cellular functions. The precise mechanisms of regulation are rarely completely understood but can involve binding of endogenous ligands and/or partner proteins at specific locations on a protein that can modulate function. Often, these additional secondary binding sites appear separate to the primary binding site, which, for example for an enzyme, may bind a substrate. In previous work, we have uncovered several examples in which secondary binding sites were discovered on proteins using fragment screening approaches. In each case, we were able to establish that the newly identified secondary binding site was biologically relevant as it was able to modulate function by the binding of a small molecule. In this study, we investigate how often secondary binding sites are located on proteins by analyzing 24 protein targets for which we have performed a fragment screen using X-ray crystallography. Our analysis shows that, surprisingly, the majority of proteins contain secondary binding sites based on their ability to bind fragments. Furthermore, sequence analysis of these previously unknown sites indicate high conservation, which suggests that they may have a biological function, perhaps via an allosteric mechanism. Comparing the physicochemical properties of the secondary sites with known primary ligand binding sites also shows broad similarities indicating that many of the secondary sites may be druggable in nature with small molecules that could provide new opportunities to modulate potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26655740

  9. Affinity regression predicts the recognition code of nucleic acid binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pelossof, Raphael; Singh, Irtisha; Yang, Julie L.; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Hughes, Timothy R.; Leslie, Christina S.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the affinity profiles of nucleic acid-binding proteins directly from the protein sequence is a major unsolved problem. We present a statistical approach for learning the recognition code of a family of transcription factors (TFs) or RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) from high-throughput binding assays. Our method, called affinity regression, trains on protein binding microarray (PBM) or RNA compete experiments to learn an interaction model between proteins and nucleic acids, using only protein domain and probe sequences as inputs. By training on mouse homeodomain PBM profiles, our model correctly identifies residues that confer DNA-binding specificity and accurately predicts binding motifs for an independent set of divergent homeodomains. Similarly, learning from RNA compete profiles for diverse RBPs, our model can predict the binding affinities of held-out proteins and identify key RNA-binding residues. More broadly, we envision applying our method to model and predict biological interactions in any setting where there is a high-throughput ‘affinity’ readout. PMID:26571099

  10. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Behrendt, D; Dembinski, J; Heep, A; Bartmann, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in preterm infants with neonatal bacterial infection (NBI). Methods: Blood samples were analysed of 57 preterm (28+1 to 36+6, median 33+2 weeks gestation) and 17 term infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit within the first 72 hours of life with suspicion of NBI. Samples were obtained at first suspicion of sepsis and after 12 and 24 hours. Diagnosis of NBI was confirmed by raised concentrations of C reactive protein and/or interleukin 6. The influence of gestational age and labour was analysed. Results: Maximum LBP concentrations in infants with NBI were greatly increased compared with infants without NBI (13.0–46.0 µg/ml (median 20.0 µg/ml) v 0.6–17.4 µg/ml (median 4.2 µg/ml)). LBP concentrations in infected infants were not yet significantly raised when NBI was first suspected. The LBP concentrations of preterm infants were comparable to those of term infants. Regression analysis revealed no significant effect of labour or gestational age on LBP. Conclusions: Raised LBP concentrations indicate NBI in preterm and term infants. Preterm infants of > 28 weeks gestation seem to be capable of producing LBP as efficiently as term infants. Neonatal LBP concentrations are not influenced by labour. LBP may be a useful diagnostic marker of NBI in preterm infants. PMID:15499153

  11. An ent-kaurene that inhibits mitotic chromosome movement and binds the kinetochore protein ran-binding protein 2.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Natalie T; Nelson, Jim; Flory, Mark R; Joseph, Jomon; Th'ng, John; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dasso, Mary; Andersen, Raymond J; Roberge, Michel

    2006-08-22

    Using a chemical genetics screen, we have identified ent-15-oxokaurenoic acid (EKA) as a chemical that causes prolonged mitotic arrest at a stage resembling prometaphase. EKA inhibits the association of the mitotic motor protein centromeric protein E with kinetochores and inhibits chromosome movement. Unlike most antimitotic agents, EKA does not inhibit the polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin. To identify EKA-interacting proteins, we used a cell-permeable biotinylated form that retains biological activity to isolate binding proteins from living cells. Mass spectrometric analysis identified six EKA-binding proteins, including Ran-binding protein 2, a kinetochore protein whose depletion by small interfering RNA causes a similar mitotic arrest phenotype.

  12. Molecular cloning, mapping to human chromosome 1 q21-q23, and cell binding characteristics of Spalpha, a new member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Gebe, J A; Kiener, P A; Ring, H Z; Li, X; Francke, U; Aruffo, A

    1997-03-07

    CD5 and CD6, two type I cell surface antigens predominantly expressed by T cells and a subset of B cells, have been shown to function as accessory molecules capable of modulating T cell activation. Here we report the cloning of a cDNA encoding Spalpha, a secreted protein that is highly homologous to CD5 and CD6. Spalpha has the same domain organization as the extracellular region of CD5 and CD6 and is composed of three SRCR (scavenger receptor cysteine rich) domains. Chromosomal mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid panel analysis indicated that the gene encoding Spalpha is located on the long arm of human chromosome 1 at q21-q23 within contig WC1.17. RNA transcripts encoding Spalpha were found in human bone marrow, spleen, lymph node, thymus, and fetal liver but not in non-lymphoid tissues. Cell binding studies with an Spalpha immunoglobulin (Spalpha-mIg) fusion protein indicated that Spalpha is capable of binding to peripheral monocytes but not to T or B cells. Spalpha-mIg was also found to bind to the monocyte precursor cell lines K-562 and weakly to THP-1 but not to U937. Spalpha-mIg also bound to the B cell line Raji and weakly to the T cell line HUT-78. These findings indicate that Spalpha, a novel secreted protein produced in lymphoid tissues, may regulate monocyte activation, function, and/or survival.

  13. The HMG-1 box protein family: classification and functional relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Baxevanis, A D; Landsman, D

    1995-01-01

    The abundant and highly-conserved nucleoproteins comprising the high mobility group-1/2 (HMG-1/2) family contains two homologous basic domains of about 75 amino acids. These basic domains, termed HMG-1 boxes, are highly structured and facilitate HMG-DNA interactions. Many proteins that regulate various cellular functions involving DNA binding and whose target DNA sequences share common structural characteristics have been identified as having an HMG-1 box; these proteins include the RNA polymerase I transcription factor UBF, the mammalian testis-determining factor SRY and the mitochondrial transcription factors ABF2 and mtTF1, among others. The sequences of 121 HMG-1 boxes have been compiled and aligned in accordance with thermodynamic results from homology model building (threading) experiments, basing the alignment on structure rather than by using traditional sequence homology methods. The classification of a representative subset of these proteins was then determined using standard least-squares distance methods. The proteins segregate into two groups, the first consisting of HMG-1/2 proteins and the second consisting of proteins containing the HMG-1 box but which are not canonical HMG proteins. The proteins in the second group further segregate based on their function, their ability to bind specific sequences of DNA, or their ability to recognize discrete non-B-DNA structures. The HMG-1 box provides an excellent example of how a specific protein motif, with slight alteration, can be used to recognize DNA in a variety of functional contexts. Images PMID:7784217

  14. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  15. Oligosaccharide binding proteins from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis reveal a preference for host glycans.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Daniel; Kim, Jae Han; German, J Bruce; Raybould, Helen E; Mills, David A

    2011-03-15

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) is a common member of the infant intestinal microbiota, and it has been characterized by its foraging capacity for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). Its genome sequence revealed an overabundance of the Family 1 of solute binding proteins (F1SBPs), part of ABC transporters and associated with the import of oligosaccharides. In this study we have used the Mammalian Glycan Array to determine the specific affinities of these proteins. This was correlated with binding protein expression induced by different prebiotics including HMO. Half of the F1SBPs in B. infantis were determined to bind mammalian oligosaccharides. Their affinities included different blood group structures and mucin oligosaccharides. Related to HMO, other proteins were specific for oligomers of lacto-N-biose (LNB) and polylactosamines with different degrees of fucosylation. Growth on HMO induced the expression of specific binding proteins that import HMO isomers, but also bind blood group and mucin oligosaccharides, suggesting coregulated transport mechanisms. The prebiotic inulin induced other family 1 binding proteins with affinity for intestinal glycans. Most of the host glycan F1SBPs in B. infantis do not have homologs in other bifidobacteria. Finally, some of these proteins were found to be adherent to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. In conclusion, this study represents further evidence for the particular adaptations of B. infantis to the infant gut environment, and helps to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process.

  16. Oligosaccharide Binding Proteins from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Reveal a Preference for Host Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Daniel; Kim, Jae Han; German, J. Bruce; Raybould, Helen E.; Mills, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) is a common member of the infant intestinal microbiota, and it has been characterized by its foraging capacity for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). Its genome sequence revealed an overabundance of the Family 1 of solute binding proteins (F1SBPs), part of ABC transporters and associated with the import of oligosaccharides. In this study we have used the Mammalian Glycan Array to determine the specific affinities of these proteins. This was correlated with binding protein expression induced by different prebiotics including HMO. Half of the F1SBPs in B. infantis were determined to bind mammalian oligosaccharides. Their affinities included different blood group structures and mucin oligosaccharides. Related to HMO, other proteins were specific for oligomers of lacto-N-biose (LNB) and polylactosamines with different degrees of fucosylation. Growth on HMO induced the expression of specific binding proteins that import HMO isomers, but also bind blood group and mucin oligosaccharides, suggesting coregulated transport mechanisms. The prebiotic inulin induced other family 1 binding proteins with affinity for intestinal glycans. Most of the host glycan F1SBPs in B. infantis do not have homologs in other bifidobacteria. Finally, some of these proteins were found to be adherent to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. In conclusion, this study represents further evidence for the particular adaptations of B. infantis to the infant gut environment, and helps to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. PMID:21423604

  17. TIM-family proteins inhibit HIV-1 release

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghua; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Miao, Chunhui; Zheng, Yi-Min; Fuller, Matthew S.; Rennert, Paul D.; Maury, Wendy; Johnson, Marc C.; Freed, Eric O.; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that T-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) and mucin domain (TIM) proteins play critical roles in viral infections. Herein, we report that the TIM-family proteins strongly inhibit HIV-1 release, resulting in diminished viral production and replication. Expression of TIM-1 causes HIV-1 Gag and mature viral particles to accumulate on the plasma membrane. Mutation of the phosphatidylserine (PS) binding sites of TIM-1 abolishes its ability to block HIV-1 release. TIM-1, but to a much lesser extent PS-binding deficient mutants, induces PS flipping onto the cell surface; TIM-1 is also found to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. Importantly, TIM-1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4-positive Jurkat cells, despite its capability of up-regulating CD4 and promoting HIV-1 entry. In addition to TIM-1, TIM-3 and TIM-4 also block the release of HIV-1, as well as that of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and Ebola virus (EBOV); knockdown of TIM-3 in differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) enhances HIV-1 production. The inhibitory effects of TIM-family proteins on virus release are extended to other PS receptors, such as Axl and RAGE. Overall, our study uncovers a novel ability of TIM-family proteins to block the release of HIV-1 and other viruses by interaction with virion- and cell-associated PS. Our work provides new insights into a virus-cell interaction that is mediated by TIMs and PS receptors. PMID:25136083

