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Sample records for bio safety level

  1. Potential impact of a 2-person security rule on BioSafety Level 4 laboratory workers.

    PubMed

    LeDuc, James W; Anderson, Kevin; Bloom, Marshall E; Carrion, Ricardo; Feldmann, Heinz; Fitch, J Patrick; Geisbert, Joan B; Geisbert, Thomas W; Holbrook, Michael R; Jahrling, Peter B; Ksiazek, Thomas G

    2009-07-01

    Directors of all major BioSafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories in the United States met in 2008 to review the current status of biocontainment laboratory operations and to discuss the potential impact of a proposed 2-person security rule on maximum-containment laboratory operations. Special attention was paid to the value and risks that would result from a requirement that 2 persons be physically present in the laboratory at all times. A consensus emerged indicating that a video monitoring system represents a more efficient, economical standard; provides greater assurance that pathogens are properly manipulated; and offers an increased margin of employee safety and institutional security. The 2-person security rule (1 to work and 1 to observe) may decrease compliance with dual responsibilities of safety and security by placing undue pressure on the person being observed to quickly finish the work, and by placing the observer in the containment environment unnecessarily.

  2. Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation for the Proposed Bio Safety Level 3 (BSl-3) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T J; Nguyen, S N

    2003-09-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct a biosafety level (BSL-3) facility at Site 200 in Livermore, California. Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) is a designation assigned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institutes Health (NIH) for handling infectious organisms based on the specific microorganisms and associated operations. Biosafety levels range from BSL-1 (lowest hazard) to BSL-4 (highest hazard). Details about the BSL-3 criteria are described in the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s publication ''Biosafety Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories'' (BMBL), 4th edition (CDC 1999): The BSL-3 facility will be built in accordance with the required BMBL guidelines. This Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation (PABD) for the proposed BSL-3 facility has been prepared in accordance with the current contractual requirements at LLNL. This includes the LLNL Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (ES&H Manual) and applicable Work Smart Standards, including the biosafety standards, such as the aforementioned BMBL and the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules: The proposed BSL-3 facility is a 1,100 ft{sup 2}, one-story permanent prefabricated facility, which will have three individual BSL-3 laboratory rooms (one of which is an animal biosafety level-3 [ABSL-3] laboratory to handle rodents), a mechanical room, clothes-change and shower rooms, and small storage space (Figure 3.1). The BSL-3 facility will be designed and operated accordance with guidelines for BSL-3 laboratories established by the CDC and the NIH. No radiological, high explosives, fissile, or propellant material will be used or stored in the proposed BSL-3 facility. The BSL-3 facility will be used to develop scientific tools to identify and understand the pathogens of medical, environmental, and forensic importance. Microorganisms that are to be handled in this

  3. Preparing a Community Hospital to Manage Work-related Exposures to Infectious Agents in BioSafety Level 3 and 4 Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Marshall E.; Hoe, Nancy P.; Arminio, Thomas; Carlson, Paul; Powers, Tamara; Feldmann, Heinz; Wilson, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Construction of new BioSafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 laboratories has raised concerns regarding provision of care to exposed workers because of healthcare worker (HCW) unfamiliarity with precautions required. When the National Institutes of Health began construction of a new BSL-4 laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, USA, in 2005, they contracted with St. Patrick Hospital in Missoula, Montana, for care of those exposed. A care and isolation unit is described. We developed a training program for HCWs that emphasized the optimal use of barrier precautions and used pathogen-specific modules and simulations with mannequins and fluorescent liquids that represented infectious body fluids. The facility and training led to increased willingness among HCWs to care for patients with all types of communicable diseases. This model may be useful for other hospitals, whether they support a BSL-4 facility, are in the proximity of a BSL-3 facility, or are interested in upgrading their facilities to prepare for exotic and novel infectious diseases. PMID:20202409

  4. Preparing a community hospital to manage work-related exposures to infectious agents in BioSafety level 3 and 4 laboratories.

    PubMed

    Risi, George F; Bloom, Marshall E; Hoe, Nancy P; Arminio, Thomas; Carlson, Paul; Powers, Tamara; Feldmann, Heinz; Wilson, Deborah

    2010-03-01

    Construction of new BioSafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 laboratories has raised concerns regarding provision of care to exposed workers because of healthcare worker (HCW) unfamiliarity with precautions required. When the National Institutes of Health began construction of a new BSL-4 laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, USA, in 2005, they contracted with St. Patrick Hospital in Missoula, Montana, for care of those exposed. A care and isolation unit is described. We developed a training program for HCWs that emphasized the optimal use of barrier precautions and used pathogen-specific modules and simulations with mannequins and fluorescent liquids that represented infectious body fluids. The facility and training led to increased willingness among HCWs to care for patients with all types of communicable diseases. This model may be useful for other hospitals, whether they support a BSL-4 facility, are in the proximity of a BSL-3 facility, or are interested in upgrading their facilities to prepare for exotic and novel infectious diseases.

  5. Levels of safety

    SciTech Connect

    Povyakalo, A.A.

    1996-07-01

    When speaking about danger of catastrophe, it is the first level of danger. Its absence is the first level of safety. When speaking about danger of danger of catastrophe, it is the second level of danger. Its absence is the second level of safety. The paper proposes the way to formalize these ideas and use formal models to construct the states-and-event scale for a given object. The proposed approach can be applied to objects of different nature. The states-and-events scale may be used for transformation of initial objectives state-and-transitions graph to reduce bad classes of states.

  6. Wholesale EOQ (Economic Order Quantity) Safety Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    below. One of the causes of the declining performance is the current safety level computation., To analyze the effectiveness of the current safety...USING THE SQUARE ROOT OF THE UNIT COST This is the optimal model LPresutti] with the square root of unit cost used to dampen the effect of the cost. We...safety levels for items with high demand. Hence model B’s low fill rate and high cost. A 30-day minimum safety level is not an effective safety level

  7. Bio-effects and safety of low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasonic exposure.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farzaneh; McLoughlin, Ian V; Chauhan, Sunita; ter-Haar, Gail

    2012-04-01

    Low-frequency (LF) ultrasound (20-100 kHz) has a diverse set of industrial and medical applications. In fact, high power industrial applications of ultrasound mainly occupy this frequency range. This range is also used for various therapeutic medical applications including sonophoresis (ultrasonic transdermal drug delivery), dentistry, eye surgery, body contouring, the breaking of kidney stones and eliminating blood clots. While emerging LF applications such as ultrasonic drug delivery continue to be developed and undergo translation for human use, significant gaps exist in the coverage of safety standards for this frequency range. Accordingly, the need to understand the biological effects of LF ultrasound is becoming more important. This paper presents a broad overview of bio-effects and safety of LF ultrasound as an aid to minimize and control the risk of these effects. Its particular focus is at low intensities where bio-effects are initially observed. To generate a clear perspective of hazards in LF exposure, the mechanisms of bio-effects and the main differences in action at low and high frequencies are investigated and a survey of harmful effects of LF ultrasound at low intensities is presented. Mechanical and thermal indices are widely used in high frequency diagnostic applications as a means of indicating safety of ultrasonic exposure. The direct application of these indices at low frequencies needs careful investigation. In this work, using numerical simulations based on the mathematical and physical rationale behind the indices at high frequencies, it is observed that while thermal index (TI) can be used directly in the LF range, mechanical index (MI) seems to become less reliable at lower frequencies. Accordingly, an improved formulation for the MI is proposed for frequencies below 500 kHz.

  8. Portable Bio/Chemosensoristic Devices: Innovative Systems for Environmental Health and Food Safety Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Dragone, Roberto; Grasso, Gerardo; Muccini, Michele; Toffanin, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    This mini-review covers the newly developed biosensoristic and chemosensoristic devices described in recent literature for detection of contaminants in both environmental and food real matrices. Current needs in environmental and food surveillance of contaminants require new simplified, sensitive systems, which are portable and allow for rapid and on-site monitoring and diagnostics. Here, we focus on optical and electrochemical bio/chemosensoristic devices as promising tools with interesting analytical features that can be potentially exploited for innovative on-site and real-time applications for diagnostics and monitoring of environmental and food matrices (e.g., agricultural waters and milk). In near future, suitably developed and implemented bio/chemosensoristic devices will be a new and modern technological solution for the identification of new quality and safety marker indexes as well as for a more proper and complete characterization of abovementioned environmental and food matrices. Integrated bio/chemosensoristic devices can also allow an “holistic approach” that may prove to be more suitable for diagnostics of environmental and food real matrices, where the copresence of more bioactive substances is frequent. Therefore, this approach can be focused on the determination of net effect (mixture effect) of bioactive substances present in real matrices. PMID:28529937

  9. Many Variables Determine Campus Safety Staffing Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    College and university administrators must take into account a number of variables in determining the appropriate staffing levels for their campus public safety function, according to a white paper released by International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA). The report is entitled, "Establishing Appropriate Staffing…

  10. Many Variables Determine Campus Safety Staffing Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    College and university administrators must take into account a number of variables in determining the appropriate staffing levels for their campus public safety function, according to a white paper released by International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA). The report is entitled, "Establishing Appropriate Staffing…

  11. Advanced nanoporous materials for micro-gravimetric sensing to trace-level bio/chemical molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-10-13

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing.

  12. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. PMID:25313499

  13. K-9 Traffic Safety Resource Curriculum. Level A. Professional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Highway Safety Program Office, Raleigh, NC.

    One of four curriculum guides designed to aid teachers of grades K-9 in implementing a balanced, dynamic traffic safety program, this level A guide contains materials for teachers of grades K-1. Emphasis is on development of perceptual skills, especially in regard to pedestrian safety. Four units are included: Pedestrian Safety, Bicycle Safety,…

  14. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  15. Toward richer metadata for microbial sequences: replacing strain-level NCBI taxonomy taxids with BioProject, BioSample and Assembly records.

    PubMed

    Federhen, Scott; Clark, Karen; Barrett, Tanya; Parkinson, Helen; Ostell, James; Kodama, Yuichi; Mashima, Jun; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Cochrane, Guy; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene

    2014-06-15

    Microbial genome sequence submissions to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) have been annotated with organism names that include the strain identifier. Each of these strain-level names has been assigned a unique 'taxid' in the NCBI Taxonomy Database. With the significant growth in genome sequencing, it is not possible to continue with the curation of strain-level taxids. In January 2014, NCBI will cease assigning strain-level taxids. Instead, submitters are encouraged provide strain information and rich metadata with their submission to the sequence database, BioProject and BioSample.

  16. K-9 Traffic Safety Resource Curriculum. Level B. Professional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Highway Safety Program Office, Raleigh, NC.

    One of four curriculum guides designed to aid teachers of grades K-9 in implementing a balanced, dynamic traffic safety program, this level B guide contains materials for teachers of grades 2-3. Content includes pedestrian, bicycle, school bus, and passenger safety units in which perceptual and judgmental skills are emphasized. Bicycle safety is…

  17. K-9 Traffic Safety Resource Curriculum. Level C. Professional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Highway Safety Program Office, Raleigh, NC.

    One of four curriculum guides designed to aid teachers of grades K-9 in implementing a balanced, dynamic traffic safety program, this level C guide contains materials for teachers of grades 4-6. Four units in pedestrian, bicycle, school bus, and passenger safety are presented, and minicycle and optional farm vehicle safety units are introduced.…

  18. Arrested Embryos from the bio1 Auxotroph of Arabidopsis thaliana Contain Reduced Levels of Biotin 1

    PubMed Central

    Shellhammer, Joe; Meinke, David

    1990-01-01

    The bio1 auxotroph of Arabidopsis thaliana is a recessive embryonic lethal that forms normal plants in the presence of biotin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether aborted seeds produced by heterozygous plants grown without vitamin supplements contained reduced levels of biotin. Two methods were used to determine the biotin content of mutant and wild-type tissues: streptavidin binding in microtiter plates and growth of the biotin-requiring bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. Total biotin was measured in extracts prepared from immature seeds prior to desiccation. Aborted seeds produced by heterozygous (bio1/BIO1) plants contained some biotin in the maternal seed coat but virtually no detectable biotin in the arrested embryo. This lack of biotin was not observed in arrested embryos from other mutants with similar patterns of abnormal development. These results are consistent with the model that bio1 tissues are defective in biotin synthesis. The alternative model of increased degradation is inconsistent with the recessive nature of the mutation and the ability of rescued plants to continue growing for several weeks following removal of supplemental biotin. PMID:16667573

  19. Bio-molecule Surfaces Construction via a Higher-Order Level-Set Method.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Xu, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Qin

    2008-11-01

    We present a general framework for a higher-order spline level-set (HLS) method and apply this to bio-molecule surfaces construction. Starting from a first order energy functional, we obtain a general level set formulation of geometric partial differential equation, and provide an efficient approach to solve this partial differential equation using a C(2) spline basis. We also present a fast cubic spline interpolation algorithm based on convolution and the Z-transform, which exploits the local relationship of interpolatory cubic spline coefficients with respect to given function data values. One example of our HLS method is demonstrated, which is the construction of bio-molecule surfaces (an implicit solvation interface) with their individual atomic coordinates and solvated radii as prerequisite.

  20. Phase 3 trial evaluating the immunogenicity and safety of a three-dose BioThrax® regimen for post-exposure prophylaxis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert J; Howard, Cris; Hunter-Stitt, Ericka; Kaptur, Paulina E; Pleune, Brett; Muse, Derek; Sheldon, Eric; Davis, Matthew; Strout, Cynthia; Vert-Wong, Katya

    2014-04-17

    This study was conducted to support licensure of a post-exposure prophylaxis indication for BioThrax(®) (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) concurrent with antimicrobials for individuals exposed to aerosolized anthrax spores. The immunogenicity and safety of a three-dose regimen (0, 2, and 4 weeks) of BioThrax administered subcutaneously (SC) were evaluated in 200 healthy adults 18-65 years of age. Toxin-neutralizing antibody (TNA) was expressed as 50% neutralization factor (NF50) at predetermined time points through Day 100. Safety was assessed by physical examinations, vital signs, solicited local and systemic reactions using web-enabled subject diaries, in-clinic solicited reactions, and unsolicited adverse events (AEs). The prospectively defined success criteria for the primary and secondary endpoints were met. This required the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the proportion of subjects with a TNA NF50 value to be greater than 40% at Day 63 (primary), Day 70 (secondary) and Days 63-100 (secondary). At Day 63, 71% of subjects achieved a TNA NF50 threshold value ≥ 0.56, with a lower bound of the 95% CI ≥ 40% (64%). The percentage of subjects achieving a TNA NF50 threshold value ≥ 0.56 at Day 70 was 58% (95% CI: 50%, 65%), and the mean value on Days 63-100 (inclusive) was 53% (95% CI: 41%, 55%). The threshold TNA NF50 value of 0.56 was developed from previous rabbit challenge and human immunogenicity studies. No related serious AEs occurred during the study, and no subjects withdrew from the study because of an AE. Tenderness and pain at the injection site were recorded most often in subject diaries following vaccination. BioThrax, administered as three SC doses at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, was well tolerated. The prospectively defined success criteria for TNA levels on Days 63, 70, and 63-100 were achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuous Time Level Crossing Sampling ADC for Bio-Potential Recording Systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Osman, Ahmad; Kim, Dongsoo; Goldstein, Brian; Huang, Chenxi; Martini, Berin; Pieribone, Vincent A; Culurciello, Eugenio

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we present a fixed window level crossing sampling analog to digital convertor for bio-potential recording sensors. This is the first proposed and fully implemented fixed window level crossing ADC without local DACs and clocks. The circuit is designed to reduce data size, power, and silicon area in future wireless neurophysiological sensor systems. We built a testing system to measure bio-potential signals and used it to evaluate the performance of the circuit. The bio-potential amplifier offers a gain of 53 dB within a bandwidth of 200 Hz-20 kHz. The input-referred rms noise is 2.8 µV. In the asynchronous level crossing ADC, the minimum delta resolution is 4 mV. The input signal frequency of the ADC is up to 5 kHz. The system was fabricated using the AMI 0.5 µm CMOS process. The chip size is 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm. The power consumption of the 4-channel system from a 3.3 V supply is 118.8 µW in the static state and 501.6 µW with a 240 kS/s sampling rate. The conversion efficiency is 1.6 nJ/conversion.

  2. Continuous Time Level Crossing Sampling ADC for Bio-Potential Recording Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wei; Osman, Ahmad; Kim, Dongsoo; Goldstein, Brian; Huang, Chenxi; Martini, Berin; Pieribone, Vincent A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a fixed window level crossing sampling analog to digital convertor for bio-potential recording sensors. This is the first proposed and fully implemented fixed window level crossing ADC without local DACs and clocks. The circuit is designed to reduce data size, power, and silicon area in future wireless neurophysiological sensor systems. We built a testing system to measure bio-potential signals and used it to evaluate the performance of the circuit. The bio-potential amplifier offers a gain of 53 dB within a bandwidth of 200 Hz-20 kHz. The input-referred rms noise is 2.8 µV. In the asynchronous level crossing ADC, the minimum delta resolution is 4 mV. The input signal frequency of the ADC is up to 5 kHz. The system was fabricated using the AMI 0.5 µm CMOS process. The chip size is 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm. The power consumption of the 4-channel system from a 3.3 V supply is 118.8 µW in the static state and 501.6 µW with a 240 kS/s sampling rate. The conversion efficiency is 1.6 nJ/conversion. PMID:24163640

  3. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  4. The BioSTAR(r) device versus the CardioSEAL(r) device in patent foramen ovale closure: comparison of mid-term efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Van den Branden, Ben J; Luermans, Justin G; Post, Martijn C; Plokker, Herbert W; Ten Berg, Jurriën M; Suttorp, Maarten J

    2010-09-01

    To compare the mid-term efficacy and safety of the bioabsorbable BioSTAR(r) device with the non-bioabsorbable CardioSEAL(r) device for percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure. All 81 consecutive patients who underwent PFO closure with the CardioSEAL(r) or BioSTAR(r) device between June 2003 and July 2008 were included. The presence of a residual shunt (minimal, moderate or large) was measured in both groups at six months follow-up, using contrast transthoracic echocardiography. Forty-four patients (48.4±11.4 years) received the CardioSEAL(r) device and 37 patients the BioSTAR(r) device (47.9±10.7 years). There were no significant differences in short-term complications. Two patients who received the BioSTAR(r) device developed a recurrent transient cerebral ischaemic event. Overall, atrial arrhythmias occurred in 19%, with no difference between both groups. At six months, a residual shunt was present in 29% (27% minimal, 2% moderate) using the CardioSEAL(r) device compared to 28% (17% minimal, 11% moderate) using the BioSTAR(r) device (p=0.18). A predictor for residual shunt could not be found. There is no difference in safety and efficacy at six months between the CardioSEAL(r) and BioSTAR(r) device used for PFO closure. However, using the BioSTAR(r) device tends to be associated with a higher percentage of moderate shunting.

  5. Comparative bio-safety and in vivo evaluation of native or modified locust bean gum-PVA IPN microspheres.

    PubMed

    Kaity, Santanu; Ghosh, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    Strategically developed natural polymer-based controlled release multiparticulate drug delivery systems have gained special interest for “spatial placement” and “temporal delivery” of drug molecules. In our earlier study, locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (LBG-PVA IPN), carboxymethylated locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (CMLBG-PVA IPN) and acrylamide grafted locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (Am-g-LBG-PVA IPN) were prepared and characterized. The present study deals with accelerating stability testing, comparative bio-safety and single dose in vivo pharmacokinetic study of all three IPN microspheres for controlled oral delivery of buflomedil hydrochloride (BH). From the stability study, it was observed that the particles were stable throughout the study period. From toxicity and biodegradability study it was proved that the microspheres were safe for internal use and complied with bio-safety criterion. From the in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits, it was observed that the CMLBG-PVA IPN microspheres possessed almost similar Tmax value with BH oral suspension. However, in comparison between the LBG-PVA and Am-g-LBG-PVA IPN microspheres, the later showed well controlled release property than the first in biological condition. Thus, this type of delivery system might be useful to achieve the lofty goals of the controlled release drug delivery.

  6. Modeling level-of-safety for bus stops in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhirui; Wang, Chao; Yu, Yongbo; Shi, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-17

    Safety performance at bus stops is generally evaluated by using historical traffic crash data or traffic conflict data. However, in China, it is quite difficult to obtain such data mainly due to the lack of traffic data management and organizational issues. In light of this, the primary objective of this study is to develop a quantitative approach to evaluate bus stop safety performance. The concept of level-of-safety for bus stops is introduced and corresponding models are proposed to quantify safety levels, which consider conflict points, traffic factors, geometric characteristics, traffic signs and markings, pavement conditions, and lighting conditions. Principal component analysis and k-means clustering methods were used to model and quantify safety levels for bus stops. A case study was conducted to show the applicability of the proposed model with data collected from 46 samples for the 7 most common types of bus stops in China, using 32 of the samples for modeling and 14 samples for illustration. Based on the case study, 6 levels of safety for bus stops were defined. Finally, a linear regression analysis between safety levels and the number of traffic conflicts showed that they had a strong relationship (R(2) value of 0.908). The results indicated that the method was well validated and could be practically used for the analysis and evaluation of bus stop safety in China. The proposed model was relatively easy to implement without the requirement of traffic crash data and/or traffic conflict data. In addition, with the proposed method, it was feasible to evaluate countermeasures to improve bus stop safety (e.g., exclusive bus lanes).

  7. Low level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    Historical information for 26 years of documented US transport experience with radioactive material (RAM) packages indicates that no significant releases of low level waste have taken place, although accidents involving transportation, handling or reported incident have been documented. This article uses information from the Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) data base, developed in 1981, to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events that have occurred in the US 1971-96. Topic areas include the summary of RAM transportation accident/incident experience in the US and characteristics of LLW accidents where release of contents has occurred. 2 tabs.

  8. Disentangling the roles of safety climate and safety culture: Multi-level effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance.

    PubMed

    Petitta, Laura; Probst, Tahira M; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Ghezzi, Valerio

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing attention to contextual effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and employee safety compliance, no study has yet explored the conjoint influence exerted simultaneously by organizational safety climate and safety culture. The present study seeks to address this literature shortcoming. We first begin by briefly discussing the theoretical distinctions between safety climate and culture and the rationale for examining these together. Next, using survey data collected from 1342 employees in 32 Italian organizations, we found that employee-level supervisor enforcement, organizational-level safety climate, and autocratic, bureaucratic, and technocratic safety culture dimensions all predicted individual-level safety compliance behaviors. However, the cross-level moderating effect of safety climate was bounded by certain safety culture dimensions, such that safety climate moderated the supervisor enforcement-compliance relationship only under the clan-patronage culture dimension. Additionally, the autocratic and bureaucratic culture dimensions attenuated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and compliance. Finally, when testing the effects of technocratic safety culture and cooperative safety culture, neither safety culture nor climate moderated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance. The results suggest a complex relationship between organizational safety culture and safety climate, indicating that organizations with particular safety cultures may be more likely to develop more (or less) positive safety climates. Moreover, employee safety compliance is a function of supervisor safety leadership, as well as the safety climate and safety culture dimensions prevalent within the organization.

  9. Study on safety level of RC beam bridges under earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Lin, Junqi; Liu, Jinlong; Li, Jia

    2017-08-01

    This study considers uncertainties in material strengths and the modeling which have important effects on structural resistance force based on reliability theory. After analyzing the destruction mechanism of a RC bridge, structural functions and the reliability were given, then the safety level of the piers of a reinforced concrete continuous girder bridge with stochastic structural parameters against earthquake was analyzed. Using response surface method to calculate the failure probabilities of bridge piers under high-level earthquake, their seismic reliability for different damage states within the design reference period were calculated applying two-stage design, which describes seismic safety level of the built bridges to some extent.

  10. Bio-availability of iron from spinach (Spanicia oleracea) cultivated in soil fortified with graded levels of iron.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N S; Malewar, V G

    1992-10-01

    In vitro availability of iron along with ascorbic acid, oxalic acid and phosphorus contents of two varieties of spinach (Pusa Jyoti and Allgreen) cultivated in soil with different levels of added iron was determined. Addition of graded levels of iron to soil markedly increased the total iron and phosphorus contents and significantly decreased the bio-availability of iron, ascorbic acid and oxalic acid contents of spinach. Ascorbic acid and oxalic acid contents markedly exerted a positive influence while phosphorus exerted a negative influence on the bio-availability of iron.

  11. Performance-based standards: safety instrumented functions and safety integrity levels.

    PubMed

    Stavrianidis, P; Bhimavarapu, K

    2000-01-07

    This paper discusses two international performance-based standards, ANSI/ISA S84.01 and IEC d61508 and the requirements they place upon companies that rely on electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems to perform safety functions. Performance-based regulations are also discussed and common safety elements between the standards and regulations are identified. Several risk analysis techniques that can be used to comply with the aforementioned requirements are discussed and a simple example is used to illustrate the use, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques. The evaluation of safety integrity level (SIL) of the Safety Instrumented System (SIS) in terms of the probability to fail to function is outside the scope of this paper.

  12. K-9 Traffic Safety Resource Curriculum. Level D. Professional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Highway Safety Program Office, Raleigh, NC.

    One of four curriculum guides designed to aid teachers of grades K-9 in implementing a balanced, dynamic traffic safety program, this level D guide contains materials for teachers of grades 7-9. Emphasis is on preparation for the driving task and content is in three units. More sophisitcated approaches to pedestrian, bicycle, and school bus…

  13. Cholesterol levels of Japanese dyslipidaemic patients with various comorbidities: BioBank Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Noda, Hokuto; Nagai, Akiko; Hirata, Makoto; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Matsuda, Koichi; Muto, Kaori; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2017-03-01

    Controlling serum cholesterol is critical to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with dyslipidaemia. Guidelines emphasise the need to select treatment for dyslipidaemia based on specific patient profiles; however, there is little information about the serum cholesterol levels of patients in each profile in Japan. Therefore, we aimed to describe the serum cholesterol levels and prevalence of uncontrolled cases in Japanese patients with dyslipidaemia. We included data for patients with dyslipidaemia between 2003 and 2007 from the BioBank Japan Project (66 hospitals). Then, we reported their serum cholesterol levels by age, body mass index, glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin A1c), blood pressure, smoking, drinking, comorbidity and medication profiles. We included 22,189 male and 21,545 female patients. The mean serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and non-HDL-C levels in males were 117.4 mg/dL, 51.0 mg/dL, 187.6 mg/dL and 153.6 mg/dL, respectively; the corresponding levels in females were 129.5 mg/dL, 60.5 mg/dL, 144.9 mg/dL and 157.9 mg/dL, respectively. In both males and females, the LDL-C levels were the highest in the following profiles: age 19-44 years, body mass index 18.5-22 kg/m(2), glycated haemoglobin A1c <6.0%, never smoker, chronic respiratory disease as a comorbidity and no medication use. These data provide details of serum cholesterol levels by risk-factor profile in patients with dyslipidaemia and could add evidence of treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual employee's perceptions of " Group-level Safety Climate" (supervisor referenced) versus " Organization-level Safety Climate" (top management referenced): Associations with safety outcomes for lone workers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lee, Jin; McFadden, Anna C; Rineer, Jennifer; Robertson, Michelle M

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that safety climate is among the strongest predictors of safety behavior and safety outcomes in a variety of settings. Previous studies have established that safety climate is a multi-faceted construct referencing multiple levels of management within a company, most generally: the organization level (employee perceptions of top management's commitment to and prioritization of safety) and group level (employee perceptions of direct supervisor's commitment to and prioritization of safety). Yet, no research to date has examined the potential interaction between employees' organization-level safety climate (OSC) and group-level safety climate (GSC) perceptions. Furthermore, prior research has mainly focused on traditional work environments in which supervisors and workers interact in the same location throughout the day. Little research has been done to examine safety climate with regard to lone workers. The present study aims to address these gaps by examining the relationships between truck drivers' (as an example of lone workers) perceptions of OSC and GSC, both potential linear and non-linear relationships, and how these predict important safety outcomes. Participants were 8095 truck drivers from eight trucking companies in the United States with an average response rate of 44.8%. Results showed that employees' OSC and GSC perceptions are highly correlated (r= 0.78), but notable gaps between the two were observed for some truck drivers. Uniquely, both OSC and GSC scores were found to have curvilinear relationships with safe driving behavior, and both scores were equally predictive of safe driving behavior. Results also showed the two levels of climate significantly interacted with one another to predict safety behavior such that if either the OSC or GSC scores were low, the other's contribution to safety behavior became stronger. These findings suggest that OSC and GSC may function in a compensatory manner and promote safe driving behavior even

  15. Multi-level hot zone identification for pedestrian safety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Choi, Keechoo; Huang, Helai

    2015-03-01

    According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), while fatalities from traffic crashes have decreased, the proportion of pedestrian fatalities has steadily increased from 11% to 14% over the past decade. This study aims at identifying two zonal levels factors. The first is to identify hot zones at which pedestrian crashes occurs, while the second are zones where crash-involved pedestrians came from. Bayesian Poisson lognormal simultaneous equation spatial error model (BPLSESEM) was estimated and revealed significant factors for the two target variables. Then, PSIs (potential for safety improvements) were computed using the model. Subsequently, a novel hot zone identification method was suggested to combine both hot zones from where vulnerable pedestrians originated with hot zones where many pedestrian crashes occur. For the former zones, targeted safety education and awareness campaigns can be provided as countermeasures whereas area-wide engineering treatments and enforcement may be effective safety treatments for the latter ones. Thus, it is expected that practitioners are able to suggest appropriate safety treatments for pedestrian crashes using the method and results from this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring Safety Levels in Playgrounds Using Environment Assessment Scales: The Issue of Playground Safety in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsoglou, Kafenia; Hrisikou, Spyridoula; Kakana, Domna Mika

    2011-01-01

    Playgrounds beget an unrivalled context which, through play activity, can foster children's growth. The foremost function of all playgrounds is to provide for safety. In the present study, our primary focus is to determine the degree of adequacy as far as playground equipment is concerned, including estimates of imminent dangers and the level of…

  17. Measuring Safety Levels in Playgrounds Using Environment Assessment Scales: The Issue of Playground Safety in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsoglou, Kafenia; Hrisikou, Spyridoula; Kakana, Domna Mika

    2011-01-01

    Playgrounds beget an unrivalled context which, through play activity, can foster children's growth. The foremost function of all playgrounds is to provide for safety. In the present study, our primary focus is to determine the degree of adequacy as far as playground equipment is concerned, including estimates of imminent dangers and the level of…

  18. Safety analysis of urban arterials at the meso level.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, Xuesong

    2017-11-01

    Urban arterials form the main structure of street networks. They typically have multiple lanes, high traffic volume, and high crash frequency. Classical crash prediction models investigate the relationship between arterial characteristics and traffic safety by treating road segments and intersections as isolated units. This micro-level analysis does not work when examining urban arterial crashes because signal spacing is typically short for urban arterials, and there are interactions between intersections and road segments that classical models do not accommodate. Signal spacing also has safety effects on both intersections and road segments that classical models cannot fully account for because they allocate crashes separately to intersections and road segments. In addition, classical models do not consider the impact on arterial safety of the immediately surrounding street network pattern. This study proposes a new modeling methodology that will offer an integrated treatment of intersections and road segments by combining signalized intersections and their adjacent road segments into a single unit based on road geometric design characteristics and operational conditions. These are called meso-level units because they offer an analytical approach between micro and macro. The safety effects of signal spacing and street network pattern were estimated for this study based on 118 meso-level units obtained from 21 urban arterials in Shanghai, and were examined using CAR (conditional auto regressive) models that corrected for spatial correlation among the units within individual arterials. Results showed shorter arterial signal spacing was associated with higher total and PDO (property damage only) crashes, while arterials with a greater number of parallel roads were associated with lower total, PDO, and injury crashes. The findings from this study can be used in the traffic safety planning, design, and management of urban arterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. CoDA: Collaborative Data Aggregation in Emerging Sensor Networks Using Bio-Level Voronoi Diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chengpei; Yang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    To implement minimum power consumption of the link, cluster heads adopt the multi-hop manner for inter-cluster communication so as to forward the aggregation data to the relay nodes. This paper proposes a collaborative data aggregation in emerging sensor networks using a bio-level Voronoi diagram, which is an energy-efficient data aggregation protocol that integrates topology control, Multiple Access Control (MAC) and routing. The sensor nodes situated in the lower level of the diagram are responsible for listening and gathering data, and should be organized by optimal clustering node. In the inter-cluster communication stage, a particle swarm optimization algorithm is addressed to seek optimal transmission path which could simultaneously achieve the minimization of the maximum next hop distance between two nodes in the routing path and the minimization of the maximum hop count, so the minimization of whole network energy consumption is realized. The results of theoretical analysis and simulation results show that energy efficiency and synchronization accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be much better than with traditional routing protocols, and the energy consumption of nodes in the whole network can be more balanced. PMID:27527181

  20. Bone level change of extraction sockets with Bio-Oss collagen and implant placement: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Friedhelm; Hasan, Istabrak; Schwahn, Christian; Bourauel, Christoph; Mundt, Torsten

    2012-11-01

    To compare the reaction of the alveolar bone to the preservation of the extraction socket by Bio-Oss Collagen with and without combination of implant treatment. To evaluate whether early implant insertion 8-10weeks thereafter could be a suitable time point for long term bone stability around the implant. A total of 25 patients were divided into three groups: The first group (seven patients) received Bio-Oss Collagen after extraction and 8-10weeks later an implant, the second group (eight patients) received only Bio-Oss Collagen without implantation thereafter, while the third group was considered as a control (eleven patients), where the sockets healed without any treatment. The change in the vertical bone level of the alveolar crests were measured from panoramic radiographs and statistically analysed. Bone level change was significantly less for Group 1 than Group 3 (P<0.001), while was not significantly different for Group 2 and Group 3 (P=0.23). However, the rate of bone level change per year was statistically smaller for Group 1 compared to Group 3 (P=0.019) and as well as for Group 1 than for Group 2 (P=0.003), whereas the change per year was not significantly different for Group 2 vs. Group 3 (P=0.122). Bone level preservation of extraction sockets using Bio-Oss Collagen with implantation is significantly better compared to using Bio-Oss Collagen only and untreated sockets. Implant insertion 8-10weeks after extraction is a suitable time point after socket augmentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Transformational and passive leadership as cross-level moderators of the relationships between safety knowledge, safety motivation, and safety participation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lixin; Probst, Tahira M

    2016-06-01

    While safety knowledge and safety motivation are well-established predictors of safety participation, less is known about the impact of leadership styles on these relationships. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the positive relationships between safety knowledge and motivation and safety participation are contingent on transformational and passive forms of safety leadership. Using multilevel modeling with a sample of 171 employees nested in 40 workgroups, we found that transformational safety leadership strengthened the safety knowledge-participation relationship, whereas passive leadership weakened the safety motivation-participation relationship. Under low transformational leadership, safety motivation was not related to safety participation; under high passive leadership, safety knowledge was not related to safety participation. These results are discussed in light of organizational efforts to increase safety-related citizenship behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety...-20, 2012 in Washington, DC. The event, ``General Aviation Safety: Climbing to the Next Level,''...

  3. Application of Low Level, Uniform Ultrasound Field for Acceleration of Enzymatic Bio-processing of Cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research has found that th...

  4. The relationship between patient safety climate and occupational safety climate in healthcare - A multi-level investigation.

    PubMed

    Pousette, Anders; Larsman, Pernilla; Eklöf, Mats; Törner, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Patient safety climate/culture is attracting increasing research interest, but there is little research on its relation with organizational climates regarding other target domains. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient safety climate and occupational safety climate in healthcare. The climates were assessed using two questionnaires: Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and Nordic Occupational Safety Climate Questionnaire. The final sample consisted of 1154 nurses, 886 assistant nurses, and 324 physicians, organized in 150 work units, within hospitals (117units), primary healthcare (5units) and elderly care (28units) in western Sweden, which represented 56% of the original sample contacted. Within each type of safety climate, two global dimensions were confirmed in a higher order factor analysis; one with an external focus relative the own unit, and one with an internal focus. Two methods were used to estimate the covariation between the global climate dimensions, in order to minimize the influence of bias from common method variance. First multilevel analysis was used for partitioning variances and covariances in a within unit part (individual level) and a between unit part (unit level). Second, a split sample technique was used to calculate unit level correlations based on aggregated observations from different respondents. Both methods showed associations similar in strength between the patient safety climate and the occupational safety climate domains. The results indicated that patient safety climate and occupational safety climate are strongly positively related at the unit level, and that the same organizational processes may be important for the development of both types of organizational climate. Safety improvement interventions should not be separated in different organizational processes, but be planned so that both patient safety and staff safety are considered concomitantly. Copyright © 2017 National Safety

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety...

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  8. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  9. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of Bio Pox™, a live varicella vaccine (Oka strain) in Indian children: A comparative multicentric, randomized phase II/III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anand Prakash; Faridi, Mohammad Moonis Akbar; Mitra, Monjori; Kaur, Iqbal Rajinder; Dabas, Aashima; Choudhury, Jaydeep; Mukherjee, Mallar; Mishra, Devendra

    2017-09-02

    Varicella or chickenpox is a highly contagious disease with a high secondary attack rate. Almost 30% of Indian adolescents lack protective antibodies against varicella, emphasizing the need of routine varicella immunization. The Oka VZV is a well-established, safe and efficacious vaccine strain that is highly immunogenic and produces lifelong protective immunity. The present multicentric, open label, randomized, controlled Phase II/III study, compared the Bio Pox™ (indigenous investigational vaccine) with a licensed vaccine, Varivax™ ([a])([a]) Please note that this article refers to the product named VARIVAX as manufactured by Changchun Keygen Biological Products Ltd., China and marketed in India by VHB Life Sciences Limited, Mumbai, and not the product VARIVAX® owned by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Rahway, New Jersey, USA. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. have asked us to make clear that the product manufactured by Changchun Keygen Biological Products Ltd. is unrelated to and is not sponsored, endorsed or otherwise authorised by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. , for its safety and immunogenicity profile in 252 healthy subjects in the age group of 1-12 y (cohort I: 6-12 years, II:1-6 years) in 3 tertiary medical institutions. Antibodies were measured by VZV Glycoprotein Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (IgG ELISA) kit. Seroconversion percentage in children having pre-vaccination anti VZV IgG titer <10 mIU/mL (< 5 gp ELISA units/mL) were 80% for Bio Pox™ and 77% for Varivax™ (p = 0.692). The seroconversion rate in the group receiving Bio Pox™ was non-inferior to the group that received Varivax™. There were mild local reactions for both the vaccines; none of the patient had fever or required hospitalization or medication. The Bio Pox™ was found to be safe and immunogenic in children against VZV infection.

  11. Implementing District Safety Standards at the Site Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Ethan; Webb-Dempsey, Jaci; Moore, Lucas C.; McClellan, Craig S.; Friebel, Carl H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 9/11 and Columbine, school safety has become a prevalent issue in education policy in the United States. As a result, states and school districts have responded with innumerable efforts to improve school safety. Harrison County Schools, located in West Virginia, received federal funding to supplement surveillance equipment at middle and high…

  12. Implementing District Safety Standards at the Site Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Ethan; Webb-Dempsey, Jaci; Moore, Lucas C.; McClellan, Craig S.; Friebel, Carl H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 9/11 and Columbine, school safety has become a prevalent issue in education policy in the United States. As a result, states and school districts have responded with innumerable efforts to improve school safety. Harrison County Schools, located in West Virginia, received federal funding to supplement surveillance equipment at middle and high…

  13. Quality improvement for patient safety: project-level versus program-level learning.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Peter E; Parker, Victoria A; Rosen, Amy K

    2013-01-01

    Improving quality and patient safety is of increasing strategic importance to health care organizations. However, simply increasing the volume of quality improvement (QI) activity does not necessarily improve patient outcomes. There is a need for greater understanding of QI success factors. This study looked for differences in QI implementation across hospitals with a range of performance on Patient Safety Indicators. We conducted an exploratory comparative case study of 4 Veterans Health Administration hospitals including site visits and interviews with leaders and staff. Two themes emerged. Project-level QI learning is assessing and modifying specific QI projects relative to expectations. Program-level QI learning is assessing and modifying the overall QI endeavor. The nature of project-level QI learning was similar across sites, whereas we identified qualitative differences across organizations in program-level QI learning. The highest performing organization was evaluating and refining its overall approach to QI, whereas the others were learning how to build and control QI programs. Program-level QI learning may be key if a QI program is to succeed in improving patient outcomes. This type of organizational learning entails a big-picture, organization-wide view of QI. It also entails second-order organizational learning based on assessment not only of whether QI is being done correctly but also whether the right QI activities are being done, for the right reasons. The organization is "learning to learn." In addition to gaining mastery and control of QI, leaders regularly engage with staff in rethinking QI and experimenting with new approaches. Leaders also assess how QI activity fits in the organization's developmental journey and how it supports realization of strategy.

  14. The Perception, Level of Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback on Occupational Safety and Health Management among Hospital Staff Nurses in Sabah State Health Department

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Giloi, Nelbon; Chang, Ching Thon; Lim, Jac Fang

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the perception and level of safety satisfaction of staff nurses with regards to Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) management practice in the Sabah Health Department, and to associate the OSH management dimensions, to Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a validated self-administered questionnaire was conducted among randomly respondents. Results: 135 nurses responded the survey. Mean (SD) score for each dimension ranged from 1.70 ± 0.68–4.04 ± 0.65, with Training and Competence dimension (mean [SD], 4.04 ± 0.65) had the highest while Safety Incidence was the least score (mean [SD], 1.70 ± 0.68). Both mean (SD) scores for Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback was high, 3.28 ± 0.51 and 3.57 ± 0.73, respectively. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that all OSH dimensions had significant correlation with Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback (r coefficient ranged from 0.176–0.512) except for Safety Incidence. Conclusion: The overall perception of OSH management was rather low. Significant correlation between Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback and several dimensions, suggest that each organization to put in place the leaders who have appropriate leadership and supervisory skills and committed in providing staff training to improve staff’s competency in OSH practice. In addition, clear goals, rules, and reporting system will help the organization to implement proper OSH management practice. PMID:23610550

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level of safety analysis indicate? 102-80.110 Section 102-80.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL... Analysis § 102-80.110 What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? To be acceptable,...

  16. Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Zarogouldis, Paul; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Huang, Haidong; Hohenforst-Schimdt, Wolfgang; Goldberg, Eugene P.; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Novel aerosol therapeutic modalities have been investigated for lung cancer. Inhaled gene therapy has presented safety and effectiveness previously in cystic fibrosis. However, safety concerns have been raised regarding the safety of non-viral vectors for inhaled gene therapy in lung cancer, and therefore small steps have been made towards this multifunctional treatment modality. During the last decade, numerous new nanocomplexes have been created and investigated as a safe gene delivery nano-vehicle. These formulations are multifunctional; they can be used as either local therapy or carrier for an effective inhaled gene therapy for lung cancer. Herein, we present current and future perspectives of nanocomplexes for inhaled gene therapy treatment in lung cancer. PMID:23109824

  17. Relating Expected Inventory Backorders to Safety Stock Investment Levels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    the DoD policy, DLA adopted a modified Wilson EOQ model to determine order quantities and a model developed by Presutti and Trepp to determine safety...exp(-v𔃻 a);for all x Using a technique developed by Hadley and Whitin (9:178), Presutti and Trepp show (18:246) that, assuming the above func- tion...72k) Presutti and Trepp then use this expression to develop four inventory models which differ in their treatment of backorder penalties and holding

  18. Acute starvation in C57BL/6J mice increases myocardial UCP2 and UCP3 protein expression levels and decreases mitochondrial bio-energetic function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Ming; Almsherqi, Zakaria A; McLachlan, Craig S; Matthews, Slade; Ramachandran, Malarmathy; Tay, Stacey Kh; Deng, Yuru

    2011-01-01

    Associations between uncoupling protein (UCP) expression and functional changes in myocardial mitochondrial bio-energetics have not been well studied during periods of starvation stress. Our aim was to study the effects of acute starvation, for 24 or 48 h, on combined cardiac mitochondrial function and UCP expression in mice. Isolated heart mitochondria from female mice starved for 48 h compared to that from mice fed revealed a significantly (p < 0.05) decreased adenosine diphosphate-to-oxygen ratio, a significantly increased proton leak and an increased GTP inhibition on palmitic acid-induced state 4 oxygen consumption (p < 0.05). These bio-energetic functional changes were associated with increases in mitochondrial UCP2 and UCP3 protein expression. In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased UCP2 and UCP3 levels may contribute to decreased myocardial mitochondrial bio-energetic function due to starvation.

  19. Evaluation of the safety assurance level for Salmonella spp. throughout the food production chain in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Sauli, I; Danuser, J; Wenk, C; Stärk, K D C

    2003-07-01

    In Switzerland. the safeguarding of food is the responsibility of industry, organizations, and governmental authorities. The dispersion of the tasks and the diversity of implemented safety measures among involved stakeholders do not allow a general overview of the national safety assurance level provided. A comprehensive evaluation of the level of safety assurance provided for foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. is therefore lacking, and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. at various points in the food production chain is not known. The objectives of this study were to (i) collect data on safety measures implemented throughout the food production chain in Switzerland regarding Salmonella spp.; (ii) evaluate the safety assurance level for Salmonella spp. at each step of the production chain for chicken meat, pork, beef, and milk and dairy products (bovine origin); and (iii) gather data on the prevalence of the pathogen at each step. Data on implemented safety assurance measures for Salmonella spp. were gathered from the various stakeholders in the food production chain. The data were analyzed by a semiquantitative method that considered the quality and relevance of the implemented safety measures for Salmonella spp. The safety assurance level for Salmonella spp. was evaluated from "no safety assurance" to "very good safety assurance." Available results of testing for Salmonella spp. from 1998 to 2000 were used for calculating the prevalence of the pathogen throughout the food production chain. The results showed a varying safety assurance level for Salmonella spp. throughout the food production chain. Strengths (e.g., feed production for chickens) and weaknesses (e.g., pork production) were observed. These results serve as a basis for a rational optimization of the system.

  20. Multi-Level Aspects of Social Cohesion of Secondary Schools and Pupils' Feelings of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed; de Wit, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Background: School safety and corresponding feelings of both pupils and school staff are beginning to receive more and more attention. The social cohesion characteristics of a school may be useful in promoting feelings of safety, particularly in pupils. Aims: To conceptualize theoretically, and check empirically a two-level model of social…

  1. Multi-Level Aspects of Social Cohesion of Secondary Schools and Pupils' Feelings of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed; de Wit, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Background: School safety and corresponding feelings of both pupils and school staff are beginning to receive more and more attention. The social cohesion characteristics of a school may be useful in promoting feelings of safety, particularly in pupils. Aims: To conceptualize theoretically, and check empirically a two-level model of social…

  2. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What must an equivalent...

