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Sample records for bio stimulatory response

  1. Comparative Ethanol-Induced Potentiation of Stimulatory Responses to Dexmethylphenidate Versus Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Kennerly S; Straughn, Arthur B; Reeves, Owen T; Bernstein, Hilary; Malcolm, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The potentiation of positive subjective responses to immediate-release dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH) or dl-methylphenidate (dl-MPH) by ethanol was investigated over the time course of maximal drug exposure after a single dose. In a 4-way, randomized, crossover study design, 12 men and 12 women normal volunteers received d-MPH (0.15 mg/kg) or dl-MPH (0.3 mg/kg) with or without ethanol (0.6 g/kg). Serial visual analog scales were used as surrogates for drug abuse liability ("high," "good," "like," "stimulated," and "any drug effect"). Combining pure d-MPH with ethanol significantly (P < 0.005) increased the area under the effect curves (AUC(0-5.25h)) of all 5 subscales. The dl-MPH-ethanol combination significantly (P < 0.05) increased these AUCs with the exception of like (P = 0.08). Effects of the pure d-MPH-ethanol combination exhibited delayed potentiation relative to dl-MPH-ethanol. A pharmacokinetic interaction between the l-isomer of dl-MPH and ethanol has previously been shown to increase early exposure to d-MPH. Administration of the pure isomer d-MPH precludes this absorption phase pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol. This notwithstanding, the pure d-MPH-ethanol combination resulted in comparable, if not greater, cumulative stimulant potentiation than the dl-MPH-ethanol combination. These findings provide evidence of a pharmacodynamic component to d-MPH-ethanol synergistic interactions and carry implications for the rational drug individualization in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  2. Non-responsiveness of antigen-experienced CD4 T cells reflects more stringent co-stimulatory requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, M E; Noteboom, E; Kruisbeek, A M

    1998-01-01

    We recently reported that previously activated T cells, irrespective of the nature of the first stimulus they encountered, are unable to respond to Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), nor to soluble anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) presented by splenic antigen-presenting cells (APC). Such previously activated T cells are, however, fully capable of responding to plate-bound anti-CD3 plus splenic APC. These data suggest differential integration of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and co-stimulatory signalling pathways in naive versus antigen-experienced T cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, anti-CD28 mAb restores the proliferative capacity of resting ex vivo CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells (representing previously activated T cells) to both soluble anti-CD3 mAb and SEB. Interestingly, mAb-mediated engagement of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) completely negates the rescue effects mediated by anti-CD28 mAb in CD45RBlo cells. Nevertheless, the non-responsiveness of CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells cannot be reversed by anti-CTLA-4 Fab fragments, indicating that it is not related to negative regulatory effects of CTLA-4 engagement itself. Interestingly, the addition of interleukin-2 (IL-2) restores the proliferative capacity of CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells to SEB and soluble anti-CD3 mAb. Moreover, when rescued by IL-2, the cells are less susceptible to the negative regulatory effects of CTLA-4 engagement. Together, these findings suggest that the non-responsiveness of CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells to certain stimuli may be related to inadequate TCR signalling, primarily affecting IL-2 production. Images Figure 1 PMID:9640247

  3. Non-responsiveness of antigen-experienced CD4 T cells reflects more stringent co-stimulatory requirements.

    PubMed

    Hamel, M E; Noteboom, E; Kruisbeek, A M

    1998-03-01

    We recently reported that previously activated T cells, irrespective of the nature of the first stimulus they encountered, are unable to respond to Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), nor to soluble anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) presented by splenic antigen-presenting cells (APC). Such previously activated T cells are, however, fully capable of responding to plate-bound anti-CD3 plus splenic APC. These data suggest differential integration of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and co-stimulatory signalling pathways in naive versus antigen-experienced T cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, anti-CD28 mAb restores the proliferative capacity of resting ex vivo CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells (representing previously activated T cells) to both soluble anti-CD3 mAb and SEB. Interestingly, mAb-mediated engagement of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) completely negates the rescue effects mediated by anti-CD28 mAb in CD45RBlo cells. Nevertheless, the non-responsiveness of CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells cannot be reversed by anti-CTLA-4 Fab fragments, indicating that it is not related to negative regulatory effects of CTLA-4 engagement itself. Interestingly, the addition of interleukin-2 (IL-2) restores the proliferative capacity of CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells to SEB and soluble anti-CD3 mAb. Moreover, when rescued by IL-2, the cells are less susceptible to the negative regulatory effects of CTLA-4 engagement. Together, these findings suggest that the non-responsiveness of CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells to certain stimuli may be related to inadequate TCR signalling, primarily affecting IL-2 production.

  4. Self-stimulatory behavior and perceptual reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Lovaas, I; Newsom, C; Hickman, C

    1987-01-01

    Self-stimulatory behavior is repetitive, stereotyped, functionally autonomous behavior seen in both normal and developmentally disabled populations, yet no satisfactory theory of its development and major characteristics has previously been offered. We present here a detailed hypothesis of the acquisition and maintenance of self-stimulatory behavior, proposing that the behaviors are operant responses whose reinforcers are automatically produced interoceptive and exteroceptive perceptual consequences. The concept of perceptual stimuli and reinforcers, the durability of self-stimulatory behaviors, the sensory extinction effect, the inverse relationship between self-stimulatory and other behaviors, the blocking effect of self-stimulatory behavior on new learning, and response substitution effects are discussed in terms of the hypothesis. Support for the hypothesis from the areas of sensory reinforcement and sensory deprivation is also reviewed. Limitations of major alternative theories are discussed, along with implications of the perceptual reinforcement hypothesis for the treatment of excessive self-stimulatory behavior and for theoretical conceptualizations of functionally related normal and pathological behaviors. PMID:3583964

  5. Suppression of in vivo polyclonal IgE responses by monoclonal antibody to the lymphokine B-cell stimulatory factor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelman, F D; Katona, I M; Urban, J F; Snapper, C M; Ohara, J; Paul, W E

    1986-01-01

    The lymphokine B-cell stimulatory factor 1 (BSF-1) has been shown to greatly enhance the differentiation of lipopolysaccharide-activated B cells into IgG1- and IgE-secreting cells in vitro. To determine whether in vivo IgG1 and IgE antibody responses are BSF-1 dependent, the ability of a monoclonal rat IgG1 anti-BSF-1 antibody, 11B11, to affect polyclonal IgG1 and IgE production in mice infected with the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or injected with a purified goat antibody to mouse IgD was studied. 11B11-containing ascites fluid or purified 11B11 strongly inhibited IgE production in both systems but did not affect IgG1 production, while control ascites or normal rat IgG1 had no IgE-inhibitory activity. These results indicate an important physiologic role for BSF-1 in the generation of IgE antibody responses and suggest means for limiting the production of antibodies responsible for allergic reactions without inhibiting protective antibody responses. PMID:3491987

  6. Only signaling modules that discriminate sharply between stimulatory and nonstimulatory inputs require basal signaling for fast cellular responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artomov, Mykyta; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2010-09-01

    In many types of cells, binding of molecules to their receptors enables cascades of intracellular chemical reactions to take place (signaling). However, a low level of signaling also occurs in most unstimulated cells. Such basal signaling in resting cells can have many functions, one of which is that it is thought to be required for fast cellular responses to external stimuli. A mechanistic understanding of why this is true and which features of cellular signaling networks make basal signaling necessary for fast responses is unknown. We address this issue by obtaining the time required for activation of common types of cell signaling modules with and without basal signaling. Our results show that the absence of basal signaling does not have any dramatic effects on the response time for signaling modules that exhibit a graded response to increasing stimulus levels. In sharp contrast, signaling modules that exhibit sharp dose-response curves which discriminate sensitively between stimuli to which the cell needs to respond and low-grade inputs (or stochastic noise) require basal signaling for fast cellular responses. In such cases, we find that an optimal level of basal signaling balances the requirements for fast cellular responses while minimizing spurious activation without appropriate stimulation.

  7. Self-Stimulatory Behavior and Perceptual Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovaas, Ivar; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A detailed hypothesis of the acquisition and maintenance of self-stimulatory behavior is offered, proposing that such behaviors are operant responses whose reinforcers are automatically produced perceptual consequences. Related concepts are discussed, and support for the hypothesis from the areas of sensory reinforcement and sensory deprivation is…

  8. Characterization of a double-CRD-mutated Gal-8 recombinant protein that retains co-stimulatory activity on antigen-specific T-cell response.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Matías Nicolás; Tribulatti, María Virginia; Carabelli, Julieta; André-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Caramelo, Julio Javier; Cattaneo, Valentina; Campetella, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    Galectins (Gals) constitute a family of mammalian lectins with affinity for β-galactosides, characterized by the presence of conserved CRDs (carbohydrate-recognition domains). We have found previously that Gal-8, from the tandem-repeat group with two linked CRDs, exerts two separate actions on CD4(+)T-cells: antigen-independent proliferation and, at lower concentration, antigen-specific co-stimulation. Whereas proliferation can be ascribed to the pro-inflammatory role of Gal-8, the co-stimulatory activity of borderline T-cell-specific responses allows the proposal of Gal-8 as an adjuvant in vaccination. To study the relevance of glycan-lectin interaction to these T-cell activities, we generated a double-mutated protein (Gal-8mut) by replacing canonical arginine residues on each CRD, so as to abolish sugar-binding capacity. As expected, Gal-8mut was unable to bind to lactosyl-Sepharose, confirming that lactose recognition was precluded; however, preservation of lectin activity was still evident since Gal-8mut displayed haemoagglutinatory effects and binding capacity to the T-cell surface. To search for glycan affinity, a glycan microarray analysis was conducted which revealed that Gal-8mut lost most low- and intermediate-, but retained high-, affinity interactions, mainly to polylactosamines and blood group antigens. These findings were supported further by molecular modelling. Regarding biological activity, Gal-8mut was unable to induce T-cell proliferation, but efficiently co-stimulated antigen-specific responses, bothin vitroandin vivo.Therefore Gal-8mut represents a useful tool to dissect the specificities of lectin-glycan interactions underlying distinctive Gal-8 activities on T-cell biology. Moreover, given its distinguishing properties, Gal-8mut could be used to enhance borderline immune responses without the non-specific pro-inflammatory activity or other potential adverse effects.

  9. Biophotonics and immune responses-Highlights from a new SPIE photonics west conference (BIOS 2006).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei R; Huang, Zheng

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes some highlights from the "Biophotonics and Immune Responses", a new 2006 SPIE Photonics West Biomedical Optics (BIOS 2006) Conference. Some exciting recent progresses in host immune responses elicited by photodynamic therapy and other novel phototherapies are discussed.

  10. Targeting co-stimulatory pathways: transplantation and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Mandy L.; Adams, Andrew B.; Pearson, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    The myriad of co-stimulatory signals expressed, or induced, upon T-cell activation suggests that these signalling pathways shape the character and magnitude of the resulting autoreactive or alloreactive T-cell responses during autoimmunity or transplantation, respectively. Reducing pathological T-cell responses by targeting T-cell co-stimulatory pathways has met with therapeutic success in many instances, but challenges remain. In this Review, we discuss the T-cell co-stimulatory molecules that are known to have critical roles during T-cell activation, expansion, and differentiation. We also outline the functional importance of T cell co-stimulatory molecules in transplantation, tolerance and autoimmunity, and we describe how therapeutic blockade of these pathways might be harnessed to manipulate the immune response to prevent or attenuate pathological immune responses. Ultimately, understanding the interplay between individual co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways engaged during T-cell activation and differentiation will lead to rational and targeted therapeutic interventions to manipulate T-cell responses and improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24100403

  11. Th1 stimulatory proteins of Leishmania donovani: comparative cellular and protective responses of rTriose phosphate isomerase, rProtein disulfide isomerase and rElongation factor-2 in combination with rHSP70 against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Khare, Prashant; Joshi, Sumit; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the recovery from the disease is always associated with the generation of Th1-type of cellular responses. Based on this, we have previously identified several Th1-stimulatory proteins of Leishmania donovani -triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and elongation factor-2 (EL-2) etc. including heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) which induced Th1-type of cellular responses in both cured Leishmania patients/hamsters. Since, HSPs, being the logical targets for vaccines aimed at augmenting cellular immunity and can be early targets in the immune response against intracellular pathogens; they could be exploited as vaccine/adjuvant to induce long-term immunity more effectively. Therefore, in this study, we checked whether HSP70 can further enhance the immunogenicity and protective responses of the above said Th1-stimulatory proteins. Since, in most of the studies, immunogenicity of HSP70 of L. donovani was assessed in native condition, herein we generated recombinant HSP70 and tested its potential to stimulate immune responses in lymphocytes of cured Leishmania infected hamsters as well as in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of cured patients of VL either individually or in combination with above mentioned recombinant proteins. rLdHSP70 alone elicited strong cellular responses along with remarkable up-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-12 cytokines and extremely lower level of IL-4 and IL-10. Among the various combinations, rLdHSP70 + rLdPDI emerged as superior one augmenting improved cellular responses followed by rLdHSP70 + rLdEL-2. These combinations were further evaluated for its protective potential wherein rLdHSP70 + rLdPDI again conferred utmost protection (∼80%) followed by rLdHSP70 + rLdEL-2 (∼75%) and generated a strong cellular immune response with significant increase in the levels of iNOS transcript as well as IFN-γ and IL-12 cytokines which was further supported by the high level of IgG2 antibody

  12. Nanotribological response of a plasma nitrided bio-steel.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Aniruddha; Chakraborty, Himel; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Ghosh, Jiten; Sreemany, Monjoy; Bysakh, Sandip; Rane, Ramkrishna; Joseph, Alphonsa; Jhala, Ghanshyam; Mukherjee, Subroto; Das, Mitun; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop K

    2017-01-01

    AISI 316L is a well known biocompatible, austenitic stainless steel (SS). It is thus a bio-steel. Considering its importance as a bio-prosthesis material here we report the plasma nitriding of AISI 316L (SS) followed by its microstructural and nanotribological characterization. Plasma nitriding of the SS samples was carried out in a plasma reactor with a hot wall vacuum chamber. For ease of comparison these plasma nitrided samples were termed as SSPN. The experimental results confirmed the formations of an embedded nitrided metal layer zone (ENMLZ) and an interface zone (IZ) between the ENMLZ and the unnitrided bulk metallic layer zone (BMLZ) in the SSPN sample. These ENMLZ and IZ in the SSPN sample were richer in iron nitride (FeN) chromium nitride (CrN) along with the austenite phase. The results from nanoindentation, microscratch, nanoscratch and sliding wear studies confirmed that the static contact deformation resistance, the microwear, nanowear and sliding wear resistance of the SSPN samples were much better than those of the SS samples. These results were explained in terms of structure-property correlations.

  13. Polymorphisms in B Cell Co-Stimulatory Genes Are Associated with IgG Antibody Responses against Blood–Stage Proteins of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Cassiano, Gustavo C.; Furini, Adriana A. C.; Capobianco, Marcela P.; Storti-Melo, Luciane M.; Cunha, Maristela G.; Kano, Flora S.; Carvalho, Luzia H.; Soares, Irene S.; Santos, Sidney E.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Machado, Ricardo L. D.

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective immune response can help decrease mortality from malaria and its clinical symptoms. However, this mechanism is complex and has significant inter-individual variation, most likely owing to the genetic contribution of the human host. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in genes involved in the costimulation of B-lymphocytes in the naturally acquired humoral immune response against proteins of the asexual stage of Plasmodium vivax. A total of 319 individuals living in an area of malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon were genotyped for four SNPs in the genes CD40, CD40L, BLYS and CD86. In addition, IgG antibodies against P. vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (PvAMA–1), Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP–119) were detected by ELISA. The SNP BLYS –871C>T was associated with the frequency of IgG responders to PvAMA–1 and PvMSP–119. The SNP CD40 –1C>T was associated with the IgG response against PvDBP, whereas IgG antibody titers against PvMSP–119 were influenced by the polymorphism CD86 +1057G>A. These data may help to elucidate the immunological aspects of vivax malaria and consequently assist in the design of malaria vaccines. PMID:26901523

  14. A Comprehensive Evaluation System for Military Hospitals' Response Capability to Bio-terrorism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Jiang, Nan; Shao, Sicong; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Literature research and Delphi method were utilized to establish the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Questionnaires were designed and used to survey the status quo of 134 military hospitals' response capability to bio-terrorism. Survey indicated that factor analysis method was suitable to for analyzing the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. The constructed evaluation system was consisted of five first-class and 16 second-class indexes. Among them, medical response factor was considered as the most important factor with weight coefficient of 0.660, followed in turn by the emergency management factor with weight coefficient of 0.109, emergency management consciousness factor with weight coefficient of 0.093, hardware support factor with weight coefficient of 0.078, and improvement factor with weight coefficient of 0.059. The constructed comprehensive assessment model and system are scientific and practical.

  15. A novel recombinant Leishmania donovani p45, a partial coding region of methionine aminopeptidase, generates protective immunity by inducing a Th1 stimulatory response against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Reema; Kushawaha, Pramod K; Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2012-05-01

    The development of a vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) conferring long-lasting immunity remains a challenge. Identification and proteomic characterization of parasite proteins led to the detection of p45, a member of the methionine aminopeptidase family. To our knowledge the present study is the first known report that describes the molecular and immunological characterization of p45. Recombinant Leishmania donovani p45 (rLdp45) induced cellular responses in cured hamsters and generated Th1-type cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cured/endemic VL patients. Immunization with rLdp45 exerted considerable prophylactic efficacy (∼85%) supported by an increase in mRNA expression of iNOS, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12 and decrease in TGF-β and IL-4, indicating its potential as a vaccine candidate against VL.

  16. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulatory Factor Enhances the Pro-Inflammatory Response of Interferon-γ-Treated Macrophages to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonali; Barr, Helen; Liu, Yi-Chia; Robins, Adrian; Heeb, Stephan; Williams, Paul; Fogarty, Andrew; Cámara, Miguel; Martínez-Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections at compromised epithelial surfaces, such those found in burns, wounds, and in lungs damaged by mechanical ventilation or recurrent infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF patients have been proposed to have a Th2 and Th17-biased immune response suggesting that the lack of Th1 and/or over exuberant Th17 responses could contribute to the establishment of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and deterioration of lung function. Accordingly, we have observed that interferon (IFN)-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CF patients positively correlated with lung function, particularly in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. In contrast, IL-17A levels tended to correlate negatively with lung function with this trend becoming significant in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. These results are in agreement with IFN-γ and IL-17A playing protective and detrimental roles, respectively, in CF. In order to explore the protective effect of IFN-γ in CF, the effect of IFN-γ alone or in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), on the ability of human macrophages to control P. aeruginosa growth, resist the cytotoxicity induced by this bacterium or promote inflammation was investigated. Treatment of macrophages with IFN-γ, in the presence and absence of GM-CSF, failed to alter bacterial growth or macrophage survival upon P. aeruginosa infection, but changed the inflammatory potential of macrophages. IFN-γ caused up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α and down-regulation of IL-10 expression by infected macrophages. GM-CSF in combination with IFN-γ promoted IL-6 production and further reduction of IL-10 synthesis. Comparison of TNF-α vs. IL-10 and IL-6 vs. IL-10 ratios revealed the following hierarchy in regard to the pro-inflammatory potential of human macrophages

  17. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulatory factor enhances the pro-inflammatory response of interferon-γ-treated macrophages to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sonali; Barr, Helen; Liu, Yi-Chia; Robins, Adrian; Heeb, Stephan; Williams, Paul; Fogarty, Andrew; Cámara, Miguel; Martínez-Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections at compromised epithelial surfaces, such those found in burns, wounds, and in lungs damaged by mechanical ventilation or recurrent infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF patients have been proposed to have a Th2 and Th17-biased immune response suggesting that the lack of Th1 and/or over exuberant Th17 responses could contribute to the establishment of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and deterioration of lung function. Accordingly, we have observed that interferon (IFN)-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CF patients positively correlated with lung function, particularly in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. In contrast, IL-17A levels tended to correlate negatively with lung function with this trend becoming significant in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. These results are in agreement with IFN-γ and IL-17A playing protective and detrimental roles, respectively, in CF. In order to explore the protective effect of IFN-γ in CF, the effect of IFN-γ alone or in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), on the ability of human macrophages to control P. aeruginosa growth, resist the cytotoxicity induced by this bacterium or promote inflammation was investigated. Treatment of macrophages with IFN-γ, in the presence and absence of GM-CSF, failed to alter bacterial growth or macrophage survival upon P. aeruginosa infection, but changed the inflammatory potential of macrophages. IFN-γ caused up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α and down-regulation of IL-10 expression by infected macrophages. GM-CSF in combination with IFN-γ promoted IL-6 production and further reduction of IL-10 synthesis. Comparison of TNF-α vs. IL-10 and IL-6 vs. IL-10 ratios revealed the following hierarchy in regard to the pro-inflammatory potential of human macrophages

  18. Targeting Co-Stimulatory Pathways in Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy with recombinant viral vectors such as adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus holds great promise in treating a wide range of diseases because of the high efficiency with which the viruses transfer their genomes into host cells in vivo. However, the activation of the host immune responses remains a major hurdle to successful gene therapy. Studies in the past two decades have elucidated the important role co-stimulation plays in the activation of both T and B cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of T cell co-stimulatory pathways, and strategies targeting these co-stimulatory pathways in gene therapy applications as well as potential future directions. PMID:22046171

  19. Telehealth responses to bio-terrorism and emerging infections.

    PubMed

    Yellowlees, Peter; MacKenzie, John

    2003-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), are of huge economic importance. They are difficult to predict. The World Health Organization has a Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, which was involved at an early stage in the SARS outbreak in 2003. Three major lessons were learned as a result of the SARS epidemic in 2003, involving communication, evidence-based action and global partnerships. It is proposed that a series of broadband global response networks should be developed. At a technical level the networks are essentially in place, such as the Internet2 global network. Suitable peripheral devices also exist. What has not yet been created is the appropriate software to allow the use of these networks, although a number of commercial products are in the process of development.

  20. Designing a bio-responsive robot from DNA origami.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ishay, Eldad; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2013-07-08

    Nucleic acids are astonishingly versatile. In addition to their natural role as storage medium for biological information(1), they can be utilized in parallel computing(2,3) , recognize and bind molecular or cellular targets(4,5) , catalyze chemical reactions(6,7) , and generate calculated responses in a biological system(8,9). Importantly, nucleic acids can be programmed to self-assemble into 2D and 3D structures(10-12), enabling the integration of all these remarkable features in a single robot linking the sensing of biological cues to a preset response in order to exert a desired effect. Creating shapes from nucleic acids was first proposed by Seeman(13), and several variations on this theme have since been realized using various techniques(11,12,14,15) . However, the most significant is perhaps the one proposed by Rothemund, termed scaffolded DNA origami(16). In this technique, the folding of a long (>7,000 bases) single-stranded DNA 'scaffold' is directed to a desired shape by hundreds of short complementary strands termed 'staples'. Folding is carried out by temperature annealing ramp. This technique was successfully demonstrated in the creation of a diverse array of 2D shapes with remarkable precision and robustness. DNA origami was later extended to 3D as well(17,18) . The current paper will focus on the caDNAno 2.0 software(19) developed by Douglas and colleagues. caDNAno is a robust, user-friendly CAD tool enabling the design of 2D and 3D DNA origami shapes with versatile features. The design process relies on a systematic and accurate abstraction scheme for DNA structures, making it relatively straightforward and efficient. In this paper we demonstrate the design of a DNA origami nanorobot that has been recently described(20). This robot is 'robotic' in the sense that it links sensing to actuation, in order to perform a task. We explain how various sensing schemes can be integrated into the structure, and how this can be relayed to a desired effect

  1. Designing a Bio-responsive Robot from DNA Origami

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ishay, Eldad; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acids are astonishingly versatile. In addition to their natural role as storage medium for biological information1, they can be utilized in parallel computing2,3 , recognize and bind molecular or cellular targets4,5 , catalyze chemical reactions6,7 , and generate calculated responses in a biological system8,9. Importantly, nucleic acids can be programmed to self-assemble into 2D and 3D structures10-12, enabling the integration of all these remarkable features in a single robot linking the sensing of biological cues to a preset response in order to exert a desired effect. Creating shapes from nucleic acids was first proposed by Seeman13, and several variations on this theme have since been realized using various techniques11,12,14,15 . However, the most significant is perhaps the one proposed by Rothemund, termed scaffolded DNA origami16. In this technique, the folding of a long (>7,000 bases) single-stranded DNA 'scaffold' is directed to a desired shape by hundreds of short complementary strands termed 'staples'. Folding is carried out by temperature annealing ramp. This technique was successfully demonstrated in the creation of a diverse array of 2D shapes with remarkable precision and robustness. DNA origami was later extended to 3D as well17,18 . The current paper will focus on the caDNAno 2.0 software19 developed by Douglas and colleagues. caDNAno is a robust, user-friendly CAD tool enabling the design of 2D and 3D DNA origami shapes with versatile features. The design process relies on a systematic and accurate abstraction scheme for DNA structures, making it relatively straightforward and efficient. In this paper we demonstrate the design of a DNA origami nanorobot that has been recently described20. This robot is 'robotic' in the sense that it links sensing to actuation, in order to perform a task. We explain how various sensing schemes can be integrated into the structure, and how this can be relayed to a desired effect. Finally we use Cando21 to

  2. Governing at a distance: social marketing and the (bio) politics of responsibility.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Paul

    2012-07-01

    In the recently published lectures from the College de France series, The Birth of Bio-Politics, Foucault (2009) offers his most explicit analysis of neo-liberal governmentality and its impact upon states and societies in the late twentieth century. Framed in terms of the bio-political as a mode of governance of populations and its relationship to neo-liberalism, these lectures offer a rich seam of theoretical resources with which to interrogate contemporary forms of governmentality. This paper seeks to apply these and some recent critical analysis by Foucauldian scholars, to the study of health governance, with particular reference to the use of social marketing as a strategy to improve the health of populations 'at a distance'. Reflecting a broader decollectivisation of welfare, such strategies are identified as exemplars of neo-liberal methods of governance through inculcating self management and individualisation of responsibility for health and wellbeing. Drawing on original empirical data collected with a sample of fifty long term unemployed men in 2009, this paper critically examines social marketing as a newer feature of health governance and reflects upon participants' responses to it as a strategy in the context of their wider understandings of health, choice and responsibility.

  3. A Quick-responsive DNA Nanotechnology Device for Bio-molecular Homeostasis Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Songlin; Wang, Pei; Xiao, Chen; Li, Zheng; Yang, Bing; Fu, Jieyang; Chen, Jing; Wan, Neng; Ma, Cong; Li, Maoteng; Yang, Xiangliang; Zhan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Physiological processes such as metabolism, cell apoptosis and immune responses, must be strictly regulated to maintain their homeostasis and achieve their normal physiological functions. The speed with which bio-molecular homeostatic regulation occurs directly determines the ability of an organism to adapt to conditional changes. To produce a quick-responsive regulatory system that can be easily utilized for various types of homeostasis, a device called nano-fingers that facilitates the regulation of physiological processes was constructed using DNA origami nanotechnology. This nano-fingers device functioned in linked open and closed phases using two types of DNA tweezers, which were covalently coupled with aptamers that captured specific molecules when the tweezer arms were sufficiently close. Via this specific interaction mechanism, certain physiological processes could be simultaneously regulated from two directions by capturing one biofactor and releasing the other to enhance the regulatory capacity of the device. To validate the universal application of this device, regulation of the homeostasis of the blood coagulant thrombin was attempted using the nano-fingers device. It was successfully demonstrated that this nano-fingers device achieved coagulation buffering upon the input of fuel DNA. This nano-device could also be utilized to regulate the homeostasis of other types of bio-molecules. PMID:27506964

  4. Bio-electrospraying the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: studying whole-genome transcriptional responses and key life cycle parameters

    PubMed Central

    Mongkoldhumrongkul, Napachanok; Swain, Suresh C.; Jayasinghe, Suwan N.; Stürzenbaum, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Bio-electrospray, the direct jet-based cell handling approach, is able to handle a wide range of cells (spanning immortalized, primary to stem cells). Studies at the genomic, genetic and the physiological levels have shown that, post-treatment, cellular integrity is unperturbed and a high percentage (more than 70%, compared with control) of cells remain viable. Although, these results are impressive, it may be argued that cell-based systems are oversimplistic. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the bio-electrospray technology using sensitive and dynamically developing multi-cellular organisms that share, at least some, similarities with multi-cell microenviorments encountered with tissues and organs. This study addressed this issue by using a well-characterized model organism, the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematode cultures were subjected to bio-electrospraying and compared with positive (heat shock) and negative controls (appropriate laboratory culture controls). Overall, bio-electrospraying did not modulate the reproductive output or induce significant changes in in vivo stress-responsive biomarkers (heat shock proteins). Likewise, whole-genome transcriptomics could not identify any biological processes, cellular components or molecular functions (gene ontology terms) that were significantly enriched in response to bio-electrospraying. This demonstrates that bio-electrosprays can be safely applied directly to nematodes and underlines its potential future use in the creation of multi-cellular environments within clinical applications. PMID:19776148

  5. Targeting the finite-deformation response of wavy biological tissues with bio-inspired material architectures.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenqiong; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm driven by a homogenized-based model is employed to target the response of three types of heart-valve chordae tendineae with different stiffening characteristics due to different degrees of waviness of collagen fibril/fiber bundles. First, geometric and material parameters are identified through an extensive parametric study that produce excellent agreement of the simulated response based on simplified unit cell architectures with the actual response of the complex biological tissue. These include amplitude and wavelength of the crimped chordae microstructure, elastic moduli of the constituent phases, and degree of microstructural refinement of the stiff phase at fixed volume fraction whose role in the stiffening response is elucidated. The study also reveals potential non-uniqueness of bio-inspired wavy microstructures in attaining the targeted response of certain chordae tendineae crimp configurations. The homogenization-based Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, whose predictions are validated through the parametric study, is then shown to be an excellent tool in identifying optimal unit cell architectures in the design space that exhibits very steep gradients. Finally, defect criticality of optimal unit cell architectures is investigated in order to assess their feasibility in replacing actual biological tendons with stiffening characteristics.

  6. The bio-response of osteocytes and its regulation on osteoblasts under vibration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Tong; Sun, Lian-Wen; Qi, Hong-Yu; Shi, Hao; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Vibration, especially at low magnitude and high frequency (LMHF), was demonstrated to be anabolic for bone, but how the LMHF vibration signal is perceived by osteocytes is not fully studied. On the other hand, the mechanotransduction of osteocytes under shear stress has been scientists' primary focus for years. Due to the small strain caused by low-magnitude vibration, whether the previous explanation for shear stress will still work for LMHF vibration is unknown. In this study, a finite element method (FEM) model based on the real geometrical shape of an osteocyte was built to compare the mechanical behaviors of osteocytes under LMHF vibration and shear stress. The bio-response of osteocytes to vibration under different frequencies, including the secretion of soluble factors and the concentration of intracellular calcium, were studied. The regulating effect of the conditioned medium (CM) from vibrated osteocytes on osteoblasts was also studied. The FEM analysis result showed the cell membrane deformation under LMHF vibration was very small (with a peak value of 1.09%) as compared to the deformation caused by shear stress (with a peak value of 6.65%). The F-actin stress fibers of osteocytes were reorganized, especially on the nucleus periphery after LMHF vibration. The vibration at 30 Hz has a promoting effect on osteocytes and the osteogenesis of osteoblasts, whereas vibration at 90 Hz was suppressive. These results lead to a conclusion that the bio-response of osteocytes to LMHF vibration is frequency-dependent and is more related to the cytoskeleton on nuclear periphery rather than the membrane deformation.

  7. Forensic DNA Barcoding and Bio-Response Studies of Animal Horn Products Used in Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu M.; Peng, Cheng; Dong, Xiao P.; Chen, Shi L.; Sun, Li G.; Xiao, Xiao H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal horns (AHs) have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. Methodology/Principal Findings A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens). Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli). We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. Conclusion/Significance Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding) of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response) can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance between the

  8. A bio-injectable algin-aminocaproic acid thixogel with tri-stimuli responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Chejara, Dharmesh R; Mabrouk, Mostafa; Badhe, Ravindra V; Mulla, Jameel A S; Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-01-01

    In this article a novel bio-injectable algin-aminocaproic acid (Alg-ACA) tri-stimuli responsive thixogel system is reported. The designed soft thixotrophic hydrogel (thixogel) was characterized using various analytical techniques such as FT-IR, NMR, SEM, AFM and DSC. The soft thixogel system was further investigated for stress responsiveness using different rheological studies which confirmed the thixotropic nature of the gel [Thixotropic area (Ar) of Alg-ACA (1:0.5), Alg-ACA (1:1) and Alg-ACA (1:2), were 23.5%, 43.1%, and 27.59%, respectively, which were higher than that of Na-Alg (2.08%)]. The thixogel also demonstrated temperature and ultrasonication responsiveness. This tri-stimuli responsive soft thixogel system was rendered flowable (fluid) on applying the described physical stimuli and recovered its "rigid" gel structure upon removal of the applied stimuli. This approach of synthesizing a thixogels may be applicable to a broad variety of other natural polymers and has the potential for use in biomedical applications.

  9. Reverse engineering biological networks :applications in immune responses to bio-toxins.

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Anthony A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomas, Edward Victor; Slepoy, Alexander; Zhang, Zhaoduo; May, Elebeoba Eni; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel

    2005-12-01

    Our aim is to determine the network of events, or the regulatory network, that defines an immune response to a bio-toxin. As a model system, we are studying T cell regulatory network triggered through tyrosine kinase receptor activation using a combination of pathway stimulation and time-series microarray experiments. Our approach is composed of five steps (1) microarray experiments and data error analysis, (2) data clustering, (3) data smoothing and discretization, (4) network reverse engineering, and (5) network dynamics analysis and fingerprint identification. The technological outcome of this study is a suite of experimental protocols and computational tools that reverse engineer regulatory networks provided gene expression data. The practical biological outcome of this work is an immune response fingerprint in terms of gene expression levels. Inferring regulatory networks from microarray data is a new field of investigation that is no more than five years old. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt that integrates experiments, error analyses, data clustering, inference, and network analysis to solve a practical problem. Our systematic approach of counting, enumeration, and sampling networks matching experimental data is new to the field of network reverse engineering. The resulting mathematical analyses and computational tools lead to new results on their own and should be useful to others who analyze and infer networks.

  10. Effect of anthrax immune globulin on response to BioThrax (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Malkevich, Nina V; Basu, Subhendu; Rudge, Thomas L; Clement, Kristin H; Chakrabarti, Ajoy C; Aimes, Ronald T; Nabors, Gary S; Skiadopoulos, Mario H; Ionin, Boris

    2013-11-01

    Development of anthrax countermeasures that may be used concomitantly in a postexposure setting requires an understanding of the interaction between these products. Anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIGIV) is a candidate immunotherapeutic that contains neutralizing antibodies against protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxins. We evaluated the interaction between AIGIV and BioThrax (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) in rabbits. While pharmacokinetics of AIGIV were not altered by vaccination, the vaccine-induced immune response was abrogated in AIGIV-treated animals.

  11. Effect of Anthrax Immune Globulin on Response to BioThrax (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Malkevich, Nina V.; Basu, Subhendu; Rudge, Thomas L.; Clement, Kristin H.; Chakrabarti, Ajoy C.; Aimes, Ronald T.; Nabors, Gary S.; Skiadopoulos, Mario H.

    2013-01-01

    Development of anthrax countermeasures that may be used concomitantly in a postexposure setting requires an understanding of the interaction between these products. Anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIGIV) is a candidate immunotherapeutic that contains neutralizing antibodies against protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxins. We evaluated the interaction between AIGIV and BioThrax (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) in rabbits. While pharmacokinetics of AIGIV were not altered by vaccination, the vaccine-induced immune response was abrogated in AIGIV-treated animals. PMID:23979740

  12. Stimulatory effect of phytin on acid production by Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, A

    1997-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of phytin added to skim milk on acid production of Lactobacillus casei was examined. Phytin stimulated acid production of L. casei fairly well. The stimulatory effect of phytin on acid production was not shown when phytin was treated with Dowex 50 (H+) and neutralized by NaOH solution. The incinerated product of phytin maintained almost equal stimulatory effect on acid production as that before processing. The addition of Mn2+ in the amount contained in a reagent phytin augmented the stimulatory effect on acid production markedly. The further addition of Fe3+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and PO4(3-) in amounts corresponding to their contents in the preparation of phytin as well as Mn2+ increased the effect slightly. The four preparations of phytin contained 0.045-0.20% of Mn, and the greater the Mn content was, the greater the potentiation of acid production.

  13. Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Yu, Yun; Chen, Liding

    2015-01-01

    The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust) to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes.

  14. Harnessing co-stimulatory TNF receptors for cancer immunotherapy: Current approaches and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Waight, Jeremy D; Gombos, Randi B; Wilson, Nicholas S

    2017-01-03

    Co-stimulatory tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) can sculpt the responsiveness of T cells recognizing tumor-associated antigens. For this reason, agonist antibodies targeting CD137, CD357, CD134 and CD27 have received considerable attention for their therapeutic utility in enhancing anti-tumor immune responses, particularly in combination with other immuno-modulatory antibodies targeting co-inhibitory pathways in T cells. The design of therapeutic antibodies that optimally engage and activate co-stimulatory TNFRs presents an important challenge of how to promote effective anti-tumor immunity while avoiding serious immune-related adverse events. Here we review our current understanding of the expression, signaling and structural features of CD137, CD357, CD134 and CD27, and how this may inform the design of pharmacologically active immuno-modulatory antibodies targeting these receptors. This includes the integration of our emerging knowledge of the role of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) in facilitating antibody-mediated receptor clustering and forward signaling, as well as promoting immune effector cell-mediated activities. Finally, we bring our current preclinical and clinical knowledge of co-stimulatory TNFR antibodies into the context of opportunities for next generation molecules with improved pharmacologic properties.

  15. Performance Analysis of the Enhanced Bio-Inspired Planning Algorithm for Rapid Situation Awareness Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-18

    AFRL-RV- PS - AFRL-RV- PS - TR-2013-0106 TR-2013-0106 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THE ENHANCED BIO-INSPIRED PLANNING ALGORITHM FOR RAPID SITUATION...Qualified requestors may obtain copies of this report from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). AFRL-RV- PS -TR...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 NUMBER(S) AFRL-RV- PS -TR-2013-0106 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved

  16. Evidence that bio-metallic mineral precipitation enhances the complex conductivity response at a hydrocarbon contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewafy, Farag M.; Werkema, D. Dale; Atekwana, Estella A.; Slater, Lee D.; Abdel Aal, Gamal; Revil, André; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    The complex conductivity signatures of a hydrocarbon contaminated site, undergoing biodegradation, near Bemidji, Minnesota were investigated. This site is characterized by a biogeochemical process where iron reduction is coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The biogeochemical transformations have resulted in precipitation of different bio-metallic iron mineral precipitates such as magnetite, ferroan calcite, and siderite. Our main objective was to elucidate the major factors controlling the complex conductivity response at the site. We acquired laboratory complex conductivity measurements along four cores retrieved from the site in the frequency range between 0.001 and 1000 Hz. Our results show the following: (1) in general higher imaginary conductivity was observed for samples from contaminated locations compared to samples from the uncontaminated location, (2) the imaginary conductivity for samples contaminated with residual and free phase hydrocarbon (smear zone) was higher compared to samples with dissolved phase hydrocarbon, (3) vadose zone samples located above locations with free phase hydrocarbon show higher imaginary conductivity magnitude compared to vadose zone samples from the dissolved phase and uncontaminated locations, (4) the real conductivity was generally elevated for samples from the contaminated locations, but not as diagnostic to the presence of contamination as the imaginary conductivity; (5) for most of the contaminated samples the imaginary conductivity data show a well-defined peak between 0.001 and 0.01 Hz, and (6) sample locations exhibiting higher imaginary conductivity are concomitant with locations having higher magnetic susceptibility. Controlled experiments indicate that variations in electrolytic conductivity and water content across the site are unlikely to fully account for the higher imaginary conductivity observed within the smear zone of contaminated locations. Instead, using magnetite as an example of the

  17. Assay of Substances Stimulatory to Legume Nodule Formation 1

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, A. G.; Alexander, M.

    1967-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the assay of substances stimulatory to the nodulation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots growing from segments of hypocotyl tissue. Coconut water was the chief source of active material, but extracts of cotyledons, hypocotyls and leaves of beans and of horse chestnut fruits were also stimulatory. High concentrations of nitrate improved nodulation both in the presence and absence of coconut water. The ash of coconut water was inactive. Whole alfalfa seedlings formed nodules in the dark when grown in the split medium, but nodulation was not improved by the addition of coconut water. PMID:16656537

  18. Marked enhancement of the immune response to BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) by the TLR9 agonist CPG 7909 in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rynkiewicz, Dianna; Rathkopf, Melinda; Sim, Iain; Waytes, A Thomas; Hopkins, Robert J; Giri, Lallan; DeMuria, Deborah; Ransom, Janet; Quinn, James; Nabors, Gary S; Nielsen, Carl J

    2011-08-26

    Immunization with BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) is a safe and effective means of preventing anthrax. Animal studies have demonstrated that the addition of CpG DNA adjuvants to BioThrax can markedly increase the immunogenicity of the vaccine, increasing both serum anti-protective antigen (PA) antibody and anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibody (TNA) concentrations. The immune response to CpG-adjuvanted BioThrax in animals was not only stronger, but was also more rapid and led to higher levels of protection in spore challenge models. The B-class CpG DNA adjuvant CPG 7909, a 24-base synthetic, single-strand oligodeoxynucleotide, was evaluated for its safety profile and adjuvant properties in a Phase 1 clinical trial. A double-blind study was performed in which 69 healthy subjects, age 18-45 years, were randomized to receive three doses of either: (1) BioThrax alone, (2) 1 mg of CPG 7909 alone or (3) BioThrax plus 1 mg of CPG 7909, all given intramuscularly on study days 0, 14 and 28. Subjects were monitored for IgG to PA by ELISA and for TNA titers through study day 56 and for safety through month 6. CPG 7909 increased the antibody response by 6-8-fold at peak, and accelerated the response by 3 weeks compared to the response seen in subjects vaccinated with BioThrax alone. No serious adverse events related to study agents were reported, and the combination was considered to be reasonably well tolerated. The marked acceleration and enhancement of the immune response seen by combining BioThrax and CPG 7909 offers the potential to shorten the course of immunization and reduce the time to protection, and may be particularly useful in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis.

  19. The modulation of co-stimulatory molecules by circulating exosomes in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Takashi; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Weici; Tanaka, Hajime; Wang, Jing; Leung, Patrick Sc; Okazaki, Kazuichi; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Qianjin; Coppel, Ross L; Bowlus, Christopher L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2017-03-01

    Exosomes are nanoparticles of endocytic origin, secreted by a myriad of cell populations that are attracting increased attention by virtue of their ability to modulate cell-to-cell communications. They are also attracting attention in a variety of immunological issues, including autoimmunity and, in particular, their ability to regulate cytokine and chemokine activation. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease, which has a highly focused cytotoxic response against biliary epithelial cells. We have isolated exosomes from plasma from 29 patients with PBC and 30 healthy controls (HCs), and studied the effect of these exosomes on co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine production in mononuclear cell populations using an ex vivo system. We also identified the microRNA (miRNA) populations in PBC compared to HC exosomes. We report herein that although exosomes do not change cytokine production, they do significantly alter co-stimulatory molecule expression on antigen-presenting populations. Further, we demonstrated that CD86 up-regulated expression on CD14(+) monocytes, whereas CD40 up-regulated on CD11c(+) dendritic cells by exosomes from patients with PBC. In addition, there were differences of miRNA expression of circulating exosomes in patients with PBC. These data have significant importance based on observations that co-stimulatory molecules play a differential role in the regulation of T-cell activation. Our observation indicated that aberrant exosomes from PBC selectively induce expression of co-stimulatory molecules in different subset of antigen-presenting cells. These alterations may involve in pathogenesis of autoimmune liver disease.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 21 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.86.

  20. Nonlinear Response of Bio-Polymers Subject to Stretching Flow with Thermal Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Mingge; Grinberg, Leopold; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of elastic filaments subject to hydrodynamic forces exhibits complex nonlinear dynamics in the neighborhood of stagnation points in the flow. Here, the motion of a single in-extensible bio-polymer with an-isotropic friction tensor subjected to a stretching flow is modeled with stochastic differential equations as well as dissipative particle dynamics simulations. Our results show that the negative tension induces a stretch-coil transition beyond a critical value, where the noise is amplificated due to the interaction between thermal noise and nonlinear effects.

  1. Effect of the nano-bio interface on the genotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and associated cellular responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Raju Yashaswi

    Several toxicological studies have shown that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), one of the most widely produced engineered nanoparticles, can induce genotoxicity; however, potential adverse health effects associated with their physicochemical properties are not fully understood. Proteins in a biological medium can adsorb to the surface of the nanoparticle resulting in the formation of a protein corona that can alter the physicochemical properties of the particle. Furthermore, the protein corona may impact the interaction between nanoparticles and cells, referred to as the nano-bio interface, effecting the uptake, distribution, and toxicity of the particles. Despite the potential influence of the composition of the biological medium on the physicochemical properties and genotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, the majority of studies have not examined systematically the influence of medium composition on protein corona, genotoxicity, and cellular responses. In this dissertation we tested the overall hypothesis that titanium dioxide nanoparticles in medium that produces the smallest agglomerates would be taken up into cells and induce genotoxicity, and that exposure would initiate the signaling of key mediators of a DNA damage and inflammation response. Three major findings were shown in this study: 1) Protein corona formation on the surface of nano-TiO2 can impact the nano-bio interface and change cellular interaction. 2) Smaller agglomerates of nano-TiO2 are taken up more by cells without inducing cell cycle arrest, thereby allowing induced DNA damage to be processed into micronuclei in BEAS-2B cells. 3) Nano-TiO 2 in medium that facilitates increased cellular interaction induces the upregulation of the ATM-Chk2 DNA damage response (similar to ionizing radiation) and NF-kappaB inflammation pathways. Taken together, our research provides a systematic examination of the physicochemical properties, genotoxicity, and cellular responses induced by

  2. Biophysical response of living cells to boron nitride nanoparticles: uptake mechanism and bio-mechanical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Md. Alim Iftekhar; Li, Tong; Nguyen, Trung Dung; Singh, Sanjleena; Zhou, Yinghong; Xiao, Yin; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-11-01

    Boron nitride nanomaterials have attracted significant interest due to their superior chemical and physical properties. Despite these novel properties, investigation on the interaction between boron nitride nanoparticle (BN NP) and living systems has been limited. In this study, BN NP (100-250 nm) is assessed as a promising biomaterial for medical applications. The toxicity of BN NP is evaluated by assessing the cells behaviours both biologically (MTT assay, ROS detection etc.) and physically (atomic force microscopy). The uptake mechanism of BN NP is studied by analysing the alternations in cellular morphology based on cell imaging techniques. The results demonstrate in vitro cytocompatibility of BN NP with immense potential for use as an effective nanoparticle for various bio-medical applications.

  3. Preparation and cell response of bio-mineralized Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangfu; Huang, Zhongbing; Deng, Min; Zeng, Jingwen; Gu, Jianwen

    2011-11-01

    Silk fibroin (SF)-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) with good superparamagnetism were successfully prepared via a bio-mineralization process at room temperature. Two cell tests revealed that mineralized SF-coated Fe(3)O(4) NPs presented good cytocompatibility for L929 and osteoblast cells and higher cell density after 5 d with high concentrations of SF-coated Fe(3)O(4) NPs (up to 0.5 mg/mL). These resulted from SF surface coating on NPs, nano-surface morphology and iron ion release of Fe(3)O(4) NPs. The mineralized SF-coated Fe(3)O(4) NPs could be envisioned for various bone orthopedic and therapeutic applications, in which SF-coated NPs location is controlled through an external magnetic field to promoted bone growth.

  4. Metaproteogenomic insights beyond bacterial response to naphthalene exposure and bio-stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Lores, Iván; Tamames, Javier; Peláez, Ana Isabel; López-Cortés, Nieves; Alcaide, María; Del Pozo, Mercedes V; Vieites, José María; von Bergen, Martin; Gallego, José Luis R; Bargiela, Rafael; López-López, Arantxa; Pieper, Dietmar H; Rosselló-Móra, Ramón; Sánchez, Jesús; Seifert, Jana; Ferrer, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Microbial metabolism in aromatic-contaminated environments has important ecological implications, and obtaining a complete understanding of this process remains a relevant goal. To understand the roles of biodiversity and aromatic-mediated genetic and metabolic rearrangements, we conducted ‘OMIC' investigations in an anthropogenically influenced and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil with (Nbs) or without (N) bio-stimulation with calcium ammonia nitrate, NH4NO3 and KH2PO4 and the commercial surfactant Iveysol, plus two naphthalene-enriched communities derived from both soils (CN2 and CN1, respectively). Using a metagenomic approach, a total of 52, 53, 14 and 12 distinct species (according to operational phylogenetic units (OPU) in our work equivalent to taxonomic species) were identified in the N, Nbs, CN1 and CN2 communities, respectively. Approximately 10 out of 95 distinct species and 238 out of 3293 clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) protein families identified were clearly stimulated under the assayed conditions, whereas only two species and 1465 COGs conformed to the common set in all of the mesocosms. Results indicated distinct biodegradation capabilities for the utilisation of potential growth-supporting aromatics, which results in bio-stimulated communities being extremely fit to naphthalene utilisation and non-stimulated communities exhibiting a greater metabolic window than previously predicted. On the basis of comparing protein expression profiles and metagenome data sets, inter-alia interactions among members were hypothesised. The utilisation of curated databases is discussed and used for first time to reconstruct ‘presumptive' degradation networks for complex microbial communities. PMID:22832345

  5. Mixed lymphocyte culture stimulatory and responding capacity of lymphocytes from patients with lymphoproliferative diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Rühl, H; Vogt, W; Bochert, G; Schmidt, S; Moelle, R; Schaoua, H

    1975-01-01

    Lymphocyte reactivity in vitro was studied in patients with Hodgkin's disease, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and lymphosarcoma. The responding capacity to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) was markedly depressed and delayed in all three groups of patients compared with the PHA response observed in lymphocyte cultures from normal individuals. In one-way mixed lymphocyte culture experiments a significant decrease in responding capacity of the patients' lymphocytes to lymphocytes from normal donors could be demonstrated. In contrast, the stimulatory capacity of the patients' lymphocytes was found to be intact, or only slightly reduced. PMID:128426

  6. Comparative Responses of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) to the Synthetic Attractant BioLure.

    PubMed

    Déctor, Nayeli; Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The responses of wild and sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Mcquart) fruit flies to the synthetic attractant BioLure were determined by electroantennography (EAG), in field cage tests using MultiLure traps, and by release-recapture field experiments using sterile flies. In EAG bioassays, no differences were found between species, sexes, sterile and wild flies. There were only specific differences and interactions in dose responses. More A. ludens than A. obliqua individuals were captured in multilure traps in field cage test. In A. ludens, there was not significant difference between the number of females and males captured, whereas in A. obliqua more females than males were caught. Age showed a bimodal response in both species and both sexes, with peaks at 4 and 14 d old. In the release-recapture experiments, there were significant differences between species, sexes, and orchards and among the days after release. More individuals of A. ludens than A obliqua were recaptured. Only in A. obliqua the difference between the sexes was significant, with a 3.60:1 female:male ratio. Orchard conditions affected the recapture rate, but in both orchards the largest number of flies recaptured occurred during the first day after release (46 and 88% in each orchard). Our results show that the response to this synthetic lure is species-specific and contribute to better interpret trapping data.

  7. Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Yu, Yun; Chen, Liding

    2015-01-01

    The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust) to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes. PMID:26207757

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] to Measure Respiratory Responses to Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, Jono; Kilding, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] (Zephyr Technology, Auckland, New Zealand) is a wireless physiological monitoring system that has the ability to measure respiratory rate unobtrusively. However, the ability of the BioHarness[TM] to accurately and reproducibly determine respiratory rate across a range of intensities is currently unknown. The aim of…

  9. Bio-inspired fabrication of stimuli-responsive photonic crystals with hierarchical structures and their applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tao; Peng, Wenhong; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Di

    2016-03-29

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are stimuli-responsive, the resultant PCs exhibit optical properties that can be tuned by the stimuli. This can be exploited for promising applications in colour displays, biological and chemical sensors, inks and paints, and many optically active components. However, the preparation of the required photonic structures is the first issue to be solved. In the past two decades, approaches such as microfabrication and self-assembly have been developed to incorporate stimuli-responsive materials into existing periodic structures for the fabrication of PCs, either as the initial building blocks or as the surrounding matrix. Generally, the materials that respond to thermal, pH, chemical, optical, electrical, or magnetic stimuli are either soft or aggregate, which is why the manufacture of three-dimensional hierarchical photonic structures with responsive properties is a great challenge. Recently, inspired by biological PCs in nature which exhibit both flexible and responsive properties, researchers have developed various methods to synthesize metals and metal oxides with hierarchical structures by using a biological PC as the template. This review will focus on the recent developments in this field. In particular, PCs with biological hierarchical structures that can be tuned by external stimuli have recently been successfully fabricated. These findings offer innovative insights into the design of responsive PCs and should be of great importance for future applications of these materials.

  10. Bio-inspired fabrication of stimuli-responsive photonic crystals with hierarchical structures and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Peng, Wenhong; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Di

    2016-03-01

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are stimuli-responsive, the resultant PCs exhibit optical properties that can be tuned by the stimuli. This can be exploited for promising applications in colour displays, biological and chemical sensors, inks and paints, and many optically active components. However, the preparation of the required photonic structures is the first issue to be solved. In the past two decades, approaches such as microfabrication and self-assembly have been developed to incorporate stimuli-responsive materials into existing periodic structures for the fabrication of PCs, either as the initial building blocks or as the surrounding matrix. Generally, the materials that respond to thermal, pH, chemical, optical, electrical, or magnetic stimuli are either soft or aggregate, which is why the manufacture of three-dimensional hierarchical photonic structures with responsive properties is a great challenge. Recently, inspired by biological PCs in nature which exhibit both flexible and responsive properties, researchers have developed various methods to synthesize metals and metal oxides with hierarchical structures by using a biological PC as the template. This review will focus on the recent developments in this field. In particular, PCs with biological hierarchical structures that can be tuned by external stimuli have recently been successfully fabricated. These findings offer innovative insights into the design of responsive PCs and should be of great importance for future applications of these materials.

  11. History of river regulation of the Noce River (NE Italy) and related bio-morphodynamic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serlet, Alyssa; Scorpio, Vittoria; Mastronunzio, Marco; Proto, Matteo; Zen, Simone; Zolezzi, Guido; Bertoldi, Walter; Comiti, Francesco; Prà, Elena Dai; Surian, Nicola; Gurnell, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Noce River is a hydropower-regulated Alpine stream in Northern-East Italy and a major tributary of the Adige River, the second longest Italian river. The objective of the research is to investigate the response of the lower course of the Noce to two main stages of hydromorphological regulation; channelization/ diversion and, one century later, hydropower regulation. This research uses a historical reconstruction to link the geomorphic response with natural and human-induced factors by identifying morphological and vegetation features from historical maps and airborne photogrammetry and implementing a quantitative analysis of the river response to channelization and flow / sediment supply regulation related to hydropower development. A descriptive overview is presented. The concept of evolutionary trajectory is integrated with predictions from morphodynamic theories for river bars that allow increased insight to investigate the river response to a complex sequence of regulatory events such as development of bars, islands and riparian vegetation. Until the mid-19th century the river had a multi-thread channel pattern. Thereafter (1852) the river was straightened and diverted. Upstream of Mezzolombardo village the river was constrained between embankments of approximately 100 m width while downstream they are of approximately 50 m width. Since channelization some interesting geomorphic changes have appeared in the river e.g. the appearance of alternate bars in the channel. In 1926 there was a breach in the right bank of the downstream part that resulted in a multi-thread river reach which can be viewed as a recovery to the earlier multi-thread pattern. After the 1950's the flow and sediment supply became strongly regulated by hydropower development. The analysis of aerial images reveals that the multi-thread reach became progressively stabilized by vegetation development over the bars, though signs of some dynamics can still be recognizable today, despite the

  12. Evaluation of thermo responsive magnetic nano-particles for high- Tc SQUID bio application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S.; Toriyabe, C.; Torii, Y.; Hatsukade, Y.; Eki, T.; Katsura, S.; Ohnishi, N.; Wan, J.; Yang, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-10-01

    Immunoassay or detection of biological molecules using a high sensitive SQUID and magnetic nano-particles as labeling has been recently proposed. In this method, mostly a few particles are labeled on an antibody or biological molecules. If it is possible to give much more magnetic particles to the antibody, sensitivity must notably increase. We propose the use of thermo responsive magnetic nano-particles, which can agglutinate and disperse by themselves associated with temperature. As a preliminary experiment, we investigated the properties of thermo responsive nano-particles made of Fe3O4. By detailed study on the particles using an analyzer for a distribution of particle's outer dimension in aqueous liquid, it was found that the dimension increased with temperature above 25°, and became 400 nm at 30.5°. Magnetic measurements of the particles at different conditions using high-Tc SQUID have been done. The results suggested that the particles must be dried by heat before magnetic measurement to enhance the signal from the particles.