  18. Insights into molecular plasticity of choline binding proteins (pneumococcal surface proteins) by SAXS.

    PubMed

    Buey, Rubén M; Monterroso, Begoña; Menéndez, Margarita; Diakun, Greg; Chacón, Pablo; Hermoso, Juan Antonio; Díaz, J Fernando

    2007-01-12

    Phosphocholine moieties decorating the pneumococcal surface are used as a docking station for a family of modular proteins, the so-called choline binding proteins or CBPs. Choline recognition is essential for CBPs function and may also be a determinant for their quaternary structure. There is little knowledge about modular arrangement or oligomeric structures in this family. Therefore, we have used the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique combined with analytical ultracentrifugation in order to model the three-dimensional envelope of two highly different CBPs: the phage encoded Cpl-1 lysozyme and the pneumococcal phosphorylcholine esterase Pce. Both enzymes have an N-terminal catalytic module and a C-terminal choline-binding module (CBM) that attaches them to the bacterial surface and comprises six and ten sequence repeats in Cpl-1 and Pce, respectively. SAXS experiments have shown an inherent conformational plasticity in Cpl-1 that accounts for the different relative position of these regions in the solution and crystal structures. Dimerization of Cpl-1 upon choline binding has been also visualised for the first time, and monomer-monomer interactions take place through the first CBR where a non-canonical choline binding site has now been identified. This mode of association seems to be independent of the absence or presence of the Cpl-1 catalytic module and reveals that the arrangement of the monomers differs from that previously found in the isolated CBM dimer of pneumococcal LytA amidase. In contrast, Pce displays the same modular disposition in the solution and crystal structures, and remains almost invariant upon choline binding. The present results suggest that protein dimerization and duplication of CBRs may be alternative but not equivalent ways of improving cell wall recognition by CBPs, since they provide different interaction geometries for choline residues present in (lipo)teichoic acids.

  19. Characteristic motifs for families of allergenic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Torres, Miguel; Schein, Catherine H.; Braun, Werner

    2008-01-01

    The identification of potential allergenic proteins is usually done by scanning a database of allergenic proteins and locating known allergens with a high sequence similarity. However, there is no universally accepted cut-off value for sequence similarity to indicate potential IgE cross-reactivity. Further, overall sequence similarity may be less important than discrete areas of similarity in proteins with homologous structure. To identify such areas, we first classified all allergens and their subdomains in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) to their closest protein families as defined in Pfam, and identified conserved physicochemical property motifs characteristic of each group of sequences. Allergens populate only a small subset of all known Pfam families, as all allergenic proteins in SDAP could be grouped to only 130 (of 9318 total) Pfams, and 31 families contain more than four allergens. Conserved physicochemical property motifs for the aligned sequences of the most populated Pfam families were identified with the PCPMer program suite and catalogued in the webserver Motif-Mate (http://born.utmb.edu/motifmate/summary.php). We also determined specific motifs for allergenic members of a family that could distinguish them from non-allergenic ones. These allergen specific motifs should be most useful in database searches for potential allergens. We found that sequence motifs unique to the allergens in three families (seed storage proteins, Bet v 1, and tropomyosin) overlap with known IgE epitopes, thus providing evidence that our motif based approach can be used to assess the potential allergenicity of novel proteins. PMID:18951633

  20. Identification of a fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel J; Henderson, Brian; Sharp, Lindsay J; Nair, Sean P

    2002-12-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has been reported to bind to a number of host cell extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin. Here we report the identification of a fibronectin-binding protein from S. epidermidis. A phage display library of S. epidermidis genomic DNA was constructed and panned against immobilized fibronectin. A number of phagemid clones containing overlapping inserts were identified, and one of these clones, pSE109FN, contained a 1.4-kb insert. Phage pSE109FN was found to bind to fibronectin but not to collagen, fibrinogen, laminin, or vitronectin. However, pSE109FN also bound to heparin, hyaluronate, and plasminogen, although to a lesser extent than it bound to fibronectin. Analysis of The Institute for Genomic Research S. epidermidis genome sequence database revealed a 1.85-kb region within a putative 30.5-kb open reading frame, to which the overlapping DNA inserts contained within the fibronectin-binding phagemids mapped. We have designated the gene encoding the fibronectin-binding domain embp. A recombinant protein, Embp32, which encompassed the fibronectin-binding domain of Embp, blocked the binding of S. epidermidis, but not the binding of Staphylococcus aureus, to fibronectin. In contrast, a recombinant protein, FnBPB[D1-D4], spanning the fibronectin-binding domain of the S. aureus fibronectin-binding protein FnBPB, blocked binding of S. aureus to fibronectin but had a negligible effect on the binding of S. epidermidis.

  1. A bioinformatic survey of RNA-binding proteins in Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B P Niranjan; Shrestha, Sony; Hart, Kevin J; Liang, Xiaoying; Kemirembe, Karen; Cui, Liwang; Lindner, Scott E

    2015-11-02

    The malaria parasites in the genus Plasmodium have a very complicated life cycle involving an invertebrate vector and a vertebrate host. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are critical factors involved in every aspect of the development of these parasites. However, very few RBPs have been functionally characterized to date in the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Using different bioinformatic methods and tools we searched P. falciparum genome to list and annotate RBPs. A representative 3D models for each of the RBD domain identified in P. falciparum was created using I-TESSAR and SWISS-MODEL. Microarray and RNAseq data analysis pertaining PfRBPs was performed using MeV software. Finally, Cytoscape was used to create protein-protein interaction network for CITH-Dozi and Caf1-CCR4-Not complexes. We report the identification of 189 putative RBP genes belonging to 13 different families in Plasmodium, which comprise 3.5% of all annotated genes. Almost 90% (169/189) of these genes belong to six prominent RBP classes, namely RNA recognition motifs, DEAD/H-box RNA helicases, K homology, Zinc finger, Puf and Alba gene families. Interestingly, almost all of the identified RNA-binding helicases and KH genes have cognate homologs in model species, suggesting their evolutionary conservation. Exploration of the existing P. falciparum blood-stage transcriptomes revealed that most RBPs have peak mRNA expression levels early during the intraerythrocytic development cycle, which taper off in later stages. Nearly 27% of RBPs have elevated expression in gametocytes, while 47 and 24% have elevated mRNA expression in ookinete and asexual stages. Comparative interactome analyses using human and Plasmodium protein-protein interaction datasets suggest extensive conservation of the PfCITH/PfDOZI and PfCaf1-CCR4-NOT complexes. The Plasmodium parasites possess a large number of putative RBPs belonging to most of RBP families identified so far, suggesting the presence of extensive post

  2. Partial characterization of GTP-binding proteins in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Hasunuma, K.; Miyamoto-Shinohara, Y.; Furukawa, K.

    1987-08-14

    Six fractions of GTP-binding proteins separated by gel filtration of a mycelial extract containing membrane components of Neurospora crassa were partially characterized. (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S bound to GTP-binding protein was assayed by repeated treatments with a Norit solution and centrifugation. The binding of (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S to GTP-binding proteins was competitively prevented in the presence of 0.1 to 1 mM GTP but not in the presence of ATP. These GTP-binding proteins fractionated by the gel column had Km values of 20, 7, 4, 4, 80 and 2 nM. All six fractions of these GTP-binding proteins showed the capacity to be ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin.

  3. The APOBEC Protein Family: United by Structure, Divergent in Function.

    PubMed

    Salter, Jason D; Bennett, Ryan P; Smith, Harold C

    2016-07-01

    The APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like) family of proteins have diverse and important functions in human health and disease. These proteins have an intrinsic ability to bind to both RNA and single-stranded (ss) DNA. Both function and tissue-specific expression varies widely for each APOBEC protein. We are beginning to understand that the activity of APOBEC proteins is regulated through genetic alterations, changes in their transcription and mRNA processing, and through their interactions with other macromolecules in the cell. Loss of cellular control of APOBEC activities leads to DNA hypermutation and promiscuous RNA editing associated with the development of cancer or viral drug resistance, underscoring the importance of understanding how APOBEC proteins are regulated.

  4. IQGAPs in Cancer: A Family of Scaffold Proteins Underlying Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    White, Colin D.; Brown, Matthew D.; Sacks, David B.

    2009-01-01

    The IQGAP family comprises three proteins in humans. The best characterized is IQGAP1, which participates in protein-protein interactions and integrates diverse signaling pathways. IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 harbor all the domains identified in IQGAP1, but their biological roles are poorly defined. Proteins that bind IQGAP1 include Cdc42 and Rac1, E-cadherin, β-catenin, calmodulin and components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, all of which are involved in cancer. Here, we summarize the biological functions of IQGAPs that may contribute to neoplasia. Additionally, we review published data which implicate IQGAPs in cancer and tumorigenesis. The cumulative evidence suggests IQGAP1 is an oncogene while IQGAP2 may be a tumor suppressor. PMID:19433088

  5. Discovery of binding proteins for a protein target using protein-protein docking-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsheng; Tang, Bo; Wang, Qian; Lai, Luhua

    2014-10-01

    Target structure-based virtual screening, which employs protein-small molecule docking to identify potential ligands, has been widely used in small-molecule drug discovery. In the present study, we used a protein-protein docking program to identify proteins that bind to a specific target protein. In the testing phase, an all-to-all protein-protein docking run on a large dataset was performed. The three-dimensional rigid docking program SDOCK was used to examine protein-protein docking on all protein pairs in the dataset. Both the binding affinity and features of the binding energy landscape were considered in the scoring function in order to distinguish positive binding pairs from negative binding pairs. Thus, the lowest docking score, the average Z-score, and convergency of the low-score solutions were incorporated in the analysis. The hybrid scoring function was optimized in the all-to-all docking test. The docking method and the hybrid scoring function were then used to screen for proteins that bind to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is a well-known therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A protein library containing 677 proteins was used for the screen. Proteins with scores among the top 20% were further examined. Sixteen proteins from the top-ranking 67 proteins were selected for experimental study. Two of these proteins showed significant binding to TNFα in an in vitro binding study. The results of the present study demonstrate the power and potential application of protein-protein docking for the discovery of novel binding proteins for specific protein targets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Multimerization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) and familial chylomicronemia from a serine-to-cysteine substitution in GPIHBP1 Ly6 domain.