  3. Moving forward in plant food safety and security through NanoBioSensors: Adopt or adapt biomedical technologies?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun K; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2015-05-01

    Plant-based foods are integral part of our day-to-day diet. Increasing world population has put forth an ever increasing demand for plant-based foods, and food security remains a major concern. Similarly, biological, chemical, and physical threats to our food and increasing regulatory demands to control the presence of foreign species in food products have made food safety a growing issue. Nanotechnology has already established its roots in diverse disciplines. However, the food industry is yet to harness the full potential of the unique capabilities offered by this next-generation technology. While there might be safety concerns in regards to integration of nanoproducts with our food products, an aspect of nanotechnology that can make remarkable contribution to different elements of the food chain is the use of nanobiosensors and diagnostic platforms for monitoring food traceability, quality, safety, and nutritional value. This brings us to an important question that whether existing diagnostic platforms that have already been well developed for biomedical and clinical application are suitable for food industry or whether the demands of the food industry are altogether different that may not allow adoption/adaptation of the existing technology. This review is an effort to raise this important "uncomfortable" yet "timely" question. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Photoacoustic bio-quantification of graphene based nanomaterials at a single cell level (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Nolan, Jacqueline; Biris, Alexandru S.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-03-01

    Arkansas Nanomedicine Center at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in collaboration with other Arkansas Universities and the FDA-based National Center of Toxicological Research in Jefferson, AR is developing novel techniques for rapid quantification of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) in various biological samples. All-carbon GBNs have wide range of potential applications in industry, agriculture, food processing and medicine; however, quantification of GBNs is difficult in carbon reach biological tissues. The accurate quantification of GBNs is essential for research on material toxicity and the development of GBNs-based drug delivery platforms. We have developed microscopy and cytometry platforms for detection and quantification of GBNs in single cells, tissue and blood samples using photoacoustic contrast of GBNs. We demonstrated PA quantification of individual graphene uptake by single cells. High-resolution PA microscopy provided mapping of GBN distribution within live cells to establish correlation with intracellular toxic phenomena using apoptotic and necrotic assays. This new methodology and corresponding technical platform provide the insight on possible toxicological risks of GBNs at singe cells levels. In addition, in vivo PA image flow cytometry demonstrated the capability to monitor of GBNs pharmacokinetics in mouse model and to map the resulting biodistribution of GBNs in mouse tissues. The integrated PA platform provided an unprecedented sensitivity toward GBNs and allowed to enhance conventional toxicology research by providing a direct correlation between uptake of GBNs at a single cell level and cell viability status.

  5. A multilevel model of patient safety culture: cross-level relationship between organizational culture and patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chi; Ng, Hui-Fuang; Li, Hung-Hui

    2012-01-01

    As health-care organizations endeavor to improve their quality of care, there is a growing recognition of the importance of establishing a culture of patient safety. The main objective of this study was to investigate the cross-level influences of organizational culture on patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals. The authors measured organizational culture (bureaucratic, supportive and innovative culture), patient safety culture and behavior from 788 hospital workers among 42 hospitals in Taiwan. Multilevel analysis was applied to explore the relationship between organizational culture (group level) and patient safety behavior (individual level). Patient safety culture had positive impact on patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals. The results also indicated that bureaucratic, innovative and supportive organizational cultures all had direct influence on patient safety behavior. However, only supportive culture demonstrated significant moderation effect on the relationship between patient safety culture and patient safety behavior. Furthermore, organizational culture strength was shown correlated negatively with patient safety culture variability. Overall, organizational culture plays an important role in patient safety activities. Safety behaviors of hospital staff are partly influenced by the prevailing cultural norms in their organizations and work groups. For management implications, constructed patient priority from management commitment to leadership is necessary. For academic implications, research on patient safety should consider leadership, group dynamics and organizational learning. These factors are important for understanding the barriers and the possibilities embedded in patient safety. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of low-level laser therapy irradiation and Bio-Oss graft material on the osteogenesis process in rabbit calvarium defects: a double blind experimental study.

    PubMed

    Rasouli Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Rokn, Amir Reza; Kalhori, Katayoun A M; Khorsand, Afshin; Pournabi, Alireza; Pinheiro, A L B; Fekrazad, Reza

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation and Bio-Oss graft material on the osteogenesis process in the rabbit calvarium defects. Twelve white male New Zealand rabbits were included in this study. Four 8-mm diameter identical defects were prepared on each rabbit's calvarium. One site was left as an untreated control (C), the second site was filled with Bio-Oss (B), the third site was treated with laser irradiation (L), and the fourth site treated with Bio-Oss and laser irradiation (B + L). In the laser group, a diode laser (wavelength 810 nm, output power 300 mW, irradiation mode CW, energy density 4 J/cm2) was applied immediately after surgery and then one other day for the next 20 days. After 4 and 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and histological and histomorphometric examinations were performed and the data were subjected to Friedman and repeated measurements ANOVA tests. Significant differences were not found regarding inflammation severity, foreign body reactions, and vitality of newly formed bone on 4th and 8th week after operation. The mean amount of new bone was 15.83 and 18.5% in the controls on the 4th and 8th week; 27.66 and 25.16% in the laser-irradiated group; 35.0 and 41.83% in Bio-Oss and 41.83 and 47.0% in the laser + Bio-Oss treated specimens with significant statistical differences (p <0.05). Application of LLLT in combination with Bio-Oss® can promote bone healing. Therefore, LLLT may be clinically beneficial in promoting bone formation in skeletal defects.

  7. Lethal and sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms--a critical discussion about "safety levels".

    PubMed

    Sperling, K R

    1983-12-01

    The applicability of terms such as "safety level" and "safety factor" for the purpose of risk assessment in the frame of the marine dumping conventions is discussed. In view of a series of experiments on sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms it is stated that the dose-response relationships cover a range of 10(4), and that there is no indication that the lowest level found so far is actually just above a no-effect threshold.

  8. Lethal and sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms: a critical discussion about ''safety levels''

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, K.R.

    1983-12-01

    The applicability of terms such as ''safety level'' and ''safety factor'' for the purpose of risk assessment in the frame of the marine dumping conventions is discussed. In view of a series of experiments on sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms it is stated that the dose-response relationships cover a range of 10(4), and that there is no indication that the lowest level found so far is actually just above a no-effect threshold.

  9. Synthesizing Safety Conditions for Code Certification Using Meta-Level Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eusterbrock, Jutta

    2004-01-01

    In code certification the code consumer publishes a safety policy and the code producer generates a proof that the produced code is in compliance with the published safety policy. In this paper, a novel viewpoint approach towards an implementational re-use oriented framework for code certification is taken. It adopts ingredients from Necula's approach for proof-carrying code, but in this work safety properties can be analyzed on a higher code level than assembly language instructions. It consists of three parts: (1) The specification language is extended to include generic pre-conditions that shall ensure safety at all states that can be reached during program execution. Actual safety requirements can be expressed by providing domain-specific definitions for the generic predicates which act as interface to the environment. (2) The Floyd-Hoare inductive assertion method is refined to obtain proof rules that allow the derivation of the proof obligations in terms of the generic safety predicates. (3) A meta-interpreter is designed and experimentally implemented that enables automatic synthesis of proof obligations for submitted programs by applying the modified Floyd-Hoare rules. The proof obligations have two separate conjuncts, one for functional correctness and another for the generic safety obligations. Proof of the generic obligations, having provided the actual safety definitions as context, ensures domain-specific safety of program execution in a particular environment and is simpler than full program verification.

  10. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information must be included in an equivalent level of...

  11. TU-EF-BRD-01: Topics in Quality and Safety Research and Level of Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlicki, T.

    2015-06-15

    Research related to quality and safety has been a staple of medical physics academic activities for a long time. From very early on, medical physicists have developed new radiation measurement equipment and analysis techniques, created ever increasingly accurate dose calculation models, and have vastly improved imaging, planning, and delivery techniques. These and other areas of interest have improved the quality and safety of radiotherapy for our patients. With the advent of TG-100, quality and safety is an area that will garner even more research interest in the future. As medical physicists pursue quality and safety research in greater numbers, it is worthwhile to consider what actually constitutes research on quality and safety. For example, should the development of algorithms for real-time EPID-based in-vivo dosimetry be defined as “quality and safety” research? How about the clinical implementation of such as system? Surely the application of failure modes and effects analysis to a clinical process would be considered quality and safety research, but is this type of research that should be included in the medical physics peer-reviewed literature? The answers to such questions are of critical importance to set researchers in a direction that will provide the greatest benefit to our field and the patients we serve. The purpose of this symposium is to consider what constitutes research in the arena of quality and safety and differentiate it from other research directions. The key distinction here is developing the tool itself (e.g. algorithms for EPID dosimetry) vs. studying the impact of the tool with some quantitative metric. Only the latter would I call quality and safety research. Issues of ‘basic’ versus ‘applied’ quality and safety research will be covered as well as how the research results should be structured to provide increasing levels of support that a quality and safety intervention is effective and sustainable. Examples from existing

  12. Monitoring road safety development at regional level: A case study in the ASEAN region.

    PubMed

    Chen, Faan; Wang, Jianjun; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zegras, P Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Persistent monitoring of progress, evaluating the results of interventions and recalibrating to achieve continuous improvement over time is widely recognized as being crucial towards the successful development of road safety. In the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region there is a lack of well-resourced teams that contain multidisciplinary safety professionals, and specialists in individual countries, who are able to carry out this work effectively. In this context, not only must the monitoring framework be effective, it must also be easy to use and adapt. This paper provides a case study that can be easily reproduced; based on an updated and refined Road Safety Development Index (RSDI), by means of the RSR (Rank-sum ratio)-based model, for monitoring/reporting road safety development at regional level. The case study was focused on the road safety achievements in eleven Southeast Asian countries; identifying the areas of poor performance, potential problems and delays. These countries are finally grouped into several classes based on an overview of their progress and achievements regarding to road safety. The results allow the policymakers to better understand their own road safety progress toward their desired impact; more importantly, these results enable necessary interventions to be made in a quick and timely manner. Keeping action plans on schedule if things are not progressing as desired. This would avoid 'reinventing the wheel' and trial and error approaches to road safety, making the implementation of action plans more effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  14. The Safety Related Software for Railway Control with Respect to Automatic Level Crossing Signaling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Trzaska-Rycaj, Katarzyna

    The paper deals with design problems of correct and high reliable software for railway traffic control systems. The correct software (corresponding to formal or semi-formal criteria) has an important part in safety related (SIL4) railway control systems. The paper treats about actual state of art in design of safety related software for railway application. The proposed methods, recommended by CENELEC and UIC are introduced to example of automatic level crossing signaling system.

  15. Towards Better Precision Medicine: PacBio Single-Molecule Long Reads Resolve the Interpretation of HIV Drug Resistant Mutation Profiles at Explicit Quasispecies (Haplotype) Level.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da Wei; Raley, Castle; Jiang, Min Kang; Zheng, Xin; Liang, Dun; Rehman, M Tauseef; Highbarger, Helene C; Jiao, Xiaoli; Sherman, Brad; Ma, Liang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Skelly, Thomas; Troyer, Jennifer; Stephens, Robert; Imamichi, Tomozumi; Pau, Alice; Lempicki, Richard A; Tran, Bao; Nissley, Dwight; Lane, H Clifford; Dewar, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    Development of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (HDRMs) is one of the major reasons for the clinical failure of antiretroviral therapy. Treatment success rates can be improved by applying personalized anti-HIV regimens based on a patient's HDRM profile. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the HDRM profile is limited by the methods used for detection. Sanger-based sequencing technology has traditionally been used for determining HDRM profiles at the single nucleotide variant (SNV) level, but with a sensitivity of only ≥ 20% in the HIV population of a patient. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies offer greater detection sensitivity (~ 1%) and larger scope (hundreds of samples per run). However, NGS technologies produce reads that are too short to enable the detection of the physical linkages of individual SNVs across the haplotype of each HIV strain present. In this article, we demonstrate that the single-molecule long reads generated using the Third Generation Sequencer (TGS), PacBio RS II, along with the appropriate bioinformatics analysis method, can resolve the HDRM profile at a more advanced quasispecies level. The case studies on patients' HIV samples showed that the quasispecies view produced using the PacBio method offered greater detection sensitivity and was more comprehensive for understanding HDRM situations, which is complement to both Sanger and NGS technologies. In conclusion, the PacBio method, providing a promising new quasispecies level of HDRM profiling, may effect an important change in the field of HIV drug resistance research.

  16. Application of a low level, uniform ultrasound field for the acceleration of enzymatic bio-processing of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research has found that th...

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.125 Section... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility...

  18. Multi-level aspects of social cohesion of secondary schools and pupils' feelings of safety.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed; de Wit, Wouter

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. School safety and corresponding feelings of both pupils and school staff are beginning to receive more and more attention. The social cohesion characteristics of a school may be useful in promoting feelings of safety, particularly in pupils. AIMS. To conceptualize theoretically, and check empirically a two-level model of social cohesion between and within schools, in order to explain a pupil's feelings of safety at school. SAMPLES. Data were collected aided by a national Dutch survey in secondary education carried out via the Internet. In 2008, digital questionnaires were completed by about 78,800 pupils, 6,200 teachers and educational support staff, and 600 school managers. METHODS. Data were checked for reliability and representativity. Social cohesion was indicated by self-reported measures of individual pupils and by aggregating scale and item scores of school managers, teachers, and other support staff within schools. Multi-level analysis using individual pupil data and school-level data was performed using MLwiN. RESULTS. A pupil's age, educational attainment level, experience of mild physical violence, prosocial rules of conduct and joint control of these rules, and school measures against playing truant, show positive influences on a pupil's feelings of safety at school. Negative influences are exerted by not feeling most at home in The Netherlands, peers taking drugs and weapons into school, and by experiencing social violence, severe physical violence, and sexual violence. Negative school effects exist simultaneously in severe physical violence experienced by teachers and other staff, and in curriculum differentiation applied by teachers and other staff; a positive school effect is school size. Some interaction effects between pupil and school-level variables were explored. CONCLUSIONS. The variance at school level is relatively low compared with the variance at pupil level. However, a much higher percentage of variance at school level than at

  19. Management of health and safety in the organization of worktime at the local level.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, H J; Bøggild, H

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the consideration of health and safety issues in the local process of organizing worktime within the framework of regulations. The study encompassed all 7 hospitals in one region of Denmark. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with 2 representatives from the different parties involved (management, cooperation committees, health and safety committees from each hospital, and 2 local unions). Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to all 114 wards with day and night duty. The response rate was 84%. Data were collected on alterations in worktime schedules, responsibilities, reasons for the present design of schedules, and use of inspection reports. The organization of worktime takes place in single wards without external interference and without guidelines other than the minimum standards set in regulations. At the ward level, management and employees were united in a mutual desire for flexibility, despite the fact that regulations were not always followed. No interaction was found in the management of health and safety factors between the parties concerned at different levels. The demands for flexibility in combination with the absence of guidelines and the missing dynamics between the parties involved imply that the handling of health and safety issues in the organization of worktime may be accidental and unsystematic. In order to consider the health and safety of night and shift workers within the framework of regulations, a clarification of responsibilities, operational levels, and cooperation is required between the parties concerned.

  20. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  1. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  2. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-08-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  3. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2009-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  4. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  5. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-04-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  6. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2010-05-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  7. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  8. SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-814-2, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0614-00-098-100703, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must an equivalent... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of...

  10. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What must an equivalent... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of...

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What must an equivalent... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of...

  12. The cross-level impact of patient safety climate on nursing innovation: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Weng, Rhay-Hung; Huang, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Jin-An; Wang, Man-His

    2012-08-01

    To explore the cross-level effects of the four dimensions of patient safety climate on nursing innovation. Across the globe, nursing innovation is highly encouraged by nursing experts to improve nursing outcome. Nursing innovation, in turn, is affected by organisational climate, and a critical aspect of organisational climate is patient safety. This is a cross-sectional study. We employed a questionnaire survey to collect data and selected nurses from Taiwan hospitals as samples. A total of 808 valid questionnaires in 172 teams of four hospitals were collected. Patient safety climate was aggregated by individual-level data; thus, we examined r(wg) , ICC 1 and ICC 2. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyse the data. Of these three dimensions of nursing innovation, the level of knowledge creation was perceived by the nurses as the highest. In terms of patient safety climate, managerial practices regarding patient safety scored the highest, followed by patient safety procedures, patient safety information flow and patient safety priority. Only patient safety information flow yielded a significant positive influence on knowledge creation, innovation behaviour or innovation diffusion. Hospital nurses do achieve better performance in knowledge creation. Patient safety information flow has positive and cross-level impact on nursing innovation; therefore, the method to increase safety information flow is the key focus of nursing innovation management. Through the improvements made in patient safety climate, hospital managers could promote the development of nursing innovation. Patient safety information flow is positively associated with nursing innovation. Patient safety information could be integrated in nursing training in all levels. Rules and procedures regarding patient safety should be drafted in simple and clear terms. A procedure to review and revise the rules and procedures will also be helpful in improving patient safety information flow. © 2012

  13. Ensuring an acceptable reliability and safety level for a launch complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadzhaev, Vadim; Barmin, Igor; Denoyers, Jean-Yves; Ragot, Alain

    2011-04-01

    Some key aspects and criteria tasks for ensuring an acceptable reliability and safety level for complex technical systems are discussed in the view of successful operation of a launch complex, at the stage of Launch Vehicle (LV) preparation. The standards and principles of adequate characteristics for launch site core technological systems are defined. The tasks for evaluation the probability of faultless operation for the systems, their reliability a posteriori, and safety barriers formation are described. The model of the pre-launch phase is presented as a random process, in the form of "simple Poisson flow".

  14. Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of three vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 vaccine for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert J; Kalsi, Gurdyal; Montalvo-Lugo, Victor M; Sharma, Mona; Wu, Yukun; Muse, Derek D; Sheldon, Eric A; Hampel, Frank C; Lemiale, Laurence

    2016-04-19

    AV7909 vaccine being developed for post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax disease may require fewer vaccinations and reduced amount of antigen to achieve an accelerated immune response over BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed). A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, BioThrax vacccine-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of three intramuscular vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 in 168 healthy adults. Subjects were randomized at a 4:3:2:4:2 ratio to 5 groups: (1) AV7909 on Days 0/14; (2) AV7909 on Days 0/28; (3) AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; (4) half dose AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; and (5) BioThrax vaccine on Days 0/14/28. Vaccinations in all groups were well tolerated. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were 79% for AV7909 subjects and 65% for BioThrax subjects; 92% of AV7909 subjects and 87% of BioThrax subjects having AEs reported Grade 1-2 AEs. No serious AEs were assessed as potentially vaccine-related, and no AEs of potential autoimmune etiology were reported. There was no discernible pattern indicative of a safety concern across groups in the incidence or severity of reactogenicity events. Groups 2-4 achieved success for the primary endpoint, demonstrated by a lower 95% confidence limit of the percentage of subjects with protective toxin neutralizing antibody NF50 values (≥0.56) to be ≥40% at Day 63. Group 1 marginally missed the criterion (lower bound 95% confidence limit of 39.5%). Immune responses were above this threshold for Groups 1, 3 and 4 at Day 28 and all groups at Day 42. Further study of an AV7909 two-dose schedule given 2 weeks apart is warranted in light of the favorable tolerability profile and immunogenicity response relative to three doses of BioThrax vaccine, as well as preliminary data from nonclinical studies indicating similar immune responses correlate with higher survival for AV7909 than BioThrax vaccine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishing the level of safety concern for chemicals in food without the need for toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Schilter, Benoît; Benigni, Romualdo; Boobis, Alan; Chiodini, Alessandro; Cockburn, Andrew; Cronin, Mark T D; Lo Piparo, Elena; Modi, Sandeep; Thiel, Anette; Worth, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    There is demand for methodologies to establish levels of safety concern associated with dietary exposures to chemicals for which no toxicological data are available. In such situations, the application of in silico methods appears promising. To make safety statement requires quantitative predictions of toxicological reference points such as no observed adverse effect level and carcinogenic potency for DNA-reacting chemicals. A decision tree (DT) has been developed to aid integrating exposure information and predicted toxicological reference points obtained with quantitative structure activity relationship ((Q)SAR) software and read across techniques. The predicted toxicological values are compared with exposure to obtain margins of exposure (MoE). The size of the MoE defines the level of safety concern and should account for a number of uncertainties such as the classical interspecies and inter-individual variability as well as others determined on a case by case basis. An analysis of the uncertainties of in silico approaches together with results from case studies suggest that establishing safety concern based on application of the DT is unlikely to be significantly more uncertain than based on experimental data. The DT makes a full use of all data available, ensuring an adequate degree of conservatism. It can be used when fast decision making is required. Copyright © 2013 ILSI Europe. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation safety. The maximum permissible exposure levels: our knowledge of the hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, D. H.

    1989-08-01

    Many different agencies and standards organizations have proposed laser safety standards and personnel exposure limits (ELs), or maximum permissible exposure (MPE) levels. Safety standards may be limited in scope to codes of practice, to occupational ELs, to laser product safety, or to a combination of these three factors. Initially, in the 1960s, attention was drawn to setting ELs; however, as greater experience accumulated in the use of lasers and some accident experience had been gained, safety procedures were developed. It became clear by 1971, after the first decade of laser use, that detailed hazard evaluation of each laser environment was too complex for most users, and a scheme of hazard classification evolved. Today, most countries follow a scheme of four major hazard classifications as defined in Document WS 825 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The classifications and the associated accessible emission limits (AELs) were based upon the ELs. The EL and AEL values today are in surprisingly good agreement worldwide. There exists a greater range of safety requirements for the user for each class of laser. The current MPEs (that is, ELs) and their basis are highlighted in this presentation.

  17. Serum and liver tissue bio-element levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: protective effects of royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Cemek, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Fatma; Büyükokuroğlu, Mehmet Emin; Büyükben, Ahmet; Aymelek, Fatih; Ayaz, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    The liver is a vital organ, and its function is generally impaired by chemicals. Some natural compounds have a protective role against liver diseases such as royal jelly (RJ). To our knowledge, there are no data available on the effect of RJ therapy on the levels of bio-element metabolisms and antioxidant enzyme activities in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the role of RJ therapy in the trace and major elements and antioxidant enzymes in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in the CCl(4)-treated group more than they did in the sham and RJ-administered groups. Many bio-element levels were also reduced in only the CCl(4)-treated group. This showed that the depletion of trace elements was related to erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities. RJ administration clearly increased the trace and major element levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in RJ groups. RJ may be used as functional foods because of their naturally high antioxidant potential and rich element content.

  18. Macro-level safety analysis of pedestrian crashes in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuesong; Yang, Junguang; Lee, Chris; Ji, Zhuoran; You, Shikai

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrian safety has become one of the most important issues in the field of traffic safety. This study aims at investigating the association between pedestrian crash frequency and various predictor variables including roadway, socio-economic, and land-use features. The relationships were modeled using the data from 263 Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) within the urban area of Shanghai - the largest city in China. Since spatial correlation exists among the zonal-level data, Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models with seven different spatial weight features (i.e. (a) 0-1 first order, adjacency-based, (b) common boundary-length-based, (c) geometric centroid-distance-based, (d) crash-weighted centroid-distance-based, (e) land use type, adjacency-based, (f) land use intensity, adjacency-based, and (g) geometric centroid-distance-order) were developed to characterize the spatial correlations among TAZs. Model results indicated that the geometric centroid-distance-order spatial weight feature, which was introduced in macro-level safety analysis for the first time, outperformed all the other spatial weight features. Population was used as the surrogate for pedestrian exposure, and had a positive effect on pedestrian crashes. Other significant factors included length of major arterials, length of minor arterials, road density, average intersection spacing, percentage of 3-legged intersections, and area of TAZ. Pedestrian crashes were higher in TAZs with medium land use intensity than in TAZs with low and high land use intensity. Thus, higher priority should be given to TAZs with medium land use intensity to improve pedestrian safety. Overall, these findings can help transportation planners and managers understand the characteristics of pedestrian crashes and improve pedestrian safety.

  19. HSI in the USN Frigate Community: Operational Readiness and Safety as a Function of Manning Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Readiness and Safety as a Function of Manning Levels 6. AUTHOR(S) Patrick C. Lazzaretti 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...Integration (HSI) is a process designed to reduce life-cycle costs and improve system performance by considering human-related domains. Acquisition

  20. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji

    2014-02-01

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  1. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal

    2014-02-12

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  2. Sense and avoid requirements for unmanned aircraft systems using a target level of safety approach.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Richard; Schrage, Daniel; Volovoi, Vitali; Jimenez, Hernando

    2014-10-01

    One of the most critical challenges to full integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) is the requirement to comply with CFR 14 Part 91.113 to "see and avoid" other aircraft. Various attempts have been made to develop systems to "sense and avoid" other aircraft so UAS can comply with the intent of the regulation. This article proposes a framework to develop effectiveness requirements for any SAA system by linking UAS characteristics and operating environments to midair collision risk quantified by a fatality rate. The framework consists of a target level of safety (TLS) approach using an event tree format. Safety has been identified as the most important consideration in the UAS integration process. While safety can be defined in many ways, the authors propose using a fatality rate metric that follows other statistics used in the industry. This metric allows for the use of a TLS approach to the development of SAA requirements for system certification. Failure to adequately link system requirements to safety could result in the implementation of SAA systems that either do not adequately mitigate the risk associated with UAS operations or are overdesigned, resulting in increased cost and complexity. This article demonstrates the use of the proposed framework to develop specific SAA effectiveness standards based on UAS weight and airspace class combinations.

  3. In silico approach to safety of botanical dietary supplement ingredients utilizing constituent-level characterization.

    PubMed

    Little, Jason G; Marsman, Daniel S; Baker, Timothy R; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Botanicals used in dietary supplements industry can have toxicology concerns related to endpoint gaps that cannot be fully resolved by a history of use, or existence of conflicting safety data. However, traditional toxicological studies on botanicals are scientifically and pragmatically challenging due to testing of complex mixtures of constituents, cost, time, and animal usage. Alternatively, we developed an in silico decision-tree approach to address data gaps and inform need for further studies by toxicologically evaluating the chemical composition of botanicals. Following advanced multi-detector analytical characterization of a botanical, each chemical constituent is: (a.) quantitatively benchmarked against similar constituents in commonly consumed foods or botanicals with well-established safety profiles, (b.) systematically evaluated for toxicity data utilizing structure-activity relationships, and, (c.) compared to established thresholds of toxicological concern in absence of safety data or structural analogs. Finally, where safety endpoint gaps are identified which cannot be resolved without additional in vitro or in vivo studies, the botanical compositional data are critical to inform on study design. Results with three herbal preparations demonstrate the utility of this novel approach to identify potential hazards and establish safe human use levels for botanicals in a cost efficient and informative manner that minimizes animal use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  5. Safety assurance of assistive devices based on a two-level checking scheme.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua-Sheng; Chang, Yi-Chu; Chen, Chiun-Fan; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chiou, Ying-Han; Lai, Jin-Shin; Kuog, T-S

    2005-01-01

    The increasing number of physically challenged individuals has boosted the demand of powered wheelchairs. This paper is on the subject of a DSP (Digital Signal Processors) based assistive system, which is associated with a two-level checking scheme. The assistive system takes on the M3S (Multiple Master Multiple Slave) regulation for the assurance of safety. The CAN (Control Area Networks) embedded module in the DSP provides robust transmission of information within the system. The hardware interfaces based on the two-level checking scheme is implemented in input devices (e.g. joystick, head control apparatus) and in output devices (e.g. manipulator, prime mover motors).

  6. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the low level radioactive waste disposal facility trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Kahook, S.D.

    1994-04-01

    Results of the analyses performed to evaluate the possibility of nuclear criticality in the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) trenches are documented in this report. The studies presented in this document are limited to assessment of the possibility of criticality due to existing conditions in the LLRWDF. This document does not propose nor set limits for enriched uranium (EU) burial in the LLRWDF and is not a nuclear criticality safety evaluation nor analysis. The calculations presented in the report are Level 2 calculations as defined by the E7 Procedure 2.31, Engineering Calculations.

  7. Influence of initial reservoir level and gate failure in dam safety analysis. Stochastic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel-Martin, Ivan; Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Garrote, Luis; Castillo, Luis G.

    2017-07-01

    This study proposes a stochastic methodology to assess the influence of considering variable reservoir levels prior to the arrival of floods in hydrological dam safety; introducing probability associated to gate failure scenarios. The methodology was applied to the Riaño dam (northern Spain) by analyzing the effects of incoming floods with return periods ranging from one to 10,000 years. We studied four scenarios with different gate failure rates and compared the results assuming initial reservoir level equal to the maximum level allowed in the reservoir under normal operation conditions with those considering variable initial reservoir levels. The ratio of the return periods associated to different reference levels reached in the reservoir considering variable over constant initial level ranged from 2.0 to 4.1. The ratio of the return periods obtained assuming gate failure and no failure for the same reference reservoir level ranged up to 93, 160 and 240 depending on the gate failure rate assigned. The ratio of the return periods associated to different maximum spillway discharges considering variable over constant initial reservoir level ranged from 2.5 to 6.1. However, the ratio of the return periods obtained assuming gate failure and no failure for the same discharge ranged from 0.7 to 1.1, showing no influence of gate failure. For the study case, our analysis highlighted the importance of considering the fluctuation of the initial reservoir levels and different gate failure scenarios, emphasizing that the return periods of maximum levels reached in the reservoir and maximum outflows are the variables that best represent dam and downstream hydrological safety.

  8. Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

    2006-12-01

    The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa ) owns and operates the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, which is South Africa's designated facility for the disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The bulk of the currently authorized LILW disposal at Vaalputs was generated at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) near Cape Town. However, Necsa has generated wastes associated with research and uranium enrichment that are currently in storage, which are intended for disposal at Vaalputs. In addition, South Africa is currently considering expansion of its nuclear power generating capabilities, both through construction of a second pressurized water reactor (PWR) and through the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design. The proposed change in waste characteristics warrants a safety review of the Vaalputs authorization for the disposal of LILW. As part of the safety review, an updated postclosure safety assessment is being conducted. This current safety assessment is being conducted according to an internationally accepted state-of-the-art safety assessment methodology (IAEA, 2004), and is defensible, transparent, and credible. A formal scenario-generation methodology is being applied, which has led to the identification of a number of site-specific scenarios for further consideration. Specific features of the site, the disposal facility design, and local behavior patterns were used to screen Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) from consideration. Specific FEPs were chosen as initiating FEPs for scenarios to be considered in the safety assessment, based on a combination of reasonable likelihood and high consequence for the analysis. Scenarios identified by this process are A nominal scenario represents the intended design basis for the long-term function of the repository. A late-subsidence scenario is included, in which subsidence occurs after active institutional control measures cease, such that

  9. Radiological assessment of the level of safety in logging operations in the Nigerian petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Abison, Abie Alabe

    2002-12-01

    Petroleum prospecting and producing activities have been going on in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria for about 40 years. During this period controlled substances such as chemicals and radioactive materials have been widely used in petroleum exploration and exploitation. Deviations from acceptable levels of certain parameters relevant to safety and environmental protection have been encountered, but most have not been investigated or documented. In particular, cases involving the unsafe use, loss and abandonment of radioactive materials have neither received the desired attention nor been reported. This work reports a radiological assessment of safety in the use of radioactive and radiation producing materials in logging and well study operations in the Nigerian petroleum industry. The assessment protocol used for the evaluation is based on a numerical ranking system. Based on a scale of 100, it is found in this logging and well study that the level of safety as defined in the text is around 60% for all three sites assessed. There is substantial work needed to raise the radiation protection standards further at these sites.

  10. Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, V.

    2008-07-15

    The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

  11. [Level of implementation of the Program for Safety and Health at Work in Antioquia, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Vega-Monsalve, Ninfa Del Carmen

    2017-07-13

    This study describes the level of implementation of the Program for Safety and Health at Work in companies located in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia, and associated factors. A cross-sectional survey included 73 companies with more than 50 workers each and implementation of the program. A total of 65 interviews were held, in addition to 73 checklists and process reviews. The companies showed suboptimal compliance with the management model for workplace safety and health proposed by the International Labor Organization (ILO). The component with the best development was Organization (87%), and the worst was Policy (67%). Company executives contended that the causes of suboptimal implementation were the limited commitment by area directors and scarce budget resources. Risk management mostly aimed to comply with the legal requirements in order to avoid penalties, plus documenting cases. There was little implementation of effective checks and controls to reduce the sources of work accidents. The study concludes that workers' health management lacks effective strategies.

  12. Child Safety Reference Frameworks: a Policy Tool for Child Injury Prevention at the Sub-national Level.

    PubMed

    Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Mackay, Morag; Vincenten, Joanne; Brand, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the Child Safety Reference Frameworks (CSRF), a policy advice tool that places evidence-based child safety interventions, applicable at the sub-national level, into a framework resembling the Haddon Matrix. The CSRF is based on work done in previous EU funded projects, which we have adapted to the field of child safety. The CSRF were populated following a literature review. Four CSRF were developed for four domains of child safety: road, water and home safety, and intentional injury prevention. The CSRF can be used as a reference, assessment and comparative tool by child safety practitioners and policy makers working at the sub-national level.

  13. Metal and metalloid levels and bio-accumulation characteristics in soil, sediment, land plants and hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) from the South Luangwa National Park, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; M'kandawire, Ethel; Yasuda, Jun; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-06-01

    Hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) are large semi-aquatic mammals that can be exposed to metals and metalloid from both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Therefore, knowledge of metal and metalloid accumulation characteristics in hippopotami living in the national park is important from ecotoxicological point of view. Levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) and metalloid (As) in hippopotami liver from the South Luangwa National Park in Zambia were far lower compared to the established values of toxic levels in cattle. No temporal variations of metal levels in hippopotami were observed, probably because of good management condition and the lack of anthropogenic activities around the national park. However, hippopotami liver accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Hg compared to soil, sediment and their food (plants), most likely due to a process of biomagnification throughout a trophic chain. Moreover, hippopotami liver and land plants showed significantly higher Cd levels than those of soil. These results strongly suggest that hippopotami liver accumulate higher levels of these metals if surrounding environment is contaminated. Levels of Cr and Ni in hippopotami liver were higher compared to other toxic metals. Since this is the first report to show the Cr and Ni levels and bio-accumulation characteristics of Hg and Cd in hippopotami, we concluded that continuous monitoring and evaluation of toxic effects of these metals on hippopotami should be conducted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sense-and-Avoid Equivalent Level of Safety Definition for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Revision 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since unmanned aircraft do not have a pilot on-board the aircraft, they cannot literally comply with the "see and avoid" requirement beyond a short distance from the location of the unmanned pilot. No performance standards are presently defined for unmanned Sense and Avoid systems, and the FAA has no published approval criteria for a collision avoidance system. Before the FAA can develop the necessary guidance (rules / regulations / policy) regarding the see-and-avoid requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), a concise understanding of the term "equivalent level of safety" must be attained. Since this term is open to interpretation, the UAS industry and FAA need to come to an agreement on how this term can be defined and applied for a safe and acceptable collision avoidance capability for unmanned aircraft. Defining an equivalent level of safety (ELOS) for sense and avoid is one of the first steps in understanding the requirement and developing a collision avoidance capability. This document provides a functional level definition of see-and-avoid as it applies to unmanned aircraft. The sense and avoid ELOS definition is intended as a bridge between the see and avoid requirement and the system level requirements for unmanned aircraft sense and avoid systems. Sense and avoid ELOS is defined in a rather abstract way, meaning that it is not technology or system specific, and the definition provides key parameters (and a context for those parameters) to focus the development of cooperative and non-cooperative sense and avoid system requirements.

  15. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  16. Receipt of diabetes preventive care among safety net patients associated with differing levels of insurance coverage

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; McIntire, Patti J.; Puro, Jon E.; Chauvie, Susan L.; Shah, Amit R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients receive care in safety net clinics regardless of insurance status; however, diabetes preventive care receipt might vary in patients with differing levels of insurance continuity. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, using electronic health record data from adults with diabetes receiving care in 50 safety net clinics in Oregon in 2005–2007, we conducted adjusted logistic regressions to model the associations between amount of time with insurance and rates of receipt of lipid screening, influenza vaccination, nephropathy screening (urine microalbumin), and DM control (glycosylated hemoglobin) screening. Results Of 3,384 adults with diabetes, 711 were ‘partially’ insured (covered 1–99% of the 3-year study period), 909 had no coverage, and 1,764 were continuously insured. In adjusted models, persons with partial or no coverage during the 3-year study period were less likely to receive most preventive services, compared to those with continuous coverage. We found no evidence of a dose-response relationship with increasing duration of coverage, nor of a threshold amount of partial coverage, associated with better receipt of care. Conclusions Safety net clinic patients need both access to primary care and continuous insurance. All patients with partial coverage, regardless of the extent of time with insurance, had lower odds of receiving preventive care. PMID:22218623

  17. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety: A Curriculum Manual for Junior High Level. Volume II, A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual on Alcohol and Alcohol Safety is designed as a teacher's guide for junior high level students. The topics it covers are: (1) safety; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and reasons people drink; (3) physical and behavioral effects; (4) interpersonal situations; (5) laws and customs; and (6) problem drinking and alcoholism. Each…

  18. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety: A Curriculum Manual for Senior High Level. Volume II, A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual on Alcohol and Alcohol Safety is designed as a teacher's guide for senior high level students. The topics it covers are: (1) safety; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and reasons people drink; (3) physical and behavioral effects; (4) alcohol industry; (5) interpersonal situations; (6) laws and customs; and (7) problem drinking…

  19. [Use of the ion-exchange substrate to optimize mineral nutrition of plants within a bio-engineering life support system with a high level of closure].

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, N A; Ushakova, S A; Kudenko, Yu A; Anishchenko, O V; Tikhomirov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to test manageability of nutrient solutions containing mineralized human exometabolites by using an ion-exchange substrate (IES) for cultivating wheat in a bio-engineering life support system with a high level of closure. Object of the investigation was wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Lysovsky cv. l. 232). Crops were raised on clayite in a growth chamber of a hydroponic conveyor system under continuous light. Correction of nutrient solution was to lift the limits of crop supply with minerals. The experimental crop grew in nutrient solution with immersed IES "BIONA-312"; nutrient solution for the control crop was corrected by adding mineral salts. Solution correction did not have a noteworthy effect on the yield, CO2-gas exchange or mineral composition of wheat plants. IES makes simple the technology of plant cultivation on solutions enriched with human exometabolites.

  20. Measuring organisational-level Aboriginal cultural climate to tailor cultural safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Justin; Ryder, Courtney; Walters, Lucie K

    2015-01-01

    Australian medical schools have taken on a social accountability mandate to provide culturally safe contexts in order to encourage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to engage in medical education and to ensure that present and future clinicians provide health services that contribute to improving the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Many programs have sought to improve cultural safety through training at an individual level; however, it is well recognised that learners tend to internalise the patterns of behaviour to which they are commonly exposed. This project aimed to measure and reflect on the cultural climate of an Australian rural clinical school (RCS) as a whole and the collective attitudes of three different professional groups: clinicians, clinical academics and professional staff. The project then drew on Mezirow's Transformative Learning theory to design strategies to build on the cultural safety of the organisation. Clinicians, academic and professional staff at an Australian RCS were invited to participate in an online survey expressing their views on Aboriginal health using part of a previously validated tool. Survey response rate was 63%. All three groups saw Aboriginal health as a social priority. All groups recognised the fundamental role of community control in Aboriginal health; however, clinical academics were considerably more likely to disagree that the Western medical model suited the health needs of Aboriginal people. Clinicians were more likely to perceive that they treated Aboriginal patients the same as other patients. There was only weak evidence of future commitments to Aboriginal health. Importantly, clinicians, academics and professional staff demonstrated differences in their cultural safety profile which indicated the need for a tailored approach to cultural safety learning in the future. Through tailored approaches to cross-cultural training opportunities we are likely to ensure

  1. Strain-Level Metagenomic Analysis of the Fermented Dairy Beverage Nunu Highlights Potential Food Safety Risks.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Daari, Kareem; O'Sullivan, Orla; Martin, Jennifer C; Arthur, Cornelius T; Claesson, Marcus J; Scott, Karen P; Cotter, Paul D

    2017-08-15

    The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole-metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here we demonstrated that three short-read-alignment-based methods, i.e., MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, could accurately and rapidly identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes that had been intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study. Subsequently, we employed the methods, in combination with other metagenomics approaches, to assess the safety of nunu, a traditional Ghanaian fermented milk product that is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of raw cow milk. We showed that nunu samples were frequently contaminated with bacteria associated with the bovine gut and, worryingly, we detected putatively pathogenic E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in a subset of nunu samples. Ultimately, our work establishes that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics approaches are suitable food safety tools, and we describe a real-life example of their utilization.IMPORTANCE Foodborne pathogens are responsible for millions of illnesses each year. Here we demonstrate that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics tools can accurately and rapidly detect pathogenic strains in food products by using shotgun metagenomics data. The methods used here are considerably faster than both traditional culturing methods and alternative bioinformatics approaches that rely on metagenome assembly; therefore, they can potentially be used for more high-throughput food safety testing. Overall, our results suggest that whole-metagenome sequencing can be used as a practical food safety tool to prevent diseases or to link outbreaks to specific food products. Copyright

  2. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  3. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  4. Patient safety in hospitals - a Bayesian analysis of unobservable hospital and specialty level risk factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Hauck, Katharina; Zhao, Xueyan

    2013-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how Bayesian hierarchical modelling can be used to evaluate the performance of hospitals. We estimate a three-level random intercept probit model to attribute unexplained variation in hospital-acquired complications to hospital effects, hospital-specialty effects and remaining random variations, controlling for observable patient complexities. The combined information provided by the posterior means and densities for latent hospital and specialty effects can be used to assess the need and scope for improvements in patient safety at different organizational levels. Posterior densities are not conventionally presented in performance assessment but provides valuable additional information to policy makers on what poorly performing hospitals and specialties may be prioritized for policy action. We use surgical patient administrative data for 2005/2006 for 16 specialties in 35 public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. We use posterior means for latent hospital and specialty effects to compare hospital performance in patient safety. Posterior densities and variances are also compared for different specialties to identify clinical areas with greatest scope for improvement. We also show that the same hospital may rank markedly differently for different specialties. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Pharmacy compounding of high-risk level products and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Mullarkey, Tamira

    2009-09-01

    Issues surrounding pharmacy compounding as well as patient safety concerns surrounding compounding of high-risk level products are discussed. The practice of traditional pharmacy compounding is an established activity of pharmacists that serves a vital function to meet the prescribed medical needs of individual patients. However, legal and regulatory debate concerning the oversight of pharmacy compounding has arisen in recent decades, driven mostly by patient harm that has occurred as a result of compounding errors or deceptive practices. Federal and state government agencies and professional organizations have reported errors in pharmacy compounding, including subpotent and contaminated products that have caused patient harm. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) chapter 797 serves to protect patients by requiring best practice and quality standards for the safe preparation and handling of compounded sterile preparations (CSPs). High-risk level CSPs pose the greatest risk to patients since non-sterile ingredients or containers are used, which mandates final product sterilization prior to dispensing. Pharmacists should understand and comply with federal, state, and USP chapter 797 requirements when preparing CSPs, particularly high-risk level CSPs. Professional pharmacy organizations, such as the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) and the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP), continue to support the practice of traditional pharmacy compounding through their guidelines, with patient safety as a central theme. Until the regulatory debate is resolved, pharmacists engaged in pharmacy compounding, particularly in the preparation of high-risk level CSPs, should remain competent in their skills and practice in accordance with federal, state, and USP chapter 797 requirements and, thereby, protect patients and the professionalism of pharmacy.

  6. The impact of the work environment of nurses on patient safety outcomes: a multi-level modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Marcia; Matthews, Anne; Scott, P Anne

    2013-02-01

    Patient safety is a priority for health services in all countries. The importance of the nurse's role in patient safety has been established. Effective nurse staffing levels, nurse education levels, and a positive work environment for nurses are factors which are known to impact on patient safety outcomes. This study sought to explore the relationship between the ward environment in which nurses practice and specific patient safety outcomes, using ward level variables as well as nurse level variables. The outcomes were nurse-reported patient safety levels in the wards in which they work, and numbers of formal adverse events reports submitted by nurses in the last year. This cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out within a European FP7 project: Nurse Forecasting: Human Resources Planning in Nursing (RN4CAST) project. 108 general medical and surgical wards in 30 hospitals throughout Ireland. All nurses in direct patient care in the study wards were invited to participate. Data from 1397 of these nurses were used in this analysis. A nurse survey was carried out using a questionnaire incorporating the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI). Ethical approval was obtained from the authors' institution and all ethics committees representing the 30 study hospitals. Multilevel modelling was carried out to examine the impact of ward level factors on patient safety. These included proportions of nurses on the ward educated to degree level, and aggregated ward-level mean for PES-NWI scores. The study results support other research findings indicating that a positive practice environment enhances patient safety outcomes. Specifically at ward level, factors such as the ward practice environment and the proportion of nurses with degrees were found to significantly impact safety outcomes. The models developed for this study predicted 76% and 51% of the between-ward variance of these outcomes. The results can be used to enhance patient safety

  7. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  8. Association between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health: a multilevel study in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Choi, Jaesung; Park, Kisoo; Chung, Yeonseung; Park, Sangjo; Heo, Jongho

    2014-07-29

    Several studies have reported the relationship between residents' perceived neighbourhood safety and their health outcomes. However, those studies suffered from unreliability of neighbourhood safety measure and potential residual confounding related to crime rates. In this study, using multilevel analysis to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, we examined associations between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health after adjusting for potential confounders including the district-level crime rate. Cross-sectional study. We used the first wave of Seoul Welfare Panel Study, which has 7761 individuals from 3665 households in 25 administrative districts in Seoul, South Korea. District-level perceived safety was obtained by aggregating responses from the residents that are representative samples for each administrative district in Seoul. To examine an association between district-level safety and residents' self-rated health, we used mixed effect logistic regression. Our results showed that higher district-level perceived safety, an aggregated measure of district residents' responses towards neighbourhood safety, was significantly associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for sex, age, education level, job status, marital status and household income (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97). Furthermore, this association was still robust when we additionally adjusted for the district-level crime rate (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.95). Our study highlights the importance of improving neighbourhood perceived safety to enhance residents' health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Estimation of a novel method to produce bio-oil from sewage sludge by microwave pyrolysis with the consideration of efficiency and safety.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Zuo, Wei; Ren, Zhengyuan; Chen, Dongdong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presented a feasible method to produce bio-oil from sewage sludge by microwave pyrolysis. The results showed that oils derived under 400 W obtained an attractive yield (49.8 wt.%) with favorable characteristics such as high calorific value (35.0 MJ/kg), low density (929 kg/m3) and preferable chemical composition (29.5 wt.% of monoaromatics). A model to study the relationship between microwave power and mass balance of product fractions was developed, and the results indicated that the power range of the highest transforming efficiency for organics in sludge into oils was 400-600 W, the subsequent increase of power to the range of 600-800 W favored gases formation at the expense of oils, and increase of power to above 800 W led to the conversion of solids into gases, while oils remained unchanged. The analysis of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in oils showed that bio-oil should be extracted before being used as fuel. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

    1984-11-01

    This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts.