  13. Improvement influenza HA2 DNA vaccine cellular and humoral immune responses with Mx bio adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Sina; Shahsavandi, Shahla; Maddadgar, Omid

    2017-03-01

    Immunization with DNA vaccines as a novel alternative to conventional vaccination strategy requires adjuvant for improving vaccine efficacy. The conserved immunogenic HA2 subunit, which harbors neutralizing epitopes is a promising vaccine candidate against influenza viruses. In this study, for the first time we explore the idea of using host interferon inducible Mx protein to increase the immunogenicity of HA2 H9N2 influenza DNA vaccine. The potency and safety of the Mx adjuvanted-HA2 vaccine was evaluated in BALB/c mice by different prime-boost strategies. To assess the effect of the vaccination on the virus clearance rate, mice were challenged with homologous influenza virus. Administration of the adjuvanted vaccine and boosting with the same regimen could effectively enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses in treated mice. These data demonstrated that Mx as host defense peptide can be potentiated for improving influenza vaccine efficacy.

  14. Nonintrusive 3D reconstruction of human bone models to simulate their bio-mechanical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Tsouknidas; Antonis, Lontos; Savvas, Savvakis; Nikolaos, Michailidis

    2012-06-01

    3D finite element models representing functional parts of the human skeletal system, have been repeatedly introduced over the last years, to simulate biomechanical response of anatomical characteristics or investigate surgical treatment. The reconstruction of geometrically accurate FEM models, poses a significant challenge for engineers and physicians, as recent advances in tissue engineering dictate highly customized implants, while facilitating the production of alloplast materials that are employed to restore, replace or supplement the function of human tissue. The premises of every accurate reconstruction method, is to encapture the precise geometrical characteristics of the examined tissue and thus the selection of a sufficient imaging technique is of the up-most importance. This paper reviews existing and potential applications related to the current state-of-the-art of medical imaging and simulation techniques. The procedures are examined by introducing their concepts; strengths and limitations, while the authors also present part of their recent activities in these areas. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Folding and Characterization of a Bio-responsive Robot from DNA Origami.

    PubMed

    Amir, Yaniv; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-12-03

    The DNA nanorobot is a hollow hexagonal nanometric device, designed to open in response to specific stimuli and present cargo sequestered inside. Both stimuli and cargo can be tailored according to specific needs. Here we describe the DNA nanorobot fabrication protocol, with the use of the DNA origami technique. The procedure initiates by mixing short single-strand DNA staples into a stock mixture which is then added to a long, circular, single-strand DNA scaffold in presence of a folding buffer. A standard thermo cycler is programmed to gradually lower the mixing reaction temperature to facilitate the staples-to-scaffold annealing, which is the guiding force behind the folding of the nanorobot. Once the 60 hr folding reaction is complete, excess staples are discarded using a centrifugal filter, followed by visualization via agarose-gel electrophoresis (AGE). Finally, successful fabrication of the nanorobot is verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with the use of uranyl-formate as negative stain.

  16. Divergent responses of fire to recent climate change: evidence from bio-regional patterns across south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstock, R.; Boer, M.; Penman, T.; Price, O.

    2012-04-01

    Fire activity is dependent on the growth of biomass (fuel), sufficient dryness of biomass (availability to burn), weather condition such as temperature, wind and humidity (rate of fire spread) and ignitions (natural or human caused). Differing fire regimes are predicted to emerge from differing syndromes of limitation by these fundamental drivers. These processes are in turn governed by complex relationships with vegetation and climate, as well as human populations. Fire regimes should therefore vary systematically across biophysical gradients as highlighted in recent, global analyses of fire patterns. In particular, fire in dry ecosystems may be fundamentally constrained by the growth of herbaceous biomass (fuel limitation), whereas in mesic, forested ecosystems the principal constraint on fire is predicted to be availability to burn (i.e. episodes where litter fuels derived form dominant woody plants are sufficiently dry to burn). This means fire oocurs primarily in response to rain in arid ecosystems (i.e. promotion of herbage growth) and, alternatively, to drought in mesic ecosystems (i.e. drying of fuel beds). These contrasting syndromes of fire provide scope for divergent responses to warmer and drier conditions under climate change, with fire potentially declining in arid ecosystems and increasing in mesic ecosystems as a result. We tested this prediction by examining the response of area burned from 1975 to 2009 across 32 bioregions covering south-eastern Australia, using mapped data derived from land and fire management archives. This range extends from arid grasslands through woodlands and sclerophyll forests to rainforests in the mesic, coastal fringe. Recent research has highlighted an increase in the severity of fire weather (i.e. annual sum of daily fire danger index) for the corresponding period across the part of the continent. We found that area burned tended to remain static or declined in semi-arid and arid bio-regions. By contrast in forested

  17. Stimulatory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on beta2-adrenoceptors of guinea pig tracheal chains.

    PubMed

    Nemati, H; Boskabady, M H; Ahmadzadef Vostakolaei, H

    2008-12-01

    To study the mechanism(s) of the relaxant effects of Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), the stimulatory effect of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of this plant and one of its constituent, safranal was examined on beta-adrenoceptors in tracheal chains of guinea pigs. The beta(2)-adrenergic stimulatory was tested by performing the cumulative concentration-response curves of isoprenaline-induced relaxation of pre-contracted isolated guinea pig tracheal chains. The studied solutions were included two concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract from Crocus sativus (0.1 and 0.2g%), safranal (1.25 and 2.5 microg), 10nM propranolol, and saline. The study was done in two different conditions including: non-incubated (group 1, n=9) and incubated tissues with 1 microM chlorpheniramine (group 2, n=6). The results showed clear leftward shifts in isoprenaline curves obtained in the presence of only higher concentration of the extract in group 1 and its both concentrations in group 2 compared with that of saline. The EC(50) (the effective concentration of isoprenaline, causing 50% of maximum response) obtained in the presence of both concentrations of the extract (0.17+/-0.06 and 0.12+/-0.02) and safranal (0.22+/-0.05 and 0.22+/-0.05) in group 1 and only in the presence of two concentrations of the extract (1.16+/-0.31 and 0.68+/-0.21) in group 2 was significantly lower compared to saline (1.00+/-0.22 and 4.06+/-1.04 for groups 1 and 2, respectively) (p<0.05-0.001). The maximum responses obtained in the presence of both concentrations of the extract and safranal in group 1 were significantly lower than that of saline (p<0.005 for all cases). All values (CR-1=(EC(50) obtained in the presence of active substances/EC(50), obtained in the presence of saline)-1) obtained in the presence of higher concentrations of extract in group 1, its both concentrations and higher concentration of safranal in group 2 were negative and there were significant differences in this value between propranolol and

  18. A DNA vaccine encoding the 42 kDa C-terminus of merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium falciparum induces antibody, interferon-gamma and cytotoxic T cell responses in rhesus monkeys: immuno-stimulatory effects of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjai; Villinger, Francois; Oakley, Miranda; Aguiar, Joao C; Jones, Trevor R; Hedstrom, Richard C; Gowda, Kalpana; Chute, John; Stowers, Anthony; Kaslow, David C; Thomas, Elaine K; Tine, John; Klinman, Dennis; Hoffman, Stephen L; Weiss, Walter W

    2002-04-01

    We have constructed a DNA plasmid vaccine encoding the C-terminal 42-kDa region of the merozoite surface protein 1 (pMSP1(42)) from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf3D7). This plasmid expressed recombinant MSP1(42) after in vitro transfection in mouse VM92 cells. Rhesus monkeys immunized with pMSP1(42) produced antibodies reactive with Pf3D7 infected erythrocytes by IFAT, and by ELISA against yeast produced MSP1(19) (yMSP1(19)). Immunization also induced antigen specific T cell responses as measured by interferon-gamma production, and by classical CTL chromium release assays. In addition, immunization with pMSP1(42) primed animals for an enhanced antibody response to a subsequent boost with the recombinant yMSP1(19). We also evaluated Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant for pMSP1(42.) We tested both rhesus GM-CSF expressed from a DNA plasmid, and E. coli produced recombinant human GM-CSF. Plasmids encoding rhesus GM-CSF (prhGM-CSF) and human GM-CSF (phuGM-CSF) were constructed; these plasmids expressed bio-active recombinant GMCSF. Co-immunization with a mixture of prhGM-CSF and pMSP1(42) induced higher specific antibody responses after the first dose of plasmid, but after three doses of DNA monkeys immunized with or without prhGM-CSF had the same final antibody titers and T cell responses. In comparison, rhuGM-CSF protein did not lead to accelerated antibody production after the first DNA dose. However, antibody titers were maintained at a slightly higher level in monkeys receiving GM-CSF protein, and they had a higher response to boosting with recombinant MSP1(19). The GM-CSF plasmid or protein appears to be less potent as an adjuvant in rhesus monkeys than each is in mice, and more work is needed to determine if GM-CSF can be a useful adjuvant in DNA vaccination of primates.

  19. Anabaena sp. mediated bio-oxidation of arsenite to arsenate in synthetic arsenic (III) solution: Process optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Jana, Animesh; Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Majumdar, Swachchha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2015-11-01

    Blue green algae Anabaena sp. was cultivated in synthetic arsenite solution to investigate its bio-oxidation potential for arsenic species. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed based on a 3-level full factorial design considering four factors, viz. initial arsenic (III) concentration, algal dose, temperature and time. Bio-oxidation (%) of arsenic (III) was considered as response for the design. The study revealed that about 100% conversion of As (III) to As (V) was obtained for initial As (III) concentration of 2.5-7.5 mg/L at 30 °C for 72 h of exposure using 3 g/L of algal dose signifying a unique bio-oxidation potential of Anabaena sp. The dissolved CO2 (DCO2) and oxygen (DO) concentration in solution was monitored during the process and based on the data, a probable mechanism was proposed wherein algal cell acts like a catalytic membrane surface and expedites the bio-oxidation process. Bioaccumulation of arsenic, as well as, surface adsorption on algal cell was found considerably low. Lipid content of algal biomass grown in arsenite solution was found slightly lower than that of algae grown in synthetic media. Toxicity effects on algal cells due to arsenic exposure were evaluated in terms of comet assay and chlorophyll a content which indicated DNA damage to some extent along with very little decrease in chlorophyll a content. In summary, the present study explored the potential application of Anabaena sp. as an ecofriendly and sustainable option for detoxification of arsenic contaminated natural water with value-added product generation.

  20. Bio-Inspired Concepts: Studies of Biological Response to External Electric Fields for Cellular Manipulation and Diagnostics - Modeling and Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-03

    Dielectric Spectroscopy," IEEE trans. On Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 8, 253 (2001). 8. M. Smoluchowski, "Drei vortrage uber diffusion...Intensity Electric Fields," IEEE Conf. On Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation (Bio- Electrics Workshop), Cancun, Mexico , Oct. 2002 (invited

  1. Response of Human Osteoblast to n-HA/PEEK—Quantitative Proteomic Study of Bio-effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Minzhi; Li, Haiyun; Liu, Xiaochen; Wei, Jie; Ji, Jianguo; Yang, Shu; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is considered as a bio-active material, which is often mixed into bone implant material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To reveal the global protein expression modulations of osteoblast in response to direct contact with the PEEK composite containing high level (40%) nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA/PEEK) and explain its comprehensive bio-effects, quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 cultured on n-HA/PEEK in comparison with pure PEEK. Results from quantitative proteomic analysis showed that the most enriched categories in the up-regulated proteins were related to calcium ion processes and associated functions while the most enriched categories in the down-regulated proteins were related to RNA process. This enhanced our understanding to the molecular mechanism of the promotion of the cell adhesion and differentiation with the inhibition of the cell proliferation on n-HA/PEEK composite. It also exhibited that although the calcium ion level of incubate environment hadn’t increased, merely the calcium fixed on the surface of material had influence to intracellular calcium related processes, which was also reflect by the higher intracellular Ca2+ concentration of n-HA/PEEK. This study could lead to more comprehensive cognition to the versatile biocompatibility of composite materials. It further proves that proteomics is useful in new bio-effect discovery. PMID:26956660

  2. Response of Human Osteoblast to n-HA/PEEK--Quantitative Proteomic Study of Bio-effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minzhi; Li, Haiyun; Liu, Xiaochen; Wei, Jie; Ji, Jianguo; Yang, Shu; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-03-09

    Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is considered as a bio-active material, which is often mixed into bone implant material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To reveal the global protein expression modulations of osteoblast in response to direct contact with the PEEK composite containing high level (40%) nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA/PEEK) and explain its comprehensive bio-effects, quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 cultured on n-HA/PEEK in comparison with pure PEEK. Results from quantitative proteomic analysis showed that the most enriched categories in the up-regulated proteins were related to calcium ion processes and associated functions while the most enriched categories in the down-regulated proteins were related to RNA process. This enhanced our understanding to the molecular mechanism of the promotion of the cell adhesion and differentiation with the inhibition of the cell proliferation on n-HA/PEEK composite. It also exhibited that although the calcium ion level of incubate environment hadn't increased, merely the calcium fixed on the surface of material had influence to intracellular calcium related processes, which was also reflect by the higher intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of n-HA/PEEK. This study could lead to more comprehensive cognition to the versatile biocompatibility of composite materials. It further proves that proteomics is useful in new bio-effect discovery.

  3. Extracellular calcium transients and action potential configuration changes related to post-stimulatory potentiation in rabbit atrium.

    PubMed

    Hilgemann, D W

    1986-05-01

    Extracellular calcium transients were monitored with 2 mM tetramethylmurexide at low calcium (250 microM total, 130 microM free), and action potentials were monitored together with developed tension at normal calcium (1.3 mM) during the production and decay of post-stimulatory potentiation in rabbit left atrial strips. At normal calcium, the contractile potentiation produced by a brief burst of 4 Hz stimulation is lost in three to five post-stimulatory excitations, which correlate with a negative staircase of the late action potential. At low calcium, stimulation at 4 Hz for 3-8 s results in a net extracellular calcium depletion of 5-15 microM. At the subsequent potentiated contraction (1-45 s rest), total extracellular calcium increases by 4-8 microM. The contractile response at a second excitation is greatly suppressed and results in little or no further calcium shift; the sequence can be repeated immediately thereafter. Reducing external sodium to 60 mM (sucrose replacement) enhances post-rest contractions, suppresses the late action potential, nearly eliminates loss of contractility and net calcium efflux at post-rest excitations, and markedly reduces extracellular calcium depletion during rapid stimulation. 4-Aminopyridine (1 mM) markedly suppresses the rapid early repolarization of this preparation at post-rest excitations and the loss of contractility at post-rest stimulation from the rested state; during a post-stimulatory potentiation sequence at low calcium, replenishment of extracellular calcium takes several post-stimulatory excitations. Ryanodine (10 nM to 5 microM) abolishes the post-stimulatory contraction at rest periods of greater than 5 s. If the initial repolarization is rapid, ryanodine suppresses the late action potential, calcium efflux during quiescence is greatly accelerated, and subsequent excitations do not result in an accumulation of extracellular calcium. A positive staircase of the early action potential correlates with the magnitude

  4. Equipment for the Characterization of Synthetic Bio-hybrid Polymers and Micellar Nanoparticles for Stimuli Responsive Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-08

    UU UU UU 08-02-2015 1-Aug-2013 31-Jul-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Equipment For the Characterization of...peer-reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Equipment For the Characterization of Synthetic Bio...Equivalent: Total Number: ...... ...... Inventions (DD882) Scientific Progress The equipment grant was structured based on projects recently funded by the

  5. Optimization of factors with C/N ratio and flocs biomass concentration in simulated aquaculture bio-flocs systems by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yun-Jie; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The TAN (total ammonia nitrogen) removal efficiency was investigated in simulated aquaculture bio-flocs technology systems. The response surface methodology that was applied with a central composite rotational design and two key operational parameters, flocs biomass concentration and C/N ratio was varied in order to evaluate the system performance and achieve the optimal operational conditions in this study. A polynomial linear regression model was found to quantitatively describe the relationship between the two variables and response values with adequate fitness in the simulate aquaculture bio-flocs systems. The results showed that flocs biomass concentration and operational C/N ratio both had significant impacts on the response objectives, as well as the interactions between them. The optimal results attained from the model indicated that more than 90% TAN removal efficiency was achieved when the flocs biomass concentration and C/N ratio were around 2.0-2.5 (volatile suspended solids, g/l) and 13-16, respectively.

  6. Expression profile of bio-defense genes in Penaeus monodon gills in response to formalin inactivated white spot syndrome virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, N S; Poulose, Gigi; Thomas, Ancy; Viswanath, Kiron; Kulkarni, Amod; Narayanan, R B; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating pathogen of penaeid shrimp. While developing technology to vaccinate shrimp against WSSV, it is imperative to look into the immune response of the animal at molecular level. However, very little information has been generated in this direction. The present study is an attempt to understand the expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues of Penaeus monodon in response to formalin inactivated WSSV. A WSSV vaccine with a viral titer of 1×10(9) DNA copies was prepared and orally administered to P. monodon at a rate of 1.75×10(6) DNA copies of inactivated virus preparation (IVP) day(-1) for 7days. The animals were challenged with WSSV on 1st and 5th day post vaccination, and temporal expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues was studied. Survival of 100% and 50% were observed respectively on 1st and 5th day post vaccination challenge. The humoral immune genes prophenoloxidase (proPO), alpha 2-macroglobulin (α2M), crustin and PmRACK, and the cell mediated immune genes caspase and Rab7 were up regulated in gill tissue upon vaccination and challenge. The expression of humoral gene crustin and cellular gene Rab7 was related to survival in IVP administered shrimp. Results of the study suggest that these genes have roles in protecting shrimp from WSSV on vaccination.

  7. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanine on human T and B lymphocytes and human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, A J; Pryjma, J; Tarnok, Z; Ernst, M; Flad, H D

    1990-01-01

    Pyocyanine, a pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has dual dose-dependent stimulatory as well as inhibitory effects on immune responses in vitro as measured by DNA synthesis of human T and B lymphocytes, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by human T lymphocytes, immunoglobulin production by human B lymphocytes, and monokine production by human monocytes. In general, stimulatory activity was found at low concentrations of pyocyanine, whereas high concentrations of the pigment resulted in an inhibition of responses. At a pyocyanine concentration of 0.1 micrograms/ml or less the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was enhanced, but at 0.5 micrograms/ml it was suppressed. IL-2 production by T lymphocytes was enhanced at concentrations up to 0.5 micrograms/ml but totally inhibited at 1.0 micrograms/ml. The differentiation of B lymphocytes to become immunoglobulin-producing cells was also enhanced in the presence of low doses of pyocyanine, whereas secretion of immunoglobulin by B lymphocytes was suppressed at all concentrations of pyocyanine. In contrast to the dual effects of pyocyanine on lymphocyte response, lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor release by monocytes was markedly enhanced by low as well as high concentrations of pyocyanine. From these results we conclude that this property of pyocyanine may lead to suppression of specific defense mechanisms and enhance harmful inflammatory reactions of the host during infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:2106495

  8. Multiscale modeling reveals inhibitory and stimulatory effects of caffeine on acetaminophen‐induced toxicity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, C; Cordes, H; Baier, V; Blank, LM

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic drug that is frequently co‐administered with caffeine (CAF) in the treatment of pain. It is well known that APAP may cause severe liver injury after an acute overdose. However, the understanding of whether and to what extent CAF inhibits or stimulates APAP‐induced hepatotoxicity in humans is still lacking. Here, a multiscale analysis is presented that quantitatively models the pharmacodynamic (PD) response of APAP during co‐medication with CAF. Therefore, drug‐drug interaction (DDI) processes were integrated into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models at the organism level, whereas drug‐specific PD response data were contextualized at the cellular level. The results provide new insights into the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of CAF on APAP‐induced hepatotoxicity for crucially affected key cellular processes and individual genes at the patient level. This study might facilitate the risk assessment of drug combination therapies in humans and thus may improve patient safety in clinical practice. PMID:28130915

  9. The Mucosal Adjuvant Cyclic di-AMP Exerts Immune Stimulatory Effects on Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Libanova, Rimma; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic di-nucleotide bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a candidate mucosal adjuvant with proven efficacy in preclinical models. It was shown to promote specific humoral and cellular immune responses following mucosal administration. To date, there is only fragmentary knowledge on the cellular and molecular mode of action of c-di-AMP. Here, we report on the identification of dendritic cells and macrophages as target cells of c-di-AMP. We show that c-di-AMP induces the cell surface up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory molecules as well as the production of interferon-β. Those responses were characterized by in vitro experiments with murine and human immune cells and in vivo studies in mice. Analyses of dendritic cell subsets revealed conventional dendritic cells as principal responders to stimulation by c-di-AMP. We discuss the impact of the reported antigen presenting cell activation on the previously observed adjuvant effects of c-di-AMP in mouse immunization studies. PMID:24755640

  10. A Response to "BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists," from the Perspective of the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major Program at Kenyon College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonczewski, Joan L.; Marusak, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    The National Research Council completed a major study of undergraduate biology education, "BIO 2010-Transforming Undergraduate Education For Future Research Biologists (BIO 2010)," funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the National Institutes of Health. The "BIO 2010" report recommends that biology pedagogy should use an…

  11. Immunosuppressive Myeloid Cells' Blockade in the Glioma Microenvironment Enhances the Efficacy of Immune-Stimulatory Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Neha; Kadiyala, Padma; Saxena, Meghna; Candolfi, Marianela; Li, Youping; Moreno-Ayala, Mariela A; Raja, Nicholas; Shah, Diana; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2017-01-04

    Survival of glioma (GBM) patients treated with the current standard of care remains dismal. Immunotherapeutic approaches that harness the cytotoxic and memory potential of the host immune system have shown great benefit in other cancers. GBMs have developed multiple strategies, including the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to induce immunosuppression. It is therefore imperative to develop multipronged approaches when aiming to generate a robust anti-tumor immune response. Herein, we tested whether combining MDSC depletion or checkpoint blockade would augment the efficacy of immune-stimulatory herpes simplex type-I thymidine kinase (TK) plus Fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand (Flt3L)-mediated immune stimulatory gene therapy. Our results show that MDSCs constitute >40% of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells. These cells express IL-4Rα, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase, programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1), and CD80, molecules that are critically involved in antigen-specific T cell suppression. Depletion of MDSCs strongly enhanced the TK/Flt3L gene therapy-induced tumor-specific CD8 T cell response, which lead to increased median survival and percentage of long-term survivors. Also, combining PDL1 or CTLA-4 immune checkpoint blockade greatly improved the efficacy of TK/Flt3L gene therapy. Our results, therefore, indicate that blocking MDSC-mediated immunosuppression holds great promise for increasing the efficacy of gene therapy-mediated immunotherapies for GBM.

  12. Amelioration of drought-induced negative responses by elevated CO2 in field grown short rotation coppice mulberry (Morus spp.), a potential bio-energy tree crop.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Kalva Madhana; Reddy, Kanubothula Sitarami; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2017-05-01

    Present study describes the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry, a potential bio-energy tree, grown under interactive environment of elevated CO2 (E) and water stress (WS). Growth in E stimulated photosynthetic performance in well-watered (WW) as well as during WS with significant increases in light-saturated photosynthetic rates (A Sat), water use efficiency (WUEi), intercellular [CO2], and photosystem-II efficiency (F V/F M and ∆F/F M') with concomitant reduction in stomatal conductance (g s) and transpiration (E) compared to ambient CO2 (A) grown plants. Reduced levels of proline, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and higher contents of antioxidants including ascorbic acid and total phenolics in WW and WS in E plants clearly demonstrated lesser oxidative damage. Further, A plants showed higher transcript abundance and antioxidant enzyme activities under WW as well as during initial stages of WS (15 days). However, with increasing drought imposition (30 days), A plants showed down regulation of antioxidant systems compared to their respective E plants. These results clearly demonstrated that future increased atmospheric CO2 enhances the photosynthetic potential and also mitigate the drought-induced oxidative stress in SRC mulberry. In conclusion, mulberry is a potential bio-energy tree crop which is best suitable for short rotation coppice forestry-based mitigation of increased [CO2] levels even under intermittent drought conditions, projected to prevail in the fast-changing global climate.

  13. Delayed stimulatory effect of low-intensity shockwaves on human periosteal cells.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kam-Fai; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Lee, Kwong-Man; Qin, Ling; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the effect of shockwaves on cells explanted from normal human periosteum to study the potential mechanisms of their responses and to determine suitable treatment settings. The cells were subjected to one shockwave treatment with systematic combinations of energy intensities (range, 0.05-0.5 mJ/mm) and number of shocks (range, 500-2000) whereas control cells received no treatment. The immediate effect on cell viability and the long-lasting effect on proliferation, viable cell number at Day 18, and mineralization at Day 35 were assessed. We observed an immediate dose-dependent destructive effect of shockwaves. Energy intensity and number of shocks contributed equally to viability. Total energy dose (intensity x number of shocks) was a better reference for determining the shockwave effect. We also found a long-term stimulatory effect on proliferation, viable cell number, and calcium deposition of human periosteal cells. At the same total energy dose, low-intensity shockwaves with more shocks (0.12 mJ/mm at 1250 shocks) were more favorable for enhancing cellular activities than high-intensity waves with fewer shocks (0.5 mJ/mm at 300 shocks). These findings document some of the biochemical changes of periosteal cells during shockwave treatments.

  14. Stimulatory effects of neuronally released norepinephrine on renin release in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yasuo; Kawazoe, Shinka; Ichihara, Toshio; Shinyama, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Masaaki; Morimoto, Shiro )

    1988-10-01

    Extracellular high potassium inhibits renin release in vitro by increasing calcium concentrations in the juxtaglomerular cells. The authors found that the decreased response of renin release from rat kidney cortical slices in high potassium solution changed to a strikingly increased one in the presence of nifedipine at doses over 10{sup {minus}6} M. They then examined the stimulatory effect of extracellular high potassium in the presence of nifedipine on renin release. The enhancement of release was significantly suppressed either by propranolol or by metoprolol but not by prazosin. High potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release was markedly attenuated by renal denervation. The enhancing effect was not observed when the slices were incubated in calcium-free medium. Divalent cations such as Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} blocked this enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. High potassium elicited an increase in {sup 3}H efflux from the slices preloaded with ({sup 3}H)-norepinephrine. The increasing effect was not influenced by nifedipine but was abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium or by the addition of divalent cations. These observations suggest to us that the high potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release from the slices is mediated by norepinephrine derived from renal sympathetic nerves and that this neuronally released norepinephrine stimulates renin release via activation of {beta}-adrenoceptors.

  15. Stimulatory versus suppressive effects of GM-CSF on tumor progression in multiple cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Hong, In-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, also called CSF-2) is best known for its critical role in immune modulation and hematopoiesis. A large body of experimental evidence indicates that GM-CSF, which is frequently upregulated in multiple types of human cancers, effectively marks cancer cells with a ‘danger flag' for the immune system. In this context, most studies have focused on its function as an immunomodulator, namely its ability to stimulate dendritic cell (DC) maturation and monocyte/macrophage activity. However, recent studies have suggested that GM-CSF also promotes immune-independent tumor progression by supporting tumor microenvironments and stimulating tumor growth and metastasis. Although some studies have suggested that GM-CSF has inhibitory effects on tumor growth and metastasis, an even greater number of studies show that GM-CSF exerts stimulatory effects on tumor progression. In this review, we summarize a number of findings to provide the currently available information regarding the anticancer immune response of GM-CSG. We then discuss the potential roles of GM-CSF in the progression of multiple types of cancer to provide insights into some of the complexities of its clinical applications. PMID:27364892

  16. Phytotoxicity and stimulatory impacts of nanosized and bulk titanium dioxide on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Feizi, Hassan; Kamali, Maryam; Jafari, Leila; Rezvani Moghaddam, Parviz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the this study was to compare concentrations of nanosized TiO2 at 0, 5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L(-1) with bulk TiO2 for phytotoxic and stimulatory effects on fennel seed germination and early growth stage. After 14 d of seed incubation, germination percentage highly improved following exposure to 60 ppm nanosized TiO2. Similar positive effects occurred in terms of shoot dry weight and germination rate. Application of bulk TiO2 particles in 40 ppm concentration greatly decreased shoot biomass up to 50% compared to the control. Application of 40 ppm nanosized TiO2 treatment improved mean germination time by 31.8% in comparison to the untreated control. In addition, low and intermediate concentrations of nanosized TiO2 enhanced indices such as germination value, vigor index and mean daily germination. In general, there was a considerable response by fennel seed to nanosized TiO2 presenting the possibility of a new approach to overcome problems with seed germination in some plant species, particularly medicinal plants.

  17. Two peptides derived from trout IL-1beta have different stimulatory effects on immune gene expression after intraperitoneal administration.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suhee; Secombes, Chris J

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the biological activities of two IL-1beta derivatives on immune gene expression (i.e. IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-8, MX, lysozyme) in fish using RT-PCR analysis, as a means to establish whether such peptides have value as immunostimulants in vivo. Two functional domains (P1 and P3) of the trout IL-1beta molecule were produced as synthetic peptides and tested for biological effects following intraperitoneal administration into rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). P1 and P3 showed different regulatory effects on the examined genes. P1 did not stimulate proinflammatory gene expression but induced rapid expression of the antiviral gene MX. In contrast, P3 showed more widespread stimulatory effects, and increased expression of the proinflammatory genes IL-1beta and IL-8, as well as the antibacterial lysozyme gene. Such data confirm that it is possible to produce bioactive peptide derivatives of cytokine molecules, and in addition that it is possible to engineer the peptides for different stimulatory repertoires, that may have value in enhancing particular types of immune response to enhance disease resistance in fish.

  18. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus colony-spreading stimulatory factors from mammalian serum.

    PubMed

    Omae, Yosuke; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus forms giant colonies on soft-agar surfaces, which is called colony-spreading. In the present study, we searched for host factors that influence S. aureus colony-spreading activity. The addition of calf serum, porcine serum, or silkworm hemolymph to soft-agar medium stimulated S. aureus colony-spreading activity. Gel filtration column chromatography of calf serum produced a high molecular weight fraction and a low molecular weight fraction, both of which exhibited colony-spreading stimulatory activity. In the low molecular weight fraction, we identified the stimulatory factor as bovine serum albumin. The stimulatory fraction in the high molecular weight fraction was identified as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Delipidation of HDL abolished the stimulatory activity of HDL. Phosphatidylcholine, which is the major lipid component in HDL particles, stimulated the colony-spreading activity. Other phosphatidylcholine-containing lipoprotein particles, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein, also showed colony-spreading stimulatory activity. These findings suggest that S. aureus colony-spreading activity is stimulated by albumin and lipoprotein particles in mammalian serum.

  19. Simultaneous and dose dependent melanoma cytotoxic and immune stimulatory activity of betulin.

    PubMed

    Pfarr, Kathrin; Danciu, Corina; Arlt, Olga; Neske, Christina; Dehelean, Cristina; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Radeke, Heinfried H

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cytostatic cancer treatments rarely result in the complete eradication of tumor cells. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies focus on antagonizing the immunosuppressive activity of established tumors. In particular, recent studies of antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) eliciting a specific antitumor immune response has raised the hopes of achieving the complete elimination of tumor tissue. Genistein, fingolimod and betulin have already been described as active compounds in different types of cancer. Herein, we applied an integrated screening approach to characterize both their cytostatic and their immune-modulating properties side-by-side. As will be described in detail, our data confirmed that all three compounds exerted proapoptotic and antiproliferative activity in different B16 melanoma cell lines to a given extent, as revealed by an MTT assay, CFSE and DAPI staining. However, while genistein and fingolimod also affected the survival of primary bone marrow (BM) derived DCs of C57BL/6 mice, betulin exhibited a lower cytotoxicity for BMDCs in comparison to the melanoma cells. Moreover, we could show for the first time, that only betulin caused a simultaneous, highly specific immune-stimulating activity, as measured by the IL-12p70 release of Toll-like receptor 4-stimulated BMDCs by ELISA, which was due to increased IL-12p35 mRNA expression. Interestingly, the activation of DCs resulted in enhanced T lymphocyte stimulation, indicated by increased IL-2 and IFN-γ production of cytotoxic T cells in spleen cell co-culture assays which led to a decreased viability of B16 cells in an antigen specific model system. This may overcome the immunosuppressive environment of a tumor and destroy tumor cells more effectively in vivo if the immune response is specific targeted against the tumor tissue by antigen-loaded dendritic cells. In summary, cytostatic agents, such as betulin, that simultaneously exhibit immune stimulatory activity may serve as lead compounds

  20. T cell co-stimulatory molecules: a co-conspirator in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zili; Sferra, Thomas J; Eroglu, Yasemen

    2013-06-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has become a common gastrointestinal disease. It is characterized by severe eosinophil infiltration in the esophagus. EoE is strongly associated with food allergy, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and other allergic diseases. T lymphocytes, especially Th2 cells, play an instrumental role in the development of allergic inflammation. Recent studies have shown that the ligation of co-stimulatory molecules contributes to the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of T cells. In this review, we will discuss the growing evidence of co-stimulatory molecules including OX40, Light, and HVEM in the pathogenesis of Th2-driven EoE. Our goal is to provide the rationale for the development of novel therapy therapies that target co-stimulatory molecules.

  1. Crystal structure of the stimulatory complex of GTP cyclohydrolase I and its feedback regulatory protein GFRP.

    PubMed

    Maita, Nobuo; Okada, Kengo; Hatakeyama, Kazuyuki; Hakoshima, Toshio

    2002-02-05

    In the presence of phenylalanine, GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) forms a stimulatory 360-kDa complex with GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCHI), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. The crystal structure of the stimulatory complex reveals that the GTPCHI decamer is sandwiched by two GFRP homopentamers. Each GFRP pentamer forms a symmetrical five-membered ring similar to beta-propeller. Five phenylalanine molecules are buried inside each interface between GFRP and GTPCHI, thus enhancing the binding of these proteins. The complex structure suggests that phenylalanine-induced GTPCHI x GFRP complex formation enhances GTPCHI activity by locking the enzyme in the active state.

  2. Bio-inactivation of human malignant cells through highly responsive diluted colloidal suspension of functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Roberta V.; Silva-Caldeira, Priscila P.; Pereira-Maia, Elene C.; Fabris, José D.; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Ardisson, José D.; Domingues, Rosana Z.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fluids, more specifically aqueous colloidal suspensions containing certain magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), have recently been gaining special interest due to their potential use in clinical treatments of cancerous formations in mammalians. The technological application arises mainly from their hyperthermic behavior, which means that the nanoparticles dissipate heat upon being exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF). If the temperature is raised to slightly above 43 °C, cancer cells are functionally inactivated or killed; however, normal cells tend to survive under those same conditions, entirely maintaining their bioactivity. Recent in vitro studies have revealed that under simultaneous exposure to an AMF and magnetic nanoparticles, certain lines of cancer cells are bio-inactivated even without experiencing a significant temperature increase. This non-thermal effect is cell specific, indicating that MNPs, under alternating magnetic fields, may effectively kill cancer cells under conditions that were previously thought to be implausible, considering that the temperature does not increase more than 5 °C, which is also true in cases for which the concentration of MNPs is too low. To experimentally test for this effect, this study focused on the feasibility of inducing K562 cell death using an AMF and aqueous suspensions containing very low concentrations of MNPs. The assay was designed for a ferrofluid containing magnetite nanoparticles, which were obtained through the co-precipitation method and were functionalized with citric acid; the particles had an average diameter of 10 ± 2 nm and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 40 nm. Experiments were first performed to test for the ability of the ferrofluid to release heat under an AMF. The results show that for concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 1.0 × 103 mg L-1, the maximum temperature increase was actually less than 2 °C. However, the in vitro test results from K562 cells and suspensions

  3. Activity of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide in milk leucocytes following intramammary inoculation of a bio-response modifier during bovine Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    De, U K; Mukherjee, Reena

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of a bio-response modifier (BRM) prepared from Nocardia globerula on certain inflammatory markers and percentage of neutrophil/lymphocyte in mammary secretions during bovine Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis (SCM). The somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC) in milk, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity, production of nitrite and nitrate (NOx) in milk leukocytes and neutrophil % and lymphocyte % in milk were evaluated before and after intramammary infusion of BRM in healthy and quarters inflicted with S. aureus SCM. Intramammary infusion of BRM significantly enhanced the SCC in earlier phase with subsequent reduction on day 7 after initiation of treatment. Whereas, the reduction of TBC was observed from day 3 onwards. The COX-2 activity and NOx production in milk cell increased initially on day 3 of post treatment but reduced on day 5 in SCM infected quarters following BRM infusion. The neutrophil % and lymphocyte % in milk also enhanced significantly on day 3 but reduced on day 5 in SCM infected quarters in response to BRM infusion. Initial influx of SCC, increased neutrophil%, lymphocyte % and enhanced COX-2 and NOx activity indicate the immunomodulatory potential of BRM in S. aureus SCM. Reduction of TBC could be due to increased leukocytosis or direct microbicidal activity of the activated milk cells. The beneficial effect of the BRM could be used as alternative therapy in the control of S. aureus SCM in cows, either alone or in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

  4. Influence of dynamic coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes on response of municipal solid waste and liner system in bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna R; Kumar, Girish; Giri, Rajiv K

    2017-01-03

    A two-dimensional (2-D) mathematical model is presented to predict the response of municipal solid waste (MSW) of conventional as well as bioreactor landfills undergoing coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes. The newly developed and validated 2-D coupled mathematical modeling framework combines and simultaneously solves a two-phase flow model based on the unsaturated Richard's equation, a plain-strain formulation of Mohr-Coulomb mechanical model and first-order decay kinetics biodegradation model. The performance of both conventional and bioreactor landfill was investigated holistically, by evaluating the mechanical settlement, extent of waste degradation with subsequent changes in geotechnical properties, landfill slope stability, and in-plane shear behavior (shear stress-displacement) of composite liner system and final cover system. It is concluded that for the given specific conditions considered, bioreactor landfill attained an overall stabilization after a continuous leachate injection of 16years, whereas the stabilization was observed after around 50years of post-closure in conventional landfills, with a total vertical strain of 36% and 37% for bioreactor and conventional landfills, respectively. The significant changes in landfill settlement, the extent of MSW degradation, MSW geotechnical properties, along with their influence on the in-plane shear response of composite liner and final cover system, between the conventional and bioreactor landfills, observed using the mathematical model proposed in this study, corroborates the importance of considering coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes while designing and predicting the performance of engineered bioreactor landfills. The study underscores the importance of considering the effect of coupled processes while examining the stability and integrity of the liner and cover systems, which form the integral components of a landfill. Moreover, the spatial and temporal variations in the landfill settlement, the

  5. Co-stimulatory CD28 and transcription factor NFKB1 gene variants affect idiopathic recurrent miscarriages.

    PubMed

    Misra, Maneesh Kumar; Singh, Bharti; Mishra, Aditi; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2016-12-01

    Co-stimulatory CD28 and transcription factor NFKB1 genes are considered as a crucial player in the determination of inflammatory responses; genetic variability in these may modulate the risk for idiopathic recurrent miscarriages (IRM). We investigated the association of functional variants of CD28 (rs3116496 T/C) and NFKB1 (rs28362491 ins/del and rs696 A/G) with IRM cases. We recruited 200 IRM women with a history of at least three consecutive pregnancy losses before 20th week of pregnancy and 300 fertile control women. Determination of CD28 (rs3116496 T/C) and NFKB1 (rs28362491 ins/del and rs696 A/G) gene variants were based on the polymerase chain reaction pursued by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and validated with Sanger sequencing. Single marker analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) model used to predict the IRM risk. We observed nearly three- to twofold increased risk in single marker analysis for minor homozygous genotypes of rs3116496 T/C, rs28362491 ins/del and rs696 A/G tag-SNPs in IRM cases, suggesting the risk association. In MDR analysis, we observed 10.5-fold augmented risk among IRM women in three-SNP model (rs3116496 T/C, rs28362491 ins/del and rs696 A/G). The eQTL mapping analyses was performed to strengthen the results of our study. The eQTL mapping analysis revealed that the variations in CD28 and NFKB1 gene content might affect the abundance of transcripts of CD28 and Family with sequence similarity 177 member A1 (FAM177A1) genes, respectively. These results suggest that CD28 and NFKB1 gene variants may be associated with increased risks to IRM.

  6. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of forskolin on adenylate cyclase in rat normal hepatocytes and hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T; Hasegawa, T

    1989-02-01

    Forskolin synergistically potentiated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in rat normal hepatocytes freshly prepared by collagenase digestion and rat ascites hepatoma AH66 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation by PGE1 in AH66F cells. Forskolin activated adenylate cyclase in a dose-dependent manner in homogenates of all cell lines. In normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, simultaneous addition of forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators [isoproterenol (IPN), PGE1, guanosine 5'-triphosphate sodium salt (GTP), 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate sodium salt (Gpp (NH)p), NaF, cholera toxin, islet activating protein and MnCl2] gave greater than additive responses. On the other hand, in AH66F cells, the effect of forskolin on adenylate cyclase was hardly influenced by GTP, but forskolin diminished the activities induced by high concentrations of GTP to that by the diterpene alone. Forskolin also significantly inhibited the PGE1-stimulated and the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein-stimulated activities. Because AH66F cells were insensitive to IPN, the combination with forskolin and IPN gave similar activity to that obtained with the diterpene alone. The effect of forskolin on the activation by manganese ion was neither synergistic nor inhibitory but was additive in AH66F cells. These results suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein and the catalytic unit in normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but in AH66F cells forskolin interferes with the coupling of the two components of adenylate cyclase.

  7. Effects of Punishment Procedures on the Self-Stimulatory Behavior of an Autistic Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Three punishment procedures--contingent applications of water mist, lemon juice, and vinegar--were evaluated as aversive treatment methods for a self-stimulatory behavior exhibited by a severely retarded 11-year-old male. The water mist procedure was as effective as lemon juice or vinegar, presented less physical threat to the client, and was…

  8. Brief Report: The Effects of Exercise on the Self-Stimulatory Behaviors and Positive Responding of Adolescents with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal-Malek, Andrea; Mitchell, Stella

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the self-stimulatory behaviors and academic performance of five adolescent males with autism. Results found there was a significant decrease in self-stimulatory behavior following the physical exercise. Academic performance increased after the aerobic exercise as compared to classroom…

  9. The in vivo regulation of heart rate in the murine sinoatrial node by stimulatory and inhibitory heterotrimeric G proteins.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Sonia; Ang, Richard; Abramowitz, Joel; Weinstein, Lee S; Chen, Min; Ludwig, Andreas; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Tinker, Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Reciprocal physiological modulation of heart rate is controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems acting on the sinoatrial (SA) node. However, there is little direct in vivo work examining the role of stimulatory and inhibitory G protein signaling in the SA node. Thus, we designed a study to examine the role of the stimulatory (Gαs) and inhibitory G protein (Gαi2) in in vivo heart rate regulation in the SA node in the mouse. We studied mice with conditional deletion of Gαs and Gαi2 in the conduction system using cre-loxP technology. We crossed mice in which cre recombinase expression was driven by a tamoxifen-inducible conduction system-specific construct with "Gαs floxed" and "Gαi2 floxed" mice. We studied the heart rate responses of adult mice compared with littermate controls by using radiotelemetry before and after administration of tamoxifen. The mice with conditional deletion of Gαs and Gαi2 had a loss of diurnal variation and were bradycardic or tachycardic, respectively, in the daytime. In mice with conditional deletion of Gαs, there was a selective loss of low-frequency power, while with deletion of Gαi2, there was a loss of high-frequency power in power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. There was no evidence of pathological arrhythmia. Pharmacological modulation of heart rate by isoprenaline was impaired in the Gαs mice, but a muscarinic agonist was still able to slow the heart rate in Gαi2 mice. We conclude that Gαs- and Gαi2-mediated signaling in the sinoatrial node is important in the reciprocal regulation of heart rate through the autonomic nervous system.

  10. Smart surface coating of drug nanoparticles with cross-linkable polyethylene glycol for bio-responsive and highly efficient drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Weijia; Zhang, Xiujuan; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhou, Mengjiao; Xu, Ruirui; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-04-01

    Many drug molecules can be directly used as nanomedicine without the requirement of any inorganic or organic carriers such as silica and liposome nanostructures. This new type of carrier-free drug nanoparticles (NPs) has great potential in clinical treatment because of its ultra-high drug loading capacity and biodegradability. For practical applications, it is essential for such nanomedicine to possess robust stability and minimal premature release of therapeutic molecules during circulation in the blood stream. To meet this requirement, herein, we develop GSH-responsive and crosslinkable amphiphilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules to modify carrier-free drug NPs. These PEG molecules can be cross-linked on the surface of the NPs to endow them with greater stability and the cross-link is sensitive to intracellular environment for bio-responsive drug release. With this elegant design, our experimental results show that the liberation of DOX from DOX-cross-linked PEG NPs is dramatically slower than that from DOX-non-cross-linked PEG NPs, and the DOX release profile can be controlled by tuning the concentration of the reducing agent to break the cross-link between PEG molecules. More importantly, in vivo studies reveal that the DOX-cross-linked PEG NPs exhibit favorable blood circulation half-life (>4 h) and intense accumulation in tumor areas, enabling effective anti-cancer therapy. We expect this work will provide a powerful strategy for stabilizing carrier-free nanomedicines and pave the way to their successful clinical applications in the future.Many drug molecules can be directly used as nanomedicine without the requirement of any inorganic or organic carriers such as silica and liposome nanostructures. This new type of carrier-free drug nanoparticles (NPs) has great potential in clinical treatment because of its ultra-high drug loading capacity and biodegradability. For practical applications, it is essential for such nanomedicine to possess robust stability

  11. Loss of plant biodiversity eliminates stimulatory effect of elevated CO2 on earthworm activity in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Arnone, John A; Zaller, Johann G; Hofer, Gabriela; Schmid, Bernhard; Körner, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Earthworms are among the world's most important ecosystem engineers because of their effects on soil fertility and plant productivity. Their dependence on plants for carbon, however, means that any changes in plant community structure or function caused by rising atmospheric CO2 or loss of plant species diversity could affect earthworm activity, which may feed back on plant communities. Production of surface casts measured during three consecutive years in field experimental plots (n = 24, 1.2 m(2)) planted with local calcareous grassland species that varied in plant species richness (diversity levels: high, 31 species; medium, 12; low, 5) and were exposed to ambient (356 μl CO2 l(-1)) or elevated (600 μl CO2 l(-1)) CO2 was only consistently stimulated in high diversity plots exposed to elevated CO2 (+120 %, 31 spp: 603 ± 52 under ambient CO2 vs. 1,325 ± 204 g cast dwt. m(-2) year(-1) under elevated CO2 in 1996; +77 %, 940 ± 44 vs. 1,663 ± 204 g cast dwt. m(-2) year(-1) in 1998). Reductions in plant diversity had little effect on cast production in ecosystems maintained at ambient CO2, but the stimulatory effect of elevated CO2 on cast production disappeared when plant species diversity was decreased to 12 and 5 species. High diversity plots were also the only communities that included plant species that an earlier field study showed to be among the most responsive to elevated CO2 and to be most preferred by earthworms to deposit casts near. Further, the +87 % CO2-induced increase in cast production measured over the 3 years corresponded to a parallel increase in cumulative total nitrogen of 5.7 g N m(-2) and would help explain the large stimulation of aboveground plant biomass production observed in high-diversity communities under elevated CO2. The results of this study demonstrate how the loss of plant species from communities can alter responses of major soil heterotrophs and consequently ecosystem biogeochemistry.

  12. Borrelia burgdorferi elicited-IL-10 suppresses the production of inflammatory mediators, phagocytosis, and expression of co-stimulatory receptors by murine macrophages and/or dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yutein; Zhang, Nan; Wooten, R Mark

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is a tick-borne spirochete that is the causative agent for Lyme disease. Our previous studies indicate that virulent Bb can potently enhance IL-10 production by macrophages (MØs) and that blocking IL-10 production significantly enhances bacterial clearance. We hypothesize that skin-associated APC types, such as MØs and dendritic cells (DCs) are potent producers of IL-10 in response to Bb, which may act in autocrine fashion to suppress APC responses critical for efficient Bb clearance. Our goal is to delineate which APC immune functions are dysregulated by Bb-elicited IL-10 using a murine model of Lyme disease. Our in vitro studies indicated that both APCs rapidly produce IL-10 upon exposure to Bb, that these levels inversely correlate with the production of many Lyme-relevant proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and that APCs derived from IL-10(-/-) mice produced greater amounts of these proinflammatory mediators than wild-type APCs. Phagocytosis assays determined that Bb-elicited IL-10 levels can diminish Bb uptake and trafficking by MØs, suppresses ROS production, but does not affect NO production; Bb-elicited IL-10 had little effect on phagocytosis, ROS, and NO production by DCs. In general, Bb exposure caused little-to-no upregulation of several critical surface co-stimulatory markers by MØs and DCs, however eliminating Bb-elicited IL-10 allowed a significant upregulation in many of these co-stimulatory receptors. These data indicate that IL-10 elicited from Bb-stimulated MØs and DCs results in decreased production of proinflammatory mediators and co-stimulatory molecules, and suppress phagocytosis-associated events that are important for mediating both innate and adaptive immune responses by APCs.

  13. Immune stimulatory and anti-tumour properties of haemin.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, A; Wang, J; Stenzel, K H; Novogrodsky, A

    1993-01-01

    IL-2 induces tumour regression in some patients with metastatic disease, but the dose of IL-2 is limited by severe toxicity. Agents that increase the expression of IL-2 receptors in the effector cells could be used to improve the effectiveness of IL-2 in mediating its anti-tumour effect. We have reported that haemin increased the expression of IL-2 receptors in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and synergized with IL-2 in the induction of mitogenicity, cytotoxicity and cytokine production. We now report on haemin-induced immune stimulation and tumour regression in mice. Haemin-induced mitogenicity in mouse splenocytes was potentiated up to two-fold by IL-2. The combination of haemin and IL-2 was also effective in inducing cytotoxicity for natural killer (NK)-resistant target cells. Maximal induction of cytotoxicity was attained at an optimal concentration of haemin of 10 microM. Higher concentrations were less effective. Splenocytes isolated from mice that had been treated in vivo with haemin and IL-2 incorporated twice the amount of 3H-thymidine compared with splenocytes from mice treated with either haemin or IL-2 alone. Cytotoxicity of splenocytes for NK-resistant target cells was not increased following in vivo administration of haemin and IL-2 when fresh splenocytes were tested. Cytotoxicity was enhanced, however, up to five-fold following 48 h in vitro incubation with IL-2. Administration of haemin and IL-2 resulted in a significant decrease (40%) of established hepatic metastases in mice. Either IL-2 or haemin alone at the dose used were ineffective. The anti-tumour effect of haemin and IL-2 was enhanced (63% decrease in metastases) by administration of the thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine. Since haemin can safely be administered to patients, it may represent a new class of biologic response modifiers that could enhance IL-2-mediated anti-tumour effects. PMID:8370158

  14. Structural ensembles reveal intrinsic disorder for the multi-stimuli responsive bio-mimetic protein Rec1-resilin

    PubMed Central

    Balu, Rajkamal; Knott, Robert; Cowieson, Nathan P.; Elvin, Christopher M.; Hill, Anita J.; Choudhury, Namita R.; Dutta, Naba K.

    2015-01-01

    Rec1-resilin is the first recombinant resilin-mimetic protein polymer, synthesized from exon-1 of the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG15920 that has demonstrated unusual multi-stimuli responsiveness in aqueous solution. Crosslinked hydrogels of Rec1-resilin have also displayed remarkable mechanical properties including near-perfect rubber-like elasticity. The structural basis of these extraordinary properties is not clearly understood. Here we combine a computational and experimental investigation to examine structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solution. The structure of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solutions is investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both bench-top and synchrotron SAXS are employed to extract structural data sets of Rec1-resilin and to confirm their validity. Computational approaches have been applied to these experimental data sets in order to extract quantitative information about structural ensembles including radius of gyration, pair-distance distribution function, and the fractal dimension. The present work confirms that Rec1-resilin is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that displays equilibrium structural qualities between those of a structured globular protein and a denatured protein. The ensemble optimization method (EOM) analysis reveals a single conformational population with partial compactness. This work provides new insight into the structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in solution. PMID:26042819

  15. Structural ensembles reveal intrinsic disorder for the multi-stimuli responsive bio-mimetic protein Rec1-resilin.

    PubMed

    Balu, Rajkamal; Knott, Robert; Cowieson, Nathan P; Elvin, Christopher M; Hill, Anita J; Choudhury, Namita R; Dutta, Naba K

    2015-06-04

    Rec1-resilin is the first recombinant resilin-mimetic protein polymer, synthesized from exon-1 of the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG15920 that has demonstrated unusual multi-stimuli responsiveness in aqueous solution. Crosslinked hydrogels of Rec1-resilin have also displayed remarkable mechanical properties including near-perfect rubber-like elasticity. The structural basis of these extraordinary properties is not clearly understood. Here we combine a computational and experimental investigation to examine structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solution. The structure of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solutions is investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both bench-top and synchrotron SAXS are employed to extract structural data sets of Rec1-resilin and to confirm their validity. Computational approaches have been applied to these experimental data sets in order to extract quantitative information about structural ensembles including radius of gyration, pair-distance distribution function, and the fractal dimension. The present work confirms that Rec1-resilin is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that displays equilibrium structural qualities between those of a structured globular protein and a denatured protein. The ensemble optimization method (EOM) analysis reveals a single conformational population with partial compactness. This work provides new insight into the structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in solution.

  16. Structural ensembles reveal intrinsic disorder for the multi-stimuli responsive bio-mimetic protein Rec1-resilin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Rajkamal; Knott, Robert; Cowieson, Nathan P.; Elvin, Christopher M.; Hill, Anita J.; Choudhury, Namita R.; Dutta, Naba K.

    2015-06-01

    Rec1-resilin is the first recombinant resilin-mimetic protein polymer, synthesized from exon-1 of the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG15920 that has demonstrated unusual multi-stimuli responsiveness in aqueous solution. Crosslinked hydrogels of Rec1-resilin have also displayed remarkable mechanical properties including near-perfect rubber-like elasticity. The structural basis of these extraordinary properties is not clearly understood. Here we combine a computational and experimental investigation to examine structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solution. The structure of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solutions is investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both bench-top and synchrotron SAXS are employed to extract structural data sets of Rec1-resilin and to confirm their validity. Computational approaches have been applied to these experimental data sets in order to extract quantitative information about structural ensembles including radius of gyration, pair-distance distribution function, and the fractal dimension. The present work confirms that Rec1-resilin is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that displays equilibrium structural qualities between those of a structured globular protein and a denatured protein. The ensemble optimization method (EOM) analysis reveals a single conformational population with partial compactness. This work provides new insight into the structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in solution.