    PubMed

    Plengpanich, Wanee; Young, Stephen G; Khovidhunkit, Weerapan; Bensadoun, André; Karnman, Hirankorn; Ploug, Michael; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Leung, Calvin S; Adeyo, Oludotun; Larsson, Mikael; Muanpetch, Suwanna; Charoen, Supannika; Fong, Loren G; Niramitmahapanya, Sathit; Beigneux, Anne P

    2014-07-11

    GPIHBP1, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein of microvascular endothelial cells, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) within the interstitial spaces and transports it across endothelial cells to the capillary lumen. The ability of GPIHBP1 to bind LPL depends on the Ly6 domain, a three-fingered structure containing 10 cysteines and a conserved pattern of disulfide bond formation. Here, we report a patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia who was homozygous for a GPIHBP1 point mutation that converted a serine in the GPIHBP1 Ly6 domain (Ser-107) to a cysteine. Two hypertriglyceridemic siblings were homozygous for the same mutation. All three homozygotes had very low levels of LPL in the preheparin plasma. We suspected that the extra cysteine in GPIHBP1-S107C might prevent the trafficking of the protein to the cell surface, but this was not the case. However, nearly all of the GPIHBP1-S107C on the cell surface was in the form of disulfide-linked dimers and multimers, whereas wild-type GPIHBP1 was predominantly monomeric. An insect cell GPIHBP1 expression system confirmed the propensity of GPIHBP1-S107C to form disulfide-linked dimers and to form multimers. Functional studies showed that only GPIHBP1 monomers bind LPL. In keeping with that finding, there was no binding of LPL to GPIHBP1-S107C in either cell-based or cell-free binding assays. We conclude that an extra cysteine in the GPIHBP1 Ly6 motif results in multimerization of GPIHBP1, defective LPL binding, and severe hypertriglyceridemia. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. VASP: A Volumetric Analysis of Surface Properties Yields Insights into Protein-Ligand Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian Y.; Honig, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Many algorithms that compare protein structures can reveal similarities that suggest related biological functions, even at great evolutionary distances. Proteins with related function often exhibit differences in binding specificity, but few algorithms identify structural variations that effect specificity. To address this problem, we describe the Volumetric Analysis of Surface Properties (VASP), a novel volumetric analysis tool for the comparison of binding sites in aligned protein structures. VASP uses solid volumes to represent protein shape and the shape of surface cavities, clefts and tunnels that are defined with other methods. Our approach, inspired by techniques from constructive solid geometry, enables the isolation of volumetrically conserved and variable regions within three dimensionally superposed volumes. We applied VASP to compute a comparative volumetric analysis of the ligand binding sites formed by members of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)-related lipid transfer (START) domains and the serine proteases. Within both families, VASP isolated individual amino acids that create structural differences between ligand binding cavities that are known to influence differences in binding specificity. Also, VASP isolated cavity subregions that differ between ligand binding cavities which are essential for differences in binding specificity. As such, VASP should prove a valuable tool in the study of protein-ligand binding specificity. PMID:20814581

  8. A novel GTP-binding protein hGBP3 interacts with NIK/HGK.

    PubMed

    Luan, Zhidong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Aihua; Man, Yunfang; Cheng, Lu; Hu, Gengxi

    2002-10-23

    A novel human guanylate-binding protein (GBP) hGBP3 was identified and characterized. Similar as the two human guanylate-binding proteins hGBP1 and hGBP2, hGBP3 has the first two motifs of the three classical guanylate-binding motifs, GXXXXGKS (T) and DXXG, but lacks the N (T) KXD motif. Escherichia coli-expressed hGBP3 protein specifically binds to guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Using a yeast two-hybrid system, it was revealed that the N-terminal region of hGBP3 binds to the C-terminal regulatory domain of NIK/HGK, a member of the group I GCK (germinal center kinase) family. This interaction was confirmed by in vitro glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays.

  9. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2)

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, Eric; Tardie, Mark; Carty, Maynard; Brown Phillips, Tracy; Wang, Ing-Kae; Soeller, Walt; Qiu, Xiayang Karam, George

    2006-11-01

    The crystal structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) with a bound palmitate is reported at 1.5 Å resolution. Human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) belongs to a family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins involved in the transport and storage of lipids. Here, the crystal structure of human aP2 with a bound palmitate is described at 1.5 Å resolution. Unlike the known crystal structure of murine aP2 in complex with palmitate, this structure shows that the fatty acid is in a folded conformation and that the loop containing Phe57 acts as a lid to regulate ligand binding by excluding solvent exposure to the central binding cavity.

  10. Exploring NMR ensembles of calcium binding proteins: Perspectives to design inhibitors of protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disrupting protein-protein interactions by small organic molecules is nowadays a promising strategy employed to block protein targets involved in different pathologies. However, structural changes occurring at the binding interfaces make difficult drug discovery processes using structure-based drug design/virtual screening approaches. Here we focused on two homologous calcium binding proteins, calmodulin and human centrin 2, involved in different cellular functions via protein-protein interactions, and known to undergo important conformational changes upon ligand binding. Results In order to find suitable protein conformations of calmodulin and centrin for further structure-based drug design/virtual screening, we performed in silico structural/energetic analysis and molecular docking of terphenyl (a mimicking alpha-helical molecule known to inhibit protein-protein interactions of calmodulin) into X-ray and NMR ensembles of calmodulin and centrin. We employed several scoring methods in order to find the best protein conformations. Our results show that docking on NMR structures of calmodulin and centrin can be very helpful to take into account conformational changes occurring at protein-protein interfaces. Conclusions NMR structures of protein-protein complexes nowadays available could efficiently be exploited for further structure-based drug design/virtual screening processes employed to design small molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. PMID:21569443

  11. Id Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins Antagonize Pax Transcription Factor Activity by Inhibiting DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, E. Claire; Deed, Richard W.; Inoue, Toshiaki; Norton, John D.; Sharrocks, Andrew D.

    2001-01-01

    The Id subfamily of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. The major mechanism by which Id proteins are thought to inhibit differentiation is through interaction with other HLH proteins and inhibition of their DNA-binding activity. However, Id proteins have also been shown to interact with other proteins involved in regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation, suggesting a more widespread regulatory function. In this study we demonstrate functional interactions between Id proteins and members of the Pax-2/-5/-8 subfamily of paired-domain transcription factors. Members of the Pax transcription factor family have key functions in regulating several developmental processes exemplified by B lymphopoiesis, in which Pax-5 plays an essential role. Id proteins bind to Pax proteins in vitro and in vivo. Binding occurs through the paired DNA-binding domain of the Pax proteins and results in the disruption of DNA-bound complexes containing Pax-2, Pax-5, and Pax-8. In vivo, Id proteins modulate the transcriptional activity mediated by Pax-5 complexes on the B-cell-specific mb-1 promoter. Our results therefore demonstrate a novel facet of Id function in regulating cellular differentiation by functionally antagonizing the action of members of the Pax transcription factor family. PMID:11134340

  12. Comparative genomics of the Rab protein family in Apicomplexan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Langsley, Gordon; van Noort, Vera; Carret, Céline; Meissner, Markus; de Villiers, Etienne P.; Bishop, Richard; Pain, Arnab

    2008-01-01

    Rab genes encode a subgroup of small GTP-binding proteins within the ras super-family that regulate targeting and fusion of transport vesicles within the secretory and endocytic pathways. These genes are of particular interest in the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa, since a family of Rab GTPases has been described for Plasmodium and most putative secretory pathway proteins in Apicomplexa have conventional predicted signal peptides. Moreover, peptide motifs have now been identified within a large number of secreted Plasmodium proteins that direct their targeting to the red blood cell cytosol, the apicoplast, the food vacuole and Maurer's clefs; in contrast, motifs that direct proteins to secretory organelles (rhoptries, micronemes and microspheres) have yet to be defined. The nature of the vesicle in which these proteins are transported to their destinations remains unknown and morphological structures equivalent to the endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi stacks typical of other eukaryotes cannot be visualised in Apicomplexa. Since Rab GTPases regulate vesicular traffic in all eukaryotes, and this traffic in intracellular parasites could regulate import of nutrient and drugs and export of antigens, host cell modulatory proteins and lactate we compare and contrast here the Rab families of Apicomplexa. PMID:18468471

  13. Biotin-binding proteins and biotin transport to oocytes.

    PubMed

    White, H B

    1985-01-01

    The eggs of chickens and other birds contain two proteins that bind biotin. Both are homotetrameric proteins of similar size. In contrast to the well-characterized egg white avidin, egg yolk biotin-binding protein has a very acidic isoelectric point, binds biotin with lower affinity, and is usually saturated with biotin. Like other egg yolk proteins, biotin-binding protein appears to be synthesized in the liver, transported by the blood stream to the ovary and deposited in the developing oocyte. Since the yolk of a chicken egg contains over 90% of the biotin in an egg and all of the biotin is bound to biotin-binding protein, the function of biotin-binding protein is undoubtedly to transport biotin to the egg for future use by the developing embryo. Avidin is produced by the oviduct and in the egg it is presumed to deter microbial growth around the oocyte by sequestering biotin. Among the eggs examined, those from turkeys have the lowest amount of biotin-binding protein and the highest amount of avidin. Furthermore, the majority of the biotin in turkey eggs can be bound to avidin in the egg white, suggesting a nutritional role for avidin in turkeys. An assay has been developed to conveniently measure apo- and holobiotin-binding proteins.

  14. The immunoglobulin-binding Eib proteins from Escherichia coli are receptors for IgG Fc.

    PubMed

    Leo, Jack C; Goldman, Adrian

    2009-05-01

    The immunoglobulin-binding proteins from Escherichia coli (Eibs) comprise a family of six proteins homologous to the Yersinia adhesin YadA. These proteins are postulated to bind to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in a non-immune manner. However, a recent study [Ghumra, A., Pleass, R.J., 2007. Escherichia coli do not express Fc-receptors for human immunoglobulin G (IgG). Mol. Immunol. 44, 2144-2146] appeared to show that these proteins do not bind Fc and suggested that the binding seen in earlier studies is due to the polyclonal preparations used in the assays containing antibodies specific to epitopes in the Eib proteins. To resolve this matter, we produced purified, recombinant Eibs for the first time and investigated their binding to intact antibodies and Fc fragments by immunoblot and ELISA techniques. We were able to purify four members of the family, EibA, -C, -D and -F, and show conclusively that these bind IgG Fc. We were also able to block the binding of full-length antibody with IgG Fc, but not with IgG Fab. Binding to IgG Fab was not detectable by surface plasmon resonance, whereas the affinities of Eibs to IgG and IgG Fc were in the range of 50-200 nM. We further demonstrate that deglycosylating IgG Fc does not affect Eib binding. Our results show that the Eib proteins do indeed bind human IgG Fc and that IgG Fc receptors are present in E. coli.