  11. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  12. Endogenous estimation of safety coefficient for optimal design of biochemical reactors at industrial level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siontorou, Christina G.; Karydi, Angeliki

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with the endogenous estimation of the Safety Coefficient Ge = Vd/Vm, where Vd is the design volume and Vm is the mean volume of liquid of a biochemical reactor operating at industrial level. The Vd-value is estimated through Monte Carlo simulation while Vm-value is obtained by means of material balances and biochemical kinetics. A case example on waste water biological treatment is presented, referring to a well-mixed bioreactor followed by a clarifier. The Ge-values finally estimated are in the lower part of the (exogenously determined) region as suggested in the relevant technical literature, implying a significant saving of investment capital, which forms the principle component of fixed cost. Similar applications are also mentioned in brief.

  13. A new system to reduce formaldehyde levels improves safety conditions during gross veterinary anatomy learning.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Víctor; Llombart, Cristina; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Ysern, Pere; Calero, Sebastián; Fígols, Enric; Ruberte, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Dissection is a very useful method of learning veterinary anatomy. However, formaldehyde, which is widely used to preserve cadavers, is an irritant, and it has recently been classified as a carcinogen. In 1997, the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo [National Institute of Workplace Security and Hygiene] found that the levels of formaldehyde in our dissection room were above the threshold limit values. Unfortunately, no optimal substitute for formaldehyde is currently available. Therefore, we designed a new ventilation system that combines slow propulsion of fresh air from above the dissection table and rapid aspiration of polluted air from the perimeter. Formaldehyde measurements performed in 2004, after the introduction of this new system into our dissection laboratory, showed a dramatic reduction (about tenfold, or 0.03 ppm). A suitable propelling/aspirating air system successfully reduces the concentration of formaldehyde in the dissection room, significantly improving safety conditions for students, instructors, and technical staff during gross anatomy learning.

  14. Radiologic safety assessment for low level waste storage on TRU pads

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.P.

    1986-03-17

    The reference document (TA 2-1118) proposes to store Low Level Radioactive Solid Waste in B-25 boxes on concrete pads at the 643-G burial ground site, pending resolution of policy concernig its ultimate disposal. This analysis verifies that the reference proposal is safe, as long as it is applied to a limited material quantity of low specific activity, as described in the reference document. The predominant concern in the safety analysis is the emission of airborne activity as a result of tornados and fires. However, containment provided by B-25 boxes is sufficient to mitigate the consequences of these events sufficiently. Nevertheless, it is strongly recommended that any above-ground storage procedures include provisions for covering the waste containment boxes to prevent exposure to rainwater and subsequent corrosion if the storage period is to extend beyond one year.

  15. Behavior of mercury in bio-systems. II. Depuration of /sup 203/Hg/sup 2 +/ in various trophic levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdy, M.K.; Prabhu, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    Using radiotracer techniques, the depuration rates for methylmercury at three trophic levels in an aquatic ecosystem are examined. Bacteria (decomposers), mosquito larvae (primary consumers), and fish (secondary consumers) were studied. Results indicated that depuration rates for mercury were temperature dependent - the rate of depuration increased with increase in temperature (up to 45/sup 0/C)

  16. Comparison of potential health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1984-12-31

    A comparative assessment has been performed of the potential long- and short-term health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes. Conservative models and assumptions were used. The assessment suggests that considerations of health and safety will not be significant in choosing among disposal options, primarily because of the need to meet stringent standards in all cases. Rather, the ease and cost of assuring compliance of a particular disposal option with health and safety standards may be a more important factor. 11 references.

  17. Evaluation of the Level of Food Safety Protection Provided by the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Its Associated Cooperative Grade "A" Milk Safety Program.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinqing; Klontz, Karl C; DiNovi, Michael J; Edwards, Alison J; Hennes, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) Grade "A" Milk Safety Program through its implementation and enforcement of the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The number of reported illnesses associated with Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was obtained from state and federal agencies and published articles. The consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was estimated from food consumption survey data for individuals. The level of food safety protection was measured quantitatively using the metric of annual illness attack rate. During a 15-year period (1999 through 2013), the estimated annual illness attack rate was 0.41 reported illnesses per 1 billion exposures (estimated using person-day intake data) or 0.52 reported illnesses per 1 billion lb (454 million kg) of Grade "A" milk and milk products consumed. Food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products by the NCIMS through its implementation and enforcement of the PMO is important given the common consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States.

  18. Implementing Health and Safety Policy Changes at the High School Level From a Leadership Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.; Burton, Laura J.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Although consensus statements and recommendations from professional organizations aim to reduce the incidence of injury or sudden death in sport, nothing is mandated at the high school level. This allows states the freedom to create and implement individual policies. An example of a recommended policy is heat acclimatization. Despite its efficacy in reducing sudden death related to heat stroke, very few states follow the recommended guidelines. Objective:  To retroactively examine why and how 3 states were able to facilitate the successful creation and adoption of heat-acclimatization guidelines. Design:  Qualitative study. Setting:  High school athletic associations in Arkansas, Georgia, and New Jersey. Patients or Other Participants:  Eight men and 3 women (n = 11; 6 athletic trainers; 2 members of high school athletic associations; 2 parents; 1 physician) participated. Participant recruitment ceased when data saturation was reached. Data Collection and Analysis:  All phone interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded-theory approach guided analysis and multiple analysts and peer review were used to establish credibility. Results:  Each state had a different catalyst to change (student-athlete death, empirical data, proactivity). Recommendations from national governing bodies guided the policy creation. Once the decision to implement change was made, the states displayed 2 similarities: shared leadership and open communication between medical professionals and members of the high school athletic association helped overcome barriers. Conclusions:  The initiating factor that spurred the change varied, yet shared leadership and communication fundamentally allowed for successful adoption of the policy. Our participants were influenced by the recommendations from national governing bodies, which align with the institutional change theory. As more states begin to examine and improve their health and safety policies

  19. Implementing Health and Safety Policy Changes at the High School Level From a Leadership Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pagnotta, Kelly D; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pitney, William A; Burton, Laura J; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-04-01

    Although consensus statements and recommendations from professional organizations aim to reduce the incidence of injury or sudden death in sport, nothing is mandated at the high school level. This allows states the freedom to create and implement individual policies. An example of a recommended policy is heat acclimatization. Despite its efficacy in reducing sudden death related to heat stroke, very few states follow the recommended guidelines. To retroactively examine why and how 3 states were able to facilitate the successful creation and adoption of heat-acclimatization guidelines. Qualitative study. High school athletic associations in Arkansas, Georgia, and New Jersey. Eight men and 3 women (n = 11; 6 athletic trainers; 2 members of high school athletic associations; 2 parents; 1 physician) participated. Participant recruitment ceased when data saturation was reached. All phone interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded-theory approach guided analysis and multiple analysts and peer review were used to establish credibility. Each state had a different catalyst to change (student-athlete death, empirical data, proactivity). Recommendations from national governing bodies guided the policy creation. Once the decision to implement change was made, the states displayed 2 similarities: shared leadership and open communication between medical professionals and members of the high school athletic association helped overcome barriers. The initiating factor that spurred the change varied, yet shared leadership and communication fundamentally allowed for successful adoption of the policy. Our participants were influenced by the recommendations from national governing bodies, which align with the institutional change theory. As more states begin to examine and improve their health and safety policies, this information could serve as a valuable resource for athletic trainers in other states and for future health and safety initiatives.

  20. Characterisation of microbial floras and functional gene levels in an anaerobic/aerobic bio-reactor for the degradation of carboxymethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Ji, Guodong; Wang, Chen; Guo, Feng

    2013-04-01

    The current study determined the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degradation efficiency, dominant microbial flora, eubacteria and archaebacteria characteristics, and expression levels of genes cel5A, cel6B, and bglC in an anaerobic/aerobic bio-reactor consisting of two-stage UASB (U1 and U2) and two-stage BAF (B1 and B2). The results showed that under three CMC loads, the CMC degradation efficiency of the UASB-BAF system was 91.25%, 80.44%, and 78.73%, respectively. At higher CMC loads, the degradation of cellulose and transformation to cellobiose in U1 was higher, while the transformation to glucose was lower. The results of DGGE and real-time PCR indicated that cellulose degradation bacteria are dominant in U1, cellulose degradation bacteria and cellulose degradation symbiosis bacteria are dominant in B1, and non-cellulose degradation symbiosis bacteria are dominant in both U2 and B2. The rate-limiting enzyme gene of cellulose degradation in U1, B1, and B2 is cel6B, but it is cel5A in U2.

  1. Towards instantaneous cellular level bio diagnosis: laser extraction and imaging of biological entities with conserved integrity and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Robertson, W. D.; Reimer, R.; Heinze, C.; Schneider, C.; Eggert, D.; Truschow, P.; Hansen, N.-O.; Kroetz, P.; Zou, J.; Miller, R. J. D.

    2015-07-01

    The prospect for spatial imaging with mass spectroscopy at the level of the cell requires new means of cell extraction to conserve molecular structure. To this aim, we demonstrate a new laser extraction process capable of extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological function. The method is based on the recently developed picosecond infrared laser (PIRL), designed specifically to provide matrix-free extraction by selectively exciting the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is to extract the constituent protein structures on the fastest impulsive limit for ablation to avoid excessive thermal heating of the proteins and to use strongly resonant 1-photon conditions to avoid multiphoton ionization and degradation of the sample integrity. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nanoscale single protein molecules, viruses, and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical with their corresponding controls. This method provides a new means to resolve chemical activity within cells and is amenable to subcellular imaging with near-field approaches. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological material within the laser ablation plume, which is fully consistent with in vivo structures and characteristics.

  2. A checklist for patient safety rounds at the care pathway level

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Cordula; Thompson, Caroline A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Groene, Oliver; Klazinga, Niek S.; Dersarkissian, Maral; Suñol, Rosa; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lombarts, MJMH; Plochg, T; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Bottaro, S; Garel, P; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Lívio, A; Eiras, M; Franca, M; Leite, I; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, CA; Wang, A; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To define a checklist that can be used to assess the performance of a department and evaluate the implementation of quality management (QM) activities across departments or pathways in acute care hospitals. Design We developed and tested a checklist for the assessment of QM activities at department level in a cross-sectional study using on-site visits by trained external auditors. Setting and participants A sample of 292 hospital departments of 74 acute care hospitals across seven European countries. In every hospital, four departments for the conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, hip fracture and deliveries participated. Main Outcome Measures Four measures of QM activities were evaluated at care pathway level focusing on specialized expertise and responsibility (SER), evidence-based organization of pathways (EBOP), patient safety strategies and clinical review (CR). Results Participating departments attained mean values on the various scales between 1.2 and 3.7. The theoretical range was 0–4. Three of the four QM measures are identical for the four conditions, whereas one scale (EBOP) has condition-specific items. Correlations showed that every factor was related, but also distinct, and added to the overall picture of QM at pathway level. Conclusion The newly developed checklist can be used across various types of departments and pathways in acute care hospitals like AMI, deliveries, stroke and hip fracture. The anticipated users of the checklist are internal (e.g. peers within the hospital and hospital executive board) and external auditors (e.g. healthcare inspectorate, professional or patient organizations). PMID:24615594

  3. Difficulties associated with the development and licensing of vaccines for protection against bio-warfare and bio-terrorism.

    PubMed

    Langford, M J; Myers, R C

    2002-01-01

    Today there is an increasing need to license vaccines for the protection of individuals against bio-warfare and bio-terrorism. While the need is apparent, the actual road to developing, producing and licensing such vaccines successfully is as yet undefined. Bio-defence vaccine candidates may come from several sources. They may come from vaccines that were previously licensed but are no longer in production, vaccines that are currently in an IND status, vaccines currently licensed in foreign countries, and newer vaccines currently under development. The issues that apply to the development and licensing of these vaccines can be defined by currently accepted standards for manufacture, and the requirement to demonstrate safety and efficacy to a level that gives the scientific and medical community, regulatory agencies, users and the public at large confidence. Requirements for manufacturing and demonstration of safety will be consistent with vaccines being developed for traditional purposes. However, demonstration of efficacy will be more difficult. Because field trials for these vaccines are generally not feasible and the conduct of human challenge studies is generally considered unethical, the demonstration of efficacy will need to be based on existing efficacy data, a thorough understanding of both the disease's pathogenesis and mechanism of protection, the ability to identify surrogate markers for efficacy, and the use of the proposed FDA "animal rule".

  4. Psychological Safety and Social Support in Groupware Adoption: A Multi-Level Assessment in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepers, J.; de Jong, A.; Wetzels, M.; de Ruyter, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose that psychological safety, a sense of interpersonal trust and being valued in a work team, is an important determinant of groupware technology adoption in an educational setting. They develop and test a model of antecedents and consequences of psychological safety. Data were collected from 361 university…

  5. Child and family safety device affordability by country income level: an 18 country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, D; Miller, T; Orlando, M; Spicer, R; Taft, C; Consunji, R; Zaloshnja, E

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare availability, urban price, and affordability of child/family safety devices between 18 economically diverse countries. Design: Descriptive: urban price surveys by local safety organisations or shoppers. Setting: Retail stores and internet vendors. Main outcome measures: Prices expressed in US dollars, and affordability measured by hours of factory work needed to buy a child safety seat, a belt-positioning booster seat, a child bicycle helmet, and a smoke alarm. Results: Prices of child and family safety devices varied widely between countries but the variation for child safety seats and bicycle helmets did not relate strongly to country income. Safety devices were expensive, often prohibitively so, in lower income countries. Far more hours of factory work were required to earn a child safety device in lower income than middle income, and middle income than higher income, countries. A bicycle helmet, for example, cost 10 hours of factory work in lower income countries but less than an hour in higher income countries. Smoke alarms and booster seats were not available in many lower income countries. Conclusions: Bicycles and two-axle motor vehicles were numerous in lower and middle income countries, but corresponding child safety devices were often unaffordable and sometimes not readily available. The apparent market distortions and their causes merit investigation. Advocacy, social marketing, local device production, lowering of tariffs, and mandatory use legislation might stimulate market growth. Arguably, a moral obligation exists to offer subsidies that give all children a fair chance of surviving to adulthood. PMID:15583254

  6. Willingness to use safety belt and levels of injury in car accidents.

    PubMed

    de Lapparent, Matthieu

    2008-05-01

    In this article, we develop a bivariate ordered Probit model to analyze the decision to fasten the safety belt in a car and the resulting severity of accidents if it happens. The approach takes into account the fact that the decision to fasten the safety belt has a direct causal effect on the category of injury if an accident happens. Our application to a sample drawn from the database of French accident reports in 2003 for three populations of car users (drivers, front passengers, rear passengers) shows that fastening the safety belt is significantly related to a decrease in severe injuries but it shows also that these car users compensate partly for this safety benefit. Furthermore, it is observed that demographic characteristics of car users, as well as transport facilities, play important roles in decisions to fasten safety belts and in the eventual resulting accident injuries.

  7. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Dinakaran, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context.

  8. Safety Profile of Anticancer and Immune-Modulating Biotech Drugs Used in a Real World Setting in Campania Region (Italy): BIO-Cam Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Cristina; Sportiello, Liberata; Sullo, Maria G; Ferrajolo, Carmen; Ruggiero, Rosanna; Sessa, Maurizio; Berrino, Pasquale M; di Mauro, Gabriella; Berrino, Liberato; Rossi, Francesco; Rafaniello, Concetta; Capuano, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) in naïve patients receiving biotech drugs. Design: A prospective observational study. Setting: Onco-hematology, Hepato-gastroenterology, Rheumatology, Dermatology, and Neurology Units in Campania Region (Italy). Participants: 775 patients (53.81% female) with mean age 56.0 (SD 15.2). The mean follow-up/patient was 3.48 (95% confidence interval 3.13-3.84). Main outcome measures: We collected all AEs associated to biotech drugs, including serious infections and malignancies. Serious AEs were defined according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, clinical safety data management: definitions and standards for expedited reporting E2A guideline. Results: The majority of the study population was enrolled in Onco-hematology and Rheumatology Units and the most common diagnosis were hematological malignancies, followed by rheumatoid arthritis, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and psoriatic arthritis. The most commonly prescribed biotech drugs were rituximab, bevacizumab, infliximab, trastuzumab, adalimumab, and cetuximab. Out of 775 patients, 320 experienced at least one AE. Most of patients experienced AEs to cetuximab therapy, rituximab and trastuzumab. Comparing female and male population, our findings highlighted a statistically significant difference in terms of AEs for adalimumab (35.90% vs. 7.41%, p < 0.001) and etanercept (27.59% vs. 10.00%, p = 0.023). Considering all biotech drugs, we observed a peak for all AEs occurrence at follow-up 91-180 days category. Bevacizumab, brentuximab, rituximab, trastuzumab and cetuximab were more commonly associated to serious adverse events; most of these were possibly related to biotech drugs, according to causality assessment. Three cases of serious infections occurred. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that the majority of AEs were not serious and expected

  9. Transparent tools for uncertainty analysis in high level waste disposal facilities safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Helmuth, Karl-Heinz; Sullivan, Terry

    2007-07-01

    In this paper some results of a further development of a technical cooperation project, initiated in 2004, between the CDTN/CNEN, The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission, and the STUK, The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, are presented. The objective of this project is to study applications of fuzzy logic, and artificial intelligence methods, on uncertainty analysis of high level waste disposal facilities safety assessment. Uncertainty analysis is an essential part of the study of the complex interactions of the features, events and processes, which will affect the performance of the HLW disposal system over the thousands of years in the future. Very often the development of conceptual and computational models requires simplifications and selection of over conservative parameters that can lead to unrealistic results. These results can mask the existing uncertainties which, consequently, can be an obstacle to a better understanding of the natural processes. A correct evaluation of uncertainties and their rule on data interpretation is an important step for the improvement of the confidence in the calculations and public acceptance. This study focuses on dissolution (source), solubility and sorption (sink) as key processes for determination of release and migration of radionuclides. These factors are affected by a number of parameters that characterize the near and far fields such as pH; temperature; redox conditions; and other groundwater properties. On the other hand, these parameters are also consequence of other processes and conditions such as water rock interaction; pH and redox buffering. Fuzzy logic tools have been proved to be suited for dealing with interpretation of complex, and some times conflicting, data. For example, although some parameters, such as pH and carbonate, are treated as independent, they have influence in each other and on the solubility. It is used the technique of fuzzy cognitive mapping is used for analysis of

  10. Intrinsically motivated action-outcome learning and goal-based action recall: a system-level bio-constrained computational model.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mannella, Francesco; Fiore, Vincenzo G; Redgrave, Peter; Gurney, Kevin; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of 'extrinsic motivations' (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of 'intrinsic motivations' (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivations have been studied in Psychology for many decades and their biological substrates are now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of IMs. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant neurobiological constraints. This paper proposes a bio-constrained system-level model that contributes a major step towards this integration. The model focusses on three processes related to IMs and on the neural mechanisms underlying them: (a) the acquisition of action-outcome associations (internal models of the agent-environment interaction) driven by phasic dopamine signals caused by sudden, unexpected changes in the environment; (b) the transient focussing of visual gaze and actions on salient portions of the environment; (c) the subsequent recall of actions to pursue extrinsic rewards based on goal-directed reactivation of the representations of their outcomes. The tests of the model, including a series of selective lesions, show how the focussing processes lead to a faster learning of action-outcome associations, and how these associations can be recruited for accomplishing goal-directed behaviours. The model, together with the background knowledge reviewed in the paper

  11. Protective level of safety harnesses combined with some racing car seats in frontal impacts--a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Ottoson, A L; Lövsund, P

    1986-12-01

    As a basis for a prospective modification of the present seat-belt regulation in Sweden, the protective level of safety harnesses compared with three-point belts has been studied. Biomechanical tests were carried out with different combinations of belts and seats. The results showed that a three-point belt on a conventional seat offered the best protection in frontal impacts. The geometry of the safety harness (inverted Y-harness and four-point belt) induces the lap belt to slide over the iliac crest and the restraining force will be on the abdomen (submarining). This may be prevented by the use of a six-point belt, where two crotch straps keep the lap belt in position. The safety harness induces strong rebounds on the head, owing to the fact that the shoulder straps stop the forward motion of the torso too fast. High accelerations and HIC-values were registered for the head. The shoulder straps of the safety harnesses also expose the wearer's shoulders and spine to high stresses in frontal impacts, which may induce injuries to the shoulders and compression injuries to the spine. Various solutions which may result in an increase of the protective level of the system safety harness and racing-car seat in frontal impacts are discussed.

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What information must be...

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What information must be...

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What information must be...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What information must be...

  16. Knowledge levels of food handlers in Portuguese school canteens and their self-reported behaviour towards food safety.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria-José; Nogueira, José Rocha; Patarata, Luis; Mayan, Olga

    2008-12-01

    Food safety levels in school food services are an important concern, given that any incident can affect a high number of students. The purpose of this research was to evaluate food handlers' knowledge and self-reported behaviour as regards the safe handling of food in school canteens. The study was conducted in 32 school canteens and included 124 participants. Food handlers displayed a reasonable level of knowledge, particularly regarding personal hygiene and cross-contamination, but fared worse in other areas. The level of knowledge displayed was influenced by age, motivation and training. A high correctness in handlers' self-reported behaviour towards food safety was observed, with a negative trend appearing when workload was increased. Our assessment of prevailing knowledge levels indicates that food professionals need to be made significantly more aware of the importance their actions can have on children's health.

  17. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.115 - Is there more than one option for establishing that an equivalent level of safety exists?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.115 Is there more than one option for establishing that an... areas of safety. Available safe egress times would be developed based on analysis of a number of...

  19. Fast, automatically darkening welding filter offering an improved level of safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen

    1996-03-01

    A mode of operation is introduced for the standard 90 degrees twisted nematic (TN) liquid-crystal cell when placed together with an interference filter and positioned between crossed polarizers such that a small stimulating voltage of between 2.0 and 3.0 V is required in order to attain the light state. Further incrementation of the driving electronics reverts the system back to a darker phase. Such cells offer advantages over those of the standard 90 degrees TN device operating in the normally white mode, in that the unit maintains the fast response time from the light to the dark state associated with the employment of TN cells placed between crossed polarizers. In addition, a low transmittance state is achieved when the unit is in the inactivated phase; this is an effect usually correlated with the normally black mode of operation. These cells are therefore ideal candidates for incorporation into fast, automatically darkening, welding filters that are designed to change rapidly from the light to the dark protective state, while offering an improved level of safety by not holding in a potentially hazardous light state should the controlling electronics malfunction. The requirement for this phenomenon to be observed is that the cell displays a low optical transmittance over the green wavelengths of the visible spectrum when in the inactivated phase and placed between crossed polarizers. The presence of an interference filter that possesses a peak transmittance over the central part of the visible spectrum is also necessary. It is shown that there are only two possible cell types that satisfy this criteria, and the optical properties of such cells are analyzed in some detail.

  20. Safety and efficacy of two dose levels of taliglucerase alfa in pediatric patients with Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Zimran, Ari; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Derlis Emilio; Abrahamov, Aya; Elstein, Deborah; Paz, Alona; Brill-Almon, Einat; Chertkoff, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Taliglucerase alfa is a plant cell-expressed beta-glucocerebrosidase approved in the United States, Israel, Australia, Canada, and other countries for enzyme replacement therapy in adults with Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD), for treatment of pediatric patients in the United States, Australia, and Canada, and for the hematologic manifestations of Type 3 GD in pediatric patients in Canada. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-dose, 12-month study assessed efficacy and safety of taliglucerase alfa in pediatric patients with GD. Eleven children were randomized to taliglucerase alfa 30U/kg (n=6) or 60U/kg (n=5) per infusion every other week. From baseline to month 12, the following changes were noted in the taliglucerase alfa 30-U/kg and 60-U/kg dose groups, respectively: median hemoglobin concentrations increased by 12.2% and 14.2%; the interquartile ranges of median percent change in hemoglobin levels from baseline were 20.6 and 10.4, respectively; mean spleen volume decreased from 22.2 to 14.0 multiples of normal (MN) and from 29.4 to 12.9 MN; mean liver volume decreased from 1.8 to 1.5 MN and from 2.2 to 1.7 MN; platelet counts increased by 30.9% and 73.7%; and chitotriosidase activity was reduced by 58.5% and 66.1%. Nearly all adverse events were mild/moderate, unrelated to treatment, and transient. One patient presented with treatment-related gastroenteritis reported as a serious adverse event due to the need for hospitalization for rehydration. No patient discontinued. These data suggest that taliglucerase alfa has the potential to be a therapeutic treatment option for children with GD. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01132690.

  1. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  2. WASTE CONTAINER AND WASTE PACKAGE PERFORMANCE MODELING TO SUPPORT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-06-30

    Prior to subsurface burial of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, a demonstration that disposal of the wastes can be accomplished while protecting the health and safety of the general population is required. The long-time frames over which public safety must be insured necessitates that this demonstration relies, in part, on computer simulations of events and processes that will occur in the future. This demonstration, known as a Safety Assessment, requires understanding the performance of the disposal facility, waste containers, waste forms, and contaminant transport to locations accessible to humans. The objective of the coordinated research program is to examine the state-of-the-art in testing and evaluation short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste packages (container and waste form) in near surface repository conditions. The link between data collection and long-term predictions is modeling. The objective of this study is to review state-of-the-art modeling approaches for waste package performance. This is accomplished by reviewing the fundamental concepts behind safety assessment and demonstrating how waste package models can be used to support safety assessment. Safety assessment for low- and intermediate-level wastes is a complicated process involving assumptions about the appropriate conceptual model to use and the data required to support these models. Typically due to the lack of long-term data and the uncertainties from lack of understanding and natural variability, the models used in safety assessment are simplistic. However, even though the models are simplistic, waste container and waste form performance are often central to the case for making a safety assessment. An overview of waste container and waste form performance and typical models used in a safety assessment is supplied. As illustrative examples of the role of waste container and waste package performance, three sample test cases are provided. An example of the impacts of

  3. The Effects of a Low-Level Uniform Ultrasound Field on Enzymatic Bio-Processing of Cotton: An Investigation of Three Fabric Weights

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research has found that t...

  4. Bio-Functional Au/Si Nanorods for Pathogen Detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabr...

  5. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Nitrate to Early Life Stages of Zebrafish--Setting Nitrate Safety Levels for Zebrafish Rearing.

    PubMed

    Learmonth, Cândida; Carvalho, António Paulo

    2015-08-01

    Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) have been widely used for zebrafish rearing, allowing holding of many thousands of fish at high densities. Water quality in RAS largely depends on biofilters that ultimately convert the extremely toxic ammonia excreted by fish into the much less toxic nitrate. However, when water renewal is minimal in RAS, nitrate can accumulate to high enough levels to negatively impact fish welfare and performance. Therefore, the setting of safety levels of nitrate for zebrafish should be a priority to avoid unwanted effects in both the intensive production of this species and research outputs. The present study aimed to define nitrate safety levels for zebrafish based on acute and chronic toxicity bioassays in early life stages of this species. Acute bioassays revealed ontogenetic changes in response to high nitrate levels. Based on NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values, safety levels should be set at 1450, 1855, and 1075 mg/L NO3(-)-N to prevent acute lethal effects in embryos, newly-hatched larvae, and swim-up larvae, respectively. In the chronic bioassay, larvae were exposed to nitrate concentrations of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/L NO3(-)-N during the entire larval period (23 days). No negative effects were observed either on larval performance or condition at concentrations up to 200 mg/L NO3(-)-N. However, at 400 mg/L NO3(-)-N, survival drastically decreased and fish showed reduced growth and evidence of morphological abnormalities. Accordingly, a safety level of 200 mg/L NO3(-)-N is recommended during the larval rearing of zebrafish to prevent negative impacts on juvenile production.

  6. The Italian National Health Service expenditure on workplace prevention and safety (2006-2013): a national-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, C; Riccò, M; Odone, A

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) stated that countries' health policies should give high priority to primary prevention of occupational health hazards. Scant data are available on health expenditure on workplace prevention and safety services and on its impact on occupational health outcomes in Italy and in other European countries. objective of the present study was to systematically retrieve, analyse and critically appraise the available national-level data on public health expenditure on workplace prevention and safety services as well as to correlate them with occupational health outcomes. National-level data on total public health expenditure on prevention services, its share spent on workplace prevention and safety services as well as on number of workers receiving appropriate health surveillance were derived from the national public health expenditure monitoring system over a 8-year study period (2006-2013). An analytic approach was adopted to explore the association between health expenditure and occupational health services supply. The Italian National Health Service spends almost € 5 billion per year on preventive care, of which 13.3% are spent on workplace prevention and safety programmes (€ 645 million, € 10.6 per capita). There is wide heterogeneity between Italian regions. Our findings are useful for health systems and policies analysis, national and international comparisons as well as for health policy makers to plan, implement and monitor occupational health prevention programmes.

  7. A Novel Neuroscience Intermediate-Level Care Unit Model: Retrospective Analysis of Impact on Patient Flow and Safety.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Alexandra E; Shamy, Michel C F; Rothwell, Deanna M; Liu, Erin Y; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Stotts, Grant

    2017-04-01

    Neurointensive care units have been shown to improve patient outcomes across a variety of neurological and neurosurgical conditions. However, the efficacy of less resource-intensive intermediate-level care units to deliver similar care has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of neurocritical specialist comanagement on patient flow and safety in a neuroscience intermediate-level care unit. Our intervention consisted of the addition of a physician with critical care experience as well as training in neurology, anesthesiology, or intensive care to a neuroscience intermediate-level care unit to comanage patients alongside neurology and neurosurgery staff during weekday daytime hours. A retrospective analysis was performed on prospectively collected data pertaining to all patients admitted to the unit over a 3-year period, 1 year before our intervention and 2 years after. Patient statistics including wait times to admission, length of stay (LOS), and mortality were reviewed. Following the intervention, there were significant reductions in wait times to unit admission from both the emergency department and postanesthetic care unit, as well as reductions in the average LOS. No significant safety concerns were identified. This study has demonstrated that the optimization of a neuroscience intermediate-level care unit involving comanagement of patients by a neurocritical specialist can reduce wait times to admission and lengths of stay, with preserved safety outcomes.

  8. Teaching Occupational Safety and Health at the Secondary and College Level. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    The activities in this guide are designed to provide a framework for instruction on safety and health on the job. The guide consists of three chapters. Chapter one introduces the guide, discusses how to use it, and explains the goals and objectives of the course. The second chapter contains detailed learning activities. Chapter three provides an…

  9. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  10. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  11. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  12. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  13. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level I (Grades (K-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Twelve activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  14. Developing Science-based Approaches to Reduce Produce Safety Risks at the End-user Levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An increasing number of food-borne illness outbreaks associated with the consumption of contaminated fresh and fresh-cut produce significantly impacted public health and consumer confidence. The urgent need to improve produce safety demands actions from growers, processors and consumers. The main ob...

  15. Governing patient safety: lessons learned from a mixed methods evaluation of implementing a ward-level medication safety scorecard in two English NHS hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Angus I G; Turner, Simon; Cavell, Gillian; Oborne, C Alice; Thomas, Rebecca E; Cookson, Graham; Fulop, Naomi J

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about how scorecards presenting performance indicators influence medication safety. We evaluated the effects of implementing a ward-level medication safety scorecard piloted in two English NHS hospitals and factors influencing these. Methods We used a mixed methods, controlled before and after design. At baseline, wards were audited on medication safety indicators; during the ‘feedback’ phase scorecard results were presented to intervention wards on a weekly basis over 7 weeks. We interviewed 49 staff, including clinicians and managers, about scorecard implementation. Results At baseline, 18.7% of patients (total n=630) had incomplete allergy documentation; 53.4% of patients (n=574) experienced a drug omission in the preceding 24 h; 22.5% of omitted doses were classified as ‘critical’; 22.1% of patients (n=482) either had ID wristbands not reflecting their allergy status or no ID wristband; and 45.3% of patients (n=237) had drugs that were either unlabelled or labelled for another patient in their drug lockers. The quantitative analysis found no significant improvement in intervention wards following scorecard feedback. Interviews suggested staff were interested in scorecard feedback and described process and culture changes. Factors influencing scorecard implementation included ‘normalisation’ of errors, study duration, ward leadership, capacity to engage and learning preferences. Discussion Presenting evidence-based performance indicators may potentially influence staff behaviour. Several practical and cultural factors may limit feedback effectiveness and should be considered when developing improvement interventions. Quality scorecards should be designed with care, attending to evidence of indicators’ effectiveness and how indicators and overall scorecard composition fit the intended audience. PMID:24029440

  16. Evaluating the impact of bike network indicators on cyclist safety using macro-level collision prediction models.

    PubMed

    Osama, Ahmed; Sayed, Tarek

    2016-12-01

    Many cities worldwide are recognizing the important role that cycling plays in creating green and livable communities. However, vulnerable road users such as cyclists are usually subjected to an elevated level of injury risk which discourages many road users to cycle. This paper studies cyclist-vehicle collisions at 134 traffic analysis zones in the city of Vancouver to assess the impact of bike network structure on cyclist safety. Several network indicators were developed using Graph theory and their effect on cyclist safety was investigated. The indicators included measures of connectivity, directness, and topography of the bike network. The study developed several macro-level (zonal) collision prediction models that explicitly incorporated bike network indicators as explanatory variables. As well, the models incorporated the actual cyclist exposure (bike kilometers travelled) as opposed to relying on proxies such as population or bike network length. The macro-level collision prediction models were developed using generalized linear regression and full Bayesian techniques, with and without spatial effects. The models showed that cyclist collisions were positively associated with bike and vehicle exposure. The exponents of the exposure variables were less than one which supports the "safety in numbers" hypothesis. Moreover, the models showed positive associations between cyclist collisions and the bike network connectivity and linearity indicators. In contrast, negative associations were found between cyclist collisions and the bike network continuity and topography indicators. The spatial effects were statistically significant in all of the developed models.

  17. Biomonitoring studies should be used by regulatory agencies to assess human exposure levels and safety of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Schoenfelder, Gilbert

    2010-08-01

    Within the past 3 years, four major evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA) safety have been undertaken. However, these assessments have arrived at quite different conclusions regarding the safety of BPA at current human exposure levels. We compared the reasons provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) BPA risk assessment panel for their conclusion that human exposures are negligible with the conclusions reached by the other panels, with all panels having the same body of literature at their disposal. The EFSA panel dismissed > or = 80 biomonitoring studies that documented significant levels of BPA exposure in humans, including internal exposures to unconjugated BPA, on the basis that they did not match a model of BPA metabolism. Instead, the EFSA panel relied on two toxicokinetic studies-conducted in 15 adults administered BPA-to draw conclusions about exposure levels in the population, including exposures of neonates. As with all exposure assessments, models should be developed to explain actual data that are collected. In the case of BPA, samples from a large number of human subjects clearly indicate that humans are internally exposed to unconjugated BPA. The dismissal of these biomonitoring studies simply because their results do not conform to a model violates scientific principles. Expert panels should evaluate all data-including human biomonitoring studies-to make informed risk assessments.

  18. Can evolutionary theory explain the slow development of knowledge about the level of safety built into roads?

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2017-09-01

    In several papers, Hauer (1988, 1989, 2000a, 2000b, 2016) has argued that the level of safety built into roads is unpremeditated, i.e. not the result of decisions based on knowledge of the safety impacts of design standards. Hauer has pointed out that the development of knowledge about the level of safety built into roads has been slow and remains incomplete even today. Based on these observations, this paper asks whether evolutionary theory can contribute to explaining the slow development of knowledge. A key proposition of evolutionary theory is that knowledge is discovered through a process of learning-by-doing; it is not necessarily produced intentionally by means of research or development. An unintentional discovery of knowledge is treacherous as far as road safety is concerned, since an apparently effective safety treatment may simply be the result of regression-to-the-mean. The importance of regression-to-the-mean was not fully understood until about 1980, and a substantial part of what was regarded as known at that time may have been based on studies not controlling for regression-to-the-mean. An attempt to provide an axiomatic foundation for designing a safe road system was made by Gunnarsson and Lindström (1970). This had the ambition of providing universal guidelines that would facilitate a preventive approach, rather than the reactive approach based on accident history (i.e. designing a system known to be safe, rather than reacting to events in a system of unknown safety). Three facts are notable about these principles. First, they are stated in very general terms and do not address many of the details of road design or traffic control. Second, they are not based on experience showing their effectiveness. Third, they are partial and do not address the interaction between elements of the road traffic system, in particular road user adaptation to system design. Another notable fact consistent with evolutionary theory, is that the safety margins built

  19. Bioactive nutrients - Time for tolerable upper intake levels to address safety.

    PubMed

    Yates, Allison A; Erdman, John W; Shao, Andrew; Dolan, Laurie C; Griffiths, James C

    2017-03-01

    There is increasing interest by consumers, researchers, and regulators into the roles that certain bioactive compounds, derived from plants and other natural sources, can play in health maintenance and promotion, and even prolonging a productive quality of life. Research has rapidly emerged suggesting that a wide range of compounds and mixtures in and from plants (such as fruits and vegetables, tea and cocoa) and animals (such as fish and probiotics) may exert substantial health benefits. There is interest in exploring the possibility of establishing recommended intakes or dietary guidance for certain bioactive substances to help educate consumers. A key aspect of establishing dietary guidance is the assessment of safety/toxicity of these substances. Toxicologists need to be involved in both the development of the safety framework and in the evaluation of the science to establish maximum intake/upper limits.

  20. New challenges in the safety analysis of DOE`s high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.N.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; White, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-SY-101, located at the Department of Energy Hanford Site, has periodically released up to 283 m{sup 3} (10,000 ft{sup 3}) of flammable gas. This release has been one of the highest priority DOE operational safety problems because of potential consequences if the gas were ignited during one of these releases. The gases include hydrogen and ammonia (fuels) and nitrous oxide (oxidizer). There have been many opinions regarding the controlling mechanisms for these releases, but demonstrating an adequate understanding of the problem, selecting a mitigation methodology, and preparing the safety analysis have presented numerous new challenges. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the problem, the main issues, the method selected to mitigate this hazard, and the results of the mitigation program.

  1. Rapid Prototyping of NASA's Solar and Meteorological Data For Regional Level Modeling of Agricultural and Bio-fuel Crop Phenology and Yield Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    Global demand for food, feedstock and bio-fuel crops is expanding rapidly due to population growth, increasing consumption of these products (especially in developing countries), and more recently skyrocketing use of these crops to produce ethanol as a bio-fuel. As a result, there are growing concerns, both in the US and world wide, about the ability to meet the projected demand for agricultural/bio-fuel crops without expanding production areas into environmentally sensitive regions. Concurrently, there are increasing concerns over the negative impact of global warming on crop yields. Accurate ecophysiological crop models have been developed for many of the food and bio-fuel crops and serve as the back-bone in sophisticated Decision Support Systems (DSS). These DSS's are increasingly being used to address the balance between the need to increase production/efficiency and environmental concerns, as well as the impact of global warming on crop production. Realistic application of these agricultural DSS's requires accurate environmental data on time scales ranging from hours to decades. To date only sparse surface measurements are used that typically do not measure solar irradiance. NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project, which has as one of its objectives the development of data products for agricultural applications, currently provides a climatological data base of meteorological parameters and surface solar energy fluxes on a global 1-degree latitude by 1- degree longitude grid. NASA is also developing capabilities to produce near-real time data sets specifically designed for application by agricultural DSS's. In this presentation, we discuss the development of 1-degree global data products which combine the climatological data in the POWER project archive (http://earth-www.larc.nasa.gov/power), near real time (2 to 3 day lag) meteorological data from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) quick-look products, and global solar energy

  2. Peer review of the Barselina Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.L.; Coles, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Barselina Project is a Swedish-funded, cooperative effort among Lithuania, Russia and Sweden to transfer Western probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology to the designers/operators of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). The overall goal is to use the PSA as a tool for assessing plant operational safety. The INPP is a two-unit, Former Soviet Union-designed nuclear facility located in Lithuania. The results of this PSA will ultimately be used to identify plant-specific improvements in system design and the conduct of facility operations, allowing improved operational safety. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to perform an independent expert peer review of the Barselina PSA. This report documents the findings of this review. This review, financed with nuclear safety assistance funds through the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), satisfies Task II of the PNL peer review of the Barselina project. The objective is to provide an independent, in-proce ss examination of the Barselina Level 1 PSA of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2. The review consisted of an investigation of the project documentation, interviews, and extensive discussions with the PSA staff during critical stages of the project. PNL assessed the readability, completeness, consistency, validity, and applicability of the PSA. The major aspects explored were its purpose, major assumptions, analysis/modeling, results, and interpretation. It was not within the scope of this review to perform plant walkdowns or to review material other than the PSA documentation.

  3. [Difference in the level of patient treatment safety analysed by the years of experience of the radiological technologists].

    PubMed

    Doi, Tsukasa; Kawamoto, Kiyosumi; Yamaguchi, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    According to the report of the reporting project of medical accidents (from July 2010 to March 2011) which was issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, a lot of incidents involving radiological technologists occurred among young ages or experienced ages; therefore, we focused on this matter. We carried out questionnaires for the radiological technologists at the radiology department of our hospital to see how concerned they are about the patient treatment safety. We examined the causal relationship between years of their experience and their concerns about the patient treatment safety. As a result, we found that their concerns about the patient treatment safety are characteristically different depending on the years of experience. The results showed that the new technologists were on a low level of caring with a similar philosophy to the saying "To err is human". They also lack a positive attitude. Moreover, they stated that the causes of the errors were neither the devices nor the system of the devices. Mid-career technologists stated that the most common cause of errors is the liability of the person concerned. They are concerned that education to improve individual abilities is important. Experienced technologists stated that the cause of the error is excluding the person concerned, but due to the devices, patients, or advanced specialization of the examinations. However, they also had the positive attitude to promote the patient treatment safety.

  4. Simulation of crash tests for high impact levels of a new bridge safety barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozda, Jiří; Rotter, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    The purpose is to show the opportunity of a non-linear dynamic impact simulation and to explain the possibility of using finite element method (FEM) for developing new designs of safety barriers. The main challenge is to determine the means to create and validate the finite element (FE) model. The results of accurate impact simulations can help to reduce necessary costs for developing of a new safety barrier. The introductory part deals with the creation of the FE model, which includes the newly-designed safety barrier and focuses on the application of an experimental modal analysis (EMA). The FE model has been created in ANSYS Workbench and is formed from shell and solid elements. The experimental modal analysis, which was performed on a real pattern, was employed for measuring the modal frequencies and shapes. After performing the EMA, the FE mesh was calibrated after comparing the measured modal frequencies with the calculated ones. The last part describes the process of the numerical non-linear dynamic impact simulation in LS-DYNA. This simulation was validated after comparing the measured ASI index with the calculated ones. The aim of the study is to improve professional public knowledge about dynamic non-linear impact simulations. This should ideally lead to safer, more accurate and profitable designs.

  5. Review of the Constellation Level II Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Documents during Participation in the Constellation Level II SR&QA Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Gentz, Steven J.; Beil, Robert J.; Minute, Stephen A.; Currie, Nancy J.; Scott, Steven S.; Thomas, Walter B., III; Smiles, Michael D.; Schafer, Charles F.; Null, Cynthia H.; Bay, P. Michael

    2009-01-01

    At the request of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Constellation Program (CxP) Safety, Reliability; and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Director, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) participated in the Cx SR&QA Requirements forum. The Requirements Forum was held June 24-26; 2008, at GRC's Plum Brook Facility. The forums purpose was to gather all stakeholders into a focused meeting to help complete the process of refining the CxP to refine its Level II SR&QA requirements or defining project-specific requirements tailoring. Element prime contractors had raised specific questions about the wording and intent of many requirements in areas they felt were driving costs without adding commensurate value. NESC was asked to provide an independent and thorough review of requirements that contractors believed were driving Program costs, by active participation in the forum. This document contains information from the forum.

  6. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  7. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: A multivariable model including system level factors

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of ‘partially’ immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138– 13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151 – 6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017 – 10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075 – 7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144 - 0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598 – 23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057 – 0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake. PMID:25483477

  8. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  9. BIO: an alternative to RIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuroglu, Bahri; Oktug, Sema

    2001-07-01

    RED (Random Early Detection) is the most popular active queue management algorithm, although it has some weaknesses. Recently, another active queue management algorithm, BLUE, was proposed and shown that it is more successful in controlling the queue length when high number of flows are active on ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) capable networks. In this paper, RED and BLUE algorithms are evaluated for different levels of RTTs, with/without ECN support. It is shown that BLUE on ECN incapable networks is not as successful as on ECN capable networks. Differentiated Services architecture suggests that RIO (Red with In and Out) style queue management algorithms are to be used on each AF (Assured Forwarding) queue to offer different levels of services for different priorities at each AF class. Inspired of BLUE's success over RED on ECN capable networks, we developed a simple alternative to RIO, BIO (BLUE with In and Out). BIO, which runs two different BLUE algorithms for in and out packets, was expected to achieve lower loss rates while maximizing link utilization for high number of active flows on AF queues. However, due to the self-configuring architecture of the algorithm, it is observed that BIO marks packets too aggressively and degrades utilization. In this paper, the properties of BIO are also explained and the results obtained are justified.

  10. Associations of patient safety outcomes with models of nursing care organization at unit level in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Carl-Ardy; D'amour, Danielle; Tchouaket, Eric; Clarke, Sean; Rivard, Michèle; Blais, Régis

    2013-04-01

    To examine the associations of four distinct nursing care organizational models with patient safety outcomes. Cross-sectional correlational study. Using a standardized protocol, patients' records were screened retrospectively to detect occurrences of patient safety-related events. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations of those events with four nursing care organizational models. Twenty-two medical units in 11 hospitals in Quebec, Canada, were clustered into 4 nursing care organizational models: 2 professional models and 2 functional models. Two thousand six hundred and ninety-nine were patients hospitalized for at least 48 h on the selected units. Composite of six safety-related events widely-considered sensitive to nursing care: medication administration errors, falls, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, unjustified restraints and pressure ulcers. Events were ultimately sorted into two categories: events 'without major' consequences for patients and events 'with' consequences. After controlling for patient characteristics, patient risk of experiencing one or more events (of any severity) and of experiencing an event with consequences was significantly lower, by factors of 25-52%, in both professional models than in the functional models. Event rates for both functional models were statistically indistinguishable from each other. Data suggest that nursing care organizational models characterized by contrasting staffing, work environment and innovation characteristics may be associated with differential risk for hospitalized patients. The two professional models, which draw mainly on registered nurses (RNs) to deliver nursing services and reflect stronger support for nurses' professional practice, were associated with lower risks than are the two functional models.

  11. Fire safety

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    1999-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Since basic data on fire behavior of wood products...