  17. FS laser processing of bio-polymer thin films for studying cell-to-substrate specific response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalova, A.; Nathala, Chandra S. R.; Kavatzikidou, P.; Ranella, A.; Szoszkiewicz, R.; Husinsky, W.; Fotakis, C.

    2016-09-01

    The use of ultra-short pulses for nanoengineering of biomaterials opens up possibilities for biological, medical and tissue engineering applications. Structuring the surface of a biomaterial into arrays with micro- and nanoscale features and architectures, defines new roadmaps to innovative engineering of materials. Thin films of novel collagen/elastin composite and gelatin were irradiated by Ti:sapphire fs laser in air at central wavelength 800 nm, with pulse durations in the range of 30 fs. The size and shape as well as morphological forms occurring in the resulted areas of interaction were analyzed as a function of irradiation fluence and number of pulses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The fs interaction regime allows generation of well defined micro porous surface arrays. In this study we examined a novel composite consisting of collagen and elastin in order to create a biodegradable matrix to serve as a biomimetic surface for cell attachment. Confocal microscopy images of modified zones reveal formation of surface fringe patterns with orientation direction alongside the area of interaction. Outside the crater rim a wave-like topography pattern is observed. Structured, on a nanometer scale, surface array is employed for cell-culture experiments for testing cell's responses to substrate morphology. Mice fibroblasts migration was monitored after 3 days cultivation period using FESEM. We found that fibroblasts cells tend to migrate and adhere along the laser modified zones. The performed study proved that the immobilized collagen based biofilms suite as a template for successful fibroblasts cell guidance and orientation. Fs laser induced morphological modification of biomimetic materials exhibit direct control over fibroblasts behaviour due to induced change in their wettability state.

  18. Effects and side-effects of a brief overcorrection procedure in reducing multiple self-stimulatory behaviour: a single case analysis.

    PubMed

    Luiselli, J K; Pemberton, B W; Helfen, C S

    1978-12-01

    The use of positive practice overcorrection to reduce the classroom self-stimulatory behaviour of a mentally retarded child is described. An initial attempt to reduce four stereotyped hand movements through reinforcement of incompatible behaviour resulted in a decrease in three types of behaviour and an increase in the fourth. When one minute of positive practice overcorrection was then made contingent upon the increased behaviour, it was immediately reduced to near-zero levels with accompanying low occurrences of all other behaviour forms. Response suppression was durable following the evaluation of the overcorrection procedure at 2- and 3.5-month follow-ups.

  19. Co-Stimulatory Blockade of the CD28/CD80-86/CTLA-4 Balance in Transplantation: Impact on Memory T Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Ville, Simon; Poirier, Nicolas; Blancho, Gilles; Vanhove, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    CD28 and CTLA-4 are prototypal co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory cell surface signaling molecules interacting with CD80/86, known to be critical for immune response initiation and regulation, respectively. Initial “bench-to-beside” translation, two decades ago, resulted in the development of CTLA4-Ig, a biologic that targets CD80/86 and prevents T-cell costimulation. In spite of its proven effectiveness in inhibiting allo-immune responses, particularly in murine models, clinical experience in kidney transplantation with belatacept (high-affinity CTLA4-Ig molecule) reveals a high incidence of acute, cell-mediated rejection. Originally, the etiology of belatacept-resistant graft rejection was thought to be heterologous immunity, i.e., the cross-reactivity of the pool of memory T cells from pathogen-specific immune responses with alloantigens. Recently, the standard view that memory T cells arise from effector cells after clonal contraction has been challenged by a “developmental” model, in which less differentiated memory T cells generate effector cells. This review delineates how this shift in paradigm, given the differences in co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signal depending on the maturation stage, could profoundly affect our understanding of the CD28/CD80-86/CTLA-4 blockade and highlights the potential advantages of selectively targeting CD28, instead of CD80/86, to control post-transplant immune responses. PMID:26322044

  20. Climatic response variability and machine learning: development of a modular technology framework for predicting bio-climatic change in pacific northwest ecosystems"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.

    2015-12-01

    The creation and use of large amounts of data in scientific investigations has become common practice. Data collection and analysis for large scientific computing efforts are not only increasing in volume as well as number, the methods and analysis procedures are evolving toward greater complexity (Bell, 2009, Clarke, 2009, Maimon, 2010). In addition, the growth of diverse data-intensive scientific computing efforts (Soni, 2011, Turner, 2014, Wu, 2008) has demonstrated the value of supporting scientific data integration. Efforts to bridge this gap between the above perspectives have been attempted, in varying degrees, with modular scientific computing analysis regimes implemented with a modest amount of success (Perez, 2009). This constellation of effects - 1) an increasing growth in the volume and amount of data, 2) a growing data-intensive science base that has challenging needs, and 3) disparate data organization and integration efforts - has created a critical gap. Namely, systems of scientific data organization and management typically do not effectively enable integrated data collaboration or data-intensive science-based communications. Our research efforts attempt to address this gap by developing a modular technology framework for data science integration efforts - with climate variation as the focus. The intention is that this model, if successful, could be generalized to other application areas. Our research aim focused on the design and implementation of a modular, deployable technology architecture for data integration. Developed using aspects of R, interactive python, SciDB, THREDDS, Javascript, and varied data mining and machine learning techniques, the Modular Data Response Framework (MDRF) was implemented to explore case scenarios for bio-climatic variation as they relate to pacific northwest ecosystem regions. Our preliminary results, using historical NETCDF climate data for calibration purposes across the inland pacific northwest region

  1. New Chemical, Bio-Optical and Physical Observations of Upper Ocean Response to the Passage of a Mesoscale Eddy Off Bermuda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, J. D.; Jannasch, H. W.; Dickey, T.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Brzezinski, M.; Sakamoto, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    A mesoscale eddy advected across the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site over a 30-day period centered on July 14, 1995. Temperature and current measurements along with biogeochemical measurements were used to characterize the biological response of the upper ocean associated with the introduction of nitrate into the euphotic layer due to the doming of isotherms associated with the eddy. Complementary shipboard data showed an anomalous water mass, which extended from a depth of approximately 50 to 1000 m, manifesting as a cold surface expression and warm anomaly at depth. Although mesoscale eddies are frequently observed in the Sargasso Sea, the present observations are particularly unique because of the high-temporal-resolution measurements of the new instrumentation deployed on the mooring. Analyzers that measure nitrate plus nitrite were placed at depths of 80 and 200 m and bio-optical sensors were located at depths of 20, 35, 45, 71, and 86 m. Peak nitrate values of nearly 3.0 micro-M at 80 m and chlorophyll a values of 1.4 mg/cubic m at 71 m were observed, a well as a 25- to 30-meter shoaling of the 1% light level depth. A Doppler shift from the inertial period (22.8 hours) to 25.2 hours was observed in several time series records due to the movement of the eddy across the mooring. Inertial pumping brought cold, nutrient-rich waters farther into the euphotic zone than would occur solely by isothermal lifting. Silicic acid was depleted to undetectable levels owing to the growth of diatoms within the eddy. The chlorophyll a values associated with the eddy appear to be the largest recorded during the eight years of the ongoing US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Study program.

  2. New Chemical, Bio-Optical and Physical Observations of Upper Ocean Response to the Passage of a Mesoscale Eddy off Bermuda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, J. D.; Jannasch, H. W.; Dickey, T.; McGillicuddy, D.; Brzekinski, M.; Sakamoto, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    A mesoscale eddy advected across the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site over a 30-day period centered on July 14, 1995. Temperature and current measurements along with biogeochemical measurements were used to characterize the biological response of the upper ocean associated with the introduction of nitrate into the euphoric layer due to the doming of isotherms associated with the eddy. Complementary shipboard data showed an anomalous water mass, which extended from a depth of approximately 50 to 1000 m, manifesting as a cold surface expression and warm anomaly at depth. Although mesoscale eddies are frequently observed in the Sargasso Sea, the present observations are particularly unique because of the high-temporal-resolution measurements of the new instrumentation deployed on the mooring. Analyzers that measure nitrate plus nitrite were placed at depths of 80 and 200 m and bio-optical sensors were located at depths of 20, 35, 45, 71, and 86 m. Peak nitrate values of nearly 3.0 microns at 80 m and chlorophyll alpha values of 1.4 mg/cu m at 71 m were observed, as well as a 25- to 30-meter shoaling of the 1% light level depth. A Doppler shift from the inertial period (22.8 hours) to 25.2 hours was observed in several time series records due to the movement of the eddy across the mooring. Inertial pumping brought cold, nutrient-rich waters farther into the euphotic zone than would occur solely by isothermal lifting. Silicic acid was depleted to undetectable levels owing to the growth of diatoms within the eddy. The chlorophyll alpha values associated with the eddy appear to be the largest recorded during the 8 years of the ongoing U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) program.

  3. Innate immune-stimulatory activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae is eliminated by phase separation using Triton X-114.

    PubMed

    Nozoe, Kohji; Sanui, Terukazu; Takeshita, Masaaki; Fukuda, Takao; Haraguchi, Akira; Aida, Yoshitomi; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2017-02-01

    Fimbriae are virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). In this study, the action of fimbriae on neutrophil respiratory burst and cytokine production by mononuclear cells (MNC) were investigated. Native or denatured form of purified P. gingivalis fimbriae contained endotoxin at an equivalence of 1-3μglipopolysaccharides(LPS)/mg protein. The endotoxin could be reduced to the equivalent of 1ng-LPS/mg protein by phase separation using Triton X-114. Unfractionated fimbriae caused serum-dependent priming of neutrophils for enhanced respiratory burst, but both native and denatured forms of Triton X-114-fractionated fimbriae were not active at 100μg/mL. Unfractionated fimbriae induced serum-dependent production of IL-1β by MNC. Triton X-114-fractionated fimbriae (10μg/mL)-induced production of IL-1β, IL-8 or TNF-α was much lower than that induced by unfractionated fimbriae or 10ng/mL P. gingivalis-LPS preparation. Triton X-114-fractionated fimbriae immobilized on polystyrene tubes induced adhesion-stimulated superoxide release by LPS-primed neutrophils in a β2 integrin-dependent manner. P. gingivalis cells caused priming of neutrophils; however, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 antagonists did not affect this response. Thus, P. gingivalis fimbriae were ineffective in inducing innate immune response in leukocytes; however, they induced β2 integrin-mediated response by neutrophils. Immune-stimulatory components of P. gingivalis might be recognized by receptors other than TLR4.

  4. Sinomenine promotes differentiation but impedes maturation and co-stimulatory molecule expression of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongwen; Yang, Chengying; Jin, Naishi; Xie, Zhunyi; Fei, Lie; Jia, Zhengcai; Wu, Yuzhang

    2007-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) excel at presenting antigen to T cells and thus make a key contribution to the induction of primary and secondary immune responses. Sinomenine has been used for centuries in the treatment of patients with autoimmune diseases as it possesses immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of sinomenine on the differentiation, maturation, and functionality of DC derived from monocytes has not been studied. We show here that DC differentiation is promoted when monocytes are treated with GM-CSF and IL-4 (IL-4) in the presence of sinomenine (200 microg/ml), as evidenced by the upregulation of CD1a while CD14 was decreased. In addition, incubation of immature DC with sinomenine significantly blunted lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DC maturation, as shown by the reduction of expression of the maturation marker CD83 and co-stimulatory molecules, including CD86, B7-H1, and CD40. Moreover, sinomenine also prevented decreases in antigen (FITC-Dextran or Lucifer Yellow) uptake by LPS-treated DC. Mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) revealed that sinomenine-treated DC impede the secretion of the cytokines IL-2 and IFN-gamma by co-cultured CD4(+) T cells. Therefore, modulation of DC differentiation, maturation, and functionality by sinomenine is of potential relevance to its immunomodulatory effects in controlling specific immune responses in autoimmune diseases, transplantation, and other immune-mediated conditions.

  5. Targeting the T-cell co-stimulatory CD27/CD70 pathway in cancer immunotherapy: rationale and potential.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Koen; Borst, Jannie

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, cancer immunotherapy was named 'breakthrough of the year' based on the outcome of clinical trials with blocking antibodies to the T-cell co-inhibitory receptors CTLA-4 and PD-1. This success has emphasized that cytotoxic T-cell responses to cancer can occur, but are limited by peripheral tolerance and by immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. Targeting of CTLA-4, PD-1 or its ligands partly overcomes these limitations and can now be applied in multiple immunogenic cancer types. Furthermore, an increased success rate is expected from combining CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 blocking with deliberate engagement of T-cell co-stimulatory receptors, particularly TNF receptor (R) family members. The TNFR family includes CD27 (Tnfrsf7), for which an agonistic antibody has recently entered clinical trials. In this review, we describe how CD27 co-stimulation impacts the T-cell response, with the purpose to illuminate how CD27 agonism can be exploited in cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Stimulatory actions of bioflavenoids on tyrosine uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Hamano, S.; Oka, M.; Teraoka, K. )

    1990-09-28

    The effects of flavenoids on L-({sup 14}C)tyrosine uptake into cultured adrenal chromaffin cells were examined. Flavone markedly stimulated tyrosine uptake into these cells in a manner dependent on its concentration. Apigenin also caused a moderate stimulatory action, but quercetin had no significant effect on the uptake. Flavone also stimulated the uptake of histidine, but did not affect the uptake of serine, lysine, or glutamic acid. These results are considered to propose the possibility that flavonoids may be able to stimulate the precursor uptake into the cells, resulting in an enhancement of the biogenic amine production.

  7. Stimulatory effect of morphine on rat pineal melatonin synthesis via a cyclic AMP-dependent transcription pathway.

    PubMed

    Chetsawang, Banthit; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2005-11-25

    The expression of mRNA of opioid receptors and the existence of opioid binding site in the rat pineal gland have been demonstrated previously. A major finding was that morphine enhanced the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and increased the level of melatonin in rat pineal gland. An attempt has been made in order to clarify the mechanism of this induction. In the present study, the stimulatory effect of morphine on the expression of NAT mRNA in the rat pineal gland has been demonstrated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The results showed that both acute and chronic morphine treatments significantly increased NAT mRNA expression in rat pineal gland. In addition, the effect of morphine on the phosphorylation of the transcription factors, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) was investigated. Western blot analysis showed that morphine significantly increased phosphorylation of CREB. These results indicate that at least one downstream messenger pathway for the activation of opioidergic system on the induction of melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland acts via cyclic AMP-dependent cascade and transcription mechanism.

  8. The RAD51-stimulatory compound RS-1 can exploit the RAD51 overexpression that exists in cancer cells and tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Jennifer M; Logan, Hillary L.; Budke, Brian; Wu, Megan; Pawlowski, Michal; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Bishop, Douglas K.; Connell, Philip P.

    2014-01-01

    RAD51 is the central protein that catalyzes DNA repair via homologous recombination (HR), a process that ensures genomic stability. RAD51 protein is commonly expressed at high levels in cancer cells relative to their non-cancerous precursors. High levels of RAD51 expression can lead to the formation of genotoxic RAD51 protein complexes on undamaged chromatin. We developed a therapeutic approach that exploits this potentially toxic feature of malignancy, using compounds that stimulate the DNA binding activity of RAD51 to promote cancer cell death. A panel of immortalized cell lines was challenged with the RAD51-stimulatory compound RS-1. Resistance to RS-1 tended to occur in cells with higher levels of RAD54L and RAD54B, which are Swi2/Snf2-related translocases known to dissociate RAD51 filaments from double-stranded DNA. In PC3 prostate cancer cells, RS-1 induced lethality was accompanied by the formation of microscopically visible RAD51 nuclear protein foci occurring in the absence of any DNA-damaging treatment. Treatment with RS-1 promoted significant anti-tumor responses in a mouse model, providing proof of principle for this novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:24753542

  9. Induction of multinucleated giant cells in response to small sized bovine bone substitute (Bio-Oss™) results in an enhanced early implantation bed vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Barbeck, M.; Udeabor, S. E.; Lorenz, J.; Kubesch, A.; Choukroun, J.; Sader, R. A.; Kirkpatrick, C. J.; Ghanaati, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The host tissue reaction to the xenogeneic bone substitute Bio-Oss™ (Geistlich Biomaterials, Wolhousen, Switzerland) was investigated focusing on the participating inflammatory cells and implantation bed vascularization. Materials and Methods: Bio-Oss™ was implanted subcutaneously into CD1 mice for up to 60 days and analyzed by means of specialized histological and histomorphometrical techniques after explantation. Results: Bio-Oss™ induced within the first 15 days an early high vascularization combined with a marked presence of multinucleated giant cells. The latter cells were associated mainly with the smaller sized granules within the implantation bed. Toward the end of the study the number of multinucleated giant cells decreased while the tissue reaction to the larger granules was mainly mononuclear. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that smaller xenogeneic bone substitute granules induce multinucleated giant cells, whereas the larger-sized ones became integrated within the implantation bed by means of a mononuclear cell-triggered granulation tissue. Obviously, the presence of multinucleated giant cells within biomaterial implantation beds is not only related to the type of synthetic bone substitute material, but also to the granule size of the natural-based xenogeneic bone substitute material. PMID:25593863

  10. Effect of multiple endogenous biological factors on the response of the tephritids Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) to multilure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure in mango orchards.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    The physiological state of an insect is likely the most important endogenous factor influencing resource-oriented behavior, and it varies considerably among individuals. Trials were conducted in mango orchards to study the effect of multiple endogenous biological factors on the response of two fly species, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Maquart (Diptera: Tephritidae), to BioLure and NuLure baits. The biological factors of the two fly species that were tested were the following: 1) fertility status-sterile (irradiated) and fertile flies; 2) two types of diets (only sugar and a 3:1 mixture of sugar and hydrolyzed yeast protein; 3) sex, and 4) two sexual maturity conditions (2-4- and 15-18-d-old flies, representing immature and sexually mature flies, respectively, and 2-4-d-old flies treated with methoprene as an artificially induced sexually state male condition). The laboratory-treated flies were released into three different mango orchards. The trials were conducted in four blocks per orchard using eight traps in each block (50:50 BioLure: NuLure). The traps were replaced every 2 d during the 12-d period and the flies per trap per day values were calculated. More protein-fed, fertile, female, immature, and A. obliqua flies were caught compared with the other flies tested. In addition, the traps baited with NuLure attracted more flies than those baited with BioLure. Interaction analyses indicated that the type of bait and the sexual maturity status were the most important factors affecting the responses of the flies. Our study demonstrated that lures attract only a small segment of the fly population, those that have a specific hunger for amino acids-immature flies-and those that were protein-starved. The implications for improved trapping system designs are discussed.

  11. Experimental modifications imply a stimulatory function for male tsetse fly genitalia, supporting cryptic female choice theory.

    PubMed

    Briceño, R D; Eberhard, William G

    2009-07-01

    One of the most sweeping of all patterns in morphological evolution is that animal genitalia tend to diverge more rapidly than do other structures. Abundant indirect evidence supports the cryptic female choice (CFC) explanation of this pattern, which supposes that male genitalia often function to court females during copulation; but direct experimental demonstrations of a stimulatory function have been lacking. In this study, we altered the form of two male genital structures that squeeze the female's abdomen rhythmically in Glossina pallidipes flies. As predicted by theory, this induced CFC against the male: ovulation and sperm storage decreased, while female remating increased. Further experiments showed that these effects were due to changes in tactile stimuli received by the female from the male's altered genitalia, and were not due to other possible changes in the males due to alteration of their genital form. Stimulation from male genital structures also induces females to permit copulation to occur. Together with previous studies of tsetse reproductive physiology, these data constitute the most complete experimental confirmation that sexual selection (probably by CFC) acts on the stimulatory properties of male genitalia.

  12. Social influences on "self-stimulatory" behavior: analysis and treatment application.

    PubMed

    Durand, V M; Carr, E G

    1987-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the "self-stimulatory" behaviors exhibited by some individuals may be socially mediated. Four developmentally disabled children who exhibited hand flapping and body rocking participated in a series of three experiments conducted to assess the influence of social variables on stereotyped behavior and to develop a treatment based on the assessment. Experiment 1 used an assessment procedure to determine the relative influences of social attention and task demands on stereotyped behavior. For all four children, hand flapping and body rocking increased when difficult academic tasks were introduced. Experiment 2 involved the use of a procedural time-out and demonstrated that removing task demands contingent on stereotyped behavior resulted in increased rates of hand flapping and body rocking. In Experiment 3, these results were used to develop a communication treatment that consisted of teaching the children to request assistance on the difficult tasks. This treatment resulted in significant reductions in self-stimulatory behavior. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that some forms of repetitive stereotyped behavior may come to serve social functions (e.g., escape from aversive situations). Teaching a functionally equivalent communicative alternative to escape-motivated stereotyped behavior can be an effective form of intervention for this problem.

  13. tmBioC: improving interoperability of text-mining tools with BioC

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Ritu; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Mao, Yuqing; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The lack of interoperability among biomedical text-mining tools is a major bottleneck in creating more complex applications. Despite the availability of numerous methods and techniques for various text-mining tasks, combining different tools requires substantial efforts and time owing to heterogeneity and variety in data formats. In response, BioC is a recent proposal that offers a minimalistic approach to tool interoperability by stipulating minimal changes to existing tools and applications. BioC is a family of XML formats that define how to present text documents and annotations, and also provides easy-to-use functions to read/write documents in the BioC format. In this study, we introduce our text-mining toolkit, which is designed to perform several challenging and significant tasks in the biomedical domain, and repackage the toolkit into BioC to enhance its interoperability. Our toolkit consists of six state-of-the-art tools for named-entity recognition, normalization and annotation (PubTator) of genes (GenNorm), diseases (DNorm), mutations (tmVar), species (SR4GN) and chemicals (tmChem). Although developed within the same group, each tool is designed to process input articles and output annotations in a different format. We modify these tools and enable them to read/write data in the proposed BioC format. We find that, using the BioC family of formats and functions, only minimal changes were required to build the newer versions of the tools. The resulting BioC wrapped toolkit, which we have named tmBioC, consists of our tools in BioC, an annotated full-text corpus in BioC, and a format detection and conversion tool. Furthermore, through participation in the 2013 BioCreative IV Interoperability Track, we empirically demonstrate that the tools in tmBioC can be more efficiently integrated with each other as well as with external tools: Our experimental results show that using BioC reduces >60% in lines of code for text-mining tool integration. The tmBioC toolkit

  14. Preparation and crystallization of the stimulatory and inhibitory complexes of GTP cyclohydrolase I and its feedback regulatory protein GFRP.

    PubMed

    Maita, N; Okada, K; Hirotsu, S; Hatakeyama, K; Hakoshima, T

    2001-08-01

    Mammalian GTP cyclohydrolase I is a decameric enzyme in the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, which is an essential cofactor for enzymes producing neurotransmitters such as catecholamines and for nitric oxide synthases. The enzyme is dually regulated by its feedback regulatory protein GFRP in the presence of its stimulatory effector phenylalanine and its inhibitory effector biopterin. Here, both the stimulatory and inhibitory complexes of rat GTP cyclohydrolase I bound to GFRP were crystallized by vapour diffusion. Diffraction data sets at resolutions of 3.0 and 2.64 A were collected for the stimulatory and inhibitory complexes, respectively. Each complex consists of two GTPCHI pentamer rings and two GFRP pentamer rings, with pseudo-52 point-group symmetry.

  15. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  16. Involvement of mitochondrial activity in mediating ELF-EMF stimulatory effect on human sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Roberto; Delle Monache, Simona; Bennato, Francesca; Di Bartolomeo, Claudia; Scrimaglio, Renato; Cinque, Benedetta; Colonna, Rosella Cardigno

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the exposure of human spermatozoa to an extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field (EMF) with a square waveform of 5 mT amplitude and frequency of 50 Hz improves sperm motility. The functional relationship between the energy metabolism and the enhancement of human sperm motility induced by ELF-EMF was investigated. Sperm exposure to ELF-EMF resulted in a progressive and significant increase of mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of ATP, ADP and NAD(+) that was associated with a progressive and significant increase in the sperm kinematic parameters. No significant effects were detected on other parameters such as ATP/ADP ratio and energy charge. When carbamoyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CICCP) was applied to inhibit the oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria, the values of energy parameters and motility in the sperm incubated in the presence of glucose and exposed to ELF-EMF did not change, thus indicating that the glycolysis was not involved in mediating ELF-EMF stimulatory effect on motility. By contrast, when pyruvate and lactate were provided instead of glucose, the energy status and motility increased significantly in ELF-EMF-treated sperm. Under these culture conditions, the inhibition of glycolitic metabolism by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DOG) again resulted in increased values of energy and kinematic parameters, indicating that gluconeogenesis was not involved in producing glucose for use in glycolysis. We concluded that the key role in mediating the stimulatory effects exerted by ELF-EMF on human sperm motility is played by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation rather than glycolysis.

  17. G-protein Stimulatory α Subunit Is Involved in Osteogenic Activity in Osteoblastic Cell Line SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Suzuki, Akira; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to study the roles of G-protein stimulatory subunit α (Gsα) in osteoblasts, we introduced an expression vector encoding Gsα into human osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2, and established the clones stably overexpressing Gsα (SaOS-2-Gsα). In SaOS-2-Gsα, the intracellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was increased compared with the parental SaOS-2 cells. In addition, when treated with PTH[1-34], SaOS-2-Gsα exhibited more accumulation of intracellular cAMP compared with the parental cells, suggesting an increased responsiveness to PTH. We evaluated the proliferation rates of SaOS-2-Gsα and the parental SaOS-2 cells, and found that the proliferation was accelerated in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses exhibited the increased expression of Runx2, a transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Finally, to examine the osteoblastic function in vivo, we inoculated SaOS-2-Gsα or parental SaOS-2 cells subcutaneously to immunocompromised nude mice. Although tumors in nude mice were not formed after inoculation of parental SaOS-2 cells, SaOS-2-Gsα cells proliferated in host animals leading to the formation of tumors with mineralized bone-like tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that the signals via Gsα play critical roles in the proliferation and osteogenic functions of osteoblasts.

  18. Anti-CD4 treatment inhibits autoimmunity in scurfy mice through the attenuation of co-stimulatory signals.

    PubMed

    Mayer, C T; Tian, L; Hesse, C; Kühl, A A; Swallow, M; Kruse, F; Thiele, M; Gershwin, M E; Liston, A; Sparwasser, T

    2014-05-01

    A major concept in autoimmunity is that disruption of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) predisposes to breach of tolerance. This is exemplified by the Foxp3-linked disorder termed IPEX (immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) which affects newborn children. There has been considerable clinical interest in the role of non-depleting anti-CD4 antibodies as a means of upregulating the function of Foxp3(+) Tregs in order to control detrimental inflammatory responses such as transplant rejection. However, according to the paradigm of a Treg-dependent mechanism of action, the effectiveness of anti-CD4 antibodies as a therapy for human autoimmune diseases is unclear considering that Treg function might be intrinsically impaired. Specifically, anti-CD4 therapy is expected to fail in patients suffering from the IPEX syndrome due to the lack of functional Foxp3(+) Tregs. Taking advantage of natural Foxp3 mutant scurfy (sf) mice closely resembling the IPEX syndrome, and genetically engineered mice depleted of Foxp3(+) Tregs, we report here that anti-CD4 treatment induces tolerance independent of Foxp3(+) Tregs. This so far undefined mechanism is dependent on the recessive non-infectious tolerization of autoreactive T cells. Treg-independent tolerance alone is powerful enough to suppress both the onset and severity of autoimmunity and reduces clinically relevant autoantibody levels and liver fibrosis. Mechanistically, tolerance induction requires the concomitant activation of autoreactive T cells and is associated with the down-regulation of the co-stimulatory TNF-receptor superfamily members OX40 and CD30 sustaining CD4(+) T cell survival. In the light of ongoing clinical trials, our results highlight an unexpected potency of anti-CD4 antibodies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Particularly, CD4 blockade might represent a novel therapeutic option for the human IPEX syndrome.

  19. BioWatch in a Box

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M T; Dzentis, J M; Meyer, R M

    2006-02-01

    BioWatch, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) environmental monitoring program, has been successfully operating in many of the nation's urban centers since early 2003. This early warning environmental monitoring system can detect trace amounts of biological materials in the air, and has been used to provide information to assist public health experts determine whether detected materials are due to an intentional release (bioterrorism incident) or due to minute quantities that occur naturally in the environment. BioWatch information enables federal, state, and local officials to more quickly determine appropriate emergency response, medical care and consequence management.

  20. Immune stimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides reduces Salmonella enterica subsp. Arizonae organ colonization and mortality in young turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG ODN) mimic bacterial DNA and are stimulatory to the innate immune system of most vertebrate species. The immunostimulatory activities of CpG ODN have been studied extensively and are well characterized in human and murine immun...

  1. TCR stimulation without co-stimulatory signals induces expression of "tolerogenic" genes in memory CD4 T cells but does not compromise cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Aini; Zheng, Xiong; Khattar, Mithun; Schroder, Paul; Stepkowski, Stanislaw; Xia, Jiahong; Chen, Wenhao

    2015-02-01

    Memory T cells resist co-stimulatory blockade and present a unique therapeutic challenge in transplantation and autoimmune diseases. Herein, we determined whether memory T cells express less "tolerogenic" genes than naïve T cells to reinforce a proliferative response under the deprivation of co-stimulatory signals. The expression of ∼40 tolerogenic genes in memory and naïve CD4(+) T cells was thus assessed during an in vitro TCR stimulation without co-stimulation. Briefly, upon TCR stimulation with an anti-CD3 mAb alone, memory CD4(+) T cells exhibited more proliferation than naïve CD4(+) T cells. To our surprise, at 24h upon anti-CD3 mAb stimulation, memory CD4(+) T cells expressed more than a 5-fold higher level of the transcription factor Egr2 and a 20-fold higher level of the transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase GRAIL than those in naïve T cells. Hence, the high-level expression of tolerogenic genes, Egr2 and GRAIL, in memory CD4(+) T cells does not prevent cell proliferation. Importantly, anti-CD3 mAb-stimulated memory CD4(+) T cells expressed high protein/gene levels of phosphorylated STAT5, Nedd4, Bcl-2, and Bcl-XL. Therefore, co-stimulation-independent proliferation of memory CD4(+) T cells may be due to elevated expression of molecules that support cell proliferation and survival, but not lack of tolerogenic molecules.

  2. Important role of phosphodiesterase 3B for the stimulatory action of cAMP on pancreatic beta-cell exocytosis and release of insulin.

    PubMed

    Härndahl, Linda; Jing, Xing-Jun; Ivarsson, Rosita; Degerman, Eva; Ahrén, Bo; Manganiello, Vincent C; Renström, Erik; Holst, Lena Stenson

    2002-10-04

    Cyclic AMP potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin release and mediates the stimulatory effects of hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on pancreatic beta-cells. By inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE) and, in particular, selective inhibition of PDE3 activity, stimulatory effects on insulin secretion have been observed. Molecular and functional information on beta-cell PDE3 is, however, scarce. To provide such information, we have studied the specific effects of the PDE3B isoform by adenovirus-mediated overexpression. In rat islets and rat insulinoma cells, approximate 10-fold overexpression of PDE3B was accompanied by a 6-8-fold increase in membrane-associated PDE3B activity. The cAMP concentration was significantly lowered in transduced cells (INS-1(832/13)), and insulin secretion in response to stimulation with high glucose (11.1 mm) was reduced by 40% (islets) and 50% (INS-1). Further, the ability of GLP-1 (100 nm) to augment glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was inhibited by approximately 30% (islets) and 70% (INS-1). Accordingly, when stimulating with cAMP, a substantial decrease (65%) in exocytotic capacity was demonstrated in patch-clamped single beta-cells. In untransduced insulinoma cells, application of the PDE3-selective inhibitor OPC3911 (10 microm) was shown to increase glucose-stimulated insulin release as well as cAMP-enhanced exocytosis. The findings suggest a significant role of PDE3B as an important regulator of insulin secretory processes.

  3. Stimulatory effect of lymphocytes from Chagas' patients on spontaneously beating rat atria.

    PubMed Central

    de Bracco, M M; Sterin-Borda, L; Fink, S; Finiasz, M; Borda, E

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of lymphocytes from individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' patients) on the contractile behaviour of living heart tissue. Chagas' lymphocytes (ChL) reacted with isolated rat atria preparations increasing the isometric development tension (IDT) and frequency of contractions (FC) in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal stimulatory effect was reached after 30-40 min of contract. In contrast, normal lymphocytes (NL) did not alter the basal IDT and FC values. beta-adrenergic antagonists, anti-histamine agents and inhibitors of the synthesis and action of arachidonic acid (AA) products were used to study the mechanisms of the reaction. (-)-propranolol (10(-7)M) and pyrilamine (10(-6)M) had no effect ruling out the participation of beta-adrenergic agonists or histamine. However, indomethacin (10(-6)M) and acetylsalicylic acid (1.8 X 10(-4)M) enhanced the effect of ChL. Inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway (5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, 10(-7)M; nordihydroguairetic acid, 10(-5)M) and FPL55712, an antagonist of one of its terminal products: the slow reacting substance of anaphilaxis (SRS-A), abolished the reaction. Therefore, a fundamental role for SRS-A in the production of the stimulatory effect is postulated. Lymphocytes of the T cell lineage (E rosette forming cells, ERFC) are the effector cells involved in this reaction, whereas non-rosetting ChL depressed IDT. T ascertain if effector cells could be replaced by soluble factors, ChL were reacted with homogenates of rat atria and the cell free supernatants were added to beating rat atria. Positive ino- and chronotropic effects were obtained, indicating that soluble factors generated during the reaction can substitute for the intact effector cells. On the other hand if the effector cells were purified from Chagas' patients that had been treated 1 month to 6 years before the assay with trypanocidal drugs (3-methyl-4-(5'-nitrofurfurylidene-amino)-tetrahydro-4H

  4. Valorization of the Vicia faba mucilage on textile wastewater treatment as a bio-flocculant: process development and optimization using response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Bouatay, Feriel; Eljebsi, Nesrine; Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Mhenni, Farouk

    2017-02-01

    The Vicia faba membranes are an abundant and a low cost product. In the present research paper, the extracted Vicia faba mucilage was tested as an eco-friendly flocculant for textile wastewater treatment. Its performance as flocculant, in decolorization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the concentration of total suspended solids was checked. The natural extracted product was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. The total sugars were determined in the extracted product. The effect study, followed by an optimization and modeling analysis, of some experimental parameters on the coagulation-flocculation performance, using Vicia faba mucilage (as a flocculant), combined with aluminum sulfate (as a coagulant), showed that the best conditions for the flocculation process were pH of the effluent about 7, flocculant dose about 6.75 mg/L, flocculation mixing time about 3 min and flocculation mixing speed about 30 rpm, leading to a decolorization equal to 92.32%, COD removal of about 97.52% and total suspended solids of about 15.3 mg/L. A comparison study between the flocculation performance of commercial reagents and the bio-agent showed that the natural product presented a good flocculation performance.

  5. Stimulatory effect and adsorption behavior of rhamnolipids on lignocelluloses degradation system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinju; Zhang, Shudong; Qiu, Zhen; Han, Hui; Zhang, Qiuzhuo

    2017-01-01

    Di-rhamnolipid and mixed rhamnolipid were added to rice straw degrading system to investigate their mechanism of stimulatory effect. By batch adsorption experiments, it was shown that the equilibrium adsorption time of rhamnolipids on rice straw single system was the shortest (50min). The adsorption capacity of Trichoderma reesei single system was the strongest, whose Qe,exp for di-rhamnolipid and mixed rhamnolipid was 10.57×10(-2)mg·g(-1) and 8.13×10(-2)mg·g(-1), respectively. The adsorption of rhamnolipids on consortia system was not the simple adduct of the two single systems. The adsorption of rhamnolipids on the three different systems might belong to chemisorptions. SEM and FTIR analyses were used to observe the morphology and to analyze the chemical functions in lignocellulosic biomass degradation with rhamnolipid. It was shown that after addition of rhamnolipids, the basic tissue in rice straw was severely destroyed and hydrogen bond was formed between biosurfactant and bacteria in lignocellulose degrading system.

  6. Stimulatory effect of apigenin-6-C-beta-L-fucopyranoside on insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cazarolli, Luisa Helena; Folador, Poliane; Moresco, Henrique Hunger; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Silva, Fátima Regina M Barreto

    2009-11-01

    In vivo and in vitro treatments were carried out to investigate the effects of apigenin-6-C-beta-L-fucopyranoside (1), isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), on serum glucose and insulin levels in hyperglycemic rats as well as its effect on glycogen synthesis in normal rat soleus muscle. Apigenin-6-C-beta-L-fucopyranoside showed an acute effect on blood glucose lowering in hyperglycemic rats and stimulated glucose-induced insulin secretion. A stimulatory effect of 1 on glycogen synthesis was observed when muscles were incubated with this flavonoid and also its effect was completely nullified by pre-treatment with insulin signal transduction inhibitors. Taking this into account, the MAPK-PP1 and PI3K-GSK3 pathways are involved in the apigenin-6-C-beta-L-fucopyranoside-induced increase in glycogen synthesis in muscle. This study provides evidence for dual effects of apigenin-6-C-beta-L-fucopyranoside as an antihyperglycemic (insulin secretion) as well as an insulinomimetic (glycogen synthesis) agent.

  7. Stimulatory effects of neuropeptide Y on the growth of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuge; Li, Bo; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-11-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a member of the pancreatic polypeptide family which is a potent orexigenic peptide known to date in mammals and teleost. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of NPY on food intake and growth of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Synthetic grouper NPY (gNPY) was given orally at the dose of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μg/g feed for 50 days, results showed that NPY treatment (1.0 and 2.0 μg/g feed) significantly increased growth rate, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and pituitary growth hormone (GH) mRNA level than the control group (p<0.05). Furthermore, high level secretion of gNPY was expressed and purified in the Pichia pastoris expression system. The bioactivity of recombinant gNPY was confirmed by its ability to up-regulate GH mRNA expression in vivo and in vitro and down-regulate preprosomatostatin I (PSSI) mRNA expression in vivo. These results demonstrate that NPY has stimulatory effects on food intake as well as growth of grouper as in other teleost fish, also indicate that recombinant gNPY from P. pastoris has the same bioactivity as synthetic gNPY and has the potential to be used as a feed additive for both research and aquatic application.

  8. Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16–293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20–222% and 34–760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

  9. Upstream stimulatory factor regulates expression of the cell cycle-dependent cyclin B1 gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Cogswell, J P; Godlevski, M M; Bonham, M; Bisi, J; Babiss, L

    1995-01-01

    Progression through the somatic cell cycle requires the temporal regulation of cyclin gene expression and cyclin protein turnover. One of the best-characterized examples of this regulation is seen for the B-type cyclins. These cyclins and their catalytic component, cdc2, have been shown to mediate both the entry into and maintenance of mitosis. The cyclin B1 gene has been shown to be expressed between the late S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, while the protein is degraded specifically at interphase via ubiquitination. To understand the molecular basis for transcriptional regulation of the cyclin B1 gene, we cloned the human cyclin B1 gene promoter region. Using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter system and both stable and transient assays, we have shown that the cyclin B1 gene promoter (extending to -3800 bp relative to the cap site) can confer G2-enhanced promoter activity. Further analysis revealed that an upstream stimulatory factor (USF)-binding site and its cognate transcription factor(s) are critical for expression from the cyclin B1 promoter in cycling HeLa cells. Interestingly, USF DNA-binding activity appears to be regulated in a G2-specific fashion, supporting the idea that USF may play some role in cyclin B1 gene activation. These studies suggest an important link between USF and the cyclin B1 gene, which in part explains how maturation promoting factor complex formation is regulated. PMID:7739559

  10. Retractile processes in T lymphocyte orientation on a stimulatory substrate: morphology and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, Sergey N.; Maly, Ivan V.

    2008-03-01

    T cells of the immune system target infected and tumor cells in crowded tissues with high precision by coming into direct contact with the intended target and orienting the intracellular Golgi apparatus and the associated organelles to the area of the cell-cell contact. The mechanism of this orientation remains largely unknown. To further elucidate it we used three-dimensional microscopy of living T cells presented with an artificial substrate mimicking the target cell surface. The data indicate that long, finger-like processes emanate from the T cell surface next to the intracellular Golgi apparatus. These processes come in contact with the substrate and retract. The retraction accompanies the reorientation of the T cell body which brings the Golgi apparatus closer to the stimulatory substrate. Numerical modeling indicates that considering the forces involved the retraction of a process attached with one end to the cell body near the Golgi apparatus and with the other end to the substrate can bring the Golgi apparatus to the substrate by moving the entire cell body. The dynamic scenarios that are predicted by the quantitative model explain features of the reorientation movements that we measured but could not explain previously. We propose that retraction of the surface processes is a force-generating mechanism contributing to the functional orientation of T lymphocytes.

  11. Diamond bio electronics.

    PubMed

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  12. Bio-microfluidics: biomaterials and biomimetic designs.

    PubMed

    Domachuk, Peter; Tsioris, Konstantinos; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2010-01-12

    Bio-microfluidics applies biomaterials and biologically inspired structural designs (biomimetics) to microfluidic devices. Microfluidics, the techniques for constraining fluids on the micrometer and sub-micrometer scale, offer applications ranging from lab-on-a-chip to optofluidics. Despite this wealth of applications, the design of typical microfluidic devices imparts relatively simple, laminar behavior on fluids and is realized using materials and techniques from silicon planar fabrication. On the other hand, highly complex microfluidic behavior is commonplace in nature, where fluids with nonlinear rheology flow through chaotic vasculature composed from a range of biopolymers. In this Review, the current state of bio-microfluidic materials, designs and applications are examined. Biopolymers enable bio-microfluidic devices with versatile functionalization chemistries, flexibility in fabrication, and biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. Polymeric materials such as alginate, collagen, chitosan, and silk are being explored as bulk and film materials for bio-microfluidics. Hydrogels offer options for mechanically functional devices for microfluidic systems such as self-regulating valves, microlens arrays and drug release systems, vital for integrated bio-microfluidic devices. These devices including growth factor gradients to study cell responses, blood analysis, biomimetic capillary designs, and blood vessel tissue culture systems, as some recent examples of inroads in the field that should lead the way in a new generation of microfluidic devices for bio-related needs and applications. Perhaps one of the most intriguing directions for the future will be fully implantable microfluidic devices that will also integrate with existing vasculature and slowly degrade to fully recapitulate native tissue structure and function, yet serve critical interim functions, such as tissue maintenance, drug release, mechanical support, and cell delivery.

  13. Stimulatory and Inhibitory Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Molecules are Expressed and Functional on Lupus T Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Dhiman; Liu, Ying; Wu, Ailing; Yarlagadda, Sushma; Gorelik, Gabriela J.; Kaplan, Mariana J.; Hewagama, Anura; Hinderer, Robert C.; Strickland, Faith M.; Richardson, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    T cells from lupus patients have hypomethylated DNA and overexpress genes normally suppressed by DNA methylation that contribute to disease pathogenesis. We found that stimulatory and inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin–like receptor (KIR3) genes are aberrantly overexpressed on experimentally demethylated T cells. We therefore asked if lupus T cells also overexpress KIR, and if the proteins are functional. T cells from lupus patients were found to overexpress KIR genes, and expression was proportional to disease activity. Antibodies to the stimulatory molecule KIR2DL4 triggered IFN-γ release by lupus T cells, and production was proportional to disease activity. Similarly, crosslinking the inhibitory molecule KIR3DL1 prevented the autoreactive macrophage killing that characterizes lupus T cells. These results indicate that aberrant T cell KIR expression may contribute to IFN overproduction and macrophage killing in human lupus, and suggest that antibodies to inhibitory KIR may be a treatment for this disease. PMID:19675166

  14. Stimulatory and inhibitory killer Ig-like receptor molecules are expressed and functional on lupus T cells.

    PubMed

    Basu, Dhiman; Liu, Ying; Wu, Ailing; Yarlagadda, Sushma; Gorelik, Gabriela J; Kaplan, Mariana J; Hewagama, Anura; Hinderer, Robert C; Strickland, Faith M; Richardson, Bruce C

    2009-09-01

    T cells from lupus patients have hypomethylated DNA and overexpress genes normally suppressed by DNA methylation that contribute to disease pathogenesis. We found that stimulatory and inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) genes are aberrantly overexpressed on experimentally demethylated T cells. We therefore asked if lupus T cells also overexpress KIR, and if the proteins are functional. T cells from lupus patients were found to overexpress KIR genes, and expression was proportional to disease activity. Abs to the stimulatory molecule KIR2DL4 triggered IFN-gamma release by lupus T cells, and production was proportional to disease activity. Similarly, cross-linking the inhibitory molecule KIR3DL1 prevented the autoreactive macrophage killing that characterizes lupus T cells. These results indicate that aberrant T cell KIR expression may contribute to IFN overproduction and macrophage killing in human lupus, and they suggest that Abs to inhibitory KIR may be a treatment for this disease.

  15. Selaginellin and biflavonoids as protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors from Selaginella tamariscina and their glucose uptake stimulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phi-Hung; Ji, Da-Jung; Han, Yu-Ran; Choi, Jae-Sue; Rhyu, Dong-Young; Min, Byung-Sun; Woo, Mi-Hee

    2015-07-01

    As part of an ongoing search for new antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants, the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Selaginella tamariscina was found to possess stimulatory effect on glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Thus, bioassay-guided isolation of this active extract yielded two new compounds (1 and 2) along with five known biflavonoids (3-7). Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic and physicochemical data. The absolute configuration of compound 2 was determined by specific rotation and CD data analysis. All isolates exhibited potent inhibitory effects on PTP1B enzyme with IC50 values ranging from 4.5±0.1 to 13.2±0.8μM. Furthermore, the isolates (1-7) showed significant stimulatory effects on 2-NBDG uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Of these, compounds (1, 6, and 7) which exhibited mixed-competitive inhibition modes against PTP1B, showed potent stimulatory effects on 2-NBDG uptake. This result indicated the potential of these biflavonoids as lead molecules for development of antidiabetic agents and the beneficial use of S. tamariscina against hyperglycemia.

  16. Stimulatory Agents Simultaneously Improving the Production and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Inonotus obliquus by Submerged Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Shen, Mengwei; Quan, Lili

    2015-07-01

    Polyphenols are important secondary metabolites from the edible and medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Both the rarity of I. obliquus fruit body and the low efficiency of current method of submerged fermentation lead to a low yield of polyphenols. This study was aimed to determine the effect of applying stimulatory agents to liquid cultured I. obliquus on the simultaneous accumulation of exo-polyphenols (EPC) and endo-polyphenols (IPC). Linoleic acid was the most effective out of the 17 tested stimulatory agents, the majority of which increased the EPC and IPC production. The result was totally different from the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 for polysaccharide production in previous studies. The addition of 1.0 g/L linoleic acid on day 0 resulted in 7-, 14-, and 10-fold of increase (p < 0.05) in the production of EPC extracted by ethyl acetate (EA-EPC), EPC extracted by n-butyl alcohol (NB-EPC), and IPC, and significantly increased the production of ferulic acid, gallic acid, epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), phelligridin G, inoscavin B, and davallialactone. The EA-EPC, BA-EPC, and IPC from the linoleic acid-containing medium had significantly (p < 0.05) stronger scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), which was attributed to the higher content of these bioactive polyphenols.

  17. Project BioShield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-10

    to Congress. Expedited Peer Review . The Project BioShield Act of 2004 authorizes the HHS Secretary to use an expedited award process, rather than the...normal peer review process, for grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements related to biomedical countermeasure R&D activity, if the Secretary... peer review process will reduce the quality of the research.6 Peer review is designed to maximize the chances that only proposals with the greatest

  18. Project BioShield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-27

    Expedited Peer Review . The Project BioShield Act of 2004 authorizes the HHS Secretary to use an expedited award process, rather than the normal peer ...such awards, or to many, will depend on what needs the Secretary deems pressing. Some scientists have expressed concerns that an expedited peer review process...will reduce the quality of the research.6 Peer review is designed to maximize the chances that only proposals with the greatest scientific

  19. Israel Marine Bio-geographic Database (ISRAMAR-BIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greengrass, Eyal; Krivenko, Yevgeniya; Ozer, Tal; Ben Yosef, Dafna; Tom, Moshe; Gertman, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the space/time variations of species is the basis for any ecological investigations. While historical observations containing integral concentrations of biological parameters (chlorophyll, abundance, biomass…) are organized partly in ISRAMAR Cast Database, the taxon-specific data collected in Israel has not been sufficiently organized. This has been hindered by the lack of standards, variability of methods and complexity of biological data formalization. The ISRAMAR-BIO DB was developed to store various types of historical and future available information related to marine species observations and related metadata. Currently the DB allows to store biological data acquired by the following sampling devices such as: van veer grab, box corer, sampling bottles, nets (plankton, trawls and fish), quadrates, and cameras. The DB's logical unit is information regarding a specimen (taxa name, barcode, image), related attributes (abundance, size, age, contaminants…), habitat description, sampling device and method, time and space of sampling, responsible organization and scientist, source of information (cruise, project and publication). The following standardization of specimen and attributes naming were implemented: Taxonomy according to World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS: http://www.marinespecies.org). Habitat description according to Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standards (CMECS: http://www.cmecscatalog.org) Parameter name; Unit; Device name; Developmental stage; Institution name; Country name; Marine region according to SeaDataNet Vocabularies (http://www.seadatanet.org/Standards-Software/Common-Vocabularies). This system supports two types of data submission procedures, which support the above stated data structure. The first is a downloadable excel file with drop-down fields based on the ISRAMAR-BIO vocabularies. The file is filled and uploaded online by the data contributor. Alternatively, the same dataset can be assembled by

  20. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  1. BioSig-Air-Force

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-15

    1) Configured servers: In coordination with the INSIGHT team, a hardware configuration was selected. Two nodes were purchased, configured, and shipped with compatible OS and database installation. The servers have been stress tested for reliability as they use leading edge technologies. Each node has two CPUs and 12 cores per CPU with maximum onboard memory for high performance. 2) LIM and Experimental module: The original BioSig system was developed for cancer research. Accordingly, the LIM system its corresponding web pages are being modified to facilitate (i) pathogene-donor interactions, (ii) media composition, (iii) chemical and siRNA plate configurations. The LIM system has been redesigned. The revised system allows design of new media and tracking it from lot-to-lot so that variations in the phenotypic responses can be tracked to a specific media and lot number. Similar associations are also possible with other experimental factors (e.g., donor-pathoge, siRNA, and chemical). Furthermore, the design of the experimental variables has also been revised to (i) interact with the newly developed LIM system, (ii) simplify experimental specifications, and (iii) test for potential operator's error during the data entry. Part of the complication has been due to the handshake between multiple teams that provide the small molecule plates and the team that creates assay plates. Our efforts have focused to harmonize these interactions (e.g., various data formats) so that each assay plate can be mapped to its source so that a correct set of experimental variables can be associated with each image. For example, depending upon the source of the chemical plates, they may have different formats. We have developed a canonical representation that registers SMILES code, for each chemical compound, along with its physiochemical properties. The schema for LIM conjunction with customized Web pages. 3) Import of Images and computed descriptors module: In coordination with the INSIGHT

  2. Upstream stimulatory factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) cooperatively activate HIF2 target genes during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pawlus, Matthew R; Wang, Liyi; Ware, Katie; Hu, Cheng-Jun

    2012-11-01

    While the functions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and HIF2α/ARNT (HIF2) proteins in activating hypoxia-inducible genes are well established, the role of other transcription factors in the hypoxic transcriptional response is less clear. We report here for the first time that the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zip transcription factor upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) is required for the hypoxic transcriptional response, specifically, for hypoxic activation of HIF2 target genes. We show that inhibiting USF2 activity greatly reduces hypoxic induction of HIF2 target genes in cell lines that have USF2 activity, while inducing USF2 activity in cells lacking USF2 activity restores hypoxic induction of HIF2 target genes. Mechanistically, USF2 activates HIF2 target genes by binding to HIF2 target gene promoters, interacting with HIF2α protein, and recruiting coactivators CBP and p300 to form enhanceosome complexes that contain HIF2α, USF2, CBP, p300, and RNA polymerase II on HIF2 target gene promoters. Functionally, the effect of USF2 knockdown on proliferation, motility, and clonogenic survival of HIF2-dependent tumor cells in vitro is phenocopied by HIF2α knockdown, indicating that USF2 works with HIF2 to activate HIF2 target genes and to drive HIF2-depedent tumorigenesis.

  3. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  4. Results from the fielding of the Bio-surveillance Analysis, Feedback, Evaluation and Response (B-SAFER) system in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Forslund, David; Umland, Edith; Brillman, Judith C; Joyce, Ed; Froman, Philip; Burr, Tom; Judd, Stephen L; Picard, Richard; Wokoun, Doug; Joner, Mike; Sewell, C Mack

    2003-01-01

    Public health authorities need a surveillance system that is sensitive enough to detect a disease outbreak early to enable a proper response. In order to meet this challenge we have deployed a pilot component-based system in Albuquerque, NM as part of the National Biodefense Initiative (BDI). B-SAFER gathers routinely collected data from healthcare institutions to monitor disease events in the community. We describe initial results from the deployment of the system for the past 6 months

  5. Ozone depletion due to the use of chlorofluorocarbon: Government and industry response. (Latest citations from the BioBusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the response of business and government to atmospheric ozone depletion. Voluntary restrictions in the use of chlorofluorocarbons by industry and attempts to develop a substitute are examined. References cite studies of the ozone layer and the effects of aerosols worldwide, and examples of climatic models of ozone depletion. Government sponsored bans on chloroflourocarbons are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Results from Fielding of the Bio-Surveillance Analysis, Feedback, Evaluation and Response (B-SAFER) System in Albuquerque, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Forslund, David; Umland, Edith; Brillman, Judith C.; Joyce, Ed; Froman, Philip; Burr, Tom; Judd, Stephen L.; Picard, Richard; Wokoun, Doug; Joner, Mike; Sewell, C. Mack

    2003-01-01

    Public health authorities need a surveillance system that is sensitive enough to detect a disease outbreak early to enable a proper response. In order to meet this challenge we have deployed a pilot component-based system in Albuquerque, NM as part of the National Biodefense Initiative (BDI). B-SAFER gathers routinely collected data from healthcare institutions to monitor disease events in the community. We describe initial results from the deployment of the system for the past 6 months. PMID:14728347

  7. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  8. Bio-tribology.

    PubMed

    Dowson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    It is now forty six years since the separate topics of friction, lubrication, wear and bearing design were integrated under the title 'Tribology' [Department of Education and Science, Lubrication (Tribology) Education and Research. A Report on the Present Position and Industry's Needs, HMSO, London, 1966]. Significant developments have been reported in many established and new aspects of tribology during this period. The subject has contributed to improved performance of much familiar equipment, such as reciprocating engines, where there have been vast improvements in engine reliability and efficiency. Nano-tribology has been central to remarkable advances in information processing and digital equipment. Shortly after widespread introduction of the term tribology, integration with biology and medicine prompted rapid and extensive interest in the fascinating sub-field now known as Bio-tribology [D. Dowson and V. Wright, Bio-tribology, in The Rheology of Lubricants, ed. T. C. Davenport, Applied Science Publishers, Barking, 1973, pp. 81-88]. An outline will be given of some of the developments in the latter field.

  9. Nanoparticles for the development of improved (bio)sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Briza; Merkoçi, Arben

    2011-02-01

    Nanoparticles serve as fundamental building blocks for nanobiotechnology, especially in several applications in the development of novel (bio)sensing systems. Nanoparticles can be used for modification of the surfaces of (bio)sensing transducers or as optical or electroactive labels to improve different aspects of performance, for example sensitivity, detection limit, multidetection capability, and response stability. Nanoparticles can be integrated into the transducer materials on an individual basis or inside other matrices to ensure the immobilization of recognition biomolecules and/or receptors which are the principal components of the (bio)sensing systems. Incorporation of nanoparticles into optical and electrochemical (bio)sensing systems, including their use in microfluidic based systems has the advantages of enabling the design of robust, easy to use, portable, and cost-effective devices.