  15. Actin binding proteins, spermatid transport and spermiation*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaojing; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, Yan-Ho; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Han, Daishu; Lee, Will M.; Wong, Elissa W. P.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    The transport of germ cells across the seminiferous epithelium is composed of a series of cellular events during the epithelial cycle essential to the completion of spermatogenesis. Without the timely transport of spermatids during spermiogenesis, spermatozoa that are transformed from step 19 spermatids in the rat testis fail to reach the luminal edge of the apical compartment and enter the tubule lumen at spermiation, thereby entering the epididymis for further maturation. Step 19 spermatids and/or sperms that remain in the epithelium will be removed by the Sertoli cell via phagocytosis to form phagosomes and be degraded by lysosomes, leading to subfertility and/or infertility. However, the biology of spermatid transport, in particular the final events that lead to spermiation remain elusive. Based on recent data in the field, we critically evaluate the biology of spermiation herein by focusing on the actin binding proteins (ABPs) that regulate the organization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, which is crucial for spermatid transport during this event. The hypothesis we put forth herein also highlights some specific areas of research that can be pursued by investigators in the years to come. PMID:24735648

  16. Plasma protein binding: from discovery to development.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Tonika; Gan, Liang-Shang

    2013-09-01

    The importance of plasma protein binding (PPB) in modulating the effective drug concentration at pharmacological target sites has been the topic of significant discussion and debate amongst drug development groups over the past few decades. Free drug theory, which states that in absence of energy-dependent processes, after steady state equilibrium has been attained, free drug concentration in plasma is equal to free drug concentration at the pharmacologic target receptor(s) in tissues, has been used to explain pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics relationships in a large number of cases. Any sudden increase in free concentration of a drug could potentially cause toxicity and may need dose adjustment. Free drug concentration is also helpful to estimate the effective concentration of drugs that potentially can precipitate metabolism (or transporter)-related drug-drug interactions. Disease models are extensively validated in animals to progress a compound into development. Unbound drug concentration, and therefore PPB information across species is very informative in establishing safety margins and guiding selection of First in Human (FIH) dose and human efficacious dose. The scope of this review is to give an overview of reported role of PPB in several therapeutic areas, highlight cases where PPB changes are clinically relevant, and provide drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics recommendations in discovery and development settings.

  17. Informing the Human Plasma Protein Binding of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The free fraction of a xenobiotic in plasma (Fub) is an important determinant of chemical adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity, yet experimental plasma protein binding data is scarce for environmentally relevant chemicals. The presented work explores the merit of utilizing available pharmaceutical data to predict Fub for environmentally relevant chemicals via machine learning techniques. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were constructed with k nearest neighbors (kNN), support vector machines (SVM), and random forest (RF) machine learning algorithms from a training set of 1045 pharmaceuticals. The models were then evaluated with independent test sets of pharmaceuticals (200 compounds) and environmentally relevant ToxCast chemicals (406 total, in two groups of 238 and 168 compounds). The selection of a minimal feature set of 10-15 2D molecular descriptors allowed for both informative feature interpretation and practical applicability domain assessment via a bounded box of descriptor ranges and principal component analysis. The diverse pharmaceutical and environmental chemical sets exhibit similarities in terms of chemical space (99-82% overlap), as well as comparable bias and variance in constructed learning curves. All the models exhibit significant predictability with mean absolute errors (MAE) in the range of 0.10-0.18 Fub. The models performed best for highly bound chemicals (MAE 0.07-0.12), neutrals (MAE 0

  18. Determination of binding affinities of retinoids to retinoic acid-binding protein and serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Brahma P.; Titus, Belinda C.; Banerjee, Chandra K.

    1978-01-01

    Binding affinities of retinoic acid and its synthetic analogues to intracellular retinoic acid-binding protein, which is a possible candidate for mediating their biological function, and to serum albumin, the plasma transport protein, were evaluated. A quantitative method involving elimination of interfering serum albumin by immunoprecipitation was developed to measure the binding efficiency of these retinoids, some of which are active in modifying epithelial differentiation and preventing tumorigenesis. Two cyclopentenyl analogues of retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid showed, like retinoic acid, a binding efficiency of 100% for the cellular binding protein. With the phenyl, dichlorophenyl and trimethylmethoxyphenyl analogues of retinoic acid, the binding efficiency increased as the substituents on the aromatic ring increased; thus the trimethylmethoxyphenyl analogue binds almost as efficiently as retinoic acid itself. However, the trimethylmethoxyphenyl analogue with a sulphur atom on the side chain has a much decreased binding affinity. The correlation noticed between the binding efficiency of these retinoids and their biological activity in differentiation and/or in the control of tumorigenesis particularly enhances the confidence in the present method of determining the relative binding efficiencies. None of the vitamins, hormones and cofactors tested, showed appreciable affinity for the retinoic acid-binding site. Studies on binding of retinoic acid and its analogues to serum albumin indicate that no correlation exists between binding affinity for albumin and their biological potency. PMID:666734

  19. Structural Plasticity Underpins Promiscuous Binding of the Prosurvival Protein A1

    SciTech Connect

    Smits,C.; Czabotar, P.; Hinds, M.; Day, C.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptotic pathways are regulated by protein-protein interactions. Interaction of the BH3 domains of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins with the hydrophobic groove of prosurvival proteins is critical. Whereas some BH3 domains bind in a promiscuous manner, others exhibit considerable selectivity and the sequence characteristics that distinguish these activities are unclear. In this study, crystal structures of complexes between the prosurvival protein A1 and the BH3 domains from Puma, Bmf, Bak, and Bid have been solved. The structure of A1 is similar to that of other prosurvival proteins, although features, such as an acidic patch in the binding groove, may allow specific therapeutic modulation of apoptosis. Significant conformational plasticity was observed in the intermolecular interactions and these differences explain some of the variation in affinity. This study, in combination with published data, suggests that interactions between conserved residues demarcate optimal binding.

  20. UV damage-specific DNA-binding protein in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, H.; Fujiwara, Y. )

    1991-03-29

    The gel mobility shift assay method revealed a specifically ultraviolet (UV) damage recognizing, DNA-binding protein in nuclear extracts of normal human cells. The resulted DNA/protein complexes caused the two retarded mobility shifts. Four xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XPE) fibroblast strains derived from unrelated Japanese families were not deficient in such a DNA damage recognition/binding protein because of the normal complex formation and gel mobility shifts, although we confirmed the reported lack of the protein in the European XPE (XP2RO and XP3RO) cells. Thus, the absence of this binding protein is not always commonly observed in all the XPE strains, and the partially repair-deficient and intermediately UV-hypersensitive phenotype of XPE cells are much similar whether or not they lack the protein.

  1. Bacterial chitin binding proteins show differential substrate binding and synergy with chitinases.

    PubMed

    Manjeet, Kaur; Purushotham, Pallinti; Neeraja, Chilukoti; Podile, Appa Rao

    2013-08-25

    Glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 18 chitinases (Chi) and family 33 chitin binding proteins (CBPs) from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (BtChi and BtCBP), B. licheniformis DSM13 (BliChi and BliCBP) and Serratia proteamaculans 568 (SpChiB and SpCBP21) were used to study the efficiency and synergistic action of BtChi, BliChi and SpChiB individually with BtCBP, BliCBP or SpCBP21. Chitinase assay revealed that only BtChi and SpChiB showed synergism in hydrolysis of chitin, while there was no increase in products generated by BliChi, in the presence of the three above mentioned CBPs. This suggests that some (specific) CBPs are able to exert a synergistic effect on (specific) chitinases. A mutant of BliChi, designated as BliGH, was constructed by deleting the C-terminal fibronectin III (FnIII) and carbohydrate binding module 5 (CBM5) to assess the contribution of FnIII and CBM5 domains in the synergistic interactions of GH18 chitinases with CBPs. Chitinase assay with BliGH revealed that the accessory domains play a major role in making BliChi an efficient enzyme. We studied binding of BtCBP and BliCBP to α- and β-chitin. The BtCBP, BliCBP or SpCBP21 did not act synergistically with chitinases in hydrolysis of the chitin, interspersed with other polymers, present in fungal cell walls.

  2. BET Acetyl-Lysine Binding Proteins Control Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Spiltoir, Jessica I.; Stratton, Matthew S.; Cavasin, Maria A.; Demos-Davies, Kim; Reid, Brian G.; Qi, Jun; Bradner, James E.; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure, and thus represents an attractive target for novel therapeutic intervention. JQ1, a small molecule inhibitor of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) acetyl-lysine reader proteins, was identified in a high throughput screen designed to discover novel small molecule regulators of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. JQ1 dose-dependently blocked agonist-dependent hypertrophy of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) and reversed the prototypical gene program associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy. JQ1 also blocked left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and improved cardiac function in adult mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). The BET family consists of BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT. BRD4 protein expression was increased during cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertrophic stimuli promoted recruitment of BRD4 to the transcriptional start site (TSS) of the gene encoding atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Binding of BRD4 to the ANF TSS was associated with increased phosphorylation of local RNA polymerase II. These findings define a novel function for BET proteins as signal-responsive regulators of cardiac hypertrophy, and suggest that small molecule inhibitors of these epigenetic reader proteins have potential as therapeutics for heart failure. PMID:23939492

  3. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins.

  4. Methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins: readers of the epigenome.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Luu, Phuc-Loi; Stirzaker, Clare; Clark, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    How DNA methylation is interpreted and influences genome regulation remains largely unknown. Proteins of the methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) family are primary candidates for the readout of DNA methylation as they recruit chromatin remodelers, histone deacetylases and methylases to methylated DNA associated with gene repression. MBD protein binding requires both functional MBD domains and methyl-CpGs; however, some MBD proteins also bind unmethylated DNA and active regulatory regions via alternative regulatory domains or interaction with the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase (NuRD/Mi-2) complex members. Mutations within MBD domains occur in many diseases, including neurological disorders and cancers, leading to loss of MBD binding specificity to methylated sites and gene deregulation. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge about MBD proteins and their role as readers of the epigenome.

  5. Circular Permutation Provides an Evolutionary Link between Two Families of Calcium-dependent Carbohydrate Binding Modules*

    PubMed Central

    Montanier, Cedric; Flint, James E.; Bolam, David N.; Xie, Hefang; Liu, Ziyuan; Rogowski, Artur; Weiner, David P.; Ratnaparkhe, Supriya; Nurizzo, Didier; Roberts, Shirley M.; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Davies, Gideon J.; Gilbert, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a critical biological process, which also provides important substrates for environmentally sustainable industries. Enzymes that hydrolyze the plant cell wall generally contain non-catalytic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) that contribute to plant cell wall degradation. Here we report the biochemical properties and crystal structure of a family of CBMs (CBM60) that are located in xylanases. Uniquely, the proteins display broad ligand specificity, targeting xylans, galactans, and cellulose. Some of the CBM60s display enhanced affinity for their ligands through avidity effects mediated by protein dimerization. The crystal structure of vCBM60, displays a β-sandwich with the ligand binding site comprising a broad cleft formed by the loops connecting the two β-sheets. Ligand recognition at site 1 is, exclusively, through hydrophobic interactions, whereas binding at site 2 is conferred by polar interactions between a protein-bound calcium and the O2 and O3 of the sugar. The observation, that ligand recognition at site 2 requires only a β-linked sugar that contains equatorial hydroxyls at C2 and C3, explains the broad ligand specificity displayed by vCBM60. The ligand-binding apparatus of vCBM60 displays remarkable structural conservation with a family 36 CBM (CBM36); however, the residues that contribute to carbohydrate recognition are derived from different regions of the two proteins. Three-dimensional structure-based sequence alignments reveal that CBM36 and CBM60 are related by circular permutation. The biological and evolutionary significance of the mechanism of ligand recognition displayed by family 60 CBMs is discussed. PMID:20659893

  6. Learning to Translate Sequence and Structure to Function: Identifying DNA Binding and Membrane Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Robert E; Carson, Matthew B; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Lu, Hui

    2009-01-01

    A protein's function depends in a large part on interactions with other molecules. With an increasing number of protein structures becoming available every year, a corresponding structural annotation approach identifying such interactions grows more expedient. At the same time, machine learning has gained popularity in bioinformatics because it provides robust annotation of genes and proteins without depending solely on sequence similarity. Here we developed a machine learning protocol to identify DNA-binding proteins and membrane-binding proteins. In general, there is no theory or even rule of thumb to pick the best machine learning algorithm. Thus, a systematic comparison of several classification algorithms known to perform well was investigated. Indeed, the boosted tree classifier was found to give the best performance, achieving 93% and 88% accuracy to discriminate non-homologous DNA-binding proteins and membrane-binding proteins respectively from non-binding proteins, significantly outperforming all previously published works. We also explored the importance of a protein's attributes in function prediction and the relationships between relevant attributes. A graphical model based on boosted trees was applied to study the important features in discriminating DNA-binding proteins. In summary, the current protocol identified physical features important in DNA- and membrane-binding, rather than annotating function through sequence similarity. PMID:17436108

  7. Immobilized purified folate-binding protein: binding characteristics and use for quantifying folate in erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Nexo, E.