  12. [Expertise level of occupational health physician, implementation of occupational safety and health management system (OSHMS) and occupational safety and health activity level in Japan in the companies listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange first section].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yukiko; Kameda, Takashi; Shirakawa, Chie; Nagata, Tomohisa; Zama, Satoko; Kayashima, Koutarou; Kobayashi, Yuuichi; Mori, Koji

    2007-12-01

    By enforcement of the revised Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law on April, 2006, the implementation of OSHMS seems to be expanding and encouraged. In OSHMS of Japan, however, the occupational health aspects have not been put into operated, while only occupational safety aspects have been prioritized. To clarify the issues to deploy OSHMS with occupational health aspects, we conducted a mail survey of 1,581 companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Market First Section in December, 2004. The effective responses were 267 (16.9%). The number of companies which had installed OSHMS, those that planned to install OSHMS and those had no plan for OSHMS were 62 (23.2%), 82 (30.7%) and 123 (46.1%), respectively. Only 12 companies include the complete OH activities in the installed OSHMS. A significant relationship was observed among expertise of OH physicians, actual role and responsibility of OH physicians, installation of OSHMS and OH services quality level. To deploy OSHMS well-balanced for health and safety aspects in present Japan, it was suggested that the education regarding OH operation in OSHMS was necessary to the person in charge of OSHMS in each company, and the participation by OH physicians to operate OSHMS, especially OH physicians with expertise, was essential.

  13. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-05-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  14. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-02-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  15. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  16. An Evaluation of the Implied Shortage Factor and Its Effect on the Air Force Logistics Command’s Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Variable Safety Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Order Quantity (EOQ) model and a derivation of the Presutti and Trepp Model IV to establish inventory variable safety levels. The safety level (SL...implied shortage factor, lambda is an arbitrary value that has a major effect on the SL formula and inventory levels at each wholesale supply depot, the...Air Logistics Center. The objective of this thesis was to determine the effectiveness of the process by which lambda has been previously determined at

  17. BioBlend.objects: metacomputing with Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Leo, Simone; Pireddu, Luca; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Lianas, Luca; Soranzo, Nicola; Afgan, Enis; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2014-10-01

    BioBlend.objects is a new component of the BioBlend package, adding an object-oriented interface for the Galaxy REST-based application programming interface. It improves support for metacomputing on Galaxy entities by providing higher-level functionality and allowing users to more easily create programs to explore, query and create Galaxy datasets and workflows. BioBlend.objects is available online at https://github.com/afgane/bioblend. The new object-oriented API is implemented by the galaxy/objects subpackage. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. A framework for evaluating safety-net and other community-level factors on access for low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Pamela L; Andersen, Ronald M; Wyn, Roberta; Brown, E Richard

    2004-01-01

    The framework presented in this article extends the Andersen behavioral model of health services utilization research to examine the effects of contextual determinants of access. A conceptual framework is suggested for selecting and constructing contextual (or community-level) variables representing the social, economic, structural, and public policy environment that influence low-income people's use of medical care. Contextual variables capture the characteristics of the population that disproportionately relies on the health care safety net, the public policy support for low-income and safety-net populations, and the structure of the health care market and safety-net services within that market. Until recently, the literature in this area has been largely qualitative and descriptive and few multivariate studies comprehensively investigated the contextual determinants of access. The comprehensive and systematic approach suggested by the framework will enable researchers to strengthen the external validity of results by accounting for the influence of a consistent set of contextual factors across locations and populations. A subsequent article in this issue of Inquiry applies the framework to examine access to ambulatory care for low-income adults, both insured and uninsured.

  19. Risk factors and mortality associated with undertriage at a level I safety-net trauma center: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Barsi, Chris; Harris, Peter; Menaik, Rich; Reis, Nicholas C; Munnangi, Swapna; Elfond, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with undertriage and the risk factors for mortality among the undertriaged patients at a level I safety-net trauma center. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of all trauma patients who presented to a level I safety-net trauma center with an injury severity score >15 over a 2-year period (2013–2014). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors predictive of undertriage in major trauma patients (injury severity score >15) and of mortality in undertriaged patients. Results During the 2-year study period, 334 of 2,485 admitted trauma patients presented with major trauma and were included in our study. From the univariate analysis, variables that were found to be independently associated with mortality in undertriaged patients included intubation, Glasgow Coma Scale score, revised trauma score, and dementia. Independent risk factors that were found to be significantly associated with undertriage in severely injured trauma patients included Glasgow Coma Scale score, motor vehicle crash, falls, revised trauma score, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, intubation, and dementia. When a multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the statistically significant risk factors, dementia was found to be significantly associated with undertriage in severely injured trauma patients. Conclusion Severely injured trauma patients with dementia are at significant risk for undertriage. Early identification of these risk factors while triaging at a level I safety-net trauma center could translate into improved patient outcomes following severe trauma. PMID:27877069

  20. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Atmospheric Formaldehyde Levels in an Academic Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausz, John C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Determined whether improved ventilation and use of "formaldehyde-free" biological specimens could reduce the levels of formaldehyde in air to which students and faculty would be exposed. Both methods were found to be effective in reducing formaldehyde levels in air. (JN)

  1. Paracetamol effectiveness, safety and blood level monitoring during patent ductus arteriosus closure: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Irena; Waisman, Dan; Lavie-Nevo, Karen; Golzman, Marcelo; Lorber, Avraham; Rotschild, Avi

    2014-11-01

    Paracetamol was reported to be effective for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. We present a case series of PDA closure by paracetamol in seven premature infants. During the treatment, paracetamol blood levels did not exceed the recommended levels for analgesia and hyperthermia in six tested infants. None of the patients demonstrated significant disturbances of liver function.

  2. Impact of bio-fertilizers and different levels of cadmium on the growth, biochemical contents and lipid peroxidation of Plantago ovata Forsk

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Irfana; Faizan, Shahla; Perveen, Rubina; Kausar, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk. (isabgol) is a valuable medicinal plant; its seeds and shell have a significant role in pharmacy as a laxative compound. Increasing soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) is one of the major concerns and is responsible for toxic effects in plants. This investigation was aimed to analyze the role of biofertilizers in alleviation of cadmium stress, given at the rate of 0, 50, and 100 mg kg−1 of soil. The plants of isabgol, were grown in pots with and without application of AM fungi and Azotobacter (alone and combination). Cadmium showed negative effect on growth and biochemical component whereas proline and MDA content increase with increasing cadmium concentration. Addition of bio-fertilizer showed better growth and higher pigment concentration under cadmium stress as compared to the control. The dual inoculation of AM fungi and Azotobacter was found to be the best in reduction of cadmium stress and promotion of growth parameters. PMID:25183940

  3. Creating a Culture of Safety by Reducing Noise Levels in the OR.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Lisa J; Harvey, Renee L

    2015-10-01

    We implemented a quality improvement project to reduce noise levels in the OR in response to complaints from the anesthesia staff members at two community hospitals. Excessive noise has been shown to increase staff member stress, fatigue, distraction, and ineffective communication, which can lead to medical errors. We measured noise levels during anesthesia induction and emergence for 118 different surgical procedures and compared noise levels before and after the improvement project intervention. Staff member education and noise reduction strategies, which included signage, prominent noise meters, and specific suggestions to staff members, helped to significantly reduce the noise level during the anesthetic induction and emergence phases of OR procedures. Copyright © 2015 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing nurse staffing levels in Belgian cardiac surgery centres: a cost-effective patient safety intervention?

    PubMed

    Van den Heede, Koen; Simoens, Steven; Diya, Luwis; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Vleugels, Arthur; Sermeus, Walter

    2010-06-01

    This paper is a report of a cost-effectiveness analysis from a hospital perspective of increased nurse staffing levels (to the level of the 75th percentile) in Belgian general cardiac postoperative nursing units. A previous study indicated that increasing nurse staffing levels in Belgian general cardiac postoperative nursing units was associated with lower mortality rates. Research is needed to compare the costs of increased nurse staffing levels with benefits of reducing mortality rates. Two types of average national costs were compared. A first calculation included the simulation of an increase in the number of nursing hours per patient day to the 75th percentile for nursing units staffed below that level. For the second calculation (the comparator) we used a 'do nothing' alternative. The most recent available data sources were used for the analysis. Results were expressed in the form of the additional costs per avoided death and the additional costs per life-year gained. The analysis used 2007 costing data. The costs of increasing nurse staffing levels to the 75th percentile in Belgian general cardiac postoperative nursing units amounted to euro1,211,022. Such nurse staffing levels would avoid an estimated number of 45.9 (95% confidence interval: 22.0-69.4) patient deaths per year and generate 458.86 (95% confidence interval: 219.93-693.79) life-years gained annually. This corresponds with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of euro26,372 per avoided death and euro2639 per life-year gained. Increasing nurse staffing levels appears to be a cost-effective intervention as compared with other cardiovascular interventions.

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  6. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  7. The Influence of Systems Support Division Funding and Safety Levels on Aircraft Availability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    and field-level-reparable) secondary items (101. The D062 model is essentially the model proposed by Presutti and Trepp in [I1]I The D062 emulator...DEMAND IN A LEADTIME, C BASED ON THE WORK OF PRESUTTI AND TREPP IN THEIR JUNE 1970 PAPER C IN THE NAVAL RESEARCH LOGISTICS QUARTERLY: "MORE ADO ABOUT

  8. BioVLAB-mCpG-SNP-EXPRESS: A system for multi-level and multi-perspective analysis and exploration of DNA methylation, sequence variation (SNPs), and gene expression from multi-omics data.

    PubMed

    Chae, Heejoon; Lee, Sangseon; Seo, Seokjun; Jung, Daekyoung; Chang, Hyeonsook; Nephew, Kenneth P; Kim, Sun

    2016-12-01

    Measuring gene expression, DNA sequence variation, and DNA methylation status is routinely done using high throughput sequencing technologies. To analyze such multi-omics data and explore relationships, reliable bioinformatics systems are much needed. Existing systems are either for exploring curated data or for processing omics data in the form of a library such as R. Thus scientists have much difficulty in investigating relationships among gene expression, DNA sequence variation, and DNA methylation using multi-omics data. In this study, we report a system called BioVLAB-mCpG-SNP-EXPRESS for the integrated analysis of DNA methylation, sequence variation (SNPs), and gene expression for distinguishing cellular phenotypes at the pairwise and multiple phenotype levels. The system can be deployed on either the Amazon cloud or a publicly available high-performance computing node, and the data analysis and exploration of the analysis result can be conveniently done using a web-based interface. In order to alleviate analysis complexity, all the process are fully automated, and graphical workflow system is integrated to represent real-time analysis progression. The BioVLAB-mCpG-SNP-EXPRESS system works in three stages. First, it processes and analyzes multi-omics data as input in the form of the raw data, i.e., FastQ files. Second, various integrated analyses such as methylation vs. gene expression and mutation vs. methylation are performed. Finally, the analysis result can be explored in a number of ways through a web interface for the multi-level, multi-perspective exploration. Multi-level interpretation can be done by either gene, gene set, pathway or network level and multi-perspective exploration can be explored from either gene expression, DNA methylation, sequence variation, or their relationship perspective. The utility of the system is demonstrated by performing analysis of phenotypically distinct 30 breast cancer cell line data set. BioVLAB-mCpG-SNP-EXPRESS is

  9. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Morici, Elisabetta; Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova

    2014-05-15

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  10. Protein bio-corona: critical issue in immune nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Neagu, Monica; Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Engin, Ayse Basak; Docea, Anca Oana; Constantin, Carolina; Negrei, Carolina; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2017-03-01

    With the expansion of the nanomedicine field, the knowledge focusing on the behavior of nanoparticles in the biological milieu has rapidly escalated. Upon introduction to a complex biological system, nanomaterials dynamically interact with all the encountered biomolecules and form the protein "bio-corona." The decoration with these surface biomolecules endows nanoparticles with new properties. The present review will address updates of the protein bio-corona characteristics as influenced by nanoparticle's physicochemical properties and by the particularities of the encountered biological milieu. Undeniably, bio-corona generation influences the efficacy of the nanodrug and guides the actions of innate and adaptive immunity. Exploiting the dynamic process of protein bio-corona development in combination with the new engineered horizons of drugs linked to nanoparticles could lead to innovative functional nanotherapies. Therefore, bio-medical nanotechnologies should focus on the interactions of nanoparticles with the immune system for both safety and efficacy reasons.

  11. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morici, Elisabetta; Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  12. The hematocrit level in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: safety of endoscopy and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Balderas, Valeska; Bhore, Rafia; Lara, Luis F; Spesivtseva, Julia; Rockey, Don C

    2011-10-01

    In patients with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, standard practice is to transfuse packed red blood cells, often to an arbitrary level of hemoglobin or hematocrit (typically 10 g/dL and 30%, respectively) before endoscopy. Therefore, we aimed to determine first whether performing endoscopy in patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and a low hematocrit is safe and whether it predicts outcomes. This cohort study included patients with carefully defined upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage captured in our gastrointestinal Healthcare Registry who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Patients were placed into 2 groups: low hematocrit (<30%) or high hematocrit (>30%). Clinical variables and outcomes, including cardiovascular events, intensive care unit transfer, and death, were measured. A total of 920 patients meeting entry criteria were identified. Baseline features among those with a low and high hematocrit were identical. Eight cardiovascular events occurred during or after esophagogastroduodenoscopy, including 5 of 587 (1%) in the less than 30% hematocrit group and 3 of 333 (1%) in the greater than 30% hematocrit group (P=.29). Blood transfusions were more common in the low hematocrit group (74% vs 24%, P<.001). However, correlation between the amount of blood transfused and hematocrit level was poor, and the number units of blood transfused was highly variable. There was no significant mortality difference in the 2 hematocrit groups. Most patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage presented with a hematocrit less than 30%. Performing endoscopy in patients with a low hematocrit was clearly safe; these data strongly imply that waiting for the hematocrit to reach a certain level before endoscopy is not necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of unit-level patient safety culture in hospitals in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-10-22

    Patient safety culture (PSC) has an important role in determining safety and quality in healthcare. Currently, little is known about the status of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. To develop appropriate strategies, characteristics of unit-level PSC should be investigated. Work units may be classified according to the characteristics of PSC, and common problems and appropriate strategies may be identified for each work unit category. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. In 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted at 18 hospitals in Japan. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire, developed by the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was distributed to all healthcare workers (n =12,076). Percent positive scores for 12 PSC sub-dimensions were calculated for each unit, and cluster analysis was used to categorise the units according to the percent positive scores. A generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to analyse the results of the cluster analysis, and odds ratios (ORs) for categorisation as high-PSC units were calculated for each unit type. A total of 9,124 respondents (75.6%) completed the questionnaire, and valid data from 8,700 respondents (72.0%) were analysed. There were 440 units in the 18 hospitals. According to the percent positive scores for the 12 sub-dimensions, the 440 units were classified into 2 clusters: high-PSC units (n =184) and low-PSC units (n =256). Percent positive scores for all PSC sub-dimensions for high-PSC units were significantly higher than those for low-PSC units. The GLMM revealed that the combined unit type of 'Obstetrics and gynaecology ward, perinatal ward or neonatal intensive care unit' was significantly more likely to be categorised as high-PSC units (OR =9.7), and 'Long-term care ward' (OR =0.2), 'Rehabilitation unit' (OR =0.2) and 'Administration unit' (OR =0.3) were significantly less likely to be categorised as high

  14. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Rashid, Mark M.; Williamson, Richard L.

    2005-06-01

    Cracks of various shapes and sizes exist in large high-level waste (HLW) tanks at several DOE sites. There is justifiable concern that these cracks could grow to become unstable causing a substantial release of liquid contaminants to the environment. Accurate prediction of crack growth behavior in the tanks, especially during accident scenarios, is not possible with existing analysis methodologies. This research project responds to this problem by developing an improved ability to predict crack growth in material structure combinations that are ductile (Fig. 1). This new model not only addresses the problem for these tanks, but also has applicability to any crack in any ductile structure.

  15. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system) analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes) and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims). Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that future research, policy

  16. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol.

    PubMed

    Robert, Glenn B; Anderson, Janet E; Burnett, Susan J; Aase, Karina; Andersson-Gare, Boel; Bal, Roland; Calltorp, Johan; Nunes, Francisco; Weggelaar, Anne-Marie; Vincent, Charles A; Fulop, Naomi J

    2011-10-26

    although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system) analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes) and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims). the protocol is based on the premise that future research, policy and practice need to address the

  17. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  19. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Williamson, Richard L.; Lloyd, W. R.; Rashid, Mark M.

    2003-06-01

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program aims to develop and verify models of crack growth in high level waste tanks under accidental overloads such as ground settlement, earthquakes and airplane crashes based on extending current fracture mechanics methods. While studies in fracture have advanced, the mechanics have not included extensive crack growth. For problems at the INEEL, Savannah River Site and Hanford there are serious limitations to current theories regarding growth of surface cracks through the thickness and the extension of through-thickness cracks. We propose to further develop and extend slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture modeling methodology) and, if need be, other ductile fracture characterizing approaches with the goal of predicting growth of surface cracks to the point o f penetration of the opposing surface. Ultimately we aim to also quantify the stress and displacement fields surrounding a growing crack front (slanted and tunneled) using generalized plane stress and fully plastic, three-dimensional finite element analyses. Finally, we will investigate the fracture processes associated with the previously observed transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture to include estimates of event probability. These objectives will build the groundwork for a reliable predictive model of fracture in the HLW storage tanks that will also be applicable to standardized spent nuclear fuel storage canisters. This predictive capability will not only reduce the potential for severe environmental damage, but will also serve to guide safe retrieval of waste. This program was initiated in November of 2001.

  20. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Lloyd, W. R.

    2002-06-01

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stages, aims to develop and verify models of crack growth in high level waste tanks under accidental overloads such as ground settlement, earthquakes and airplane crashes based on extending current fracture mechanics methods. While studies in fracture have advanced, the mechanics have not included extensive crack growth. For problems at the INEEL, Savannah River Site and Hanford there are serious limitations to current theories regarding growth of surface cracks through the thickness and the extension of through-thickness cracks. We propose to further develop and extend slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture modeling methodology) and, if need be, other ductile fracture characterizing approaches with the goal of predicting growth of surface cracks to the point of penetration of the opposing surface. We also aim to quantify the stress and displacement fields surrounding a growing crack front (slanted and tunneled) using generalized plane stress and fully plastic, three-dimensional finite element analyses. Finally, we will quantify the fracture processes associated with the previously observed transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture to include estimates of event probability. These objectives will build the groundwork for a reliable predictive model of fracture in the HLW storage tanks that will also be applicable to standardized spent nuclear fuel storage canisters. This predictive capability will not only reduce the potential for severe environmental damage, but will also serve to justify life extension through retrieval of waste. This program was initiated in November of 2001.

  1. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    SciTech Connect

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  2. Baseline specific IgE levels are useful to predict safety of oral immunotherapy in egg-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, M; Alvaro, M; Piquer, M; Dominguez, O; Machinena, A; Martín-Mateos, M A; Plaza, A M

    2014-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising treatment for food allergy but dose-related reactions are common. To evaluate safety of egg-OIT. To identify predictors of dose-related reactions. Fifty children aged 5-18 underwent egg-OIT after confirming IgE-mediated egg allergy by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge (DBPCFC). All dose-related reactions over a median period of 18 months on-OIT (range: 12-28) were registered. Children were retrospectively divided into three subgroups: (1) children who stopped reacting to OIT-doses over time (RR, Resolved Reactions); (2) children with ongoing dose-related reactions over the whole period on-OIT (PR, Persistent Reactions); (3) children who discontinued OIT within induction phase due to frequent reactions not improved by protocol re-adaptation and medication (ED, Early Discontinuation). Baseline clinical/immunological parameters associated with subgroups were investigated. Reactions occurred in 7.6% of doses. Adrenaline was required in 26% of children. The three subgroups corresponded to three different safety phenotypes: (1) twenty-four children (48%, RR) experienced infrequent and mainly mild reactions that resolved over time. None required adrenaline; (2) seventeen children (34%, PR) experienced more frequent and severe ongoing reactions over time; (3) nine children (18%, ED) discontinued OIT due to very frequent and mainly moderate reactions. Early discontinuation was associated with underlying asthma, higher specific IgE (sIgE) and lower threshold at DBPCFC. In contrast, lower sIgE and less severe reactions at DBPCFC were associated with subgroup RR. sIgE showed excellent performance in predicting belonging to subgroup RR. Levels below the optimal cut-off (ovomucoid-sIgE 8.85 kU/L) indicated 77% probability of belonging to subgroup RR, whereas levels above it indicated 95% probability of early discontinuation or ongoing reactions over time. Egg-OIT involves substantial risks. However, baseline parameters

  3. Patient care in a biological safety level-4 (BSL-4) environment.

    PubMed

    Marklund, LeRoy A

    2003-06-01

    The greatest threats to America's public health include accidental importation of deadly diseases by international travelers and the release of biologic weapons by our adversaries. The greatest failure is unpreparedness because international travel and dispersion of biologic agents by our enemies are inevitable. An effective medical defense program is the recommended deterrent against these threats. The United States has a federal response plan in place that includes patient care and patient transport by using the highest level of biologic containment: BSL-4. The DoD has the capability to provide intensive care for victims infected with highly infectious yet unknown biologic agents in an environment that protects the caregiver while allowing scientists to study the characteristics of these new agents and assess the effectiveness of treatment. Army critical care nurses are vital in the biologic medical defense against unidentified infectious diseases, accidental occupational exposures, or intentional dispersion of weaponized biologic agents. Research that carefully advances healthcare using BSL-4 technology addresses the challenges of the human element of BSL-4 containment patient care, and BSL-4 patient transport enhances our nation's ability to address the emerging biologic threats we confront in the future.

  4. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  5. Marked enhancement of the immune response to BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) by the TLR9 agonist CPG 7909 in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rynkiewicz, Dianna; Rathkopf, Melinda; Sim, Iain; Waytes, A Thomas; Hopkins, Robert J; Giri, Lallan; DeMuria, Deborah; Ransom, Janet; Quinn, James; Nabors, Gary S; Nielsen, Carl J

    2011-08-26

    Immunization with BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) is a safe and effective means of preventing anthrax. Animal studies have demonstrated that the addition of CpG DNA adjuvants to BioThrax can markedly increase the immunogenicity of the vaccine, increasing both serum anti-protective antigen (PA) antibody and anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibody (TNA) concentrations. The immune response to CpG-adjuvanted BioThrax in animals was not only stronger, but was also more rapid and led to higher levels of protection in spore challenge models. The B-class CpG DNA adjuvant CPG 7909, a 24-base synthetic, single-strand oligodeoxynucleotide, was evaluated for its safety profile and adjuvant properties in a Phase 1 clinical trial. A double-blind study was performed in which 69 healthy subjects, age 18-45 years, were randomized to receive three doses of either: (1) BioThrax alone, (2) 1 mg of CPG 7909 alone or (3) BioThrax plus 1 mg of CPG 7909, all given intramuscularly on study days 0, 14 and 28. Subjects were monitored for IgG to PA by ELISA and for TNA titers through study day 56 and for safety through month 6. CPG 7909 increased the antibody response by 6-8-fold at peak, and accelerated the response by 3 weeks compared to the response seen in subjects vaccinated with BioThrax alone. No serious adverse events related to study agents were reported, and the combination was considered to be reasonably well tolerated. The marked acceleration and enhancement of the immune response seen by combining BioThrax and CPG 7909 offers the potential to shorten the course of immunization and reduce the time to protection, and may be particularly useful in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis.

  6. Levels of reflective thinking and patient safety: an investigation of the mechanisms that impact on student learning in a single cohort over a 5 year curriculum.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Lucy J; Ker, Jean S

    2014-08-01

    Existing research into learning about patient safety focuses on identifying how educational interventions improve educational outcomes but few studies offer evidence that inform educators about the mechanisms involved in learning about patient safety. The current evidence based in undergraduates is also limited to outcomes that relate to knowledge and skills. A realist approach involving three cycles of data collection in a single cohort of students over 5 years used different outcomes in Kirkpatrick's framework to identify the mechanisms that influence students learning about patient safety. Data source 1. Focus groups identified an overarching theoretical model of the mechanisms that influence patient safety learning for medical students. Data source 2 Identified if the mechanisms from data source 1 could be demonstrated at the outcome level of knowledge and attitudes. Data source 3 Established associations between mechanisms and outcomes at skills and behavioural level, in a standardised simulated ward setting. Data source 1: The interpretation of data from seven focus groups involving sixty students identified reflection at two levels of Mezirow's descriptions; reflection and critical reflection as mechanisms that influence learning about error. Data source 2: Sixty-one students participated. The associations found, reflection and knowledge of actions to take for patient safety, r = 0.44 (P = 0.00) and critical reflection and intentions regarding patient safety, r = 0.40 (P = 0.00) Data source 3: Forty-eight students participated. The correlation identified associations between critical reflection and planned changes following feedback was, r = 0.48 (P = 0.00) and reflection and knowledge based errors r = -0.30 (P = 0.03). A realist approach identified two different levels of reflection were associated with different patient safety outcomes for this cohort of students. Critical reflection was associated with attitudes and reflection was associated with

  7. Preliminary Authorization Basis Document For the Proposed Biological Safety Level 3 (BSL-3) Facility (B368) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T; Nguyen, S

    2005-01-04

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management (ISM) System Description (LLNL 2002) and the Task Plan for the Preparation of Authorization Basis Documentation for the proposed Biosafety Level 3 Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (DOE 2002a) require a PABD be prepared for the proposed BSL-3 Facility. NNSA-OAK approval is required prior to its construction. This Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation (PABD) formalizes and documents the hazard evaluation and its results for the Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) facility. The PABD for the proposed BSL-3 facility provides the following information: (1) BSL-3 facility's site description; (2) general description of the BSL-3 facility and its operations; (3) identification of facility hazards; (4) generic hazard analysis; (5) identification of controls important to safety; and (6) safety management programs. The PABD characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazard associated with a facility and provides the basis for its hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required and the level of review and approval for the safety analysis. The hazards of primary concern associated with the BSL-3 facility are biological. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of biological materials and activities with the BSL-3 threshold established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for BSL-3 facilities.

  8. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics.

    PubMed

    Adams, William M; Scarneo, Samantha E; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    , Louisiana, Maryland, Oklahoma, Connecticut, Idaho, and South Carolina, respectively. States ranked 41 through 51 (from 38.73% to 23.00%) were Michigan, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Kansas, Wyoming, Minnesota, Montana, Iowa, California, and Colorado, respectively. State scores ranged from 23.00% to 78.75% for the implementation of evidence-based best practices for preventing the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries (sudden cardiac arrest, traumatic head injuries, exertional heat stroke, and exertional sickling) in sport. Continued advocacy for the development and implementation of policies at the secondary school level surrounding sudden death and catastrophic injuries is warranted to optimize the health and safety of these student athletes.

  9. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Adams, William M.; Scarneo, Samantha E.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-01-01

    .93% to 39.80%) were Ohio, Delaware, Alaska, Vermont, Louisiana, Maryland, Oklahoma, Connecticut, Idaho, and South Carolina, respectively. States ranked 41 through 51 (from 38.73% to 23.00%) were Michigan, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Kansas, Wyoming, Minnesota, Montana, Iowa, California, and Colorado, respectively. Conclusion: State scores ranged from 23.00% to 78.75% for the implementation of evidence-based best practices for preventing the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries (sudden cardiac arrest, traumatic head injuries, exertional heat stroke, and exertional sickling) in sport. Continued advocacy for the development and implementation of policies at the secondary school level surrounding sudden death and catastrophic injuries is warranted to optimize the health and safety of these student athletes. PMID:28951881

  10. Glycemic profile and effectiveness and safety of insulin therapy in septic patients: is the blood glucose level sufficient?

    PubMed

    Szrama, Jakub; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Trojanowska, Iwona

    2009-10-01

    Hyperglycemia in sepsis is managed by intensive insulin therapy, which can cause hypoglycemia. The aim of the study was to evaluate the glycemic profile as well as safety and effectiveness of a nurse-controlled insulin therapy protocol in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. The study included 16 septic patients who died (nonsurvivors) and 61 septic patients who survived. Glycemia was measured every 4 h, and the dose of insulin infusion was adjusted to maintain glycemia of 4.4 mmol/l to 8.3 mmol/l. We analyzed glycemia levels and daily variations, insulin dose, episodes of hypo- and hyperglycemia. Nonsurvivors and survivors had similar mean glycemia levels (7.38 vs. 7.08 mmol/l; p = 0.20) and insulin requirements (median [Me] = 26.9 vs. 23.9 units/d; p = 0.22; Me = 1.7 vs. 1.4 units/h; p = 0.25). Daily glycemia variation (Me = 4.81 vs. 3.03 mmol/l; p <0.001), episodes of hypoglycemia (18.8% vs. 3.3%; p = 0.02), spontaneous severe hypoglycemia (12.5% vs. 0%; p = 0.006) and hyperglycemia (75.0% vs. 45.9%; p = 0.04) were higher and more frequent in nonsurvivors. Three of 5393 blood samples (0.05%) met severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia criteria, and 74.4% of samples met the recommended range of 4.4-8.3 mmol/l. Patients who died experienced more episodes of hyperglycemia, spontaneous hypoglycemia and greater variation in the daily glycemia level. Daily glycemia variation is more reliable than a mean glycemic level in evaluating glucose homeostasis in septic patients. Few episodes of severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia occurred while using the nurse-controlled insulin therapy protocol.

  11. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem; Mehr, Ali Farhang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a two-level multidisciplinary design approach is described to optimize the effectiveness of ISHM s. At the top level, the overall safety of the mission consists of system-level variables, parameters, objectives, and constraints that are shared throughout the system and by all subsystems. Each subsystem level will then comprise of these shared values in addition to subsystem-specific variables, parameters, objectives and constraints. A hierarchical structure will be established to pass up or down shared values between the two levels with system-level and subsystem-level optimization routines.

  12. [Hyperbaric oxygen therapy at different pressure levels for aphasia following craniocerebral injury: efficacy, safety and patient adherence to therapy].

    PubMed

    Li, Qin

    2015-08-01

    To observe the clinical effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy at different pressure levels on aphasia after craniocerebral injury and assess the patient adherence to the therapies. Thirty-one patients with aphasia after craniocerebral injury receiving 30 sessions of HBO therapy at the pressure level of 0.175 MPa and another 31 patients receiving 0.2 MPa therapy were recruited as the treatment groups 1 and 2, respectively; 31 patients who refused to have HBO therapy served as the control group. All the patients received routine therapy. The therapeutic effects were assessed using Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) before and after the therapy. The WAB item and AQ scores, curative effect, and recovery time of aphasia were compared between the 3 groups. The total response rate was significantly lower in the control group as compared with those in treatment groups 1 and 2 (58.06% vs 83.87% and 87.1%). WAB item scores and AQ scores, curative effect, and recovery time of aphasia all showed significant differences between the control group and the two treatment groups (P<0.05), but not between the latter 2 groups (P>0.05). Compared with 0.20 MPa HBO therapy, 0.175 MPa HBO therapy showed a better patient adherence with a significantly lowered non-adherence rate (by 31.37%) an increased partial and total adherence rates (by 13.86% and 17.51%, respectively). HBO therapy at the pressure level of 0.175 MPa is more appropriate for treatment of aphasia after craniocerebral injury to ensure the safety, efficacy and patient compliance.

  13. Synthesis and in vitro Efficacy Studies of Silver Carbene Complexes on Biosafety Level 3 Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Panzner, Matthew J.; Deeraksa, Arpaporn; Smith, Alyssa; Wright, Brian D.; Hindi, Khadijah M.; Kascatan-Nebioglu, Aysegul; Torres, Alfredo G.; Judy, Barbara M.; Hovis, Christine E.; Hilliard, Julia K.; Mallett, Rebekah J.; Cope, Emily; Estes, D. Mark; Cannon, Carolyn L.; Leid, Jeff G.; Youngs, Wiley J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of N-heterocyclic carbene silver complexes have been synthesized and tested against the select group of bio-safety level 3 bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, Bacillus anthracis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia pestis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal and killing assays demonstrated the exceptional efficacy of the complexes against these potentially weaponizable pathogens. PMID:20160993

  14. Using naturalistic driving data to explore the association between traffic safety-related events and crash risk at driver level.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan; Jovanis, Paul P

    2014-11-01

    There has been considerable research conducted over the last 40 years using traffic safety-related events to support road safety analyses. Dating back to traffic conflict studies from the 1960s these observational studies of driver behavior have been criticized due to: poor quality data; lack of available and useful exposure measures linked to the observations; the incomparability of self-reported safety-related events; and, the difficulty in assessing culpability for safety-related events. This study seeks to explore the relationships between driver characteristics and traffic safety-related events, and between traffic safety-related events and crash involvement while mitigating some of those limitations. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study dataset, in which the participants' vehicles were instrumented with various cameras and sensors during the study period, was used for this study. The study data set includes 90 drivers observed for 12-13 months driving. This study focuses on single vehicle run-off-road safety-related events only, including 14 crashes and 182 safety-related events (30 near crashes, and 152 crash-relevant incidents). Among the findings are: (1) drivers under age 25 are significantly more likely to be involved in safety-related events and crashes; and (2) significantly positive correlations exist between crashes, near crashes, and crash-relevant incidents. Although there is still much to learn about the factors affecting the positive correlation between safety-related events and crashes, a Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model is shown to be useful to quantify the associations between safety-related events and crash risk while controlling for driver characteristics.

  15. A Survey of Business Trends at BioOne Publishing Partners and its Implications for BioOne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Todd A.; Joseph, Heather; Waltham, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of BioOne participating publishers that was conducted during the fall of 2003. In that survey, BioOne collected data from 18 not-for-profit publishers on circulation levels, scholarly output in terms of pages and articles produced, revenues, and expenditures. From eight of the publishers, complete profit, loss, and…

  16. A Survey of Business Trends at BioOne Publishing Partners and its Implications for BioOne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Todd A.; Joseph, Heather; Waltham, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of BioOne participating publishers that was conducted during the fall of 2003. In that survey, BioOne collected data from 18 not-for-profit publishers on circulation levels, scholarly output in terms of pages and articles produced, revenues, and expenditures. From eight of the publishers, complete profit, loss, and…

  17. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  18. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  19. Safety and efficacy of bioabsorbable cervical spacers and low-dose rhBMP-2 in multi-level ACDF.

    PubMed

    Khajavi, Kaveh; Shen, Alessandria

    2014-01-01

    Many options for interbody spacer and graft biologic exist for multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bioabsorbable cervical spacer (BCS) (Cornerstone HSR, Medtronic Sofamor Danek) filled with low-dose rhBMP-2 (INFUSE, Medtronic Sofamor Danek) in multilevel ACDF. 72 consecutive patients treated with a multi-level ACDF using BCS and rhBMP-2 (dosage between 0.5 to 0.7 mg per level) at a single institution were followed in an IRB-approved, prospective registry. A total of 187 levels were treated (mean = 2.6), with 37 (51%) patients undergoing a 2-level procedure and 35 (49%) undergoing a 3- or 4-level procedure. Statistical analysis included frequency and ANOVA tests. Significance was accepted for p < 0.001. Average follow-up was 13.8 months. Mean patient age was 55.3 years, 70.8% were female, and 16.7% had undergone a previous cervical procedure. 29 (40%) patients had cervical spondylitic myelopathy, 27 (38%) had radiculopathy, 15 (21%) had a combination of both, and 1 (1%) patient had a previous nonunion. A total of 187 levels were treated with an ACDF, with 37 (51%) 2-level, 27 (38%) 3-level, and 8 (11%) 4-level cases. Average OR time, EBL, and LOS were 144 minutes, 49 mL, and 1.1 days, respectively. Major complications occurred in 5 (7%) patients: 2 returns to OR (1 nonunion, 1 seroma), 1 recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, and 2 hospital readmissions for excessive pre-vertebral swelling/dysphagia treated with steroids and observation. Minor complications occurred in 3 (4%) patients: 2 exacerbations of pre-existing medical conditions (1 atrial fibrillation, 1 COPD), and 1 hospital readmission for nausea/ headache due to narcotics. At last follow-up, NDI improved 43% from 43.6% to 25.0%. VAS neck pain improved 60% from 5.5 to 2.2 and VAS arm pain improved 52% from 5.8 to 2.6. SF-36 PCS improved 24% from 37.5 to 46.3 and MCS improved 18% from 43.2 to 50.9. All clinical

  20. Expanding pedestrian injury risk to the body region level: how to model passive safety systems in pedestrian injury risk functions.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    decomposable into the 3 body regions and so are the risk functions as body region-specific risk functions. The risk functions for each body region are stated explicitly for different injury severity levels and compared to the real-world accident data. The body region-specific risk functions can then be used to model the effect of improved passive safety systems. These modified body region-specific injury risk functions are aggregated to a new pedestrian injury risk function. Passive safety systems can therefore be modeled in injury risk functions for the first time. A short example on how the results can be used for assessing the effectiveness of new driver assistance systems concludes the article.

  1. Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    of mask respirators with bio -inspired adhesive integrated into their peripheral seals; and (2) assessment of the competitive position of the new bio -inspired adhesives in broader fields of application.

  2. How Events at the Nano/Bio Interface Determine Good and Adverse Biological Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nel, Andre

    2014-03-01

    We have come to recognize that much of biology is executed at the nanoscale level, therefore providing a rational approach to using discovery about the structure and function of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) at the nano/bio interface for interrogation of disease, diagnosis, treatment, and imaging at levels of sophistication not possible before. Moreover, the behavior of ENM's at the nano/bio interface also constitutes the basis for hazard generation and is therefore key for understanding the safety assessment and safer design of nanomaterials. In this overview, I will discuss how discovery at the molecular, cellular, organ and systemic nano/bio interfaces has helped us to my progress progress in the fields of nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. I will explain how the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials relate to nanoscale interactions at the membrane, intracellular organelles, tissues and organs in response to exposure to a variety of commercial ENMs as well as for therapeutic nanocarriers. I will delineate how the use of high throughput screening to establish structure-activity relationships can be used for the design of improved nanocarriers for cancer treatment as well as hazard and risk ranking of large categories of commercial ENMs on their way to the marketplace.

  3. The influence of different concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer on cucumber Fusarium wilt and soil microflora alterations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Nan; Wang, Weiwei; Yao, Yanlai; Zhu, Fengxiang; Wang, Weiping; Chang, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is one of the main diseases of cucumber, and bio-organic fertilizer has been used to control Fusarium wilt. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bio-organic fertilizer applied at four levels on the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber, the soil physico-chemical properties and the microbial communities. In comparison with the control (CK), low concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO2.5 and BIO5) did not effectively reduce the disease incidence and had little effect on soil microorganisms. High concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO10 and BIO20) significantly reduced the disease incidence by 33.3%-66.7% and the production was significantly improved by 83.8%-100.3%. The soil population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was significantly lower in bio-organic fertilizer treatments, especially in BIO10 and BIO20. The microorganism activity increased with the bio-organic fertilizer concentration. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that, at the order level, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Solibacterales and Xylariales were significantly abundant in BIO10 and BIO20 soils. At the genus level, the abundance and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in BIO10 and BIO20 were similar, illustrating that high concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer activated diverse groups of microorganisms. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that Xanthomonadales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Orbiliales, Sordariales, and Mucorales occurred predominantly in the BIO10 and BIO20. These microorganisms were related to the organic matter, available potassium and available phosphorus contents. In conclusion, a high concentration of bio-organic fertilizer application suppressed the Fusarium wilt disease and increased cucumber production after continuous cropping might through improving soil chemical condition and manipulating the composition of soil microbial community. PMID:28166302

  4. The influence of different concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer on cucumber Fusarium wilt and soil microflora alterations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nan; Wang, Weiwei; Yao, Yanlai; Zhu, Fengxiang; Wang, Weiping; Chang, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is one of the main diseases of cucumber, and bio-organic fertilizer has been used to control Fusarium wilt. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bio-organic fertilizer applied at four levels on the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber, the soil physico-chemical properties and the microbial communities. In comparison with the control (CK), low concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO2.5 and BIO5) did not effectively reduce the disease incidence and had little effect on soil microorganisms. High concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO10 and BIO20) significantly reduced the disease incidence by 33.3%-66.7% and the production was significantly improved by 83.8%-100.3%. The soil population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was significantly lower in bio-organic fertilizer treatments, especially in BIO10 and BIO20. The microorganism activity increased with the bio-organic fertilizer concentration. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that, at the order level, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Solibacterales and Xylariales were significantly abundant in BIO10 and BIO20 soils. At the genus level, the abundance and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in BIO10 and BIO20 were similar, illustrating that high concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer activated diverse groups of microorganisms. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that Xanthomonadales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Orbiliales, Sordariales, and Mucorales occurred predominantly in the BIO10 and BIO20. These microorganisms were related to the organic matter, available potassium and available phosphorus contents. In conclusion, a high concentration of bio-organic fertilizer application suppressed the Fusarium wilt disease and increased cucumber production after continuous cropping might through improving soil chemical condition and manipulating the composition of soil microbial community.

  5. An Exploratory Analysis of University Safety Through an Examination Of Students' Self-Perceptions of Campus and Community Violence Levels and Student Learning Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore areas of research in regards to how students learn about violent crime on university campuses and what level of awareness they hold regarding their personal safety. A combination of databases was used to measure reported rates of violent crime on campus and in the community and these were compared with…

  6. Diamond bio electronics.

    PubMed

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  7. Bio-functional Au/Si Nanrods for Pathogen Detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabricated by glancing a...

  8. Skill acquisition while operating in-vehicle information systems: interface design determines the level of safety-relevant distractions.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Georg; Krems, Josef F; Gelau, Christhard

    2009-04-01

    This study tested whether the ease of learning to use human-machine interfaces of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) can be assessed at standstill. Assessing the attentional demand of IVIS should include an evaluation of ease of learning, because the use of IVIS at low skill levels may create safety-relevant distractions. Skill acquisition in operating IVIS was quantified by fitting the power law of practice to training data sets collected in a driving study and at standstill. Participants practiced manual destination entry with two route guidance systems differing in cognitive demand. In Experiment 1, a sample of middle-aged participants was trained while steering routes of varying driving demands. In Experiment 2, another sample of middle-aged participants was trained at standstill. In Experiment 1, display glance times were less affected by driving demands than by total task times and decreased at slightly higher speed-up rates (0.02 higher on average) than task times collected at standstill in Experiment 2. The system interface that minimized cognitive demand was operated more quickly and was easier to learn. Its system delays increased static task times, which still predicted 58% of variance in display glance times compared with even 76% for the second system. The ease of learning to use an IVIS interface and the decrease in attentional demand with training can be assessed at standstill. Fitting the power law of practice to static task times yields parameters that predict display glance times while driving, which makes it possible to compare interfaces with regard to ease of learning.

  9. Influence of Cadmium(II) Ions and Brewery Sludge on Metallothionein Level in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) – Bio-transforming of Toxic Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Huska, Dalibor; Krizkova, Sona; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Zehnalek, Josef; Diopan, Vaclav; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Metallothioneins belong to a group of intracellular, high molecular and cysteine-rich proteins whose content in an organism increase with increasing concentration of a heavy metal. The aim of this work was to apply the electrochemical analysis for the analysis of metallothioneins in earthworms exposed to cadmium ions and brewery sludge. Here we utilized adsorptive transfer technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction to determine metallothionein in different biological samples. By means this very sensitive technique it was possible to analyze metallothionein in concentrations below 1 μmol.l−1 with the standard deviation of 4-5%. We found out that the average MT level in the non-treated earthworms oscillated between 19 and 48 μmol.l−1. When we analysed samples of earthworms treated by cadmium, we observed that the MT content increased with the exposition length and increase dose of cadmium ions. Finally, we attempted to study and compare the toxicity of the raw sludge and its leach by using of earthworms. The raw brewery sludge caused the death of the earthworms quickly. Earthworms held in the presence of leach from brewery sludge increased their weight of 147 % of their original weight because they ingested the nutrients from the sludge. The metallothionein level changes markedly with increasing time of exposition and applied dose of toxic compound. It clearly follows from the obtained results that the MT synthesis is insufficient in the first hours of the exposition and increases after more than 24 h. PMID:27879751

  10. Molecular level biodegradation of phenol and its derivatives through dmp operon of Pseudomonas putida: A bio-molecular modeling and docking analysis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sujay; Banerjee, Arundhati

    2015-10-01

    Participation of Pseudomonas putida-derived methyl phenol (dmp) operon and DmpR protein in the biodegradation of phenol or other harmful, organic, toxic pollutants was investigated at a molecular level. Documentation documents that P. putida has DmpR protein which positively regulates dmp operon in the presence of inducers; like phenols. From the operon, phenol hydroxylase encoded by dmpN gene, participates in degrading phenols after dmp operon is expressed. For the purpose, the 3-D models of the four domains from DmpR protein and of the DNA sequences from the two Upstream Activation Sequences (UAS) present at the promoter region of the operon were demonstrated using discrete molecular modeling techniques. The best modeled structures satisfying their stereo-chemical properties were selected in each of the cases. To stabilize the individual structures, energy optimization was performed. In the presence of inducers, probable interactions among domains and then the two independent DNA structures with the fourth domain were perused by manifold molecular docking simulations. The complex structures were made to be stable by minimizing their overall energy. Responsible amino acid residues, nucleotide bases and binding patterns for the biodegradation, were examined. In the presence of the inducers, the biodegradation process is initiated by the interaction of phe50 from the first protein domain with the inducers. Only after the interaction of the last domain with the DNA sequences individually, the operon is expressed. This novel residue level study is paramount for initiating transcription in the operon; thereby leading to expression of phenol hydroxylase followed by phenol biodegradation.