  10. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  11. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  12. Use of translucent indium tin oxide to measure stimulatory effects of a passive conductor during field stimulation of rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Knisley, Stephen B; Pollard, Andrew E

    2005-09-01

    Biomathematical models and experiments have indicated that passive extracellular conductors influence field stimulation. Because metallic conductors prevent optical mapping under the conductor, we have evaluated a passive translucent indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film conductor to allow mapping of transmembrane potential (V(m)) and stimulatory current under the conductor. A 1-cm ITO disk was patterned photolithographically and positioned between 0.3-cm(2) mesh shock electrodes on the ventricular epicardium of isolated perfused rabbit hearts stained with 4-{2-[6-(dibutylamino)-2-naphthylenal]ethenyl}-1-(3-sulfopropyl)-, hydroxide, inner salt (di-4-ANEPPS). For a 1-A, 10-ms shock during the action potential plateau, optical maps from fluorescence collected using emission ratiometry (excitation at 488 nm and emissions at 510-570 and >590 nm) indicated that the disk altered V(m) by as much as the height of an action potential. DeltaV(m) became more positive near the edge of the disk, where the ITO conductance gradient was parallel to applied current, and more negative near the opposite edge, where the gradient was not parallel to current. For diastolic shocks, the disk expedited membrane excitation at the sites of positive DeltaV(m) in the heart and in a cardiac model with realistic ITO disk surface and interfacial conductances. Optical maps of ITO transmittance and the model indicated that the disk introduced anodal and cathodal stimulatory current at opposite edges of the disk. Thus ITO allows study of the stimulatory effects of a passive conductor in an electric field.

  13. The stimulatory effect of LXRalpha is blocked by SHP despite the presence of a LXRalpha binding site in the rabbit CYP7A1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Shang, Quan; Pan, Luxing; Saumoy, Monica; Chiang, John Y L; Tint, G Stephen; Salen, Gerald; Xu, Guorong

    2006-05-01

    The transcription of the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) is greatly decreased in cholesterol-fed rabbits. To determine whether the molecular structure of the promoter is responsible for this downregulation, we cloned the rabbit CYP7A1 promoter, identified the binding sites for alpha-fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF) and liver X receptor (LXRalpha), and studied the effects of FTF, LXRalpha, and SHP on its transcription. Adding LXRalpha/retinoid X receptor together with their ligands (L/R) to the promoter/reporter construct transfected into HepG2 cells greatly increased its activity. FTF did not increase promoter activity, nor did it enhance the stimulatory effect of L/R. Mutating the FTF binding site abolished the promoter baseline activity. Increasing amounts of SHP abolished the effect of L/R, and FTF enhanced the ability of SHP to decrease promoter activity below baseline levels. Thus, downregulation of CYP7A1 in cholesterol-fed rabbits is attributable secondarily to the activation of farnesoid X receptor, which increases SHP expression to override the positive effects of LXRalpha. Although FTF is a competent factor for maintaining baseline activity, it does not further enhance and may suppress CYP7A1 transcription.

  14. Stimulatory effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like substances from Solanum malacoxylon and Cestrum diurnum on phosphate transport in chick jejunum.

    PubMed

    Peterlik, M; Wasserman, R H

    1978-10-01

    Extracts of the calcinogenic plants Solanum malocoxylon and Cestrum diurnum stimulate phosphate absorption by the jejunum of vitamin D-deficient chicks, as determined by everted gut sac technique. Their action on cellular pathways of transepithelial phosphate transport is indistinguishable thereby from that of cholecalciferol. Increased net absorption from the lumen was due to enhanced uptake of phosphate from the luminal side, while leakage of tissue phosphate in the opposite direction was apparently unaffected. Steep serosa/mucosa concentration gradients were observed as consequence of enhanced levels of transepithelial phosphate flux in the mucosa-to-serosa direction. With respect to their stimulatory action on phosphate absorption, the calcinogenic plant factors retained their biological activity when phosphate transport was depressed by a high strontium diet. Their action in overcoming the strontium inhibition of phosphate absorption, calcium-binding protein synthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity, was comparable to the effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. On the basis of these biological responses, the action of the plant factors from Solanum malacoxylon and Cestrum diurnum provides further evidence for their close resemblance to the hormonally active sterol.

  15. Immune stimulatory receptor CD40 is required for T-cell suppression and T regulatory cell activation mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ping-Ying; Ma, Ge; Weber, Kaare J; Ozao-Choy, Junko; Wang, George; Yin, Bingjiao; Divino, Celia M; Chen, Shu-Hsia

    2010-01-01

    Immune tolerance to tumors is often associated with accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and an increase in the number of T-regulatory cells (Treg). In tumor-bearing mice, MDSCs can themselves facilitate the generation of tumor-specific Tregs. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of the immune stimulatory receptor CD40 on MDSCs is required to induce T-cell tolerance and Treg accumulation. In an immune reconstitution model, adoptive transfer of Gr-1+CD115+ monocytic MDSCs derived from CD40-deficient mice failed to recapitulate the ability of wild-type MDSCs to induce tolerance and Treg development in vivo. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies phenocopied the effect of CD40 deficiency and also improved the therapeutic efficacy of IL-12 and 4-1BB immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced tumors. Our findings suggest that CD40 is essential not only for MDSC-mediated immune suppression but also for tumor-specific Treg expansion. Blockade of CD40-CD40L interaction between MDSC and Treg may provide a new strategy to ablate tumoral immune suppression and thereby heighten responses to immunotherapy.

  16. Endotoxin free hyaluronan and hyaluronan fragments do not stimulate TNF-α, interleukin-12 or upregulate co-stimulatory molecules in dendritic cells or macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yifei; Arif , Arif; Olsson, Mia; Cali, Valbona; Hardman, Blair; Dosanjh, Manisha; Lauer, Mark; Midura, Ronald J.; Hascall, Vincent C.; Brown, Kelly L.; Johnson, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, has been described as a regulator of tissue inflammation, with hyaluronan fragments reported to stimulate innate immune cells. High molecular mass hyaluronan is normally present in tissues, but upon inflammation lower molecular mass fragments are generated. It is unclear if these hyaluronan fragments induce an inflammatory response or are a consequence of inflammation. In this study, mouse bone marrow derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) were stimulated with various sizes of hyaluronan from different sources, fragmented hyaluronan, hyaluronidases and heavy chain modified-hyaluronan (HA-HC). Key pro-inflammatory molecules, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-12, CCL3, and the co-stimulatory molecules, CD40 and CD86 were measured. Only human umbilical cord hyaluronan, bovine testes and Streptomyces hyaluronlyticus hyaluronidase stimulated macrophages and DCs, however, these reagents were found to be contaminated with endotoxin, which was not fully removed by polymyxin B treatment. In contrast, pharmaceutical grade hyaluronan and hyaluronan fragments failed to stimulate in vitro-derived or ex vivo macrophages and DCs, and did not induce leukocyte recruitment after intratracheal instillation into mouse lungs. Hence, endotoxin-free pharmaceutical grade hyaluronan does not stimulate macrophages and DCs in our inflammatory models. These results emphasize the importance of ensuring hyaluronan preparations are endotoxin free. PMID:27869206

  17. Design and synthesis of lupeol analogues and their glucose uptake stimulatory effect in L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Faheem; Maurya, Chandan Kumar; Dev, Kapil; Arha, Deepti; Rai, Amit Kumar; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar; Maurya, Rakesh

    2014-06-15

    Structure modifications of lupeol at the isopropylene moiety have been described via allylic oxidation using selenium dioxide. The antidiabetic efficacy of lupeol analogues were evaluated in vitro as glucose uptake stimulatory effect in L6 skeletal muscle cells. From all tested compounds, 2, 3, 4b and 6b showed significant stimulation of glucose uptake with respective percent stimulation of 173.1 (p <0.001), 114.1 (p <0.001), 98.3 (p <0.001) and 107.3 (p <0.001) at 10μM concentration. Stimulation of glucose uptake by these compounds is associated with enhanced translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and activation of IRS-1/PI3-K/AKT-dependent signaling pathway in L6 cells. Structure-activity relationship analysis of these analogues demonstrated that the integrity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl and acetyl moieties were important in the retention of glucose uptake stimulatory effect. It is therefore proposed that naturally occurring lupeol and their analogues might reduce blood glucose, at least in part, through stimulating glucose utilization by skeletal muscles.

  18. A peculiar stimulatory effect of acetic and lactic acid on growth and fermentative metabolism of Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Dang, T D T; Vermeulen, A; Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F

    2009-05-01

    Stimulatory or protective effects of organic acids at low concentrations, e.g. acetic and lactic acid, on microorganisms have previously been reported. Especially in case of Zygosaccharomyces bailii, a peculiar growth stimulation by these two acids has recently been noticed. In order to elucidate this interesting phenomenon, growth and fermentative metabolism of Z. bailii was investigated in media with low pH (pH 4.0), high sugar (15% (w/v)) and different acetic and lactic acid concentrations. At both experimental temperatures (7 and 30 degrees C), a growth stimulation in the presence of 2.5% (v/v) lactic acid was observed. Furthermore at 7 degrees C, the yeast exhibited another unusual behaviour as it grew much faster in media containing 1.25% (v/v) acetic acid than in the control (without any acid). Production of fermentative metabolites was also increased together with the enhanced growth at both temperatures. These possible stimulatory effects of acetic and lactic acid should be taken into consideration when the acids are used at low doses for food preservative purpose. Presence of the acids may stimulate Z. bailii growth and fermentative metabolism, particularly at refrigeration temperature, consequently resulting in an earlier spoilage.

  19. There is no magic fruit fly trap: multiple biological factors influence the response of adult Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) individuals to MultiLure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2009-02-01

    Field-cage experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of MultiLure traps (Better World MFG Inc., Fresno, CA) baited with NuLure (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, PA) or BioLure (Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR) in capturing individually marked Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), of both sexes. Experimental treatments involved wild and laboratory-reared flies of varying ages (2-4 and 15-18 d) and dietary histories (sugar only, open fruit, open fruit plus chicken feces, and hydrolyzed protein mixed with sugar). Data were divided into two parts: total captures over a 24-h period and trap visits/landings, entrances into interior of trap ,and effective captures (i.e., drowning in liquid bait or water) over a 5-h detailed observation period (0600-1100 hours). The response to the two baits varied by fly species, gender, physiological state, age, and strain. Importantly, there were several highly significant interactions among these factors, underlining the complex nature of the response. The two baits differed in attractiveness for A. obliqua but not A. ludens. The effect of strain (wild versus laboratory flies) was significant for A. ludens but not A. obliqua. For effect of dietary history, adults of both species, irrespective of sex, were significantly less responsive to both baits when fed on a mixture of protein and sugar when compared with adults fed the other diets. Finally, we confirmed previous observations indicating that McPhail-type traps are quite inefficient. Considering the total 24-h fly tenure in the cage, and independent of bait treatment and fly type (i.e., strain, adult diet, gender and age), of a total of 2,880 A. obliqua and 2,880 A. ludens adults released into the field cages over the entire study (15 replicates), only 564 (19.6%) and 174 (6%) individuals, respectively, were effectively caught. When only considering the 5-h detailed

  20. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  1. Overview of the TAC-BIO sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry; Sickenberger, Richard; De Lucia, Marla; Briles, John; Poldmae, Aime; Sickenberger, David

    2005-05-01

    In light of the current state of detection technologies designed to meet the current threat from biological agents, the need for a low-cost and lightweight sensor is clear. Such a sensor based on optical detection, with real time responses and no consumables, is possible. Devices arising from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) are the enabling technology. These sources are capable of emitting UV wavelengths known to excite fluorescence from biological agent particles while costing a few dollars apiece and consuming low power. These devices are exploited in the TAC-Bio Sensor. A unique optical design is used to collect the usable portion of the LED emission and focus it into the probing region of the sensor. To compensate for the low UV power density relative to UV lasers, the TAC-Bio utilizes a unique opposed flow configuration to increase the interaction between particles and the UV beam. The current TAC-Bio sensor testbed is capable of detecting fluorescence Bacillus globigii (BG, an anthrax simulant) spore agglomerates down to 5 microns in diameter. Ongoing work is focusing on increasing signal to noise so that smaller particles, possibly single spores, can be detected, as well as on including additional data channels, such as light scattering, to increase selectivity of the sensor.

  2. BioSentinel: Developing a Space Radiation Biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santa Maria, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    BioSentinel is an autonomous fully self-contained science mission that will conduct the first study of the biological response to space radiation outside low Earth orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. The 4-unit (4U) BioSentinel biosensor system, is housed within a 6-Unit (6U) spacecraft, and uses yeast cells in multiple independent microfluidic cards to detect and measure DNA damage that occurs in response to ambient space radiation. Cell growth and metabolic activity will be measured using a 3-color LED detection system and a metabolic indicator dye with a dedicated thermal control system per fluidic card.

  3. Characterization of glycolytic enzymes--rAldolase and rEnolase of Leishmania donovani, identified as Th1 stimulatory proteins, for their immunogenicity and immunoprophylactic efficacies against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Reema; Kumar, Vikash; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Tripathi, Chandradev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Mitra, Kalyan; Sundar, Shyam; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Dube, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Th1 immune responses play an important role in controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) hence, Leishmania proteins stimulating T-cell responses in host, are thought to be good vaccine targets. Search of such antigens eliciting cellular responses in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients and hamsters led to the identification of two enzymes of glycolytic pathway in the soluble lysate of a clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani--Enolase (LdEno) and aldolase (LdAld) as potential Th1 stimulatory proteins. The present study deals with the molecular and immunological characterizations of LdEno and LdAld. The successfully cloned and purified recombinant proteins displayed strong ability to proliferate lymphocytes of cured hamsters' along with significant nitric-oxide production and generation of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) from stimulated PBMCs of cured/endemic VL patients. Assessment of their prophylactic potentials revealed ∼ 90% decrease in parasitic burden in rLdEno vaccinated hamsters against Leishmania challenge, strongly supported by an increase in mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12 transcripts along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-β, IL-4 and IL-10. However, animals vaccinated with rLdAld showed comparatively lesser prophylactic efficacy (∼ 65%) with inferior immunological response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of both the proteins was done using computational approach. Additionally, in-silico 3-D modelling of the proteins was done in order to explore the possibility of exploiting them as potential drug targets. The comparative molecular and immunological characterizations strongly suggest rLdEno as potential vaccine candidate against VL and supports the notion of its being effective T-cell stimulatory protein.

  4. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming…

  5. Moisture variation associated with water input and evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-Bin; Liu, Hong-Tao; Zheng, Guo-Di; Yang, Qi-Wei

    2012-08-01

    The variation of moisture during sewage sludge bio-drying was investigated. In situ measurements were conducted to monitor the bulk moisture and water vapor, while the moisture content, water generation, water evaporation and aeration water input of the bio-drying bulk were calculated based on the water mass balance. The moisture in the sewage sludge bio-drying material decreased from 66% to 54% in response to control technology for bio-drying. During the temperature increasing and thermophilic phases of sewage sludge bio-drying, the moisture content, water generation and water evaporation of the bulk initially increased and then decreased. The peak water generation and evaporation occurred during the thermophilic phase. During the bio-drying, water evaporation was much greater than water generation, and aeration facilitated the water evaporation.

  6. Functional tooth restoration by next-generation bio-hybrid implant as a bio-hybrid artificial organ replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Inoue, Kaoru; Nakajima, Kei; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Isobe, Tomohide; Sugawara, Ayaka; Ogawa, Miho; Tanaka, Chie; Saito, Masahiro; Kasugai, Shohei; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Inoue, Takashi; Tezuka, Katsunari; Kuboki, Takuo; Yamaguchi, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi

    2014-08-13

    Bio-hybrid artificial organs are an attractive concept to restore organ function through precise biological cooperation with surrounding tissues in vivo. However, in bio-hybrid artificial organs, an artificial organ with fibrous connective tissues, including muscles, tendons and ligaments, has not been developed. Here, we have enveloped with embryonic dental follicle tissue around a HA-coated dental implant, and transplanted into the lower first molar region of a murine tooth-loss model. We successfully developed a novel fibrous connected tooth implant using a HA-coated dental implant and dental follicle stem cells as a bio-hybrid organ. This bio-hybrid implant restored physiological functions, including bone remodelling, regeneration of severe bone-defect and responsiveness to noxious stimuli, through regeneration with periodontal tissues, such as periodontal ligament and cementum. Thus, this study represents the potential for a next-generation bio-hybrid implant for tooth loss as a future bio-hybrid artificial organ replacement therapy.

  7. Bio-regenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.; Wydeven, Theodore, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The basis for and the potential uses of bio-regenerative life support are examined. Bio-regenerative life support systems are an alternative to physical-chemical regeneration techniques for use when resupply of a crew in space is expensive, or when the logistics of resupply are difficult. Many of the scientific studies required for bio-regenerative life support systems have been completed and preliminary development of some components will begin within the next 12 to 18 months. The focus of the work that lies ahead will be efficient power and mass use, long-term system stability, component function, systems integration, and extensive testing in the space environment. Because of the advantages of bio-regeneration, it is anticipated that human life support for long-term space missions will evolve to include increasingly large amounts of biologically-based regeneration.

  8. Phorbol ester and B cell-stimulatory factor synergize to induce B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to simultaneous immunoglobulin secretion and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M; Matsson, P; Rosén, A; Sundström, C; Tötterman, T H; Nilsson, K

    1988-11-01

    This paper discusses the response of two B cell-type chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) clones, 173 and 183, to the phorbol ester TPA combined with a B cell-stimulatory factor (BSF) derived from a T helper cell hybridoma (MP6). Previous studies with 173 and 183 cells have consistently shown that TPA alone induces differentiation but no proliferation. However, when the two clones were exposed to TPA plus BSF-MP6, not only differentiation but also DNA synthesis was observed. Compared with TPA exposure alone, the fraction of cells with induced lymphoblastoid-plasmacytoid morphology increased and Ig secretion was enhanced. By a 1-hr TPA pulse followed by BSF-MP6, the DNA synthesis was further augmented, but less maturation was observed. T cell and monocyte removal, using cell sorting, showed that the DNA synthesis induced was independent of these cell types, also under serum-free conditions. Quantitation of several cell cycle-associated surface Ags showed that the 4F2, Ba, Bac-1, and cD23 Ags increased while the CD37 decreased in expression upon addition of BSF-MP6. We conclude that B-CLLs are inducible by TPA and BSF-MP6 not only to differentiation, but also to DNA synthesis even under serum-free conditions in vitro. The results furthermore suggest that the very low proliferation activity in B-CLL tumors in vivo may reflect a relative deficiency of proper growth and differentiation factors or a subnormal response of B-CLL cells to such factors.

  9. The stimulatory effect of clonidine through imidazoline receptors on locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurones is mediated by excitatory amino acids and modulated by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ortega, J A; Ugedo, L; Pineda, J; García-Sevilla, J A

    1995-08-01

    Clonidine and other imidazoline/oxazoline drugs, such as cirazoline and rilmenidine, have been shown to stimulate the activity of noradrenergic neurones in the locus coeruleus (NA-LC) by an alpha 2-adrenoceptor-independent mechanism through the activation of I-imidazoline receptors. The endogenous modulation of the stimulatory effect of clonidine on NA-LC neurones was further investigated after inactivation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors with N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ). In EEDQ-pretreated rats (6 mg/kg, i.p., 6 h), clonidine caused a rapid and dose-dependent (320-5120 micrograms/kg, i.v.) increase in the firing rate of NA-LC neurones (ED50 = 809 micrograms/kg, Emax = 90%). The stimulatory effect of clonidine on NA-LC neurones was completely blocked by pretreatment of rats with the excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (1-3 mumol in 10-30 microliters, i.c.v., 2-5 min before clonidine). In contrast, the stimulatory effect of clonidine on NA-LC neurones was potentiated by pretreatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg, s.c., 18 h) (Emax increased by 63%). Pretreatment with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (250 mg/kg, i.p., 24 h) did not alter the stimulatory effect of clonidine, but pretreatment with p-chloro-phenylalanine (400 mg/kg, i.p., 24 h) markedly enhanced the stimulatory effect of clonidine on NA-LC neurones (Emax increased by 139%). The present results indicate that the imidazoline receptor-mediated stimulatory effect of clonidine on NA-LC neurones is an indirect effect dependent on an excitatory amino acid pathway and modulated by an inhibitory serotonin mechanism.

  10. Innate stimulatory capacity of high molecular weight transition metals Au (gold) and Hg (mercury).

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Alsalem, Inás W A; Bontkes, Hetty J; Verstege, Marleen I; Gibbs, Sue; von Blomberg, B M E; Scheper, Rik J; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2015-03-01

    Nickel, cobalt and palladium ions can induce an innate immune response by triggering Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 which is present on dendritic cells (DC). Here we studied mechanisms of action for DC immunotoxicity to gold and mercury. Next to gold (Na3Au (S2O3)2⋅2H2O) and mercury (HgCl2), nickel (NiCl2) was included as a positive control. MoDC activation was assessed by release of the pro-inflammatory mediator IL-8. Also PBMC were studied, and THP-1 cells were used as a substitution for DC for evaluation of cytokines and chemokines, as well as phenotypic, alterations in response to gold and mercury. Our results showed that both Na3Au (S2O3)2⋅2H2O and HgCl2 induce substantial release of IL-8, but not IL-6, CCL2 or IL-10, from MoDc, PBMC, or THP-1 cells. Also gold and, to a lesser extent mercury, caused modest dendritic cell maturation as detected by increased membrane expression of CD40 and CD80. Both metals thus show innate immune response capacities, although to a lower extent than reported earlier for NiCl2, CoCl2 and Na2 [PdCl4]. Importantly, the gold-induced response could be ascribed to TLR3 rather than TLR4 triggering, whereas the nature of the innate mercury response remains to be clarified. In conclusion both gold and mercury can induce innate immune responses, which for gold could be ascribed to TLR3 dependent signalling. These responses are likely to contribute to adaptive immune responses to these metals, as reflected by skin and mucosal allergies.

  11. The use of stem cells in biomedical research. Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) position statement.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    On March 22, 1999, Carl B. Feldbaum, President of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), submitted comments to the National Bioethics Advisory Committee (NBAC) in response to their request for comments on stem cell research. In the statement submitted to Harold Shapiro, PhD (Chair, NBAC), Mr. Feldbaum made clear that BIO members want to ensure that the promise of new therapies and cures from research using stem cells is realized in a responsible and ethical way. In addition, all BIO members are committed to ensuring that every avenue of promising research can be responsibly explored to improve the health of individuals living with currently intractable diseases.

  12. Stimulatory Effects of Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum cassia) during the Initiation Stage of 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Gil; Siaw, Joanna A.; Kang, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has an anti-diabetic effect by possibly increasing the lipid storage capacity of white adipocytes; however, this effect remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine which stage of adipogenesis is critical for the stimulatory effect of cinnamon in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 cells. Cells were treated with cinnamon extract during three different stages of adipogenesis. We found that genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis were enhanced when cinnamon extract was administered during the initiation stage of differentiation but not when administered during the preadipocyte and post stages of differentiation. At the same time, genes that were involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation were unexpectedly upregulated. Taken together, cinnamon may boost lipid storage in white adipocytes and increase the fatty acid oxidation capacity throughout the initiation stage of differentiation, which may be beneficial for the prevention of obesity-induced type II diabetes. PMID:28231178

  13. Regulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover in brain synaptoneurosomes: stimulatory effects of agents that enhance influx of sodium ions.

    PubMed Central

    Gusovsky, F; Hollingsworth, E B; Daly, J W

    1986-01-01

    Norepinephrine and carbamoylcholine stimulate accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates from [3H]inositol-labeled guinea pig cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes through interaction with alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors, respectively. In addition to such agonist, a variety of natural products that affect voltage-dependent sodium channels can markedly stimulate accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. These include alkaloids that activate sodium channels, such as batrachotoxin, veratridine, and aconitine; peptide toxins that alter activation or slow inactivation of sodium channels, such as various scorpion toxins from Leiurus, Centruroides, and Tityus species; and agents that cause repetitive firing of sodium channel-dependent action potentials, such as pyrethroids and pumiliotoxin B. Ouabain, and agent that will increase accumulation of internal sodium by inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase, also stimulates formation of [3H]inositol phosphates, as does monensin, a sodium ionophore. Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin, specific blockers of voltage-dependent sodium channels, prevent or reduce the stimulatory effects of sodium channel agents and ouabain on phosphatidylinositol turnover, while having lesser or no effect, respectively, on receptor-mediated or monensin-mediated stimulation. Removal of extracellular sodium ions markedly reduces stimulatory effects of sodium channel agents, while removal of extracellular calcium ions with EGTA blocks both receptor-mediated and sodium channel agent-mediated phosphatidylinositol turnover. The results provide evidence for a hitherto unsuspected messenger role for sodium ions in excitable tissue, whereby neuronal activity and the resultant influx of sodium will cause activation of phospholipase systems involved in hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols, thereby generating two second messengers, the inositol phosphates, which mobilize calcium from internal stores, and the diacylglycerols, which activate protein kinase C. PMID:2422664

  14. Assessing the Need for an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    4-H livestock projects present disease transmission risks that can be reduced by the use of bio-security practices. The responsibility of teaching bio-security to youth belongs primarily to volunteer leaders, who may not be aware of the importance of these practices. A needs assessment for an online educational module about bio-security revealed…

  15. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  16. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  17. Bio-oil Stabilization by Hydrogenation over Reduced Metal Catalysts at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huamin; Lee, Suh-Jane; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-30

    Biomass fast pyrolysis integrated with bio-oil upgrading represents a very attractive approach for converting biomass to hydrocarbon transportation fuels. However, the thermal and chemical instability of bio-oils presents significant problems when they are being upgraded, and development of effective approaches for stabilizing bio-oils is critical to the success of the technology. Catalytic hydrogenation to remove reactive species in bio-oil has been considered as one of the most efficient ways to stabilize bio-oil. This paper provides a fundamental understanding of hydrogenation of actual bio-oils over a Ru/TiO2 catalyst under conditions relevant to practical bio-oil hydrotreating processes. Bio-oil feed stocks, bio-oils hydrogenated to different extents, and catalysts have been characterized to provide insights into the chemical and physical properties of these samples and to understand the correlation of the properties with the composition of the bio-oil and catalysts. The results indicated hydrogenation of various components of the bio-oil, including sugars, aldehydes, ketones, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids, over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst and 120 to 160oC. Hydrogenation of these species significantly changed the chemical and physical properties of the bio-oil and overall improved its thermal stability, especially by reducing the carbonyl content, which represented the content of the most reactive species (i.e., sugar, aldehydes, and ketones). The change of content of each component in response to increasing hydrogen additions suggests the following bio-oil hydrogenation reaction sequence: sugar conversion to sugar alcohols, followed by ketone and aldehyde conversion to alcohols, followed by alkene and aromatic hydrogenation, and then followed by carboxylic acid hydrogenation to alcohols. Hydrogenation of bio-oil samples with different sulfur contents or inorganic material contents suggested that sulfur poisoning of the reduced Ru metal catalysts was

  18. Bio-terrorism, "dirty bombs," hospitals, and security issues.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jesse C

    2004-01-01

    In the event of a bio-terrorism event, the role of the hospital security department will be critical if the disaster plans of health care providers are to be successfully carried out. It is imperative, says the author, that security providers be involved in every step of disaster and emergency response planning.

  19. mTOR and GSK-3 shape the CD4+ T-cell stimulatory and differentiation capacity of myeloid DCs after exposure to LPS.

    PubMed

    Turnquist, Heth R; Cardinal, Jon; Macedo, Camila; Rosborough, Brian R; Sumpter, Tina L; Geller, David A; Metes, Diana; Thomson, Angus W

    2010-06-10

    Prolonged inhibition of the kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), during myeloid dendritic cell (DC) generation confers resistance to maturation. Recently, however, mTOR inhibition immediately before Toll-like receptor ligation has been found to exert proinflammatory effects on myeloid cells, notably enhanced IL-12p40/p70 production. We show, for the first time, that mouse or human DCs generated under mTOR inhibition exhibit markedly enhanced IL-12p70 production after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, despite impaired costimulatory molecule expression and poor T-cell stimulatory ability. Consistent with this finding, we reveal that increased IL-12p40 production occurs predominantly in CD86(lo) immature DCs. High IL-12p40/p70 production by CD86(lo) DC resulted from failed down-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity and could not be ascribed to enhanced Akt function. Despite high IL-12p70 secretion, rapamycin-conditioned, LPS-stimulated DCs remained poor T-cell stimulators, failing to enhance allogeneic Th1 cell responses. We also report that inhibition of GSK-3 impedes the ability of LPS-stimulated DCs to induce forkhead box p3 in CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, as does the absence of IL-12p40/p70. Thus, GSK-3 activity in DC is regulated via signaling linked to mTOR and modulates their capacity both to produce IL-12p40/p70 and induce forkhead box p3 in CD4(+) T cells under inflammatory conditions.

  20. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to accurately

  1. Adiposity induces lethal cytokine storm after systemic administration of stimulatory immunotherapy regimens in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Mirsoian, Annie; Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Chen, Mingyi; Pai, Chien-Chun Steven; Maverakis, Emanuel; Spencer, Richard G.; Fishbein, Kenneth W.; Siddiqui, Sana; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart; Hesdorffer, Charles; Ferrucci, Luigi; Longo, Dan L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a contributing factor in cancer occurrence. We recently demonstrated that systemic immunotherapy (IT) administration in aged, but not young, mice resulted in induction of rapid and lethal cytokine storm. We found that aging was accompanied by increases in visceral fat similar to that seen in young obese (ob/ob or diet-induced obese [DIO]) mice. Yet, the effects of aging and obesity on inflammatory responses to immunotherapeutics are not well defined. We determine the effects of adiposity on systemic IT tolerance in aged compared with young obese mice. Both young ob/ob- and DIO-generated proinflammatory cytokine levels and organ pathologies are comparable to those in aged ad libitum mice after IT, culminating in lethality. Young obese mice exhibited greater ratios of M1/M2 macrophages within the peritoneal and visceral adipose tissues and higher percentages of TNF+ macrophages in response to αCD40/IL-2 as compared with young lean mice. Macrophage depletion or TNF blockade in conjunction with αCD40/IL-2 prevented cytokine storms in young obese mice and protected from lethality. Calorie-restricted aged mice contain less visceral fat and displayed reduced cytokine levels, protection from organ pathology, and protection from lethality upon αCD40/IL-2 administration. Our data demonstrate that adiposity is a critical factor in the age-associated pathological responses to systemic anti-cancer IT. PMID:25366964

  2. Stimulatory effect of Coca-Cola on gastroduodenal HCO3- secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Y; Aihara, E; Ise, F; Kita, K; Takeuchi, K

    2007-10-01

    We examined the effect of various carbonated beverages, especially Coca-Cola, on the HCO3- secretion in the rat stomach and duodenum. Under urethane anaesthesia, a chambered stomach or a proximal duodenal loop was perfused with saline, and HCO3- secretion was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method and by adding 2 mM HCl. The amount of CO2 contained in these beverages was about 4-7 g/mL. Coca-Cola topically applied to the mucosa for 10 min significantly increased the HCO3- secretion in both the stomach and the duodenum. The HCO3- response in the duodenum was totally abolished by indomethacin and also partially inhibited by acetazolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase. Likewise, the response in the stomach was also markedly inhibited by either acetazolamide or indomethacin. The mucosal application of Coca-Cola increased the PGE2 contents in both the stomach and the duodenum. Other carbonated beverages, such as sparkling water, Fanta Grape or cider, also increased the HCO3- secretion in these tissues. These results suggest that Coca-Cola induces HCO3- secretion in both the stomach and the duodenum, and these responses may be attributable to both the intracellular supply of HCO3- generated via carbonic anhydrase, and endogenous PGs, probably related to the acidic pH of the solution.

  3. Bio-nanopatterning of Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Bio-nanopatterning of surfaces is a very active interdisciplinary field of research at the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology. Precise patterning of biomolecules on surfaces with nanometre resolution has great potential in many medical and biological applications ranging from molecular diagnostics to advanced platforms for fundamental studies of molecular and cell biology. Bio-nanopatterning technology has advanced at a rapid pace in the last few years with a variety of patterning methodologies being developed for immobilising biomolecules such as DNA, peptides, proteins and viruses at the nanoscale on a broad range of substrates. In this review, the status of research and development are described, with particular focus on the recent advances on the use of nanolithographic techniques as tools for biomolecule immobilisation at the nanoscale. Present strengths and weaknesses, as well future challenges on the different nanolithographic bio-nanopatterning approaches are discussed. PMID:21794192

  4. Functional tooth restoration by allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell-based bio-root regeneration in swine.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fulan; Song, Tieli; Ding, Gang; Xu, Junji; Liu, Yi; Liu, Dayong; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Shi, Songtao; Wang, Songlin

    2013-06-15

    Our previous proof-of-concept study showed the feasibility of regenerating the dental stem cell-based bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) structure in a large animal model. Here, we used allogeneic dental mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate bio-root, and then installed a crown on the bio-root to restore tooth function. A root shape hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate scaffold containing dental pulp stem cells was covered by a Vc-induced periodontal ligament stem cell sheet and implanted into a newly generated jaw bone implant socket. Six months after implantation, a prefabricated porcelain crown was cemented to the implant and subjected to tooth function. Clinical, radiological, histological, ultrastructural, systemic immunological evaluations and mechanical properties were analyzed for dynamic changes in the bio-root structure. The regenerated bio-root exhibited characteristics of a normal tooth after 6 months of use, including dentinal tubule-like and functional periodontal ligament-like structures. No immunological response to the bio-roots was observed. We developed a standard stem cell procedure for bio-root regeneration to restore adult tooth function. This study is the first to successfully regenerate a functional bio-root structure for artificial crown restoration by using allogeneic dental stem cells and Vc-induced cell sheet, and assess the recipient immune response in a preclinical model.

  5. Determination of Carbonyl Functional Groups in Bio-oils by Potentiometric Titration: The Faix Method

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Stuart; Ferrell, Jack R.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonyl compounds present in bio-oils are known to be responsible for bio-oil property changes upon storage and during upgrading. Specifically, carbonyls cause an increase in viscosity (often referred to as 'aging') during storage of bio-oils. As such, carbonyl content has previously been used as a method of tracking bio-oil aging and condensation reactions with less variability than viscosity measurements. Additionally, carbonyls are also responsible for coke formation in bio-oil upgrading processes. Given the importance of carbonyls in bio-oils, accurate analytical methods for their quantification are very important for the bio-oil community. Potentiometric titration methods based on carbonyl oximation have long been used for the determination of carbonyl content in pyrolysis bio-oils. Here, we present a modification of the traditional carbonyl oximation procedures that results in less reaction time, smaller sample size, higher precision, and more accurate carbonyl determinations. While traditional carbonyl oximation methods occur at room temperature, the Faix method presented here occurs at an elevated temperature of 80 degrees C.

  6. Determination of Carbonyl Functional Groups in Bio-oils by Potentiometric Titration: The Faix Method.

    PubMed

    Black, Stuart; Ferrell, Jack R

    2017-02-07

    Carbonyl compounds present in bio-oils are known to be responsible for bio-oil property changes upon storage and during upgrading. Specifically, carbonyls cause an increase in viscosity (often referred to as 'aging') during storage of bio-oils. As such, carbonyl content has previously been used as a method of tracking bio-oil aging and condensation reactions with less variability than viscosity measurements. Additionally, carbonyls are also responsible for coke formation in bio-oil upgrading processes. Given the importance of carbonyls in bio-oils, accurate analytical methods for their quantification are very important for the bio-oil community. Potentiometric titration methods based on carbonyl oximation have long been used for the determination of carbonyl content in pyrolysis bio-oils. Here, we present a modification of the traditional carbonyl oximation procedures that results in less reaction time, smaller sample size, higher precision, and more accurate carbonyl determinations. While traditional carbonyl oximation methods occur at room temperature, the Faix method presented here occurs at an elevated temperature of 80 °C.

  7. S-Layer Protein Mediates the Stimulatory Effect of Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 on Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Taverniti, Valentina; Stuknyte, Milda; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; De Noni, Ivano; Scabiosi, Christian; Cordova, Zuzet Martinez; Junttila, Ilkka; Hämäläinen, Sanna; Turpeinen, Hannu; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti; Pesu, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The ability to positively affect host health through the modulation of the immune response is a feature of increasing importance in measuring the probiotic potential of a bacterial strain. However, the identities of the bacterial cell components involved in cross talk with immune cells remain elusive. In this study, we characterized the dairy strain Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 and its surface-layer protein (SlpA) using in vitro and ex vivo analyses. We found that MIMLh5 and SlpA exert anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the activation of NF-κB on the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line. On the contrary, MIMLh5 and SlpA act as stimulators of the innate immune system by triggering the expression of proinflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor alpha and COX-2 in the human macrophage cell line U937 via recognition through Toll-like receptor 2. In the same experiments, SlpA protein did not affect the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. A similar response was observed following stimulation of macrophages isolated from mouse bone marrow or the peritoneal cavity. These results suggest that SlpA plays a major role in mediating bacterial immune-stimulating activity, which could help to induce the host's defenses against and responses toward infections. This study supports the concept that the viability of bacterial cells is not always essential to exert immunomodulatory effects, thus permitting the development of safer therapies for the treatment of specific diseases according to a paraprobiotic intervention. PMID:23220964

  8. BioAir: Bio-Inspired Airborne Infrastructure Reconfiguration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    in hostile or sensor deprived environments, maintaining radio contact with a base station would increase the efficiency of coordinating the...task for many commercial and military applications. For example when troops are deployed in hostile or sensor deprived environments, maintaining radio...possibly heterogeneous sensors distributed amongst all nodes in the network to form a distributed sensor network. BioAIR performs collaborative

  9. Stimulatory Effect of Insulin on 5α-Reductase Type 1 (SRD5A1) Expression through an Akt-Dependent Pathway in Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kayampilly, Pradeep P.; Wanamaker, Brett L.; Stewart, James A.; Wagner, Carrie L.; Menon, K. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated levels of 5α-reduced androgens have been shown to be associated with hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia, the leading causes of ovulatory dysfunction in women. 5α-Dihydrotestosterone reduces ovarian granulosa cell proliferation by inhibiting FSH-mediated mitogenic signaling pathways. The present study examined the effect of insulin on 5α-reductase, the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens to their 5α-derivatives. Granulosa cells isolated from immature rat ovaries were cultured in serum-free, phenol red-free DMEM-F12 media and treated with different doses of insulin (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 μg/ml) for different time intervals up to 12 h. The expression of 5α-reductase type 1 mRNA, the predominant isoform found in granulosa cells, showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in response to the insulin treatment up to 12 h compared with control. The catalytic activity of 5α-reductase enzyme was also stimulated in a dose-depended manner (P < 0.05). Inhibiting the Akt-dependent signaling pathway abolished the insulin-mediated increase in 5α-reductase mRNA expression, whereas inhibition of the ERK-dependent pathway had no effect. The dose-dependent increase in 5α-reductase mRNA expression as well as catalytic activity seen in response to insulin treatment was also demonstrated in the human granulosa cell line (KGN). In addition to increased mRNA expression, a dose-dependent increase in 5α-reductase protein expression in response to insulin was also seen in KGN cells, which corroborated well with that of mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated levels of 5α-reduced androgens seen in hyperinsulinemic conditions might be explained on the basis of a stimulatory effect of insulin on 5α-reductase in granulosa cells. The elevated levels of these metabolites, in turn, might adversely affect growth and proliferation of granulosa cells, thereby impairing follicle growth and ovulation. PMID:20810561

  10. Stimulatory effect of dopamine on acid secretion from the isolated rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L H; Cheng, J T

    1995-01-01

    The effect of dopamine (DA) on acid secretion was studied using the everted preparation of isolated rat stomachs. DA concentrations, measured by HPLC-ECD in the rumen, corpus and antrum were 1.06 nmol/mg protein, 0.49 nmol/mg protein and 2.92 nmol/mg protein, respectively. DA stimulated acid secretion at a concentration of 10 nM and elicited the maximum response at 10 microM, which was at a level approximately 1.56-fold that of the spontaneous secretion but only about half that of secretion induced by histamine at a concentration of 0.3 mM. The concentration-dependent stimulation by DA was antagonized by octopamine and SCH 23390. Failure of proglumide and cimetidine to affect this stimulation ruled out the participation of histamine and/or gastrin. Scopolamine and tetrodotoxin completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of DA but inhibited only partially the response induced by high concentrations of DA. The results obtained indicate that DA induces acid secretion via activation of the dopamine D1 receptor, located on the cholinergic neurons and on some nonneuronal cells, in the rat stomach.

  11. Uridine from Pleurotus giganteus and Its Neurite Outgrowth Stimulatory Effects with Underlying Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to neuronal cell death and impairment of neurite outgrowth. An edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus was found to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro but the chemical constituents and the underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The chemical constituents of P. giganteus (linoleic acid, oleic acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, succinic acid, benzoic acid, and uridine) were tested for neurite outgrowth activity. Uridine (100 μM) was found to increase the percentage of neurite-bearing cells of differentiating neuroblastoma (N2a) cells by 43.1 ± 0.5%, which was 1.8-fold higher than NGF (50 ng/mL)-treated cells. Uridine which was present in P. giganteus (1.80 ± 0.03 g/100g mushroom extract) increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs) and protein kinase B (Akt). Further, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was also increased. MEK/ERK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR further induced phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP43); all of which promoted neurite outgrowth of N2a cells. This study demonstrated that P. giganteus may enhance neurite outgrowth and one of the key bioactive molecules responsible for neurite outgrowth is uridine.

  12. Uridine from Pleurotus giganteus and Its Neurite Outgrowth Stimulatory Effects with Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to neuronal cell death and impairment of neurite outgrowth. An edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus was found to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro but the chemical constituents and the underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The chemical constituents of P. giganteus (linoleic acid, oleic acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, succinic acid, benzoic acid, and uridine) were tested for neurite outgrowth activity. Uridine (100 μM) was found to increase the percentage of neurite-bearing cells of differentiating neuroblastoma (N2a) cells by 43.1±0.5%, which was 1.8-fold higher than NGF (50 ng/mL)-treated cells. Uridine which was present in P. giganteus (1.80±0.03 g/100g mushroom extract) increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs) and protein kinase B (Akt). Further, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was also increased. MEK/ERK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR further induced phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP43); all of which promoted neurite outgrowth of N2a cells. This study demonstrated that P. giganteus may enhance neurite outgrowth and one of the key bioactive molecules responsible for neurite outgrowth is uridine. PMID:26565787

  13. Strong stimulation of recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli by combining stimulatory control elements in an expression cassette

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The XylS/Pm expression system has been used to produce recombinant proteins at industrial levels in Escherichia coli. Activation of transcription from the Pm promoter takes place in the presence of benzoic acid or derivatives of it. Previous mutagenesis studies resulted in identification of several variants of the expression control elements xylS (X), Pm (P) and the 5'-untranslated region (U) that individually gave rise to strongly stimulated expression. The goal of this study was to test if combination of such stimulatory mutations in the same expression vectors would lead to further increase of expression levels. Results We combined X, P and U variants that were originally identified due to their ability to strongly stimulate expression of the reporter gene bla (resistance to penicillin). Combination of optimized elements stimulated bla expression up to 75-fold (X, P and U combined) relative to the wild-type system, while accumulated transcript levels increased about 50-fold. This is much more than for the elements individually. We also tested combination of the variant elements on two other and unrelated genes, celB (encoding phosphoglucomutase) and the human growth factor gene gm-csf. Protein production from these genes is much more efficient than from bla in the wild-type system, but expression was still significantly stimulated by the combination of X, P and U variants, although not to the same extent as for bla. We also integrated a single copy of the expression cassette with each gene into the E. coli chromosome and found that the expression level from this single copy was higher for bla than for the wild-type plasmid system, while it was lower for celB and gm-csf. Conclusion Our results show that combination of stimulatory expression control elements can be used to further increase production of different proteins in E. coli. For one reporter gene (bla) this allowed for more protein production from a single gene copy integrated on the chromosome

  14. Does orchiectomy enhance the immune-stimulatory effects of melatonin during experimental Chagas' disease?

    PubMed

    Santello, Fabricia Helena; Caetano, Leony Cristina; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Brazão, Vânia; Caetano, Luana Naiara; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2012-10-01

    Melatonin has been reported to play a fundamental role in T-cell immunoregulation. Control of Trypanosoma cruzi parasitism during the acute phase of infection is considered to be critically dependent on direct macrophage activation by cytokines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of exogenous melatonin treatment and the influences exerted by sexual hormones during the acute phase of the experimental Chagas' disease in rats. With melatonin treatment, orchiectomized animals (CMOR and IMOR) displayed the highest concentrations of IFN-γ and TNF-α. On the 7th day post-infection, untreated and treated orchiectomized animals (IOR and IMOR) showed an enhanced number of peritoneal macrophages. Nitric oxide levels were also increased in untreated and treated orchiectomized (IOR and IMOR) when compared to the other groups, with or without LPS. Our data suggest that melatonin therapy associated with orchiectomy induced a stimulating effect on the immune response to the parasite.

  15. BIO: an alternative to RIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuroglu, Bahri; Oktug, Sema

    2001-07-01

    RED (Random Early Detection) is the most popular active queue management algorithm, although it has some weaknesses. Recently, another active queue management algorithm, BLUE, was proposed and shown that it is more successful in controlling the queue length when high number of flows are active on ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) capable networks. In this paper, RED and BLUE algorithms are evaluated for different levels of RTTs, with/without ECN support. It is shown that BLUE on ECN incapable networks is not as successful as on ECN capable networks. Differentiated Services architecture suggests that RIO (Red with In and Out) style queue management algorithms are to be used on each AF (Assured Forwarding) queue to offer different levels of services for different priorities at each AF class. Inspired of BLUE's success over RED on ECN capable networks, we developed a simple alternative to RIO, BIO (BLUE with In and Out). BIO, which runs two different BLUE algorithms for in and out packets, was expected to achieve lower loss rates while maximizing link utilization for high number of active flows on AF queues. However, due to the self-configuring architecture of the algorithm, it is observed that BIO marks packets too aggressively and degrades utilization. In this paper, the properties of BIO are also explained and the results obtained are justified.

  16. Joint BioEnergy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay; Simmons, Blake; Tartaglino, Virginia; Baidoo, Edward; Kothari, Ankita

    2015-06-15

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center dedicated to developing advanced biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass that can replace gasoline, diesel and jet fuels.

  17. Joint BioEnergy Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Keasling, Jay; Simmons, Blake; Tartaglino, Virginia; Baidoo, Edward; Kothari, Ankita

    2016-07-12

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center dedicated to developing advanced biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass that can replace gasoline, diesel and jet fuels.

  18. BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S.; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia; Matos, Sérgio; Santos, André; Campos, David; Oliveira, José Luís; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chang, Yung-Chun; Su, Yu-Chen; Chu, Chun-Han; Chen, Chien Chin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H.; Vijay-Shanker, K.; Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kwon, Dongseop; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike; Wilbur, W. John; Comeau, Donald C.

    2016-01-01

    BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein–protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators’ feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining. Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/ PMID:27589962

  19. Stimulatory effect of ethanol on libertellenone H biosynthesis by Arctic fungus Eutypella sp. D-1.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chu; Xu, Ning; Gao, Yanyun; Sun, Xiaoyue; Yin, Ying; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2016-02-01

    Libertellenone H (1) was a promising antitumor diterpenoid isolated from Arctic fungus Eutypella sp. D-1, however, its production was very limited. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol on cell growth and libertellenone H production. The mycelium in ethanol-feeding cultures was fragmented and dispersed, and the titer of libertellenone H was remarkably increased to 4.88 mg l(-1) in an optimal feeding manner, which was 16.4-fold higher than the control group. To provide an insight into the cell response to ethanol, genes critical to the libertellenone H biosynthesis were successfully cloned and their transcription levels were determined. The results suggested that the gene transcription levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaric acyl coenzyme A reductase and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase were up-regulated by ethanol stimulation. The results from this study were helpful for further understanding of the ethanol function on diterpenes biosynthesis as well as developing more effective strategies for over-production of these desired secondary metabolites.

  20. Stimulatory effects of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) on fibronectin matrix assembly.

    PubMed

    Pastino, Alexandra K; Greco, Todd M; Mathias, Rommel A; Cristea, Ileana M; Schwarzbauer, Jean E

    2017-05-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds that form via non-enzymatic glycation of proteins throughout our lifespan and at a higher rate in certain chronic diseases such as diabetes. AGEs contribute to the progression of fibrosis, in part by stimulating cellular pathways that affect gene expression. Long-lived ECM proteins are targets for non-enzymatic glycation but the question of whether the AGE-modified ECM leads to excess ECM accumulation and fibrosis remains unanswered. In this study, cellular changes due to AGE accretion in the ECM were investigated. Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins in a decellularized fibroblast ECM was achieved by incubating the ECM in a solution of methylglyoxal (MGO). Mass spectrometry of fibronectin (FN) isolated from the glycated matrix identified twenty-eight previously unidentified MGO-derived AGE modification sites including functional sites such as the RGD integrin-binding sequence. Mesangial cells grown on the glycated, decellularized matrix assembled increased amounts of FN matrix. Soluble AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) also stimulated FN matrix assembly and this effect was reduced by function-blocking antibodies against the receptor for AGE (RAGE). These results indicate that cells respond to AGEs by increasing matrix assembly and that RAGE is involved in this response. This raises the possibility that the accumulation of ECM during the progression of fibrosis may be enhanced by cell interactions with AGEs on a glycated ECM.

  1. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  2. Heparin affin regulatory peptide/pleiotrophin mediates fibroblast growth factor 2 stimulatory effects on human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hatziapostolou, Maria; Polytarchou, Christos; Katsoris, Panagiotis; Courty, Jose; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2006-10-27

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a pleiotropic growth factor that has been implicated in prostate cancer formation and progression. In the present study we found that exogenous FGF2 significantly increased human prostate cancer LNCaP cell proliferation and migration. Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP) or pleiotrophin seems to be an important mediator of FGF2 stimulatory effects, since the latter had no effect on stably transfected LNCaP cells that did not express HARP. Moreover, FGF2, through FGF receptors (FGFRs), significantly induced HARP expression and secretion by LNCaP cells and increased luciferase activity of a reporter gene vector carrying the full-length promoter of HARP gene. Using a combination of Western blot analyses, as well as genetic and pharmacological inhibitors, we found that activation of FGFR by FGF2 in LNCaP cells leads to NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent hydrogen peroxide production, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, activation of AP-1, increased expression and secretion of HARP, and, finally, increased cell proliferation and migration. These results establish the role and the mode of activity of FGF2 in LNCaP cells and support an interventional role of HARP in FGF2 effects, providing new insights on the interplay among growth factor pathways within prostate cancer cells.

  3. Allele-Specific Phenotype Suggests a Possible Stimulatory Activity of RCAN-1 on Calcineurin in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weixun; Choi, Tae-Woo; Ahnn, Joohong; Lee, Sun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) binds to calcineurin through the PxIxIT motif, which is evolutionarily conserved. SP repeat phosphorylation in RCAN1 is required for its complete function. The specific interaction between RCAN1 and calcineurin is critical for calcium/calmodulin-dependent regulation of calcineurin serine/threonine phosphatase activity. In this study, we investigated two available deletion rcan-1 mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans, which proceed differently for transcription and translation. We found that rcan-1 may be required for calcineurin activity and possess calcineurin-independent function in body growth and egg-laying behavior. In the genetic background of enhanced calcineurin activity, the rcan-1 mutant expressing a truncated RCAN-1 which retains the calcineurin-binding PxIxIT motif but misses SP repeats stimulated growth, while rcan-1 lack mutant resulted in hyperactive egg-laying suppression. These data suggest rcan-1 has unknown functions independent of calcineurin, and may be a stimulatory calcineurin regulator under certain circumstances. PMID:27871170

  4. The stimulatory effect of neuropeptide Y on growth hormone expression, food intake, and growth in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Li, Meijie; Tan, Xungang; Sui, Yulei; Jiao, Shuang; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Lijuan; You, Feng

    2017-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide known to be a strong orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) factor in many species. In this study, we investigated the effect of NPY on food intake and growth in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Recombinant full-length NPY was injected intraperitoneally into olive flounder at the dose of 1 μg/g body weight; phosphate buffered saline was used as the negative control. In a long-term experiment, NPY and control groups were injected every fifth day over a period of 30 days. In a short-term experiment, NPY and control groups were given intraperitoneal injections and maintained for 24 h. Food intake and growth rates were significantly higher in fish injected with recombinant NPY than in the control fish (P < 0.05). Higher growth hormone (GH) and NPY mRNA transcript levels were observed in both experiments, indicating a stimulatory effect of NPY on GH release. These findings demonstrate that NPY is an effective appetite-stimulating factor in olive flounder with the potential to improve the growth of domestic fish species and enhance efficiency in aquaculture.

  5. Darbepoietin-alfa has comparable erythropoietic stimulatory effects to recombinant erythropoietin whilst preserving the bone marrow microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Dewamitta, Sita R; Russell, Megan R; Nandurkar, Harshal; Walkley, Carl R

    2013-05-01

    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents are widely used for the treatment of anemia. Recently, we reported erythroid expansion with impaired B lymphopoiesis and loss of trabecular bone in C57BL/6 mice following ten days of treatment with low-dose short acting recombinant human erythropoietin. We have assessed erythropoietin against longer-acting darbepoietin-alfa at a comparable erythroid stimulatory dosage regime. Darbepoietin-alfa and erythropoietin induced similar in vivo erythropoietic expansion. Both agents induced an expansion of the colony-forming unit-erythroid populations. However, unlike erythropoietin, darbepoietin-alfa did not impair bone marrow B lymphopoiesis. Strikingly the bone loss observed with erythropoietin was not apparent following darbepoietin-alfa treatment. This analysis demonstrates that whilst darbepoietin-alfa has similar in vivo erythropoietic potency to erythropoietin, it preserves the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus erythropoietin and darbepoietin-alfa manifest different action showing that erythropoiesis stimulating agents have differential non-erythroid effects dependent on their duration of action.

  6. [Machanism of the stimulatory effect of intracerebroventricular administration of histamine on gastatric acid secretion induced by pentagastrin in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wang, Z L; Lu, G Q

    1997-08-01

    The present experiment was designed to study the mechanism underlying the stimulatory effect of histamine (HA, i.c.v.) on the gastric acid secretion in subdiaphragmatic vagotomized SD rats. Gastric acid was continuously washed out with 37 degrees C saline by a perfusion pump. Drugs were injected into the third ventricle or the vein to examine the effect on gastric acid secretion and the level of plasma corticosterone. The results are as follows: (1) HA (1.0 microgram, i.c.v.) potentiated gastric acid secretion induced by G-5, which could be abolished by preintramuscular injection of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (8.0 micrograms). (2) Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) (0.5 microgram, 1.0 microgram, i.c.v.) augmented gastric acid secretion in a dose dependent manner. (3) HA (1.0 microgram, i.c.v.) increased the plasma corticosterone level. (4) Intravenous injection of corticosterone 21-sulfale (15, 30 micrograms) augmented gastric acid secretion in a dose dependent manner. These results suggested that intracerebroventricular injection of HA could stimulate the release of CRF by specificably binding with H1 receptor in some areas of hypothalamus, which, in turn, increased gastric acid secretion induced by G-5 via increasing the level of plasma corticosterone.

  7. Glucagon induces disaggregation of polymer-like structures of the. alpha. subunit of the stimulatory G protein in liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Shunichi; Rodbell, M. )

    1991-08-15

    The hydrodynamic behavior of G{alpha}{sub s}, the {alpha} subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein), in octyl glucoside extracts of rat liver membranes was investigated. As was previously shown for G proteins similarly extracted from brain synaptoneurosomes, G{alpha}{sub s} behaved as polydisperse structures with S values higher than that of heterotrimeric G proteins. When G{alpha}{sub s} in its membrane-bound form was ({sup 32}P)ADP-ribosylated by cholera toxin and the treated membranes were extracted with octyl glucoside, > 35% of the labeled G{alpha}{sub s} was found in material that sedimented through sucrose gradients and contained relatively low levels of immunoreactive G{alpha}{sub s}. These finding suggest that the glucagon receptor selectivity interacts with polymer-like structures of G{alpha}{sub 2} and that activation by GTP({gamma}S) results in disaggregation. The role of the {beta} and {gamma} subunits of G proteins in the hormone-induced process is not clear since the polymer-like structures extracted with octyl glucoside are devoid of {beta} and {gamma} subunits.