    1987-08-01

    Purified folate-binding protein from cow's milk was immobilized on monodisperse polymer particles (Dynospheres) activated by rho-toluenesulfonyl chloride. Leakage from the spheres was less than 0.1%, and the binding properties were similar to those of the soluble protein with regard to dissociation, pH optimum for binding pteroylglutamic acid, and specificity for binding various folate derivatives. We used the immobilized folate-binding protein as binding protein in an isotope-dilution assay for quantifying folate in erythrocytes. The detection limit was 50 nmol/L and the CV over a six-month period was 2.3% (means = 1.25 mumol/L, n = 15). The reference interval, for folate measured in erythrocytes of 43 blood donors, was 0.4-1.5 mumol/L.

  8. Odorant-Binding Protein: Localization to Nasal Glands and Secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Sklar, Pamela B.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1986-07-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants.

  9. Complementarity-determining region 2 is implicated in the binding of staphylococcal protein A to human immunoglobulin VHIII variable regions.

    PubMed

    Randen, I; Potter, K N; Li, Y; Thompson, K M; Pascual, V; Førre, O; Natvig, J B; Capra, J D

    1993-10-01

    Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) has two distinct binding sites on human immunoglobulins. In addition to binding to the Fc region of most IgG molecules, an "alternative" binding site has been localized to the Fab region of human immunoglobulins encoded by heavy chain variable gene segments belonging to the VHIII family. Comparison of amino acid sequences of closely related SPA-binding and -non-binding proteins suggested that VHIII-specific residues in the second complementarity-determining region (CDR2) were likely responsible for SPA binding activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of a single amino acid residue in CDR2 converted an IgM rheumatoid factor which did not bind SPA to an SPA binder. These findings, therefore, locate a critical site involved in SPA binding to the CDR2 of human immunoglobulins encoded by VHIII family gene segments.

  10. The CRM domain: an RNA binding module derived from an ancient ribosome-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Alice; Klipcan, Larik; Ostersetzer, Oren; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Asakura, Yukari; Watkins, Kenneth P

    2007-01-01

    The CRS1-YhbY domain (also called the CRM domain) is represented as a stand-alone protein in Archaea and Bacteria, and in a family of single- and multidomain proteins in plants. The function of this domain is unknown, but structural data and the presence of the domain in several proteins known to interact with RNA have led to the proposal that it binds RNA. Here we describe a phylogenetic analysis of the domain, its incorporation into diverse proteins in plants, and biochemical properties of a prokaryotic and eukaryotic representative of the domain family. We show that a bacterial member of the family, Escherichia coli YhbY, is associated with pre-50S ribosomal subunits, suggesting that YhbY functions in ribosome assembly. GFP fused to a single-domain CRM protein from maize localizes to the nucleolus, suggesting that an analogous activity may have been retained in plants. We show further that an isolated maize CRM domain has RNA binding activity in vitro, and that a small motif shared with KH RNA binding domains, a conserved "GxxG" loop, contributes to its RNA binding activity. These and other results suggest that the CRM domain evolved in the context of ribosome function prior to the divergence of Archaea and Bacteria, that this function has been maintained in extant prokaryotes, and that the domain was recruited to serve as an RNA binding module during the evolution of plant genomes.

  11. Phosphorylation of spore coat proteins by a family of atypical protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim B.; Sreelatha, Anju; Durrant, Eric S.; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Muszewska, Anna; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grynberg, Marcin; Yee, Samantha; Pogliano, Kit; Tomchick, Diana R.; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Dixon, Jack E.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.

    2016-01-01

    The modification of proteins by phosphorylation occurs in all life forms and is catalyzed by a large superfamily of enzymes known as protein kinases. We recently discovered a family of secretory pathway kinases that phosphorylate extracellular proteins. One member, family with sequence similarity 20C (Fam20C), is the physiological Golgi casein kinase. While examining distantly related protein sequences, we observed low levels of identity between the spore coat protein H (CotH), and the Fam20C-related secretory pathway kinases. CotH is a component of the spore in many bacterial and eukaryotic species, and is required for efficient germination of spores in Bacillus subtilis; however, the mechanism by which CotH affects germination is unclear. Here, we show that CotH is a protein kinase. The crystal structure of CotH reveals an atypical protein kinase-like fold with a unique mode of ATP binding. Examination of the genes neighboring cotH in B. subtilis led us to identify two spore coat proteins, CotB and CotG, as CotH substrates. Furthermore, we show that CotH-dependent phosphorylation of CotB and CotG is required for the efficient germination of B. subtilis spores. Collectively, our results define a family of atypical protein kinases and reveal an unexpected role for protein phosphorylation in spore biology. PMID:27185916

  12. Phosphorylation of spore coat proteins by a family of atypical protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kim B.; Sreelatha, Anju; Durrant, Eric S.; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Muszewska, Anna; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grynberg, Marcin; Yee, Samantha; Pogliano, Kit; Tomchick, Diana R.; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Dixon, Jack E.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.

    2016-05-16

    The modification of proteins by phosphorylation occurs in all life forms and is catalyzed by a large superfamily of enzymes known as protein kinases. We recently discovered a family of secretory pathway kinases that phosphorylate extracellular proteins. One member, family with sequence similarity 20C (Fam20C), is the physiological Golgi casein kinase. While examining distantly related protein sequences, we observed low levels of identity between the spore coat protein H (CotH), and the Fam20C-related secretory pathway kinases. CotH is a component of the spore in many bacterial and eukaryotic species, and is required for efficient germination of spores in Bacillus subtilis; however, the mechanism by which CotH affects germination is unclear. In this paper, we show that CotH is a protein kinase. The crystal structure of CotH reveals an atypical protein kinase-like fold with a unique mode of ATP binding. Examination of the genes neighboring cotH in B. subtilis led us to identify two spore coat proteins, CotB and CotG, as CotH substrates. Furthermore, we show that CotH-dependent phosphorylation of CotB and CotG is required for the efficient germination of B. subtilis spores. Finally and collectively, our results define a family of atypical protein kinases and reveal an unexpected role for protein phosphorylation in spore biology.

  13. Phosphorylation of spore coat proteins by a family of atypical protein kinases

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Kim B.; Sreelatha, Anju; Durrant, Eric S.; ...

    2016-05-16

    The modification of proteins by phosphorylation occurs in all life forms and is catalyzed by a large superfamily of enzymes known as protein kinases. We recently discovered a family of secretory pathway kinases that phosphorylate extracellular proteins. One member, family with sequence similarity 20C (Fam20C), is the physiological Golgi casein kinase. While examining distantly related protein sequences, we observed low levels of identity between the spore coat protein H (CotH), and the Fam20C-related secretory pathway kinases. CotH is a component of the spore in many bacterial and eukaryotic species, and is required for efficient germination of spores in Bacillus subtilis;more » however, the mechanism by which CotH affects germination is unclear. In this paper, we show that CotH is a protein kinase. The crystal structure of CotH reveals an atypical protein kinase-like fold with a unique mode of ATP binding. Examination of the genes neighboring cotH in B. subtilis led us to identify two spore coat proteins, CotB and CotG, as CotH substrates. Furthermore, we show that CotH-dependent phosphorylation of CotB and CotG is required for the efficient germination of B. subtilis spores. Finally and collectively, our results define a family of atypical protein kinases and reveal an unexpected role for protein phosphorylation in spore biology.« less

  14. Phosphorylation of spore coat proteins by a family of atypical protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kim B.; Sreelatha, Anju; Durrant, Eric S.; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Muszewska, Anna; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grynberg, Marcin; Yee, Samantha; Pogliano, Kit; Tomchick, Diana R.; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Dixon, Jack E.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.

    2016-05-16

    The modification of proteins by phosphorylation occurs in all life forms and is catalyzed by a large superfamily of enzymes known as protein kinases. We recently discovered a family of secretory pathway kinases that phosphorylate extracellular proteins. One member, family with sequence similarity 20C (Fam20C), is the physiological Golgi casein kinase. While examining distantly related protein sequences, we observed low levels of identity between the spore coat protein H (CotH), and the Fam20C-related secretory pathway kinases. CotH is a component of the spore in many bacterial and eukaryotic species, and is required for efficient germination of spores in Bacillus subtilis; however, the mechanism by which CotH affects germination is unclear. In this paper, we show that CotH is a protein kinase. The crystal structure of CotH reveals an atypical protein kinase-like fold with a unique mode of ATP binding. Examination of the genes neighboring cotH in B. subtilis led us to identify two spore coat proteins, CotB and CotG, as CotH substrates. Furthermore, we show that CotH-dependent phosphorylation of CotB and CotG is required for the efficient germination of B. subtilis spores. Finally and collectively, our results define a family of atypical protein kinases and reveal an unexpected role for protein phosphorylation in spore biology.

  15. A jack of all trades: the RNA-binding protein vigilin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Matthew Hk; Jansen, Ralf-Peter

    2017-10-04

    The vigilin family of proteins is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans and characterized by the proteins' 14 or 15 hnRNP K homology (KH) domains, typically associated with RNA-binding. Vigilin is the largest RNA-binding protein (RBP) in the KH domain-containing family and one of the largest RBP known to date. Since its identification 30 years ago, vigilin has been shown to bind over 700 mRNAs and has been associated with cancer progression and cardiovascular disease. We provide a brief historic overview of vigilin research and outline the proteins' different functions, focusing on maintenance of genome ploidy, heterochromatin formation, RNA export, as well as regulation of translation, mRNA transport, and mRNA stability. The multitude of associated functions is reflected by the large number of identified interaction partners, ranging from tRNAs, mRNAs, ribosomes and ribosome-associated proteins, to histone methyltransferases and DNA-dependent protein kinases. Most of these partners bind to vigilin's carboxyterminus, and the two most C-terminal KH domains of the protein, KH13 and KH14, represent the main mRNA-binding interface. Since the nuclear functions of vigilins in particular are not conserved, we outline a model for the basal functions of vigilins, as well as those which were acquired during the transition from unicellular organisms to metazoa. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. SdrI of Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a multifunctional protein: localization of the fibronectin-binding site.