  11. Population-level obesity surveillance: monitoring childhood body mass index z-score in a safety-net system.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Arthur J; McCormick, Emily V; Dickinson, L Miriam; Haemer, Matthew A; Knierim, Shanna D; Hambidge, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    To determine the utility of repeated patient-level body mass index (BMI) measurements among higher-risk patients seen at safety-net clinics as a community-level monitoring tool for overweight and obesity population trends. Data from a network of urban, federally qualified community health centers with computerized tracking of BMI at sequential outpatient visits were analyzed. We performed a longitudinal observational study over 8 years (2005-2012) with children stratified by weight status groups on the basis of BMI. Changes in BMI z-scores were used to estimate population trends among children 2 to 11 years old, with at least 2 visits (at least 1 year apart), for whom weight and height were measured. Among children (n = 33,542), the rate of overweight was 16% and rate of obesity was 18% at their last visit. Children were followed for an average of 3.24 ± 1.76 years to measure trends and change in weight status from earlier to later childhood. Children who were obese at first visit had increased odds (adjusted odds ratio 27.8, 95% confidence interval 25.6-30.2) of being obese by last visit. Mean change in BMI z-score per person-year of observation was 0.10 ± 0.38, with a differing rate of change based on weight status category at last visit (not overweight = 0.06 ± 0.39; overweight = 0.17 ± 0.34; obese = 0.19 ± 0.36). Change in BMI z-score per person-year decreased for 40% of obese children; however, their weight status group remained unchanged. Childhood obesity prevalence was high, with substantial progression to overweight and obesity from first to last visit. Clinically derived BMI z-score per person-year measures can effectively show population trends not observed using standard weight status categories. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The US drug safety system: role of the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Brent R; Suh, Ryung; Tilson, Hugh

    2008-02-01

    Despite increasingly strident calls for improved drug safety in the United States, recent events underscore the continuing gap among manufacturers, regulators, patients, and physicians. In the period leading to the recent Institute of Medicine report on the future of drug safety, representatives from industry were given an opportunity to provide input into this report. In light of continuing concerns about drug safety and pending legislation, this original perspective provides an important context. This work consolidates the views of representatives of individual pharmaceutical companies; the large industry trade associations, the Pharmaceutical Researchers and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) and the Biotechnology Industry Association (BIO); and those of the authors with regard to the industry role of drug safety in the United States. To ensure continued protection of the public's health, manufacturers must recognize themselves as critical to ensuring safe products; maintain corporate safety functions separate from marketing functions; provide oversight by a senior medical executive; engage in structured epidemiological research, risk assessment, and risk communication; and mandate the formation and maintenance of an internal, interdisciplinary, senior level safety council. The importance of aggressive and accountable drug safety will only become more salient as the public and their elected representatives demand better accountability from industry. Individual corporations now have the opportunity to move first to counter perceptions of profit over safety and to ensure that their business practices adequately protect the public's health. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Impact of bio-palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) on the activity and structure of a marine microbial community.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Andrea; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Boon, Nico; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) represent a promising catalyst for organohalide remediation in water and sediments. However, the available information regarding their possible impact in case of release into the environment, particularly on the environmental microbiota, is limited. In this study the toxicity of bio-Pd NPs on the model marine bacterium V. fischeri was assessed. The impacts of different concentrations of bio-Pd NPs on the respiratory metabolisms (i.e. organohalide respiration, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) and the structure of a PCB-dechlorinating microbial community enriched form a marine sediment were also investigated in microcosms mimicking the actual sampling site conditions. Bio-Pd NPs had no toxic effect on V. fischeri. In addition, they had no significant effects on PCB-dehalogenating activity, while showing a partial, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on sulfate reduction as well as on methanogenesis. No toxic effects by bio-Pd NPs could be also observed on the total bacterial community structure, as its biodiversity was increased compared to the not exposed community. In addition, resilience of the microbial community to bio-Pd NPs exposure was observed, being the final community organization (Gini coefficient) of samples exposed to bio-Pd NPs similar to that of the not exposed one. Considering all the factors evaluated, bio-Pd NPs could be deemed as non-toxic to the marine microbiota in the conditions tested. This is the first study in which the impact of bio-Pd NPs is extensively evaluated over a microbial community in relevant environmental conditions, providing important information for the assessment of their environmental safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypoglycemic activity of bio-tea in mice.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, C

    2000-03-01

    Administration of bio-tea (1.71 ml/kg) to normal albino mice caused hypoglycemia after 30 min which reached to maximum after 2 hr with a significant decrease in blood sugar level (BSL) and became normal beyond 8 hr. In alloxan-induced diabetic albino mice, repeated treatments of bio-tea for 3 days (five doses) brought about a significant fall in mean BSL. Continuous decrease in BSL was observed after 4 hr of administration of last dose of bio-tea. Hypoglycemic effect was persistent in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Effect on glucose tolerance test showed a significant fall in BSL of bio-tea treated animals after 1 hr of glucose treatment indicating hypoglycemic effect of bio-tea.

  15. Browsing Metabolic and Regulatory Networks with BioCyc

    PubMed Central

    Latendresse, Mario; Paley, Suzanne; Karp, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The BioCyc database collection at BioCyc.org integrates genome and cellular network information for more than 500 organisms. This method article describes Web-based tools for browsing metabolic and regulatory networks within BioCyc. These tools allow visualization of complete metabolic and regulatory networks, and allow the user to zoom-in on regions of the network of interest. The user can find objects of interest such as genes and metabolites within the networks, and can selectively examine the connectivity of the network. The EcoCyc database within the BioCyc collection has been extensively curated. The descriptions within EcoCyc of the Escherichia coli metabolic network and regulatory network were derived from thousands of publications. Other BioCyc databases received moderate levels of curation, or no curation at all. Those databases receiving no curation contain metabolic networks that were computationally inferred from the annotated genome sequences of each organism. PMID:22144155

  16. [Effect of course intake of bio-active flavonoids-containing plant preparation Extralife on the level of anxiety and sensorimotor reactivity in rats].

    PubMed

    Krupina, N A; Orlova, I N; Lukyanova, L D

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data evidence the need to search for new substances for treatment and prevention of increased anxiety associated with emotional and neurotic breakdown and worsening clinical prognosis of psychosomatic diseases. Of particular interest are the drugs of plant origin, which are generally well tolerated under prolonged use, and treat- ment is cheaper as compared with modem anxiolytics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of course taking a flavonoid-containing plant preparation Extralife (water-soluble extract Pentaphylloides fruticosa, 40 mg/kg per day for 1 month) in and inbred albino rats sampled in the population using a multi-parameter method for evaluating anxiety-phobic states. This method was also used for evaluating the severity of anxiety (state anxiety) in rats in the dynamics of the survey. Sensorimotor reactivity (emotionality) was assessed by the parameters of the acoustic startle response. Extralife did not prevent the increase in state anxiety in rats and did not change the level of anxiety in the animals. However, the drug reduced the amplitude of the acoustic startle response in the animals and increased startle response latency in both and rats, that is reduced the symptoms of anxiety caused by alarm sound stimuli in terms of sensorimotor reactivity. The data testify to the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Extralife more pronounced in the animals. In a course intake of Extralife rats demonstrated transient decrease in the pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, probably associated with the occurrence of transient disturbances in the psycho-emotional sphere. The findings suggest that Extralife in a course taking may have negative side effects on the emotionality of animals that determines the need to incorporate the features of mental and emotional status of the

  17. Project BioShield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-10

    to Congress. Expedited Peer Review . The Project BioShield Act of 2004 authorizes the HHS Secretary to use an expedited award process, rather than the...normal peer review process, for grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements related to biomedical countermeasure R&D activity, if the Secretary... peer review process will reduce the quality of the research.6 Peer review is designed to maximize the chances that only proposals with the greatest

  18. Project BioShield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-27

    Expedited Peer Review . The Project BioShield Act of 2004 authorizes the HHS Secretary to use an expedited award process, rather than the normal peer ...such awards, or to many, will depend on what needs the Secretary deems pressing. Some scientists have expressed concerns that an expedited peer review process...will reduce the quality of the research.6 Peer review is designed to maximize the chances that only proposals with the greatest scientific

  19. BioReactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, John; Roberts, Randy; Cleland, Tim; Gray, Perry

    2003-04-18

    BioReactor is a simulation tool kit for modeling networks of coupled chemical processes (or similar productions rules). The tool kit is implemented in C++ and has the following functionality: 1. Monte Carlo discrete event simulator 2. Solvers for ordinary differential equations 3. Genetic algorithm optimization routines for reverse engineering of models using either Monte Carlo or ODE representation )i.e., 1 or 2)

  20. Neighborhood Crime and Perception of Safety as Predictors of Victimization and Offending Among Youth: A Call for Macro-Level Prevention and Intervention Models

    PubMed Central

    Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M.; Rine, Christine M.; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William

    2012-01-01

    This paper is one of two in a series that reports detailed findings from a larger study that simultaneously explored individual, family and neighborhood level predictors of victimization and offending among youth. The current analysis aims to identify which neighborhood level factors have better predictive power with regard to type of victimization (direct and vicarious measures) and total offending overtime (Wave 1 and Wave 2). Methods: Path analysis was conducted using data from a multi-wave, panel study (N=625) of youth ages 16–19 at Wave 1. A best fitting model was determined showing causal pathways from neighborhood level factors including crime and perception of safety, to direct and vicarious victimization through exposure to violence, and subsequent offending. Findings: Neighborhood crime significantly predicted property victimization. Neighborhood crime and perception of safety significantly predicted vicarious victimization by exposure to violence in the neighborhood. Neighborhood crime and perception of safety were significantly associated with Wave 1 offending. Findings highlight the need for professionals who work with youth to be cognizant of how their environments influence their lives. Prevention and intervention models seeking to create sustainable change among youth should consider mezzo and macro level components that build and strengthen neighborhood capacity through community partnerships. PMID:23049152

  1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration perspective of the inclusion of effects of low-level exposures in safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gaylor, D W; Bolger, P M; Schwetz, B A

    1998-01-01

    A brief overview is provided of some of the general safety and risk assessment procedures used by the different centers of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) to evaluate low-level exposures. The U.S. FDA protects public health by regulating a wide variety of consumer products including foods, human and animal drugs, biologics, and medical devices under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The diverse legal and regulatory standards in the act allow for the consideration of benefits for some products (e.g., drugs) but preclude them from others (e.g., food additives). When not precluded by statutory mandates (e.g., Delaney prohibition), the U.S. FDA considers both physiologic adaptive responses and beneficial effects. For the basic safety assessment paradigm as presently used, for example in the premarket approval of food additives, the emphasis is on the identification of adverse effects and no observed adverse effect level(s) (NOAEL). Generally, the NOAEL is divided by safety factors to establish an acceptable exposure level. This safety assessment paradigm does not preclude the consideration of effects whether they are biologically adaptive or beneficial at lower dose levels. The flexibility to consider issues such as mechanisms of action and adaptive and beneficial responses depends on the product under consideration. For carcinogenic contaminants and radiation from medical devices, the U.S. FDA considers the potential cancer risk at low exposure levels. This generally involves downward extrapolation from the observed dose-response range. The consideration of adverse effects of other toxicologic end points (e.g., reproductive, immunologic, neurologic, developmental) associated with low exposure levels is also becoming more of a reality (e.g., endocrine disrupters). The evaluation of the biologic effects of low-level exposures to toxic substances must include whether the effect is adverse or a normal physiologic adaptive response and also

  2. Background for Community-Level Work on Physical Health and Safety in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Juliet L.; Scarpa, Juliet

    Although adolescence is characterized by general good health, this developmental stage is a key time for promoting a healthy lifestyle and preventing health-compromising behaviors and injuries. This paper presents a selective review of research into factors predicting health and safety behavior patterns and injury occurrence, focusing on…

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 102-80.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who has the...

  4. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 102-80.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who has the...

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 102-80.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who has the...

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 102-80.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who has the...

  7. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  8. A risk-based, product-level approach for assuring aquatic environmental safety of cleaning products in the context of sustainability: The Environmental Safety Check (ESC) scheme of the A.I.S.E. Charter for Sustainable Cleaning.

    PubMed

    Pickup, John Alexander; Dewaele, Joost; Furmanski, Nicola L; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Luijkx, Gerard Ca; Mathieu, Sophie; Stelter, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Cleaning products have long been a focus of efforts to improve sustainability and assure safety for the aquatic environment when disposed of after use. The latter is addressed at ingredient level through environmental risk assessment, including in formal frameworks such as REACH. Nevertheless, in the context of programs to improve overall sustainability, stakeholders demand both environmental safety assurance and progress at product level. Current product-level approaches for aquatic toxicity (e.g., USEtox™, Critical Dilution Volume) can be seen as predominantly hazard-based. The more logical approach would be risk-based, because ecotoxicity is generally threshold-dependent and hazard-based assessment produces conflicts with risk-based learnings. The development of a risk-based approach to assess formulated products is described: the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (A.I.S.E.) Charter Environmental Safety Check (ESC), which is consistent with the scientific principles underlying REACH. This is implemented through a simple spreadsheet tool and internal database of ingredient parameters including predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and removal rate. A novel feature is applying market volume information for both product types and ingredients to permit a risk-based calculation. To pass the ESC check, the projected environmental safety ratio (PESR) for each ingredient as formulated and dosed (unless cleared by a published risk assessment or exempted as inherently low risk) must be less than 1. The advantages of a risk-based approach are discussed. The strengths and limitations of various possible approaches to standard-setting, product-ranking and driving continuous improvement in respect of potential ecotoxic impacts on the aquatic environment are considered. It is proposed that as ecotoxicity is generally accepted to be threshold-dependent, with no effect below the threshold, the most constructive approach to continuous

  9. Initial Development of a Metric to Describe the Level of Safety Associated with Piloting an Aircraft with Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Glabb, Louis J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays provide pilots with a continuous view of terrain combined with integrated guidance symbology in an effort to increase situation awareness (SA) and decrease workload during operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). It is hypothesized that SVS displays can replicate the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual out-the-window (OTW) visibility or time of day. Significant progress has been made towards evolving SVS displays as well as demonstrating their ability to increase SA compared to conventional avionics in a variety of conditions. While a substantial amount of data has been accumulated demonstrating the capabilities of SVS displays, the ability of SVS to replicate the safety and operational flexibility of VMC flight performance in all visibility conditions is unknown to any specific degree. In order to more fully quantify the relationship of flight operations in IMC with SVS displays to conventional operations conducted in VMC, a fundamental comparison to current day general aviation (GA) flight instruments was warranted. Such a comparison could begin to establish the extent to which SVS display concepts are capable of maintaining an "equivalent level of safety" with the round dials they could one day replace, for both current and future operations. A combination of subjective and objective data measures were used to quantify the relationship between selected components of safety that are associated with flying an approach. Four information display methods ranging from a "round dials" baseline through a fully integrated SVS package that includes terrain, pathway based guidance, and a strategic navigation display, were investigated in this high fidelity simulation experiment. In addition, a broad spectrum of pilots, representative of the GA population, were employed for testing in an attempt to enable greater application of the results and

  10. Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety Innovations: Lessons from the Field. Improving the High-Level Disinfection Process of Vaginal Ultrasound Probes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-25

    Sharing Knowledge: Achieving Breakthrough Performance 2010 Military Health System Conference Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety Innovations...Lessons from the Field Naval Hospital Bremerton, Washington 25 January 2011 LCDR Wendy Anne Cook, NC, USN T e Quadruple Aim Working Together, Achieving...Success 1 Improving the High-Level Disinfection Process of Vaginal Ultrasound Probes Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public

  11. SAFETY OF MANNITOL USE IN BOWEL PREPARATION: a prospective assessment of intestinal methane (CH4) levels during colonoscopy after mannitol and sodium phosphate (NaP) bowel cleansing.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Gustavo Andrade de; Martins, Fernanda Prata Borges; Macedo, Erika Pereira de; Gonçalves, Manoel Ernesto Peçanha; Ferrari, Angelo Paulo

    2016-01-01

    - Adequate bowel preparation is critical for the quality of colonoscopy. Despite reported occurrence of colonic explosion due to methane and hydrogen production by bacterial fermentation during colonoscopy, gas exchange during the procedure is believed to be effective in lowering existing methane concentration, allowing for safe utilization of mannitol for bowel preparation. Thus, mannitol is widely used for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy, considering its low cost and effectiveness for bowel preparation. - The aim of this study was to assess the safety of mannitol for bowel preparation, when compared to sodium phosphate (NaP). - We conducted a prospective observational study in which 250 patients undergoing colonoscopy at Universidade Federal de São Paulo and Hospital Albert Einstein (São Paulo, Brazil) were approached for inclusion in the study. Patients received either mannitol (n=50) or NaP (n=200) for bowel preparation, based on physician indication. Study was conducted from August 2009 to December 2009. The main outcome of interest was presence of detectable levels of methane (CH4) during colonoscopy and reduction in such levels after gas exchange during the procedure. Methane concentrations were measured in three intestinal segments during scope introduction and withdrawal. Safety was assessed as the absence of high levels of methane, defined as 5%. Measurements were made using a multi-gas monitor (X-am 7000, Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA, Lübeck, Germany) connected to a plastic catheter introduced into the working channel of the colonoscope. Additional outcomes of interest included levels of O2. Methane and O2 levels are reported as ppm. Mean, difference and standard deviation of levels of gas measured in both moments were calculated and compared in both groups. Proportions of patients with detectable or high levels of methane in both groups were compared. Continuous variables were analyzed using t test and categorical variables using qui

  12. An empirical tool to evaluate the safety of cyclists: Community based, macro-level collision prediction models using negative binomial regression.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Lovegrove, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Today, North American governments are more willing to consider compact neighborhoods with increased use of sustainable transportation modes. Bicycling, one of the most effective modes for short trips with distances less than 5km is being encouraged. However, as vulnerable road users (VRUs), cyclists are more likely to be injured when involved in collisions. In order to create a safe road environment for them, evaluating cyclists' road safety at a macro level in a proactive way is necessary. In this paper, different generalized linear regression methods for collision prediction model (CPM) development are reviewed and previous studies on micro-level and macro-level bicycle-related CPMs are summarized. On the basis of insights gained in the exploration stage, this paper also reports on efforts to develop negative binomial models for bicycle-auto collisions at a community-based, macro-level. Data came from the Central Okanagan Regional District (CORD), of British Columbia, Canada. The model results revealed two types of statistical associations between collisions and each explanatory variable: (1) An increase in bicycle-auto collisions is associated with an increase in total lane kilometers (TLKM), bicycle lane kilometers (BLKM), bus stops (BS), traffic signals (SIG), intersection density (INTD), and arterial-local intersection percentage (IALP). (2) A decrease in bicycle collisions was found to be associated with an increase in the number of drive commuters (DRIVE), and in the percentage of drive commuters (DRP). These results support our hypothesis that in North America, with its current low levels of bicycle use (<4%), we can initially expect to see an increase in bicycle collisions as cycle mode share increases. However, as bicycle mode share increases beyond some unknown 'critical' level, our hypothesis also predicts a net safety improvement. To test this hypothesis and to further explore the statistical relationships between bicycle mode split and overall road

  13. Giving voice to quality and safety matters at board level: A qualitative study of the experiences of executive nurses working in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Jones, Aled; Lankshear, Annette; Kelly, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Recent reports into egregious failing in the quality and safety of healthcare in the UK have focussed on the ability of executive boards to discharge their duties effectively. Inevitably the role of executive nurses, whose remit frequently includes responsibility for quality and safety, has become the object of increased scrutiny. However, limited evidence exists about the experiences of the UK's most senior nurses of working at board level. We aimed to generate empirical evidence on the experiences of executive nurses working at board level in England and Wales. We posed two research questions: What are the experiences of nurse executives working at board level? What strategies and/or processes do nurse executives deploy to ensure their views and concerns about quality and safety are taken into account at board level? Qualitative interviews using semi-structured interviews. NHS England and Wales. Purposive sample of 40 executive board nurses. Semi-structured interviews followed by a process of thematic data analysis using NVivo10 and feedback on early findings from participants. Our findings are presented under three headings: the experiences of executive nurses working with supportive, engaged boards; their experiences of being involved with unsupportive, avoidant boards with a poor understanding of safety, quality and the executive nursing role and the strategies deployed by executive nurses to ensure that the nursing voice was heard at board. Two prominent and interrelated discursive strategies were used by executive nurses - briefing and building relationships and preparing and delivering a credible case. Considerable time and effort were invested in these strategies which were described as having significant impact on individual board members and collective board decision making. These strategies, when viewed through the lens of the concept of "groupthink", can be seen to protect executive nurses from accusations by board colleagues of disloyalty whislt also

  14. Negative transcriptional control of biotin metabolism genes by the TetR-type regulator BioQ in biotin-auxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    PubMed

    Brune, Iris; Götker, Susanne; Schneider, Jessica; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Tauch, Andreas

    2012-06-15

    Genomic context analysis in actinobacteria revealed that biotin biosynthesis and transport (bio) genes are co-localized in several genomes with a gene encoding a transcription regulator of the TetR protein family, now named BioQ. Comparative analysis of the upstream regions of bio genes identified the common 13-bp palindromic motif TGAAC-N3-GTTAC as candidate BioQ-binding site. To verify the role of BioQ in controlling the transcription of bio genes, a deletion in the bioQ coding region (cg2309) was constructed in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, resulting in the mutant strain C. glutamicum IB2309. Comparative whole-genome DNA microarray hybridizations and subsequent expression analyses by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR revealed enhanced transcript levels of all bio genes in C. glutamicum IB2309, when compared with the wild-type strain ATCC 13032. Accordingly, the BioQ protein of C. glutamicum acts as a repressor of ten genes that are organized in four transcription units: bioA-bioD, cg2884-cg2883, bioB-cg0096-cg0097, and bioY-bioM-bioN. DNA band shift assays with an intein-tagged BioQ protein demonstrated the specific binding of the purified protein to DNA fragments containing the candidate BioQ-binding sites, which were located within the mapped promoter regions of bioA, cg2884, bioB, and bioY. These data confirmed the direct regulatory role of BioQ in the control of biotin biosynthesis and transport genes in C. glutamicum. Differential expression of bio genes in C. glutamicum IB2309 was moreover complemented by bioQ genes cloned from other corynebacterial genomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Initial development of a metric to describe the level of safety associated with piloting an aircraft with synthetic vision systems (SVS) displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Glaab, Louis J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2005-05-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays provide pilots with a continuous view of terrain combined with integrated guidance symbology in an effort to increase situation awareness (SA) and decrease workload during operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). It is hypothesized that SVS displays can replicate the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual out-the-window (OTW) visibility or time of day. Throughout the course of recent SVS research, significant progress has been made towards evolving SVS displays as well as demonstrating their ability to increase SA compared to conventional avionics in a variety of conditions. While a substantial amount of data has been accumulated demonstrating the capabilities of SVS displays, the ability of SVS to replicate the safety and operational flexibility of VMC flight performance in all visibility conditions is unknown to any specific degree. The previous piloted simulations and flight tests have shown better SA and path precision is achievable with SVS displays without causing an increase in workload, however none of the previous SVS research attempted to fully capture the significance of SVS displays in terms of their contribution to safety or operational benefits. In order to more fully quantify the relationship of flight operations in IMC with SVS displays to conventional operations conducted in VMC, a fundamental comparison to current day general aviation (GA) flight instruments was warranted. Such a comparison could begin to establish the extent to which SVS display concepts are capable of maintaining an "equivalent level of safety" with the round dials they could one day replace, for both current and future operations. Such a comparison was the focus of the SVS-ES experiment conducted under the Aviation Safety and Security Program's (AvSSP) GA Element of the SVS Project at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A combination of

  16. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  17. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Anu, Sharma Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-06

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  18. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground Environmental Surveillance Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D. H.; Eddy, P. A.; Hawley, K. A.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.

    1981-07-01

    This Addendum supplements, and to some extent replaces, the preliminary description of environmental radiological surveillance programs for low-level waste burial grounds (LLWBG) used in the parent document, 11 Technology, Safety and Costs of DecolliTlissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground, 11 NUREG/ CR-0570. The Addendum provides additional detail and rationale for the environmental radiological surveillance programs for the two referenced sites and inventories described in NUREG/CR-0570. The rationale and performance criteria herein are expected to be useful in providing guidance for determining the acceptability of environmental surveillance programs for other inventories and other LLWBG sites. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are reference facilities considered in this Addendum, and as described in the parent document (NUREG/CR-0570). The two sites are assumed to have the same capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology, and hydrology of the two reference sites are typical of existing western and eastern sites, altnough a single population distribution was chosen for both. Each reference burial ground occupies about 70 hectares and includes 180 trenches filled with a total of 1.5 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of radioactive waste. In acldition, there are 10 slit trenches containing about 1.5 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of high beta-gamma activity waste. In this Addendum environmental surveillance programs are described for the several periods in the life of a LLWBG: preoperational (prior to nuclear waste receipt); operational (including interim trench closures); post-operational (after all nuclear waste is received), for both short-term {up to three years) and long-term (up to 100 years) storage and custodial care; and decommissioning (only for the special case of waste removal). The specific

  19. Comparison of efficacy, safety and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients of major depressive disorder, treated with fluoxetine and desvenlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, R; Gupta, R; Bhatia, M S; Tripathi, A K; Gupta, L K

    2015-12-01

    This randomized, open label, prospective, observational study compared clinical efficacy, safety alongwith plasma BDNF levels in outpatients of depression treated with fluoxetine and desvenlafaxine. Patients (aged 18-60 years) with moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score ≥14, who were prescribed fluoxetine or desvenlafaxine were included (n=30 in each group). Patients were followed up for 12 weeks for evaluation of clinical efficacy, safety along with BDNF levels. In the fluoxetine group, HAM-D scores at the start of treatment was 19±4.09 which significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 9.24±3.98 at 12 weeks. In the desvenlafaxine group, HAM-D scores at the start of treatment was 18±3.75 which significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 10±3.75 at 12 weeks. The BDNF levels in the fluoxetine group were 775.32±30.38pg/ml at the start of treatment which significantly (p<0.05) increased to 850.3±24.92pg/ml at 12 weeks. The BDNF levels in the desvenlafaxine group were 760.5±28.53pg/ml at the start of treatment which significantly (p<0.05) increased to 845.8±32.82pg/ml at 12 weeks. Both the antidepressants were found to be safe and well tolerated. The efficacy and the safety profile of desvenlafaxine is comparable to fluoxetine in patients of MDD. BDNF levels were significantly increased post-treatment with both the antidepressive agents. Whether BDNF may have a prognostic value in predicting treatment response to antidepressant drugs needs to be investigated in a larger patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3 (omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative safety.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Alvi, Azhar Z; Mirajkar, Abdur; Imani, Zahabia; Gamalevych, Yuliya; Shaikh, Nisar A; Jackowski, George

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidation status of North American n-3 (omega-3) PUFA nutritional supplements commercially available in Canada and evaluate the influence of product formulation and delivery form on oxidative safety. A total of 171 North American over-the-counter n-3 PUFA nutritional supplements were analysed for oxidation safety. Primary and secondary oxidation and total oxidation (TOTOX) were determined using the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) procedures. Comparisons between supplements' final forms, oil source and n-3 PUFA concentration quartiles, as measures of product formulations and delivery forms, were compared using ANOVA. Of the products successfully tested, 50 % exceeded the voluntary recommended levels for markers of oxidation. Another 18 % of products were approaching the limits with 1-3 years before expiration. Encapsulated products without flavour additives had significantly lower secondary and TOTOX levels than bulk oils and flavoured products (P < 0·05). Children's products had significantly higher primary, secondary and TOTOX levels compared with all other products (P < 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between oil sources (P > 0·05), with the exception of krill oil products having higher secondary oxidation levels than plant-based products (P > 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between n-3 PUFA supplement concentration quartiles. Consumers may be at risk of exposure to higher levels of oxidative products. New regulatory mandates need to be introduced to ensure that all n-3 PUFA products, used as nutritional supplements, regardless of their formulation or delivery form, can be tested for oxidative safety and compliance.

  1. Bio-tribology.

    PubMed

    Dowson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    It is now forty six years since the separate topics of friction, lubrication, wear and bearing design were integrated under the title 'Tribology' [Department of Education and Science, Lubrication (Tribology) Education and Research. A Report on the Present Position and Industry's Needs, HMSO, London, 1966]. Significant developments have been reported in many established and new aspects of tribology during this period. The subject has contributed to improved performance of much familiar equipment, such as reciprocating engines, where there have been vast improvements in engine reliability and efficiency. Nano-tribology has been central to remarkable advances in information processing and digital equipment. Shortly after widespread introduction of the term tribology, integration with biology and medicine prompted rapid and extensive interest in the fascinating sub-field now known as Bio-tribology [D. Dowson and V. Wright, Bio-tribology, in The Rheology of Lubricants, ed. T. C. Davenport, Applied Science Publishers, Barking, 1973, pp. 81-88]. An outline will be given of some of the developments in the latter field.

  2. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme.

  3. Enhancing quality and safety competency development at the unit level: an initial evaluation of student learning and clinical teaching on dedicated education units.

    PubMed

    Mulready-Shick, Joann; Kafel, Kathleen W; Banister, Gaurdia; Mylott, Laura

    2009-12-01

    The need to attend to quality and safety competency development, increase capacity in nursing education programs, address the faculty and nursing shortages, and find new ways to keep step with an ever-changing health care environment has brought forth numerous creative curricular responses and collaborative efforts. To tackle these multiple needs and challenges simultaneously, a new academic-service partnership was created to collaboratively develop an innovative clinical education delivery model. The designed dedicated education unit model not only promoted student learning about quality and safety competencies via unit-based projects but also supported quality improvements in nursing care delivery. Following the initial semester of the model's implementation, a pilot study was conducted. The findings generated the evidence required to take this innovation to the next level. Moreover, the education-practice partnership, which was created to implement the clinical education delivery model, was strengthened as a result of this preliminary evaluation.

  4. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  5. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  6. What is BioOne?

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2005-01-01

    BioOne is a Web-based aggregation of full-text, high-impact bioscience research journals. Most of its titles are published by small societies or non-commercial publishers and have not been previously available in electronic format. This column describes the BioOne database and gives some basic information about the best ways to search its content.

  7. Autonomous Bio-Optical Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    Autonomous Bio -Optical Instruments Russ E. Davis Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla CA 92093-0230 phone: (858) 534-4415 fax: (858) 534... Bio -Optical Instruments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  8. Finding of Correction Factor and Dimensional Error in Bio-AM Model by FDM Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manmadhachary, Aiamunoori; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Krishnanand, Lanka

    2016-06-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the swift manufacturing process, in which input data can be provided from various sources like 3-Dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 3D scanner data. From the CT/MRI data can be manufacture Biomedical Additive Manufacturing (Bio-AM) models. The Bio-AM model gives a better lead on preplanning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. However manufacturing of the accurate Bio-AM model is one of the unsolved problems. The current paper demonstrates error between the Standard Triangle Language (STL) model to Bio-AM model of dry mandible and found correction factor in Bio-AM model with Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. In the present work dry mandible CT images are acquired by CT scanner and supplied into a 3D CAD model in the form of STL model. Further the data is sent to FDM machine for fabrication of Bio-AM model. The difference between Bio-AM to STL model dimensions is considered as dimensional error and the ratio of STL to Bio-AM model dimensions considered as a correction factor. This correction factor helps to fabricate the AM model with accurate dimensions of the patient anatomy. These true dimensional Bio-AM models increasing the safety and accuracy in pre-planning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The correction factor for Dimension SST 768 FDM AM machine is 1.003 and dimensional error is limited to 0.3 %.

  9. The EFFECT trial: evaluating exacerbations, biomarkers, and safety outcomes with two dose levels of fluticasone propionate/formoterol in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Alberto; Jones, Paul W; Dalvi, Prashant S; McAulay, Kirsten; McIver, Tammy; Dissanayake, Sanjeeva

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist combination therapy is recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients at high risk of exacerbations. The EFFECT (Efficacy of Fluticasone propionate/FormotErol in COPD Treatment) trial is a Phase III, 52-week, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two doses of fluticasone propionate/formoterol compared to formoterol monotherapy in COPD patients with FEV1 ≥50% predicted and a history of exacerbations. The primary endpoint is the annualized rate of moderate and severe exacerbations. Secondary endpoints include pre-dose FEV1, EXACT-PRO (EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool – Patient-Reported Outcome)-defined exacerbations, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD, COPD Assessment Test, and EXACT-Respiratory Symptoms total score. Lung-specific biomarkers (surfactant protein D and CC chemokine ligand-18) will be measured in a subset of patients to explore their relationship to other clinical indices in COPD and their predictive utility. Pneumonia will be diagnosed per criteria defined by the British Thoracic Society community acquired pneumonia guideline, primarily by radiological confirmation and, additionally, using clinical criteria when a chest radiograph cannot be obtained. Serial measurements of serum potassium, vital signs and electrocardiograms, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and 24-hour urinary cortisol measurement will be performed in a subset of patients in addition to conventional safety assessments. PMID:26648706

  10. Catch me if I fall! Enacted uncertainty avoidance and the social safety net as country-level moderators in the job insecurity-job attitudes link.

    PubMed

    Debus, Maike E; Probst, Tahira M; König, Cornelius J; Kleinmann, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Job insecurity is related to many detrimental outcomes, with reduced job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment being the 2 most prominent reactions. Yet, effect sizes vary greatly, suggesting the presence of moderator variables. On the basis of Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory, we assumed that country-level enacted uncertainty avoidance and a country's social safety net would affect an individual's appraisal of job insecurity. More specifically, we hypothesized that these 2 country-level variables would buffer the negative relationships between job insecurity and the 2 aforementioned job attitudes. Combining 3 different data sources, we tested the hypotheses in a sample of 15,200 employees from 24 countries by applying multilevel modeling. The results confirmed the hypotheses that both enacted uncertainty avoidance and the social safety net act as cross-level buffer variables. Furthermore, our data revealed that the 2 cross-level interactions share variance in explaining the 2 job attitudes. Our study responds to calls to look at stress processes from a multilevel perspective and highlights the potential importance of governmental regulation when it comes to individual stress processes.

  11. Potency of bio-charcoal briquette from leather cassava tubers and industrial sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citrasari, Nita; Pinatih, Tety A.; Kuncoro, Eko P.; Soegianto, Agoes; Salamun, Irawan, Bambang

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of the bio-charcoal briquette with materials from leather cassava tubers and sludge of wastewater treatment plant. The first, bio-charcoal briquette analized stability test and compressive strength. Then, bio-charcoal briquette with best value analyzed for parameter including moisture content, ash content, calorific content, and burned test. The result briquette quality based on compressive strength for bio-charcoal briquettes carbonated water content between 3.8%-4.5% and non-carbonated bio-charcoal briquettes between 5.2%-7.6%. Bio-charcoal carbonation briquette ash content was between 5.30%-7.40% and non-carbonated bio-charcoal briquettes was between 6.86%-7.46%. Bio-charcoal carbonation levels briquettes heated between 578.2 calories/g-1837.7 calories/g and non carbonatedbio-charcoal briquettes between 858.1 calories/g-891.1 calories/g. Carbonated bio-charcoal burned test was between 48-63 minutes and non-carbonated bio-charcoal was between 22-42 minutes. Emissions resulted from the bio-charcoal briquettes for carbonated and non carbonated composition according to the government regulations ESDM No. 047 of 2006 which, at 128 mg/Nm3 and 139 mg/Nm3.

  12. Nurse staffing level and overtime associated with patient safety, quality of care, and care left undone in hospitals: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunhee; Lee, Nam-Ju; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Sinhye; Lee, Kyongeun; Park, Kwang-Ok; Sung, Young Hee

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association of nurse staffing and overtime with nurse-perceived patient safety, nurse-perceived quality of care, and care left undone. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 65 hospitals were selected from all of the acute hospitals (n=295) with 100 or more beds in South Korea by using a stratified random sampling method based on region and number of beds, and 60 hospitals participated in the study. All RNs working on the date of data collection in units randomly selected from the list of units in each hospital were invited to participate. The analyses in this study included only bedside RNs (n=3037) and hospitals (n=51) with responses from at least 10 bedside RNs. We collected data on nurse staffing level, overtime, nurse-perceived patient safety, nurse-perceived quality of care, nurse-reported care left undone, and nurse characteristics through a nurse survey. Facility data from the Health Insurance Review Agency (HIRA) were used to collect hospital characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression models considering that nurses are clustered in hospitals were used to analyze the effects of hospital nurse staffing and overtime on patient safety, quality of care, and care left undone. A higher number of patients per RN was significantly associated with higher odds of reporting poor/failing patient safety (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.004-1.03) and poor/fair quality of care (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.04), and of having care left undone due to lack of time (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01-1.05). Compared with RNs who did not work overtime, RNs working overtime reported an 88% increase in failing or poor patient safety (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.40-2.52), a 45% increase in fair or poor quality of nursing care (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.17-1.80), and an 86% increase in care left undone (OR=1.86, 95% CI=1.48-2.35). Our findings suggest that ensuring appropriate nurse staffing and working hours is important to improve the quality and safety of care and to reduce care

  13. Level of concern and sources of information of a group of Brisbane hostelers for personal safety and terrorism when traveling abroad.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Mills, Deborah; Speare, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the level of concern and sources of information of hostelers concerning personal safety and terrorism. This study was designed to investigate these in the Australian context. In 2006, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to hostelers attending a travelers' information evening in Brisbane. Forty questionnaires (60.8%) were returned. Over two thirds of attendees were women (71.4%). About two thirds of the hostelers attending the travelers' information evening reported being aged 29 years or younger (64.2%). Anticipated main destinations were Europe (68.3%), Asia (14.3%), and North America (11.9%). Nearly two thirds (63.4%) intended to travel in more than 8 weeks time or were not sure. Of those departing within 8 weeks, only 40% had sought travel health advice from their general practitioner and/or travel clinic. Nonmedical sources of information on travel health included travel books and guides (40.5%), Internet (35.7%), and travel agents (19.0%). On a five-point rating scale (1 being not concerned to 5 being extremely concerned), median ratings of hostelers' concern for personal safety (4.0) was significantly higher than for terrorism (2.5), with the range being 1 to 5 in each case (p < 0.001). Nearly three quarters (73.8%) of hostelers would seek personal safety advice from multiple sources, and sources of information included the Internet (69.0%, 29), travel books and guides (59.5%), physicians (57.1%), and travel agents (45.2%). Only three (7.1%) nominated the physician as their only source of personal safety advice. Hostelers attending a travelers' information night in Australia expressed more concern for their personal safety when traveling than for terrorism. Since this group of travelers uses multiple sources of information with the Internet most commonly used, Web sites that provide accurate and relevant information in an acceptable format could play an important role in supporting this group. It is important that policies

  14. Assessing farm tractor incidents and awareness levels of operators for tractor safety issues in the Hatay province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, S Görücü; Keskin, M; Soysal, Y

    2012-04-01

    Studies and statistical data on safety issues related to farm tractors and machinery are very limited in developing countries, including Turkey. This study was carried out to investigate tractor-related incidents in the Hatay province, located in the mid-south of Turkey. A questionnaire was conducted with 107 tractor operators using face-to-face interviews. Data were evaluated according to the incident type, machinery involved, and mechanism of injury or fatality. A total of 101 incidents were reported by 77 of the 107 respondents. Most of the incidents were due to tractor rollovers (65.4%), 14.8% of the incidents were due to entanglement of body parts in moving machinery, and 12.9% involved crashing into other vehicles or obstacles. The leading cause of the incidents was personal mistakes (60.4%). Fatalities resulted from 25.7% of the incidents, while 45.5% of the incidents caused non-fatal injuries. Only 5.6% of the tractors had a ROPS-enclosed cab. The percentage of ROPS-equipped tractors was 19.6%, while 41.3% of the tractors had a shade cover and 33.6% had no protective structure. Only one of the respondents used a seatbelt, although 44.9% of them stated that seatbelts should be used. It was also found that only 13.5% of the operators had training in work safety, while 95.1% stated that incidents might be reduced if people were trained. Development of appropriate policies and training programs are needed for safer operation of agricultural machinery to reduce injuries and fatalities due to farm accidents.

  15. Beyond the cold hit: measuring the impact of the national DNA data bank on public safety at the city and county level.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Matthew; Boland, Cherisse; Holt, Cydne

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) has increased solvability of violent crimes by linking evidence DNA profiles to known offenders. At present, an in-depth analysis of the United States National DNA Data Bank effort has not assessed the success of this national public safety endeavor. Critics of this effort often focus on laboratory and police investigators unable to provide timely investigative support as a root cause(s) of CODIS' failure to increase public safety. By studying a group of nearly 200 DNA cold hits obtained in SFPD criminal investigations from 2001-2006, three key performance metrics (Significance of Cold Hits, Case Progression & Judicial Resolution, and Potential Reduction of Future Criminal Activity) provide a proper context in which to define the impact of CODIS at the City and County level. Further, the analysis of a recidivist group of cold hit offenders and their past interaction with law enforcement established five noteworthy criminal case resolution trends; these trends signify challenges to CODIS in achieving meaningful case resolutions. CODIS' effectiveness and critical activities to support case resolutions are the responsibility of all criminal justice partners in order to achieve long-lasting public safety within the United States.

  16. Nurse Level of Education, Quality of Care and Patient Safety in the Medical and Surgical Wards in Malaysian Private Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Hamzah Abdul; Jarrar, Mu’taman; Don, Mohammad Sobri

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Nursing knowledge and skills are required to sustain quality of care and patient safety. The number of nurses with Bachelor degrees in Malaysia is very limited. This study aims to predict the impact of nurse level of education on quality of care and patient safety in the medical and surgical wards in Malaysian private hospitals. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey by questionnaire was conducted. A total of 652 nurses working in the medical and surgical wards in 12 private hospitals participated in the study. Multistage stratified simple random sampling performed to invite nurses working in small size (less than 100 beds), medium size (100-199 beds) and large size (over than 200) hospitals to participate in the study. This allowed nurses from all shifts to participate in this study. Results: Nurses with higher education were not significantly associated with both quality of care and patient safety. However, a total 355 (60.9%) of respondents who participated in this study were working in teaching hospitals. Teaching hospitals offer training for all newly appointed staff. They also provide general orientation programs and training to outline the policies, procedures of the nurses’ roles and responsibilities. This made the variances between the Bachelor and Diploma nurses not significantly associated with the outcomes of care. Conclusions: Nursing educational level was not associated with the outcomes of care in Malaysian private hospitals. However, training programs and the general nursing orientation programs for nurses in Malaysia can help to upgrade the Diploma-level nurses. Training programs can increase their self confidence, knowledge, critical thinking ability and improve their interpersonal skills. So, it can be concluded that better education and training for a medical and surgical wards’ nurses is required for satisfying client expectations and sustaining the outcomes of patient care. PMID:26153190

  17. Nurse Level of Education, Quality of Care and Patient Safety in the Medical and Surgical Wards in Malaysian Private Hospitals: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahman, Hamzah; Jarrar, Mu'taman; Don, Mohammad Sobri

    2015-04-23

    Nursing knowledge and skills are required to sustain quality of care and patient safety. The numbers of nurses with Bachelor degrees in Malaysia are very limited. This study aims to predict the impact of nurse level of education on quality of care and patient safety in the medical and surgical wards in Malaysian private hospitals. A cross-sectional survey by questionnaire was conducted. A total 652 nurses working in the medical and surgical wards in 12 private hospitals were participated in the study. Multistage stratified simple random sampling performed to invite nurses working in small size (less than 100 beds), medium size (100-199 beds) and large size (over than 200) hospitals to participate in the study. This allowed nurses from all shifts to participate in this study. Nurses with higher education were not significantly associated with both quality of care and patient safety. However, a total 355 (60.9%) of respondents participated in this study were working in teaching hospitals. Teaching hospitals offer training for all newly appointed staff. They also provide general orientation programs and training to outline the policies, procedures of the nurses' roles and responsibilities. This made the variances between the Bachelor and Diploma nurses not significantly associated with the outcomes of care. Nursing educational level was not associated with the outcomes of care in Malaysian private hospitals. However, training programs and the general nursing orientation programs for nurses in Malaysia can help to upgrade the Diploma-level nurses. Training programs can increase their self confidence, knowledge, critical thinking ability and improve their interpersonal skills. So, it can be concluded that better education and training for a medical and surgical wards' nurses is required for satisfying client expectations and sustaining the outcomes of patient care.

  18. The BioPAX community standard for pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Syed, Mustafa H

    2010-01-01

    Biological Pathway Exchange (BioPAX) is a standard language to represent biological pathways at the molecular and cellular level and to facilitate the exchange of pathway data. The rapid growth of the volume of pathway data has spurred the development of databases and computational tools to aid interpretation; however, use of these data is hampered by the current fragmentation of pathway information across many databases with incompatible formats. BioPAX, which was created through a community process, solves this problem by making pathway data substantially easier to collect, index, interpret and share. BioPAX can represent metabolic and signaling pathways, molecular and genetic interactions and gene regulation networks. Using BioPAX, millions of interactions, organized into thousands of pathways, from many organisms are available from a growing number of databases. This large amount of pathway data in a computable form will support visualization, analysis and biological discovery.

  19. The BioPAX community standard for pathway data sharing.

    PubMed

    Demir, Emek; Cary, Michael P; Paley, Suzanne; Fukuda, Ken; Lemer, Christian; Vastrik, Imre; Wu, Guanming; D'Eustachio, Peter; Schaefer, Carl; Luciano, Joanne; Schacherer, Frank; Martinez-Flores, Irma; Hu, Zhenjun; Jimenez-Jacinto, Veronica; Joshi-Tope, Geeta; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Lopez-Fuentes, Alejandra C; Mi, Huaiyu; Pichler, Elgar; Rodchenkov, Igor; Splendiani, Andrea; Tkachev, Sasha; Zucker, Jeremy; Gopinath, Gopal; Rajasimha, Harsha; Ramakrishnan, Ranjani; Shah, Imran; Syed, Mustafa; Anwar, Nadia; Babur, Ozgün; Blinov, Michael; Brauner, Erik; Corwin, Dan; Donaldson, Sylva; Gibbons, Frank; Goldberg, Robert; Hornbeck, Peter; Luna, Augustin; Murray-Rust, Peter; Neumann, Eric; Ruebenacker, Oliver; Reubenacker, Oliver; Samwald, Matthias; van Iersel, Martijn; Wimalaratne, Sarala; Allen, Keith; Braun, Burk; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Dahlquist, Kam; Finney, Andrew; Gillespie, Marc; Glass, Elizabeth; Gong, Li; Haw, Robin; Honig, Michael; Hubaut, Olivier; Kane, David; Krupa, Shiva; Kutmon, Martina; Leonard, Julie; Marks, Debbie; Merberg, David; Petri, Victoria; Pico, Alex; Ravenscroft, Dean; Ren, Liya; Shah, Nigam; Sunshine, Margot; Tang, Rebecca; Whaley, Ryan; Letovksy, Stan; Buetow, Kenneth H; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Schachter, Vincent; Sobral, Bruno S; Dogrusoz, Ugur; McWeeney, Shannon; Aladjem, Mirit; Birney, Ewan; Collado-Vides, Julio; Goto, Susumu; Hucka, Michael; Le Novère, Nicolas; Maltsev, Natalia; Pandey, Akhilesh; Thomas, Paul; Wingender, Edgar; Karp, Peter D; Sander, Chris; Bader, Gary D

    2010-09-01

    Biological Pathway Exchange (BioPAX) is a standard language to represent biological pathways at the molecular and cellular level and to facilitate the exchange of pathway data. The rapid growth of the volume of pathway data has spurred the development of databases and computational tools to aid interpretation; however, use of these data is hampered by the current fragmentation of pathway information across many databases with incompatible formats. BioPAX, which was created through a community process, solves this problem by making pathway data substantially easier to collect, index, interpret and share. BioPAX can represent metabolic and signaling pathways, molecular and genetic interactions and gene regulation networks. Using BioPAX, millions of interactions, organized into thousands of pathways, from many organisms are available from a growing number of databases. This large amount of pathway data in a computable form will support visualization, analysis and biological discovery.