  8. Stimulatory drugs of abuse in surface waters and their removal in a conventional drinking water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Fontela, Maria; Galceran, Maria Teresa; Ventura, Francesc

    2008-09-15

    The presence of psychoactive stimulatory drugs in raw waters used for drinking water production and in finished drinking water was evaluated in a Spanish drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Contamination of the river basin which provides raw water to this DWTP was also studied. In surface waters, illicit drugs such as cocaine, benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite), amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), and MDA were detected at mean concentrations ranging from 4 to 350 ng/L. Nicotine, caffeine, and their metabolites were also found at the microg/L level. The elimination of these compounds during drinking water treatment was investigated in a real waterworks. Amphetamine-type stimulants (except MDMA) were completely removed during prechlorination, flocculation, and sand filtration steps, yielding concentrations lowerthan their limits of detection (LODs). Further, ozone treatment was shown to be effective in partially eliminating caffeine (76%), while subsequent granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration removed cocaine (100%), MDMA(88%), benzoylecgonine (72%), and cotinine (63%). Postchlorination achieved the complete elimination of cocaine and nicotine and only one parent compound (caffeine) and two metabolites (cotinine and benzoylecgonine) persisted throughout treatment although reductions of 90% for caffeine and benzoylecgonine and 74% for cotinine were obtained.

  9. Phosphatidylinositol turnover (PI) during synaptic activation results from the release of a stimulatory and in inhibitory agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Bencherif, M.; Rubio, R.; Berne, R.M.

    1986-03-05

    PI has been implicated in the process of synaptic transmission and is increased by agonists. It has been suggested that PI is involved in cellular Ca/sup + +/ mobilization and the process represents a series of hydrolytic reactions with inositol as the final product. Hence, the rate of release of /sup 3/H-inositol (/sup 3/H-Ins) from prelabelled inositol phospholipids can be used as an index of PI. In the /sup 3/H-inositol prelabelled frog sympathetic ganglia, they studied the effect of synaptic activity on PI. PI did not change during orthodromic stimulation (20 Hz, 5 min). However, upon cessation of the stimulation, PI increased rapidly and remained elevated for at least 30 min. This increase in PI was reduced by suffusing the ganglia with either acetylcholine or adenosine. In the presence of atropine (5 ..mu..M), orthodromic stimulation increased PI. They hypothesized that synaptic activation releases a long-lasting stimulatory agonist and a short-lived inhibitory (Ach/adenosine) agonist(s) affecting PI. To test this idea, 2 sympathetic ganglia were used. One was prelabelled with /sup 3/H-inositol and the other was not. The two ganglia were placed together in a 5 ..mu..l drop of Ringers solution containing atropine. Orthodromic stimuli were applied to the non-labelled ganglion and elicited release of /sup 3/H-Ins from the non-stimulated ganglion.

  10. Stimulatory effect of He-Ne low dose laser on injured sciatic nerves of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rochkind, S.; Barrnea, L.; Razon, N.; Bartal, A.; Schwartz, M.

    1987-06-01

    Injury to a mammalian peripheral nerve is accompanied by a restorative process that is manifested after a delay. This process is expressed morphologically by the emergence of new nerve fibers. Restoration of function occurs when the regenerating fibers reconnect with the target organ. Because of the low rate of fiber elongation, the denervated target is partially degenerated by the time that the regenerating fibers approach it. To prevent such an atrophy, one must find a way to prevent the degeneration of the nerve, to speed up regeneration, or to maintain the target during the period of nerve degeneration. In the present work, we examined the potential of treatment with low energy laser radiation for improving regeneration or preventing degeneration of mammalian peripheral nerve after injury. After repeated injury for 20 consecutive days, treatment of the sciatic nerve of the rat with low energy laser (He-Ne, 17 mW) caused a significant increase in the amplitude of the action potential recorded in the corresponding gastrocnemius relative to the action potential of injured but not treated nerves. The action potential of the injured sciatic nerves that were laser-irradiated increased to values close to that of a noninjured nerve. The studies include follow-up for 1 year after the injury. This electrophysiological manifestation of the effect of laser treatment on injured nerves was accompanied by a diminution of the size of the scar tissue from these nerves. Yet to be resolved is whether these two phenomena (i.e., electrophysiological and morphological responses) coincide or whether they relate to each other.

  11. Potentiation of T Cell Stimulatory Activity by Chemical Fixation of a Weak Peptide-MHC Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Inkyu; Kim, Kwangmi; Choi, Sojin; Lomunova, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The stability of peptide-MHC complex (pMHC) is an important factor to shape the fate of peptide-specific T cell immune response, but how it influences on T cell activation process is poorly understood. To better understand that, we investigated various T cell activation events driven by Ld MHCI loaded with graded concentrations of P2Ca and QL9 peptides, respectively, with 2C TCR Tg T cells; the binding strength of P2Ca for Ld is measurably weaker than that of QL9, but either peptides in the context of Ld interact with 2C TCR with a similar strength. When their concentrations required for early T cell activation events, which occur within several minutes to an hour, were concerned, EC50s of QL9 were about 100 folds lower than those of P2Ca, which was expected from their association constants for Ld. When EC50s for late activation events, which takes over several hours to occur, were concerned, the differences grew even larger (> 300 folds), suggesting that, due to weak binding, Ld/P2Ca dissociate from each other more easily to lose its antigenicity in a short time. Accordingly, fixation of Ld/P2Ca with paraformaldehyde resulted in a significant improvement in its immunogenicity. These results imply that binding strength of a peptide for a MHC is a critical factor to determine the duration of pMHC-mediated T cell activation and thus the attainment of productive T cell activation. It is also suggested that paraformaldehyde fixation should be an effective tool to ameliorate the immunogenicity of pMHC with a poor stability. PMID:28152301

  12. Bio-aerosols in indoor environment: composition, health effects and analysis.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Padma; Sudharsanam, Suchithra; Steinberg, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Bio-aerosols are airborne particles that are living (bacteria, viruses and fungi) or originate from living organisms. Their presence in air is the result of dispersal from a site of colonization or growth. The health effects of bio-aerosols including infectious diseases, acute toxic effects, allergies and cancer coupled with the threat of bioterrorism and SARS have led to increased awareness on the importance of bio-aerosols. The evaluation of bio-aerosols includes use of variety of methods for sampling depending on the concentration of microorganisms expected. There have been problems in developing standard sampling methods, in proving a causal relationship and in establishing threshold limit values for exposures due to the complexity of composition of bio-aerosols, variations in human response to their exposure and difficulties in recovering microorganisms. Currently bio-aerosol monitoring in hospitals is carried out for epidemiological investigation of nosocomial infectious diseases, research into airborne microorganism spread and control, monitoring biohazardous procedures and use as a quality control measure. In India there is little awareness regarding the quality of indoor air, mould contamination in indoor environments, potential source for transmission of nosocomial infections in health care facilities. There is an urgent need to undertake study of indoor air, to generate baseline data and explore the link to nosocomial infections. This article is a review on composition, sources, modes of transmission, health effects and sampling methods used for evaluation of bio-aerosols, and also suggests control measures to reduce the loads of bio-aerosols.

  13. Stimulatory effects of chitinase on growth and immune defense of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Feng, Shaozhen; Chen, Jun; Qin, Chaobin; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-05-01

    spleen in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, strongly suggesting the existence of an innate pathway for local defense against chitin-containing organisms. Moreover, the pathogen such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus could be inhibited by the recombinant protein of grouper chitinase1 to a certain extent.

  14. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  15. Bio-batteries and bio-fuel cells: leveraging on electronic charge transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Kannan, A M; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Filipek, S; Li, P; Audette, G F; Munukutla, L

    2009-03-01

    Bio-fuel cells are alternative energy devises based on bio-electrocatalysis of natural substrates by enzymes or microorganisms. Here we review bio-fuel cells and bio-batteries based on the recent literature. In general, the bio-fuel cells are classified based on the type of electron transfer; mediated electron transfer and direct electron transfer or electronic charge transfer (ECT). The ECT of the bio-fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications are considered. The technical challenges of the bio-fuel cells, like bioelectrocatalysis, immobilization of bioelectrocatalysts, protein denaturation etc. are highlighted and future research directions are discussed leveraging on the use of electron charge transfer proteins. In addition, the packaging aspects of the bio-fuel cells are also analyzed and the found that relatively little work has been done in the engineering development of bio-fuel cells.

  16. Proteomic insights into the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 on mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production of an edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo-Bo; Chen, Lei; Cheung, Peter C K

    2012-10-01

    Proteomic analysis was applied to investigate the mechanism of the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 on the mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production by an edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium. 32 differentially expressed proteins were identified by one-dimension gel electrophoresis. Combined with our previous findings, the up-regulation of heat shock proteins might help to maintain cellular viability under environmental stress. The up-regulation of ATP:citrate lyase isoform 2 could suppress the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle and, consequently, stimulate exopolysaccharide production. The present results provide important insight to the mechanism by which stimulatory agents (Tween 80) can increase the production of useful fungal metabolites and also fill the gap of our knowledge on the under-developed mushroom proteomics.

  17. Microcavity surface plasmon resonance bio-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosavian, Nazanin

    This work discusses a miniature surface plasmon biosensor which uses a dielectric sub- micron diameter core with gold spherical shell. The shell has a subwavelength nanoaperture believed to excite stationary plasmon resonances at the biosensor's surface. The sub-micron cavity enhances the measurement sensitivity of molecules binding to the sensor surface. We used visible-range optical spectroscopy to study the wavelength shift as bio-molecules absorbed-desorbed at the shell surface. We also used Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) ablation to study the characteristics of microcavity surface plasmon resonance sensor (MSPRS) and the inner structure formed with metal deposition and its spectrum. We found that resonances at 580 nm and 670 nm responded to bound test agents and that Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor intensity could be used to differentiate between D-glucose and L-glucose. The responsiveness of the system depended upon the mechanical integrity of the metallic surface coating.

  18. Can the combination of flaxseed and its lignans with soy and its isoflavones reduce the growth stimulatory effect of soy and its isoflavones on established breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Power, Krista A; Thompson, Lilian U

    2007-07-01

    Consumption of phytoestrogen (PE)-rich foods (i. e., soy and flaxseed (FS)) is increasing because of their suggested health benefits. However, recent studies raise concern over the safety of soy and its isoflavones, particularly genistein (GEN), for postmenopausal breast cancer (BC), due to their potential stimulatory effects on human breast tissue and on the growth of existing tumors in rodents. FS, rich in PE lignans, which is metabolized to the mammalian lignans enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol (END), has consistently been shown to have tumor inhibitory effects in a human clinical trial as well as rodent BC models. Using the preclinical athymic mouse postmenopausal BC model, combining FS with soy protein or GEN with END and ENL, was found to negate the tumor stimulatory effects of soy protein or GEN alone. The mechanism may be related to the modulation of estrogen receptor and MAPK signaling pathways. If these studies can be confirmed in clinical trials, then consumption of combined soy and FS, or their PEs, may reduce the tumor growth stimulatory effect of soy or GEN. This may indicate that if soy is consumed with lignan-rich foods, it may continue to induce its other beneficial health effects, without inducing adverse effect on postmenopausal BC.

  19. Antibacterial and osteo-stimulatory effects of a borate-based glass series doped with strontium ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming; Stone, Wendy; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zalzal, Paul; Papini, Marcello; Waldman, Stephen D; Towler, Mark R

    2016-11-01

    This work considered the effect of both increasing additions of Strontium (Sr(2+)) and incubation time on solubility and both antibacterial and osteo-stimulatory effects of a series of glasses based on the B2O3-P2O5-CaCO3-Na2CO3-TiO2-SrCO3 series. The amorphous nature of all the glasses was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Discs of each glass were immersed in de-ionized water for 1, 7 and 30 days, and the water extracts were used for ion release profiles, pH measurements and cytotoxicity testing. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was employed to detect the release of Na(+), Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) ions from the glasses with respect to maturation, which indicated that the addition of Sr(2+) retarded solubility of the glass series. This effect was also confirmed by weight loss analysis through comparing the initial weight of glass discs before and after periods of incubation. The incorporation of Sr(2+) in the glasses did not influence the pH of the water extracts when the glasses were stored for up to 30 days. Cytotoxicity testing with an osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) indicated that glasses with the higher (20 mol% and 25 mol%) Sr(2+) incorporation promoted proliferation of osteoblast cells, while the glasses with lower Sr(2+) contents inhibited cell growth. The glass series, except for Ly-B5 (which contained the highest Sr(2+) incorporation; 25 mol%), were bacteriostatic against S. aureus in the short term (1-7 days) as a result of the dissolution products released.

  20. The co-stimulatory molecule B7-H3 promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Fen; Sun, Zhangzhang; Shi, Hanping; Hua, Dong; Yang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    B7-H3, first recognized as a co-stimulatory molecule, is abnormally expressed in cancer tissues and is associated with cancer metastasis and a poor prognosis. However, as an initial event of metastasis, the relationship between the Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in cancer cells and B7-H3 has still not been investigated. In this study, we first analyzed B7-H3 expression by immunohistochemistry in colorectal cancer tissues. B7-H3 was expressed in the cancer cell membrane and was associated with the T stage of colorectal cancer; it also showed a positive correlation with MMP2 and MMP9 expression in cancer tissues. Over-expression of B7-H3 in SW480 cells allowed cancer cells to invade and metastasize more than the control cells, whereas invasion and metastasis capabilities were decreased after B7-H3 was knocked down in Caco-2 cells. We further showed that B7-H3 down-regulated the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin and up-regulated N-cadherin and Vimentin expression, implying that B7-H3 promoted the EMT in colorectal cancer cells. We also checked another character of the EMT, the stemness of cancer cells. CD133, CD44 and Oct4 were significantly elevated after the SW480 cells were transfected with B7-H3 and reduced in Caco-2 cells after B7-H3 was inhibited. In subsequent studies, we proved that B7-H3 upregulated the expression of Smad1 via PI3K-Akt. In conclusion, B7-H3 promotes the EMT in colorectal cancer cells by activating the PI3K-Akt pathway and upregulating the expression of Smad1. PMID:27145365

  1. Small-molecule modulators of the OX40–OX40 ligand co-stimulatory protein–protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun; Margolles-Clark, Emilio; Bayer, Allison; Buchwald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The OX40–OX40L protein–protein interaction (PPI) is an important cell-surface signalling co-stimulatory regulator within the TNFR superfamily (TNFRSF) and a promising therapeutic target for immunomodulation. PPIs are difficult to modulate using small-molecules. Here, we describe the identification of a small-molecule OX40 modulator and confirm its partial agonist character. Experimental Approach Cell-free screening assays were developed and used to identify OX40–OX40L inhibitors. Modified versions of this assay were used to elucidate the binding partner and the binding nature of active compounds. OX40-transfected sensor cells with NF-κB reporters were constructed and used to confirm and characterize activity and specificity. Immunomodulatory activity and partial agonist nature were further confirmed by ex vivo T-cell polarization assays. Key Results Several compounds that concentration-dependently affected OX40-OX40L were identified. Cell assays indicated that they were partial agonists with low micromolar potency and adequate selectivity. Under polarizing conditions based on TGF-β, the most promising compound mimicked the effect of an agonistic anti-OX40 antibody in suppressing regulatory T-cell generation and diverting CD4+CD62L+Foxp3− cells to TH9 phenotype in vitro. Conclusions and Implications We identified, to our knowledge, the first small-molecule compounds able to interfere with OX40–OX40L binding and, more importantly, to act as partial agonists of OX40. This is particularly interesting, as small-molecule agonism or activation of PPIs is considered unusually challenging and there are only few known examples. These results provide proof-of-principle evidence for the feasibility of small-molecule modulation of the OX40–OX40L interaction and for the existence of partial agonists for TNFRSF-PPIs. PMID:24930776

  2. Relationship between cerebral sigma-1 receptor occupancy and attenuation of cocaine's motor stimulatory effects in mice by PD144418.

    PubMed

    Lever, John R; Miller, Dennis K; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A; Green, Caroline L; Watkinson, Lisa D; Carmack, Terry L; Lever, Susan Z

    2014-10-01

    Psychostimulant effects of cocaine are mediated partly by agonist actions at sigma-1 (σ1) receptors. Selective σ1 receptor antagonists attenuate these effects and provide a potential avenue for pharmacotherapy. However, the selective and high affinity σ1 antagonist PD144418 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-5-[3-(4-methylphenyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-1-propylpyridine) has been reported not to inhibit cocaine-induced hyperactivity. To address this apparent paradox, we evaluated aspects of PD144418 binding in vitro, investigated σ1 receptor and dopamine transporter (DAT) occupancy in vivo, and re-examined effects on locomotor activity. PD144418 displayed high affinity for σ1 sites (Ki 0.46 nM) and 3596-fold selectivity over σ2 sites (Ki 1654 nM) in guinea pig brain membranes. No appreciable affinity was noted for serotonin and norepinephrine transporters (Ki >100 μM), and the DAT interaction was weak (Ki 9.0 μM). In vivo, PD144418 bound to central and peripheral σ1 sites in mouse, with an ED50 of 0.22 μmol/kg in whole brain. No DAT occupancy by PD144418 (10.0 μmol/kg) or possible metabolites were observed. At doses that did not affect basal locomotor activity, PD144418 (1, 3.16, and 10 μmol/kg) attenuated cocaine-induced hyperactivity in a dose-dependent manner in mice. There was good correlation (r(2) = 0.88) of hyperactivity reduction with increasing cerebral σ1 receptor occupancy. The behavioral ED50 of 0.79 μmol/kg corresponded to 80% occupancy. Significant σ1 receptor occupancy and the ability to mitigate cocaine's motor stimulatory effects were observed for 16 hours after a single 10.0 μmol/kg dose of PD144418.

  3. Stimulatory effect of the secretogranin-ll derived peptide secretoneurin on food intake and locomotion in female goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Mikwar, M; Navarro-Martin, L; Xing, L; Volkoff, H; Hu, W; Trudeau, V L

    2016-04-01

    Secretoneurin (SN) is a conserved peptide derived by proteolytic processing from the middle domain of the ∼600 amino acid precursor secretogranin-II (SgII). Secretoneurin is widely distributed in secretory granules of endocrine cells and neurons and has important roles in reproduction as it stimulates luteinizing hormone release from the pituitary. A potential new role of SN in goldfish feeding is the subject of this study. Firstly, we established that acute (26 h; p<0.0001) and short-term (72 h; p=0.016) fasting increased SgIIa precursor mRNA levels 1.25-fold in the telencephalon, implicating SN in the control of feeding. Secondly, we determined that intracerebroventricular injections of the type A SN (SNa; 0.2 and 1 ng/g BW) increased food intake and locomotor behavior by 60 min. Fish injected with the lower and higher doses of SNa (0.2 and 1 ng/g) respectively exhibited significant 1.77- and 2.58-fold higher food intake (p<0.0001) than the saline-injected control fish. Locomotor behavior was increased by 1.35- and 2.26-fold for 0.2 ng/g SNa (p=0.0001) and 1 ng/g SNa (p<0.0001), respectively. Injection of 1 ng/g SNa increased mRNA levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y 1.36-fold (p=0.038) and decreased hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript by 33% (p=0.01) at 2h and 5h post-injection, respectively. These data suggest interactions of SNa with stimulatory and inhibitory pathways of food intake control in fish.

  4. The Bio* toolkits--a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, Harry

    2002-09-01

    Bioinformatics research is often difficult to do with commercial software. The Open Source BioPerl, BioPython and Biojava projects provide toolkits with multiple functionality that make it easier to create customised pipelines or analysis. This review briefly compares the quirks of the underlying languages and the functionality, documentation, utility and relative advantages of the Bio counterparts, particularly from the point of view of the beginning biologist programmer.

  5. Growth performance and immunological and antioxidant status of Chinese shrimp, Fennerpenaeus chinensis reared in bio-floc culture system using probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Su; Min, EunYoung; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Koo, Ja-Keun; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-11-01

    Chinese shrimp Fennerpenaeus chinensis (mean length 1.86 ± 0.15 cm, and weight 137.4 ± 12.7 mg) were reared in the different concentrations of bio-floc (control, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140%) for 90 days. The growth rate was significantly increased over 100% bio-floc concentrations. In the immunological parameters, the gene expression of proPO and lysozyme was considerably increased over 120% bio-floc concentrations. The gene expression of SP was notably elevated at 140% bio-floc concentration. In the antioxidant enzymes, the activity of SOD was considerably decreased over 80% bio-floc concentrations. A notable decline in the activity of CAT was observed over 120% bio-floc concentrations. The results indicate that rearing of Chinese shrimp in bio-floc system can induce the increase of growth performance, enhancement of immune responses, and reduction of oxidative stress.

  6. Bio-inspired Fillers for Mechanical Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korley, Lashanda

    2012-02-01

    An examination of natural materials has offered a new perspective on the development of multi-functional materials with enhanced mechanical properties. One important lesson from nature is the utilization of composite structures to impart improved mechanical behavior and enhanced functionality using nanofillers. A relatively unexplored expansion of this bio-inspired, nanoscale filler approach to high performance materials is the incorporation of responsive, multi-functional reinforcing elements in polymeric composites with the goal of combining superior mechanical behavior that can be tuned with additional functionality, such as sensing and bioactivity. One approach is the use of self-assembling small molecules that form uniform, one-dimensional nanostructures as an emerging class of filler components. Another pathway toward mechanical enhancement is the incorporation of stimuli-responsive and high-modulus electrospun nanofibers. We have probed the utilization of high-aspect ratio, self-assembled small molecules and responsive electrospun nanofibers as all-organic nanofillers to achieve significant modulus changes within elastomeric matrices. The influence of matrix-filler interactions and the role of hierarchical organization in these nature-inspired composites will be discussed. Potential applications in barrier technology and drug delivery have also been explored.

  7. Canine Distemper Virus Infection Leads to an Inhibitory Phenotype of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells In Vitro with Reduced Expression of Co-Stimulatory Molecules and Increased Interleukin-10 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Herder, Vanessa; Stein, Veronika M.; Tipold, Andrea; Urhausen, Carola; Günzel-Apel, Anne-Rose; Rohn, Karl; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Beineke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper. PMID:24769532

  8. Canine distemper virus infection leads to an inhibitory phenotype of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro with reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and increased interleukin-10 transcription.

    PubMed

    Qeska, Visar; Barthel, Yvonne; Herder, Vanessa; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Urhausen, Carola; Günzel-Apel, Anne-Rose; Rohn, Karl; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Beineke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper.

  9. A terracotta bio-battery.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuated PLGA-induced inflammatory responses by inhibiting host DC maturation and function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng; Yang, Fei; Tang, Bo; Li, Xi-Mei; Chu, Ya-Nan; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Wang, Shen-Guo; Wu, De-Cheng; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) bio-scaffold is a biodegradable scaffold commonly used for tissue repair. However, implanted PLGA scaffolds usually cause serious inflammatory responses around grafts. To improve PLGA scaffold-based tissue repair, it is important to control the PLGA-mediated inflammatory responses. Recent evidence indicated that PLGA induce dendritic cell (DC) maturation in vitro, which may initiate host immune responses. In the present study, we explored the modulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on PLGA-induced DCs (PLGA-DC). We found that mouse MSCs inhibited PLGA-DC dendrite formation, as well as co-stimulatory molecule and pro-inflammatory factor expression. Functionally, MSC-educated PLGA-DCs promoted Th2 and regulatory T cell differentiation but suppressed Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Mechanistically, we determined that PLGA elicited DC maturation via inducing phosphorylation of p38/MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathway proteins in DCs. Moreover, MSCs suppressed PLGA-DCs by partially inactivating those pathways. Most importantly, we found that the MSCs were capable of suppressing DC maturation and immune function in vivo. Also, the proportion of mature DCs in the mice that received MSC-PLGA constructs greatly decreased compared with that of their PLGA-film implantation counterparts. Additionally, MSCs co-delivery increased regulatory T and Th2 cells but decreased the Th1 and Th17 cell numbers in the host spleens. Histological analysis showed that MSCs alleviated the inflammatory responses around the grafted PLGA scaffolds. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function for MSCs in suppressing PLGA-induced host inflammatory response and suggest that DCs are a new cellular target in improving PLGA scaffold-based tissue repair.

  11. Linking plasma kinetics to plasma-bio interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Cold non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas have received a lot of attention in the last decade due to their huge potential for biomedical applications. In my group, we have characterized an RF driven APPJ in great detail. The characterization includes electrical measurements, imaging, optical emission spectroscopy, (two photon enhanced) laser induced fluorescence, Thomson scattering, Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering and mass spectrometry. This led to a detailed knowledge of the electron density, electron temperature, gas temperature, NO, O, OH, O3 densities, ionic species and air concentrations in the plasma effluent. Living organisms for in vitro studies are typically kept in complex solutions or culture media. Plasma-bio interactions involves not only the production of reactive species in the plasma gas phase but also transport to the liquid phase and plasma induced liquid phase chemistry and its impact on the living organisms. Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species have been identified as the key reactive species. Recent results of my group show that controlling the gas phase plasma chemistry can lead to significant different biological responses of the living organisms corresponding to different chemical pathways. The effect of plasma jet interaction with liquids containing mammalian cells, bacteria and virus will be discussed. The outcomes of these studies allow unraveling chemical pathways responsible for plasma-bio interactions and linking plasma kinetics to plasma-bio interactions.

  12. Are the bio- and chemiluminescence states of the firefly oxyluciferin the same as the fluorescence state?

    PubMed

    Navizet, Isabelle; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel; Yue, Ling; Liu, Ya-Jun; Ferré, Nicolas; Lindh, Roland

    2013-01-01

    A usual strategy in both experimental and theoretical studies on bio- and chemiluminescence is to analyze the fluorescent properties of the bio- and chemiluminescence reaction product. Recent findings in a coelenteramide and Cypridina oxyluciferin model raise a concern on the validity of this procedure, showing that the light emitters in each of these luminescent processes might differ. Here, the thermal decomposition path of the firefly dioxetanone and the light emission states of the Firefly oxyluciferin responsible for the bio-, chemiluminescence, and fluorescence of the molecule are characterized using ab initio quantum chemistry and hybrid quantum chemistry/molecular mechanics methods to determine if the scenario found in the coelenteramide and Cypridina oxyluciferin study does also apply to the Firefly bioluminescent systems. The results point out to a unique emission state in the bio-, chemiluminescence, and fluorescence phenomena of the Firefly oxyluciferin and, therefore, using fluorescence properties of this system is reasonable.

  13. 76 FR 53631 - BioPreferred Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... biobased preferred procurement program (one part of the BioPreferred Program) is available on the Internet... reference Amend: to: And adding in its place: Sec. 2904.2, definition of ``Biobased part 2902 part 3201. content''. Sec. 2904.2, definition of part 2902 part 3201. ``BioPreferred Product''. Sec....

  14. Biosecurity--The Bio-Link Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elaine A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Bio-Link, the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Center for Biotechnology established with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Reports that Bio-Link, headquartered at City College of San Francisco, has created a national network and resource base for community colleges, industry, and others interested in biotechnology…

  15. BioC interoperability track overview.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Donald C; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Dai, Hong-Jie; Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Yepes, Antonio Jimeno; Khare, Ritu; Lu, Zhiyong; Marques, Hernani; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Neves, Mariana; Peng, Yifan; Rak, Rafal; Rinaldi, Fabio; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Verspoor, Karin; Wiegers, Thomas C; Wu, Cathy H; Wilbur, W John

    2014-01-01

    BioC is a new simple XML format for sharing biomedical text and annotations and libraries to read and write that format. This promotes the development of interoperable tools for natural language processing (NLP) of biomedical text. The interoperability track at the BioCreative IV workshop featured contributions using or highlighting the BioC format. These contributions included additional implementations of BioC, many new corpora in the format, biomedical NLP tools consuming and producing the format and online services using the format. The ease of use, broad support and rapidly growing number of tools demonstrate the need for and value of the BioC format. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/.

  16. BioC interoperability track overview

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, Donald C.; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Dai, Hong-Jie; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Jimeno Yepes, Antonio; Khare, Ritu; Lu, Zhiyong; Marques, Hernani; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Neves, Mariana; Peng, Yifan; Rak, Rafal; Rinaldi, Fabio; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Verspoor, Karin; Wiegers, Thomas C.; Wu, Cathy H.; Wilbur, W. John

    2014-01-01

    BioC is a new simple XML format for sharing biomedical text and annotations and libraries to read and write that format. This promotes the development of interoperable tools for natural language processing (NLP) of biomedical text. The interoperability track at the BioCreative IV workshop featured contributions using or highlighting the BioC format. These contributions included additional implementations of BioC, many new corpora in the format, biomedical NLP tools consuming and producing the format and online services using the format. The ease of use, broad support and rapidly growing number of tools demonstrate the need for and value of the BioC format. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/ PMID:24980129

  17. Freely turning over palmitate in erythrocyte membrane proteins is not responsible for the anchoring of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton: a study with bio-orthogonal chemical probes.

    PubMed

    Ciana, Annarita; Achilli, Cesare; Hannoush, Rami N; Risso, Angela; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2013-03-01

    Erythrocyte lipid rafts are anchored to the underlying spectrin membrane skeleton [A. Ciana, C. Achilli, C. Balduini, G. Minetti, On the association of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton in human erythrocytes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1808 (2011) 183-190]. The nature of this linkage and the molecules involved are poorly understood. The interaction is sensitive to the increase in pH and ionic strength induced by carbonate. Given the role of palmitoylation in modulating the partitioning of certain proteins between various sub-cellular compartments and the plasma membrane, we asked whether palmitoylation of p55, a peripheral protein located at the junctional complex between spectrin-actin-protein 4.1 that anchors the membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer via the transmembrane protein glycophorin C, could contribute to the anchoring of lipid rafts to the membrane skeleton. We adopted a new, non-radioactive method for studying protein palmitoylation, based on bio-orthogonal chemical analogues of fatty acids, containing an omega-alkynyl group, to metabolically label cell proteins, which are then revealed by a "click chemistry" reaction of the alkynyl moiety with an azide-containing reporter tag. We show that the membrane localization and palmitoylation levels of p55 did not change after carbonate treatment. 2-bromopalmitate and cerulenin, two known palmitoylation inhibitors, completely inhibited p55 palmitoylation, and protein palmitoyl thioesterase-1 (PPT1) reduced it, without affecting the association between lipid rafts and membrane-skeleton, indicating, on the one hand, that p55 palmitoylation is enzymatic, and, on the other, that it is not involved in the modulation of the linkage of lipid rafts to the membrane-skeleton.

  18. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  19. Mannosylated liposomes for bio-film targeting.

    PubMed

    Vyas, S P; Sihorkar, Vaibhav; Jain, Sanyog

    2007-02-07

    Vesicular systems in general are investigated to achieve bacterial bio-film targeting as their architecture mimics bio-membranes in terms of structure and bio-behavior. This paper elaborates upon the role of the inherent characteristics of the carrier system and further envisages the role of anchored ligands in navigating the contents in the vicinity of bio-films. Vesicles in the present study were coated with hydrophobic derivatives of mannan (cholesteryl mannan and sialo-mannan). The prepared vesicles were characterized for size, shape, percentage entrapment and ligand binding specificity and results were compared with the uncoated versions. Using a set of in vitro and in vivo models, the bio-film targeting potential of plain and mannosylated liposomal formulations were compared. Results suggested that mannosylated vesicles could be effectively targeted to the model bacterial bio-films, compared with plain vesicles. Moreover, the sialo-mannan coated liposomes recorded superior targetability as reflected in the significantly higher percentage growth inhibition when compared with cholesteryl mannan coated liposomes. The engineered systems thus have the potential use for the delivery of anti-microbial agents to the bio-films.

  20. The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in protein molecules in living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-feng

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in bio-tissues were studied using Pang's theory of bio-energy transport, in which the energy spectra of protein molecules are obtained from the discrete dynamic equation. From the energy spectra, it was determined that the protein molecules could both radiate and absorb bio-photons with wavelengths of <3 μm and 5-7 μm, consistent with the energy level transitions of the excitons. These results were consistent with the experimental data; this consisted of infrared absorption data from collagen, bovine serum albumin, the protein-like molecule acetanilide, plasma, and a person's finger, and the laser-Raman spectra of acidity I-type collagen in the lungs of a mouse, and metabolically active Escherichia coli. We further elucidated the mechanism responsible for the non-thermal biological effects produced by the infrared light absorbed by the bio-tissues, using the above results. No temperature rise was observed; instead, the absorbed infrared light promoted the vibrations of amides as well the transport of the bio-energy from one place to other in the protein molecules, which changed their conformations. These experimental results, therefore, not only confirmed the validity of the mechanism of bio-photon emission, and the newly developed theory of bio-energy transport mentioned above, but also explained the mechanism and properties of the non-thermal biological effects produced by the absorption of infrared light by the living systems.

  1. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  2. Suppressive effects of anti-allergic agent suplatast tosilate (IPD-1151T) on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on mouse splenocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, M; Kawazu, K; Asano, K; Fumio, K; Mita, A; Adachi, M

    2001-12-01

    The effects of IPD-1151T on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, CD40, CD80 and CD86, were investigated in vivo using mice with allergic disorders. BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with two doses of dinitrophenylated ovalbumin (DNP-OVA) at 1-week intervals. These mice then were treated intraperitoneally with 100 microg/kg of IPD-1151T once a day for 14 days, starting 7 days after the first immunization. On day 21, some mice were challenged intraperitoneally with DNP-OVA and the other mice were not challenged. All mice were autopsied on day 22 and assayed for immunoglobulin E, interleuken (IL)-4 and IL-5 productions following DNP-OVA immunization. The intraperitoneal treatment with IPD-1151T strongly suppressed immunoglobulin E contents in serum, which were enhanced by DNA-OVA immunization. IPD-1151T also caused a decrease in both IL-4 and IL-5 levels in splenic lymphocytes. We next examined the influence of IPD-1151T on co-stimulatory molecule expression on splenic lymphocytes. IPD-1151T caused suppression of CD40 and CD86 expression; however, the treatments did not affect CD80 expression.

  3. Alteration of consciousness via diverse photo-acoustic stimulatory patterns. Phenomenology and effect on salivary flow rate, alpha-amylase and total protein levels.

    PubMed

    Beck, Anita; Fábián, Gábor; Fejérdy, Pál; Krause, Wolf-Rainer; Hermann, Péter; Módos, Károly; Varga, Gábor; Fábián, Tibor Károly

    2015-12-01

    Long-term photo-acoustic stimulation is used for the induction of altered states of consciousness for both therapeutic and experimental purposes. Long-term photo-acoustic stimulation also leads to changes in the composition of saliva which have a key contribution to the efficiency of this technique in easing mucosal symptoms of oral psychosomatic patients. The aim of this study is to find out whether there is any cumulative effect of repeated stimulation and whether there are any detectable differences between diverse stimulatory patterns of long lasting photo-acoustic stimulation on the phenomenology of the appearing trance state and on salivary secretion. There was significant cumulative effect in relation with the appearance of day dreaming as phenomenological parameter, and in relation with protein output and amylase/protein ratio as salivary parameter. Pattern specific effect was detectable in relation with salivary flow rate only. Although our results clearly indicate the existence of certain cumulative and stimulation-pattern specific effects of repeated photo-acoustic stimulation, the absolute values of all these effects were relatively small in this study. Therefore, in spite of their theoretical importance there are no direct clinical consequences of these findings. However, our data do not exclude at all the possibility that repeated stimulation with other stimulatory parameters may lead to more pronounced effects. Further studies are needed to make clear conclusion in this respect.

  4. Alzheimer's disease: the pros and cons of pharmaceutical, nutritional, botanical, and stimulatory therapies, with a discussion of treatment strategies from the perspective of patients and practitioners.

    PubMed

    Wollen, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunctional intracellular and extracellular biochemical processes that result in neuron death. This article summarizes hypotheses regarding cell dysfunction in AD and discusses the effectiveness of, and problems with, different therapies. Pharmaceutical therapies discussed include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, antihypertensive drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, secretase inhibitors, insulin resistance drugs, etanercept, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and immunization. Nutritional and botanical therapies included are huperzine A, polyphenols, Ginkgo, Panax ginseng, Withania somnifera, phosphatidylserine, alpha-lipoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, acetyl L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, various vitamins and minerals, and melatonin. Stimulatory therapies discussed are physical exercise, cognitive training, music, and socialization. Finally, treatment strategies are discussed in light of the benefits and drawbacks of different therapeutic approaches. It is concluded that potential risks of both approved and non-approved therapies should be weighed against the potential benefits and certain consequences of disease progression. Approaches that target several dysfunctions simultaneously and that emphasize nutritional, botanical, and stimulatory therapies may offer the most benefit at this time.

  5. Stimulatory effect of an algal fucoidan on the release of vascular endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator as a mechanism of fucoidan-mediated thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Min, Soon-Ki; Han, Sung-Mi; Jang, Jae-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-07-01

    Identifying a pharmacological means for increasing the production of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is always desirable to cure impaired production of this enzyme. An algal fucoidan has been shown to exhibit both novel thrombolytic and synergistic stimulatory effects in a mouse thrombosis model. The plasma levels of active t-PA were measured in mouse arterial thrombus models that were treated with various fucoidans to investigate the mechanism of thrombolysis. The mean plasma level of active t-PA after the infusion of fucoidan was 2.136 ± 0.231 ng/ml for nonthrombolytic Fucus fucoidan and 3.917 ± 0.0.529 ng/ml for thrombolytic Undaria fucoidan, which resulted in a 1.56-2.29-fold increase compared with the healthy control group (1.706 ± 0.194 ng/ml) and the untreated thrombus group (2.506 ± 0.301 ng/ml) (P < 0.01). An algal fucoidan has demonstrated to exert a thrombolytic and stimulatory effect via the induction of t-PA release in a dose-dependent manner in an arterial thrombosis model.

  6. New Horizons in Enhancing the Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells Using Stimulatory Effects of the Short Time Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation.

    PubMed

    Eghlidospour, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Yousefi, F; Mortazavi, S A R

    2015-09-01

    Mobile phone use and wireless communication technology have grown explosively over the past decades. This rapid growth has caused widespread global concern about the potential detrimental effects of this technology on human health. Stem cells generate specialized cell types of the tissue in which they reside through normal differentiation pathways. Considering the undeniable importance of stem cells in modern medicine, numerous studies have been performed on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on cellular processes such as: proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle and DNA repair processes. We have conducted extensive studies on beneficial (stimulatory) or detrimental biological effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile phone base stations, mobile phone jammers, radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and dentistry cavitrons over the past years. In this article, recent studies on the biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation in the range of radiofrequency (RF) on some important features of stem cells such as their proliferation and differentiation are reviewed. Studies reviewed in this paper indicate that the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells depend on various factors such as the biological systems, experiment conditions, the frequency and intensity of RF and the duration of exposure.

  7. New Horizons in Enhancing the Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells Using Stimulatory Effects of the Short Time Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Eghlidospour, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Yousefi, F.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone use and wireless communication technology have grown explosively over the past decades. This rapid growth has caused widespread global concern about the potential detrimental effects of this technology on human health. Stem cells generate specialized cell types of the tissue in which they reside through normal differentiation pathways. Considering the undeniable importance of stem cells in modern medicine, numerous studies have been performed on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on cellular processes such as: proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle and DNA repair processes. We have conducted extensive studies on beneficial (stimulatory) or detrimental biological effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile phone base stations, mobile phone jammers, radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and dentistry cavitrons over the past years. In this article, recent studies on the biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation in the range of radiofrequency (RF) on some important features of stem cells such as their proliferation and differentiation are reviewed. Studies reviewed in this paper indicate that the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells depend on various factors such as the biological systems, experiment conditions, the frequency and intensity of RF and the duration of exposure. PMID:26396965

  8. Bio-Chemo-Mechanical Models of Vascular Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsil; Wagenseil, Jessica E

    2015-07-01

    Models of vascular mechanics are necessary to predict the response of an artery under a variety of loads, for complex geometries, and in pathological adaptation. Classic constitutive models for arteries are phenomenological and the fitted parameters are not associated with physical components of the wall. Recently, microstructurally-linked models have been developed that associate structural information about the wall components with tissue-level mechanics. Microstructurally-linked models are useful for correlating changes in specific components with pathological outcomes, so that targeted treatments may be developed to prevent or reverse the physical changes. However, most treatments, and many causes, of vascular disease have chemical components. Chemical signaling within cells, between cells, and between cells and matrix constituents affects the biology and mechanics of the arterial wall in the short- and long-term. Hence, bio-chemo-mechanical models that include chemical signaling are critical for robust models of vascular mechanics. This review summarizes bio-mechanical and bio-chemo-mechanical models with a focus on large elastic arteries. We provide applications of these models and challenges for future work.

  9. Biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for ultrahigh-sensitive gaseous formaldehyde monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Gessei, Tomoko; Takahashi, Daishi; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2010-10-15

    An ultrahigh-sensitive fiber-optic biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for continuous monitoring of indoor formaldehyde was constructed and tested. The bio-sniffer measures gaseous formaldehyde as fluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which is the product of formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) reaction. The bio-sniffer device was constructed by attaching a flow cell with a FALDH immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode (UV-LED) with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. The excitation light was introduced to an optical fiber probe, and fluorescence emission of neighboring NADH, which was produced by applying formaldehyde vapor to the FALDH membrane, was concentrically measured with a photomultiplier tube. Assessment of the bio-sniffer was carried out using a standard gas generator. Response, calibration range and selectivity to other chemical substances were investigated. Circulating phosphate buffer, which contained NAD+, available for continuous monitoring of formaldehyde vapor. The calibration range of the bio-sniffer was 2.5 ppb to 10 ppm, which covers the guideline value of the World Health Organization (80 ppb). High selectivity to other gaseous substances due to specific activity of FALDH was also confirmed. Considering its high sensitivity, a possible application of the bio-sniffer is continuous indoor formaldehyde monitoring to provide healthy residential atmosphere.

  10. Hydrolase BioH knockout in E. coli enables efficient fatty acid methyl ester bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Kadisch, Marvin; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) originating from plant oils are most interesting renewable feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. FAMEs can also be produced and/or functionalized by engineered microbes to give access to, e.g., polymer building blocks. Yet, they are often subject to hydrolysis yielding free fatty acids, which typically are degraded by microbes. We identified BioH as the key enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of medium-chain length FAME derivatives in different E. coli K-12 strains. E. coli ΔbioH strains showed up to 22-fold reduced FAME hydrolysis rates in comparison with respective wild-type strains. Knockout strains showed, beside the expected biotin auxotrophy, unchanged growth behavior and biocatalytic activity. Thus, high specific rates (~80 U g CDW(-1) ) for terminal FAME oxyfunctionalization catalyzed by a recombinant alkane monooxygenase could be combined with reduced hydrolysis. Biotransformations in process-relevant two-liquid phase systems profited from reduced fatty acid accumulation and/or reduced substrate loss via free fatty acid metabolization. The BioH knockout strategy was beneficial in all tested strains, although its effect was found to differ according to specific strain properties, such as FAME hydrolysis and FFA degradation activities. BioH or functional analogs can be found in virtually all microorganisms, making bioH deletion a broadly applicable strategy for efficient microbial bioprocessing involving FAMEs.

  11. Spider Silk: Mother Nature's Bio-Superlens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monks, James N.; Yan, Bing; Hawkins, Nicholas; Vollrath, Fritz; Wang, Zengbo

    2016-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a possible new microfiber bio near field lens that uses minor ampullate spider silk,spun from the Nephila edulis spider, to create a real time image of a surface using near field optical techniques. The microfiber bio lens is the world's first natural superlens created by exploring biological materials. The resolution of the surface image overcomes the diffraction limit, with the ability to resolve patterns at 100 nm under a standard white light source in reflection mode. This resolution offers further developments in superlens technology and paves the way for new bio optics.

  12. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  13. Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the cost of landfill disposal skyrocketing and land availability becoming scarce, better options are required for managing our nation`s biomass waste. In response to this need, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is evaluating an innovative idea (described as Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process) to gasify waste products from the poultry industry and industrial wood/biomass-based residues in {open_quotes}as-is{close_quotes} or aggregate form. The presence of potassium salts in the poultry waste as well as in the biomass can act as a catalyst in reducing the severity of the thermal gasification. As a result, the mixture of these waste products can be gasified at a much lower temperature (1,300-1,400{degrees}F versus 1,800-2,000{degrees}F for conventional thermal gasification). Also, these potassium salts act as a catalyst by accelerating the gasification reaction and enhancing the mediation reaction. Hence, the product gas from this UTSI concept can be richer in methane and probably can be used as a source of fuel (to replace propane in hard reach remote places) or as a chemical feed stock. Exxon Research and Engineering Company has tested a similar catalytic gasification concept in a fluid-bed gasifier using coal in a one ton/day pilot plant in Baytown, Texas. If found technically and economically feasible, this concept can be later on extended to include other kinds of waste products such as cow manure and wastes from swine, etc.

  14. Cognitive bio-radar: The natural evolution of bio-signals measurement.

    PubMed

    Malafaia, Daniel; Oliveira, Beatriz; Ferreira, Pedro; Varum, Tiago; Vieira, José; Tomé, Ana

    2016-10-01

    In this article we discuss a novel approach to Bio-Radar, contactless measurement of bio-signals, called Cognitive Bio-Radar. This new approach implements the Bio-Radar in a Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform in order to obtain awareness of the environment where it operates. Due to this, the Cognitive Bio-Radar can adapt to its surroundings in order to have an intelligent usage of the radio frequency spectrum to improve its performance. In order to study the feasibility of such implementation, a SDR based Bio-Radar testbench was developed and evaluated. The prototype is shown to be able to acquire the heartbeat activity and the respiratory effort. The acquired data is compared with the acquisitions from a Biopac research data acquisition system, showing coherent results for both heartbeat and breathing rate.

  15. BioMEMS for mitochondria medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmaraj, Divya

    A BioMEMS device to study cell-mitochondrial physiological functionalities was developed. The pathogenesis of many diseases including obesity, diabetes and heart failure as well as aging has been linked to functional defects of mitochondria. The synthesis of Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP) is determined by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane and by the pH difference due to proton flux across it. Therefore, electrical characterization by E-fields with complementary chemical testing was used here. The BioMEMS device was fabricated as an SU-8 based microfluidic system with gold electrodes on SiO2/Si wafers for electromagnetic interrogation. Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) were incorporated for proton studies important in the electron transport chain, together with monitoring Na+, K+ and Ca++ ions for ion channel studies. ISFETs are chemically sensitive Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices and their threshold voltage is directly proportional to the electrolytic H+ ion variation. These ISFETs (sensitivity ˜55 mV/pH for H+) were further realized as specific ion sensitive Chemical Field Effect Transistors (CHEMFETs) by depositing a specific ion sensitive membrane on the gate. Electrodes for dielectric spectroscopy studies of mitochondria were designed as 2- and 4-probe structures for optimized operation over a wide frequency range. In addition, to limit polarization effects, a 4-electrode set-up with unique meshed pickup electrodes (7.5x7.5 mum2 loops with 4 mum wires) was fabricated. Sensitivity of impedance spectroscopy to membrane potential changes was confirmed by studying the influence of uncouplers and glucose on mitochondria. An electrical model was developed for the mitochondrial sample, and its frequency response correlated with impedance spectroscopy experiments of sarcolemmal mitochondria. Using the mesh electrode structure, we obtained a reduction of 83.28% in impedance at 200 Hz. COMSOL

  16. Bio-Inspired Innovation and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    119 Michael Ladisch chapter 9 Bio-inspired Materials and operations...123 figure 8–3. scheme of lignocellulosic Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125...9–1. areas in Which natural Biological Materials excel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 table 9–2

  17. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  18. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  19. Calixarenes in bio-medical researches.

    PubMed

    Rodik, Roman V; Boyko, Vyacheslav I; Kalchenko, Vitaly I

    2009-01-01

    Application of calixarene derivatives in bio-medical researches is reviewed in this article. Antiviral, bactericidal, antithrombothic, antituberculosis, anticancer activity as well as specific protein complexation, membranotropic properties and toxicity of modified calixarenes are discussed.

  20. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST), and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event extraction systems. The

  1. The NCBI BioSystems database.

    PubMed

    Geer, Lewis Y; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Geer, Renata C; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Liu, Chunlei; Shi, Wenyao; Bryant, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    The NCBI BioSystems database, found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosystems/, centralizes and cross-links existing biological systems databases, increasing their utility and target audience by integrating their pathways and systems into NCBI resources. This integration allows users of NCBI's Entrez databases to quickly categorize proteins, genes and small molecules by metabolic pathway, disease state or other BioSystem type, without requiring time-consuming inference of biological relationships from the literature or multiple experimental datasets.

  2. New Functional Device using Bio Nano Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-20

    to fabricate new dye-sensitised solar cell , we proposed a new photoresponsive electrode structure using bio nano process. Titanium dioxide ( TiO2 ) has...Abstract] In order to fabricate new dye-sensitised solar cell , we proposed a new photoresponsive electrode structure using bio nano process...Carbon nanotube- TiO2 hybrid materials having multitudious nano-sclae cavities were realized using a bifunctional cage-shaped protein possessing

  3. Aldo Leopold: A Bio-Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Review by Lt Col Donald Anderson Department of English USAF Academy, Colorado 80340 This research report, entitled Aldo Leopold : A Bio--Bibliography, is...large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service. ROBERT K. MORROW, Jr., Lt Col, USAF Director of Research Aldo Leopold : A Bio...appreciation to Mr. William J. Smoltz, for assistance with preparation of the manuscript for this report. Introduction 3 Biography 4 Aldo Leopold was

  4. Stimulatory heterotrimeric G protein augments gamma ray-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bak expression via CREB and AP-1 in H1299 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, So Young; Oh, Jung Min; Juhnn, Yong Sung

    2009-08-31

    Stimulatory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gs protein) stimulate cAMP generation in response to various signals, and modulate various cellular phenomena such as proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Gs proteins on gamma ray-induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells and its molecular mechanism, as an attempt to develop a new strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of gamma radiation. Expression of constitutively active mutant of the alpha subunit of Gs (GalphasQL) augmented gamma ray-induced apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway when assessed by clonogenic assay, FACS analysis of PI stained cells, and western blot analysis of the cytoplasmic translocation of cytochrome C and the cleavage of caspase-3 and ploy(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in H1299 human lung cancer cells. GalphasQL up-regulated the Bak expression at the levels of protein and mRNA. Treatment with inhibitors of PKA (H89), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and a CRE-decoy blocked GalphasQL-stimulated Bak reporter luciferase activity. Expression of GalphasQL increased basal and gamma ray-induced luciferase activity of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and AP-1, and the binding of CREB and AP-1 to Bak promoter. Furthermore, prostaglandin E2, a Galphas activating signal, was found to augment gamma ray-induced apoptosis, which was abolished by treatment with a prostanoid receptor antagonist. These results indicate that Galphas augments gamma ray-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bak expression via CREB and AP-1 in H1299 lung cancer cells, suggesting that the efficacy of radiotherapy of lung cancer may be improved by modulating Gs signaling pathway.

  5. Lasers for bio-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sona, Alberto

    1992-03-01

    Lasers are being increasingly used in bioptics and in life sciences in general, especially for medical applications for therapy and diagnostics. Lasers are also broadly used in environment sciences to monitor atmospheric parameters and concentrations of molecular species of natural origin or coming from human activities such as the various kind of pollutants. The peculiar features of lasers exploited in these areas are mainly the capability of developing an action or performing a measurement without physical contact with the target and, if required, from a remote position with the assistance of suitable beam delivery systems such as telescopes, microscopes, or optical fibers. These features are directly related to the space and time coherence of the laser light and to the energy storage capability of the laser material which allow an extremely effective concentration of the beam energy in space, direction frequency, or time. A short description of the principle of operation and relevant properties of lasers are given and the most significant properties of the laser emission are briefly reviewed. Lasers for medical applications (mainly for therapy) will be mentioned, pointing out the specific property exploited for the various applications. Finally, examples of laser applications to the environmental sciences will be reported. A summary of the properties exploited in the various bio-optical applications is shown.

  6. Preclinical and clinical studies of a collagen membrane (Bio-Gide).

    PubMed

    Schlegel, A K; Möhler, H; Busch, F; Mehl, A

    1997-04-01

    Membranes are used to guide the repopulation of defects by preferred cells and to achieve a specific healing effect. The collagen membrane studied, Bio-Gide, was developed particularly for periodontal, peri-implant applications or to improve the ossification of bone defects of any origin. Bio-Gide is a bilayer membrane; one compact and smooth layer is covered by a particularly dense film, designed to prevent the invasion of soft tissue in a membrane-protected bone defect. The other, rough side of Bio-Gide must be placed towards the bone defect in order to make bone ingrowth possible. As a prerequisite for its therapeutic use in humans, the collagen matrix must be devoid of major immunogenicity. The immunological response to the membrane material was analysed in rabbits. Later, a clinical prospective study provided information about the bone regeneration effect under the Bio-Gide membrane inserted in six patients selected at random. The immune response to the collagen membrane Bio-Gide and the bone healing was tested in these patients when undergoing oral surgery.

  7. Olfactory epithelium biosensor: odor discrimination of receptor neurons from a bio-hybrid sensing system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Zhang, Fenni; Zhang, Diming; Hsia, K Jimmy; Wang, Ping

    2012-12-01

    Bio-hybrid systems provide an opportunity for integrating a living bio-active unit and a proper biosensing system, to employ the unique properties of the bio-active unit. The biological olfactory system can sense and identify thousands of trace odors. The purpose of this study is to combine olfactory epithelium with microelectrode array (MEA) to establish an olfactory epithelium-MEA hybrid system to record the odor-induced electrophysiological activities of the tissue. In our experiments, extracellular potential of olfactory receptor neurons in intact epithelium were measured in the presence of ethyl ether, acetic acid, butanedione, and acetone, respectively. After the odor-induced response signals were analyzed in the time and frequency domain, the temporal characteristics of response signals were extracted. We found that olfactory epithelium-MEA hybrid system can reflect the in vitro odor information of different signal characteristics and firing modes in vitro. The bio-hybrid sensing system can represent a useful instrument to sense and detect the odorant molecules with well recognizing patterns. With the development of sensor technology, bio-hybrid systems will represent emerging and promising platforms for wide applications, ranging from health care to environmental monitoring.

  8. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

  9. Stimulatory effect of taurine on calcium ion uptake in rod outer segments of the rat retina is independent of taurine uptake.

    PubMed

    Militante, J D; Lombardini, J B

    1999-10-01

    Taurine stimulates ATP-dependent Ca(2+) uptake in the rat rod outer segments (ROS). This stimulation has been linked to the function of the cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel, implying an important physiologic role for taurine in visual signal transduction. Calmodulin (CaM) has been reported to affect taurine transport in the choroid plexus and also to inhibit the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel; thus, the effects of the competitive CaM inhibitors trifluoperazine (TFP) and N-(8-aminooctyl)-5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonamide (J-8) were studied on Ca(2+) and taurine uptake in the rat ROS. Pretreatment of the ROS preparation with TFP and J-8 for 5 min before measurement of Ca(2+)-uptake activity produced inhibition of the effects of taurine on ATP-dependent Ca(2+) uptake. Both TFP and J-8 also were effective in inhibiting high-affinity taurine uptake. In both uptake systems, inhibition by TFP was noncompetitive. These data initially suggested that the stimulatory effects of taurine on ATP-dependent Ca(2+) uptake are dependent on taurine uptake. However, competitive inhibition of taurine uptake by guanidinoethane sulfonate did not produce any effect on the stimulatory effects of taurine. Previous studies have proposed that taurine binds directly to the plasma membrane, and our study demonstrated that TFP inhibits taurine binding to the ROS. In addition, our study demonstrated that taurine uptake is unaffected by varying the concentration of Ca(2+) and that the effects of TFP are independent of Ca(2+), suggesting that TFP acts through a CaM-independent mechanism.