    PubMed

    Sakinç, Türkân; Kleine, Britta; Michalski, Nadine; Kaase, Martin; Gatermann, Sören G

    2009-11-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus, an important cause of urinary tract infections in young women, expresses the surface protein SdrI, a member of the serine-aspartate repeat (SD) protein family. Here we analyse the fibronectin-binding ability of SdrI, as S. saprophyticus is known to bind fibronectin and there is no known SD protein with this function. This protein does not contain the binding motif typical for fibronectin-binding proteins. Using recombinant fragments of SdrI, we localized the binding domain in the A region and show that SdrI bound to the N-terminal 30-kDa fragment of fibronectin. The fibronectin-binding function was shown in the natural host using an SdrI knockout mutant that showed decreased binding to fibronectin compared with wild-type strain 7108.

  17. Cloning and characterisation of a nuclear, site specific ssDNA binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Smidt, M P; Russchen, B; Snippe, L; Wijnholds, J; Ab, G

    1995-01-01

    Estradiol inducible, liver-specific expression of the apoVLDL II gene is mediated through the estrogen receptor and a variety of other DNA-binding proteins. In the present study we report the cloning and characterisation of a single-strand DNA binding protein that interacts with the lower strand of a complex regulatory site, which includes the major estrogen responsive element and a site that resembles the rat albumin site D (apoVLDL II site D). Based on its binding specificity determined with electro-mobility shift assays, the protein is named single-strand D-box binding factor (ssDBF). Analysis of the deduced 302 amino acid sequence revealed that the protein belongs to the heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B family (hnRNP A/B) and resembles other known eukaryotic single-strand DNA binding proteins. Transient transfection experiments in a chicken liver cell-line showed that the protein represses estrogen-induced transcription. A protein with similar binding characteristics is present in liver nuclear extract. The relevance of the occurrence of this protein to the expression of the apoVLDL II gene is discussed. Images PMID:7630716

  18. Moesin, ezrin, and p205 are actin-binding proteins associated with neutrophil plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Pestonjamasp, K; Amieva, M R; Strassel, C P; Nauseef, W M; Furthmayr, H; Luna, E J

    1995-01-01

    Actin-binding proteins in bovine neutrophil plasma membranes were identified using blot overlays with 125I-labeled F-actin. Along with surface-biotinylated proteins, membranes were enriched in major actin-binding polypeptides of 78, 81, and 205 kDa. Binding was specific for F-actin because G-actin did not bind. Further, unlabeled F-actin blocked the binding of 125I-labeled F-actin whereas other acidic biopolymers were relatively ineffective. Binding also was specifically inhibited by myosin subfragment 1, but not by CapZ or plasma gelsolin, suggesting that the membrane proteins, like myosin, bind along the sides of the actin filaments. The 78- and 81-kDa polypeptides were identified as moesin and ezrin, respectively, by co-migration on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation with antibodies specific for moesin and ezrin. Although not present in detectable amounts in bovine neutrophils, radixin (a third and closely related member of this gene family) also bound 125I-labeled F-actin on blot overlays. Experiments with full-length and truncated bacterial fusion proteins localized the actin-binding site in moesin to the extreme carboxy terminus, a highly conserved sequence. Immunofluorescence micrographs of permeabilized cells and cell "footprints" showed moesin co-localization with actin at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, consistent with a role as a membrane-actin-linking protein. Images PMID:7612961

  19. Multifunctionality and mechanism of ligand binding in a mosquito antiinflammatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, Eric; Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Andersen, John F.

    2009-04-07

    The mosquito D7 salivary proteins are encoded by a multigene family related to the arthropod odorant-binding protein (OBP) superfamily. Forms having either one or two OBP domains are found in mosquito saliva. Four single-domain and one two-domain D7 proteins from Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti (AeD7), respectively, were shown to bind biogenic amines with high affinity and with a stoichiometry of one ligand per protein molecule. Sequence comparisons indicated that only the C-terminal domain of AeD7 is homologous to the single-domain proteins from A. gambiae, suggesting that the N-terminal domain may bind a different class of ligands. Here, we describe the 3D structure of AeD7 and examine the ligand-binding characteristics of the N- and C-terminal domains. Isothermal titration calorimetry and ligand complex crystal structures show that the N-terminal domain binds cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) with high affinities (50-60 nM) whereas the C-terminal domain binds biogenic amines. The lipid chain of the cysLT binds in a hydrophobic pocket of the N-terminal domain, whereas binding of norepinephrine leads to an ordering of the C-terminal portion of the C-terminal domain into an alpha-helix that, along with rotations of Arg-176 and Glu-268 side chains, acts to bury the bound ligand.

  20. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  1. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  2. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S.; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G.; Moses, John E.; Oldham, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  3. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G; Moses, John E; Oldham, Neil J

    2016-11-16

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  4. Clinical relevance of drug binding to plasma proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Fanali, Gabriella; Fasano, Mauro; Pallottini, Valentina; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Binding to plasma proteins highly influences drug efficacy, distribution, and disposition. Serum albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, is a monomeric multi-domain macromolecule that displays an extraordinary ligand binding capacity, providing a depot and carrier for many endogenous and exogenous compounds, such as fatty acids and most acidic drugs. α-1-Acid glycoprotein, the second main plasma protein, is a glycoprotein physiologically involved in the acute phase reaction and is the main carrier for basic and neutral drugs. High- and low-density lipoproteins play a limited role in drug binding and are natural drug delivery system only for few lipophilic drugs or lipid-based formulations. Several factors influence drug binding to plasma proteins, such as pathological conditions, concurrent administration of drugs, sex, and age. Any of these factors, in turn, influences drug efficacy and toxicity. Here, biochemical, biomedical, and biotechnological aspects of drug binding to plasma proteins are reviewed.

  5. HMGN4, a newly discovered nucleosome-binding protein encoded by an intronless gene.

    PubMed

    Birger, Y; Ito, Y; West, K L; Landsman, D; Bustin, M

    2001-05-01

    We describe a newly discovered nuclear protein, HMGN4, that is closely related to the canonical HMGN2 nucleosome-binding protein. The protein is encoded by an intronless gene, which, in humans, is located in the hereditary hemochromatosis [correction of hemachromatosis] region at position 6p21.3. A single approximately 2-kb HMGN4 mRNA was found to be expressed, in variable amounts, in all human tissues tested; however, the HMGN4 transcript was significantly less abundant than that of HMGN2. The HMGN4 protein could be detected in HeLa cells by Western analysis with an antibody elicited against a unique region of the protein. Transfection of HeLa cells with a plasmid expressing HMGN4-GFP indicated that the protein localizes to the nucleus. Our results expand the multiplicity of the HMGN protein family and increase the known cellular repertoire of nucleosome-binding proteins.

  6. How guanylate-binding proteins achieve assembly-stimulated processive cleavage of GTP to GMP.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Agnidipta; Praefcke, Gerrit J K; Renault, Louis; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Herrmann, Christian

    2006-03-02

    Interferons are immunomodulatory cytokines that mediate anti-pathogenic and anti-proliferative effects in cells. Interferon-gamma-inducible human guanylate binding protein 1 (hGBP1) belongs to the family of dynamin-related large GTP-binding proteins, which share biochemical properties not found in other families of GTP-binding proteins such as nucleotide-dependent oligomerization and fast cooperative GTPase activity. hGBP1 has an additional property by which it hydrolyses GTP to GMP in two consecutive cleavage reactions. Here we show that the isolated amino-terminal G domain of hGBP1 retains the main enzymatic properties of the full-length protein and can cleave GDP directly. Crystal structures of the N-terminal G domain trapped at successive steps along the reaction pathway and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis for nucleotide-dependent homodimerization and cleavage of GTP. Similar to effector binding in other GTP-binding proteins, homodimerization is regulated by structural changes in the switch regions. Homodimerization generates a conformation in which an arginine finger and a serine are oriented for efficient catalysis. Positioning of the substrate for the second hydrolysis step is achieved by a change in nucleotide conformation at the ribose that keeps the guanine base interactions intact and positions the beta-phosphates in the gamma-phosphate-binding site.

  7. Identification of a common hyaluronan binding motif in the hyaluronan binding proteins RHAMM, CD44 and link protein.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, B; Yang, B L; Savani, R C; Turley, E A

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified two hyaluronan (HA) binding domains in the HA receptor, RHAMM, that occur near the carboxyl-terminus of this protein. We show here that these two HA binding domains are the only HA binding regions in RHAMM, and that they contribute approximately equally to the HA binding ability of this receptor. Mutation of domain II using recombinant polypeptides of RHAMM demonstrates that K423 and R431, spaced seven amino acids apart, are critical for HA binding activity. Domain I contains two sets of two basic amino acids, each spaced seven residues apart, and mutation of these basic amino acids reduced their binding to HA--Sepharose. These results predict that two basic amino acids flanking a seven amino acid stretch [hereafter called B(X7)B] are minimally required for HA binding activity. To assess whether this motif predicts HA binding in the intact RHAMM protein, we mutated all basic amino acids in domains I and II that form part of these motifs using site-directed mutagenesis and prepared fusion protein from the mutated cDNA. The altered RHAMM protein did not bind HA, confirming that the basic amino acids and their spacing are critical for binding. A specific requirement for arginine or lysine residues was identified since mutation of K430, R431 and K432 to histidine residues abolished binding. Clustering of basic amino acids either within or at either end of the motif enhanced HA binding activity while the occurrence of acidic residues between the basic amino acids reduced binding. The B(X7)B motif, in which B is either R or K and X7 contains no acidic residues and at least one basic amino acid, was found in all HA binding proteins molecularly characterized to date. Recombinant techniques were used to generate chimeric proteins containing either the B(X7)B motifs present in CD44 or link protein, with the amino-terminus of RHAMM (amino acids 1-238) that does not bind HA. All chimeric proteins containing the motif bound HA in transblot analyses

  8. Antagonistic regulation of α-actinin alternative splicing by CELF proteins and polypyrimidine tract binding protein

    PubMed Central

    GROMAK, NATALIA; MATLIN, ARIANNE J.; COOPER, THOMAS A.; SMITH, CHRISTOPHER W.J.

    2003-01-01

    The α-actinin gene has a pair of alternatively spliced exons. The smooth muscle (SM) exon is repressed in most cell types by polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB). CELF (CUG-BP and ETR3-like factors) family proteins, splicing regulators whose activities are altered in myotonic dystrophy, were found to coordinately regulate selection of the two α-actinin exons. CUG-BP and ETR3 activated the SM exon, and along with CELF4 they were also able to repress splicing of the NM (nonmuscle) exon both in vivo and in vitro. Activation of SM exon splicing was associated with displacement of PTB from the polypyrimidine tract by binding of CUG-BP at adjacent sites. Our data provides direct evidence for the activity of CELF proteins as both activators and repressors of splicing within a single-model system of alternative splicing, and suggests a model whereby α-actinin alternative splicing is regulated by synergistic and antagonistic interactions between members of the CELF and PTB families. PMID:12649496

  9. Molecular simulations of multimodal ligand-protein binding: elucidation of binding sites and correlation with experiments.