  20. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  1. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  2. Defining systems expertise: effective simulation at the organizational level--implications for patient safety, disaster surge capacity, and facilitating the systems interface.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Amy H; Bair, Aaron; Okuda, Yasuharu; Kobayashi, Leo; Khare, Rahul; Vozenilek, John

    2008-11-01

    The Institute of Medicine's report "To Err is Human" identified simulation as a means to enhance safety in the medical field, just as flight simulation is used to improve the aviation industry. Yet, while there is evidence that simulation may improve task performance, there is little evidence that simulation actually improves patient outcome. Similarly, simulation is currently used to model teamwork-communication skills for disaster management and critical events, but little research or evidence exists to show that simulation improves disaster response or facilitates intersystem or interagency communication. Simulation ranges from the use of standardized patient encounters to robot-mannequins to computerized virtual environments. As such, the field of simulation covers a broad range of interactions, from patient-physician encounters to that of the interfaces between larger systems and agencies. As part of the 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on the Science of Simulation, our group sought to identify key research questions that would inform our understanding of simulation's impact at the organizational level. We combined an online discussion group of emergency physicians, an extensive review of the literature, and a "public hearing" of the questions at the Consensus Conference to establish recommendations. The authors identified the following six research questions: 1) what objective methods and measures may be used to demonstrate that simulator training actually improves patient safety? 2) How can we effectively feedback information from error reporting systems into simulation training and thereby improve patient safety? 3) How can simulator training be used to identify disaster risk and improve disaster response? 4) How can simulation be used to assess and enhance hospital surge capacity? 5) What methods and outcome measures should be used to demonstrate that teamwork simulation training improves disaster response? and 6) How can the interface

  3. Integration of Nevada Test Site (NTS) Work Control Programs and Incorporating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) into Activity Level Work Planning and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Kinney and Kevin Breen

    2008-08-30

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the Nevada Site Office (NSO) to improve the planning and execution of work activities utilizing an Activity Level Work Control process in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2004-1, Oversight of Complex, High-Hazard Nuclear Operations. The process was initially developed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2007, and implementation is commencing during the fourth quarter of FY 2008. This process will significantly enhance the flexibility and the appropriate rigor in the performance of work activities.

  4. Range Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrock, Kenneth W.; Humphries, Ricky H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The high kinetic and potential energy of a launch vehicle mandates there be a mechanism to minimize possible damage to provide adequate safety for the launch facilities, range, and, most importantly, the general public. The Range Safety System, sometimes called the Flight Termination System or Flight Safety System, provides the required level of safety. The Range Safety System section of the Avionics chapter will attempt to describe how adequate safety is provided, the system's design, operation, and it's interface with the rest of the launch vehicle.

  5. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71 GHz, 50 W/m2), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1 hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

  6. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery.

    PubMed

    Crouzier, David; Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71 GHz, 50 W/m(2)), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1 hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, (1)H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, (13)C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified.

  7. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming…

  8. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming…

  9. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  10. Home Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Swimming and Water Apply Swimming and Water filter Toy Safety Apply Toy Safety filter TV and Furniture Tip-Overs Apply ... Laundry Packets Medication Poison Sleep Safety and Suffocation Toy Safety TV and Furniture Tip-Overs Water and ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Safety

    PubMed Central

    Sammet, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a superior soft-tissue contrast compared to other radiological imaging modalities and its physiological and functional applications have led to a significant increase in MRI scans worldwide. A comprehensive MRI safety training to protect patients and other healthcare workers from potential bio-effects and risks of the magnetic fields in an MRI suite is therefore essential. The knowledge of the purpose of safety zones in an MRI suite as well as MRI appropriateness criteria is important for all healthcare professionals who will work in the MRI environment or refer patients for MRI scans. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of current magnetic resonance safety guidelines and discuss the safety risks of magnetic fields in an MRI suite including forces and torque of ferromagnetic objects, tissue heating, peripheral nerve stimulation and hearing damages. MRI safety and compatibility of implanted devices, MRI scans during pregnancy and the potential risks of MRI contrast agents will also be discussed and a comprehensive MRI safety training to avoid fatal accidents in an MRI suite will be presented. PMID:26940331

  12. Bio-regenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.; Wydeven, Theodore, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The basis for and the potential uses of bio-regenerative life support are examined. Bio-regenerative life support systems are an alternative to physical-chemical regeneration techniques for use when resupply of a crew in space is expensive, or when the logistics of resupply are difficult. Many of the scientific studies required for bio-regenerative life support systems have been completed and preliminary development of some components will begin within the next 12 to 18 months. The focus of the work that lies ahead will be efficient power and mass use, long-term system stability, component function, systems integration, and extensive testing in the space environment. Because of the advantages of bio-regeneration, it is anticipated that human life support for long-term space missions will evolve to include increasingly large amounts of biologically-based regeneration.

  13. Risk Level Based Management System: a control banding model for occupational health and safety risk management in a highly regulated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Kamerzell, R; Paik, S; Kapp, J; Harrington, D; Swuste, P

    2009-05-27

    The Risk Level Based Management System (RLBMS) is an occupational risk management (ORM) model that focuses occupational safety, hygeiene, and health (OSHH) resources on the highest risk procedures at work. This article demonstrates the model's simplicity through an implementation within a heavily regulated research institution. The model utilizes control banding strategies with a stratification of four risk levels (RLs) for many commonly performed maintenance and support activities, characterizing risk consistently for comparable tasks. RLBMS creates an auditable tracking of activities, maximizes OSHH professional field time, and standardizes documentation and control commensurate to a given task's RL. Validation of RLs and their exposure control effectiveness is collected in a traditional quantitative collection regime for regulatory auditing. However, qualitative risk assessment methods are also used within this validation process. Participatory approaches are used throughout the RLBMS process. Workers are involved in all phases of building, maintaining, and improving this model. This work participation also improves the implementation of established controls.

  14. Radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic radiology procedures, such as computed tomography (CT) and X-ray, are an increasing source of ionising radiation exposure to our community. Exposure to ionising radiation is associated with increased risk of malignancy, proportional to the level of exposure. Every diagnostic test using ionising radiation needs to be justified by clinical need. General practitioners need a working knowledge of radiation safety so they can adequately inform their patients of the risks and benefits of diagnostic imaging procedures.

  15. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported. PMID:25196110

  16. Bio-mimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted membranes.

    PubMed

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-07-30

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  17. Adult Basic Education. Adult Performance Level Curriculum Handbook: Occupational Knowledge, Consumer Economics, Health and Safety, Government and Law, Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Mildred; Thomas, Claire

    Beginning with a brief project report, this curriculum guide is intended to enable teachers to work effectively with Adult Performance Level (APL) programs. The manual (1) clarifies the concept of APL, (2) describes the APL-ABE (Adult Basic Education) curriculum at Florida Junior College (FJC), (3) provides examples of effective lesson plans for…

  18. Low-Level Violence in Schools: Is There an Association between School Safety Measures and Peer Victimization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low-level violent behavior, particularly school bullying, remains a critical public health issue that has been associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based prevention programs, while a valuable line of defense to stave off bullying, have shown inconsistent results in terms of decreasing bullying. This…

  19. Low-Level Violence in Schools: Is There an Association between School Safety Measures and Peer Victimization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low-level violent behavior, particularly school bullying, remains a critical public health issue that has been associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based prevention programs, while a valuable line of defense to stave off bullying, have shown inconsistent results in terms of decreasing bullying. This…

  20. Using urinary solubility data to estimate the level of safety concern of low levels of melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) present simultaneously in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Estevez, Manuel; Constable, Anne; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Renwick, Andrew G; Schilter, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) may occur simultaneously in milk products. There is no health based guidance value for the mixture of MEL+CYA. Limited toxicological data indicate that MEL+CYA toxicity occurs at levels lower than the toxic doses of the single compounds. The key adverse effect of MEL+CYA is the formation of crystals in the urinary tract, which is dependent on the solubility of the MEL+CYA complex. Urinary concentrations resulting from oral doses of MEL+CYA and MEL alone have been calculated from published data from animal studies. A human exposure scenario assuming consumption of infant formula contaminated at a level of 1 ppm of MEL and CYA each (2 ppm of MEL+CYA) was also analyzed. Margins of more than two orders or magnitude were observed between estimated urine concentrations known to be without detectable effects in rats and calculated human urine concentrations. Because the hazard is related to the physico-chemical characteristics of the mixture, there would be a negligible concern associated with crystal formation if the urinary concentration of the complex is within the solubility range. The solubility of MEL+CYA was higher in urine than in water. A strong pH-dependency was observed with the lowest solubility found at pH 5-5.5. The calculated human urinary concentration was about 30 times less than the solubility limit for MEL+CYA in adult human urine. Altogether, these data provide preliminary evidence suggesting that the presence of 1 ppm of MEL and CYA each in infant formula is unlikely to be of significant health concern.

  1. PRESTO-II computer code for safety assessment on shallow land disposal of low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) computer code has been applied for the following sites; Koteyli, Balikesir and Kozakli, Nevsehir in Turkey. This site selection was based partially on the need to consider a variety of hydrologic and climatic situations, and partially on the availability of data. The results obtained for the operational low-level waste disposal site at Barnwell, South Carolina, are presented for comparison. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Fungicidal values of bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions obtained from wood/bark fast pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Shi, Jenny; Nicholas, Darrel D; Pittman, Charles U; Steele, Philip H; Cooper, Jerome E

    2008-03-01

    Pine wood, pine bark, oak wood and oak bark were pyrolyzed in an auger reactor. A total of 16 bio-oils or pyrolytic oils were generated at different temperatures and residence times. Two additional pine bio-oils were produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a fluidized-bed reactor at different temperatures. All these bio-oils were fractionated to obtain lignin-rich fractions which consist mainly of phenols and neutrals. The pyrolytic lignin-rich fractions were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. Whole bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions were studied as potential environmentally benign wood preservatives to replace metal-based CCA and copper systems that have raised environmental concerns. Each bio-oil and several lignin-rich fractions were tested for antifungal properties. Soil block tests were conducted using one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and one white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). The lignin-rich fractions showed greater fungal inhibition than whole bio-oils for a impregnation solution 10% concentration level. Water repellence tests were also performed to study wood wafer swelling behavior before and after bio-oil and lignin-rich fraction treatments. In this case, bio-oil fractions did not exhibit higher water repellency than whole bio-oils. Comparison of raw bio-oils in soil block tests, with unleached wafers, at 10% and 25% bio-oil impregnation solution concentration levels showed excellent wood preservation properties at the 25% level. The good performance of raw bio-oils at higher loading levels suggests that fractionation to generate lignin-rich fractions is unnecessary. At this more effective 25% loading level in general, the raw bio-oils performed similarly. Prevention of leaching is critically important for both raw bio-oils and their fractions to provide decay resistance. Initial tests of a polymerization chemical to prevent leaching showed some success.

  3. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  4. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  5. Patient safety's missing link: using clinical expertise to recognize, respond to and reduce risks at a population level

    PubMed Central

    Hibbert, Peter D.; Healey, Frances; Lamont, Tara; Marela, William M.; Warner, Bruce; Runciman, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although incident reporting systems are widespread in health care as a strategy to reduce harm to patients, the focus has been on reporting incidents rather than responding to them. Systems containing large numbers of incidents are uniquely placed to raise awareness of, and then characterize and respond to infrequent, but significant risks. The aim of this paper is to outline a framework for the surveillance of such risks, their systematic analysis, and for the development and dissemination of population-based preventive and corrective strategies using clinical and human factors expertise. Requirements for a population-level response The framework outlines four system requirements: to report incidents; to aggregate them; to support and conduct a risk surveillance, review and response process; and to disseminate recommendations. Personnel requirements include a non-hierarchical multidisciplinary team comprising clinicians and subject-matter and human factors experts to provide interpretation and high-level judgement from a range of perspectives. The risk surveillance, review and response process includes searching of large incident and other databases for how and why things have gone wrong, narrative analysis by clinical experts, consultation with the health care sector, and development and pilot testing of corrective strategies. Criteria for deciding which incidents require a population-level response are outlined. Discussion The incremental cost of a population-based response function is modest compared with the ‘reporting’ element. Combining clinical and human factors expertise and a systematic approach underpins the creation of credible risk identification processes and the development of preventive and corrective strategies. PMID:26573789

  6. Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1997-05-01

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

  7. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to accurately

  8. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert C.; Jones, Samuel T.; Pollard, Anthony

    2017-04-04

    The present invention relates to a method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also disclosed are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  9. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  10. Gadolinium Chelate Safety in Pregnancy: Barely Detectable Gadolinium Levels in the Juvenile Nonhuman Primate after in Utero Exposure.

    PubMed

    Prola-Netto, Joao; Woods, Mark; Roberts, Victoria H J; Sullivan, Elinor L; Miller, Christina Ann; Frias, Antonio E; Oh, Karen Y

    2017-09-04

    Purpose To determine whether gadolinium remains in juvenile nonhuman primate tissue after maternal exposure to intravenous gadoteridol during pregnancy. Materials and Methods Gravid rhesus macaques and their offspring (n = 10) were maintained, as approved by the institutional animal care and utilization committee. They were prospectively studied as part of a pre-existing ongoing research protocol to evaluate the effects of maternal malnutrition on placental and fetal development. On gestational days 85 and 135, they underwent placental magnetic resonance imaging after intravenous gadoteridol administration. Amniocentesis was performed on day 135 prior to administration of the second dose of gadoteridol. After delivery, the offspring were followed for 7 months. Tissue samples from eight different organs and from blood were harvested from each juvenile macaque. Gadolinium levels were measured by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Gadolinium concentration in the amniotic fluid was 0.028 × 10(-5) %ID/g (percentage injected dose per gram of tissue) 50 days after administration of one gadoteridol dose. Gadolinium was most consistently detected in the femur (mean, 2.5 × 10(-5) %ID/g; range, [0.81-4.1] × 10(-5) %ID/g) and liver (mean, 0.15 × 10(-5) %ID/g; range, [0-0.26] × 10(-5) %ID/g). Levels were undetectable in the remaining sampled tissues, with the exception of one juvenile skin sample (0.07 × 10(-5) %ID/g), one juvenile spleen sample (0.039 × 10(-5) %ID/g), and one juvenile brain (0.095 × 10(-5) %ID/g) and kidney (0.13 × 10(-5) %ID/g) sample. Conclusion The presence of gadoteridol in the amniotic fluid after maternal injection enables confirmation that it crosses the placenta. Extremely low levels of gadolinium are found in juvenile macaque tissues after in utero exposure to two doses of gadoteridol, indicating that a very small amount of gadolinium persists after delivery. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  11. [Use of system of radiation and hygienic certification of territories for ensuring supervision of radiation safety of the population at the regional level].

    PubMed

    Rakitin, I A; Gorsky, G A

    2013-01-01

    In article the experience of Department of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare in St. Petersburg, related with performing of radiation and hygienic certification of the organizations and territories is considered. The annual assessment of individual and collective risks of emergence of stochastic effects for the population and the personnel of radiation objects shows the significance of radiation and hygienic certification for hygienic justification of the measures directed on a decrease in radiation exposure of the population from technogenic, natural and medical sources of ionizing radiation. The long-term analysis of the structure and dynamics of annual individual and collective effective doses of radiation of the population within the framework of radiation and hygienic certification and the Universal state system for control and accounting for individual doses of radiation of citizens allows to estimate efficiency of address target programs for the solution of actual problems of radiation safety at the regional level.

  12. Risk assessment strategies as a tool in the application of the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) and Food Safety Objective (FSO) by risk managers.

    PubMed

    Gkogka, E; Reij, M W; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2013-10-01

    In the course of the last decade, the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP), the Food Safety Objective (FSO) and their associated metrics have been proposed by the World Trade Organization and Codex Alimentarius as a means for competent authorities to ultimately translate governmental public health policy regarding food safety into risk-based targets for the food industry. The industry needs to meet these targets through the effective choice of control measures that are part of its operational food safety management system. The aim of this study was to put the practical application of ALOP and FSO to the test in the case of Salmonella in chicken meat in the Netherlands. Two different risk assessment approaches were applied to derive potential ALOP and FSO values, a 'top-down' approach based on epidemiological data and a 'bottom-up' approach based on food supply chain data. To this end, two stochastic models specific to the Dutch situation were built. Comparisons between 23 countries in Europe were also made using the top-down model. The mean estimated current Level Of Protection values were similar for the two approaches applied, with the bottom-up model yielding 87 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year (95% CI: 0.03, 904) and the top-down model 71 (95% CI: 9.9, 155). The estimated FSO values on the other hand were considerably different with the mean 'top down' FSO being -4.6 log CFU/g (95% CI: -5.4, -4.1) and the mean 'bottom-up' FSO -6.0 log CFU/g (95% CI: -8.1, -2.9) reflecting major differences in the output distributions of this parameter obtained with the two approaches. Significant differences were observed between current LOP values for different EU countries, although it was not clear whether this was due to actual differences in the factors influencing the risk of salmonellosis or due to the quality of the available data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of colloids erosion from the bentonite barrier of a high level radioactive waste repository and implications in safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missana, Tiziana; Alonso, Ursula; Albarran, Nairoby; García-Gutiérrez, Miguel; Cormenzana, José-Luís

    To investigate the dominant mechanisms of colloid formation from compacted and confined bentonite innovative experiments were conducted. Chemical or physical processes that can affect the erosion of the bentonite surface were analyzed (ionic strength of the water, Ca in the water and in the exchange complex of the clay, dry density of the clay and presence of a water flow rate at the bentonite surface). Hydration, swelling and extrusion of clay into pores or fractures are primary steps for the formation of free colloidal particles in the aqueous phase, and the chemistry of the clay/water system is the most important parameter controlling the generation and stability of colloids. Ca-bentonite formed colloids quantities below the detection limit of our techniques, even in deionised water, but a percentage of Na approximately 20-30% in the clay exchange complex, as that present in the FEBEX bentonite, is enough to allow the formation of colloidal particles in quantities very similar to those produced by the Na-bentonite. The results for bentonite colloid generation obtained at a laboratory scale allowed the estimation of a range of colloid generation rates under different chemical conditions. Results were compared with in situ experimental investigations carried out at the FEBEX gallery emplaced in a granite massif at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). The quantitative analysis of laboratory and in situ data can be used as input for models and performance assessment (PA) of high level radioactive waste (HLRW) repositories.

  14. Bio-oil deoxygenation by catalytic pyrolysis: new catalysts for the conversion of biomass into densified and deoxygenated bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Aimaro; Andrésen, John M

    2012-10-01

    This work proposes an innovative catalytic pyrolysis process that converts bio-refinery residues, such as spent grains, into intermediate bio-oil with improved properties compared to traditional bio-oils, which allows the use of existing crude-oil refinery settings for bio-oil upgrading into fuels. The integration of bio-oil into a crude-oil refinery would decrease the economic disadvantage of biomass compared to fossil fuels. The catalytic pyrolysis was able to produce bio-oil with a lower O and N content and high levels of aliphatics and H by using activated serpentine and olivine at 430-460 °C. The activated materials seem to be beneficial to the bio-oil energy content by increasing it from less than 20 MJ kg(-1) in the original biomass to 26 MJ kg(-1). Approximately 70-74 % of the starting energy remains in the bio-oil using activated olivine (ACOL) and activated serpentine (ACSE) at 430 °C, whereas only 52 % is retained using alumina (ALU) at the same temperature. There was a strong reduction of the O content in the bio-oils, and the deoxygenation power decreased in the following order: ACOL>ACSE>ALU. In particular, ACOL at 430-460 °C was able to reduce the O content of the bio-oil by 40 %. The oxygenated bio-oil macromolecules interact in the catalyst's active sites with the naturally present metallic species and undergo decarboxylation with the formation of C(5)-C(6) O-depleted species. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk/safety into alternative assessment evaluations.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2017-03-10

    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing one chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes 'Common Principles' to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of the six principles state reduce hazard and minimize exposure. A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this paper serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build upon practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through two hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These two case studies - inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain - demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard/exposure (risk) analysis. This paper informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk

  16. To evaluate the safety and efficiency of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in treating decubitus ulcers: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ambereen

    2015-03-01

    Introduction: Pressure sores (decubitus ulcer) are a serious problem in health care management, especially for middleaged to older people who are bed-ridden. Although preventative measures are used, the condition remains common and development of novel, improved treatment methods are desirable. This article reviews the application of laser-based methods, previously shown to be effective in accelerating wound-healing in animal models and in the treatment of decubitus ulcers in humans. Methods: About 23 scientific articles on the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in animals and humans from 2000-2014 were reviewed. Additionally, results of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed, and compared with other treatment methods available. Results: Whilst carefully controlled, laboratory-based animal studies indicated that LLLT can reduce healing time for several types of injuries, however similar studies in humans failed to demonstrate consistent beneficial effects in the clinical setting. An acceleration of decubitus ulcer healing has been occasionally found, although limited to certain wavelengths and sometimes only in combination with other types of therapies. Indeed, some of the clinical articles indicated that certain laser wavelengths can have detrimental effects on time of healing. Conclusions: To date, there remains no convincing evidence that LLLT has consistent medical benefit in treating decubitus ulcers. Caution should be applied when considering LLLT since only certain wavelengths utilized have shown beneficial effects. It is concluded that, more RCTs are needed since, there is no clinical justification for LLLT, alone or in combination with other methods, in treating decubitus ulcers.

  17. Risk assessment of low-level chemical exposures from consumer products under the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission chronic hazard guidelines.

    PubMed

    Babich, M A

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent regulatory agency that was created in 1973. The CPSC has jurisdiction over more the 15,000 types of consumer products used in and around the home or by children, except items such as food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, pesticides, certain radioactive materials, products that emit radiation (e.g., microwave ovens), and automobiles. The CPSC has investigated many low-level exposures from consumer products, including formaldehyde emissions from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation and pressed wood products, CO and NO2 emmissions from combustion appliances, and dioxin in paper products. Many chemical hazards are addressed under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA), which applies to acute and chronic health effects resulting from high- or low-level exposures. In 1992 the Commission issued guidelines for assessing chronic hazards under the FHSA, including carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, exposure, bioavailability, risk assessment, and acceptable risk. The chronic hazard guidelines describe a series of default assumptions, which are used in the absence of evidence to the contrary. However, the guidelines are intended to be sufficiently flexible to incorporate the latest scientific information. The use of alternative procedures is permissible, on a case-by-case basis, provided that the procedures used are scientifically defensible and supported by appropriate data. The application of the chronic hazard guidelines in assessing the risks from low-level exposures is discussed.

  18. Risk assessment of low-level chemical exposures from consumer products under the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission chronic hazard guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, M A

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent regulatory agency that was created in 1973. The CPSC has jurisdiction over more the 15,000 types of consumer products used in and around the home or by children, except items such as food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, pesticides, certain radioactive materials, products that emit radiation (e.g., microwave ovens), and automobiles. The CPSC has investigated many low-level exposures from consumer products, including formaldehyde emissions from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation and pressed wood products, CO and NO2 emmissions from combustion appliances, and dioxin in paper products. Many chemical hazards are addressed under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA), which applies to acute and chronic health effects resulting from high- or low-level exposures. In 1992 the Commission issued guidelines for assessing chronic hazards under the FHSA, including carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, exposure, bioavailability, risk assessment, and acceptable risk. The chronic hazard guidelines describe a series of default assumptions, which are used in the absence of evidence to the contrary. However, the guidelines are intended to be sufficiently flexible to incorporate the latest scientific information. The use of alternative procedures is permissible, on a case-by-case basis, provided that the procedures used are scientifically defensible and supported by appropriate data. The application of the chronic hazard guidelines in assessing the risks from low-level exposures is discussed. PMID:9539035

  19. A periodic review integrated inventory model with controllable safety stock and setup cost under service level constraint and distribution-free demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdhi, N. A.; Jamaluddin, A.; Jauhari, W. A.; Saputro, D. R. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we consider a stochastic integrated manufacturer-retailer inventory model with service level constraint. The model analyzed in this article considers the situation in which the vendor and the buyer establish a long-term contract and strategic partnership to jointly determine the best strategy. The lead time and setup cost are assumed can be controlled by an additional crashing cost and an investment, respectively. It is assumed that shortages are allowed and partially backlogged on the buyer’s side, and that the protection interval (i.e., review period plus lead time) demand distribution is unknown but has given finite first and second moments. The objective is to apply the minmax distribution free approach to simultaneously optimize the review period, the lead time, the setup cost, the safety factor, and the number of deliveries in order to minimize the joint total expected annual cost. The service level constraint guarantees that the service level requirement can be satisfied at the worst case. By constructing Lagrange function, the analysis regarding the solution procedure is conducted, and a solution algorithm is then developed. Moreover, a numerical example and sensitivity analysis are given to illustrate the proposed model and to provide some observations and managerial implications.

  20. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

  1. Bio-nanopatterning of Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Bio-nanopatterning of surfaces is a very active interdisciplinary field of research at the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology. Precise patterning of biomolecules on surfaces with nanometre resolution has great potential in many medical and biological applications ranging from molecular diagnostics to advanced platforms for fundamental studies of molecular and cell biology. Bio-nanopatterning technology has advanced at a rapid pace in the last few years with a variety of patterning methodologies being developed for immobilising biomolecules such as DNA, peptides, proteins and viruses at the nanoscale on a broad range of substrates. In this review, the status of research and development are described, with particular focus on the recent advances on the use of nanolithographic techniques as tools for biomolecule immobilisation at the nanoscale. Present strengths and weaknesses, as well future challenges on the different nanolithographic bio-nanopatterning approaches are discussed. PMID:21794192

  2. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  3. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs about Vaccine Safety Research Publications HDM Reports ISO Scientific Agenda Ensuring Safety History Understanding Side Effects ... Datalink Publications Emergency Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  4. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  5. Bio-Inspired Odor Source Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    1 Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Bio -Inspired Odor Source Localization Bio -Inspired Odor Source Localization...2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bio -Inspired Odor Source Localization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Distribution Unlimited Bio -Inspired Odor Source Localization Why study odor tracking? • Engineer odor tracking systems – Gas leaks – Hazardous waste

  6. On the Threshold of Safety: A Qualitative Exploration of Nurses' Perceptions of Factors Involved in Safe Staffing Levels in Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Lisa A; Perhats, Cydne; Delao, Altair M; Clark, Paul R; Moon, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    The emergency department is a unique practice environment in that the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA), which mandates a medical screening examination for all presenting patients, effectively precludes any sort of patient volume control; staffing needs are therefore fluid and unpredictable. The purpose of this study is to explore emergency nurses' perceptions of factors involved in safe staffing levels and to identify factors that negatively and positively influence staffing levels and might lend themselves to more effective interventions and evaluations. We used a qualitative exploratory design with focus group data from a sample of 26 emergency nurses. Themes were identified using a constructivist perspective and an inductive approach to content analysis. Five themes were identified: (1) unsafe environment of care, (2) components of safety, (3) patient outcomes: risky care, (4) nursing outcomes: leaving the profession, and (5) possible solutions. Participants reported that staffing levels are determined by the number of beds in the department (as in inpatient units) but not by patient acuity or the number of patients waiting for treatment. Participants identified both absolute numbers of staff, as well as experience mix, as components of safe staffing. Inability to predict the acuity of patients waiting to be seen was a major component of nurses' perceptions of unsafe staffing. Emergency nurses perceive staffing to be inadequate, and therefore unsafe, because of the potential for poor patient outcomes, including missed or delayed care, missed deterioration (failure to rescue), and additional ED visits resulting from ineffective discharge teaching. Both absolute numbers of staff, as well as skill and experience mix, should be considered to provide staffing levels that promote optimal patient and nurse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of self-adhesive low-level light therapy in women with primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gi-Youn; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Park, Seong-Nam; Gu, Yun-Hee; Kim, Nam-Gyun; Park, Kyoung-Jun; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Shin, Yong-Il

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level light therapy in women with primary dysmenorrhea. A multicenter prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial including patients 18-35 years of age with primary dysmenorrhea was undertaken at two university hospitals in South Korea between October 2011 and September 2012. Patients were randomized using a computer-generated sequence to receive low-level light therapy using the Color DNA-WSF device or to receive placebo treatment with a dummy device. The severity of menstrual pain, assessed using a visual analog scale, was the primary outcome and was evaluated at baseline and during every menstrual cycle for 3 months following treatment. Patients who received more than one application of treatment (with a Color DNA-WSF or placebo device) were included in analyses. Patients and investigators were masked to the treatment assignments. Overall, 44 patients were assigned to each group. At the final study visit, the reduction in scores using a visual analog scale was significantly greater in patients who received low-level light therapy (n=41; 4.34±2.22) than among those in the control group (n=38; 1.79±1.73; P<0.001 when adjusted for age) No serious adverse events occurred. Low-level light therapy could be an effective, safe treatment modality for women with primary dysmenorrhea. Clinical Trials.gov: NCT02026206. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy and safety of oral desensitization in children with cow's milk allergy according to their serum specific IgE level.

    PubMed

    García-Ara, Carmen; Pedrosa, María; Belver, María Teresa; Martín-Muñoz, María Flor; Quirce, Santiago; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Oral desensitization in children allergic to cow's milk proteins is not risk free. The analysis of factors that may influence the outcome is of utmost importance. To analyze the efficacy and safety of the oral desensitization according to specific IgE (sIgE) level and adverse events during the maintenance phase. Thirty-six patients allergic to cow's milk (mean age, 7 years) were included in an oral desensitization protocol. Patients were grouped according to sIgE levels (ImmunoCAP) into groups 1 (sIgE <3.5 kU/L), 2 (3.5-17 kU/L), and 3 (>17-50 kU/L). Nineteen children were included as a control group. Serum sIgE levels to cow's milk and its proteins were determined at inclusion and 6 and 12 months after finishing the desensitization protocol. Thirty-three of 36 patients were successfully desensitized (200 mL): 100% of group 1 and 88% of groups 2 and 3. Desensitization was achieved in a median of 3 months (range, 1-12 months); 90% of the patients in group 1, 50% of the patients in group 2, and 30% of the patients in group 3 achieved tolerance in less than 3 months (P = .04). In the control group only 1 child tolerated milk in oral food challenge after 1 year. During the induction phase, there were 53 adverse events in 27 patients (75%). Patients of groups 2 and 3 had more severe adverse events compared with group 1. During the maintenance phase, 20 of 33 patients (60%) had an adverse event. Oral desensitization is efficacious. Tolerance is achieved earlier when sIgE is lower. Severe adverse events are frequent, especially in patients with higher sIgE levels. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of contemporary assisted reproduction technology laboratory operations to determine staffing levels that promote patient safety and quality care.

    PubMed

    Alikani, Mina; Go, Kathryn J; McCaffrey, Caroline; McCulloh, David H

    2014-11-01

    To consider how staffing requirements have changed with evolving and increasingly more complex assisted reproduction technology (ART) laboratory practice. Analysis by four laboratory directors from three different ART programs of the level of complexity and time requirements for contemporary ART laboratory activities to determine adequate staffing levels. University-based and private ART programs. None. None. Human resource requirements for ART procedures. Both complexity and time required for completion of a contemporary ART cycle have increased significantly compared with the same requirements for the "traditional cycle" of the past. The latter required roughly 9 personnel hours, but a contemporary cycle can require up to 20 hours for completion. Consistent with this increase, a quantitative analysis shows that the number of embryologists required for safe and efficient operation of the ART laboratory has also increased. This number depends on not only the volume but also the types of procedures performed: the higher the number of complex procedures, the more personnel required. An interactive Personnel Calculator is introduced that can help determine staffing needs. The increased complexity of the contemporary ART laboratory requires a new look at the allocation of human resources. Our work provides laboratory directors with a practical, individualized tool to determine their staffing requirements with a view to increasing the safety and efficiency of operations. The work could serve as the basis for revision of the 2008 American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) staffing guidelines. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-scale groundwater flow modeling during temperate climate conditions for the safety assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Steven; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Forsmark in Sweden has been proposed as the site of a geological repository for spent high-level nuclear fuel, to be located at a depth of approximately 470 m in fractured crystalline rock. The safety assessment for the repository has required a multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate the impact of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical conditions close to the repository and in a wider regional context. Assessing the consequences of potential radionuclide releases requires quantitative site-specific information concerning the details of groundwater flow on the scale of individual waste canister locations (1-10 m) as well as details of groundwater flow and composition on the scale of groundwater pathways between the facility and the surface (500 m to 5 km). The purpose of this article is to provide an illustration of multi-scale modeling techniques and the results obtained when combining aspects of local-scale flows in fractures around a potential contaminant source with regional-scale groundwater flow and transport subject to natural evolution of the system. The approach set out is novel, as it incorporates both different scales of model and different levels of detail, combining discrete fracture network and equivalent continuous porous medium representations of fractured bedrock.

  11. 76 FR 53631 - BioPreferred Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... biobased preferred procurement program (one part of the BioPreferred Program) is available on the Internet... Rule The USDA BioPreferred Program provides for the preferred procurement of biobased products by Federal agencies as well as a voluntary labeling program for biobased products. The BioPreferred Program...

  12. Environmental Learning Experiences: Bio-Physical, Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junglas, Mary R.; And Others

    This environmental education curriculum guide was developed for teacher use at the junior high school level. Although the guide deals with the bio-physical aspects of the environment, it is designed to encourage an integration of the disciplines into an inter-disciplinary approach. The volume consists of a set of ideas, activities, and opinions…

  13. Environmental Learning Experiences: Bio-Physical, Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junglas, Mary R.; And Others

    This environmental education curriculum guide was developed for teacher use at the senior high school level. Although the guide deals with the bio-physical aspects of the environment, it is designed to encourage an integration of the disciplines into an inter-disciplinary approach. The volume consists of a set of ideas, activities, and opinions…

  14. Joint BioEnergy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay; Simmons, Blake; Tartaglino, Virginia; Baidoo, Edward; Kothari, Ankita

    2015-06-15

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center dedicated to developing advanced biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass that can replace gasoline, diesel and jet fuels.

  15. Joint BioEnergy Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Keasling, Jay; Simmons, Blake; Tartaglino, Virginia; Baidoo, Edward; Kothari, Ankita

    2016-07-12

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center dedicated to developing advanced biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass that can replace gasoline, diesel and jet fuels.

  16. Delivering safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.D.; Spooner, K.G.; Walkden, P.

    2007-07-01

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  17. Bio-optical Dynamics and the Forecasting of Bio-optical Variability in the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    LONG-TERM GOAL. Research on oceanic bio -optical processes and the prediction of ocean bio -optical properties requires coupled physical-biological...develop the bio -optical model component of the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS); ii) to apply the bio -optical model to the study of real ocean...dynamical processes which govern the variability of bio -optical properties and associated effects on biogeochemical and ecosystem dynamical processes; iii

  18. Bio-optical Dynamics and the Forecasting of Bio-optical Variability in the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    LONG-TERM GOAL. Research on oceanic bio -optical processes and the prediction of ocean bio -optical properties requires coupled physical-biological...prove such models, focusing specifically on the bio -optical component. Ultimately, this research is directed towards the understanding of optical and...technical objectives of this project are i) to develop the bio -optical model component of the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS); ii) to apply the bio

  19. BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S.; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia; Matos, Sérgio; Santos, André; Campos, David; Oliveira, José Luís; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chang, Yung-Chun; Su, Yu-Chen; Chu, Chun-Han; Chen, Chien Chin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H.; Vijay-Shanker, K.; Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kwon, Dongseop; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike; Wilbur, W. John; Comeau, Donald C.

    2016-01-01

    BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein–protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators’ feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining. Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/ PMID:27589962

  20. WebBio, a web-based management and analysis system for patient data of biological products in hospital.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Hao; Kuo, Chen-Chun; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2011-08-01

    We selected HTML, PHP and JavaScript as the programming languages to build "WebBio", a web-based system for patient data of biological products and used MySQL as database. WebBio is based on the PHP-MySQL suite and is run by Apache server on Linux machine. WebBio provides the functions of data management, searching function and data analysis for 20 kinds of biological products (plasma expanders, human immunoglobulin and hematological products). There are two particular features in WebBio: (1) pharmacists can rapidly find out whose patients used contaminated products for medication safety, and (2) the statistics charts for a specific product can be automatically generated to reduce pharmacist's work loading. WebBio has successfully turned traditional paper work into web-based data management.

  1. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  2. Generation of a novel live rabies vaccine strain with a high level of safety by introducing attenuating mutations in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Kento; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Mitake, Hiromichi; Okada, Kazuma; Yamaoka, Satoko; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Masatani, Tatsunori; Okadera, Kota; Ito, Naoto; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Makoto

    2017-10-09

    The current live rabies vaccine SAG2 is attenuated by only one mutation (Arg-to-Glu) at position 333 in the glycoprotein (G333). This fact generates a potential risk of the emergence of a pathogenic revertant by a back mutation at this position during viral propagation in the body. To circumvent this risk, it is desirable to generate a live vaccine strain highly and stably attenuated by multiple mutations. However, the information on attenuating mutations other than that at G333 is very limited. We previously reported that amino acids at positions 273 and 394 in the nucleoprotein (N273/394) (Leu and His, respectively) of fixed rabies virus Ni-CE are responsible for the attenuated phenotype by enhancing interferon (IFN)/chemokine gene expressions in infected neural cells. In this study, we found that amino acid substitutions at N273/394 (Phe-to-Leu and Tyr-to-His, respectively) attenuated the pathogenicity of the oral live vaccine ERA, which has a virulent-type Arg at G333. Then we generated ERA-N273/394-G333 attenuated by the combination of the above attenuating mutations at G333 and N273/394, and checked its safety. Similar to the ERA-G333, which is attenuated by only the mutation at G333, ERA-N273/394-G333 did not cause any symptoms in adult mice after intracerebral inoculation, indicating a low level of residual pathogenicity of ERA-N273/394-G333. Further examination revealed that infection with ERA-N273/394-G333 induces IFN-β and CXCL10 mRNA expressions more strongly than ERA-G333 infection in a neuroblastoma cell line. Importantly, we found that the ERA-N273/394-G333 stain has a lower risk for emergence of a pathogenic revertant than does the ERA-G333. These results indicate that ERA-N273/394-G333 has a potential to be a promising candidate for a live rabies vaccine strain with a high level of safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived colleagues' safety knowledge/behavior and safety performance: safety climate as a moderator in a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Yu, Guangtao; Li, Yongjuan; Li, Feng

    2010-09-01

    This study presented a model specifying the relationship of unit-level safety climate and perceived colleagues' safety knowledge/behavior (PCSK/B) to safety behavior (safety compliance and safety participation), as well as safety performance (injuries and near misses). PCSK/B, a measure of descriptive norms, was taken as a new individual-level predictor. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated the significant cross-level interaction effects of unit-level safety climate and PCSK/B on safety behavior, i.e., the more positive the safety climate, the stronger effects PCSK/B has on safety behavior. The effect of PCSK/B on injuries was mediated by safety behavior. Implications for management and safety climate research were discussed. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. BioImaging Database

    SciTech Connect

    David Nix, Lisa Simirenko

    2006-10-25

    The Biolmaging Database (BID) is a relational database developed to store the data and meta-data for the 3D gene expression in early Drosophila embryo development on a cellular level. The schema was written to be used with the MySQL DBMS but with minor modifications can be used on any SQL compliant relational DBMS.

  5. Vascular Safety of Ranibizumab in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema: A Pooled Analysis of Patient-Level Data From Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, Marco A; Dunger-Baldauf, Cornelia; Haskova, Zdenka; Koovejee, Prashil; Mousseau, Marie-Catherine; Margaron, Philippe; Snow, Howard; Beaumont, Paul E; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Francom, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) are at high risk of vascular complications, including stroke and myocardial infarction (MI). Concerns have been raised that intravitreal dosing of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors in DME could be associated with an increase in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse events. To evaluate the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular safety of ranibizumab, 0.5 mg and 0.3 mg, compared with sham with and without laser in DME. Patient-level data from 6 randomized, double-masked, sham- and laser-controlled clinical trials. Company-sponsored (Genentech or Novartis) studies in DME completed as of December 31, 2013. Pairwise comparisons (ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, vs sham and laser; ranibizumab, 0.3 mg, vs sham) were performed using Cox proportional hazard regression (hazard ratios, 95% CIs) and rates per 100 person-years. Data analysis was conducted from June 1 to July 15, 2015. Standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities queries and extended searches were prospectively defined to identify relevant safety end points, including arterial thromboembolic events, MI, stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular deaths, and major vascular events as defined by the Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration (APTC). Overall, 936 patients were treated with ranibizumab, 0.5 mg; 250 patients with ranibizumab, 0.3 mg; and 581 patients with sham/laser. The hazard ratios associated with all pairwise comparisons included 1 for all key cardiovascular and cerebrovascular safety end points. For ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, vs sham/laser and ranibizumab, 0.3 mg, vs sham, the hazard ratios were, respectively, arterial thromboembolic events, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.66-1.68) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.43-1.40); MI, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.41-1.72) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.43-2.06); stroke or transient ischemic attack, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.44-1.99) and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.19-1.42); stroke (excluding transient ischemic attack), 1.63 (95% CI, 0.65-4.07) and 0.59 (95% CI, 0

  6. Levels of Reflective Thinking and Patient Safety: An Investigation of the Mechanisms that Impact on Student Learning in a Single Cohort over a 5 Year Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Lucy J.; Ker, Jean S.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research into learning about patient safety focuses on identifying how educational interventions improve educational outcomes but few studies offer evidence that inform educators about the mechanisms involved in learning about patient safety. The current evidence based in undergraduates is also limited to outcomes that relate to knowledge…

  7. Levels of Reflective Thinking and Patient Safety: An Investigation of the Mechanisms that Impact on Student Learning in a Single Cohort over a 5 Year Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Lucy J.; Ker, Jean S.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research into learning about patient safety focuses on identifying how educational interventions improve educational outcomes but few studies offer evidence that inform educators about the mechanisms involved in learning about patient safety. The current evidence based in undergraduates is also limited to outcomes that relate to knowledge…

  8. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, Santosh; Meng, Jiajia; McCabe, Kevin; Larson, Eric; Mastro, Kelly

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  9. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  10. Safety of isotropic flywheels

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.W.

    1981-04-30

    A probabilistic safety criterion for isotropic flywheel rotors is established based on the tolerated noncontainment failure rates of commercial aircraft turbojet engine rotors. A technique is developed combining reliability with fracture mechanics, and a sample calculation provided, to show the energy-storage levels that isotropic flywheel rotors could achieve within the constraints of this safety criterion.

  11. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  12. Idaho Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This manual is intended to help teachers, administrators, and local school boards develop and institute effective safety education as a part of all vocational instruction in the public schools of Idaho. This guide is organized in 13 sections that cover the following topics: introduction to safety education, legislation, levels of responsibility,…

  13. Bio-sorption based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the highly efficient enrichment of trace-level bisphenol A from water samples prior to its determination by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Seyed Ammar

    2016-08-15

    In this study, biosorption based dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (Bio-DLLME) has been developed as a new method for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) from water samples. In this technique, the BPA is extracted into a stable cloudy phase. The colloidal phase is composed of micro-particles made from rhaminolipid biosurfactant and methanol, which dispersed in the water samples and facilitated the breakdown of analyte matrix bonds and provided high extraction yields. Rhaminolipid biosurfactants form a thin molecular interfacial film. This layer is formed between donor and recipient phase. This molecular layer, lowers the interfacial tension between immiscible phases (aqueous solution: colloidal particles) and allow dissimilar phases to mix and interact more easily. So the equilibrium state is achieved quickly and, therefore, the extraction time is very short. The attraction of the proposed method is that the extraction is fast, simple and can be done without toxic organic solvents. Also bioaggregates have several advantages such as higher environmental compatibility and biodegradability. Experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, relative recoveries of BPA were in the ranges of 98-103.3%. The calibration plot is linear in the range between 1 and 1000μgL(-1) (R(2)=0.998), and the relative standard deviation (RSD, for n=6) is 3.24%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Special issue on organic electronic bio-devices.

    PubMed

    Torsi, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present editorial is to briefly summarize the current scientific and technological accomplishments in the field of organic electronic biosensors as described in the articles published in this Special Issue. By definition, a biosensor is a robust analytical device that combines a biological recognition element (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, cells) with a transducer. Organic electronic bio-devices are considered as potentially reliable substitutes of conventional and rather expensive analytical techniques employed for several applications such as medical diagnosis, food safety and environment pollution monitoring. Some insights into the selection and immobilization of recognition elements, signal amplification, fabrication techniques and analytical performance of biosensing devices will be presented.

  15. Data Exchange Format for Biological Pathway Databases (BioPAX) Workshop - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Sander, PhD

    2004-07-28

    In June 2003, the Department of Energy (DOE) allocated funds in support of the development of A Data Exchange Format for Biological Pathway Databases (BioPAX). The primary objective of the BioPAX initiative (http://www.biopax.org) is the development of a single, consensus-based standard for a data exchange format for biological pathway databases that can be widely adopted in a timely manner as a strategy for the interchange of biological pathway data in the life science community. BioPAX Level 1, Version 1.0, released July 2004, supports metabolic pathway data and is initially supported by the BioCyc and WIT databases. This work was developed during community led workshops that were significantly funded by this grant. Subsequent releases of BioPAX will add support for protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, genetic interactions, and other pathway data types.

  16. Safety: System Safety Engineering and Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Review system safety status and issues during each milestone decision review ( MDR ) of new or improved Army Acquisition Executive (AAE)-managed systems...under research, development, or modification. (3) Review system safety status and issues during each MDR of new or improved DISC4-managed systems. (4) Act...for acceptance in all MDR packages and forward to the appropriate decision level. Institute risk management procedures as described in appendix B and

  17. Comparing two levels of closed system suction pressure in ICU patients: Evaluating the relative safety of higher values of suction pressure

    PubMed Central

    Yazdannik, Ahmad R.; Haghighat, Somayeh; Saghaei, Mahmoud; Eghbali, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is one of the most common supportive measures in intensive care units (ICU). ETS may be associated with complications including hypoxia and tachycardia. Closed system suctioning (CSS) decreases the rate of cardiorespiratory complication mainly due to continuation of ventilatory support and oxygenation during procedure. CSS has questionable efficacy, therefore higher values of negative pressure has been recommended to enhance the efficacy of CSS. This study was designed to evaluate the effects on gas exchange of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure compared with 100 mmHg in CSS. Materials and Methods: Fifty mechanically ventilated (MV) ICU patients were selected for the study. Two consecutive ten seconds CSS using suction pressures of 100 and 200 mmHg, in random order applied in each subject with the two hours wash out period. Effects of two levels of suction pressure on gas exchange were measured by recording the SPo2 values at 4 times. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance didn't show any significant difference between two levels of pressure (P = 0.315), but within each groups (100 and 200 mmHg) SPO2 changes was significant (P = 0.000). There was a mild but significant and transient increase in heart rate following both suction pressures, but no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: The results show that CSS with suction pressure 200 mmHg has no detrimental effect on cardiorespiratory function of MV ICU patients. Since the safety of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure was approved, using 200 mmHg suction pressures is recommended for ETS of MV patients. PMID:23983740

  18. Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity with a low-level laser-emitting toothbrush: double-blind randomised clinical trial of efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Ko, Y; Park, J; Kim, C; Park, J; Baek, S H; Kook, Y A

    2014-07-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is defined as pain derived from exposed dentin in response to chemical, thermal, tactile, or osmotic stimuli that cannot be explained as having arisen from any other dental defect or disease. The aim of this trial was to test the efficacy and the safety of a low-level laser-emitting toothbrush on management of DH. A prospective, double blind, randomised clinical trial was designed; 96 individuals with hypersensitive teeth without caries or fracture were selected as subjects. The subjects were randomly allocated to either the test group with the 635 nm per 6 mW laser-emitting toothbrush, or the control group with the 635 nm per 12.9 μW light-emitting diode (LED) toothbrush. An air blast was applied with a dental air syringe held 3 mm away from the selected tooth and a visual analogue scale (VAS: 0-10) was used to quantify subjective pain. Assessments were completed at a screening visit and after 2-week and 4-week of using a test/control toothbrush. Results demonstrated that the use of both control and test toothbrushes resulted in decreased discomfort after 4 weeks. In the test group, pain intensity scores decreased from 5.8 ± 1.2 to 2.3 ± 1.6, and in the control group, the scores decreased from 6.4 ± 1.3 to 5.5 ± 2.0 (P < 0.05). This decrease was significantly greater in the test group. There were no significant adverse events or side effects. It was concluded that the use of the low-level laser emitting toothbrush is a safe and effective treatment option for the management of DH.