  10. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. Methods The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Results Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by 38.4 ± 4.2%, 38.1 ± 2.6%, 33.4 ± 4.6%, 33.7 ± 1.5%, and 35.8 ± 3.4%; respectively. The IC50 values obtained from tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed no toxic effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Conclusion Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health. PMID:24119256

  11. Signals from activation of B-cell receptor with anti-IgD can override the stimulatory effects of excess BAFF on mature B cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tue G; Morris, Jonathan M

    2014-09-01

    The selection and maturation of B-cell clones are critically determined by tonic signals from activated B cell receptors (BCR) and survival signals from BAFF cytokine. These finely tuned and coordinated signals provide a net positive signal that can promote the selection, maturation, proliferation and differentiation of a developing B cell. Stimulation with an anti-IgD antibody can also activate BCR but can lead to depletion and an arrest of mature B-cell development in vivo. It is not known whether survival signals from excess BAFF can override the suppressive effects of treatment with anti-IgD on mature B cells in vivo. Herein, we examined the effects of co-treatment of BAFF and anti-IgD on the mature B-cell compartment and antibody production in vivo by treating mice with either 1mg/kg BAFF or anti-IgD alone or in combination for 3 consecutive days. We found that co-treatment with anti-IgD significantly abrogated these stimulatory effects of BAFF treatment on splenic CD19+ B cells as well as mature CD19+IgD(hi)IgM+ B cells in vivo. Anti-IgD down-regulated the expression of the BCR complex (mIgM, mIgD and CD19) and the BAFF receptor TACI without regard to the presence of BAFF. Anti-IgD treatment also significantly negated BAFF-induced IgM production in vivo. Both BAFF and anti-IgD could individually stimulate IL-10 synthesis in B cells but did not affect one another. Taken together, our data suggest that activation of BCR with an anti-IgD antibody can override the stimulatory effects from excess BAFF on B cell proliferation and antibody production by down-regulating the expression of BCR complex and BAFF receptors.

  12. Stimulatory effect of menaquinone-7 on bone formation in elderly female rat femoral tissues in vitro: prevention of bone deterioration with aging.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori

    2002-12-01

    Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is vitamin K2 which is a series of vitamins with multiisoprene units at the 3-position of the naphthoquinone. MK-7 has been shown to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an animal model for osteoporosis. This study was undertaken to determine whether MK-7 has a stimulatory effect on bone components of elderly female rats in vitro. The femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues obtained from young (4 weeks old) or elderly (50 weeks old) female rats were cultured for 48 h in a Dullbecco's modified Eagle's medium (high glucose, 4.5%) supplemented with antibiotics and bovine serum albumin. Calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the diaphyseal and metaphyseal tissues obtained from elderly rats were significantly decreased as compared with those of young rats, indicating that aging causes a deterioration of bone formation. The presence of MK-7 (10(-6) or 10(-5) M) caused a significant increase in biochemical components in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues obtained from elderly rat in vitro. The anabolic effect of MK-7 (10(-6) or 10(-5) M) on the femoral calcium content was significantly enhanced in the presence of phytoestrogen genistein (10(-6) or 10(-5) M), suggesting that the mode of action of MK-7 differ from that of genistein. The effect of MK-7 (10(-5) M) in increasing calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and DNA content in the diaphyseal and metaphyseal tissues was completely abolished in the presence of cycloheximide (10(-6) M), an inhibitor of protein synthesis in vitro. These findings demonstrate that MK-7 has a stimulatory effect on bone formation in the femoral tissues of elderly female rats in vitro. MK-7 may have a preventive role for bone deterioration with aging.

  13. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  14. BioLab: Using Yeast Fermentation as a Model for the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigage, Helen K.; Neilson, Milton C.; Greeder, Michele M.

    This document presents a science experiment demonstrating the scientific method. The experiment consists of testing the fermentation capabilities of yeasts under different circumstances. The experiment is supported with computer software called BioLab which demonstrates yeast's response to different environments. (YDS)

  15. An In vitro Study of Bio-Control and Plant Growth Promotion Potential of Salicaceae Endophytes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Shyam L; Firrincieli, Andrea; Joubert, Pierre M; Okubara, Patricia A; Leston, Natalie D; McGeorge, Kendra M; Mugnozza, Giuseppe S; Harfouche, Antoine; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Doty, Sharon L

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities in the endosphere of Salicaceae plants, poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and willow (Salix sitchensis), have been demonstrated to be important for plant growth promotion, protection from biotic and abiotic stresses, and degradation of toxic compounds. Our study aimed to investigate bio-control activities of Salicaceae endophytes against various soil borne plant pathogens including Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, Fusarium culmorum, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, and Pythium ultimum. Additionally, different plant growth promoting traits such as biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production were assessed in all bio-control positive strains. Burkholderia, Rahnella, Pseudomonas, and Curtobacterium were major endophyte genera that showed bio-control activities in the in-vitro assays. The bio-control activities of Burkholderia strains were stronger across all tested plant pathogens as compared to other stains. Genomes of sequenced Burkholderia strains WP40 and WP42 were surveyed to identify the putative genes involved in the bio-control activities. The ocf and hcnABC gene clusters responsible for biosynthesis of the anti-fungal metabolites, occidiofungin and hydrogen cyanide, are present in the genomes of WP40 and WP42. Nearly all endophyte strains showing the bio-control activities produced IAA, solubilized tricalcium phosphate, and synthesized siderophores in the culture medium. Moreover, some strains reduced acetylene into ethylene in the acetylene reduction assay, a common assay used for BNF. Salicaceae endophytes could be useful for bio-control of various plant pathogens, and plant growth promotion possibly through the mechanisms of BNF, IAA production, and nutrient acquisition.

  16. An In vitro Study of Bio-Control and Plant Growth Promotion Potential of Salicaceae Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Shyam L.; Firrincieli, Andrea; Joubert, Pierre M.; Okubara, Patricia A.; Leston, Natalie D.; McGeorge, Kendra M.; Mugnozza, Giuseppe S.; Harfouche, Antoine; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Doty, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities in the endosphere of Salicaceae plants, poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and willow (Salix sitchensis), have been demonstrated to be important for plant growth promotion, protection from biotic and abiotic stresses, and degradation of toxic compounds. Our study aimed to investigate bio-control activities of Salicaceae endophytes against various soil borne plant pathogens including Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, Fusarium culmorum, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, and Pythium ultimum. Additionally, different plant growth promoting traits such as biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production were assessed in all bio-control positive strains. Burkholderia, Rahnella, Pseudomonas, and Curtobacterium were major endophyte genera that showed bio-control activities in the in-vitro assays. The bio-control activities of Burkholderia strains were stronger across all tested plant pathogens as compared to other stains. Genomes of sequenced Burkholderia strains WP40 and WP42 were surveyed to identify the putative genes involved in the bio-control activities. The ocf and hcnABC gene clusters responsible for biosynthesis of the anti-fungal metabolites, occidiofungin and hydrogen cyanide, are present in the genomes of WP40 and WP42. Nearly all endophyte strains showing the bio-control activities produced IAA, solubilized tricalcium phosphate, and synthesized siderophores in the culture medium. Moreover, some strains reduced acetylene into ethylene in the acetylene reduction assay, a common assay used for BNF. Salicaceae endophytes could be useful for bio-control of various plant pathogens, and plant growth promotion possibly through the mechanisms of BNF, IAA production, and nutrient acquisition. PMID:28348550

  17. The All Terrain Bio nano Gear for Space Radiation Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Ummat, Ajay; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2007-01-30

    This paper discusses about the relevance of detecting space radiations which are very harmful and pose numerous health issues for astronauts. There are many ways to detect radiations, but we present a non-invasive way of detecting them in real-time while an astronaut is in the mission. All Terrain Bio-nano (ATB) gear system is one such concept where we propose to detect various levels of space radiations depending on their intensity and warn the astronaut of probable biological damage. A basic framework for radiation detection system which utilizes bio-nano machines is discussed. This radiation detection system is termed as 'radiation-responsive molecular assembly' (RMA) for the detection of space radiations. Our objective is to create a device which could detect space radiations by creating an environment equivalent to human cells within its structure and bio-chemically sensing the effects induced therein. For creating such an environment and further bio-chemically sensing space radiations bio-nano systems could be potentially used. These bio-nano systems could interact with radiations and signal based on the intensity of the radiations their relative biological effectiveness. Based on the energy and kind of radiation encountered, a matrix of signals has to be created which corresponds to a particular biological effect. The key advantage of such a design is its ability to interact with the radiation at e molecular scale; characterize its intensity based on energy deposition and relate it to the relative biological effectiveness based on the correspondence established through molecular structures and bond strengths of the bio-nano system.

  18. Stimulatory actions of di-8-butyl-amino-naphthyl-ethylene-pyridinium-propyl-sulfonate (di-8-ANEPPS), voltage-sensitive dye, on the BKCa channel in pituitary tumor (GH3) cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Ya-Jean

    2008-01-01

    Di-8-ANEPPS (4-{2-[6-(dibutylamino)-2-naphthalenyl]-ethenyl}-1-(3-sulfopropyl)pyridinium inner salt) has been used as a fast-response voltage-sensitive styrylpyridinium probe. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of di-8-ANEPPS actions on ion currents. In this study, the effects of this dye on ion currents were investigated in pituitary GH(3) cells. In whole-cell configuration, di-8-ANEPPS (10 microM) reversibly increased the amplitude of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current. In inside-out configuration, di-8-ANEPPS (10 microM) applied to the intracellular surface of the membrane caused no change in single-channel conductance; however, it did enhance the activity of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels with an EC(50) value of 7.5 microM. This compound caused a left shift in the activation curve of BK(Ca) channels with no change in the gating charge of these channels. A decrease in mean closed time of the channels was seen in the presence of this dye. In the cell-attached mode, di-8-ANEPPS applied on the extracellular side of the membrane also activated BK(Ca) channels. However, neither voltage-gated K(+) nor ether-à-go-go-related gene (erg)-mediated K(+) currents in GH(3) cells were affected by di-8-APPNES. Under current-clamp configuration, di-8-ANEPPS (10 microM) decreased the firing of action potentials in GH(3) cells. In pancreatic betaTC-6 cells, di-8-APPNES (10 microM) also increased BK(Ca)-channel activity. Taken together, this study suggests that during the exposure to di-8-ANEPPS, the stimulatory effects on BK(Ca) channels could be one of potential mechanisms through which it may affect cell excitability.

  19. BrisSynBio: a BBSRC/EPSRC-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre

    PubMed Central

    Sedgley, Kathleen R.; Race, Paul R.; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2016-01-01

    BrisSynBio is the Bristol-based Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)/Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre. It is one of six such Centres in the U.K. BrisSynBio's emphasis is on rational and predictive bimolecular modelling, design and engineering in the context of synthetic biology. It trains the next generation of synthetic biologists in these approaches, to facilitate translation of fundamental synthetic biology research to industry and the clinic, and to do this within an innovative and responsible research framework. PMID:27284028

  20. Bio-functionalization of biomedical metals.

    PubMed

    Xiao, M; Chen, Y M; Biao, M N; Zhang, X D; Yang, B C

    2017-01-01

    Bio-functionalization means to endow biomaterials with bio-functions so as to make the materials or devices more suitable for biomedical applications. Traditionally, because of the excellent mechanical properties, the biomedical metals have been widely used in clinic. However, the utilized functions are basically supporting or fixation especially for the implantable devices. Nowadays, some new functions, including bioactivity, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, and so on, are introduced to biomedical metals. To realize those bio-functions on the metallic biomedical materials, surface modification is the most commonly used method. Surface modification, including physical and chemical methods, is an effective way to alter the surface morphology and composition of biomaterials. It can endow the biomedical metals with new surface properties while still retain the good mechanical properties of the bulk material. Having analyzed the ways of realizing the bio-functionalization, this article briefly summarized the bio-functionalization concepts of six hot spots in this field. They are bioactivity, bony tissue inducing, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, anticoagulation, and drug loading functions.

  1. Bios-3: Siberian experiments in bioregenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Gitelson, J. I.; Lisovsky, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The Russian experience with the bioregenerative life support system Bios-3 at Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, is reviewed. A brief review of other bioregenerative systems examines Biosphere 2 in Oracle, Arizona, and the Bios-1 and Bios-2 systems that preceded Bios-3. Physical details of the Bios-3 facility are provided. The use of Chlorella and higher plants for gas exchange is examined. Long-term studies of human habitation are discussed. Other topics include microflora in Bios-3, the theory of closed systems, and problems for the future.

  2. BioC viewer: a web-based tool for displaying and merging annotations in BioC.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Kim, Sun; Wilbur, W John; Kwon, Dongseop

    2016-01-01

    BioC is an XML-based format designed to provide interoperability for text mining tools and manual curation results. A challenge of BioC as a standard format is to align annotations from multiple systems. Ideally, this should not be a major problem if users follow guidelines given by BioC key files. Nevertheless, the misalignment between text and annotations happens quite often because different systems tend to use different software development environments, e.g. ASCII vs. Unicode. We first implemented the BioC Viewer to assist BioGRID curators as a part of the BioCreative V BioC track (Collaborative Biocurator Assistant Task). For the BioC track, the BioC Viewer helped curate protein-protein interaction and genetic interaction pairs appearing in full-text articles. Here, we describe the BioC Viewer itself as well as improvements made to the BioC Viewer since the BioCreative V Workshop to address the misalignment issue of BioC annotations. While uploading BioC files, a BioC merge process is offered when there are files from the same full-text article. If there is a mismatch between an annotated offset and text, the BioC Viewer adjusts the offset to correctly align with the text. The BioC Viewer has a user-friendly interface, where most operations can be performed within a few mouse clicks. The feedback from BioGRID curators has been positive for the web interface, particularly for its usability and learnability.Database URL: http://viewer.bioqrator.org.

  3. BioC viewer: a web-based tool for displaying and merging annotations in BioC

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Kim, Sun; Wilbur, W. John; Kwon, Dongseop

    2016-01-01

    BioC is an XML-based format designed to provide interoperability for text mining tools and manual curation results. A challenge of BioC as a standard format is to align annotations from multiple systems. Ideally, this should not be a major problem if users follow guidelines given by BioC key files. Nevertheless, the misalignment between text and annotations happens quite often because different systems tend to use different software development environments, e.g. ASCII vs. Unicode. We first implemented the BioC Viewer to assist BioGRID curators as a part of the BioCreative V BioC track (Collaborative Biocurator Assistant Task). For the BioC track, the BioC Viewer helped curate protein-protein interaction and genetic interaction pairs appearing in full-text articles. Here, we describe the BioC Viewer itself as well as improvements made to the BioC Viewer since the BioCreative V Workshop to address the misalignment issue of BioC annotations. While uploading BioC files, a BioC merge process is offered when there are files from the same full-text article. If there is a mismatch between an annotated offset and text, the BioC Viewer adjusts the offset to correctly align with the text. The BioC Viewer has a user-friendly interface, where most operations can be performed within a few mouse clicks. The feedback from BioGRID curators has been positive for the web interface, particularly for its usability and learnability. Database URL: http://viewer.bioqrator.org PMID:27515823

  4. Bio-Decontamination of Water and Surfaces by DC Discharges in Atmospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machala, Zdenko; Tarabová, Barbora; Pelach, Michal; Šipoldová, Zuzana; Hensel, Karol; Janda, Mário; Šikurová, Libuša

    Two types of DC-driven atmospheric air discharges, including a streamer corona and a transient spark with short high current pulses of limited energy, were employed for bio-decontamination of water and various surfaces (agar plates, plastic foils, human teeth) contaminated by bacteria or spores (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus). Both discharges generate cold non-equilibrium plasma. The discharges combined with the electro-spraying of the treated water through the needle electrode lead to fast and efficient bio-decontamination. Experiments comparing direct and indirect plasma effects, oxidation stress measurements in the cell membranes, and chemical changes induced in the treated water enable assessment of the plasma agents being responsible for microbial inactivation. Radicals and reactive oxygen species seem to be dominant biocidal agents, although deeper understanding of the plasma-induced water chemistry and of the temporal evolution of the bio-inactivation processes is needed.

  5. Utilization of different waste proteins to create a novel PGPR-containing bio-organic fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Li; Zhao, Jianshu; Huang, Rong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins, while many waste proteins are haphazardly disposed, causing serious environmental pollution. In this study, several waste proteins were used as additives to assist with the reproduction of the functional microbe (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9) inoculated into matured composts to produce BIOs. An optimized composition of solid-state fermentation (SSF) raw materials was predicted by response surface methodology and experimental validation. The results showed that 7.61% (w/w, DW, the same below) rapeseed meal, 8.85% expanded feather meal, 6.47% dewatered blue algal sludge and 77.07% chicken compost resulted in maximum biomass of strain SQR-9 and the maximum amount of lipopeptides 7 days after SSF. Spectroscopy experiments showed that the inner material structural changes in the novel SSF differed from the control and the novel BIO had higher dissolved organic matter. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste proteins for producing economical but high-quality BIO. PMID:25586328

  6. Utilization of different waste proteins to create a novel PGPR-containing bio-organic fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Li; Zhao, Jianshu; Huang, Rong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins, while many waste proteins are haphazardly disposed, causing serious environmental pollution. In this study, several waste proteins were used as additives to assist with the reproduction of the functional microbe (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9) inoculated into matured composts to produce BIOs. An optimized composition of solid-state fermentation (SSF) raw materials was predicted by response surface methodology and experimental validation. The results showed that 7.61% (w/w, DW, the same below) rapeseed meal, 8.85% expanded feather meal, 6.47% dewatered blue algal sludge and 77.07% chicken compost resulted in maximum biomass of strain SQR-9 and the maximum amount of lipopeptides 7 days after SSF. Spectroscopy experiments showed that the inner material structural changes in the novel SSF differed from the control and the novel BIO had higher dissolved organic matter. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste proteins for producing economical but high-quality BIO.

  7. Biological and mechanical evaluation of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold for autologous valve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jahnavi, S; Saravanan, U; Arthi, N; Bhuvaneshwar, G S; Kumary, T V; Rajan, S; Verma, R S

    2017-04-01

    Major challenge in heart valve tissue engineering for paediatric patients is the development of an autologous valve with regenerative capacity. Hybrid tissue engineering approach is recently gaining popularity to design scaffolds with desired biological and mechanical properties that can remodel post implantation. In this study, we fabricated aligned nanofibrous Bio-Hybrid scaffold made of decellularized bovine pericardium: polycaprolactone-chitosan with optimized polymer thickness to yield the desired biological and mechanical properties. CD44(+), αSMA(+), Vimentin(+) and CD105(-) human valve interstitial cells were isolated and seeded on these Bio-Hybrid scaffolds. Subsequent biological evaluation revealed interstitial cell proliferation with dense extra cellular matrix deposition that indicated the viability for growth and proliferation of seeded cells on the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical tests along axial direction showed that the Bio-Hybrid scaffolds has at least 20 times the strength of the native valves and its stiffness is nearly 3 times more than that of native valves. Biaxial and uniaxial mechanical studies on valve interstitial cells cultured Bio-Hybrid scaffolds revealed that the response along the axial and circumferential direction was different, similar to native valves. Overall, our findings suggest that Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for future development of regenerative heart valve constructs in children.

  8. Bios-3 project in Krasnoyarsk, Russia

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M

    1994-01-01

    The article in this issue by Gitelson and Okladnikov provides a valuable summary of some of the work conducted at the Bios-3 project in Krasnoyarsk, Russia. As the title suggests, the focus is on humans and their role in a CELSS biosphere. I am aware of several translated reports and some recent articles by Dr. Gitelson and colleagues in which the Bios project is described, but this paper provides some information that I have not seen previously in an english article. Although the discussion is focused on bioregeneration, the authors state that complementary physicochemical technologies and some stowage may be needed in a CELSS. For example, animal protein foods were taken into the Bios-3 chamber, since, as the authors state, "products of animal origin would make the system considerably more complicated and energy inefficient."

  9. On calcium phosphate bio-cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepuk, A. A.; Veresov, A. G.; Putlyaev, V. I.

    2007-10-01

    The prospect of clinical applications of bio-cements in bone implantation and tissue substitution implies strict requirements as regards material reliability and robustness. We suggest a technique to enhance the mechanical properties of bio-cements based on α-Ca3(PO4)2. Various types of mechanical testing, including compressive deformation analysis, proved that the most robust bio-cement might be fabricated of α-TCP and 1% chitosan. The kinetics of transformation in experiments was considered in order to define the best selection of substance ratios and terms of stabilization. It is essential to increase the ultimate strength and other properties so that they are close to those of cortical bone and this was achieved with the additives chitosan and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

  10. Upscaling of Bio-mediated Soil Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    J. T. DeJong; B. C. Martinez; B. M. Mortensen; D. C. Nelson; J. T. Waller; M. H. Weil; T. R. Ginn; T. Weathers; T. Barkouki; Y. Fujita; G. Redden; C. Hunt; D. Major; B. Tunyu

    2009-10-01

    As demand for soil improvement continues to increase, new, sustainable, and innocuous methods are needed to alter the mechanical properties of soils. Recent research has demonstrated the potential of bio-mediated soil improvement for geotechnical applications (DeJong et al. 2006, Whiffin et al. 2007). Upscaling the bio-mediated treatment process for in situ implementation presents a number of challenges to be addressed, including soil and pore fluid interactions, bioaugmentation versus biostimulation of microbial communities, controlled distribution of mediated calcite precipitation, and permanence of the cementation. Current studies are utilizing large-scale laboratory experiments, non-destructive geophysical measurements, and modeling, to develop an optimized and predictable bio-mediated treatment method.

  11. Data sharing through an NIH central database repository: a cross-sectional survey of BioLINCC users

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph S; Ritchie, Jessica D; Finn, Emily; Desai, Nihar R; Lehman, Richard L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Gross, Cary P

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterise experiences using clinical research data shared through the National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC) clinical research data repository, along with data recipients’ perceptions of the value, importance and challenges with using BioLINCC data. Design and setting Cross-sectional web-based survey. Participants All investigators who requested and received access to clinical research data from BioLINCC between 2007 and 2014. Main outcome measures Reasons for BioLINCC data request, research project plans, interactions with original study investigators, BioLINCC experience and other project details. Results There were 536 investigators who requested and received access to clinical research data from BioLINCC between 2007 and 2014. Of 441 potential respondents, 195 completed the survey (response rate=44%); 89% (n=174) requested data for an independent study, 17% (n=33) for pilot/preliminary analysis. Commonly cited reasons for requesting data through BioLINCC were feasibility of collecting data of similar size and scope (n=122) and insufficient financial resources for primary data collection (n=76). For 95% of respondents (n=186), a primary research objective was to complete new research, as opposed to replicate prior analyses. Prior to requesting data from BioLINCC, 18% (n=36) of respondents had contacted the original study investigators to obtain data, whereas 24% (n=47) had done so to request collaboration. Nearly all (n=176; 90%) respondents found the data to be suitable for their proposed project; among those who found the data unsuitable (n=19; 10%), cited reasons were data too complicated to use (n=5) and data poorly organised (n=5). Half (n=98) of respondents had completed their proposed projects, of which 67% (n=66) have been published. Conclusions Investigators were primarily using clinical research data from BioLINCC for independent research, making use of

  12. A Simple Stimulatory Device for Evoking Point-like Tactile Stimuli: A Searchlight for LFP to Spike Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Nencini, Sara; Caramenti, Gian Carlo; Valente, Maurizio; Storchi, Riccardo; Biella, Gabriele E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Current neurophysiological research has the aim to develop methodologies to investigate the signal route from neuron to neuron, namely in the transitions from spikes to Local Field Potentials (LFPs) and from LFPs to spikes. LFPs have a complex dependence on spike activity and their relation is still poorly understood1. The elucidation of these signal relations would be helpful both for clinical diagnostics (e.g. stimulation paradigms for Deep Brain Stimulation) and for a deeper comprehension of neural coding strategies in normal and pathological conditions (e.g. epilepsy, Parkinson disease, chronic pain). To this aim, one has to solve technical issues related to stimulation devices, stimulation paradigms and computational analyses. Therefore, a custom-made stimulation device was developed in order to deliver stimuli well regulated in space and time that does not incur in mechanical resonance. Subsequently, as an exemplification, a set of reliable LFP-spike relationships was extracted. The performance of the device was investigated by extracellular recordings, jointly spikes and LFP responses to the applied stimuli, from the rat Primary Somatosensory cortex. Then, by means of a multi-objective optimization strategy, a predictive model for spike occurrence based on LFPs was estimated. The application of this paradigm shows that the device is adequately suited to deliver high frequency tactile stimulation, outperforming common piezoelectric actuators. As a proof of the efficacy of the device, the following results were presented: 1) the timing and reliability of LFP responses well match the spike responses, 2) LFPs are sensitive to the stimulation history and capture not only the average response but also the trial-to-trial fluctuations in the spike activity and, finally, 3) by using the LFP signal it is possible to estimate a range of predictive models that capture different aspects of the spike activity. PMID:24686295

  13. Pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust: Characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    PubMed

    Moralı, Uğur; Yavuzel, Nazan; Şensöz, Sevgi

    2016-12-01

    Slow pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust was performed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. The operational variables were as follows: pyrolysis temperature (400-600°C), heating rate (10-50°Cmin(-1)) and nitrogen flow rate (50-150cm(3)min(-1)). Physicochemical and thermogravimetric characterizations of hornbeam sawdust were performed. The characteristics of bio-oil and bio-char were analyzed on the basis of various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, 1H NMR, SEM, BET. Higher heating value, density and kinematic viscosity of the bio-oil with maximum yield of 35.28% were 23.22MJkg(-1), 1289kgm(-3) and 0.6mm(2)s(-1), respectively. The bio-oil with relatively high fuel potential can be obtained from the pyrolysis of the hornbeam sawdust and the bio-char with a calorific value of 32.88MJkg(-1) is a promising candidate for solid fuel applications that also contributes to the preservation of the environment.

  14. Bio-Mos: an effective inducer of dicentracin gene expression in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Forchino, Andrea; Rimoldi, Simona; Brambilla, Fabio; Antonini, Micaela; Saroglia, Marco

    2009-08-01

    Concern over the use of dietary antibiotics in aquaculture has encouraged the industry to search for alternatives that both enhance performance and afford protection from disease. Bio-Mos, derived from the outer cell wall of a specific strain of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Alltech Inc, USA) is a product that fits these criteria. Here, we present data on the impact of a Bio-Mos supplemented diet on the mRNA copy number of the antimicrobial peptide dicentracin, whose transcript regulation has not yet been explored in fish.We analyzed Bio-Mos-induced changes in the expression of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) dicentracin,using a one-tube two-temperature real-time RT-PCR with which the gene expression can be absolutely quantified using the standard curve method. Our results revealed that 30 days of feeding fish with diets containing Bio-Mos supplemented at either 3 per thousand or 5 per thousand significantly increased the dicentracin mRNA copy number in the head kidney. Furthermore, the mRNA copy number in fish fed at 3 per thousand was significantly higher than that of the group fed at 5 per thousand for the same period of feeding Bio-Mos. A longer feeding period (60 days)did not further increase the dicentracin transcript levels as compared to the values recorded after 30 days of feeding either in the group fed at 3 per thousand or in the one fed at 5 per thousand diet. However, the transcript levels in fish fed at 3 per thousand proved to be significantly higher than those of the controls after 60 days of feeding. These findings offer new information about the response of antimicrobial peptides at the transcriptional level to diets supplemented with immune response modulators, and support a role of Bio-Mos in promoting sea bass nonspecific immune system.

  15. Constraints to bio-energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis has prompted research and development of renewable, domestic, cost-effective and publicly acceptable energy alternatives. Among these are the bioconversion technologies. To date bio-energy research has been directed toward the mechanics of the conversion processes and technical assessment of the environmental impacts. However, there are other obstacles to overcome before biomass can be converted to more useful forms of energy that fit existing need. Barriers to bio-energy resource application in the US are identified. In addition, examples from several agricultural regions serve to illustrate site-specific resource problems.

  16. Fuel Cells on Bio-Gas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Remick, R. J.

    2009-03-04

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Fuel cells operating on bio-gas offer a pathway to renewable electricity generation; (2) With federal incentives of $3,500/kW or 30% of the project costs, reasonable payback periods of less than five years can be achieved; (3) Tri-generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen offers an alternative route to solving the H{sub 2} infrastructure problem facing fuel cell vehicle deployment; and (4) DOE will be promoting bio-gas fuel cells in the future under its Market Transformation Programs.

  17. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Richland, WA; Hart,; Todd, R [Kennewick, WA; Neuenschwander, Gary G [Burbank, WA

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  18. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hu, Jianli; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  19. Stimulatory effect of N-acetyl Muramyl dipeptide in vivo: proliferation of bone marrow progenitor cells in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, B; Wachsmuth, E D

    1982-01-01

    The effects of single and multiple injections of N-acetyl muramyl dipeptide (MDP) on peripheral leukocytes, colony-forming cells (i.e., bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells), and the humoral immune response (to bovine serum albumin) were investigated in mice. Whereas low doses of MDP (0.1 to 1 mg/kg) provoked lymphocytosis, larger doses (10 mg/kg upward) resulted in lymphocytopenia and an increase in the number of young stab neutrophils and monocytes. MDP induced a dose-dependent increase in the number of bone-marrow macrophage progenitor cells, the maximum being reached by a dose around 10 mg/kg. A 50% increase in the maximum effect was produced by a dose around 0.1 mg/kg. The higher the dose, the longer the increase in these progenitor cells persisted. MDP mediated a dose-dependent antibody response to small amounts of bovine serum albumin, correlating with the proliferation of progenitor cells. PMID:7118246

  20. Boron brings big benefits to bio-based blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solution to the problems with bio-based lubrication can be approached by a combination of blending and additive strategies. However, many additives do not show efficacy when used in bio-based lubricants. Additive addition also lowers the bio-based content of the blend, which in turn limits the a...

  1. [Implantable loop recorder BioMonitor 2 (Biotronik)].

    PubMed

    Lewalter, Thorsten; Jilek, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    The implantable loop recorder BioMonitor 2 is available with an emphasis on syncope and one on detection of atrial tachycardias. The BioMonitor 2 can be easily implanted. The BioMonitor 2 pilot study showed a high and over time stable signal and the telemetric performance was above average.

  2. Release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity from the perfused canine thyroid. Selective stimulatory effect of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, P; Orskov, H

    1981-05-01

    It is well accepted that the C cells of the thyroid contain somatostatin, but the role in local endocrine function has not yet been firmly established in this organ, and it has not been proved that thyroidal somatostatin is released into the circulation. We have measured the contents of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the effluent of canine thyroid glands perfused without recirculation with a synthetic buffer medium. During basal conditions a definite release was consistently found in the order of 10 pg/ml corresponding to 12 pg/min. The somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was studied in dilution experiments and by gel-filtration chromatography, and found to have properties identical to those of synthetic cyclic somatostatin, which was also recovered quantitatively when added to sampling tubes. Various compounds were infused in concentrations that are highly active in pancreas perfusion experiments. 14-min infusion of arginine, 5 and 11.5 mmol/liter; isoproterenol, 10 and 23.7 nmol/liter and 68.7 mumol/liter; acetylcholine, 5 mumol/liter, carbamylcholine, 10 and 100 mumol/liter; glucagon, 1 and 30 nmol/liter; and porcine calcitonin, 1 and 100 ng/ml did not affect the basal release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity significantly. Neither did an increase from the control level of 4 mmol/liter glucose of 10 or 20 mmol/liter, nor an increase in the control level of 4.4 mmol/liter K+ to 7.5 or 14.4 mmol/liter. Each of these compounds were tested in three or four dogs. The effect of an increase in Ca++ from the control level of 1.5 mmol/liter to 2.25, 3.0, and 4.5 mmol/liter was tested in random order in five thyroid lobes. All three doses elicited an immediate increase in effluent somatostatin-like immunoreactivity. In most experiments the response was biphasic with an early spike, followed by a stable level that was maintained during prolonged Ca++ infusion. The secretory response was not diminished through a series of repeated short pulses of calcium infusion

  3. Selective stimulatory action of olfactory ensheathing glia-conditioned medium on oligodendroglial differentiation, with additional reference to signaling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Litia A; Vitorino, Louise C; Guimarães, Roberta P M; Allodi, Silvana; de Melo Reis, Ricardo A; Cavalcante, Leny A

    2014-07-04

    We examined the effects of conditioned medium from olfactory ensheathing glia (OEGCM) on the differentiation of oligodendrocytes in mixed cultures of early postnatal hippocampi. Differentiation was judged from the numerical density (ND) of cells immunoreactive to 2'3' cyclic nucleotide 3'phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and O4 antibodies. NDs increased according to inverted-U dose-response curves, particularly for CNPase+ cells (9-fold at optimal dilution) and these changes were blocked by inhibitors of ERK1, p38-MAPK, and PI3K. Our results raise the possibility that OEG secreted factor(s) may counteract demyelination induced by trauma, neurodegenerative diseases, and advanced age, and should stimulate novel methods to deliver these factors and/or potentiating chemicals.

  4. Exposure to stimulatory CpG oligonucleotides during gestation induces maternal hypertension and excess vasoconstriction in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Goulopoulou, Styliani; Wenceslau, Camilla F; McCarthy, Cameron G; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-04-15

    Bacterial infections increase risk for pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and preterm birth. Unmethylated CpG DNA sequences are present in bacterial DNA and have immunostimulatory effects. Maternal exposure to CpG DNA induces fetal demise and craniofacial malformations; however, the effects of CpG DNA on maternal cardiovascular health have not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to synthetic CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) during gestation would increase blood pressure and cause vascular dysfunction in pregnant rats. Pregnant and nonpregnant female rats were treated with CpG ODN (ODN 2395) or saline (Veh) starting on gestational day 14or corresponding day for the nonpregnant groups. Exposure to CpG ODN increased systolic blood pressure in pregnant (Veh: 121 ± 2 mmHg vs. ODN 2395: 134 ± 2 mmHg,P< 0.05) but not in nonpregnant rats (Veh: 111 ± 2 mmHg vs. ODN 2395: 108 ± 5 mmHg,P> 0.05). Mesenteric resistance arteries from pregnant CpG ODN-treated rats had increased contractile responses to U46619 [thromboxane A2(TxA2) mimetic] compared with arteries from vehicle-treated rats [Emax(%KCl), Veh: 87 ± 4 vs. ODN 2395: 104 ± 4,P< 0.05]. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition increased contractile responses to U46619, and CpG ODN treatment abolished this effect in arteries from pregnant ODN 2395-treated rats. CpG ODN potentiated the involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX) to U46619-induced contractions. In conclusion, exposure to CpG ODN during gestation induces maternal hypertension, augments resistance artery contraction, increases the involvement of COX-dependent mechanisms and reduces the contribution of NOS-dependent mechanisms to TxA2-induced contractions in mesenteric resistance arteries.

  5. A Review of BioTutor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhrkopf, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A review of BioTutor which is software to accompany the third edition of Neil Campbell's textbook, "Biology," is provided. The review includes a brief description of the software and a discussion of good and bad features of the software. In the closing words, the reviewer expresses a considerable amount of concern regarding the quality of this…

  6. Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    The Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery (ICBR) process will use new technology to convert corn grain and stover into fermentable sugars for the parallel production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO) and fuel ethanol.

  7. Evaluation of the BioVapor Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioVapor model addresses transport and biodegradation of petroleum vapors in the subsurface. This presentation describes basic background on the nature and scientific basis of environmental transport models. It then describes a series of parameter uncertainty runs of the Bi...

  8. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  9. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  10. Immersive Protein Gaming for Bio Edutainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yiyu; Lu, Baifang; Zheng, Jianmin; Li, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Games have long been used as a tool for teaching important subject matter, from concept building to problem solving. Through fun learning, students may further develop their curiosities and interest in their study. This article addresses the issue of learning biomolecular structures by virtual reality gaming. A bio edutainment solution featuring…

  11. Tool Integration Framework for Bio-Informatics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Research ACCRE: Advanced Computing Centre for Research & Education NB: Initial Experiment with Yeast Cell Cycle Data Figure 9: Model Estimation and...t ts Basic Tools • SBML Extension • Bio- SPICE Dashboard Add-Ons i l • L t si • i - I s r - s Core Technologies • Building block components for

  12. Monkey Baker in bio-pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Baker, in bio-pack couch being readied for Jupiter (AM-18 flight). Jupiter, AM-18 mission, also carried an American-born rhesus monkey, Able into suborbit. The flight was successful and both monkeys were recovered in good condition. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959.

  13. Preparation of small bio-compatible microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such a hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  14. BioProject Number PRJNA230524

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This BioProject consists of raw genotyping-by-sequencing data collected in 96-plex format on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. There were four to six experimental replicates for each of the 46 plants. The development of tens of thousands of mapped SNP markers in wild tomato species was hig...

  15. BioCD: Self-referencing interferometer for biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Manoj

    The holy-grail of modern medical science is to provide personalized health-care. An individual's state of health can be correlated to the pattern of concentration of several 'marker' molecules, for e.g. the presence of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) beyond a certain threshold in the body is a strong indication of prostate cancer. To realize the dream of personalized healthcare, a large number of markers have to be identified and correlated to the state of health across diverse populations. The identified markers have to be quantified subsequently to define an individual's state of health. The technology used to achieve the above should be sensitive, accurate, reliable, high-throughput and should be cheap and simple enough to be able to be available in a clinician's office. Interferometry has been used as a sensitive metrology tool in fields ranging from semiconductor inspection to astronomy. This thesis demonstrates a self-referencing interferometric biosensor (BioCD) with a surface normal design potentially capable of scaling up to thousands of tests per sensor substrates. The sensor concept is similar to an optical CD in that gold microstructures fabricated on the BioCD surface act as wavefront splitting interferometers. In contrast to the optical CD, the BioCD operates in a condition called quadrature, which provides maximum linear response to small phase changes caused by protein binding events. The gold microstructures generate a carrier wave when the BioCD is spun, and protein binding is detected as a modulation of an envelope of the carrier wave pattern created by the immobilized capture proteins. By immobilizing reference and target proteins, differential measurements that automatically subtract out non-specific binding can be obtained. We have demonstrated a detection limit of about 1 ng/ml with this technology, which is a clinically relevant figure for many human and veterinary applications. The specific and non-specific binding signals are separated by

  16. Technical and clinical validation of the Allergen BioCube® for timothy grass

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Paul; Lane, Keith J.; Stein, Linda; Abelson, Mark B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Field studies for allergic rhinitis (AR) commonly have inconsistent allergen concentrations and subject exposure patterns due to varying environmental conditions and subject behaviors. A technical and clinical validation study was conducted for the Allergen BioCube® using timothy grass to confirm uniform allergen concentration and clinically relevant subject symptom responses. Methods Allergen concentrations were verified by laser particle counts. Subjects (N = 14) with positive skin test reactions and no symptoms at screening received four 3‐h timothy grass exposures in the BioCube over consecutive days. Subjects evaluated nasal itching, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion while in the BioCube; Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) was computed. Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), sIgE blood tests, and Nasal Inflammation Score (NIS) were assessed. A correlation analysis was conducted for mean sIgE, skin test, and TNSS. Results Uniform timothy grass concentrations were achieved in the BioCube, both spatially and temporally, at all subject positions. Mean TNSS increased substantially from pre‐exposure levels (0.36 ± 0.74 to 1.86 ± 2.14) to maximums of 7.07 ± 2.76 at 1.5 h and 6.71 ± 2.70 at 3 h BioCube exposure. Twelve (86%) subjects had TNSS increases ≥6 units. PNIF decreased 12–24% from baseline at 3‐h BioCube exposure. NIS increased (baseline = 0) to 3.7 (maximum score = 4). A low/moderate correlation (r = 0.485) occurred between mean sIgE blood levels and mean skin tests; neither sIgE or skin tests correlated with mean TNSS. However, subjects with high skin test scores or positive blood IgE tended to also have higher TNSS. Conclusions The Allergen BioCube achieved technical and clinical validation for uniform timothy grass concentration and clinically meaningful AR sign and symptom responses. The Allergen BioCube can be used to assess the efficacy of

  17. Animal botulism outcomes in the AniBioThreat project.

    PubMed

    Woudstra, Cédric; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Skarin, Hanna; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Bano, Luca; Koene, Miriam; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Hedeland, Mikael; Fach, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    Botulism disease in both humans and animals is a worldwide concern. Botulinum neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other Clostridium species are the most potent biological substances known and are responsible for flaccid paralysis leading to a high mortality rate. Clostridium botulinum and botulinum neurotoxins are considered potential weapons for bioterrorism and have been included in the Australia Group List of Biological Agents. In 2010 the European Commission (DG Justice, Freedom and Security) funded a 3-year project named AniBioThreat to improve the EU's capacity to counter animal bioterrorism threats. A detection portfolio with screening methods for botulism agents and incidents was needed to improve tracking and tracing of accidental and deliberate contamination of the feed and food chain with botulinum neurotoxins and other Clostridia. The complexity of this threat required acquiring new genetic information to better understand the diversity of these Clostridia and develop detection methods targeting both highly specific genetic markers of these Clostridia and the neurotoxins they are able to produce. Several European institutes participating in the AniBioThreat project collaborated on this program to achieve these objectives. Their scientific developments are discussed here.

  18. Carboxylic acid (bio)isosteres in drug design.

    PubMed

    Ballatore, Carlo; Huryn, Donna M; Smith, Amos B

    2013-03-01

    The carboxylic acid functional group can be an important constituent of a pharmacophore, however, the presence of this moiety can also be responsible for significant drawbacks, including metabolic instability, toxicity, as well as limited passive diffusion across biological membranes. To avoid some of these shortcomings while retaining the desired attributes of the carboxylic acid moiety, medicinal chemists often investigate the use of carboxylic acid (bio)isosteres. The same type of strategy can also be effective for a variety other purposes, for example, to increase the selectivity of a biologically active compound or to create new intellectual property. Several carboxylic acid isosteres have been reported, however, the outcome of any isosteric replacement cannot be readily predicted as this strategy is generally found to be dependent upon the particular context (i.e., the characteristic properties of the drug and the drug-target). As a result, screening of a panel of isosteres is typically required. In this context, the discovery and development of novel carboxylic acid surrogates that could complement the existing palette of isosteres remains an important area of research. The goal of this Minireview is to provide an overview of the most commonly employed carboxylic acid (bio)isosteres and to present representative examples demonstrating the use and utility of each isostere in drug design.

  19. BioProject and BioSample databases at NCBI: facilitating capture and organization of metadata.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Tanya; Clark, Karen; Gevorgyan, Robert; Gorelenkov, Vyacheslav; Gribov, Eugene; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Kimelman, Michael; Pruitt, Kim D; Resenchuk, Sergei; Tatusova, Tatiana; Yaschenko, Eugene; Ostell, James

    2012-01-01

    As the volume and complexity of data sets archived at NCBI grow rapidly, so does the need to gather and organize the associated metadata. Although metadata has been collected for some archival databases, previously, there was no centralized approach at NCBI for collecting this information and using it across databases. The BioProject database was recently established to facilitate organization and classification of project data submitted to NCBI, EBI and DDBJ databases. It captures descriptive information about research projects that result in high volume submissions to archival databases, ties together related data across multiple archives and serves as a central portal by which to inform users of data availability. Concomitantly, the BioSample database is being developed to capture descriptive information about the biological samples investigated in projects. BioProject and BioSample records link to corresponding data stored in archival repositories. Submissions are supported by a web-based Submission Portal that guides users through a series of forms for input of rich metadata describing their projects and samples. Together, these databases offer improved ways for users to query, locate, integrate and interpret the masses of data held in NCBI's archival repositories. The BioProject and BioSample databases are available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample, respectively.

  20. A bio-inspired sensor coupled with a bio-bar code and hybridization chain reaction for Hg(2+) assay.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huifeng; Zhu, Xi; Ye, Hongzhi; Yu, Lishuang; Chen, Guonan; Chi, Yuwu; Liu, Xianxiang

    2015-10-18

    In this article, a bio-inspired DNA sensor is developed, which is coupled with a bio-bar code and hybridization chain reaction. This bio-inspired sensor has a high sensitivity toward Hg(2+), and has been used to assay Hg(2+) in the extraction of Bauhinia championi with good satisfaction.

  1. Winter day lengths counteract stimulatory effects of apomorphine and yohimbine on sexual behavior of male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, David J; Jarjisian, Stephan G; Zucker, Irving

    2012-08-01

    Yohimbine and apomorphine selectively act on noradrenergic and dopaminergic neural substrates to augment male sexual behavior (MSB) in several rodent species. The present study assessed whether these drugs can overcome the suppressive effects of short winter-like day lengths on MSB. Yohimbine treatments that markedly increase copulatory behavior of male hamsters in long days were completely ineffective in facilitating MSB when injected after gonadal regression induced by 16 wks of short day lengths and after complete gonadal recrudescence after 32 wks of short days; apomorphine was similarly ineffective. The brain circuit that mediates MSB either may be less responsive to yohimbine and apomorphine in short than long days, or these drugs may not produce equivalent neurotransmitter changes in the two day lengths. After 32 wks of short-day treatment, all males had undergone testicular recrudescence and successfully ejaculated on initial tests with sexually receptive females after a hiatus of at least 4 mo during which they were denied mating opportunities. This suggests that overwintering males in the field are in a state of reproductive readiness at the outset of spring conditions favorable for survival of offspring.

  2. Stimulatory actions of IGF-I are mediated by IGF-IR cross-talk with GPER and DDR1 in mesothelioma and lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, Francesca; Santolla, Maria Francesca; Francesco, Ernestina Marianna De; Perri, Maria Grazia; Rigiracciolo, Damiano; Dolce, Vincenza; Belfiore, Antonino; Maggiolini, Marcello; Lappano, Rosamaria; Vivacqua, Adele

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) system has been largely involved in the pathogenesis and development of various tumors. We have previously demonstrated that IGF-IR cooperates with the G-protein estrogen receptor (GPER) and the collagen receptor discoidin domain 1 (DDR1) that are implicated in cancer progression. Here, we provide novel evidence regarding the molecular mechanisms through which IGF-I/IGF-IR signaling triggers a functional cross-talk with GPER and DDR1 in both mesothelioma and lung cancer cells. In particular, we show that IGF-I activates the transduction network mediated by IGF-IR leading to the up-regulation of GPER and its main target genes CTGF and EGR1 as well as the induction of DDR1 target genes like MATN-2, FBN-1, NOTCH 1 and HES-1. Of note, certain DDR1-mediated effects upon IGF-I stimulation required both IGF-IR and GPER as determined knocking-down the expression of these receptors. The aforementioned findings were nicely recapitulated in important biological outcomes like IGF-I promoted chemotaxis and migration of both mesothelioma and lung cancer cells. Overall, our data suggest that IGF-I/IGF-IR system triggers stimulatory actions through both GPER and DDR1 in aggressive tumors as mesothelioma and lung tumors. Hence, this novel signaling pathway may represent a further target in setting innovative anticancer strategies. PMID:27384677

  3. G-protein stimulatory subunit alpha and Gq/11α G-proteins are both required to maintain quiescent stem-like chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chagin, Andrei S.; Vuppalapati, Karuna K.; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Guo, Jun; Hirai, Takao; Chen, Min; Offermanns, Stefan; Weinstein, Lee S.; Kronenberg, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Round chondrocytes in the resting zone of the growth plate provide precursors for columnar chondrocytes and have stem-like properties. Here we demonstrate that these stem-like chondrocytes undergo apoptosis in the absence of the receptor (PPR) for parathyroid hormone-related protein. We examine the possible roles of heterotrimeric G-proteins activated by the PPR. Inactivation of the G-protein stimulatory α-subunit (Gsα) leads to accelerated differentiation of columnar chondrocytes, as seen in the PPR knockout, but a remnant of growth cartilage remains, in contrast to disappearance of the growth cartilage in the PPR knockout. Stem-like chondrocytes lose their quiescence and proliferate upon Gsα ablation. Inactivation of Gsα in mice with a mutant PPR that cannot activate G proteins, Gq and G11, leads to a PPR knockout-like phenotype. Thus, Gsα is the major mediator of the anti-differentiation action of the PPR, while activation of both Gsα and Gq/11α is required for quiescence of stem-like chondrocytes. PMID:24781502

  4. Stimulatory effect of HGF-overexpressing adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on thymus regeneration in a rat thymus involution model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Sung; Han, Sei-Myoung; Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Mi-Eun; Lee, Jun-Sik; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Youn, Hwa-Young; Lee, Hee-Woo

    2014-10-01

    The thymus is the central lymphoid organ providing a unique and essential microenvironment for T-cell precursor development into mature functionally competent T-lymphocytes. Thus, it is important to develop the strategies for enhancing thymic regeneration from involution induced by a variety of clinical treatments and conditions. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes proliferation in a variety of cell types. We have used stem cell-based HGF gene therapy to enhance regeneration from acute thymic involution. HGF-overexpressing human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HGF-hATMSCs) were generated by liposomal transfection with the pMEX expression vector, constructed by inserting the HGF gene. Significantly increased HGF expression in these cells was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HGF produced by HGF-hATMSCs enhanced the proliferation of a mouse thymic epithelial cell line and the expression of interleukin-7 in vitro. We also examined the effect of HGF-hATMSCs on thymic regeneration in rats with acute thymic involution. Significant increases in thymus size and weight, as well as the number of thymocytes (especially, early thymocyte progenitors), were seen in the HGF-hATMSCs-treated rats compared to saline-treated control animals. A stimulatory effect of HGF-hATMSCs on thymic regeneration has therefore been shown, highlighting the clinical value of HGF-hATMSCs for treating thymic involution.

  5. Effect of siRNA silencing of inducible co-stimulatory molecule on myocardial cell hypertrophy after cardiac infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, W M; Liu, Z; Chen, G

    2016-05-20

    As the most common cardiac disease, myocardial infarction is followed by hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes and reconstruction of ventricular structure. The up-regulation of a series of factors including metalloproteinases, inflammatory factors, and growth factors after primary infarction lead to the hypertrophy, apoptosis, necrosis, and fibroblast proliferation in cardiac muscle tissues. Recent studies have reported on the potency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in treating cardiac diseases. We thus investigated the efficacy of inducible co-stimulatory molecule (ICOS)-specific siRNA silencing in myocardial hypertrophy in a cardiac infarction rat model. This cardiac infarction model was prepared by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. ICOS-siRNA treatment was administered in parallel with non-sense siRNA. After 18 days, the cross-sectional area of cardiac muscle tissues and the left ventricle weight index were measured, along with ICOS mRNA and protein expression levels, and pathological staining. Compared to those in the control groups, in myocardial infarcted rats, the application of ICOS-siRNA effectively decreased the left ventricle weight index, as well as the surface area of cardiac myocytes. Both mRNA and protein levels of ICOS were also significantly decreased. HE staining was consistent with these results. In conclusion, ICOS-targeted siRNA can effectively silence gene expression of ICOS, and provided satisfactory treatment efficacy for myocardial cell hypertrophy after infarction.

  6. Identification of a prostacyclin receptor coupled to the adenylate cyclase system via a stimulatory GTP-binding protein in mouse mastocytoma P-815 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, H.; Negishi, M.; Ichikawa, A. )

    1990-11-01

    A stable analogue of prostacyclin, iloprost, specifically bound to 30,000 x g pellet (the membrane fraction) prepared from mouse mastocytoma P-815 cells. The binding was dependent on time, temperature and pH, and absolutely required a divalent cation. The equilibrium dissociation constant and the maximal concentration of the binding site as determined by Scatchard plot analysis were 10.4 nM and 1.12 pmol/mg of protein, respectively. The Hill coefficient was 1.0, indicating a single entity of binding site and no cooperativity. The binding site was highly specific for iloprost among PGs tested (iloprost much greater than PGE1 greater than carbacyclin greater than PGE2). In contrast, the membrane fraction had the binding site specific for PGE2 and PGE1, which was distinct from the prostacyclin receptor. The dissociation of bound (3H)iloprost from the membrane fraction was specifically enhanced by guanine nucleotides. Furthermore, iloprost dose-dependently enhanced the activity of adenylate cyclase in a GTP-dependent manner. These results indicate that a specific prostacyclin receptor is coupled to the adenylate cyclase system via a stimulatory GTP-binding protein in mastocytoma cells.

  7. The GABA(B) antagonist CGP 52432 attenuates the stimulatory effect of the GABA(B) agonist SKF 97541 on luteinizing hormone secretion in the male sheep.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Gary L; Kuehl, David

    2002-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(B) agonist, 3-aminopropyl (methyl) phosphinic acid (SKF97541), would increase luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion when infused by microdialysis into the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) of the castrated ram, and to determine if the action of SKF97541 would be attenuated by co-infusion of the GABA(B) antagonist CGP52432. Initial experiments established that infusion of SKF alone, at concentrations as low as 5 microM, increased mean LH, LH pulse amplitude, and in some cases, pulse interval. In the last experiment, animals were treated with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alone, SKF alone (30 microM), 3-[[(3, 4-dichlorophenol) methyl] amino] propyl] diethoxymethyl) phosphinic acid (CGP) alone (500 microM), or SKF plus CGP. SKF increased both mean LH and LH pulse amplitude as compared with CSF. CGP alone had no significant effect on LH, but it attenuated the effect of SKF on mean LH. These observations indicate that the stimulatory effects of GABA(B) agonists on LH pulse patterns are mediated through GABA(B) receptors and provide further evidence that GABA(B) receptors located in the MBH can regulate pulsatile GnRH-LH release.

  8. Pre-mRNA Processing Factor Prp18 Is a Stimulatory Factor of Influenza Virus RNA Synthesis and Possesses Nucleoprotein Chaperone Activity.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, M; Sugiyama, K; Kato, Y; Naito, T; Okuwaki, M; Kawaguchi, A; Nagata, K

    2017-02-01

    The genome of influenza virus (viral RNA [vRNA]) is associated with the nucleoprotein (NP) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and forms helical viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. The NP-vRNA complex is the biologically active template for RNA synthesis by the viral polymerase. Previously, we identified human pre-mRNA processing factor 18 (Prp18) as a stimulatory factor for viral RNA synthesis using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae replicon system and a single-gene deletion library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T. Naito, Y. Kiyasu, K. Sugiyama, A. Kimura, R. Nakano, A. Matsukage, and K. Nagata, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104:18235-18240, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0705856104). In infected Prp18 knockdown (KD) cells, the synthesis of vRNA, cRNA, and viral mRNAs was reduced. Prp18 was found to stimulate in vitro viral RNA synthesis through its interaction with NP. Analyses using in vitro RNA synthesis reactions revealed that Prp18 dissociates newly synthesized RNA from the template after the early elongation step to stimulate the elongation reaction. We found that Prp18 functions as a chaperone for NP to facilitate the formation of NP-RNA complexes. Based on these results, it is suggested that Prp18 accelerates influenza virus RNA synthesis as an NP chaperone for the processive elongation reaction.

  9. Analysis of expression and function of the co-stimulatory receptor SLAMF1 in immune cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed

    Liñán-Rico, L; Hernández-Castro, B; Doniz-Padilla, L; Portillo-Salazar, H; Baranda, L; Cruz-Muñoz, M E; González-Amaro, R

    2015-10-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule SLAMF1 (CD150) is a co-stimulatory molecule that is expressed by most immune cells, including T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. Since different abnormalities have been reported regarding the number and function of Foxp3+ Treg cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we decided to analyze the expression and function of CD150 in these regulatory lymphocytes in this condition. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 patients with SLE, and 20 healthy controls. The expression of SLAMF1 was determined by multi-parametric flow cytometry and the suppressive function of CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes, upon engagement or not of CD150 with an agonistic monoclonal antibody, was analyzed by an assay of inhibition of cell proliferation. We observed a significantly increased expression of SLAMF1 by CD3+CD4+ helper T cells and CD19+ B cells in patients with SLE and active disease. However, similar levels of SLAMF1 expression were detected in Foxp3+ Treg cells from patients and controls. In contrast, a higher proportion of SLE patients increased their suppressive function of Treg cells upon CD150 engagement compared to healthy controls. Our data suggest that SLAMF1 is another significant piece in the intricate defective immune-regulatory function of patients with SLE.