    PubMed

    Freed, Alexander S; Garde, Shekhar; Cramer, Steven M

    2011-11-17

    Multimodal chromatography, which employs more than one mode of interaction between ligands and proteins, has been shown to have unique selectivity and high efficacy for protein purification. To test the ability of free solution molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water to identify binding regions on the protein surface and to shed light on the "pseudo affinity" nature of multimodal interactions, we performed MD simulations of a model protein ubiquitin in aqueous solution of free ligands. Comparisons of MD with NMR spectroscopy of ubiquitin mutants in solutions of free ligands show a good agreement between the two with regard to the preferred binding region on the surface of the protein and several binding sites. MD simulations also identify additional binding sites that were not observed in the NMR experiments. "Bound" ligands were found to be sufficiently flexible and to access a number of favorable conformations, suggesting only a moderate loss of ligand entropy in the "pseudo affinity" binding of these multimodal ligands. Analysis of locations of chemical subunits of the ligand on the protein surface indicated that electrostatic interaction units were located on the periphery of the preferred binding region on the protein. The analysis of the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity maps, and the binding of both acetate and benzene probes were used to further study the localization of individual ligand moieties. These results suggest that water-mediated electrostatic interactions help the localization and orientation of the MM ligand to the binding region with additional stability provided by nonspecific hydrophobic interactions.

  10. The Actin Binding Protein Adseverin Regulates Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W. P.; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  11. Adaptive Evolution of Eel Fluorescent Proteins from Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Produces Bright Fluorescence in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, David F.; Gaffney, Jean P.; Mehr, Shaadi; DeSalle, Rob; Sparks, John S.; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of two new members of a family of bilirubin-inducible fluorescent proteins (FPs) from marine chlopsid eels and demonstrate a key region of the sequence that serves as an evolutionary switch from non-fluorescent to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). Using transcriptomic analysis of two species of brightly fluorescent Kaupichthys eels (Kaupichthys hyoproroides and Kaupichthys n. sp.), two new FPs were identified, cloned and characterized (Chlopsid FP I and Chlopsid FP II). We then performed phylogenetic analysis on 210 FABPs, spanning 16 vertebrate orders, and including 163 vertebrate taxa. We show that the fluorescent FPs diverged as a protein family and are the sister group to brain FABPs. Our results indicate that the evolution of this family involved at least three gene duplication events. We show that fluorescent FABPs possess a unique, conserved tripeptide Gly-Pro-Pro sequence motif, which is not found in non-fluorescent fatty acid binding proteins. This motif arose from a duplication event of the FABP brain isoforms and was under strong purifying selection, leading to the classification of this new FP family. Residues adjacent to the motif are under strong positive selection, suggesting a further refinement of the eel protein’s fluorescent properties. We present a phylogenetic reconstruction of this emerging FP family and describe additional fluorescent FABP members from groups of distantly related eels. The elucidation of this class of fish FPs with diverse properties provides new templates for the development of protein-based fluorescent tools. The evolutionary adaptation from fatty acid-binding proteins to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins raises intrigue as to the functional role of bright green fluorescence in this cryptic genus of reclusive eels that inhabit a blue, nearly monochromatic, marine environment. PMID:26561348

  12. Identification of an imidazoline binding protein: Creatine kinase and an imidazoline-2 binding site

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Atsuko; Tyacke, Robin J.; Robinson, James J.; Husbands, Stephen M.; Minchin, Michael C.W.; Nutt, David J.; Hudson, Alan L.

    2009-01-01

    Drugs that bind to imidazoline binding proteins have major physiological actions. To date, three subtypes of such proteins, I1, I2 and I3, have been proposed, although characterisations of these binding proteins are lacking. I2 binding sites are found throughout the brain, particularly dense in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Selective I2 ligands demonstrate antidepressant-like activity and the identity of the proteins that respond to such ligands remained unknown until now. Here we report the isolation of a ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein from rabbit and rat brain using a high affinity ligand for the I2 subtype, 2-BFI, to generate an affinity column. Following protein sequencing of the isolated ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein, we identified it to be brain creatine kinase (B-CK). B-CK shows high binding capacity to selective I2 ligands; [3H]-2-BFI (5 nM) specifically bound to B-CK (2330 ± 815 fmol mg protein− 1). We predicted an I2 binding pocket near the active site of B-CK using molecular modelling. Furthermore, B-CK activity was inhibited by a selective I2 irreversible ligand, where 20 μM BU99006 reduced the enzyme activity by 16%, confirming the interaction between B-CK and the I2 ligand. In summary, we have identified B-CK to be the ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein and we have demonstrated the existence of an I2 binding site within this enzyme. The importance of B-CK in regulating neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release may well explain the various actions of I2 ligands in brain and the alterations in densities of I2 binding sites in psychiatric disorders. PMID:19410564

  13. Fibrinogen and Fibronectin Binding Activity and Immunogenic Nature of Choline Binding Protein M

    PubMed Central

    AFSHAR, Davoud; POURMAND, Mohammad Reza; JEDDI-TEHRANI, Mahmood; SABOOR YARAGHI, Ali Akbar; AZARSA, Mohammad; SHOKRI, Fazel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Choline-binding proteins (CBPs) are a group of surface-exposed proteins, which play crucial and physiological roles in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The novel member of CBPs, choline-binding protein M (CbpM) may have binding activity to plasma proteins. This study aimed to clone and express CbpM and demonstrate its interaction with plasma proteins and patients’ sera. Methods: The total length of cbpM gene was cloned in pET21a vector and expressed in BL21 expression host. Verification of recombinant protein was evaluated by Western blot using anti-His tag monoclonal antibody. Binding ability of the recombinant protein to plasma proteins and the interaction with patients’ sera were assessed by Western blot and ELISA methods. Results: The cbpM gene was successfully cloned into pET21a and expressed in BL21 host. Binding activity to fibronectin and fibrinogen and antibody reaction of CbpM to patients’ sera was demonstrated by Western blot and ELISA methods, respectively. Conclusion: CbpM is one of the pneumococcal surface-exposed proteins, which mediates pneumococcal binding to fibronectin and fibrinogen proteins. PMID:28053927

  14. Binding of globular proteins to DNA from surface tension measurement.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Chattoraj, D K; Chakraborty, P

    2001-10-01

    Extent of binding (gammap) of globular proteins to calf-thymus DNA have been measured in mole per mole of nucleotide as function of equilibrium protein concentration. We have exploited measurement of the surface tension of the protein solution in the presence and absence of DNA to calculate the binding ration (gammap). Interaction of bovine serum albumin with DNA has been studied at different pH. Interaction of bovine serum albumin with DNA has been studied at different pH, ionic strength and in presence of Ca2+. Interaction of BSA with denatured DNA has also been investigated. Binding isotherms for other globular proteins like beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin and lysozyme have been compared under identical physicochemical condition. It has been noted with considerable interest that globular form of protein is important to some extent in protein-DNA interaction. An attempt has been made to explain the significance of difference in binding ratios of these two biopolymers in aqueous medium for different systems in the light of electrostatic and hydrophobic effects. Values of maximum binding ration (gammap(m)) at saturated level for different systems have been also presented. The Gibb's free energy decrease (-deltaG0) of the binding of proteins to DNA has been compared more precisely for the saturation of binding sites in the DNA with the change of activity of protein in solution from zero to unity in the rational mole fraction scale.

  15. Thermodynamic parameters of the binding of retinol to binding proteins and to membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Noy, N.; Xu, Z.J. )

    1990-04-24

    Retinol (vitamin A alcohol) is a hydrophobic compound and distributes in vivo mainly between binding proteins and cellular membranes. To better clarify the nature of the interactions of retinol with these phases which have a high affinity for it, the thermodynamic parameters of these interactions were studied. The temperature-dependence profiles of the binding of retinol to bovine retinol binding protein, bovine serum albumin, unilamellar vesicles of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, and plasma membranes from rat liver were determined. It was found that binding of retinol to retinol binding protein is characterized by a large increase in entropy and no change in enthalpy. Binding to albumin is driven by enthalpy and is accompanied by a decrease in entropy. Partitioning of retinal into unilamellar vesicles and into plasma membranes is stabilized both by enthalpic and by entropic components. The implications of these finding are discussed.

  16. The carbohydrate-binding module family 20--diversity, structure, and function.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Camilla; Abou Hachem, Maher; Janecek, Stefan; Viksø-Nielsen, Anders; Blennow, Andreas; Svensson, Birte

    2009-09-01

    Starch-active enzymes often possess starch-binding domains (SBDs) mediating attachment to starch granules and other high molecular weight substrates. SBDs are divided into nine carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) families, and CBM20 is the earliest-assigned and best characterized family. High diversity characterizes CBM20s, which occur in starch-active glycoside hydrolase families 13, 14, 15, and 77, and enzymes involved in starch or glycogen metabolism, exemplified by the starch-phosphorylating enzyme glucan, water dikinase 3 from Arabidopsis thaliana and the mammalian glycogen phosphatases, laforins. The clear evolutionary relatedness of CBM20s to CBM21s, CBM48s and CBM53s suggests a common clan hosting most of the known SBDs. This review surveys the diversity within the CBM20 family, and makes an evolutionary comparison with CBM21s, CBM48s and CBM53s, discussing intrafamily and interfamily relationships. Data on binding to and enzymatic activity towards soluble ligands and starch granules are summarized for wild-type, mutant and chimeric fusion proteins involving CBM20s. Noticeably, whereas CBM20s in amylolytic enzymes confer moderate binding affinities, with dissociation constants in the low micromolar range for the starch mimic beta-cyclodextrin, recent findings indicate that CBM20s in regulatory enzymes have weaker, low millimolar affinities, presumably facilitating dynamic regulation. Structures of CBM20s, including the first example of a full-length glucoamylase featuring both the catalytic domain and the SBD, are summarized, and distinct architectural and functional features of the two SBDs and roles of pivotal amino acids in binding are described. Finally, some applications of SBDs as affinity or immobilization tags and, recently, in biofuel and in planta bioengineering are presented.

  17. Concentration-dependent Cu(II) binding to prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2008-03-01

    The prion protein plays a causative role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including mad cow disease in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of the prion protein is unknown, but it has been linked to its ability to bind copper ions. Experimental evidence suggests that copper can be bound in three distinct modes depending on its concentration, but only one of those binding modes has been fully characterized experimentally. Using a newly developed hybrid DFT/DFT method [1], which combines Kohn-Sham DFT with orbital-free DFT, we have examined all the binding modes and obtained their detailed binding geometries and copper ion binding energies. Our results also provide explanation for experiments, which have found that when the copper concentration increases the copper binding mode changes, surprisingly, from a stronger to a weaker one. Overall, our results indicate that prion protein can function as a copper buffer. 1. Hodak, Lu, Bernholc, JCP, in press.