  19. Comparing two levels of closed system suction pressure in ICU patients: Evaluating the relative safety of higher values of suction pressure.

    PubMed

    Yazdannik, Ahmad R; Haghighat, Somayeh; Saghaei, Mahmoud; Eghbali, Maryam

    2013-03-01

    Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is one of the most common supportive measures in intensive care units (ICU). ETS may be associated with complications including hypoxia and tachycardia. Closed system suctioning (CSS) decreases the rate of cardiorespiratory complication mainly due to continuation of ventilatory support and oxygenation during procedure. CSS has questionable efficacy, therefore higher values of negative pressure has been recommended to enhance the efficacy of CSS. This study was designed to evaluate the effects on gas exchange of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure compared with 100 mmHg in CSS. Fifty mechanically ventilated (MV) ICU patients were selected for the study. Two consecutive ten seconds CSS using suction pressures of 100 and 200 mmHg, in random order applied in each subject with the two hours wash out period. Effects of two levels of suction pressure on gas exchange were measured by recording the SPo2 values at 4 times. Repeated measure analysis of variance didn't show any significant difference between two levels of pressure (P = 0.315), but within each groups (100 and 200 mmHg) SPO2 changes was significant (P = 0.000). There was a mild but significant and transient increase in heart rate following both suction pressures, but no significant difference between two groups. The results show that CSS with suction pressure 200 mmHg has no detrimental effect on cardiorespiratory function of MV ICU patients. Since the safety of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure was approved, using 200 mmHg suction pressures is recommended for ETS of MV patients.

  20. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue.

    PubMed

    Campbell, H; Macdonald, S; Richardson, P

    1997-03-01

    To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland. Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers. Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts, 68 were restrained by a seat belt and booster cushion, 63 in toddler seats, 25 in two way seats, and 18 in rear facing infant carriers. Ninety seven per cent of drivers, 95% of front seat passengers, and 77% of rear seat passengers were restrained. However, in 98 (52%) vehicles at least one passenger was restrained by a device that was used incorrectly. Seven per cent of adults and 28% of children were secured incorrectly. The commonest errors were loose seat belts and restraint devices not adequately secured to the seat. Rates of incorrect use were highest in child seat restraints, reaching 60% with two way seats and 44% with rear facing infant seats. The incorrect use of car occupant restraints is an under-recognised problem, both by health professionals, and the general public. Incorrect use has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of restraints, can itself result in injury, and is likely to be an important factor in child passenger injuries. The correct use of car seat restraints merits greater attention in strategies aiming to reduce road traffic casualties. Areas of intervention that could be

  1. Bio-batteries and bio-fuel cells: leveraging on electronic charge transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Kannan, A M; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Filipek, S; Li, P; Audette, G F; Munukutla, L

    2009-03-01

    Bio-fuel cells are alternative energy devises based on bio-electrocatalysis of natural substrates by enzymes or microorganisms. Here we review bio-fuel cells and bio-batteries based on the recent literature. In general, the bio-fuel cells are classified based on the type of electron transfer; mediated electron transfer and direct electron transfer or electronic charge transfer (ECT). The ECT of the bio-fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications are considered. The technical challenges of the bio-fuel cells, like bioelectrocatalysis, immobilization of bioelectrocatalysts, protein denaturation etc. are highlighted and future research directions are discussed leveraging on the use of electron charge transfer proteins. In addition, the packaging aspects of the bio-fuel cells are also analyzed and the found that relatively little work has been done in the engineering development of bio-fuel cells.

  2. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  3. BioPCD - A Language for GUI Development Requiring a Minimal Skill Set.

    PubMed

    Alvare, Graham Gm; Roche-Lima, Abiel; Fristensky, Brian

    2012-11-01

    BioPCD is a new language whose purpose is to simplify the creation of Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) by biologists with minimal programming skills. The first step in developing BioPCD was to create a minimal superset of the language referred to as PCD (Pythonesque Command Description). PCD defines the core of terminals and high-level nonterminals required to describe data of almost any type. BioPCD adds to PCD the constructs necessary to describe GUI components and the syntax for executing system commands. BioPCD is implemented using JavaCC to convert the grammar into code. BioPCD is designed to be terse and readable and simple enough to be learned by copying and modifying existing BioPCD files. We demonstrate that BioPCD can easily be used to generate GUIs for existing command line programs. Although BioPCD was designed to make it easier to run bioinformatics programs, it could be used in any domain in which many useful command line programs exist that do not have GUI interfaces.

  4. Guidelines for Transportation, Handling, and Use of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. Part 1. Flammability and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Oasmaa, Anja; Kalli, Anssi; Lindfors, Christian; Elliott, Douglas C.; Springer, David L.; Peacocke, Cordner; Chiaramonti, David

    2012-05-04

    An alternative sustainable fuel, biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil or 'bio-oil', is coming into the market. Fast pyrolysis pilot and demonstration plants for fuel applications producing tonnes of bio-oil are in operation, and commercial plants are under design. There will be increasingly larger amounts of bio-oil transportation on water and by land, leading to a need for specifications and supporting documentation. Bio-oil is different from conventional liquid fuels, and therefore must overcome both technical and marketing hurdles for its acceptability in the fuels market. A comprehensive Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required, backed with independent testing and certification. In order to standardise bio-oil quality specifications are needed. The first bio-oil burner fuel standard in ASTM (D7544) was approved in 2009. CEN standardisation has been initiated in Europe. In the EU a new chemical regulation system, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) is being applied. Registration under REACH has to be made if bio-oil is produced or imported to the EU. In the USA and Canada, bio-oil has to be filed under TOSCA (US Toxic Substances Control Act). In this paper the state of the art on standardisation is discussed, and new data for the transportation guidelines is presented. The focus is on flammability and toxicity.

  5. Bio Risk Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, Phillip

    2004-07-22

    The Biosecurity Risk Assessment Tool (BRAT) is a new type of computer application for the screening-level assessment of risk to dairy operations. BRAT for Dairies is designed to be intuitive and easy to use. Users enter basic data-property address, feed management, employee population, and so on - into the interface. Using these data and rules found in an expert system. BRAT for Dairies consults appropriate sections of its database. The expert system determines the risk implications of the basic data, e.g. diseases are closely tied to pen location with respect to the outside world, When the analysis is complete, BRAT for Dairies evaluates and allocates the risk for each hazard, ranks the risks, and displays the results graphically.

  6. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  7. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety A A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  8. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety A A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  9. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  10. Efficacy and safety of Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: A randomized trial of two different levels of dosing on maternal and neonatal Vitamin D outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Masoodi, Shariq Rashid; Shafi, Shafia; Hameed, Iqra; Dar, Maqsood Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Parveen, Shameema; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Shah, Parviz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant women represent a typical group susceptible to dietary and mineral deficiencies. This study was sought to assess the efficacy and safety of various doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) supplementation during pregnancy and ratify the inadequacy of the recommended daily allowance for Vitamin D in vulnerable groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 pregnant women were included in this open-label, parallel group, prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. Study subjects were assigned to four treatment groups: Group 1 (n = 26), 1000 IU of Vitamin D daily; Group 2 (n = 21), 30,000 IU of Vitamin D monthly; Group 3 (n = 27), 2000 IU of Vitamin D daily; and Group 4 (n = 26), 60,000 IU Vitamin D monthly. Group 1 and 2 were further analyzed together as Group 1K (1000 IU daily and 30,000 IU monthly), and Group 3 and 4 as Group 2K (2000 IU daily and 60,000 IU monthly). The analysis was done on an intention to treat basis. Results: A total of 87 patients completed the study; 21 in Group 1, 25 in Group 2, 18 in Group 3, and 23 in Group 4. The levels of 25(OH)D at baseline ranged from 1.3 to 58.0 with a mean of 24.2 ± 15.1 ng/ml. Postsupplementation, 25(OH)D levels ranged from 11.5 to 70.3 with a mean of 40.2 ± 12.2 ng/ml. The postsupplementation levels of 25(OH)D were higher in Group 2K (42.86 ± 12.83) than in Group 1K (36.96 ± 10.56) with P value of 0.023. Conclusion: We concluded that Vitamin D supplementation with 2000 IU/day or 60,000 IU/month is very effective and safe in achieving Vitamin D sufficiency in pregnant women. PMID:27186550

  11. BioArtificial polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  12. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  13. Modeling Separate and Combined Atmospheres in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Finn, Cory; Kwauk, Xianmin; Blackwell, Charles; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We modeled BIO-Plex designs with separate or combined atmospheres and then simulated controlling the atmosphere composition. The BIO-Plex is the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, a large regenerative life support test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Although plants grow better at above-normal carbon dioxide levels, humans can tolerate even higher carbon dioxide levels. Incinerator exhaust has very high levels of carbon dioxide. An elaborate BIO-Plex design would maintain different atmospheres in the crew and plant chambers and isolate the incinerator exhaust in the airlock. This design easily controls the crew and plant carbon dioxide levels but it uses many gas processors, buffers, and controllers. If all the crew's food is grown inside BIO-Plex, all the carbon dioxide required by the plants is supplied by crew respiration and the incineration of plant and food waste. Because the oxygen mass flow must balance in a closed loop, the plants supply all the oxygen required by the crew and the incinerator. Using plants for air revitalization allows using fewer gas processors, buffers, and controllers. In the simplest design, a single combined atmosphere was used for the crew, the plant chamber, and the incinerator. All gas processors, buffers, and controllers were eliminated. The carbon dioxide levels were necessarily similar for the crew and plants. If most of the food is grown, carbon dioxide can be controlled at the desired level by scheduling incineration. An intermediate design uses one atmosphere for the crew and incinerator chambers and a second for the plant chamber. This allows different carbon dioxide levels for the crew and plants. Better control of the atmosphere is obtained by varying the incineration rate. Less gas processing storage and control is needed if more food is grown.

  14. Modeling Separate and Combined Atmospheres in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Finn, Cory; Kwauk, Xian-Min; Blackwell, Charles; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We modeled BIO-Plex designs with separate or combined atmospheres and then simulated controlling the atmosphere composition. The BIO-Plex is the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, a large regenerative life support test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Although plants grow better at above-normal carbon dioxide levels, humans can tolerate even higher carbon dioxide levels. incinerator exhaust has very high levels of carbon dioxide. An elaborate BIO-Plex design would maintain different atmospheres in the crew and plant chambers and isolate the incinerator exhaust in the airlock. This design easily controls the crew and plant carbon dioxide levels but it uses many gas processors, buffers, and controllers. If all the crew's food is grown inside BIO-Plex, all the carbon dioxide required by the plants is supplied by crew respiration and the incineration of plant and food waste. Because the oxygen mass flow must balance in a closed loop, the plants supply all the oxygen required by the crew and the incinerator. Using plants for air revitalization allows using fewer gas processors, buffers, and controllers. In the simplest design, a single combined atmosphere was used for the crew, the plant chamber, and the incinerator. All gas processors, buffers, and controllers were eliminated. The carbon dioxide levels were necessarily similar for the crew and plants. If most of the food is grown, carbon dioxide can be controlled at the desired level by scheduling incineration. An intermediate design uses one atmosphere for the crew and incinerator chambers and a second for the plant chamber. This allows different carbon dioxide levels for the crew and plants. Better control of the atmosphere is obtained by varying the incineration rate. Less gas processing, storage, and control is needed if more food is grown.

  15. Modeling Separate and Combined Atmospheres in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Finn, Cory; Kwauk, Xianmin; Blackwell, Charles; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We modeled BIO-Plex designs with separate or combined atmospheres and then simulated controlling the atmosphere composition. The BIO-Plex is the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, a large regenerative life support test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Although plants grow better at above-normal carbon dioxide levels, humans can tolerate even higher carbon dioxide levels. Incinerator exhaust has very high levels of carbon dioxide. An elaborate BIO-Plex design would maintain different atmospheres in the crew and plant chambers and isolate the incinerator exhaust in the airlock. This design easily controls the crew and plant carbon dioxide levels but it uses many gas processors, buffers, and controllers. If all the crew's food is grown inside BIO-Plex, all the carbon dioxide required by the plants is supplied by crew respiration and the incineration of plant and food waste. Because the oxygen mass flow must balance in a closed loop, the plants supply all the oxygen required by the crew and the incinerator. Using plants for air revitalization allows using fewer gas processors, buffers, and controllers. In the simplest design, a single combined atmosphere was used for the crew, the plant chamber, and the incinerator. All gas processors, buffers, and controllers were eliminated. The carbon dioxide levels were necessarily similar for the crew and plants. If most of the food is grown, carbon dioxide can be controlled at the desired level by scheduling incineration. An intermediate design uses one atmosphere for the crew and incinerator chambers and a second for the plant chamber. This allows different carbon dioxide levels for the crew and plants. Better control of the atmosphere is obtained by varying the incineration rate. Less gas processing storage and control is needed if more food is grown.

  16. Modeling Separate and Combined Atmospheres in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Finn, Cory; Kwauk, Xian-Min; Blackwell, Charles; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We modeled BIO-Plex designs with separate or combined atmospheres and then simulated controlling the atmosphere composition. The BIO-Plex is the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, a large regenerative life support test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Although plants grow better at above-normal carbon dioxide levels, humans can tolerate even higher carbon dioxide levels. incinerator exhaust has very high levels of carbon dioxide. An elaborate BIO-Plex design would maintain different atmospheres in the crew and plant chambers and isolate the incinerator exhaust in the airlock. This design easily controls the crew and plant carbon dioxide levels but it uses many gas processors, buffers, and controllers. If all the crew's food is grown inside BIO-Plex, all the carbon dioxide required by the plants is supplied by crew respiration and the incineration of plant and food waste. Because the oxygen mass flow must balance in a closed loop, the plants supply all the oxygen required by the crew and the incinerator. Using plants for air revitalization allows using fewer gas processors, buffers, and controllers. In the simplest design, a single combined atmosphere was used for the crew, the plant chamber, and the incinerator. All gas processors, buffers, and controllers were eliminated. The carbon dioxide levels were necessarily similar for the crew and plants. If most of the food is grown, carbon dioxide can be controlled at the desired level by scheduling incineration. An intermediate design uses one atmosphere for the crew and incinerator chambers and a second for the plant chamber. This allows different carbon dioxide levels for the crew and plants. Better control of the atmosphere is obtained by varying the incineration rate. Less gas processing, storage, and control is needed if more food is grown.

  17. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Janosko, Krisztina; Holbrook, Michael R.; Adams, Ricky; Barr, Jason; Bollinger, Laura; Newton, Je T'aime; Ntiforo, Corrie; Coe, Linda; Wada, Jiro; Pusl, Daniela; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure (“space”) suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training and adherence to stringent safety protocols and standard operating procedures. Researchers perform the majority of their work in BSL-2 laboratories and switch to BSL-4 suit laboratories when work with a high-consequence pathogen is required. Collaborators and scientists considering BSL-4 projects should be aware of the challenges associated with BSL-4 research both in terms of experimental technical limitations in BSL-4 laboratory space and the increased duration of such experiments. Tasks such as entering and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories are considerably more complex and time-consuming compared to BSL-2 and BSL-3 laboratories. The focus of this particular article is to address basic biosafety concerns and describe the entrance and exit procedures for the BSL-4 laboratory at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Such procedures include checking external systems that support the BSL-4 laboratory, and inspecting and donning positive-pressure suits, entering the laboratory, moving through air pressure-resistant doors, and connecting to air-supply hoses. We will also discuss moving within and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories, including using the chemical shower and removing and storing positive-pressure suits. PMID:27768063

  18. CO2 blood oxygen level-dependent MR mapping of cerebrovascular reserve in a clinical population: safety, tolerability, and technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Spano, Vincent R; Mandell, Daniel M; Poublanc, Julien; Sam, Kevin; Battisti-Charbonney, Anne; Pucci, Olivia; Han, Jay S; Crawley, Adrian P; Fisher, Joseph A; Mikulis, David J

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and technical feasibility of mapping cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in a clinical population by using a precise prospectively targeted CO(2) stimulus and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A chart review was performed of all CVR studies from institutional review board-approved projects at a tertiary care hospital between January 1, 2006, and December 1, 2010. Informed consent was obtained. Records were searched for the incidence of adverse events and failed examinations. CVR maps were evaluated for diagnostic quality by two blinded observers and were categorized as good, diagnostic but suboptimal, or nondiagnostic. Outcomes were presented as raw data and descriptive statistics (means ± standard deviations). Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to determine interobserver variability. Four hundred thirty-four consecutive CVR examinations from 294 patients (51.8% female patients) were studied. Patient age ranged from 9 to 88 years (mean age, 45.9 years ± 20.6). Transient symptoms, such as shortness of breath, headache, and dizziness, were reported in 48 subjects (11.1% of studies) during hypercapnic phases only. There were no neurologic ischemic events, myocardial infarctions, or other major complications. The success rate in generating CVR maps was 83.9% (364 of 434). Of the 70 (16.1%) failed examinations, 25 (35.7%) were due to discomfort; eight (11.4%), to head motion; two (2.9%), to inability to cooperate; seven (10.0%), to technical difficulties with equipment; and 28 (40.0%), to unknown or unspecified conditions. Among the 364 remaining successful examinations, good quality CVR maps were obtained in 340 (93.4%); diagnostic but suboptimal, in 12 (3.3%); and nondiagnostic, in 12 (3.3%). CVR mapping by using a prospectively targeted CO(2) stimulus and BOLD MR imaging is safe, well tolerated, and technically feasible in a clinical patient population.

  19. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures.

    PubMed

    Janosko, Krisztina; Holbrook, Michael R; Adams, Ricky; Barr, Jason; Bollinger, Laura; Newton, Je T'aime; Ntiforo, Corrie; Coe, Linda; Wada, Jiro; Pusl, Daniela; Jahrling, Peter B; Kuhn, Jens H; Lackemeyer, Matthew G

    2016-10-03

    Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure ("space") suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training and adherence to stringent safety protocols and standard operating procedures. Researchers perform the majority of their work in BSL-2 laboratories and switch to BSL-4 suit laboratories when work with a high-consequence pathogen is required. Collaborators and scientists considering BSL-4 projects should be aware of the challenges associated with BSL-4 research both in terms of experimental technical limitations in BSL-4 laboratory space and the increased duration of such experiments. Tasks such as entering and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories are considerably more complex and time-consuming compared to BSL-2 and BSL-3 laboratories. The focus of this particular article is to address basic biosafety concerns and describe the entrance and exit procedures for the BSL-4 laboratory at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Such procedures include checking external systems that support the BSL-4 laboratory, and inspecting and donning positive-pressure suits, entering the laboratory, moving through air pressure-resistant doors, and connecting to air-supply hoses. We will also discuss moving within and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories, including using the chemical shower and removing and storing positive-pressure suits.

  20. Ultrasonic imaging: safety considerations

    PubMed Central

    ter Haar, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Modern ultrasound imaging for diagnostic purposes has a wide range of applications. It is used in obstetrics to monitor the progress of pregnancy, in oncology to visualize tumours and their response to treatment, and, in cardiology, contrast-enhanced studies are used to investigate heart function and physiology. An increasing use of diagnostic ultrasound is to provide the first photograph for baby's album—in the form of a souvenir or keepsake scan that might be taken as part of a routine investigation, or during a visit to an independent high-street ‘boutique’. It is therefore important to ensure that any benefit accrued from these applications outweighs any accompanying risk, and to evaluate the existing ultrasound bio-effect and epidemiology literature with this in mind. This review considers the existing laboratory and epidemiological evidence about the safety of diagnostic ultrasound and puts it in the context of current clinical usage. PMID:22866238

  1. Bio-functional Au/Si nanorods for pathogen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Fu, Junxue; Zhao, Yiping; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.

    2007-09-01

    Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabricated by glancing angle deposition method and the gold was sputtered onto the silica nanorods. Alexa488-succinimide dye was immobilized onto the annealed Si nanorods via the attachment between dye ester and primary amine group supplied by the 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The anti-Salmonella was conjugated to gold via Dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] self-assembly monolayer. Due to the high aspect ratio nature of the Si nanorods, hundreds or thousands of dye molecules attached to the Si nanorods produced enhanced fluorescence signal. These biologically functionalized nanorods can be used to detect Salmonella with fluorescent microscopic imaging. This new nanoscale biosensor will be able to detect other foodborne pathogenic bacteria for food safety and security applications.

  2. A bio-inspired test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dai-Hua; Xu, Lei; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Gang

    2013-04-01

    Recently, prosthetic knees in the developing stage are usually tested by installing them on amputees' stumps directly or on above-knee prostheses (AKPs) test platforms. Although amputees can fully provide the actual motion state of the thigh, immature prosthetic knees may hurt amputees. For AKPs test platforms, it just can partly simulate the actual motion state of the thigh with limitation of the motion curve of the thigh, the merits or demerits of newly developed bionic above-knee prosthetic knees cannot be accessed thoroughly. Aiming at the defects of two testing methods, this paper presents a bio-inspired AKPs test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees. The proposed bio-inspired AKPs test system is composed of a AKPs test platform, a control system, and a bio-inspired system. The AKPs test platform generates the motion of the thigh simulation mechanism (TSM) via two screw pairs with servo motors. The bio-inspired system includes the tester and the bio-inspired sensor wore by the tester. The control system, which is inspired by the bio-inspired system, generates the control command signal to move the TSM of the AKPs test platform. The bio-inspired AKPs test system is developed and experimentally tested with a commercially available prosthetic knee. The research results show that the bio-inspired AKPs test system can not only ensure the safety of the testers, but also track all kinds of the actual motion state of the thigh of the testers in real time.

  3. BioCapacitor: A novel principle for biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sode, Koji; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Lee, Inyoung; Hanashi, Takuya; Tsugawa, Wakako

    2016-02-15

    Studies regarding biofuel cells utilizing biocatalysts such as enzymes and microorganisms as electrocatalysts have been vigorously conducted over the last two decades. Because of their environmental safety and sustainability, biofuel cells are expected to be used as clean power generators. Among several principles of biofuel cells, enzyme fuel cells have attracted significant attention for their use as alternative energy sources for future implantable devices, such as implantable insulin pumps and glucose sensors in artificial pancreas and pacemakers. However, the inherent issue of the biofuel cell principle is the low power of a single biofuel cell. The theoretical voltage of biofuel cells is limited by the redox potential of cofactors and/or mediators employed in the anode and cathode, which are inadequate for operating any devices used for biomedical application. These limitations inspired us to develop a novel biodevice based on an enzyme fuel cell that generates sufficient stable power to operate electric devices, designated "BioCapacitor." To increase voltage, the enzyme fuel cell is connected to a charge pump. To obtain a sufficient power and voltage to operate an electric device, a capacitor is used to store the potential generated by the charge pump. Using the combination of a charge pump and capacitor with an enzyme fuel cell, high voltages with sufficient temporary currents to operate an electric device were generated without changing the design and construction of the enzyme fuel cell. In this review, the BioCapacitor principle is described. The three different representative categories of biodevices employing the BioCapacitor principle are introduced. Further, the recent challenges in the developments of self-powered stand-alone biodevices employing enzyme fuel cells combined with charge pumps and capacitors are introduced. Finally, the future prospects of biodevices employing the BioCapacitor principle are addressed.

  4. Fire safety of wood construction

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  5. School Safety Gets the Ax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A new informal federal survey has found that for many districts, budget cuts have had a profound effect on school safety and security measures. Administrators have been forced to cut safety and security staffing and programs, reorganize security departments and find alternative sources of funding in order to maintain levels of safety and security…

  6. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Stein, Emily; Price, Laura L.; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Tillman, Jack Bruce

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  7. The Bio* toolkits--a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, Harry

    2002-09-01

    Bioinformatics research is often difficult to do with commercial software. The Open Source BioPerl, BioPython and Biojava projects provide toolkits with multiple functionality that make it easier to create customised pipelines or analysis. This review briefly compares the quirks of the underlying languages and the functionality, documentation, utility and relative advantages of the Bio counterparts, particularly from the point of view of the beginning biologist programmer.

  8. Software Package for Bio-Signal Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-15

    We have developed a MatlabTM based software package for bio -signal analysis. The software is based on modular design and can thus be easily adapted...to fit on analysis of various kind of time variant or event-related bio -signals. Currently analysis programs for event-related potentials (ERP) heart...rate variability (HRV), galvanic skin responses (GSR) and quantitative EEG (qEEG) are implemented. A tool for time varying spectral analysis of bio

  9. Factors associated with knowledge and safety skills of arthritis patients receiving biologics: A survey of 677 patients.

    PubMed

    Rat, Anne-Christine; Fautrel, Bruno; Flipon, Elisabeth; Gossec, Laure; Marguerie, Laurent; Nataf, Henri; Pallot-Prades, Béatrice; Poilvert, Rose-Marie; Royant, Valérie; Sadji, Fatiha; Sordet, Christelle; Thevenot, Corinne; Beauvais, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to determine patient and rheumatologist factors associated with the safety skills of patients receiving bDMARDs for inflammatory arthritis. Data were obtained from a descriptive observational cross-sectional nationwide survey performed in 2011 in France. Community- and hospital-based rheumatologists were selected at random. The BioSecure questionnaire was used to collect information on patient safety skills. Of the 677 patients included (mean age 53±13years old; 452 (67%) women, 411 (61%) had RA; 421 (64%) received subcutaneous bDMARDs). Patients had received information about their treatments from their physician 610 (90%), a nurse 207 (31%), by a written booklet 398 (59%), and/or during therapeutic patient education (TPE) sessions 99 (15%). The median BioSecure total score was 72/100 (IQR 60-82). In total, 99 (16.4%) patients had a low skill level; 321 (53.2%) a moderate skill level and 183 (30.3%) a high skill level. On multivariate regression analysis, as compared with high safety skills, low skills were associated with living alone (OR 2.8 [95% CI 1.3⿿6.0]), low educational level (OR 4.3 [2.1⿿8.9]), living in a large city (OR 3.1 [1.2⿿8.2]), being unemployed (OR 3.3 [1.6⿿6.7]) and not receiving written information, participating in TPE sessions or consulting a nurse (OR 3.8 [1.6⿿8.8]). One rheumatologist-related factor was a high number of patients receiving bDMARDs in the practice. We reveal factors associated with low safety skills of patients receiving bDMARDs for inflammatory arthritis, which should be addressed to improve safety skills in this population. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic Model of the BIO-Plex Air Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Cory; Meyers, Karen; Duffield, Bruce; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BIO-Plex facility will need to support a variety of life support system designs and operation strategies. These systems will be tested and evaluated in the BIO-Plex facility. An important goal of the life support program is to identify designs that best meet all size and performance constraints for a variety of possible future missions. Integrated human testing is a necessary step in reaching this goal. System modeling and analysis will also play an important role in this endeavor. Currently, simulation studies are being used to estimate air revitalization buffer and storage requirements in order to develop the infrastructure requirements of the BIO-Plex facility. Simulation studies are also being used to verify that the envisioned operation strategy will be able to meet all performance criteria. In this paper, a simulation study is presented for a nominal BIO-Plex scenario with a high-level of crop growth. A general description of the dynamic mass flow model is provided, along with some simulation results. The paper also discusses sizing and operations issues and describes plans for future simulation studies.

  11. Dynamic Model of the BIO-Plex Air Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Cory; Meyers, Karen; Duffield, Bruce; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BIO-Plex facility will need to support a variety of life support system designs and operation strategies. These systems will be tested and evaluated in the BIO-Plex facility. An important goal of the life support program is to identify designs that best meet all size and performance constraints for a variety of possible future missions. Integrated human testing is a necessary step in reaching this goal. System modeling and analysis will also play an important role in this endeavor. Currently, simulation studies are being used to estimate air revitalization buffer and storage requirements in order to develop the infrastructure requirements of the BIO-Plex facility. Simulation studies are also being used to verify that the envisioned operation strategy will be able to meet all performance criteria. In this paper, a simulation study is presented for a nominal BIO-Plex scenario with a high-level of crop growth. A general description of the dynamic mass flow model is provided, along with some simulation results. The paper also discusses sizing and operations issues and describes plans for future simulation studies.

  12. Bio-optical Dynamics and the Forecasting of Bio-optical Variability in the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Research on oceanic bio -optical processes and the prediction of ocean bio -optical properties requires coupled physical-biological- chemical models...with the capability of real data initialization and assimilation. The goal is to develop and prove such models, focusing specifically on the bio -optical...their response and sensitivities to local and remote forcings. The scientific/technical objectives of this project are (1) to develop the bio -optical

  13. Quality and safety in the transitional care of the elderly (phase 2): the study protocol of a quasi-experimental intervention study for a cross-level educational programme

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Marianne; Groene, Oliver; Testad, Ingelin; Dyrstad, Dagrunn N; Heskestad, Randi N; Aase, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Transitional care and patient handover are important areas to ensure quality and safety in elderly healthcare services. Previous studies showed that healthcare professionals have little knowledge of the setting they are transferring patients to and a limited understanding of roles and functions; these constitute barriers to effective communication and shared care responsibilities across levels of care. Aim The main objective is to implement a cross-level education-based intervention programme with healthcare professionals aimed at (1) increasing professionals’ awareness and competencies about quality and safety in the transitional care of the elderly; (2) creating a discussion platform for knowledge exchange and learning across levels and units of care and (3) improving patient safety culture, in particular, in transitional care. Methods and analysis A quasi-experimental control group study design with an intervention group and a control group; this includes a pretest, post-test and 1-year follow-up test assessment of patient safety culture. Qualitative data will be collected during the intervention programme and between the measurements. The study design will be beneficial for addressing the effects of the cross-level educational intervention programme on reports of patient safety culture and for addressing the feasibility of the intervention measures. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics in Norway, Ref. No. 2011/1978. The study is based on informed written consent; informants can withdraw from the study at any point in time. The results will be disseminated at research conferences, in peer review journals and through public presentations outside the scientific community. PMID:25082425

  14. Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships.

    PubMed

    Wang, J

    2002-01-01

    Tragic marine and offshore accidents have caused serious consequences including loss of lives, loss of property, and damage of the environment. A proactive, risk-based "goal setting" regime is introduced to the marine and offshore industries to increase the level of safety. To maximize marine and offshore safety, risks need to be modeled and safety-based decisions need to be made in a logical and confident way. Risk modeling and decision-making tools need to be developed and applied in a practical environment. This paper describes both the offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships in detail with particular reference to the design aspects. The current practices and the latest development in safety assessment in both the marine and offshore industries are described. The relationship between the offshore safety case approach and formal ship safety assessment is described and discussed. Three examples are used to demonstrate both the offshore safety case approach and formal ship safety assessment. The study of risk criteria in marine and offshore safety assessment is carried out. The recommendations on further work required are given. This paper gives safety engineers in the marine and offshore industries an overview of the offshore safety case approach and formal ship safety assessment. The significance of moving toward a risk-based "goal setting" regime is given.

  15. Patient safety--who cares?

    PubMed

    Schwappach, David L B; Conen, Dieter

    2012-07-16

    Medical errors and adverse events are a serious threat to patients worldwide. In recent years methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that interventions exist, can be implemented and can have sustainable, measurable positive effects on patient safety. Nonetheless, system-wide progress and adoption of safety practices is slow and evidence of improvements on the organisational and systems level is scarce and ambiguous. This paper reports on the Swiss Patient Safety Conference in 2011 and addresses emerging issues for patient safety and future challenges.

  16. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  17. Quality assessment of occupational health and safety management at the level of business units making up the organizational structure of a coal mine: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Korban, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    The audit of the health and safety management system is understood as a form and tool of controlling. The objective of the audit is to define whether the undertaken measures and the obtained results are in conformity with the predicted assumptions or plans, whether the agreed decisions have been implemented and whether they are suitable in view of the accepted health and safety policy. This paper presents the results of an audit examination carried out on the system of health and safety management between 2002 and 2012 on a group of respondents, the employees of two mining departments (G-1 and G-2) of Jan, a coal mine. The audit was carried out using the questionnaire developed by the author based on the MERIT-APBK survey. PMID:26414881

  18. Quality assessment of occupational health and safety management at the level of business units making up the organizational structure of a coal mine: a case study.

    PubMed

    Korban, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    The audit of the health and safety management system is understood as a form and tool of controlling. The objective of the audit is to define whether the undertaken measures and the obtained results are in conformity with the predicted assumptions or plans, whether the agreed decisions have been implemented and whether they are suitable in view of the accepted health and safety policy. This paper presents the results of an audit examination carried out on the system of health and safety management between 2002 and 2012 on a group of respondents, the employees of two mining departments (G-1 and G-2) of Jan, a coal mine. The audit was carried out using the questionnaire developed by the author based on the MERIT-APBK survey.

  19. Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R

    2006-02-10

    Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from

  20. Use of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract for the bio-control of Listeria monocytogenes post-cooking contamination in cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Odedina, Grace Fiyinfoluwa; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2016-12-01

    Controlling foodborne pathogen in ready-to-eat food is important in food safety. The present study accessed the potential use of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract as a bio-control agent against Listeria monocytogenes in cooked chicken meat model system. The antilisterial activity of the plant extract was better under microwave condition and enhanced as storage temperature increased from 4 to 37 °C. The extract could reduce L. monocytogenes numbers at low (10(4) CFU/g) and high (10(6) CFU/g) inoculum levels in cooked chicken by both rinse and injection application methods. A 5 min rinse in 8% w/v R. tomentosa extract reduced the bacterial number by ≥2-log before storage and ≥3-log after storage at 4 °C for 5 days. Injection with 0.4% w/w R. tomentosa extract resulted in approximately 2-log reduction in the cell numbers both before and after storage at 4 °C for 5 days. Five minutes rinse in the extract bath demonstrated better sensory preferences which were not significantly different from the control. Addition of black pepper powder to the extract rinsed samples improved odour but not appearance, colour, and texture preferences. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa extract was significantly effective for the bio-control of L. monocytogenes contaminations in cooked chicken meat model. The extract was observed as a potent bio-additive agent to control contaminations from L. monocytogenes and ensure safety in ready-to-eat meat.

  1. Safety in numbers for cyclists beyond national-level and city-level data: a study on the non-linearity of risk within the city of Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shenjun; Loo, Becky P Y

    2016-01-01

    Objective This paper examines the relationship between bicycle collisions and the amount of cycling at the local level. Most previous research has focused on national and city comparisons, little is known about differences within a city (the mesoscale). Methods This study mainly used three types of data sets relating to bicycle collisions, use of bicycles and local neighbourhood characteristics in Hong Kong. In particular, bicycle usage, measured as bicycle-kilometres travelled, was estimated from travel surveys following the activity-based approach. Negative binomial regression models were established to model the relationship between the amount of cycling and the occurrence of bicycle collisions at the spatial scale of the Tertiary Planning Unit, which is the smallest planning unit of the city. Results The numbers of bicycle collisions went up with the increasing use of bicycles, but the increase in the number of collisions in a given community was less than a linear proportion of the bicycle flow. When other local neighbourhood variables are controlled, the amount of cycling is a statistically significant variable in accounting for the number of collisions. Conclusions Even in a highly motorised city where bicycles are a minor transport mode, cyclists are less likely to be involved in road collisions in communities with higher cycling volume. Since cycling activities are likely to vary within a city, a more local-based approach in promoting cycling is needed. In particular, the higher safety risks in neighbourhoods of low bicycle usage, especially at an initial stage of promoting cycling, need to be addressed properly. PMID:27339061

  2. SAR Simulations & Safety.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Thomas M; Ladd, Mark E; Bitz, Andreas K

    2017-03-20

    At ultra-high fields, the assessment of radiofrequency (RF) safety presents several new challenges compared to low-field systems. Multi-channel RF transmit coils in combination with parallel transmit techniques produce time-dependent and spatially varying power loss densities in the tissue. Further, in ultra-high-field systems, localized field effects can be more pronounced due to a transition from the quasi stationary to the electromagnetic field regime. Consequently, local information on the RF field is required for reliable RF safety assessment as well as for monitoring of RF exposure during MR examinations. Numerical RF and thermal simulations for realistic exposure scenarios with anatomical body models are currently the only practical way to obtain the requisite local information on magnetic and electric field distributions as well as tissue temperature. In this article, safety regulations and the fundamental characteristics of RF field distributions in ultra-high-field systems are reviewed. Numerical methods for computation of RF fields as well as typical requirements for the analysis of realistic multi-channel RF exposure scenarios including anatomical body models are highlighted. In recent years, computation of the local tissue temperature has become of increasing interest, since a more accurate safety assessment is expected because temperature is directly related to tissue damage. Regarding thermal simulation, bio-heat transfer models and approaches for taking into account the physiological response of the human body to RF exposure are discussed. In addition, suitable methods are presented to validate calculated RF and thermal results with measurements. Finally, the concept of generalized simulation-based specific absorption rate (SAR) matrix models is discussed. These models can be incorporated into local SAR monitoring in multi-channel MR systems and allow the design of RF pulses under constraints for local SAR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation of the liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    DeFalco, S.; Kaiser, L. L.; May, L. E.

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be used during the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RI/FS project to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. The ES H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Energy Systems to direct and control implementation of the project ES H program. This report describes the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES H program to individual task remedial investigations, project facilities, and other major tasks assigned to the project.

  4. Safety and preliminary efficacy data of a novel Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) peptide inhibitor administered intralesionally at four dose levels in patients with cervical malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is now considered the second leading cause of death among women worldwide, and its incidence has reached alarming levels, especially in developing countries. Similarly, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), the precursor stage for cervical cancer, represents a growing health problem among younger women as the HSIL management regimes that have been developed are not fully effective. From the etiological point of view, the presence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been demonstrated to play a crucial role for developing cervical malignancies, and viral DNA has been detected in 99.7% of cervical tumors at the later stages. CIGB-300 is a novel cyclic synthetic peptide that induces apoptosis in malignant cells and elicits antitumor activity in cancer animal models. CIGB-300 impairs the Casein Kinase (CK2) phosphorylation, by targeting the substrate's phosphoaceptor domain. Based on the perspectives of CIGB-300 to treat cancer, this "first-in-human" study investigated its safety and tolerability in patients with cervical malignancies. Methods Thirty-one women with colposcopically and histologically diagnosed microinvasive or pre-invasive cervical cancer were enrolled in a dose escalating study. CIGB-300 was administered sequentially at 14, 70, 245 and 490 mg by intralesional injections during 5 consecutive days to groups of 7 – 10 patients. Toxicity was monitored daily until fifteen days after the end of treatment, when patients underwent conization. Digital colposcopy, histology, and HPV status were also evaluated. Results No maximum-tolerated dose or dose-limiting toxicity was achieved. The most frequent local events were pain, bleeding, hematoma and erythema at the injection site. The systemic adverse events were rash, facial edema, itching, hot flashes, and localized cramps. 75% of the patients experienced a significant lesion reduction at colposcopy and 19% exhibited full histological regression. HPV DNA was negative in 48

  5. A bifunctional locus (BIO3-BIO1) required for biotin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Muralla, Rosanna; Chen, Elve; Sweeney, Colleen; Gray, Jennifer A; Dickerman, Allan; Nikolau, Basil J; Meinke, David

    2008-01-01

    We identify here the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene encoding the third enzyme in the biotin biosynthetic pathway, dethiobiotin synthetase (BIO3; At5g57600). This gene is positioned immediately upstream of BIO1, which is known to be associated with the second reaction in the pathway. Reverse genetic analysis demonstrates that bio3 insertion mutants have a similar phenotype to the bio1 and bio2 auxotrophs identified using forward genetic screens for arrested embryos rescued on enriched nutrient medium. Unexpectedly, bio3 and bio1 mutants define a single genetic complementation group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrates that separate BIO3 and BIO1 transcripts and two different types of chimeric BIO3-BIO1 transcripts are produced. Consistent with genetic data, one of the fused transcripts is monocistronic and encodes a bifunctional fusion protein. A splice variant is bicistronic, with distinct but overlapping reading frames. The dual functionality of the monocistronic transcript was confirmed by complementing the orthologous auxotrophs of Escherichia coli (bioD and bioA). BIO3-BIO1 transcripts from other plants provide further evidence for differential splicing, existence of a fusion protein, and localization of both enzymatic reactions to mitochondria. In contrast to most biosynthetic enzymes in eukaryotes, which are encoded by genes dispersed throughout the genome, biotin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis provides an intriguing example of a bifunctional locus that catalyzes two sequential reactions in the same metabolic pathway. This complex locus exhibits several unusual features that distinguish it from biotin operons in bacteria and from other genes known to encode bifunctional enzymes in plants.

  6. Dynamic modeling of cellular populations within iBioSim.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jason T; Myers, Chris J

    2013-05-17

    As the complexity of synthetic genetic circuits increases, modeling is becoming a necessary first step to inform subsequent experimental efforts. In recent years, the design automation community has developed a wealth of computational tools for assisting experimentalists in designing and analyzing new genetic circuits at several scales. However, existing software primarily caters to either the DNA- or single-cell level, with little support for the multicellular level. To address this need, the iBioSim software package has been enhanced to provide support for modeling, simulating, and visualizing dynamic cellular populations in a two-dimensional space. This capacity is fully integrated into the software, capitalizing on iBioSim's strengths in modeling, simulating, and analyzing single-celled systems.

  7. Four principles of bio-musicology.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-03-19

    As a species-typical trait of Homo sapiens, musicality represents a cognitively complex and biologically grounded capacity worthy of intensive empirical investigation. Four principles are suggested here as prerequisites for a successful future discipline of bio-musicology. These involve adopting: (i) a multicomponent approach which recognizes that musicality is built upon a suite of interconnected capacities, of which none is primary; (ii) a pluralistic Tinbergian perspective that addresses and places equal weight on questions of mechanism, ontogeny, phylogeny and function; (iii) a comparative approach, which seeks and investigates animal homologues or analogues of specific components of musicality, wherever they can be found; and (iv) an ecologically motivated perspective, which recognizes the need to study widespread musical behaviours across a range of human cultures (and not focus solely on Western art music or skilled musicians). Given their pervasiveness, dance and music created for dancing should be considered central subcomponents of music, as should folk tunes, work songs, lullabies and children's songs. Although the precise breakdown of capacities required by the multicomponent approach remains open to debate, and different breakdowns may be appropriate to different purposes, I highlight four core components of human musicality--song, drumming, social synchronization and dance--as widespread and pervasive human abilities spanning across cultures, ages and levels of expertise. Each of these has interesting parallels in the animal kingdom (often analogies but in some cases apparent homologies also). Finally, I suggest that the search for universal capacities underlying human musicality, neglected for many years, should be renewed. The broad framework presented here illustrates the potential for a future discipline of bio-musicology as a rich field for interdisciplinary and comparative research.

  8. Four principles of bio-musicology

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2015-01-01

    As a species-typical trait of Homo sapiens, musicality represents a cognitively complex and biologically grounded capacity worthy of intensive empirical investigation. Four principles are suggested here as prerequisites for a successful future discipline of bio-musicology. These involve adopting: (i) a multicomponent approach which recognizes that musicality is built upon a suite of interconnected capacities, of which none is primary; (ii) a pluralistic Tinbergian perspective that addresses and places equal weight on questions of mechanism, ontogeny, phylogeny and function; (iii) a comparative approach, which seeks and investigates animal homologues or analogues of specific components of musicality, wherever they can be found; and (iv) an ecologically motivated perspective, which recognizes the need to study widespread musical behaviours across a range of human cultures (and not focus solely on Western art music or skilled musicians). Given their pervasiveness, dance and music created for dancing should be considered central subcomponents of music, as should folk tunes, work songs, lullabies and children's songs. Although the precise breakdown of capacities required by the multicomponent approach remains open to debate, and different breakdowns may be appropriate to different purposes, I highlight four core components of human musicality—song, drumming, social synchronization and dance—as widespread and pervasive human abilities spanning across cultures, ages and levels of expertise. Each of these has interesting parallels in the animal kingdom (often analogies but in some cases apparent homologies also). Finally, I suggest that the search for universal capacities underlying human musicality, neglected for many years, should be renewed. The broad framework presented here illustrates the potential for a future discipline of bio-musicology as a rich field for interdisciplinary and comparative research. PMID:25646514

  9. A terracotta bio-battery.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Israel Marine Bio-geographic Database (ISRAMAR-BIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greengrass, Eyal; Krivenko, Yevgeniya; Ozer, Tal; Ben Yosef, Dafna; Tom, Moshe; Gertman, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the space/time variations of species is the basis for any ecological investigations. While historical observations containing integral concentrations of biological parameters (chlorophyll, abundance, biomass…) are organized partly in ISRAMAR Cast Database, the taxon-specific data collected in Israel has not been sufficiently organized. This has been hindered by the lack of standards, variability of methods and complexity of biological data formalization. The ISRAMAR-BIO DB was developed to store various types of historical and future available information related to marine species observations and related metadata. Currently the DB allows to store biological data acquired by the following sampling devices such as: van veer grab, box corer, sampling bottles, nets (plankton, trawls and fish), quadrates, and cameras. The DB's logical unit is information regarding a specimen (taxa name, barcode, image), related attributes (abundance, size, age, contaminants…), habitat description, sampling device and method, time and space of sampling, responsible organization and scientist, source of information (cruise, project and publication). The following standardization of specimen and attributes naming were implemented: Taxonomy according to World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS: http://www.marinespecies.org). Habitat description according to Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standards (CMECS: http://www.cmecscatalog.org) Parameter name; Unit; Device name; Developmental stage; Institution name; Country name; Marine region according to SeaDataNet Vocabularies (http://www.seadatanet.org/Standards-Software/Common-Vocabularies). This system supports two types of data submission procedures, which support the above stated data structure. The first is a downloadable excel file with drop-down fields based on the ISRAMAR-BIO vocabularies. The file is filled and uploaded online by the data contributor. Alternatively, the same dataset can be assembled by

  11. Taking Risks: Activities and Materials for Teaching About Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Traffic Safety. Book 2, Secondary Level (Grades 7 and 10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Henry S.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help teachers instruct students in the areas of alcohol, drugs, and traffic safety. It consists of two units, targeted to seventh-grade students and the other to tenth-grade students. Each unit can be used over a two-week period. The lesson plans and related materials focus on helping students gain insight into factors…

  12. Taking Risks: Activities and Materials for Teaching About Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Traffic Safety. Book 1, Elementary Level (Grades 3 and 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Henry S.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help teachers instruct students in the areas of alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. It consists of two units targeted to third-grade students and the other to fifth-grade students. Each unit can be used over a two-week period. The lesson plans and related materials focus on helping students gain insight into factors that…

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.115 - Is there more than one option for establishing that an equivalent level of safety exists?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Is there more than one...