  10. Stimulatory actions of IGF-I are mediated by IGF-IR cross-talk with GPER and DDR1 in mesothelioma and lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Avino, Silvia; De Marco, Paola; Cirillo, Francesca; Santolla, Maria Francesca; De Francesco, Ernestina Marianna; Perri, Maria Grazia; Rigiracciolo, Damiano; Dolce, Vincenza; Belfiore, Antonino; Maggiolini, Marcello; Lappano, Rosamaria; Vivacqua, Adele

    2016-08-16

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) system has been largely involved in the pathogenesis and development of various tumors. We have previously demonstrated that IGF-IR cooperates with the G-protein estrogen receptor (GPER) and the collagen receptor discoidin domain 1 (DDR1) that are implicated in cancer progression. Here, we provide novel evidence regarding the molecular mechanisms through which IGF-I/IGF-IR signaling triggers a functional cross-talk with GPER and DDR1 in both mesothelioma and lung cancer cells. In particular, we show that IGF-I activates the transduction network mediated by IGF-IR leading to the up-regulation of GPER and its main target genes CTGF and EGR1 as well as the induction of DDR1 target genes like MATN-2, FBN-1, NOTCH 1 and HES-1. Of note, certain DDR1-mediated effects upon IGF-I stimulation required both IGF-IR and GPER as determined knocking-down the expression of these receptors. The aforementioned findings were nicely recapitulated in important biological outcomes like IGF-I promoted chemotaxis and migration of both mesothelioma and lung cancer cells. Overall, our data suggest that IGF-I/IGF-IR system triggers stimulatory actions through both GPER and DDR1 in aggressive tumors as mesothelioma and lung tumors. Hence, this novel signaling pathway may represent a further target in setting innovative anticancer strategies.

  11. Intermittent bolus feeding has a greater stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle than continuous feeding in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Gazzaneo, María C; Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renán A; Torrazza, Roberto Murgas; El-Kadi, Samer W; Wilson, Fiona A; Kimball, Scot R; Srivastava, Neeraj; Nguyen, Hanh V; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2011-12-01

    Orogastric tube feeding, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is common in infants for whom normal feeding is contraindicated. To compare the impact of different feeding strategies on muscle protein synthesis, after withholding food overnight, neonatal pigs received a complete formula orally as a bolus feed every 4 h or were continuously fed. Protein synthesis rate and translational mechanisms in skeletal muscle were examined after 0, 24, and 25.5 h. Plasma amino acid and insulin concentrations increased minimally and remained constant in continuously fed compared to feed-deprived pigs; however, the pulsatile meal feeding pattern was mimicked in bolus-fed pigs. Muscle protein synthesis was stimulated by feeding and the greatest response occurred after a bolus meal. Bolus but not continuous feeds increased polysome aggregation, the phosphorylation of protein kinase B, tuberous sclerosis complex 2, proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E binding protein (4EBP1), and rp S6 kinase and enhanced dissociation of the 4EBP1 ·eIF4E complex and formation of the eIF4E ·eIF4G complex compared to feed deprivation (P < 0.05). Activation of insulin receptor substrate-1, regulatory associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, eukaryotic elongation factor 2, and eIF2α phosphorylation were unaffected by either feeding modality. These results suggest that in neonates, intermittent bolus feeding enhances muscle protein synthesis to a greater extent than continuous feeding by eliciting a pulsatile pattern of amino acid- and insulin-induced translation initiation.

  12. Stimulatory Influences of Far Infrared Therapy on the Transcriptome and Genetic Networks of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Receiving High Glucose Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu-Chiao; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Neng; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Cheng, Cheng-Chung; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Hsu, Chih-Hsueng

    2015-01-01

    Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a fundamental role in vascular repair and angiogenesis- related diseases. It is well-known that the process of angiogenesis is faulty in patients with diabetes. Long-term exposure of peripheral blood EPCs to high glucose (HG-EPCs) has been shown to impair cell proliferation and other functional competencies. Far infrared (FIR) therapy can promote ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice and restore high glucose-suppressed endothelial progenitor cell functions both in vitro and in vivo. However, the detail mechanisms and global transcriptome alternations are still unclear. Methods In this study, we investigated the influences of FIR upon HG-EPC gene expressions. EPCs were obtained from the peripheral blood and treated with high glucose. These cells were then subjected to FIR irradiation and functional assays. Results Those genes responsible for fibroblast growth factors, Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and prostaglandin signaling pathways were significantly induced in HG-EPCs after FIR treatment. On the other hand, mouse double minute 2 homolog, genes involved in glycogen metabolic process, and genes involved in cardiac fibrosis were down-regulated. We also observed complex genetic networks functioning in FIR-treated HG-EPCs, in which several genes, such as GATA binding protein 3, hairy and enhancer of split-1, Sprouty Homolog 2, MAPK and Sirtuin 1, acted as hubs to maintain the stability and connectivity of the whole genetic network. Conclusions Deciphering FIR-affected genes will not only provide us with new knowledge regarding angiogenesis, but also help to develop new biomarkers for evaluating the effects of FIR therapy. Our findings may also be adapted to develop new methods to increase EPC activities for treating diabetes-related ischemia and metabolic syndrome-associated cardiovascular disorders. PMID:27122901

  13. Tumor-derived alpha-fetoprotein impairs the differentiation and T cell stimulatory activity of human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Angela D.; Shi, Jian; Butterfield, Lisa H.

    2014-01-01

    Several tumor-derived factors have been implicated in DC dysfunction in cancer patients. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal antigen that is highly expressed in abnormalities of prenatal development and several epithelial cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC patients exhibiting high levels of serum AFP, we have observed a lower ratio of myeloid-to-plasmacytoid circulating DC compared to patients with low serum AFP levels and healthy donors. To test the effect of AFP on DC differentiation in vitro, peripheral blood monocytes from healthy donors were cultured in the presence of cord blood-derived normal AFP (nAFP) or HCC tumor-derived AFP (tAFP), and DC phenotype and function was assessed. Although the nAFP and tAFP isoforms only differ at one carbohydrate group, low (physiological) levels of tAFP, but not nAFP, significantly inhibited DC differentiation. tAFP-conditioned DC expressed diminished levels of DC maturation markers, retained a monocyte-like morphology, exhibited limited production of inflammatory mediators, and failed to induce robust T cell proliferative responses. Mechanistic studies revealed that the suppressive activity of tAFP is dependent on the presence of low molecular weight (LMW) species that i) co-purify with tAFP, and ii) function equivalently to the LMW fractions of both tumor and non-tumor cell lysates. These data reveal the unique ability of tAFP to serve as a chaperone protein for LMW molecules, both endogenous and ubiquitous in nature, which function cooperatively to impair DC differentiation and function. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches that antagonize the regulatory properties of tAFP will be critical to enhance immunity and improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25355916

  14. Tumor-derived α-fetoprotein impairs the differentiation and T cell stimulatory activity of human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pardee, Angela D; Shi, Jian; Butterfield, Lisa H

    2014-12-01

    Several tumor-derived factors have been implicated in dendritic cell (DC) dysfunction in cancer patients. α-fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal Ag that is highly expressed in abnormalities of prenatal development and several epithelial cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC patients exhibiting high levels of serum AFP, we observed a lower ratio of myeloid/plasmacytoid circulating DCs compared with patients with low serum AFP levels and healthy donors. To test the effect of AFP on DC differentiation in vitro, peripheral blood monocytes from healthy donors were cultured in the presence of cord blood-derived normal AFP (nAFP) or HCC tumor-derived AFP (tAFP), and DC phenotype and function were assessed. Although the nAFP and tAFP isoforms only differ at one carbohydrate group, low (physiological) levels of tAFP, but not nAFP, significantly inhibited DC differentiation. tAFP-conditioned DCs expressed diminished levels of DC maturation markers, retained a monocyte-like morphology, exhibited limited production of inflammatory mediators, and failed to induce robust T cell proliferative responses. Mechanistic studies revealed that the suppressive activity of tAFP is dependent on the presence of low molecular mass (LMM) species that copurify with tAFP and function equivalently to the LMM fractions of both tumor and nontumor cell lysates. These data reveal the unique ability of tAFP to serve as a chaperone protein for LMM molecules, both endogenous and ubiquitous in nature, which function cooperatively to impair DC differentiation and function. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches that antagonize the regulatory properties of tAFP will be critical to enhance immunity and improve clinical outcomes.

  15. Xenogeneic Bio-Root Prompts the Constructive Process Characterized by Macrophage Phenotype Polarization in Rodents and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Sun, Jingjing; Li, Jie; Yang, Hefeng; Luo, Xiangyou; Chen, Jinlong; Xie, Li; Huo, Fangjun; Zhu, Tian; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-03-01

    Tissue or organ regeneration using xenogeneic matrices is a promising approach to address the shortage of donor matrices for allotransplantation. Success of such approach has been demonstrated to correlate with macrophage-mediated fibrotic homeostasis and tissue remodeling. The previous studies have demonstrated that treated dentin matrix (TDM) could be a suitable bioactive substrate for allogeneic tooth root regeneration. This study constructed xenogeneic bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) via a combination of porcine TDM (pTDM) with allogeneic dental follicle cells (DFCs). Macrophage phenotypes are used to evaluate the remodeling process of xenogeneic bio-roots in vitro and in vivo. pTDM can facilitate odontoblast differentiation of human derived DFCs. Xenogeneic bio-roots in rat subcutaneous tissue prompt constructive response via M1 macrophage infiltration during early postimplantation stages and increase restorative M2 phenotype at later stages. After implantation of bio-roots into jaws of rhesus monkeys for six months, periodontal ligament-like fibers accompanied by macrophage polarization are observed, which are positive for COL-1, Periostin, βIII-tubulin and display such structures as fibroblasts and blood vessels. The reconstructed bio-root possesses biomechanical properties for the dissipation of masticatory forces. These results support that xenogeneic bio-root could maintain fibrotic homeostasis during remodeling process and highlight the potential application of xenogeneic matrices in regenerative medicine.

  16. Bio-terrorism, human security and public health: can international law bring them together in an age of globalization?

    PubMed

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2005-09-01

    Bio-terrorism, the use of a microorganism with the deliberate intent of causing infection, before and since the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001, has emerged as a real medical and public health threat. The link between bio-terrorism, human security and public health raises complex questions on the normative trajectories of international law, the mandates of international organizations, and global health governance. In May 2001, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution entitled "Global Health Security: Epidemic Alert and Response" which inter alia, urged WHO member states to participate actively in the verification and validation of surveillance data and information concerning health emergencies of international concern. This article explores the links between bio-terrorism, human security and public health, and investigates the effectiveness of international legal mechanisms that link them in an age of globalization of public health. The article explores the interaction of WHO's 'soft-law' approaches to global health security, and the 'moribund' negotiations of the verification and monitoring protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention 1972. Can international law link bio-terrorism, public health and human security? Does the WHO collaborate with other international organizations within and outside the United Nations system to develop effective legal and governance approaches to bio-terrorism and global health security? The article concludes that the globalization of public health threats like bio-terrorism requires globalized legal approaches.

  17. Determination of Carbonyl Groups in Pyrolysis Bio-oils Using Potentiometric Titration: Review and Comparison of Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Stuart; Ferrell, Jack R.

    2016-01-06

    Carbonyl compounds present in bio-oils are known to be responsible for bio-oil property changes upon storage and during upgrading. As such, carbonyl content has previously been used as a method of tracking bio-oil aging and condensation reactions with less variability than viscosity measurements. Given the importance of carbonyls in bio-oils, accurate analytical methods for their quantification are very important for the bio-oil community. Potentiometric titration methods based on carbonyl oximation have long been used for the determination of carbonyl content in pyrolysis bio-oils. Here in this study, we present a modification of the traditional carbonyl oximation procedures that results in less reaction time, smaller sample size, higher precision, and more accurate carbonyl determinations. Some compounds such as carbohydrates are not measured by the traditional method (modified Nicolaides method), resulting in low estimations of the carbonyl content. Furthermore, we have shown that reaction completion for the traditional method can take up to 300 hours. The new method presented here (the modified Faix method) reduces the reaction time to 2 hours, uses triethanolamine (TEA) in the place of pyridine, and requires a smaller sample size for the analysis. Carbonyl contents determined using this new method are consistently higher than when using the traditional titration methods.

  18. Determination of Carbonyl Groups in Pyrolysis Bio-oils Using Potentiometric Titration: Review and Comparison of Methods

    DOE PAGES

    Black, Stuart; Ferrell, Jack R.

    2016-01-06

    Carbonyl compounds present in bio-oils are known to be responsible for bio-oil property changes upon storage and during upgrading. As such, carbonyl content has previously been used as a method of tracking bio-oil aging and condensation reactions with less variability than viscosity measurements. Given the importance of carbonyls in bio-oils, accurate analytical methods for their quantification are very important for the bio-oil community. Potentiometric titration methods based on carbonyl oximation have long been used for the determination of carbonyl content in pyrolysis bio-oils. Here in this study, we present a modification of the traditional carbonyl oximation procedures that results inmore » less reaction time, smaller sample size, higher precision, and more accurate carbonyl determinations. Some compounds such as carbohydrates are not measured by the traditional method (modified Nicolaides method), resulting in low estimations of the carbonyl content. Furthermore, we have shown that reaction completion for the traditional method can take up to 300 hours. The new method presented here (the modified Faix method) reduces the reaction time to 2 hours, uses triethanolamine (TEA) in the place of pyridine, and requires a smaller sample size for the analysis. Carbonyl contents determined using this new method are consistently higher than when using the traditional titration methods.« less

  19. Enhanced Cr(VI) removal from groundwater by Fe(0)-H2O system with bio-amended iron corrosion.

    PubMed

    Yin, Weizhao; Li, Yongtao; Wu, Jinhua; Chen, Guocai; Jiang, Gangbiao; Li, Ping; Gu, Jingjing; Liang, Hao; Liu, Chuansheng

    2017-02-27

    A one-pot bio-iron system was established to investigate synergetic abiotic and biotic effects between iron and microorganisms on Cr(VI) removal. More diverse iron corrosion and reactive solids, such as green rusts, lepidocrocite and magnetite were found in the bio-iron system than in the Fe(0)-H2O system, leading to 4.3 times higher Cr(VI) removal efficiency in the bio-iron system than in the Fe(0)-H2O system. The cycling experiment also showed that the Cr(VI) removal capacity of Fe(0) in the bio-iron system was 12.4 times higher than that in the Fe(0)-H2O system. A 62days of life-span could be achieved in the bio-iron system, while the Fe(0)-H2O system lost its efficacy after 30days. Enhanced effects of extra Fe(2+) on Cr(VI) removal was observed, largely contributed to the adsorbed Fe(2+) on iron surface, which could function as an extra reductant for Cr(VI) and promote the electron transfer on the solid phase. The results also showed that the reduction of Cr(VI) by microorganisms was insignificant, indicating the adsorption/co-precipitation of Cr by iron oxides on iron surface was responsible for the overall Cr(VI) removal. Our study demonstrated that the bio-amended iron corrosion could improve the performance of Fe(0) for Cr(VI) removal from groundwater.

  20. Hypofractionated Irradiation Has Immune Stimulatory Potential and Induces a Timely Restricted Infiltration of Immune Cells in Colon Cancer Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Benjamin; Rückert, Michael; Weber, Julia; Mayr, Xaver; Derer, Anja; Lotter, Michael; Bert, Christoph; Rödel, Franz; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.

    2017-01-01

    hypofractionated RT suffices to activate DCs and to induce infiltration of innate and adaptive immune cells into solid colorectal tumors. However, the presence of immune cells in the tumor which are beneficial for antitumor immune responses is timely restricted. These findings should be considered when innovative multimodal tumor treatment protocols of distinct RT with immune therapies are designed and clinically implemented. PMID:28337197

  1. Hypofractionated Irradiation Has Immune Stimulatory Potential and Induces a Timely Restricted Infiltration of Immune Cells in Colon Cancer Tumors.

    PubMed

    Frey, Benjamin; Rückert, Michael; Weber, Julia; Mayr, Xaver; Derer, Anja; Lotter, Michael; Bert, Christoph; Rödel, Franz; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S

    2017-01-01

    hypofractionated RT suffices to activate DCs and to induce infiltration of innate and adaptive immune cells into solid colorectal tumors. However, the presence of immune cells in the tumor which are beneficial for antitumor immune responses is timely restricted. These findings should be considered when innovative multimodal tumor treatment protocols of distinct RT with immune therapies are designed and clinically implemented.

  2. BioASF: a framework for automatically generating executable pathway models specified in BioPAX

    PubMed Central

    Haydarlou, Reza; Jacobsen, Annika; Bonzanni, Nicola; Feenstra, K. Anton; Abeln, Sanne; Heringa, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Biological pathways play a key role in most cellular functions. To better understand these functions, diverse computational and cell biology researchers use biological pathway data for various analysis and modeling purposes. For specifying these biological pathways, a community of researchers has defined BioPAX and provided various tools for creating, validating and visualizing BioPAX models. However, a generic software framework for simulating BioPAX models is missing. Here, we attempt to fill this gap by introducing a generic simulation framework for BioPAX. The framework explicitly separates the execution model from the model structure as provided by BioPAX, with the advantage that the modelling process becomes more reproducible and intrinsically more modular; this ensures natural biological constraints are satisfied upon execution. The framework is based on the principles of discrete event systems and multi-agent systems, and is capable of automatically generating a hierarchical multi-agent system for a given BioPAX model. Results: To demonstrate the applicability of the framework, we simulated two types of biological network models: a gene regulatory network modeling the haematopoietic stem cell regulators and a signal transduction network modeling the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We observed that the results of the simulations performed using our framework were entirely consistent with the simulation results reported by the researchers who developed the original models in a proprietary language. Availability and Implementation: The framework, implemented in Java, is open source and its source code, documentation and tutorial are available at http://www.ibi.vu.nl/programs/BioASF. Contact: j.heringa@vu.nl PMID:27307645

  3. Nano-bio effects: interaction of nanomaterials with cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang-Chien; Jiang, Xiumei; Wang, Jing; Chen, Chunying; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2013-05-07

    With the advancements in nanotechnology, studies on the synthesis, modification, application, and toxicology evaluation of nanomaterials are gaining increased attention. In particular, the applications of nanomaterials in biological systems are attracting considerable interest because of their unique, tunable, and versatile physicochemical properties. Artificially engineered nanomaterials can be well controlled for appropriate usage, and the tuned physicochemical properties directly influence the interactions between nanomaterials and cells. This review summarizes recently synthesized major nanomaterials that have potential biomedical applications. Focus is given on the interactions, including cellular uptake, intracellular trafficking, and toxic response, while changing the physicochemical properties of versatile materials. The importance of physicochemical properties such as the size, shape, and surface modifications of the nanomaterials in their biological effects is also highlighted in detail. The challenges of recent studies and future prospects are presented as well. This review benefits relatively new researchers in this area and gives them a systematic overview of nano-bio interaction, hopefully for further experimental design.

  4. Nano-bio effects: interaction of nanomaterials with cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Liang-Chien; Jiang, Xiumei; Wang, Jing; Chen, Chunying; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2013-04-01

    With the advancements in nanotechnology, studies on the synthesis, modification, application, and toxicology evaluation of nanomaterials are gaining increased attention. In particular, the applications of nanomaterials in biological systems are attracting considerable interest because of their unique, tunable, and versatile physicochemical properties. Artificially engineered nanomaterials can be well controlled for appropriate usage, and the tuned physicochemical properties directly influence the interactions between nanomaterials and cells. This review summarizes recently synthesized major nanomaterials that have potential biomedical applications. Focus is given on the interactions, including cellular uptake, intracellular trafficking, and toxic response, while changing the physicochemical properties of versatile materials. The importance of physicochemical properties such as the size, shape, and surface modifications of the nanomaterials in their biological effects is also highlighted in detail. The challenges of recent studies and future prospects are presented as well. This review benefits relatively new researchers in this area and gives them a systematic overview of nano-bio interaction, hopefully for further experimental design.

  5. A Systems Approach to Bio-Oil Stabilization - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert C; Meyer, Terrence; Fox, Rodney; Submramaniam, Shankar; Shanks, Brent; Smith, Ryan G

    2011-12-23

    products: condensable vapors, non-condensable gases, and liquid aerosols. Traditionally these are recovered by a spray quencher or a conventional shell and tube condenser. The spray quencher or condenser is typically followed by an electrostatic precipitator to yield 1 or 2 distinct fractions of bio-oil. The pyrolyzer system developed at Iowa State University incorporates a proprietary fractionating condenser train. The system collects the bio-oil into five unique fractions. For conditions typical of fluidized bed pyrolyzers, stage fractions have been collected that are carbohydrate-rich (anhydrosugars), lignin-rich, and an aqueous solution of carboxylic acids and aldehydes. One important feature is that most of the water normally found in bio-oil appears in the last stage fraction along with several water-soluble components that are thought to be responsible for bio-oil aging (low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes). Research work on laser diagnostics for hot-vapor filtration and bio-oil recovery centered on development of analytical techniques for in situ measurements during fast pyrolysis, hot-vapor filtration, and fractionation relative to bio-oil stabilization. The methods developed in this work include laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser-induced incandescence (LII), and laser scattering for elemental analysis (N, O, H, C), detection of particulates, and detection of aerosols, respectively. These techniques were utilized in simulated pyrolysis environments and applied to a small-scale pyrolysis unit. Stability of Bio-oils is adversely affected by the presence of particulates that are formed as a consequence of thermal pyrolysis, improving the CFD simulations of moving bed granular filter (MBGF) is useful for improving the design of MBGF for bio-oil production. The current work uses fully resolved direct numerical simulation (where the flow past each granule is accurately represented) to calculate the filter efficiency that is used in the

  6. Bio-inspired variable structural color materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhu, Cun; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-04-21

    Natural structural color materials, especially those that can undergo reversible changes, are attracting increasing interest in a wide variety of research fields. Inspired by the natural creatures, many elaborately nanostructured photonic materials with variable structural colors were developed. These materials have found important applications in switches, display devices, sensors, and so on. In this critical review, we will provide up-to-date research concerning the natural and bio-inspired photonic materials with variable structural colors. After introducing the variable structural colors in natural creatures, we will focus on the studies of artificial variable structural color photonic materials, including their bio-inspired designs, fabrications and applications. The prospects for the future development of these fantastic variable structural color materials will also be presented. We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references).

  7. Optofluidic Bio-Lasers: Concept and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xudong; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    An optofluidic bio-laser integrates biological materials into the gain medium while forming an optical cavity in the fluidic environment, either on a microfluidic chip or within a biological system. The laser emission has characteristics fundamentally different from conventional fluorescence emission. It can be highly sensitive to a specific molecular change in the gain medium as the light-matter interaction is amplified by the resonance in the cavity. The enhanced sensitivity can be used to probe and quantify the underlying biochemical and biological processes in vitro in a microfluidic device, in situ in a cell (cytosol), or in vivo in a live organism. Here we describe the principle of the optofluidic bio-laser, review its recent progress and provide an outlook of this emerging technology. PMID:24481219

  8. NETTAB 2012 on "Integrated Bio-Search"

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The NETTAB 2012 workshop, held in Como on November 14-16, 2012, was devoted to "Integrated Bio-Search", that is to technologies, methods, architectures, systems and applications for searching, retrieving, integrating and analyzing data, information, and knowledge with the aim of answering complex bio-medical-molecular questions, i.e. some of the most challenging issues in bioinformatics today. It brought together about 80 researchers working in the field of Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, Biology, Computer Science and Engineering. More than 50 scientific contributions, including keynote and tutorial talks, oral communications, posters and software demonstrations, were presented at the workshop. This preface provides a brief overview of the workshop and shortly introduces the peer-reviewed manuscripts that were accepted for publication in this Supplement. PMID:24564635

  9. Bio-Inspired Ceramic/Carbon Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    be observed (Fig. 6). 3 µm Spark Plasma Sintering We have developed an approach for the SPS of the ceramic scaffolds filled with CNTs...with other C precursors such as pitch. Spark plasma sintering can be used to compress these infiltrated materials to create brick-and-mortar structures...objective to fabricate bio-inspired ceramic/CNT or ceramic/carbon composites with nacre-like structures by combining freeze casting with spark plasma

  10. Nano-Bio Developments in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torimitsu, Keiichi

    Nano-biotechnology (nanobio) is one of the great technological fusions from various different fields. Analysis of biological functions significantly improved because of the recent nanotechnology development. We study this field based on neuroscience. Here we introduce our approach to this field, starting from neural analysis to receptor analysis in order to establish a nano-bio interface. Nano-gap electrode is one of the possible devices for this purpose. Combination of the electrode with receptor protein is investigated.

  11. Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production.

    PubMed

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Al-Nadheri, Wail Mohammed Ahmed; Jegarajan, Dinesh; Sahu, J N; Mubarak, N M; Nizamuddin, S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products.

  12. Interleukin-2 and a T cell hybridoma (MP6) derived B cell-stimulatory factor act synergistically to induce proliferation and differentiation of human B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M; Tötterman, T H; Rosén, A; Nilsson, K

    1989-08-01

    In this paper we communicate that cells of a selected B-CLL clone (I83), after 2 days of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain 1 (SAC) activation, respond to recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) and a B cell stimulatory factor (BSF-MP6) and act in strong synergism with induction of simultaneous high-rate proliferation and differentiation. None of the factors alone or other lymphokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, 12 kDa BCGF, IL-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6) induced significant DNA synthesis in SAC-activated cells. However, low levels of IgM were produced by cells stimulated by SAC + rIL-2. The SAC activation was followed by an increase in IL-2 receptor (IL-2R; CD25) expression, and the proliferation induced by BSF-MP6 + rIL-2 could be blocked in a dose-dependent manner by alpha-CD25 antibody. Furthermore, flow cytometric cell cycle studies showed that SAC and BSF-MP6 + rIL-2 stimulated cells underwent a complete transition through the cell cycle to become arrested in G1. The induced proliferation by BSF-MP6 + rIL-2 was dependent on serum but independent of the 2.8% of CD4, CD8, CD14, and CD16 positive cells contaminating the I83 cell population. Previously, we reported that I83 cells activated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) were induced to differentiation only but that the addition of BSF-MP6 induced DNA synthesis concomitantly with the differentiation. This paper demonstrates that physiological stimuli can induce both high-rate proliferation and differentiation in a B-CLL clone in vitro. It also suggests that the low proliferation and the differentiation block in vivo, characteristic of most B-CLLs, may reflect a subnormal response of B-CLL cells to growth and differentiation factors, or a dysfunction in the factor production by the patients' T cells.

  13. Bio-based Polymer Foam from Soyoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnaillie, Laetitia M.; Wool, Richard P.

    2006-03-01

    The growing bio-based polymeric foam industry is presently lead by plant oil-based polyols for polyurethanes and starch foams. We developed a new resilient, thermosetting foam system with a bio-based content higher than 80%. The acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and its fatty acid monomers is foamed with pressurized carbon dioxide and cured with free-radical initiators. The foam structure and pore dynamics are highly dependent on the temperature, viscosity and extent of reaction. Low-temperature cure hinds the destructive pore coalescence and the application of a controlled vacuum results in foams with lower densities ˜ 0.1 g/cc, but larger cells. We analyze the physics of foam formation and stability, as well as the structure and mechanical properties of the cured foam using rigidity percolation theory. The parameters studied include temperature, vacuum applied, and cross-link density. Additives bring additional improvements: nucleating agents and surfactants help produce foams with a high concentration of small cells and low bulk density. Hard and soft thermosetting foams with a bio content superior to 80% are successfully produced and tested. Potential applications include foam-core composites for hurricane-resistant housing, structural reinforcement for windmill blades, and tissue scaffolds.

  14. BioCAT undulator beamline at APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, G. B.; Irving, T.; Black, E.; Zhang, K.; Fischetti, R.; Wang, S.; Stepanov, S.

    1997-07-01

    The Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) project will be an outstanding research facility for biological small angle scattering, non-crystalline diffraction, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Labs. BioCAT operates as an NIH Research Resource under a cooperative agreement with NIH. BioCat has an aggressive program of core and collaborative research, service, and training. Central to the facility is the undulator beam line (designed by G. Rosenbaum, Argonne National Labs) capable of delivering ca. 1013-1014 ph/s to the sample. Focusing optics will allow focal spot ranges from 1.5×3.5 mm to 30×80 micron, independently adjustable in the vertical and horizontal direction. Up to 8 m camera lengths can be accommodated in the 12m experimental enclosure. The accessible beam energy range will be from 3.5-13 keV using the undulator fundamental and 10-40 keV using the third harmonic. Energy resolution will exceed 2×10-4 ΔE/E. Detectors will include image plates, CCD detectors and some novel detectors designed to accommodate the high count rates expected at the APS. The multi-element detector will be a very high count-rate (up to 109 ph/s global), one dimensional detector optimized for scattering applications. We are also developing a multilayer analyzer detector which maximizes solid angle of collection with high background rejection for biological spectroscopy applications.

  15. Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

    PubMed Central

    Hancsók, Jenő; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380°C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0 h−1 and H2/lard ratio: 600 Nm3/m3). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370°C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0 h−1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400 Nm3/m3) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

  16. BIOMASS TO BIO-OIL BY LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-10

    Significant efforts have been devoted to develop processes for the conversion of biomass, an abundant and sustainable source of energy, to liquid fuels and chemicals, in order to replace diminishing fossil fuels and mitigate global warming. Thermochemical and biochemical methods have attracted the most attention. Among the thermochemical processes, pyrolysis and liquefaction are the two major technologies for the direct conversion of biomass to produce a liquid product, often called bio-oil. This chapter focuses on the liquefaction, a medium-temperature and high-pressure thermochemical process for the conversion of biomass to bio-oil. Water has been most commonly used as a solvent and the process is known as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Fundamentals of HTL process, key factors determining HTL behavior, role of catalyst in HTL, properties of produced bio-oil, and the current status of the technology are summarized. The liquefaction of biomass by using organic solvents, a process called solvolysis, is also discussed. A wide range of biomass feedstocks have been tested for liquefaction including wood, crop residues, algae, food processing waste, and animal manure.

  17. Bio gas oil production from waste lard.

    PubMed

    Hancsók, Jeno; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280-380°C, P = 20-80 bar, LHSV = 0.75-3.0  h(-1) and H(2)/lard ratio: 600  Nm(3)/m(3)). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360-370°C, P = 40-50 bar, LHSV = 1.0  h(-1) and H(2)/hydrocarbon ratio: 400  Nm(3)/m(3)) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms.

  18. [Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].

    PubMed

    Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt.

  19. Physical oceanographic processes influence bio-optical properties in the Tasman Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Davies, Peter L.; Brando, Vittorio E.; Anstee, Janet M.; Baird, Mark E.; Clementson, Lesley A.; Doblin, Martina A.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing observations show optical signatures to conform to the physical oceanographic patterns in the Tasman Sea. To test the link between physical oceanographic processes and bio-optical properties we investigated an in situ bio-optical dataset collected in the Tasman Sea. Analysis of in situ observations showed the presence of four different water masses in the Tasman Sea, formed by the relatively warm and saline East Australia Current (EAC) water, a mesoscale cold core eddy on the continental slope, cooler Tasman Sea water on the shelf and river plume water. The distribution of suspended substances and their inherent optical properties in these water masses were distinctly different. Light absorption and attenuation budgets indicate varying optical complexity between the water masses. Specific inherent optical properties of suspended particulate and dissolved substances in each group were different as they were influenced by physical and biogeochemical processes specific to that water mass. Remote sensing reflectance signature varied in response to changing bio-optical properties between the water masses; thus providing the link between physical oceanographic processes, bio-optical properties and the optical signature. Findings presented here extend our knowledge of the Tasman Sea, its optical environment and the role of physical oceanographic processes in influencing the inherent optical properties and remote sensing signature in this complex oceanographic region.

  20. Relationship between Cerebral Sigma-1 Receptor Occupancy and Attenuation of Cocaine’s Motor Stimulatory Effects in Mice by PD144418

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Dennis K.; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A.; Green, Caroline L.; Watkinson, Lisa D.; Carmack, Terry L.; Lever, Susan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulant effects of cocaine are mediated partly by agonist actions at sigma-1 (σ1) receptors. Selective σ1 receptor antagonists attenuate these effects and provide a potential avenue for pharmacotherapy. However, the selective and high affinity σ1 antagonist PD144418 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-5-[3-(4-methylphenyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-1-propylpyridine) has been reported not to inhibit cocaine-induced hyperactivity. To address this apparent paradox, we evaluated aspects of PD144418 binding in vitro, investigated σ1 receptor and dopamine transporter (DAT) occupancy in vivo, and re-examined effects on locomotor activity. PD144418 displayed high affinity for σ1 sites (Ki 0.46 nM) and 3596-fold selectivity over σ2 sites (Ki 1654 nM) in guinea pig brain membranes. No appreciable affinity was noted for serotonin and norepinephrine transporters (Ki >100 μM), and the DAT interaction was weak (Ki 9.0 μM). In vivo, PD144418 bound to central and peripheral σ1 sites in mouse, with an ED50 of 0.22 μmol/kg in whole brain. No DAT occupancy by PD144418 (10.0 μmol/kg) or possible metabolites were observed. At doses that did not affect basal locomotor activity, PD144418 (1, 3.16, and 10 μmol/kg) attenuated cocaine-induced hyperactivity in a dose-dependent manner in mice. There was good correlation (r2 = 0.88) of hyperactivity reduction with increasing cerebral σ1 receptor occupancy. The behavioral ED50 of 0.79 μmol/kg corresponded to 80% occupancy. Significant σ1 receptor occupancy and the ability to mitigate cocaine’s motor stimulatory effects were observed for 16 hours after a single 10.0 μmol/kg dose of PD144418. PMID:25100754

  1. Expression of two human beta-adrenergic receptors in Escherichia coli: functional interaction with two forms of the stimulatory G protein.

    PubMed Central

    Freissmuth, M; Selzer, E; Marullo, S; Schütz, W; Strosberg, A D

    1991-01-01

    When expressed in Escherichia coli, the human beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors retain their ligand binding specificity. Their functional integrity was investigated by analyzing receptor-guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory (G) protein coupling by using two splice variants of the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein Gs synthesized in E. coli (rGs alpha-S and rGs alpha-L) and the beta gamma subunits of G protein purified from bovine brain. In competition binding experiments with (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol and (-)-isoproterenol, rGs alpha-S.beta gamma and rGs alpha-L.beta gamma reconstituted guanine nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding with comparable affinities, whereas rGs alpha PT, a mutant of rGs alpha-L with an altered carboxyl terminus, and a recombinant subtype of the alpha subunit of the inhibitory G protein, rGi alpha-1, were approximately 20- and approximately 200-fold less potent, respectively. A comparison of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor expressed in E. coli with the beta 2-receptor in S49 murine lymphoma cyc- cell membranes revealed a similar affinity of rGs alpha-S and rGs alpha-L for the recombinant and native receptors. After stable incorporation of rGs alpha-S.beta gamma into E. coli membranes, receptor-G protein coupling was also verified by determining the isoproterenol-mediated acceleration of the rate for guanine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate binding. These results show that (i) receptor-G protein coupling can be reconstituted in E. coli using recombinant components and that (ii) such an approach may be more generally used to evaluate coupling preferences between defined molecular species of receptors and G-protein subunits. PMID:1656450

  2. A mutational analysis of residues in cholera toxin A1 necessary for interaction with its substrate, the stimulatory G protein Gsα.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Michael G; Gotow, Lisa F; Yang, Zhijie; Holmes, Randall K

    2015-03-18

    Pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea requires cholera toxin (CT)-mediated adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation of stimulatory G protein (Gsα) in enterocytes. CT is an AB5 toxin with an inactive CTA1 domain linked via CTA2 to a pentameric receptor-binding B subunit. Allosterically activated CTA1 fragment in complex with NAD+ and GTP-bound ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6-GTP) differs conformationally from the CTA1 domain in holotoxin. A surface-exposed knob and a short α-helix (formed, respectively, by rearranging "active-site" and "activation" loops in inactive CTA1) and an ADP ribosylating turn-turn (ARTT) motif, all located near the CTA1 catalytic site, were evaluated for possible roles in recognizing Gsα. CT variants with one, two or three alanine substitutions at surface-exposed residues within these CTA1 motifs were tested for assembly into holotoxin and ADP-ribosylating activity against Gsα and diethylamino-(benzylidineamino)-guanidine (DEABAG), a small substrate predicted to fit into the CTA1 active site). Variants with single alanine substitutions at H55, R67, L71, S78, or D109 had nearly wild-type activity with DEABAG but significantly decreased activity with Gsα, suggesting that the corresponding residues in native CTA1 participate in recognizing Gsα. As several variants with multiple substitutions at these positions retained partial activity against Gsα, other residues in CTA1 likely also participate in recognizing Gsα.

  3. Modification of monoclonal and polyclonal IgG with palladium (II) coproporphyrin I: stimulatory and inhibitory functional effects induced by two different methods.

    PubMed

    Martsev, S P; Preygerzon, V A; Mel'nikova, Y I; Kravchuk, Z I; Ponomarev, G V; Lunev, V E; Savitsky, A P

    1995-10-26

    Antibodies conjugated with porphyrins and metalloporphyrins have a great potential for applications in fluorescence or phosphorescence immunoassays as well as in photodynamic therapy, radioimaging and internal radiation therapy of cancer. Here we describe how the new preactivated metalloporphyrin, palladium (II) coproporphyrin I-tetra-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, can be covalently attached to mouse monoclonal and rabbit anti-human ferritin antibodies. The advantages of the proposed reagent over the previously reported carboxylic porphyrins coupled through carbodiimide activation are indicated. Conformational changes in antibodies caused by each of the two methods were assessed from their binding to the antigen (a probe for the antibody Fv domain) and anti-IgG antibodies probing the global conformation of the CH2 domain in the Fc fragment. Porphyrin coupling through carbodiimide activation resulted in a decrease in both functional activities of modified antibodies even at low levels of modification. In contrast, when the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) derivative of porphyrin was used, enhancement of the antigen-binding affinity of porphyrin-antibody conjugates occurred due to an increase in the conformational mobility (flexibility) of the modified antibodies. The stimulatory effect of conjugation was maximal when one porphyrin molecule was coupled to an antibody molecule. Coupling of NHS-activated porphyrin at pH 7.4, 7.8 and pH 8.5 suggested that the high efficiency of the reaction at pH 8.5 could be attributed predominantly to the formation of antibody aggregates, only 50% of which were covalently cross-linked. The lowest percentage of aggregates in porphyrin-antibody conjugates was found at pH 7.4 and a molar reagent-to-protein ratio in the 10:1-40:1 range. Thus, the use of the NHS-activated carboxylic porphyrin provides a mild, simple and convenient procedure for preparing antibody conjugates with enhanced antigen-binding affinity.

  4. B Cells Are Critical to T-cell-Mediated Antitumor Immunity Induced by a Combined Immune-Stimulatory/Conditionally Cytotoxic Therapy for Glioblastoma12

    PubMed Central

    Candolfi, Marianela; Curtin, James F; Yagiz, Kader; Assi, Hikmat; Wibowo, Mia K; Alzadeh, Gabrielle E; Foulad, David; Muhammad, AKM G; Salehi, Sofia; Keech, Naomi; Puntel, Mariana; Liu, Chunyan; Sanderson, Nicholas R; Kroeger, Kurt M; Dunn, Robert; Martins, Gislaine; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated that modifying the tumor microenvironment through intratumoral administration of adenoviral vectors (Ad) encoding the conditional cytotoxic molecule, i.e., HSV1-TK and the immune-stimulatory cytokine, i.e., fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) leads to T-cell-dependent tumor regression in rodent models of glioblastoma. We investigated the role of B cells during immune-mediated glioblastoma multiforme regression. Although treatment with Ad-TK+Ad-Flt3L induced tumor regression in 60% of wild-type (WT) mice, it completely failed in B-cell-deficient Igh6-/- mice. Tumor-specific T-cell precursors were detected in Ad-TK+Ad-Flt3L-treated WT mice but not in Igh6-/- mice. The treatment also failed in WT mice depleted of total B cells or marginal zone B cells. Because we could not detect circulating antibodies against tumor cells and the treatment was equally efficient in WT mice and in mice with B-cell-specific deletion of Prdm 1 (encoding Blimp-1), in which B cells are present but unable to fully differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells, tumor regression in this model is not dependent on B cells' production of tumor antigen-specific immunoglobulins. Instead, B cells seem to play a role as antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Treatment with Ad-TK+Ad-Flt3L led to an increase in the number of B cells in the cervical lymph nodes, which stimulated the proliferation of syngeneic T cells and induced clonal expansion of antitumor T cells. Our data show that B cells act as APCs, playing a critical role in clonal expansion of tumor antigen-specific T cells and brain tumor regression. PMID:22028620

  5. Blockade of both CD28/B7 and OX40/OX40L co-stimulatory signal pathways prolongs the survival of islet xenografts.

    PubMed

    Wang, G M; Yang, Y; Jin, Y Z; Li, A L; Hao, J; Gao, X; Xie, S S

    2005-12-01

    CTLA4Ig, a recombinant fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of human CTLA4 and the constant region of human IgG1, inhibits the interaction of CD28/B7 pathway by binding the B7 molecule. OX40Ig, a recombinant fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of human OX40 and the constant region of human IgG1, abrogates the interaction of OX40/OX40L pathway by binding the OX40L on APCs. So blockade of CD28/B7 or OX40/OX40L co-stimulatory pathways alone in mice with CTLA4Ig or OX40Ig can result in finitely prolonging the survival of islet grafts (43.2 +/- 4.81 and 67.7 +/- 7.74 days, respectively). In this study, a novel replication-defective adenovirus containing both of the CTLA4Ig and OX40Ig genes, AdCTLA4Ig-IRES-OX40Ig, was constructed by homologous recombination and injected into the streptozocin-rendered diabetic BalB/c mouse recipients (H-2d) through the tail vein, at the same day, the freshly isolated islets from Lewis rats (RT-1) were transplanted under the left kidney capsule of the recipients. The results showed that the mean survival time of the islet xenografts in the AdCTLA4Ig-IRES-OX40Ig-treated diabetic mice was significantly prolonged (100.3 +/- 14.94 days), while those in the untreated or AdEGFP-treated mice were rejected in normal fashion (6.7 +/- 0.94 and 7.0 +/- 1.0 days, respectively). In conclusion, utilizing AdCTLA4Ig-IRES-OX40Ig in vivo which can simultaneously express CTLA4Ig and OX40Ig proteins can improve the survival of Lewis-->BalB/c islet xenografts.

  6. Synthesis of interleukin 6 (interferon-. beta. /sub 2//B cell stimulatory factor 2) in human fibroblasts is triggered by an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP

    SciTech Connect

    Zhange, Y.; Lin, J.X.; Vilcek, J.

    1988-05-05

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6; also referred to as interferon-..beta../sub 2/, 26-kDa protein, and B cell stimulatory factor 2) is a cytokine whose actions include a stimulation of immunoglobulin synthesis, enhancement of B cell growth, and modulation of acute phase protein synthesis by hepatocytes. Synthesis of IL-6 is stimulated by interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or platelet-derived growth factor. The authors examined the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signal transduction pathway in IL-6 gene expression. Several activators of adenylate cyclase, including prostaglandin E1, forskolin, and cholera toxin, as well as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine and the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP, shared the ability to cause a dramatic and sustained increase in IL-6 mRNA levels in human FS-4 fibroblasts. Actinomycin D treatment abolished this enhancement. Treatments that increased intracellular cAMP also stimulated the secretion of the IL-6 protein in a biologically active form. Increased intracellular cAMP appears to enhance IL-6 gene expression by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism because down-regulation of protein kinase C by a chronic exposure of cells to a high dose of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate did not abolish the enhancement of IL-6 expression by treatments that increase cAMP. IL-1 and TNF too increased IL-6 mRNA levels by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism. The results suggest a role for the cAMP-dependent pathway(s) in IL-6 gene activation by TNF and IL-1.

  7. Arginine Vasopressin Potentiates the Stimulatory Action of CRH on Pituitary Corticotropes via a Protein Kinase C-Dependent Reduction of the Background TREK-1 Current.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy K; Tse, Frederick W; Tse, Amy

    2015-10-01

    The hypothalamic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) potentiates the stimulatory action of CRH on ACTH secretion from pituitary corticotropes, but the underlying mechanism is elusive. Using the perforated patch-clamp technique to monitor membrane potentials in mouse corticotropes, we found that AVP triggered a transient hyperpolarization that was followed by a sustained depolarization. The hyperpolarization was caused by intracellular Ca(2+) release that in turn activated the small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels. The depolarization was due to the suppression of background TWIK-related K(+) (TREK)-1 channels. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) reduced the TREK-1 current, whereas PKC inhibition attenuated the AVP-mediated reduction of the TREK-1 current, implicating the involvement of PKC. The addition of CRH (which stimulates the protein kinase A pathway) in the presence of AVP, or vice versa, resulted in further suppression of the TREK-1 current. In corticotropes with buffered cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), AVP evoked a sustained depolarization, and the coapplication of AVP and CRH caused a larger depolarization than that evoked by AVP or CRH alone. In cells with minimal perturbation of [Ca(2+)]i and background TREK-1 channels, CRH evoked a sustained depolarization that was superimposed with action potentials, and the subsequent coapplication of AVP and CRH triggered a transient hyperpolarization that was followed by a larger depolarization. In summary, AVP and CRH have additive effects on the suppression of the TREK-1 current, resulting in a more robust depolarization in corticotropes. We suggest that this mechanism contributes to the potentiating action of AVP on CRH-evoked ACTH secretion.

  8. Evaluation of bio-inspired morphing concepts with regard to aircraft dynamics and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenheiser, Adam M.; Garcia, Ephrahim; Waszak, Martin

    2004-07-01

    This paper will discuss the application of various bio-inspired morphing concepts to unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) designs. Several analysis tools will be introduced to calculate the aerodynamic benefits, dynamic response, and mission-level benefits of morphing shape changes. Empirical relations are employed to calculate the effects of various geometry changes on the aerodynamics of the vehicle. A six-degree-of-freedom simulation will evaluate the stability and dynamic response of each vehicle configuration as well as "snapshots" of the morphing change. Subsequently, an aircraft performance analysis will be conducted for various shape configurations. Specifically, the performance of a bio-inspired wing is compared to conventional designs. The aircraft dynamic improvements that morphing technologies introduce will be discussed.

  9. Bio-Nanobattery Development and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Kim, Jae-Woo; Watt, Gerald D.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Park, Yeonjoon; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    A bio-nanobattery is an electrical energy storage device that utilizes organic materials and processes on an atomic, or nanometer-scale. The bio-nanobattery under development at NASA s Langley Research Center provides new capabilities for electrical power generation, storage, and distribution as compared to conventional power storage systems. Most currently available electronic systems and devices rely on a single, centralized power source to supply electrical power to a specified location in the circuit. As electronic devices and associated components continue to shrink in size towards the nanometer-scale, a single centralized power source becomes impractical. Small systems, such as these, will require distributed power elements to reduce Joule heating, to minimize wiring quantities, and to allow autonomous operation of the various functions performed by the circuit. Our research involves the development and characterization of a bio-nanobattery using ferritins reconstituted with both an iron core (Fe-ferritin) and a cobalt core (Co-ferritin). Synthesis and characterization of the Co-ferritin and Fe-ferritin electrodes were performed, including reducing capability and the half-cell electrical potentials. Electrical output of nearly 0.5 V for the battery cell was measured. Ferritin utilizing other metallic cores were also considered to increase the overall electrical output. Two dimensional ferritin arrays were produced on various substrates to demonstrate the feasibility of a thin-film nano-scaled power storage system for distributed power storage applications. The bio-nanobattery will be ideal for nanometerscaled electronic applications, due to the small size, high energy density, and flexible thin-film structure. A five-cell demonstration article was produced for concept verification and bio-nanobattery characterization. Challenges to be addressed include the development of a multi-layered thin-film, increasing the energy density, dry-cell bionanobattery

  10. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  11. Optimizing Clinical Drug Product Performance: Applying Biopharmaceutics Risk Assessment Roadmap (BioRAM) and the BioRAM Scoring Grid.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Paul A; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Flanagan, Talia; Martinez, Marilyn N; Mistry, Hitesh B; Crison, John R; Polli, James E; Cruañes, Maria T; Serajuddin, Abu T M; Müllertz, Anette; Cook, Jack A; Selen, Arzu

    2016-11-01

    The aim of Biopharmaceutics Risk Assessment Roadmap (BioRAM) and the BioRAM Scoring Grid is to facilitate optimization of clinical performance of drug products. BioRAM strategy relies on therapy-driven drug delivery and follows an integrated systems approach for formulating and addressing critical questions and decision-making (J Pharm Sci. 2014,103(11): 3777-97). In BioRAM, risk is defined as not achieving the intended in vivo drug product performance, and success is assessed by time to decision-making and action. Emphasis on time to decision-making and time to action highlights the value of well-formulated critical questions and well-designed and conducted integrated studies. This commentary describes and illustrates application of the BioRAM Scoring Grid, a companion to the BioRAM strategy, which guides implementation of such an integrated strategy encompassing 12 critical areas and 6 assessment stages. Application of the BioRAM Scoring Grid is illustrated using published literature. Organizational considerations for implementing BioRAM strategy, including the interactions, function, and skillsets of the BioRAM group members, are also reviewed. As a creative and innovative systems approach, we believe that BioRAM is going to have a broad-reaching impact, influencing drug development and leading to unique collaborations influencing how we learn, and leverage and share knowledge.

  12. MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANO-BIO MATERIALS WITHIN CELLULAR MACHINERY.

    PubMed

    Rozhkova, E A; Ulasov, I V; Kim, D-H; Dimitrijevic, N M; Novosad, V; Bader, S D; Lesniak, M S; Rajh, T

    2011-08-01

    Functional nanoscale materials that possess specific physical or chemical properties can leverage energy transduction in vivo. Once these materials integrate with biomolecules they combine physical properties of inorganic material and the biorecognition capabilities of bio-organic moieties. Such nano-bio hybrids can be interfaced with living cells, the elementary functional units of life. These nano-bio systems are capable of bio-manipulation or actuation via altering intracellular biochemical pathways. Thus, nano-bio conjugates are appealing for a wide range of applications from the life sciences and nanomedicine to catalysis and clean energy production. Here we highlight recent progress in our efforts to develop smart nano-bio hybrid materials, and to study their performance within cellular machinery under application of external stimuli, such as light or magnetic fields.

  13. BioElectronic Tongue for the quantification of total polyphenol content in wine.

    PubMed

    Cetó, Xavier; Céspedes, Francisco; del Valle, Manel

    2012-09-15

    This work reports the application of a BioElectronic Tongue (BioET) in the estimation of polyphenol content in wine. The approach used an array of enzyme biosensors capable of giving a wide and complete response of the analyzed species, plus a chemometric processing tool able to interpret the chemical signals and extract meaningful data from the complex readings. In our case, the proposed BioET was formed by an array of four voltammetric enzymatic biosensors based on epoxy-graphite composites, one blank electrode and the other three bulk-modified with tyrosinase and laccase on one side, and copper nanoparticles on the other; these modifiers were used in order to incorporate differentiated or catalytic response to different polyphenols present in wine and aimed to the determination of its total polyphenol content value. The obtained voltammetric responses were pre-processed employing the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT); this was used to compress the relevant information whereas the obtained coefficients fed an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model that accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. For comparison purposes, obtained polyphenol content was compared against the one assessed by two different reference methods: Folin-Ciocalteu and UV polyphenol index (I(280)); good prediction ability was attained with correlation coefficients higher than 0.949 when comparing against reference methods. Qualitative discrimination of individual polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by means of Principal Component Analysis which allowed the discrimination of the individual polyphenols under study.

  14. Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences.

    PubMed

    Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G

    2010-01-01

    Recent startling interest for lanthanide luminescence is stimulated by the continuously expanding need for luminescent materials meeting the stringent requirements of telecommunication, lighting, electroluminescent devices, (bio-)analytical sensors and bio-imaging set-ups. This critical review describes the latest developments in (i) the sensitization of near-infrared luminescence, (ii) "soft" luminescent materials (liquid crystals, ionic liquids, ionogels), (iii) electroluminescent materials for organic light emitting diodes, with emphasis on white light generation, and (iv) applications in luminescent bio-sensing and bio-imaging based on time-resolved detection and multiphoton excitation (500 references).

  15. BioC implementations in Go, Perl, Python and Ruby.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanli; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Kwon, Dongseop; Marques, Hernani; Rinaldi, Fabio; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    As part of a communitywide effort for evaluating text mining and information extraction systems applied to the biomedical domain, BioC is focused on the goal of interoperability, currently a major barrier to wide-scale adoption of text mining tools. BioC is a simple XML format, specified by DTD, for exchanging data for biomedical natural language processing. With initial implementations in C++ and Java, BioC provides libraries of code for reading and writing BioC text documents and annotations. We extend BioC to Perl, Python, Go and Ruby. We used SWIG to extend the C++ implementation for Perl and one Python implementation. A second Python implementation and the Ruby implementation use native data structures and libraries. BioC is also implemented in the Google language Go. BioC modules are functional in all of these languages, which can facilitate text mining tasks. BioC implementations are freely available through the BioC site: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/

  16. BioC implementations in Go, Perl, Python and Ruby

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanli; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Kwon, Dongseop; Marques, Hernani; Rinaldi, Fabio; Wilbur, W. John; Comeau, Donald C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a communitywide effort for evaluating text mining and information extraction systems applied to the biomedical domain, BioC is focused on the goal of interoperability, currently a major barrier to wide-scale adoption of text mining tools. BioC is a simple XML format, specified by DTD, for exchanging data for biomedical natural language processing. With initial implementations in C++ and Java, BioC provides libraries of code for reading and writing BioC text documents and annotations. We extend BioC to Perl, Python, Go and Ruby. We used SWIG to extend the C++ implementation for Perl and one Python implementation. A second Python implementation and the Ruby implementation use native data structures and libraries. BioC is also implemented in the Google language Go. BioC modules are functional in all of these languages, which can facilitate text mining tasks. BioC implementations are freely available through the BioC site: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/ PMID:24961236

  17. Development of a bio-inspired transformable robotic fin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yikun; Xia, Yu; Qin, Fenghua; Xu, Min; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Shiwu

    2016-08-31

    Fish swim by oscillating their pectoral fins forwards and backwards in a cyclic motion such that their geometric parameters and aspect ratios change according to how fast or slow a fish wants to swim; these complex motions result in a complicated hydrodynamic response. This paper focuses on the dynamic change in the shape of a fin to improve the underwater propulsion of bio-inspired mechanism. To do this, a novel transformable robotic fin has been developed to investigate how this change in shape affects the hydrodynamic forces acting on the fin. This robotic fin has a multi-link frame and a flexible surface skin where changes in shape are activated by a purpose designed multi-link mechanism driven by a transformation motor. A drag platform has been designed to study the performance of this variable robotic fin. Numerous experiments were carried out to determine how various controlling modes affect the thrust capability of this fin. The kinematic parameters associated with this robotic fin include the oscillating frequency and amplitude, and the drag velocity. The fin has four modes to control the cyclic motion; these were also investigated in combination with the variable kinematic parameters. The results will help us understand the locomotion performance of this transformable robotic fin. Note that different controlling modes influence the propulsive performance of this robotic fin, which means its propulsive performance can be optimized in a changing environment by adapting its shape. This study facilitates the development of bio-inspired unmanned underwater vehicles with a very high swimming performance.