  18. Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marshall P; Whangbo, Jennifer; McCrossan, Geoffrey; Deutsch, Aaron J; Martinod, Kimberly; Walch, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Killer lymphocyte granzyme (Gzm) serine proteases induce apoptosis of pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Many known Gzm substrates are nucleic acid binding proteins, and the Gzms accumulate in the target cell nucleus by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we show that human Gzms bind to DNA and RNA with nanomolar affinity. Gzms cleave their substrates most efficiently when both are bound to nucleic acids. RNase treatment of cell lysates reduces Gzm cleavage of RNA binding protein targets, whereas adding RNA to recombinant RNA binding protein substrates increases in vitro cleavage. Binding to nucleic acids also influences Gzm trafficking within target cells. Preincubation with competitor DNA and DNase treatment both reduce Gzm nuclear localization. The Gzms are closely related to neutrophil proteases, including neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G. During neutrophil activation, NE translocates to the nucleus to initiate DNA extrusion into neutrophil extracellular traps, which bind NE and cathepsin G. These myeloid cell proteases, but not digestive serine proteases, also bind DNA strongly and localize to nuclei and neutrophil extracellular traps in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, high-affinity nucleic acid binding is a conserved and functionally important property specific to leukocyte serine proteases. Furthermore, nucleic acid binding provides an elegant and simple mechanism to confer specificity of these proteases for cleavage of nucleic acid binding protein substrates that play essential roles in cellular gene expression and cell proliferation.

  19. Cooperative binding modes of Cu(II) in prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Chisnell, Robin; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2007-03-01

    The misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, is responsible for a group of neurodegenerative diseases including mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is known that the PrP can efficiently bind copper ions; four high-affinity binding sites located in the octarepeat region of PrP are now well known. Recent experiments suggest that at low copper concentrations new binding modes, in which one copper ion is shared between two or more binding sites, are possible. Using our hybrid Thomas-Fermi/DFT computational scheme, which is well suited for simulations of biomolecules in solution, we investigate the geometries and energetics of two, three and four binding sites cooperatively binding one copper ion. These geometries are then used as inputs for classical molecular dynamics simulations. We find that copper binding affects the secondary structure of the PrP and that it stabilizes the unstructured (unfolded) part of the protein.

  20. The MAGE protein family and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Jenny L.; Potts, Patrick Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The Melanoma Antigen Gene (MAGE) protein family is a large, highly conserved group of proteins that share a common MAGE homology domain. Intriguingly, many MAGE proteins are restricted in expression to reproductive tissues, but are aberrantly expressed in a wide-variety of cancer types. Originally discovered as antigens on tumor cells and developed as cancer immunotherapy targets, recent literature suggests a more prominent role for MAGEs in driving tumorigenesis. This review will highlight recent developments into the function of MAGEs as oncogenes, their mechanisms of action in regulation of ubiquitin ligases, and outstanding questions in the field. PMID:26342994

  1. Binding of perfluorooctanoic acid to rat and human plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Han, Xing; Snow, Timothy A; Kemper, Raymond A; Jepson, Gary W

    2003-06-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a commercially important organic fluorochemical and is considered to have a long half-life in human blood. In this paper, PFOA binding to rat and human plasma proteins was investigated. On the basis of results from size-exclusion chromatography and ligand blotting, most PFOA was in protein-bound form in male and female rat plasma, and the primary PFOA binding protein in plasma was serum albumin. PFOA binding to rat serum albumin (RSA) in the gas phase was observed by electrospray ionization MS. (19)F NMR experiments revealed that binding to RSA caused peak broadening and chemical shift changes of PFOA resonances, and on the basis of this observation, the dissociation constant was determined to be approximately 0.3 mM. The dissociation constants for PFOA binding to RSA and human serum albumin (HSA) and the numbers of PFOA binding sites on RSA and HSA were also determined by a separation method using microdesalting columns. No significant difference was found between PFOA binding to RSA and PFOA binding to HSA. The dissociation constants for binding of PFOA to RSA or HSA and the numbers of PFOA binding sites were in the range of 0.3-0.4 mM and 6-9, respectively. On the basis of these binding parameters and the estimated plasma concentration of serum albumin, greater than 90% of PFOA would be bound to serum albumin in both rat and human blood.

  2. Differential DNA binding and transcription modulation by three T-box proteins, T, TBX1 and TBX2.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S; Abraham, S; Gronostajski, R M; Campbell, C E

    2000-11-27

    T-box genes encode a family of phylogenetically conserved DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression during embryogenesis. While the developmental importance of many T-box genes has been well documented, little is known about how family members differ in their DNA binding properties and ability to modulate transcription. Here we show that although TBX1, TBX2 and the Xenopus T protein (Xbra) share only 50-60% identity within their DNA-binding domains they can bind the same DNA sequence in vitro. However, the proteins differ in three important respects. While TBX1 protein binds a palindromic T oligonucleotide as a dimer, as had been previously reported for Xbra, TBX2 appears to bind the same DNA sequence as a monomer. Also, T protein/DNA complexes are stabilized in vitro by the addition of specific antibodies, whereas TBX2/DNA complexes are not stabilized by antibodies. Most importantly, TBX2 represses while Xbra activates transcription of the same chimeric reporter plasmid. TBX1, although capable of binding to the chimeric promoter, has no effect on transcription. Thus, while the DNA binding domains of T-box proteins share substantial homology, these proteins differ in both their DNA binding and transcriptional modulation properties. These results suggest that the various T-box proteins, while highly conserved, likely use different mechanisms to modulate transcription and may have different targets in vivo.

  3. The RNA-binding protein Gemin5 binds directly to the ribosome and regulates global translation

    PubMed Central

    Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Ramajo, Jorge; Martinez-Salas, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play crucial roles in all organisms. The protein Gemin5 harbors two functional domains. The N-terminal domain binds to snRNAs targeting them for snRNPs assembly, while the C-terminal domain binds to IRES elements through a non-canonical RNA-binding site. Here we report a comprehensive view of the Gemin5 interactome; most partners copurified with the N-terminal domain via RNA bridges. Notably, Gemin5 sediments with the subcellular ribosome fraction, and His-Gemin5 binds to ribosome particles via its N-terminal domain. The interaction with the ribosome was lost in F381A and Y474A Gemin5 mutants, but not in W14A and Y15A. Moreover, the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 bind directly with Gemin5, and conversely, Gemin5 mutants impairing the binding to the ribosome are defective in the interaction with L3 and L4. The overall polysome profile was affected by Gemin5 depletion or overexpression, concomitant to an increase or a decrease, respectively, of global protein synthesis. Gemin5, and G5-Nter as well, were detected on the polysome fractions. These results reveal the ribosome-binding capacity of the N-ter moiety, enabling Gemin5 to control global protein synthesis. Our study uncovers a crosstalk between this protein and the ribosome, and provides support for the view that Gemin5 may control translation elongation. PMID:27507887

  4. Structure and ligand-binding properties of the biogenic amine-binding protein from the saliva of a blood-feeding insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xueqing; Chang, Bianca W.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amine-binding proteins mediate the anti-inflammatory and antihemostatic activities of blood-feeding insect saliva. The structure of the amine-binding protein from R. prolixus reveals the interaction of biogenic amine ligands with the protein. Proteins that bind small-molecule mediators of inflammation and hemostasis are essential for blood-feeding by arthropod vectors of infectious disease. In ticks and triatomine insects, the lipocalin protein family is greatly expanded and members have been shown to bind biogenic amines, eicosanoids and ADP. These compounds are potent mediators of platelet activation, inflammation and vascular tone. In this paper, the structure of the amine-binding protein (ABP) from Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of the trypanosome that causes Chagas disease, is described. ABP binds the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine with high affinity. A complex with tryptamine shows the presence of a binding site for a single ligand molecule in the central cavity of the β-barrel structure. The cavity contains significant additional volume, suggesting that this protein may have evolved from the related nitrophorin proteins, which bind a much larger heme ligand in the central cavity.

  5. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Yu, Lu-shan; Zeng, Su

    2013-08-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body. The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity, which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and lipoprotein, three most important proteins in human plasma, are detailed. Furthermore, the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed. Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding, enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described. Additionally, the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed.

  6. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Yu, Lu-shan; Zeng, Su

    2013-01-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body. The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity, which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and lipoprotein, three most important proteins in human plasma, are detailed. Furthermore, the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed. Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding, enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described. Additionally, the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed. PMID:23852086

  7. Fos family protein degradation by the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Gomard, Tiphanie; Jariel-Encontre, Isabelle; Basbous, Jihane; Bossis, Guillaume; Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Mocquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Piechaczyk, Marc

    2008-10-01

    c-Fos proto-oncoprotein defines a family of closely related transcription factors (Fos proteins) also comprising Fra-1, Fra-2, FosB and DeltaFosB, the latter two proteins being generated by alternative splicing. Through the regulation of many genes, most of them still unidentified, they regulate major functions from the cell level up to the whole organism. Thus they are involved in the control of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as in the control of responses to stresses, and they play important roles in organogenesis, immune responses and control of cognitive functions, among others. Fos proteins are intrinsically unstable. We have studied how two of them, c-Fos and Fra-1, are degraded. Departing from the classical scenario where unstable key cell regulators are hydrolysed by the proteasome after polyubiquitination, we showed that the bulk of c-Fos and Fra-1 can be broken down independently of any prior ubiquitination. Certain conserved structural domains suggest that similar mechanisms may also apply to Fra-2 and FosB. Computer search indicates that certain motifs shared by the Fos proteins and putatively responsible for instability are found in no other protein, suggesting the existence of degradation mechanisms specific for this protein family. Under particular signalling conditions, others have shown that a part of cytoplasmic c-Fos requires ubiquitination for fast turnover. This poses the question of the multiplicity of degradation pathways that apply to proteins depending on their intracellular localization.

  8. FIGfams : yet another set of protein families.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.; Overbeek, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Fellowship for the Interpretation of Genomes

    2009-11-01

    We present FIGfams, a new collection of over 100,000 protein families that are the product of manual curation and close strain comparison. Using the Subsystem approach the manual curation is carried out, ensuring a previously unattained degree of throughput and consistency. FIGfams are based on over 950,000 manually annotated proteins and across many hundred Bacteria and Archaea. Associated with each FIGfam is a two-tiered, rapid, accurate decision procedure to determine family membership for new proteins. FIGfams are freely available under an open source license. These can be downloaded at ftp://ftp.theseed.org/FIGfams/. The web site for FIGfams is http://www.theseed.org/wiki/FIGfams/.

  9. CaMELS: In silico prediction of calmodulin binding proteins and their binding sites.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Wajid Arshad; Asif, Amina; Andleeb, Saiqa; Minhas, Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar

    2017-09-01

    Due to Ca(2+) -dependent binding and the sequence diversity of Calmodulin (CaM) binding proteins, identifying CaM interactions and binding sites in the wet-lab is tedious and costly. Therefore, computational methods for this purpose are crucial to the design of such wet-lab experiments. We present an algorithm suite called CaMELS (CalModulin intEraction Learning System) for predicting proteins that interact with CaM as well as their binding sites using sequence information alone. CaMELS offers state of the art accuracy for both CaM interaction and binding site prediction and can aid biologists in studying CaM binding proteins. For CaM interaction prediction, CaMELS uses protein sequence features coupled with a large-margin classifier. CaMELS models the binding site prediction problem using multiple instance machine learning with a custom optimization algorithm which allows more effective learning over imprecisely annotated CaM-binding sites during training. CaMELS has been extensively benchmarked using a variety of data sets, mutagenic studies, proteome-wide Gene Ontology enrichment analyses and protein structures. Our experiments indicate that CaMELS outperforms simple motif-based search and other e