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.115 - Is there more than one option for establishing that an equivalent level of safety exists?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Is there more than one...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.115 - Is there more than one option for establishing that an equivalent level of safety exists?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is there more than one...

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.115 - Is there more than one option for establishing that an equivalent level of safety exists?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Is there more than one...

  17. Skateboard Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel

    1979-01-01

    The growing number of skateboard injuries clearly indicates a need for both recreational facilities designed exclusively for skateboarders, and for accident- prevention-oriented safety education programs. (LH)

  18. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  19. Biosecurity--The Bio-Link Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elaine A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Bio-Link, the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Center for Biotechnology established with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Reports that Bio-Link, headquartered at City College of San Francisco, has created a national network and resource base for community colleges, industry, and others interested in biotechnology…

  20. Hierarchical Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Whiteside, Iain J.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce hierarchical safety cases (or hicases) as a technique to overcome some of the difficulties that arise creating and maintaining industrial-size safety cases. Our approach extends the existing Goal Structuring Notation with abstraction structures, which allow the safety case to be viewed at different levels of detail. We motivate hicases and give a mathematical account of them as well as an intuition, relating them to other related concepts. We give a second definition which corresponds closely to our implementation of hicases in the AdvoCATE Assurance Case Editor and prove the correspondence between the two. Finally, we suggest areas of future enhancement, both theoretically and practically.

  1. BioC interoperability track overview.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Donald C; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Dai, Hong-Jie; Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Yepes, Antonio Jimeno; Khare, Ritu; Lu, Zhiyong; Marques, Hernani; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Neves, Mariana; Peng, Yifan; Rak, Rafal; Rinaldi, Fabio; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Verspoor, Karin; Wiegers, Thomas C; Wu, Cathy H; Wilbur, W John

    2014-01-01

    BioC is a new simple XML format for sharing biomedical text and annotations and libraries to read and write that format. This promotes the development of interoperable tools for natural language processing (NLP) of biomedical text. The interoperability track at the BioCreative IV workshop featured contributions using or highlighting the BioC format. These contributions included additional implementations of BioC, many new corpora in the format, biomedical NLP tools consuming and producing the format and online services using the format. The ease of use, broad support and rapidly growing number of tools demonstrate the need for and value of the BioC format. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/.

  2. BioC interoperability track overview

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, Donald C.; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Dai, Hong-Jie; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Jimeno Yepes, Antonio; Khare, Ritu; Lu, Zhiyong; Marques, Hernani; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Neves, Mariana; Peng, Yifan; Rak, Rafal; Rinaldi, Fabio; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Verspoor, Karin; Wiegers, Thomas C.; Wu, Cathy H.; Wilbur, W. John

    2014-01-01

    BioC is a new simple XML format for sharing biomedical text and annotations and libraries to read and write that format. This promotes the development of interoperable tools for natural language processing (NLP) of biomedical text. The interoperability track at the BioCreative IV workshop featured contributions using or highlighting the BioC format. These contributions included additional implementations of BioC, many new corpora in the format, biomedical NLP tools consuming and producing the format and online services using the format. The ease of use, broad support and rapidly growing number of tools demonstrate the need for and value of the BioC format. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/ PMID:24980129

  3. Predicting safety culture: the roles of employer, operations manager and safety professional.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Chih; Lin, Chia-Hung; Shiau, Sen-Yu

    2010-10-01

    This study explores predictive factors in safety culture. In 2008, a sample 939 employees was drawn from 22 departments of a telecoms firm in five regions in central Taiwan. The sample completed a questionnaire containing four scales: the employer safety leadership scale, the operations manager safety leadership scale, the safety professional safety leadership scale, and the safety culture scale. The sample was then randomly split into two subsamples. One subsample was used for measures development, one for the empirical study. A stepwise regression analysis found four factors with a significant impact on safety culture (R²=0.337): safety informing by operations managers; safety caring by employers; and safety coordination and safety regulation by safety professionals. Safety informing by operations managers (ß=0.213) was by far the most significant predictive factor. The findings of this study provide a framework for promoting a positive safety culture at the group level. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved RNA extraction method using the BioMasher and BioMasher power-plus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takuji; Nakashima, Kentaro; Maruta, Yukio; Kiriyama, Tomomi; Sasaki, Michi; Sugiyama, Shunpei; Suzuki, Kana; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Sasaki, Jun; Kaku-Ushiki, Yuko; Tanida, Masatoshi; Irie, Shinkichi; Hattori, Shunji

    2012-12-01

    The BioMasher is a disposable homogenizer that was developed to homogenize bovine brain tissue for bovine spongiform encephalopathy diagnosis. Capable of preventing the biohazard risk from infectious samples, it also prevents cross-contamination among samples. The BioMasher is thus widely used in biochemical research, especially for RNA extraction. Here, we tested a novel BioMasher application for RNA extraction from animal and plant tissues. We also developed a grinding machine specific for the BioMasher, named the BioMasher Power-Plus. We developed RNA extraction protocols using the BioMasher combined with the BioMasher Power-Plus. We compared RNA extraction efficiency of the BioMasher with that of the FastPrep and the glass homogenizer. Though the RNA extraction efficiency by the BioMasher was nearly equivalent to that of the FastPrep and the glass homogenizer, sample preparation time was shorter for the BioMasher. The utility of RNA extraction by the BioMasher was examined in mouse, rat, and tomato tissue samples. In the rodent tissues, the highest extraction efficiency of total RNA was from liver, with lowest efficiency from fibrous tissues such as muscle. The quality of extracted total RNA was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis which produced highly visible clear bands of 18S and 28S rRNAs. Reproducibility among different operators in RNA extraction from tomato roots was improved by using the BioMasher Power-Plus. The BioMasher and BioMasher Power-Plus provide an effective and easy homogenization method for total RNA extraction from some rodent and plant tissues.

  5. Risk-adjusted morbidity in teaching hospitals correlates with reported levels of communication and collaboration on surgical teams but not with scale measures of teamwork climate, safety climate, or working conditions.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Daniel L; Henderson, William G; Mosca, Cecilia L; Khuri, Shukri F; Mentzer, Robert M

    2007-12-01

    Since the Institute of Medicine patient safety reports, a number of survey-based measures of organizational climate safety factors (OCSFs) have been developed. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of OCSFs on risk-adjusted surgical morbidity and mortality. Surveys were administered to staff on general/vascular surgery services during a year. Surveys included multiitem scales measuring OCSFs. Additionally, perceived levels of communication and collaboration with coworkers were assessed. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to assess risk-adjusted morbidity and mortality. Correlations between outcomes and OCSFs were calculated and between outcomes and communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors, nurses, and other providers. Fifty-two sites participated in the survey: 44 Veterans Affairs and 8 academic medical centers. A total of 6,083 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 52%. The OCSF measures of teamwork climate, safety climate, working conditions, recognition of stress effects, job satisfaction, and burnout demonstrated internal validity but did not correlate with risk-adjusted outcomes. Reported levels of communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors correlated with risk-adjusted morbidity. Survey-based teamwork, safety climate, and working conditions scales are not confirmed to measure organizational factors that influence risk-adjusted surgical outcomes. Reported communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors on surgical services influenced patient morbidity. This suggests the importance of doctors' coordination and decision-making roles on surgical teams in providing high-quality and safe care. We propose risk-adjusted morbidity as an effective measure of surgical patient safety.

  6. Safety in Laboratories: Indian Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ajaz; Farooq, A. Jan; Qadri, GJ; S. A., Tabish

    2008-01-01

    Health and safety in clinical laboratories is becoming an increasingly important subject as a result of emergence of highly infectious diseases such as Hepatitis and HIV. A cross sectional study was carried out to study the safety measures being adopted in clinical laboratories of India. Heads of laboratories of teaching hospitals of India were subjected to a standardized, pretested questionnaire. Response rate was 44.8%. only 60% of laboratories had person in-charge of safety in laboratory. Seventy three percent of laboratories had safety education program regarding hazards. In 91% of laboratories staff is using protective clothing while working in laboratories. Hazardous material regulations are followed in 78% of laboratories. Regular health check ups are carried among laboratory staff in 43.4% of laboratories. Safety manual is available in 56.5% of laboratories. 73.9% of laboratories are equipped with fire extinguishers. Fume cupboards are provided in 34.7% of laboratories and they are regularly checked in 87.5% of these laboratories. In 78.26% of laboratories suitable measures are taken to minimize formation of aerosols. In 95.6% of laboratories waste is disposed off as per bio-medical waste management handling rules. Laboratory of one private medical college was accredited with NABL and safety parameters were better in that laboratory. Installing safety engineered devices apparently contributes to significant decrease in injuries in laboratories; laboratory safety has to be a part of overall quality assurance programme in hospitals. Accreditation has to be made necessary for all laboratories. PMID:21475492

  7. Solidifying Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Solidifying Safety: NASA s new safety organization spools up, as the 1SS program grapples with long-term risk. 2. Earth to Orbit O'Keefe telling skeptical lawmakers Orbital Space Plan (OSP) will cover exploration vision. China's rapid pace.

  8. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  9. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  10. Lab Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

  11. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  12. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  13. BioSig-Air-Force

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-15

    1) Configured servers: In coordination with the INSIGHT team, a hardware configuration was selected. Two nodes were purchased, configured, and shipped with compatible OS and database installation. The servers have been stress tested for reliability as they use leading edge technologies. Each node has two CPUs and 12 cores per CPU with maximum onboard memory for high performance. 2) LIM and Experimental module: The original BioSig system was developed for cancer research. Accordingly, the LIM system its corresponding web pages are being modified to facilitate (i) pathogene-donor interactions, (ii) media composition, (iii) chemical and siRNA plate configurations. The LIM system has been redesigned. The revised system allows design of new media and tracking it from lot-to-lot so that variations in the phenotypic responses can be tracked to a specific media and lot number. Similar associations are also possible with other experimental factors (e.g., donor-pathoge, siRNA, and chemical). Furthermore, the design of the experimental variables has also been revised to (i) interact with the newly developed LIM system, (ii) simplify experimental specifications, and (iii) test for potential operator's error during the data entry. Part of the complication has been due to the handshake between multiple teams that provide the small molecule plates and the team that creates assay plates. Our efforts have focused to harmonize these interactions (e.g., various data formats) so that each assay plate can be mapped to its source so that a correct set of experimental variables can be associated with each image. For example, depending upon the source of the chemical plates, they may have different formats. We have developed a canonical representation that registers SMILES code, for each chemical compound, along with its physiochemical properties. The schema for LIM conjunction with customized Web pages. 3) Import of Images and computed descriptors module: In coordination with the INSIGHT

  14. The social aspects of safety management: trust and safety climate.

    PubMed

    Luria, Gil

    2010-07-01

    This study tested the contribution of trust between leaders and subordinates to safety. It is suggested that leaders who create a relationship of trust with their subordinates are more likely to create a safe working environment, and to achieve higher and stronger safety-climate perceptions among their subordinates. Hence, trust should be negatively related to injuries and positively related to safety climate. Questionnaires distributed among 2524 soldiers in three army brigades tested for trust and safety-climate variables and were then crossed with injury rate according to medical records at the platoon level of analysis (N=105). Trust was found to be negatively related to injuries and positively related both to level and strength of safety climate. Furthermore, safety-climate level was found to mediate the relationship between trust and injury rates. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem; Barszcz, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (ISHM) systems are used to detect, assess, and isolate functional failures in order to improve safety of space systems such as Orbital Space Planes (OSPs). An ISHM system, as a whole, consists of several subsystems that monitor different components of an OSP including: Spacecraft, Launch Vehicle, Ground Control, and the International Space Station. In this research, therefore, we propose a new methodology to design and optimize ISHM as a distributed system with multiple disciplines (that correspond to different subsystems of OSP safety). A paramount amount of interest has been given in the literature to the multidisciplinary design optimization of problems with such architecture (as will be reviewed in the full paper).

  16. Nanomaterials for environmental remediation: investigating the role of nanoinformatics in support of environmental, health, and safety oversight of nanotechnologies at the local level.

    PubMed

    Massawe, Ephraim

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the science and practice of manipulating matter at or near atomic scale to create new materials of unique and novel properties for specific applications. Nanomaterials, including engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), have been used successfully for remediation since they are superior in technical performance and cost-effectiveness than traditional remedial technologies. Evidence indicates, however, that exposure to nanomaterials may lead to significant safety and health impacts. To protect human health against undesired risks from nanomaterials requires that safe and sustainable development of nanotechnology is in tandem with the availability of relevant information. State agencies responsible for the environment, safety, and public health were surveyed to understand their current and future information needs and capabilities to regulate nanomaterials. Because significant data gaps still exist on the toxicity and ecological impacts of nanomaterials, precautionary measures should be taken. Research to develop techniques for exposure assessments, surveillance and monitoring, databases, and characteristics of workplaces where ENPs are used is encouraged.

  17. 2011 John M. Eisenberg Patient Safety and Quality Awards. The Henry Ford Health System No Harm Campaign: a comprehensive model to reduce harm and save lives. innovation in patient safety and quality at the local level.

    PubMed

    Conway, William A; Hawkins, Susan; Jordan, Jack; Voutt-Goos, Mary J

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Henry Ford Health System launched its "No Harm Campaign," designed to integrate harm-reduction interventions into a systemwide initiative and, ultimately, to eliminate harm from the health care experience. The No Harm Campaign aims to decrease harm events through enhancing the system's culture of safety by reporting and studying harm events, researching causality, identifying priorities, and redesigning care to eliminate harm. The campaign uses a comprehensive set of 27 measures for harm reduction, covering infection-, medication-, and procedure-related harm, as well as other types of harm, all of which are combined to comprise a unique global harm score. The campaign's objective is to reduce all-cause harm events systemwide by 50% by 2013. A wide range of communication processes, from systemwide leadership retreats to daily e-mail news sent to all employees and physicians, is used to promote the campaign. In addition, the campaign is on the intranet "Knowledge Wall," where monthly dashboards, meeting minutes, and best practices and the work of our teams and collaboratives are documented and shared. From 2008 through 2011, a 31% reduction in harm events and an 18% reduction in inpatient mortality occurred systemwide. Building infrastructure, creating a culture of safety, providing employee training and education, and improving work process design are critical to systemwide implementation of harm-reduction efforts. Key actions for ongoing success focus on leadership, disseminating performance, putting everyone to work, and stealing ideas through national and local collaborations. A financial model was created to assess cost-savings of reducing harm events; early results total nearly $10 million in four years.

  18. Silymarin BIO-C, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, induces hyperprolactinemia in intact female rats.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Capasso, Francesco; Savino, Francesco; Izzo, Angelo A; Lembo, Francesca; Borrelli, Francesca

    2009-09-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged to have important health benefits for infants and mothers. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum fruits) has been recently proposed to be used by nursing mothers for stimulating milk production; however, the mode of action of this herbal drug is still unknown. In this paper, we have evaluated the effect of a micronized standardized extract of S. marianum (Silymarin BIO-C=Piùlatte) on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C (25-200mg/kg, given orally) increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels. Moreover, after a 66-day discontinuation of Silymarin BIO-C treatment, prolactin levels were still significantly elevated although we observed a trend to decrease that was counteracted by a further 7-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, (1-10mg/kg, os) significantly and in a dose dependent manner, reduced the serum prolactin levels; bromocriptine, at the dose of 1mg/kg, significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silymarin BIO-C. In conclusion, we have shown that an extract from S. marianum fruits significantly increases circulating prolactin levels in female rats; this effect seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D(2) receptors.

  19. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  20. The development of Bio-pharmaceutical industry in China: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Gujun

    2014-07-01

    Known as the "sunrise industry" of the 21st century, bio-pharmaceutical industry has been a fast-growing global industry, and many countries have been developing this industry as the focus of their national economies. In China, there exists a huge market demand for the development of bio-pharmaceutical industry, but at the present stage the industry is faced with some problems, such as low level of R & D for innovative drugs, and inappropriate capital investment in the industrialization. In order to accelerate the development of China's bio-pharmaceutical industry, it is necessary to take strategic initiatives of improving the technology transfer system, developing the bio-pharmaceutical outsourcing, and building a diversified industrial financing system.

  1. Recirculation: A New Concept to Drive Innovation in Sustainable Product Design for Bio-Based Products.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, James; Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Herrero-Davila, Lorenzo; Moity, Laurianne

    2016-12-29

    Bio-based products are made from renewable materials, offering a promising basis for the production of sustainable chemicals, materials, and more complex articles. However, biomass is not a limitless resource or one without environmental and social impacts. Therefore, while it is important to use biomass and grow a bio-based economy, displacing the unsustainable petroleum basis of energy and chemical production, any resource must be used effectively to reduce waste. Standards have been developed to support the bio-based product market in order to achieve this aim. However, the design of bio-based products has not received the same level of attention. Reported here are the first steps towards the development of a framework of understanding which connects product design to resource efficiency. Research and development scientists and engineers are encouraged to think beyond simple functionality and associate value to the potential of materials in their primary use and beyond.

  2. Experimental research to investigate the performance of bio coolant when turning of mild carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus Susanto, Tri; Nur, Rusdi

    2017-04-01

    Some literatures have been reported that the using bio coolant show better lubricating and cooling performances and reduce the occupational health risks associated with petroleum-oil-based coolant since they have lower toxicity. This paper investigates the effect the cutting conditions on the surface roughness through turning of mild carbon steel using dry, coolant and bio coolant. Measurement of surface roughness was conducted and then compared with the change of the cutting conditions. The relationship between surface roughness and cutting conditions was created in a curve for different of the cutting speed and coolant. The results indicate that the surface roughness was reduced when the speed of cutting is set to the highest level for all of coolant conditions (dry, coolant, and bio coolant) and constant of DOC and feed. The surface roughness had better performance using bio coolant than coolant conventional (mineral fluid).

  3. BioMart: a data federation framework for large collaborative projects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed; Baran, Joachim; Cros, Anthony; Guberman, Jonathan M; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart is a freely available, open source, federated database system that provides a unified access to disparate, geographically distributed data sources. It is designed to be data agnostic and platform independent, such that existing databases can easily be incorporated into the BioMart framework. BioMart allows databases hosted on different servers to be presented seamlessly to users, facilitating collaborative projects between different research groups. BioMart contains several levels of query optimization to efficiently manage large data sets and offers a diverse selection of graphical user interfaces and application programming interfaces to ensure that queries can be performed in whatever manner is most convenient for the user. The software has now been adopted by a large number of different biological databases spanning a wide range of data types and providing a rich source of annotation available to bioinformaticians and biologists alike.

  4. BioMart: a data federation framework for large collaborative projects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed; Baran, Joachim; Cros, Anthony; Guberman, Jonathan M.; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart is a freely available, open source, federated database system that provides a unified access to disparate, geographically distributed data sources. It is designed to be data agnostic and platform independent, such that existing databases can easily be incorporated into the BioMart framework. BioMart allows databases hosted on different servers to be presented seamlessly to users, facilitating collaborative projects between different research groups. BioMart contains several levels of query optimization to efficiently manage large data sets and offers a diverse selection of graphical user interfaces and application programming interfaces to ensure that queries can be performed in whatever manner is most convenient for the user. The software has now been adopted by a large number of different biological databases spanning a wide range of data types and providing a rich source of annotation available to bioinformaticians and biologists alike. Database URL: http://www.biomart.org PMID:21930506

  5. Fast-responding bio-based shape memory thermoplastic polyurethanes

    DOE PAGES

    Petrovic, Zoran S.; Milic, Jelena; Zhang, Fan; ...

    2017-05-31

    Fast response shape-memory polyurethanes were prepared from bio-based polyols, diphenyl methane diisocyanate and butane diol. The bio-based polyester polyols were synthesized from 9-hydroxynonanoic acid, a product obtained by ozonolysis of fatty acids extracted from soy oil and castor oil. The morphology of polyurethanes was investigated by synchrotron ultra-small angle X-ray scattering, which revealed the inter-domain spacing between the hard and soft phases, the degree of phase separation, and the level of intermixing between the hard and soft phases. We also conducted thorough investigations of the thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties of the polyurethanes, and found that high crystallization rate ofmore » the soft segment gives these polyurethanes unique properties suitable for shapememory applications, such as adjustable transition temperatures, high degree of elastic elongations, and good mechanical strength. In conclusion, these materials are also potentially biodegradable and biocompatible, therefore suitable for biomedical and environmental applications.« less

  6. Bio-responsive polymer hydrogels homeostatically regulate blood coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Maitz, Manfred F.; Freudenberg, Uwe; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Fischer, Marion; Beyrich, Theresa; Werner, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Bio-responsive polymer architectures can empower medical therapies by engaging molecular feedback-response mechanisms resembling the homeostatic adaptation of living tissues to varying environmental constraints. Here we show that a blood coagulation-responsive hydrogel system can deliver heparin in amounts triggered by the environmental levels of thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation cascade, which—in turn—becomes inactivated due to released heparin. The bio-responsive hydrogel quantitatively quenches blood coagulation over several hours in the presence of pro-coagulant stimuli and during repeated incubation with fresh, non-anticoagulated blood. These features enable the introduced material to provide sustainable, autoregulated anticoagulation, addressing a key challenge of many medical therapies. Beyond that, the explored concept may facilitate the development of materials that allow the effective and controlled application of drugs and biomolecules. PMID:23868446

  7. Bio-EdIP: An automatic approach for in vitro cell confluence images quantification.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Andrés; Ariza-Jiménez, Leandro; Uribe, Diego; Arroyave, Johanna C; Galeano, July; Cortés-Mancera, Fabian M

    2017-07-01

    Cell imaging is a widely-employed technique to analyze multiple biological processes. Therefore, simple, accurate and quantitative tools are needed to understand cellular events. For this purpose, Bio-EdIP was developed as a user-friendly tool to quantify confluence levels using cell culture images. The proposed algorithm combines a pre-processing step with subsequent stages that involve local processing techniques and a morphological reconstruction-based segmentation algorithm. Segmentation performance was assessed in three constructed image sets, comparing F-measure scores and AUC values (ROC analysis) for Bio-EdIP, its previous version and TScratch. Furthermore, segmentation results were compared with published algorithms using eight public benchmarks. Bio-EdIP automatically segmented cell-free regions from images of in vitro cell culture. Based on mean F-measure scores and ROC analysis, Bio-EdIP conserved a high performance regardless of image characteristics of the constructed dataset, when compared with its previous version and TScratch. Although acquisition quality of the public dataset affected Bio-EdIP segmentation, performance was better in two out of eight public sets. Bio-EdIP is a user-friendly interface, which is useful for the automatic analysis of confluence levels and cell growth processes using in vitro cell culture images. Here, we also presented new manually annotated data for algorithms evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mannosylated liposomes for bio-film targeting.

    PubMed

    Vyas, S P; Sihorkar, Vaibhav; Jain, Sanyog

    2007-02-07

    Vesicular systems in general are investigated to achieve bacterial bio-film targeting as their architecture mimics bio-membranes in terms of structure and bio-behavior. This paper elaborates upon the role of the inherent characteristics of the carrier system and further envisages the role of anchored ligands in navigating the contents in the vicinity of bio-films. Vesicles in the present study were coated with hydrophobic derivatives of mannan (cholesteryl mannan and sialo-mannan). The prepared vesicles were characterized for size, shape, percentage entrapment and ligand binding specificity and results were compared with the uncoated versions. Using a set of in vitro and in vivo models, the bio-film targeting potential of plain and mannosylated liposomal formulations were compared. Results suggested that mannosylated vesicles could be effectively targeted to the model bacterial bio-films, compared with plain vesicles. Moreover, the sialo-mannan coated liposomes recorded superior targetability as reflected in the significantly higher percentage growth inhibition when compared with cholesteryl mannan coated liposomes. The engineered systems thus have the potential use for the delivery of anti-microbial agents to the bio-films.

  9. Baseline Serum Osteopontin Levels Predict the Clinical Effectiveness of Tocilizumab but Not Infliximab in Biologic-Naïve Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Single-Center Prospective Study at 1 Year (the Keio First-Bio Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Izumi, Keisuke; Kaneko, Yuko; Hashizume, Misato; Yoshimoto, Keiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    To explore the baseline predictors of clinical effectiveness after tocilizumab or infliximab treatment in biologic-naïve rheumatoid arthritis patients. Consecutive biologic-naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis initiating infliximab (n = 57) or tocilizumab (n = 70) treatment were included in our prospective cohort study. Our cohort started in February 2010, and the patients observed for at least 1 year as of April 2013 were analysed. We assessed baseline variables including patients' characteristics (age, sex, disease duration, prednisolone dose, methotrexate dose, other disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use, Clinical Disease Activity Index [CDAI]) and serum biomarker levels (C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin M-rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, bone alkaline phosphatase, osteonectin, osteopontin) to extract factors associated with clinical remission (CDAI ≤ 2.8) at 1 year using univariate analyses, and the extracted factors were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model. Similar analyses were also performed for Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) remission (≤ 3.3) and Disease Activity Score with 28 joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) remission (< 2.6). There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics except for methotrexate use between the groups. In the multivariate analyses, the low baseline osteopontin levels (OR 0.9145, 95% CI 0.8399-0.9857) were identified as predictors of CDAI remission in the tocilizumab group, whereas no predictors of CDAI remission were found in the infliximab group. Similar results were obtained when using SDAI and DAS28-ESR remission criteria. Baseline low serum osteopontin levels predict clinical remission 1 year after tocilizumab treatment and not infliximab treatment in biologic

  10. BIO-Plex Information System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Boulanger, Richard; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a suggested design for an integrated information system for the proposed BIO-Plex (Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex) at Johnson Space Center (JSC), including distributed control systems, central control, networks, database servers, personal computers and workstations, applications software, and external communications. The system will have an open commercial computing and networking, architecture. The network will provide automatic real-time transfer of information to database server computers which perform data collection and validation. This information system will support integrated, data sharing applications for everything, from system alarms to management summaries. Most existing complex process control systems have information gaps between the different real time subsystems, between these subsystems and central controller, between the central controller and system level planning and analysis application software, and between the system level applications and management overview reporting. An integrated information system is vitally necessary as the basis for the integration of planning, scheduling, modeling, monitoring, and control, which will allow improved monitoring and control based on timely, accurate and complete data. Data describing the system configuration and the real time processes can be collected, checked and reconciled, analyzed and stored in database servers that can be accessed by all applications. The required technology is available. The only opportunity to design a distributed, nonredundant, integrated system is before it is built. Retrofit is extremely difficult and costly.

  11. Servoregulation of centrifugal pumps. A new technical approach to improve patient safety during long-term extracorporeal life support.

    PubMed

    Müller, E; Münch, K

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the principle technical requirements to servoregulate a centrifugal pump (Bio-Pump) and to discuss the potential risks and benefits of the potential use of such a device during long-term extra-corporeal support in an experimental laboratory study. A pressure control module (PCM) for the Bio-Pump was developed and a pressure measurement chamber to indirectly measure pressure in the venous limb of an extracorporeal circuit was constructed. The performance of the PCM combined with the pressure measurement chamber was evaluated in an experimental test circuit by recording pressure changes after sudden clamping of the venous line with and without servoregulation. Without the PCM pressure dropped from baseline to approximately -200 mm Hg after clamping and remained at that level. With the PCM active the pump speed was automatically and immediately reduced and the preclamping pressure level (+/- 10 percent) was restored within 500 msec. In this laboratory setting the Bio-Pump could effectively and rapidly be servoregulated with a conventional controller and an indirect pressure monitoring system. A potential clinical use of this system could help to improve the safety without imposing additional risks such as air embolism or backflow.

  12. Leadership for safety: industrial experience

    PubMed Central

    Flin, R; Yule, S

    2004-01-01

    The importance of leadership for effective safety management has been the focus of research attention in industry for a number of years, especially in energy and manufacturing sectors. In contrast, very little research into leadership and safety has been carried out in medical settings. A selective review of the industrial safety literature for leadership research with possible application in health care was undertaken. Emerging findings show the importance of participative, transformational styles for safety performance at all levels of management. Transactional styles with attention to monitoring and reinforcement of workers' safety behaviours have been shown to be effective at the supervisory level. Middle managers need to be involved in safety and foster open communication, while ensuring compliance with safety systems. They should allow supervisors a degree of autonomy for safety initiatives. Senior managers have a prime influence on the organisation's safety culture. They need to continuously demonstrate a visible commitment to safety, best indicated by the time they devote to safety matters. PMID:15576692

  13. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  14. Nuclear Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  15. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  16. Spider Silk: Mother Nature's Bio-Superlens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monks, James N.; Yan, Bing; Hawkins, Nicholas; Vollrath, Fritz; Wang, Zengbo

    2016-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a possible new microfiber bio near field lens that uses minor ampullate spider silk,spun from the Nephila edulis spider, to create a real time image of a surface using near field optical techniques. The microfiber bio lens is the world's first natural superlens created by exploring biological materials. The resolution of the surface image overcomes the diffraction limit, with the ability to resolve patterns at 100 nm under a standard white light source in reflection mode. This resolution offers further developments in superlens technology and paves the way for new bio optics.

  17. Stinging plants: as future bio-weapon.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Kumar, Kamal

    2016-09-01

    In the present opinion paper, we have been introducing for the first time the stinging plants and/or their biological toxins as novel bio-threat agents that may be used for the development of bio-weapons for self-defence purpose. The selected studied stinging plants are having dual role as nutraceutical and ethno-pharmacological uses apart from their less explored stinging property. However, future detailed work is required for identification and characterization of the precise stinging chemical components that will be used for the formulation of novel bio-warfare agents for self-defence purpose.

  18. The Hermes safety strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, R.

    The Hermes space vehicle currently in project for the European Space Agency will open the road to European autonomous manned space missions at the beginning of the 21st century. The safety objectives are very ambitious and will require the implementation of a comprehensive safety assurance program, aimed at reducing the risks to an acceptable level. The risk acceptance is based on identification, ranking and minimization of Critical Items including all potential departures from the safety requirements. Prime contractors shall prepare a Critical Item List for their elements, and submit it to the Hermes Program Directorate for review; approval of the residual open critical items shall be obtained before launch. An independent committee (HESAC) has been set up by the ESA and the French National Space Center (CNES) Directors General to assess the adequacy of the Safety Control Program.

  19. Cognitive bio-radar: The natural evolution of bio-signals measurement.

    PubMed

    Malafaia, Daniel; Oliveira, Beatriz; Ferreira, Pedro; Varum, Tiago; Vieira, José; Tomé, Ana

    2016-10-01

    In this article we discuss a novel approach to Bio-Radar, contactless measurement of bio-signals, called Cognitive Bio-Radar. This new approach implements the Bio-Radar in a Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform in order to obtain awareness of the environment where it operates. Due to this, the Cognitive Bio-Radar can adapt to its surroundings in order to have an intelligent usage of the radio frequency spectrum to improve its performance. In order to study the feasibility of such implementation, a SDR based Bio-Radar testbench was developed and evaluated. The prototype is shown to be able to acquire the heartbeat activity and the respiratory effort. The acquired data is compared with the acquisitions from a Biopac research data acquisition system, showing coherent results for both heartbeat and breathing rate.

  20. Patient Safety in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Makary, Martin A.; Sexton, J Bryan; Freischlag, Julie A.; Millman, E Anne; Pryor, David; Holzmueller, Christine; Pronovost, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Improving patient safety is an increasing priority for surgeons and hospitals since sentinel events can be catastrophic for patients, caregivers, and institutions. Patient safety initiatives aimed at creating a safe operating room (OR) culture are increasingly being adopted, but a reliable means of measuring their impact on front-line providers does not exist. Methods: We developed a surgery-specific safety questionnaire (SAQ) and administered it to 2769 eligible caregivers at 60 hospitals. Survey questions included the appropriateness of handling medical errors, knowledge of reporting systems, and perceptions of safety in the operating room. MANOVA and ANOVA were performed to compare safety results by hospital and by an individual's position in the OR using a composite score. Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the structure of the scale at the operating room level of analysis. Results: The overall response rate was 77.1% (2135 of 2769), with a range of 57% to 100%. Factor analysis of the survey items demonstrated high face validity and internal consistency (α = 0.76). The safety climate scale was robust and internally consistent overall and across positions. Scores varied widely by hospital [MANOVA omnibus F (59, 1910) = 3.85, P < 0.001], but not position [ANOVA F (4, 1910) = 1.64, P = 0.16], surgeon (mean = 73.91), technician (mean = 70.26), anesthesiologist (mean = 71.57), CRNA (mean = 71.03), and nurse (mean = 70.40). The percent of respondents reporting good safety climate in each hospital ranged from 16.3% to 100%. Conclusions: Safety climate in surgical departments can be validly measured and varies widely among hospitals, providing the opportunity to benchmark performance. Scores on the SAQ can serve to evaluate interventions to improve patient safety. PMID:16632997

  1. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  2. Auto Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... be sure to ask for a certified child passenger safety technician to assist you.) continue Guidelines for ... killed if they are riding in the front passenger seat when an air bag opens. Air bags ...

  3. Implementation of the Generic Safety Analysis Report - Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-02

    The Savannah River Site has completed the development, review and approval process for the Generic Safety Analysis Report (GSAR) and implemented this information in facility SARs and BIOs. This includes the yearly revision of the GSAR and the facility-specific SARs. The process has provided us with several lessons learned.

  4. Immunogenicity and Safety of Trivalent Split Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Korean Adults with Low Pre-Existing Antibody Levels: An Open Phase I Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyuri; Han, Seunghoon; Hong, Taegon; Jeon, Sangil; Paek, Jeongki; Kang, Jin Han

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A phase I clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of newly developed egg-cultivated trivalent inactivated split influenza vaccine (TIV) in Korea. Materials and Methods The TIV was administered to 43 healthy male adults. Subjects with high pre-existing titers were excluded in a screening step. Immune response was measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Results The seroprotection rates against A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2) and B/Brisbane/60/2009 were 74.42% [95% confidence interval (CI): 61.38–87.46], 72.09% (95% CI: 58.69–85.50), and 86.05% (95% CI: 75.69–96.40), respectively. Calculated seroconversion rates were 74.42% (95% CI: 61.38–87.46), 74.42% (95% CI: 61.38–87.46), and 79.07% (95% CI: 66.91–91.23), respectively. There were 25 episodes of solicited local adverse events in 21 subjects (47.73%), 21 episodes of solicited general adverse events in 16 subjects (36.36%) and 5 episodes of unsolicited adverse events in 5 subjects (11.36%). All adverse events were grade 1 or 2 and disappeared within three days. Conclusion The immunogenicity and safety of TIV established in this phase I trial are sufficient to plan a larger scale clinical trial. PMID:27593862

  5. Multi-Center Pilot Study to Evaluate the Safety Pro le of High Energy Fractionated Radiofrequency With Insulated Microneedles to Multiple Levels of the Dermis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Weiner, Steven F; Pozner, Jason N; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Vasily, David B; Ross, E Victor; Gabriel, Zena

    2016-11-01

    In this multi-center pilot study, the safety pro le of high intensity focused radiofrequency (RF) delivered to the dermis was evaluated for safety in the treatment of the aging neck and face. A newly designed insulated microneedle system delivers a signi cant coagulative thermal injury into the dermis while sparing the epidermis from RF injury. Thirty- ve healthy subjects from seven aesthetic practices were evaluated, and data from each were incorporated in this case report. The subjects received a single treatment using settings that delivered the highest RF energies suggested from the new recommended protocols. The depth of thermal delivery was adjusted before each pass and all subjects received a minimum of two to three passes to the treated areas. Before and after photographs along with adverse effects were recorded. This case report demonstrates the ability to deliver significant RF thermal injury to several layers of the dermis with insulated microneedles safely with little injury to the epidermis and minimum downtime. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1308-1312..

  6. [Preface for special issue on bio-based materials (2016)].

    PubMed

    Weng, Yunxuan

    2016-06-25

    Bio-based materials are new materials or chemicals with renewable biomass as raw materials such as grain, legume, straw, bamboo and wood powder. This class of materials includes bio-based polymer, biobased fiber, glycotechnology products, biobased rubber and plastics produced by biomass thermoplastic processing and basic biobased chemicals, for instance, bio-alcohols, organic acids, alkanes, and alkenes, obtained by bio-synthesis, bio-processing and bio-refinery. Owing to its environmental friendly and resource conservation, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry taking the lead in the world scientific and technological innovation and economic development. An overview of bio-based materials development is reported in this special issue, and the industrial status and research progress of the following aspects, including biobased fiber, polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable mulching film, bio-based polyamide, protein based biomedical materials, bio-based polyurethane, and modification and processing of poly(lactic acid), are introduced.

  7. Calixarenes in bio-medical researches.

    PubMed

    Rodik, Roman V; Boyko, Vyacheslav I; Kalchenko, Vitaly I

    2009-01-01

    Application of calixarene derivatives in bio-medical researches is reviewed in this article. Antiviral, bactericidal, antithrombothic, antituberculosis, anticancer activity as well as specific protein complexation, membranotropic properties and toxicity of modified calixarenes are discussed.

  8. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  9. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  10. The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in protein molecules in living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-feng

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in bio-tissues were studied using Pang's theory of bio-energy transport, in which the energy spectra of protein molecules are obtained from the discrete dynamic equation. From the energy spectra, it was determined that the protein molecules could both radiate and absorb bio-photons with wavelengths of <3 μm and 5-7 μm, consistent with the energy level transitions of the excitons. These results were consistent with the experimental data; this consisted of infrared absorption data from collagen, bovine serum albumin, the protein-like molecule acetanilide, plasma, and a person's finger, and the laser-Raman spectra of acidity I-type collagen in the lungs of a mouse, and metabolically active Escherichia coli. We further elucidated the mechanism responsible for the non-thermal biological effects produced by the infrared light absorbed by the bio-tissues, using the above results. No temperature rise was observed; instead, the absorbed infrared light promoted the vibrations of amides as well the transport of the bio-energy from one place to other in the protein molecules, which changed their conformations. These experimental results, therefore, not only confirmed the validity of the mechanism of bio-photon emission, and the newly developed theory of bio-energy transport mentioned above, but also explained the mechanism and properties of the non-thermal biological effects produced by the absorption of infrared light by the living systems.

  11. The University of Washington Health Sciences Library BioCommons: an evolving Northwest biomedical research information support infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Minie, Mark; Bowers, Stuart; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Roberts, Edward; James, Rose A.; Rambo, Neil; Fuller, Sherrilynne

    2006-01-01

    Setting: The University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries and Information Center BioCommons serves the bioinformatics needs of researchers at the university and in the vibrant for-profit and not-for-profit biomedical research sector in the Washington area and region. Program Components: The BioCommons comprises services addressing internal University of Washington, not-for-profit, for-profit, and regional and global clientele. The BioCommons is maintained and administered by the BioResearcher Liaison Team. The BioCommons architecture provides a highly flexible structure for adapting to rapidly changing resources and needs. Evaluation Mechanisms: BioCommons uses Web-based pre- and post-course evaluations and periodic user surveys to assess service effectiveness. Recent surveys indicate substantial usage of BioCommons services and a high level of effectiveness and user satisfaction. Next Steps/Future Directions: BioCommons is developing novel collaborative Web resources to distribute bioinformatics tools and is experimenting with Web-based competency training in bioinformation resource use. PMID:16888667

  12. Alkaline phosphatase immobilization onto Bio-Gide® and Bio-Oss® for periodontal and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Oortgiesen, Daniël A W; Plachokova, Adelina S; Geenen, Claudia; Meijer, Gert J; Walboomers, X Frank; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Jansen, John A

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) immobilization onto Bio-Gide(®) in vitro, and to study the in vivo performance of ALP-enriched Bio-Gide(®) and/or Bio-Oss(®) with the purpose to enhance periodontal regeneration. Alkaline phosphatase ALP was immobilized onto Bio-Gide(®) and Bio-Oss(®) . Forty-eight rats received periodontal defects, which were treated according to one of the following strategies: Bio-Gide(®), Bio-Gide(®) -ALP, Bio-Gide(®) -ALP/Bio-Oss(®), Bio-Gide(®) /Bio-Oss(®) -ALP, Bio-Gide(®) -ALP/Bio-Oss(®) -ALP, or empty. Micro-CT and histological analysis were performed. A 30 min ALP-deposition time was determined as optimal from mineralization capacity assessment and consequently used as Bio-Gide(®) -ALP membranes in the animal experiment. In vivo results showed that after 2 weeks, the defect and implanted materials were still visible, an inflammatory response was present, and membrane degradation was ongoing. Bone formation, although limited, was observed in the majority of Bio-Gide(®) -ALP specimens and all of the Bio-Gide(®) /Bio-Oss(®) -ALP specimens, and was significantly higher compared with Bio-Gide(®) and empty controls. After 6 weeks, the defects and particles were still visible, whereas membranes were completely degraded. The inflammatory response was decreased and bone formation appeared superior for Bio-Gide(®) -ALP treated defects. Immobilization of ALP onto guided tissue regeneration (GTR)/ guided bone regeneration (GBR)-materials (Bio-Gide(®) and Bio-Oss(®)) can enhance the performance of these materials in GTR/GBR procedures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST), and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event extraction systems. The

  14. Innovative three-dimensional (3D) eco-TiO2 photocatalysts for practical environmental and bio-medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Young-Chul; Son, Byoungchul; Park, So Young; Lee, Jae Won; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Yooseok; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Young-Seak; Lee, Jouhahn

    2014-01-01

    It is known that water purified by conventional TiO2 photocatalysts may not be safe enough for drinking, due to the toxicity by tiny existence of TiO2 nanoparticles after water treatment. We herein demonstrate a facile design of a three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 photocatalyst structure with which both the efficiency of purification and the safety level of the final purified water can be improved and ensured, respectively. The structure, consisting of 3D sulfur-doped TiO2 microtubes in nanotubes (eco-TiO2), is suitable for both environmental and bio-medical applications. Investigation of its formation mechanism reveals that anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), owing to a spatial constraint, causes a simple, nanoparticles-to-nanotubes structural rearrangement as a template for nanotube growth. It is found that eco-TiO2 can be activated under visible-light irradiation by non-metal (sulfur; S) doping, after which it shows visible-light photocatalytic activities over a range of solar energy. Importantly, an in vitro cytotoxicity test of well-purified water by eco-TiO2 confirms that eco-TiO2 satisfies the key human safety conditions. PMID:25338845

  15. Innovative three-dimensional (3D) eco-TiO2 photocatalysts for practical environmental and bio-medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Young-Chul; Son, Byoungchul; Park, So Young; Lee, Jae Won; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Yooseok; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Young-Seak; Lee, Jouhahn

    2014-10-01

    It is known that water purified by conventional TiO2 photocatalysts may not be safe enough for drinking, due to the toxicity by tiny existence of TiO2 nanoparticles after water treatment. We herein demonstrate a facile design of a three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 photocatalyst structure with which both the efficiency of purification and the safety level of the final purified water can be improved and ensured, respectively. The structure, consisting of 3D sulfur-doped TiO2 microtubes in nanotubes (eco-TiO2), is suitable for both environmental and bio-medical applications. Investigation of its formation mechanism reveals that anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), owing to a spatial constraint, causes a simple, nanoparticles-to-nanotubes structural rearrangement as a template for nanotube growth. It is found that eco-TiO2 can be activated under visible-light irradiation by non-metal (sulfur; S) doping, after which it shows visible-light photocatalytic activities over a range of solar energy. Importantly, an in vitro cytotoxicity test of well-purified water by eco-TiO2 confirms that eco-TiO2 satisfies the key human safety conditions.

  16. Innovative three-dimensional (3D) eco-TiO₂ photocatalysts for practical environmental and bio-medical applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Young-Chul; Son, Byoungchul; Park, So Young; Lee, Jae Won; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Yooseok; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Young-Seak; Lee, Jouhahn

    2014-10-23

    It is known that water purified by conventional TiO2 photocatalysts may not be safe enough for drinking, due to the toxicity by tiny existence of TiO2 nanoparticles after water treatment. We herein demonstrate a facile design of a three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 photocatalyst structure with which both the efficiency of purification and the safety level of the final purified water can be improved and ensured, respectively. The structure, consisting of 3D sulfur-doped TiO2 microtubes in nanotubes (eco-TiO2), is suitable for both environmental and bio-medical applications. Investigation of its formation mechanism reveals that anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), owing to a spatial constraint, causes a simple, nanoparticles-to-nanotubes structural rearrangement as a template for nanotube growth. It is found that eco-TiO2 can be activated under visible-light irradiation by non-metal (sulfur; S) doping, after which it shows visible-light photocatalytic activities over a range of solar energy. Importantly, an in vitro cytotoxicity test of well-purified water by eco-TiO2 confirms that eco-TiO2 satisfies the key human safety conditions.

  17. Middle School Improvement and Reform: Development and Validation of a School-Level Assessment of Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert; Shim, Minsuk; Seitsinger, Anne; Dumas, Thaddeus

    2003-01-01

    Examines the structure of perceived school climate and the relationship of climate dimensions to adaptation of students who attend middle-grade-level schools. The climate scales exhibited a stable dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability. Ratings of multiple climate dimensions were associated…

  18. Middle School Improvement and Reform: Development and Validation of a School-Level Assessment of Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert; Shim, Minsuk; Seitsinger, Anne; Dumas, Thaddeus

    2003-01-01

    Examines the structure of perceived school climate and the relationship of climate dimensions to adaptation of students who attend middle-grade-level schools. The climate scales exhibited a stable dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability. Ratings of multiple climate dimensions were associated…

  19. The NCBI BioSystems database.

    PubMed

    Geer, Lewis Y; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Geer, Renata C; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Liu, Chunlei; Shi, Wenyao; Bryant, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    The NCBI BioSystems database, found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosystems/, centralizes and cross-links existing biological systems databases, increasing their utility and target audience by integrating their pathways and systems into NCBI resources. This integration allows users of NCBI's Entrez databases to quickly categorize proteins, genes and small molecules by metabolic pathway, disease state or other BioSystem type, without requiring time-consuming inference of biological relationships from the literature or multiple experimental datasets.

  20. Bio-Chemo-Mechanical Models of Vascular Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsil; Wagenseil, Jessica E

    2015-07-01

    Models of vascular mechanics are necessary to predict the response of an artery under a variety of loads, for complex geometries, and in pathological adaptation. Classic constitutive models for arteries are phenomenological and the fitted parameters are not associated with physical components of the wall. Recently, microstructurally-linked models have been developed that associate structural information about the wall components with tissue-level mechanics. Microstructurally-linked models are useful for correlating changes in specific components with pathological outcomes, so that targeted treatments may be developed to prevent or reverse the physical changes. However, most treatments, and many causes, of vascular disease have chemical components. Chemical signaling within cells, between cells, and between cells and matrix constituents affects the biology and mechanics of the arterial wall in the short- and long-term. Hence, bio-chemo-mechanical models that include chemical signaling are critical for robust models of vascular mechanics. This review summarizes bio-mechanical and bio-chemo-mechanical models with a focus on large elastic arteries. We provide applications of these models and challenges for future work.