  18. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, Greg; Alcorn-Windy Boy, Jessica; Abedin, Md. Joynal; Maglinao, Randy

    2014-09-30

    MSU-Northern established the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) into a Regional Research Center of Excellence to address the obstacles concerning biofuels, feedstock, quality, conversion process, economic viability and public awareness. The Center built its laboratories and expertise in order to research and support product development and commercialization for the bio-energy industry in our region. The Center wanted to support the regional agricultural based economy by researching biofuels based on feedstock’s that can be grown in our region in an environmentally responsible manner. We were also interested in any technology that will improve the emissions and fuel economy performance of heavy duty diesel engines. The Center had a three step approach to accomplish these goals: 1. Enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities 2. Develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops. 3. Educate and outreach for public understanding and acceptance of new technology. The Center was very successful in completing the tasks as outlined in the project plan. Key successes include discovering and patenting a new chemical conversion process for converting camelina oil to jet fuel, as well as promise in developing a heterogeneous Grubs catalyst to support the new chemical conversion process. The Center also successfully fragmented and deoxygenated naturally occurring lignin with a Ni-NHC catalyst, showing promise for further exploration of using lignin for fuels and fuel additives. This would create another value-added product for lignin that can be sourced from beetle kill trees or waste products from cellulose ethanol fuel facilities.

  19. Research and fabrication of integrated bio-sensor for blood analysis based on µTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, De; Wei, Jianxia; Tong, Zhengrong; Chen, Caihe; Cui, Yuming; Xu, Kexin; Si, Qin; Li, Chao; Liu, Jie

    2007-01-01

    For simultaneously detecting multi-parameters of blood in the clinical diagnosis, the analysis apparatus should be smaller in size, more reliable and sensitive. So a kind of integrated bio-sensor for blood analysis based on Micro Total Analysis System (μTAS) is presented. It provides modern bio-sensor prospect with a novel technology. A multi-parameters of blood analysis integration sensor is μTAS bio-sensor based on 4 groups of interdigital array (IDA)microelectrodes. The IDA microelectrodes are fabricated on glass substrates by photography, film deposition and other microfabrication techniques. Thin-film gold microelectrode with a thickness of 250nm is deposited on a chromium-adhesion layer. The finger microelectrode width and space are both 10μm. The work space is 2×2cm2. The concentration of Blood sugar, Total Cholesterol, Acetone body and Lactic acid is measured by detecting steady-state limiting currents in IDA microelectrodes modified with enzymes on the "generate-collect" mode. Blood distribution structure is designed and fabricated, to distribute blood and isolate reaction areas. By contrasting two kinds of process flow based on lift-off and etching, etching is adopted to preparation method of microelectrode. A multi-channel apparatus for current measurement is accompleted. The system characteristics of the bio-sensor are tested. The curve of the apparatus time to current response is achieved by testing on real-time. The relationships between parameter concentration and current are analyzed in detail. The experimental data indicates: current measurement dimension 0~40μA, certainty of measurement 0.1μA, the performances of the bio-sensor meets design requirement.

  20. Toxicity assessment of the extract of compost as a final product from Bio-Toilet.

    PubMed

    Kakimolo, T; Imai, Y; Funamizu, N; Takakuwa, T; Kunimoto, M

    2006-01-01

    Bio-Toilet is the name of a dry closet or composting toilet using sawdust as an artificial soil matrix for bioconversion of human excrement into compost. Since feces and urine contain several chemicals such as pharmaceutical residues and endocrine disruptors and they may still remain in compost after biological reaction in the Bio-Toilet, it is required to examine the possibility of soil and/or groundwater pollution by applying compost to a soil system in farmland. In this study, toxicity of Bio-Toilet compost was evaluated by measuring the viability of human neuroblast (NB-1). The bio-assay was applied to the water extract of compost from the Bio-Toilets which are in practical use in Japan. The assay results showed that (1) the extract of feces showed no toxicity, and the extracts of unused sawdust had no or low level toxicity and (2) the extracts of composts had heavier toxicity than unused sawdust. These results implied that some chemicals that have toxicity were generated by biological reactions or accumulated in toilet system. The bioassay results with fractionated organic matter by its molecular weight showed that the small molecular weight fraction had stronger toxicity than other fractions. The effect of inorganic matter on toxicity was examined by comparing the dose-response relationship of the extracts of compost with positive control with 1M of sodium chloride solution. The comparison showed that sodium concentration in the extract was too low to develop the toxicity and the effect of inorganic matter could be neglected in this study.

  1. Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes

    PubMed Central

    Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of “bio-objects” and the process we call “bio-objectification.” This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific. PMID:23771763

  2. Assimilation of Bio-Optical Properties into Coupled Physical, Bio-Optical Coastal Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    analysis (updated) fields for the bio-optical model state variables are derived from: Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8724 87240E-3 Downloaded From: http...proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 07/11/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms ),XY(XX fofa HK −+= aX fX oY (1) where is vector of the

  3. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of cattle manure to bio-oil: Effects of conversion parameters on bio-oil yield and characterization of bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Yin, Sudong; Dolan, Ryan; Harris, Matt; Tan, Zhongchao

    2010-05-01

    In this study, cattle manure was converted to bio-oil by subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction in the presence of NaOH. The effects of conversion temperature, process gas, initial conversion pressure, residence time and mass ratio of cattle manure to water on the bio-oil yield were studied. The bio-oil was characterized in terms of elemental composition, higher heating value, ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that the bio-oil yield depended on the conversion temperature and the process gas. Higher initial conversion pressure, longer residence time and larger mass ratio of cattle manure to water, however, had negative impacts on the bio-oil yield. The higher heating value of bio-oil was 35.53MJ/kg on average. The major non-polar components of bio-oil were toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, which are components of crude oil, gasoline and diesel.

  4. Interleukin 4 strongly augments or inhibits DNA synthesis and differentiation of B-type chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells depending on the co-stimulatory activation and progression signals.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M; Sundström, C; Bengtsson, M; Tötterman, T H; Rosén, A; Nilsson, K

    1989-05-01

    This study describes the opposing effects that interleukin (IL) 4 exerts on the B cell stimulatory factor (BSF-MP6) and IL 2-dependent proliferation and differentiation of cells of one selected B-type chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell clone (I83), which depend on the nature of the activation inducer. In I83 cells activated by a 1-h pulse of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, the BSF-MP6-dependent DNA synthesis was strongly enhanced by 50-100 U/ml of recombinant IL 4. Recombinant IL 2 stimulation was necessary only when a suboptimal dose of BSF-MP6 was used. The differentiation was also markedly enhanced by IL 4 as measured by quantitation of IgM secretion both at the population (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses of the supernatant) and single-cell level (enzyme-linked immunospot technique), by morphological examination of the maturation stage and flow cytometric analysis of differentiation-associated surface antigens (CD11c, FMC7, PCA-1 and CD38). No Ig isotype switch was found. In contrast, DNA synthesis and differentiation of I83 cells, activated by Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain I (SAC) and co-stimulated with BSF-MP6 plus IL 2, were strongly inhibited by IL 4, both when it was added simultaneously with SAC or after 2 days of SAC exposure. Analysis of the cell-cycle progression of SAC and BSF-MP6 plus IL 2 and IL 4-stimulated cells by acridine orange staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis demonstrated an arrest of a minor cell population in G0 and a block of the transition of G1 cells to S phase. Neither the enhancing nor the inhibitory effect of IL 4 on the proliferation and differentiation of I83 cells was an indirect effect via IL 4-induced activation of contaminating T cells, monocytes or natural killer cells, as shown by experiments where these cell types were depleted by FACS sorting. Furthermore the expression of CD23 and CD25 was not inhibited by IL 4. The results thus demonstrate contrasting biological effects of

  5. BioJazz: in silico evolution of cellular networks with unbounded complexity using rule-based modeling

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Song; Ollivier, Julien F.; Swain, Peter S.; Soyer, Orkun S.

    2015-01-01

    Systems biologists aim to decipher the structure and dynamics of signaling and regulatory networks underpinning cellular responses; synthetic biologists can use this insight to alter existing networks or engineer de novo ones. Both tasks will benefit from an understanding of which structural and dynamic features of networks can emerge from evolutionary processes, through which intermediary steps these arise, and whether they embody general design principles. As natural evolution at the level of network dynamics is difficult to study, in silico evolution of network models can provide important insights. However, current tools used for in silico evolution of network dynamics are limited to ad hoc computer simulations and models. Here we introduce BioJazz, an extendable, user-friendly tool for simulating the evolution of dynamic biochemical networks. Unlike previous tools for in silico evolution, BioJazz allows for the evolution of cellular networks with unbounded complexity by combining rule-based modeling with an encoding of networks that is akin to a genome. We show that BioJazz can be used to implement biologically realistic selective pressures and allows exploration of the space of network architectures and dynamics that implement prescribed physiological functions. BioJazz is provided as an open-source tool to facilitate its further development and use. Source code and user manuals are available at: http://oss-lab.github.io/biojazz and http://osslab.lifesci.warwick.ac.uk/BioJazz.aspx. PMID:26101250

  6. Bio-effectors from waste materials as growth promoters for tomato plants, an agronomic and metabolomic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Chehade, Lara; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    In organic farming, where nutrient management is constrained and sustainability is claimed, bio-effectors pave their way. Considering selected bio-effectors, this study integrates metabolomics to agronomy in depicting induced relevant phenomena. Extracts of three agro-industrial wastes (Lemon processing residues, Fennel processing residues and Brewer's spent grain) are being investigated as sources of bio-effectors for the third trial consequently. Corresponding individual and mixture aqueous extracts are assessed for their synergistic and/or single agronomic and qualitative performances on soil-grown tomato, compared to both a control and humic acid treatments. A metabolomic profiling of tomato fruits via the Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, as holistic indicator of fruit quality and extract-induced responses, complements crop productivity and organoleptic/nutritional qualitative analyses. Results are expected to show mainly an enhancement of the fruit qualitative traits, and to confirm partly the previous results of better crop productivity and metabolism enhancement. Waste-derived bio-effectors could be, accordingly, demonstrated as potential candidates of plant-enhancing substances. Keywords: bio-effectors, organic farming, agro-industrial wastes, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), tomato.

  7. Bermuda Bio Optics Project. Chapter 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Norm

    2003-01-01

    The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) is a collaborative effort between the Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). This research program is designed to characterize light availability and utilization in the Sargasso Sea, and to provide an optical link by which biogeochemical observations may be used to evaluate bio-optical models for pigment concentration, primary production, and sinking particle fluxes from satellite-based ocean color sensors. The BBOP time-series was initiated in 1992, and is carried out in conjunction with the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. The BATS program itself has been observing biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, particle flux and elemental cycles) in the mesotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea since 1988. Closely affiliated with BBOP and BATS is a separate NASA-funded study of the spatial variability of biogeochemical processes in the Sargasso Sea using high-resolution AVHRR and SeaWiFS data collected at Bermuda (N. Nelson, P.I.). The collaboration between BATS and BBOP measurements has resulted in a unique data set that addresses not only the SIMBIOS goals but also the broader issues of important factors controlling the carbon cycle.

  8. The bio-distribution of the antidepressant clomipramine is modulated by chronic stress in mice: effects on behavior

    PubMed Central

    Balsevich, Georgia; Namendorf, Christian; Gerlach, Tamara; Uhr, Manfred; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2015-01-01

    Major depression (MD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, severely affecting the quality of life of millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, treatment efficacy is still very variable and many patients do not respond to the treatment. Clomipramine (CMI), a classical and widely used antidepressant, shows widespread interindividual variability of efficacy, while the environmental factors contributing to such variability remain unclear. We investigated whether chronic stress modulates the bio-distribution of CMI, and as a result the behavioral response to CMI treatment in a mouse model of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). Our results show that stress exposure increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors and altered the stress response. Chronic defeat stress furthermore significantly altered CMI bio-distribution. Interestingly, CMI bio-distribution highly correlated with anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors only under basal conditions. Taken together, we provide first evidence demonstrating that chronic stress exposure modulates CMI bio-distribution and behavioral responses. This may contribute to CMI’s broad interindividual variability, and is especially relevant in clinical practice. PMID:25610380

  9. Analysis and classification of broadband echoes using bio-inspired dolphin pulses.

    PubMed

    Pailhas, Yan; Capus, Chris; Brown, Keith; Moore, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    To date most sonars use narrow band pulses and often only the echo envelope is used for object detection and classification. This paper considers the advantages afforded by bio-inspired sonar for object identification and classification through the analysis and the understanding of the broadband echo structure. Using the biomimetic dolphin based sonar system in conjunction with bio-inspired pulses developed from observations of bottlenose dolphins performing object identification tasks, results are presented from experiments carried out in a wave tank and harbor. In these experiments responses of various targets to two different bio-inspired signals are measured and analyzed. The differences in response demonstrate the strong dependency between signal design and echo interpretation. In the simulations and empirical data, the resonance phenomena of these targets cause strong notches and peaks in the echo spectra. With precision in the localization of these peaks and dips of around 1 kHz, the locations are very stable for broadside insonification of the targets and they can be used as features for classification. This leads to the proposal of a broadband classifier which operates by extracting the notch positions in the target echo spectra.

  10. [Effects of harmful algal bloom on bio-optical properties of coastal water].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Yang, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yong-Jian; Wang, Xiang; Zou, Xiao-Ge

    2011-10-01

    Effects of harmful algal bloom (HAB) on bio-optical properties of coastal waters were studied. Bio-optical data were collected from 11 stations in the Dalian Bay, for an analysis of variable characteristics of biological factors, reflectance and absorption spectra as responses to HAB. The results indicated that, (1) the HAB which occurred in the Dalian Bay was caused by picophytoplankton. (2) Remote sensing reflectance showed an obvious difference with the normal waters: the strong absorption of the high concentration chlorophyll-a leaded to two reflection dips near 440 and 632 nm bands, a much larger fluorescence peak height around the red band accompanied by a "red shift", a sharp peak of oxygen response at 760 nm, and an enhanced reflection peak of suspended matter in the near-infrared band. (3) In addition, effects of HAB on absorption coefficient spectrum mainly reflected in the numerical size and much stronger absorption of ocean color constituents than the normal waters had been found, the a(ph) (440), a(ph) (675), a(d) (440) and a(g) (440) increased to 13.4, 14.5, 5.0 and 3.8 times of the values of normal waters, respectively. Variation features of bio-optical elements were examined and identified when HAB occurred in the Dalian Bay, which provides a way to monitor HAB by satellite remote sensing.

  11. Constructing Knowledge in the Context of BioWorld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajoie, Susanne P.; Lavigne, Nancy C.; Guerrera, Claudia; Munsie, Steven D.

    2001-01-01

    BioWorld is a computer-based environment for the high school biology curriculum that provides a hospital simulation where students can apply what they have learned to solve problems about diseases. Analyses of student actions and verbal dialogue were conducted to pinpoint within BioWorld that were most conducive to learning and scientific…

  12. Querying and computing with BioCyc databases.

    PubMed

    Krummenacker, Markus; Paley, Suzanne; Mueller, Lukas; Yan, Thomas; Karp, Peter D

    2005-08-15

    We describe multiple methods for accessing and querying the complex and integrated cellular data in the BioCyc family of databases: access through multiple file formats, access through Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for LISP, Perl and Java, and SQL access through the BioWarehouse relational database.

  13. Bio-composites from mycelium reinforced agricultural substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for biodegradable alternatives to the inert plastics and expanded foams currently used in in manufacturing processes and device components. The material focused on in this report is a bio-composite patented by Ecovative Design, LLC. The bio-composite utilizes the fungus mycelium to i...

  14. Nano-Bio Quantum Technology for Device-Specific Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2009-01-01

    The areas discussed are still under development: I. Nano structured materials for TE applications a) SiGe and Be.Te; b) Nano particles and nanoshells. II. Quantum technology for optical devices: a) Quantum apertures; b) Smart optical materials; c) Micro spectrometer. III. Bio-template oriented materials: a) Bionanobattery; b) Bio-fuel cells; c) Energetic materials.

  15. BioCapacitor--a novel category of biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ferri, Stefano; Nakayama, Daisuke; Tomiyama, Masamitsu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2009-03-15

    This research reports on the development of an innovative biosensor, known as BioCapacitor, in which biological recognition elements are combined with a capacitor functioning as the transducer. The analytical procedure of the BioCapacitor is based on the following principle: a biocatalyst, acting as a biological recognition element, oxidizes or reduces the analyte to generate electric power, which is then charged into a capacitor via a charge pump circuit (switched capacitor regulator) until the capacitors attains full capacity. Since the charging rate of the capacitor depends on the biocatalytic reaction of the analyte, the analyte concentration can be determined by monitoring the time/frequency required for the charge/discharge cycle of the BioCapacitor via a charge pump circuit. As a representative model, we constructed a BioCapacitor composed of FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) as the anodic catalyst, and attempted a glucose measurement. Charge/discharge frequency of the BioCapacitor increased with the increasing glucose concentration, exhibiting good correlation with glucose concentration. We have also constructed a wireless sensing system using the BioCapacitor combined with an infrared light emitting diode (IRLED), an IR phototransistor system. In the presence of glucose, the IRLED signal was observed due to the discharge of the BioCapacitor and detected by an IR phototransistor in a wireless receiver. Therefore, a BioCapacitor employing FADGDH as its anodic catalyst can be operated as a self-powered enzyme sensor.

  16. Bio-inspired synthesis of metal nanomaterials and applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiale; Lin, Liqin; Sun, Daohua; Chen, Huimei; Yang, Dapeng; Li, Qingbiao

    2015-10-07

    This critical review focuses on recent advances in the bio-inspired synthesis of metal nanomaterials (MNMs) using microorganisms, viruses, plants, proteins and DNA molecules as well as their applications in various fields. Prospects in the design of bio-inspired MNMs for novel applications are also discussed.

  17. Bio-TDS: bioscience query tool discovery system.

    PubMed

    Gnimpieba, Etienne Z; VanDiermen, Menno S; Gustafson, Shayla M; Conn, Bill; Lushbough, Carol M

    2017-01-04

    Bioinformatics and computational biology play a critical role in bioscience and biomedical research. As researchers design their experimental projects, one major challenge is to find the most relevant bioinformatics toolkits that will lead to new knowledge discovery from their data. The Bio-TDS (Bioscience Query Tool Discovery Systems, http://biotds.org/) has been developed to assist researchers in retrieving the most applicable analytic tools by allowing them to formulate their questions as free text. The Bio-TDS is a flexible retrieval system that affords users from multiple bioscience domains (e.g. genomic, proteomic, bio-imaging) the ability to query over 12 000 analytic tool descriptions integrated from well-established, community repositories. One of the primary components of the Bio-TDS is the ontology and natural language processing workflow for annotation, curation, query processing, and evaluation. The Bio-TDS's scientific impact was evaluated using sample questions posed by researchers retrieved from Biostars, a site focusing on BIOLOGICAL DATA ANALYSIS: The Bio-TDS was compared to five similar bioscience analytic tool retrieval systems with the Bio-TDS outperforming the others in terms of relevance and completeness. The Bio-TDS offers researchers the capacity to associate their bioscience question with the most relevant computational toolsets required for the data analysis in their knowledge discovery process.

  18. Bio-Monitoring of Ozone by Young Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    An educational pilot project on the bio-monitoring of air quality was carried out in the Umbria Region of Central Italy. It involved about 1000 young students (ages 4 to 16) from 42 schools of 16 municipalities in active biomonitoring of tropospheric ozone with bio-indicator sensitive tobacco seedlings. Some 6500 raw biological readings were used…

  19. Turning the digital page at ChemBioChem.

    PubMed

    Gölitz, Peter; Campbell, Meghan

    2014-01-03

    Chemical biology has been in the spotlight for numerous reasons lately. ChemBioChem has had a productive year at the forefront of these advances and is looking forward to many changes in 2014. Advances in digital publishing promise to increase the visibility and functionality of ChemBioChem for our worldwide readership.

  20. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  1. Bio-TDS: bioscience query tool discovery system

    PubMed Central

    Gnimpieba, Etienne Z.; VanDiermen, Menno S.; Gustafson, Shayla M.; Conn, Bill; Lushbough, Carol M.

    2017-01-01

    Bioinformatics and computational biology play a critical role in bioscience and biomedical research. As researchers design their experimental projects, one major challenge is to find the most relevant bioinformatics toolkits that will lead to new knowledge discovery from their data. The Bio-TDS (Bioscience Query Tool Discovery Systems, http://biotds.org/) has been developed to assist researchers in retrieving the most applicable analytic tools by allowing them to formulate their questions as free text. The Bio-TDS is a flexible retrieval system that affords users from multiple bioscience domains (e.g. genomic, proteomic, bio-imaging) the ability to query over 12 000 analytic tool descriptions integrated from well-established, community repositories. One of the primary components of the Bio-TDS is the ontology and natural language processing workflow for annotation, curation, query processing, and evaluation. The Bio-TDS's scientific impact was evaluated using sample questions posed by researchers retrieved from Biostars, a site focusing on biological data analysis. The Bio-TDS was compared to five similar bioscience analytic tool retrieval systems with the Bio-TDS outperforming the others in terms of relevance and completeness. The Bio-TDS offers researchers the capacity to associate their bioscience question with the most relevant computational toolsets required for the data analysis in their knowledge discovery process. PMID:27924016

  2. A Cognitively Oriented Psychologist Looks at Bio-feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Richard S.

    1975-01-01

    It is advocated that bio-feedback research be approached within the larger context of emotion and adaption and oriented to the wide variety of mediators that affect the reaction pattern, rather than be treated as a special or unique kind of process limited to the bio-feedback laboratory. (EH)

  3. Optical properties of bio-inspired peptide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2016-04-01

    Supramolecular self-assembled bio-inspired peptide nanostructures are favorable to be implemented in diverse nanophotonics applications due to their superior physical properties such as wideband optical transparency, high second-order nonlinear response, waveguiding properties and more. Here, we focus on the optical properties found in di-phenylalanine peptide nano-architectures, with special emphasize on their linear and nonlinear optical waveguiding effects. Using both simulation and experiments, we show their ability to passively guide light at both fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies. In addition, we show that at elevated temperatures, 140-180°C, these native supramolecular structures undergo irreversible thermally induced transformation via re-assembling into completely new thermodynamically stable phase having nanofiber morphology similar to those of amyloid fibrils. In this new phase, the peptide nanofibers lose their second-order nonlinear response, while exhibit profound modification of optoelectronic properties followed by the appearance of visible (blue and green) photoluminescence (PL). Our study propose a new generation of multifunctional optical waveguides with variety of characteristics, which self-assembled into 1D-elongated nanostructures and could be used as building blocks of many integrated photonic devices.

  4. Bio-phobias/techno-philias: virtual reality exposure as treatment for phobias of 'nature'.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joyce; Smith, Mick

    2003-09-01

    In modern society natural objects like spiders or snakes have a primary role as the loci of specific phobias. Drawing on interviews with members of the UK National Phobics Society (NPS) and associated service providers, this paper explores the implications of the increasingly significant role played by new media, particularly Virtual Reality technologies, in the treatment of these 'bio-phobias'. While advanced technological approaches provide new possibilities for individual sufferers to experiment with and control their phobic responses they also exemplify certain aspects of those specifically modern social relations that are the media within which bio-phobic behaviours develop. From a critical sociological perspective the techno-philic move to the medium of cyber-space may actually exaggerate characteristically modern social relations that seek (but never convincingly manage) to assert complete 'cultural' control over the unpredictable 'natural' elements threatening our cultural integrity.

  5. The BioSentinel Bioanalytical Microsystem: Characterizing DNA Radiation Damage in Living Organisms Beyond Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricco, A. J.; Hanel, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Boone, T.; Tan, M.; Mousavi, A.; Rademacher, A.; Schooley, A.; Klamm, B.; Benton, J.; Padgen, M.; Gentry, D.; Friedericks, C.; Defouw, G.; Parra, M.; Santa Maria, S.; Marina, D.; Swan, B. G.; Wheeler, S.; Gavalas, S.; Lewis, B.; Sanchez, H.; Chartres, J.; Lusby, T.

    2016-01-01

    We will present details and initial lab test results from an integrated bioanalytical microsystem designed to conduct the first biology experiments beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) since Apollo 17 (1972). The 14-kg, 12x24x37-cm BioSentinel spacecraft (Figure 1) assays radiation-responsive yeast in its science payload by measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repaired via homologous recombination, a mechanism common to all eukaryotes including humans. S. cerevisiae (brewer's yeast) in 288 microwells are provided with nutrient and optically assayed for growth and metabolism via 3-color absorptimetry monthly during the 18-month mission. BioSentinel is one of several secondary payloads to be deployed by NASA's Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) launch vehicle into approximately 0.95 AU heliocentric orbit in July 2018; it will communicate with Earth from up to 100 million km.

  6. Bio-optical footprints created by mesoscale eddies in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, D. A.; Peterson, P.; McGillicuddy, D. J., Jr.; Maritorena, S.; Nelson, N. B.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the bio-optical footprints made by mesoscale eddies in the Sargasso Sea and the processes that create them through an eddy-centric approach. Many (>10,000) eddies are identified and followed in time using satellite altimetry observations and the spatial ocean color patterns surrounding each eddy are assessed. We find through a sequence of statistical hypothesis tests that not one but several mechanisms (i.e., eddy pumping, eddy advection and eddy-Ekman pumping) are responsible for the spatial-temporal ocean color patterns following individual eddies. Both eddy pumping and the eddy-Ekman pumping mechanisms alter subsurface nutrient distributions thereby driving biogeochemical cycles, while the eddy advection mechanism to first order stirs existing horizontal gradients in bio-optical properties. This work illustrates both the promise and some of the limitations of satellite observations for assessing the biogeochemical impacts of mesoscale eddies.

  7. Bio-robots automatic navigation with electrical reward stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Zhang, Xinlu; Zheng, Nenggan; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Bio-robots that controlled by outer stimulation through brain computer interface (BCI) suffer from the dependence on realtime guidance of human operators. Current automatic navigation methods for bio-robots focus on the controlling rules to force animals to obey man-made commands, with animals' intelligence ignored. This paper proposes a new method to realize the automatic navigation for bio-robots with electrical micro-stimulation as real-time rewards. Due to the reward-seeking instinct and trial-and-error capability, bio-robot can be steered to keep walking along the right route with rewards and correct its direction spontaneously when rewards are deprived. In navigation experiments, rat-robots learn the controlling methods in short time. The results show that our method simplifies the controlling logic and realizes the automatic navigation for rat-robots successfully. Our work might have significant implication for the further development of bio-robots with hybrid intelligence.

  8. Protein bio-corona: critical issue in immune nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Neagu, Monica; Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Engin, Ayse Basak; Docea, Anca Oana; Constantin, Carolina; Negrei, Carolina; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2017-03-01

    With the expansion of the nanomedicine field, the knowledge focusing on the behavior of nanoparticles in the biological milieu has rapidly escalated. Upon introduction to a complex biological system, nanomaterials dynamically interact with all the encountered biomolecules and form the protein "bio-corona." The decoration with these surface biomolecules endows nanoparticles with new properties. The present review will address updates of the protein bio-corona characteristics as influenced by nanoparticle's physicochemical properties and by the particularities of the encountered biological milieu. Undeniably, bio-corona generation influences the efficacy of the nanodrug and guides the actions of innate and adaptive immunity. Exploiting the dynamic process of protein bio-corona development in combination with the new engineered horizons of drugs linked to nanoparticles could lead to innovative functional nanotherapies. Therefore, bio-medical nanotechnologies should focus on the interactions of nanoparticles with the immune system for both safety and efficacy reasons.

  9. Hypoglycemic activity of bio-tea in mice.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, C

    2000-03-01

    Administration of bio-tea (1.71 ml/kg) to normal albino mice caused hypoglycemia after 30 min which reached to maximum after 2 hr with a significant decrease in blood sugar level (BSL) and became normal beyond 8 hr. In alloxan-induced diabetic albino mice, repeated treatments of bio-tea for 3 days (five doses) brought about a significant fall in mean BSL. Continuous decrease in BSL was observed after 4 hr of administration of last dose of bio-tea. Hypoglycemic effect was persistent in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Effect on glucose tolerance test showed a significant fall in BSL of bio-tea treated animals after 1 hr of glucose treatment indicating hypoglycemic effect of bio-tea.

  10. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morici, Elisabetta; Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  11. Bio-inspired cell concentration and deformability monitoring chips.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Ho; Youn, Sechan; Lee, Dong Woo

    2007-11-01

    The paper presents a couple of biofluidic devices, whose functions are inspired from biological cell concentration and deformability monitoring functions. The cell concentration monitoring chip is inspired from RBC control mechanism in kidney, performing cell concentration monitoring functions. The cell deformability chip, inspired from selective RBC destruction mechanism in spleen, performs mechanical cell deformability monitoring functions. The structures and principles of the bio-inspired chips are presented and compared with those of the biological organs. The unique features and performance characteristics of the bio-inspired chips are analyzed and verified from experimental study. The bio-inspired cell concentration monitoring chips perform flow-rate insensitive concentration measurement, while the bio-inspired cell deformability monitoring chips achieve size-independent cell deformability measurement. Common advantages of the bio-inspired chips include simple structures, digital signals and high integrability, thus making them suitable for use in integrated digital biomedical systems.

  12. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Morici, Elisabetta; Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova

    2014-05-15

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  13. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  14. A Survey of Business Trends at BioOne Publishing Partners and its Implications for BioOne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Todd A.; Joseph, Heather; Waltham, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of BioOne participating publishers that was conducted during the fall of 2003. In that survey, BioOne collected data from 18 not-for-profit publishers on circulation levels, scholarly output in terms of pages and articles produced, revenues, and expenditures. From eight of the publishers, complete profit, loss, and…

  15. BioSentinel: Biosensors for Deep-Space Radiation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokugamage, Melissa P.; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Marina, Diana B.; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The BioSentinel mission will be deployed on NASA's Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2018. We will use the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a biosensor to study the effect of deep-space radiation on living cells. The BioSentinel mission will be the first investigation of a biological response to space radiation outside Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. Radiation can cause damage such as double stand breaks (DSBs) on DNA. The yeast cell was chosen for this mission because it is genetically controllable, shares homology with human cells in its DNA repair pathways, and can be stored in a desiccated state for long durations. Three yeast strains will be stored dry in multiple microfluidic cards: a wild type control strain, a mutant defective strain that cannot repair DSBs, and a biosensor strain that can only grow if it gets DSB-and-repair events occurring near a specific gene. Growth and metabolic activity of each strain will be measured by a 3-color LED optical detection system. Parallel experiments will be done on the International Space Station and on Earth so that we can compare the results to that of deep space. One of our main objectives is to characterize the microfluidic card activation sequence before the mission. To increase the sensitivity of yeast cells as biosensors, desiccated yeast in each card will be resuspended in a rehydration buffer. After several weeks, the rehydration buffer will be exchanged with a growth medium in order to measure yeast growth and metabolic activity. We are currently working on a time-course experiment to better understand the effects of the rehydration buffer on the response to ionizing radiation. We will resuspend the dried yeast in our rehydration medium over a period of time; then each week, we will measure the viability and ionizing radiation sensitivity of different yeast strains taken from this rehydration buffer. The data obtained in this study will be useful in finalizing the card activation sequence for

  16. Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R

    2006-02-10

    Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from

  17. The Future of Bio-technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Hosts of technologies, most notably in electronics, have been on the path of miniaturization for decades and in 2005 they have crossed the threshold of the nano-scale. Crossing the nano-scale threshold is a milestone in miniaturization, setting impressive new standards for component-packing densities. It also brings technology to a scale at which quantum effects and fault tolerance play significant roles and approaches the feasible physical limit form many conventional "top-down" manufacturing methods. I will suggest that the most formidable manufacturing problems in nanotechnology will be overcome and major breakthroughs will occur in a host of technologies, when nanotechnology converges with bio-technology; i.e. I will argue that the future of bio-technology is in nanotechnology. In 2005, methods in molecular biology, microscopy, bioinformatics, biochemistry, and genetic engineering have focused considerable attention on the nano-scale. On this scale, biology is a kind of recursive chemistry in which molecular recognition, self-assembly, self-organization and self-referencing context-control lead to the emergence of the complexity of structures and processes that are fundamental to all life forms. While we are still far from understanding this complexity, we are on the threshold of being able to use at least some of these biological properties for .technology. I will discuss the use of biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins as "tools" for the bio-technologist of the future. More specifically, I will present in some detail an example of how we are using a genetically engineered 60-kDa protein (HSP60) from an organism living in near boiling sulfuric acid to build nano-scale templates for arranging metallic nanoparticles. These "extremophile" HSP60s self-assemble into robust double-ring structures called "chaperonins," which further assemble into filaments and arrays with nanometer accuracy. I will discuss our efforts to use chaperonins to organize quantum

  18. The bio-gripper: a fluid-driven micro-manipulator of living tissue constructs for additive bio-manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ip, Blanche C; Cui, Francis; Tripathi, Anubhav; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-25

    We previously developed the Bio-Pick, Place, and Perfuse (Bio-P3) instrument to fabricate large perfusable tissue constructs by stacking and aligning scaffold-free living microtissues with integrated lumens. The Bio-P3 required an actuating mechanism to manipulate living microtissues of various sizes and shapes that are fragile, and must remain in an aqueous environment. The optical transparency of the Bio-P3 gripping device was essential to provide unobstructed visuals for accurate alignment of microtissues. We previously engineered a pilot fluid force-driven bio-gripper that can pick-and-place microtissue in planar position without causing cellular damage by pulling culture medium through track-etched membrane-integrated cell culture inserts. In this study, we invented a new flexible bio-gripper design that maximized the bio-gripper utilities. We utilized experimental approaches, multivariate analyzes, and theoretical modeling to elucidate how membrane characteristics (pore size, pore density, membrane thickness, membrane area, and surface chemistry) altered bio-gripper robustness and the flow rate (Q(c)) required for successful gripping. We devised two standardized tests and synthetic parts that mimicked microtissues, to systematically quantify bio-gripper performance. All thirteen syringe pump-driven bio-grippers except one successfully gripped and released synthetic parts with values of Q(c) that coincided with our mathematical simulation of the fluid mechanics of gripping. The bio-gripper could grip synthetic parts of various sizes, shapes and masses, demonstrating the robustness of the actuating mechanism. Multivariate analysis of experimental data indicated that both membrane porosity and thickness modulated Q(c), and in addition, revealed that membrane pore density determined membrane optical transparency. Fabricating large tissue constructs requires repeated stacking of microtissues. We showed that one bio-gripper could pick-and-place living microtissues

  19. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    George W. Huber; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    with model AFBO excluding guaiacol were also conducted. NF membranes showed retention factors of glucose greater than 80% and of acetic acid less than 15% when operated at transmembrane pressures near 60 bar. Task 3.0 Acid Removal by Catalytic Processing It was found that the TAN reduction in bio-oil was very difficult using low temperature hydrogenation in flow and batch reactors. Acetic acid is very resilient to hydrogenation and we could only achieve about 16% conversion for acetic acid. Although it was observed that acetic acid was not responsible for instability of aqueous fraction of bio-oil during ageing studies (described in task 5). The bimetallic catalyst PtRe/ceria-zirconia was found to be best catalyst because its ability to convert the acid functionality with low conversion to gas phase carbon. Hydrogenation of the whole bio-oil was carried out at 125°C, 1450 psi over Ru/C catalyst in a flow reactor. Again, negligible acetic acid conversion was obtained in low temperature hydrogenation. Hydrogenation experiments with whole bio-oil were difficult to perform because of difficulty to pumping the high viscosity oil and reactor clogging. Task 4.0 Acid Removal using Ion Exchange Resins DOWEX M43 resin was used to carry out the neutralization of bio-oil using a packed bed column. The pH of the bio-oil increased from 2.43 to 3.7. The GC analysis of the samples showed that acetic acid was removed from the bio-oil during the neutralization and recovered in the methanol washing. But it was concluded that process would not be economical at large scale as it is extremely difficult to regenerate the resin once the bio-oil is passed over it. Task 5.0 Characterization of Upgraded Bio-oils We investigated the viscosity, microstructure, and chemical composition of bio-oils prepared by a fast pyrolysis approach, upon aging these fuels at 90ºC for periods of several days. Our results suggest that the viscosity increase is not correlated with the acids or char present in the

  20. LivBioSig: development of a toolbox for online bio-signals processing and experimentation.

    PubMed

    Lorrain, T; Niazi, I K; Thibergien, O; Jiang, N; Farina, D

    2011-01-01

    Various research fields, such as brain computer interface, requires online acquisition and analysis of biological data to validate assumptions or to help obtaining insights into the physiological processes of the human body. In this paper we introduce the LivBioSig toolbox for online bio-signals processing and experimentation. This open source and modularized MATLAB toolbox allows performing various experiment paradigms involving online signal processing. These currently include synchronous and asynchronous BCI experiments, and event related stimulation experiments. The use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUI) makes the system suitable even for beginner Matlab users, and the experiments easily configurable. The modularized structure allows advanced users to develop the toolbox further to adapt it to the needs of the research fields.

  1. Microneedle, bio-microneedle and bio-inspired microneedle: A review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guojun; Wu, Chengwei

    2017-02-16

    Microneedles (MNs) are micro-scale needles used for drug delivery and other targets. Micro-scale size endows them with many advantages over hypodermic needles, including painlessness, minimal invasiveness and convenient operation, but it may also lead to risk of mechanical failures, which should be prevented in the clinical applications of MNs. The objective of this review is mainly to introduce studies on the mechanics problems with respect to MNs. Firstly, the basic knowledge of MNs is introduced in brief, so that readers can understand the basic characteristics of MNs. Secondly, researches on inserting behavior and mechanical performances of MNs are discussed. Thirdly, literatures on the drug delivery and the pain resulted from the insertion of MNs are overviewed. Finally, some bio-microneedles and bio-inspired MNs are introduced.

  2. DCE Bio Detection System Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2007-12-01

    The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

  3. Bio-medical flow sensor. [intrvenous procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A bio-medical flow sensor including a packageable unit of a bottle, tubing and hypodermic needle which can be pre-sterilized and is disposable. The tubing has spaced apart tubular metal segments. The temperature of the metal segments and fluid flow therein is sensed by thermistors and at a downstream location heat is input by a resistor to the metal segment by a control electronics. The fluids flow and the electrical power required for the resisto to maintain a constant temperature differential between the tubular metal segments is a measurable function of fluid flow through the tubing. The differential temperature measurement is made in a control electronics and also can be used to control a flow control valve or pump on the tubing to maintain a constant flow in the tubing and to shut off the tubing when air is present in the tubing.

  4. Optofluidics in bio-chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yunbo; Fan, Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Optofluidics organically integrates microfluidics and photonics and is an emerging technology in biological and chemical analysis. In this paper, we overview the recent studies in bio-chemical sensing applications of optofluidics. Particularly, we report the research progress in our lab in developing diverse optofluidic devices using two unique configurations: thin-walled capillary based optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) and multi-hole capillary based optofluidic platforms. The first one has been developed to be OFRR-based label-free biosensor, microfluidic laser based intra-cavity sensors, and on-column optical detectors for micro-gas chromatography (μGC), while the second one has been developed to be optofluidic Fabry-Pérot based label-free biosensor and optofluidic Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) biosensor. All of these devices take advantage of superior fluidic handling capability and high sensitivity, and have been used in detecting various biological and chemical analytes in either liquid or vapor phase.

  5. Droplet microfluidics in (bio)chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Basova, Evgenia Yu; Foret, Frantisek

    2015-01-07

    Droplet microfluidics may soon change the paradigm of performing chemical analyses and related instrumentation. It can improve not only the analysis scale, possibility for sensitivity improvement, and reduced consumption of chemical and biological reagents, but also the speed of performing a variety of unit operations. At present, microfluidic platforms can reproducibly generate monodisperse droplet populations at kHz or higher rates with droplet sizes suitable for high-throughput experiments, single-cell detection or even single molecule analysis. In addition to being used as microreactors with volume in the micro- to femtoliter range, droplet based systems have also been used to directly synthesize particles and encapsulate biological entities for biomedicine and biotechnology applications. This minireview summarizes various droplet microfluidics operations and applications for (bio)chemical assays described in the literature during the past few years.

  6. Bio-based polycarbonate as synthetic toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Hauenstein, O.; Agarwal, S.; Greiner, A.

    2016-01-01

    Completely bio-based poly(limonene carbonate) is a thermoplastic polymer, which can be synthesized by copolymerization of limonene oxide (derived from limonene, which is found in orange peel) and CO2. Poly(limonene carbonate) has one double bond per repeating unit that can be exploited for further chemical modifications. These chemical modifications allow the tuning of the properties of the aliphatic polycarbonate in nearly any direction. Here we show synthetic routes to demonstrate that poly(limonene carbonate) is the perfect green platform polymer, from which many functional materials can be derived. The relevant examples presented in this study are the transformation from an engineering thermoplastic into a rubber, addition of permanent antibacterial activity, hydrophilization and even pH-dependent water solubility of the polycarbonate. Finally, we show a synthetic route to yield the completely saturated counterpart that exhibits improved heat processability due to lower reactivity. PMID:27302694

  7. Bio-based polycarbonate as synthetic toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauenstein, O.; Agarwal, S.; Greiner, A.

    2016-06-01

    Completely bio-based poly(limonene carbonate) is a thermoplastic polymer, which can be synthesized by copolymerization of limonene oxide (derived from limonene, which is found in orange peel) and CO2. Poly(limonene carbonate) has one double bond per repeating unit that can be exploited for further chemical modifications. These chemical modifications allow the tuning of the properties of the aliphatic polycarbonate in nearly any direction. Here we show synthetic routes to demonstrate that poly(limonene carbonate) is the perfect green platform polymer, from which many functional materials can be derived. The relevant examples presented in this study are the transformation from an engineering thermoplastic into a rubber, addition of permanent antibacterial activity, hydrophilization and even pH-dependent water solubility of the polycarbonate. Finally, we show a synthetic route to yield the completely saturated counterpart that exhibits improved heat processability due to lower reactivity.

  8. Integrated bio-inspired fluidic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Frank S.; Johnson, Daniel; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Francis, Cameron S.; Kim, Nam-Hyong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2010-02-01

    We developed a new type of optical lens device that can change its curvature like crystalline lens in human eye. The curvature changing capability of the lens allows for a tremendous tuning range in its optical power and subsequently enables miniaturized imaging systems that can perform autofocus, optical zoom, and other advanced functions. In this paper, we study the physical properties of bio-inspired fluidic lenses and demonstrate the optical functionality through miniaturized optical systems constructed with such lenses. We report an auto-focusing optical system that can turn from a camera to a microscope, and demonstrate more than 4X optical zoom with a very short total track length. Finally, we demonstrate the benefits of fluidic lens zoom camera through minimally invasive gallbladder removal surgery.

  9. Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-10-06

    The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

  10. Bio-inspired odor-based navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Maynard J., III; Vasquez, Juan R.

    2006-05-01

    The ability of many insects, especially moths, to locate either food or a member of the opposite sex is an amazing achievement. There are numerous scenarios where having this ability embedded into ground-based or aerial vehicles would be invaluable. This paper presents results from a 3-D computer simulation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomously tracking a chemical plume to its source. The simulation study includes a simulated dynamic chemical plume, 6-degree of freedom, nonlinear aircraft model, and a bio-inspired navigation algorithm. The emphasis of this paper is the development and analysis of the navigation algorithm. The foundation of this algorithm is a fuzzy controller designed to categorize where in the plume the aircraft is located: coming into the plume, in the plume, exiting the plume, or out of the plume.

  11. Bio-inspired accommodating fluidic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Johnson, Daniel; Tsai, Frank S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-10-15

    The invention of intraocular lens (IOL), a substitute for crystalline lens, represents a major advancement in cataract surgery. After about sixty years of IOL development, one key remaining problem is its limited accommodation range compared with natural eyes. To overcome this performance limit, we explore bio-inspired fluidic IOL. By mimicking the working principle of natural eyes, a fluidic intraocular lens can achieve an exceedingly large accommodation range. An experiment on fluidic IOL demonstrated a very high tuning range of 12 D. This accommodation range was achieved with a modest amount of force (0.06 N) and equatorial radius change (0.286 mm), in conditions matching well with the characteristics of aged eyes.

  12. Bio-inspired photonic crystals with superwettability.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Minxuan; Wang, Jingxia; Jiang, Lei

    2016-12-21

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have attracted enormous research interest due to their unique light manipulation and potential applications in sensing, catalysts, detection, displays, solar cells and other fields. In particular, many novel applications of PCs are derived from their surface wettability. Generally, the wettability of PCs is determined by a combination of its surface geometrical structures and surface chemical compositions. This review focuses on the recent developments in the mechanism, fabrication and application of bio-inspired PCs with superwettability. It includes information on constructing superwetting PCs based on designing the topographical structure and regulating the surface chemical composition, and information on extending the practical applications of superwetting PCs in humidity/oil/solvent sensing, actuating, anti-fouling and liquid-impermeable surface, chemical detection, etc.

  13. Bio-inspired networks for optoelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Huang, Yuanlin; Li, Ruopeng; Peng, Qiang; Luo, Junyi; Pei, Ke; Herczynski, Andrzej; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng; Gao, Jinwei

    2014-11-28

    Modern optoelectronics needs development of new materials characterized not only by high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, but also by mechanical strength, and flexibility. Recent advances employ grids of metallic micro- and nanowires, but the overall performance of the resulting material composites remains unsatisfactory. In this work, we propose a new strategy: application of natural scaffoldings perfected by evolution. In this context, we study two bio-inspired networks for two specific optoelectronic applications. The first network, intended for solar cells, light sources and similar devices, has a quasi-fractal structure and is derived directly from a chemically extracted leaf venation system. The second network is intended for touch screens and flexible displays, and is obtained by metalizing a spider's silk web. We demonstrate that each of these networks attain an exceptional optoelectonic and mechanical performance for its intended purpose, providing a promising direction in the development of more efficient optoelectronic devices.

  14. Bio-inspired networks for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing; Huang, Yuanlin; Li, Ruopeng; Peng, Qiang; Luo, Junyi; Pei, Ke; Herczynski, Andrzej; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng; Gao, Jinwei

    2014-11-01

    Modern optoelectronics needs development of new materials characterized not only by high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, but also by mechanical strength, and flexibility. Recent advances employ grids of metallic micro- and nanowires, but the overall performance of the resulting material composites remains unsatisfactory. In this work, we propose a new strategy: application of natural scaffoldings perfected by evolution. In this context, we study two bio-inspired networks for two specific optoelectronic applications. The first network, intended for solar cells, light sources and similar devices, has a quasi-fractal structure and is derived directly from a chemically extracted leaf venation system. The second network is intended for touch screens and flexible displays, and is obtained by metalizing a spider’s silk web. We demonstrate that each of these networks attain an exceptional optoelectonic and mechanical performance for its intended purpose, providing a promising direction in the development of more efficient optoelectronic devices.

  15. Membrane process designs in the recovery of bio-fuels and bio-chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this presentation, the emerging membrane unit operations and process designs that can be used in recovery of fuels and organic chemicals produced via bioconversion are briefly summarized. Product recovery costs are a major barrier to increased use of bioconversion for the production of fuels and chemicals. The integration of developing membrane unit operations into product recovery schemes may reduce process energy requirements and cost. Membrane unit operations that are used or studied in recovery of bio-fuels and organic chemicals include pervaporation (PV), vapor permeation (VPe), reverse osmosis (RO), membrane extraction, and electrodialysis (ED). Although it can be argued that ultrafiltration (UF) is used to purify bio-fuels and bio-chemicals, UF is not included in this survey for two reasons: (1) the primary uses of UF in bioprocessing are to clarify fermentation broth and to retain cells/enzymes in bioreactors and (2) the literature on UF in biotechnology is expansive. Products of bioconversion for which data are compiled include ethanol, acetone, butanol, glycerol, isopropanol, ethyl acetate, fusel oils, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, butyric acid, citric acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid. 13 refs.

  16. Bio and health informatics meets cloud : BioVLab as an example.

    PubMed

    Chae, Heejoon; Jung, Inuk; Lee, Hyungro; Marru, Suresh; Lee, Seong-Whan; Kim, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase of genomic data brought by the advent of the next or the third generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and the dramatic drop in sequencing cost have driven biological and medical sciences to data-driven sciences. This revolutionary paradigm shift comes with challenges in terms of data transfer, storage, computation, and analysis of big bio/medical data. Cloud computing is a service model sharing a pool of configurable resources, which is a suitable workbench to address these challenges. From the medical or biological perspective, providing computing power and storage is the most attractive feature of cloud computing in handling the ever increasing biological data. As data increases in size, many research organizations start to experience the lack of computing power, which becomes a major hurdle in achieving research goals. In this paper, we review the features of publically available bio and health cloud systems in terms of graphical user interface, external data integration, security and extensibility of features. We then discuss about issues and limitations of current cloud systems and conclude with suggestion of a biological cloud environment concept, which can be defined as a total workbench environment assembling computational tools and databases for analyzing bio/medical big data in particular application domains.

  17. Heterogeneous Deformable Modeling of Bio-Tissues and Haptic Force Rendering for Bio-Object Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shiyong; Lee, Yuan-Shin; Narayan, Roger J.

    This paper presents a novel technique for modeling soft biological tissues as well as the development of an innovative interface for bio-manufacturing and medical applications. Heterogeneous deformable models may be used to represent the actual internal structures of deformable biological objects, which possess multiple components and nonuniform material properties. Both heterogeneous deformable object modeling and accurate haptic rendering can greatly enhance the realism and fidelity of virtual reality environments. In this paper, a tri-ray node snapping algorithm is proposed to generate a volumetric heterogeneous deformable model from a set of object interface surfaces between different materials. A constrained local static integration method is presented for simulating deformation and accurate force feedback based on the material properties of a heterogeneous structure. Biological soft tissue modeling is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed techniques. By integrating the heterogeneous deformable model into a virtual environment, users can both observe different materials inside a deformable object as well as interact with it by touching the deformable object using a haptic device. The presented techniques can be used for surgical simulation, bio-product design, bio-manufacturing, and medical applications.

  18. Extraction of Bio-oils from Microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, Michael; Young, Greg; Nagle, Nick

    2009-12-01

    A wide variety of terrestrial biomass feed stocks have been identified as suitable candidates for fractionation and conversion into biofuels. In particular, microalgae have been promoted as a future source of transportation fuels primarily because of their stated potential to produce up to 10 times more oil per acre than traditional biofuel crops. Their ability to grow relatively fast, be harvested on a daily basis, and grown in earthen ponds or closed photobioreactors that occupy marginal or poor crop lands using salt or brackish water, are often referenced. When these attractive traits are coupled with the potential to concomitantly harvest valuable co-products such as biopolymers, proteins, and animal feeds, one can see why microalgae are often touted as biotechnology's “green gold”. The development of large-scale microalgae farms, however, has been slowed by limitations in downstream processing technology. For example, traditional methods to dewater, extract, and recover bio-oil from oil-seeds possess little utility for microalgae. The extreme requirement of dewatering poses tremendous hurdles for any technology processing biofuels from microalgae. To further complicate matters, identifying the most appropriate paths for appropriate extraction technology depends heavily on the microalgal species and its cultivation status, both of which are highly characterized for higher plants as compared to microalgae. In this review we discuss existing extraction methodologies as they have and can be applied to microalgae. Commentary is provided on their potential as a unit operation that exists within the framework of an industrial-scale microalgal cultivation process that extends from the production of biomass in photobioreactors to the fractionation of the recovered bio-oil.

  19. Four principles of bio-musicology

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2015-01-01

    As a species-typical trait of Homo sapiens, musicality represents a cognitively complex and biologically grounded capacity worthy of intensive empirical investigation. Four principles are suggested here as prerequisites for a successful future discipline of bio-musicology. These involve adopting: (i) a multicomponent approach which recognizes that musicality is built upon a suite of interconnected capacities, of which none is primary; (ii) a pluralistic Tinbergian perspective that addresses and places equal weight on questions of mechanism, ontogeny, phylogeny and function; (iii) a comparative approach, which seeks and investigates animal homologues or analogues of specific components of musicality, wherever they can be found; and (iv) an ecologically motivated perspective, which recognizes the need to study widespread musical behaviours across a range of human cultures (and not focus solely on Western art music or skilled musicians). Given their pervasiveness, dance and music created for dancing should be considered central subcomponents of music, as should folk tunes, work songs, lullabies and children's songs. Although the precise breakdown of capacities required by the multicomponent approach remains open to debate, and different breakdowns may be appropriate to different purposes, I highlight four core components of human musicality—song, drumming, social synchronization and dance—as widespread and pervasive human abilities spanning across cultures, ages and levels of expertise. Each of these has interesting parallels in the animal kingdom (often analogies but in some cases apparent homologies also). Finally, I suggest that the search for universal capacities underlying human musicality, neglected for many years, should be renewed. The broad framework presented here illustrates the potential for a future discipline of bio-musicology as a rich field for interdisciplinary and comparative research. PMID:25646514

  20. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A.; Kraiem, T.; Naoui, S.; Belayouni, H.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  1. The BioGRID interaction database: 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Oughtred, Rose; Boucher, Lorrie; Heinicke, Sven; Chen, Daici; Stark, Chris; Breitkreutz, Ashton; Kolas, Nadine; O'Donnell, Lara; Reguly, Teresa; Nixon, Julie; Ramage, Lindsay; Winter, Andrew; Sellam, Adnane; Chang, Christie; Hirschman, Jodi; Theesfeld, Chandra; Rust, Jennifer; Livstone, Michael S; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID: http://thebiogrid.org) is an open access database that houses genetic and protein interactions curated from the primary biomedical literature for all major model organism species and humans. As of September 2014, the BioGRID contains 749,912 interactions as drawn from 43,149 publications that represent 30 model organisms. This interaction count represents a 50% increase compared to our previous 2013 BioGRID update. BioGRID data are freely distributed through partner model organism databases and meta-databases and are directly downloadable in a variety of formats. In addition to general curation of the published literature for the major model species, BioGRID undertakes themed curation projects in areas of particular relevance for biomedical sciences, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system and various human disease-associated interaction networks. BioGRID curation is coordinated through an Interaction Management System (IMS) that facilitates the compilation interaction records through structured evidence codes, phenotype ontologies, and gene annotation. The BioGRID architecture has been improved in order to support a broader range of interaction and post-translational modification types, to allow the representation of more complex multi-gene/protein interactions, to account for cellular phenotypes through structured ontologies, to expedite curation through semi-automated text-mining approaches, and to enhance curation quality control.

  2. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Lu; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-01

    It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250°C, a reaction time of 60min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  3. T lymphocyte responses to antigens of gram-negative bacteria in pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Wilz, S W; Kurnick, J T; Pandolfi, F; Rubin, R H; Warren, H S; Goldstein, R; Kersten, C M; McCluskey, R T

    1993-10-01

    We showed previously that large numbers of T lymphocytes accumulate within a few days in the kidneys of rats with ascending pyelonephritis induced with Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CD4+ T cells propagated from the lesions exhibited MHC-restricted proliferative responses to formalin-fixed bacteria of the species used to induce infection. In the present study we investigated further the nature of the antigens responsible for the T cell proliferation and studied the ability of different bacterial strains and species to produce proliferative responses. We found that heat-killed bacteria were more stimulatory than formalin-fixed bacteria, and that soluble supernatants of heat-killed organism were also effective. The stimulatory effects of supernatants were destroyed by trypsin and the responses were MHC-restricted. Twelve different E. coli strains, with or without characteristics of uropathogenicity in humans, were all highly stimulatory to T cells derived from a kidney infected with a single E. coli strain. Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Serratia marcescens--species of Enterobacteriaceae closely related to E. coli--were also stimulatory, whereas more distantly related bacteria--Proteus, Morganella, and P. aeruginosa--were not. T cells propagated from kidneys infected with P. aeruginosa responded to supernatants of this organism, but not to E. coli supernatants. We conclude that a protein antigen (or antigens) shared by strains of E. coli and related Enterobacteriaceae, but not by other gram-negative bacteria, produce MHC-restricted proliferative responses of CD4+ T cells that infiltrate rat kidneys infected with E. coli.

  4. How Events at the Nano/Bio Interface Determine Good and Adverse Biological Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nel, Andre

    2014-03-01

    We have come to recognize that much of biology is executed at the nanoscale level, therefore providing a rational approach to using discovery about the structure and function of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) at the nano/bio interface for interrogation of disease, diagnosis, treatment, and imaging at levels of sophistication not possible before. Moreover, the behavior of ENM's at the nano/bio interface also constitutes the basis for hazard generation and is therefore key for understanding the safety assessment and safer design of nanomaterials. In this overview, I will discuss how discovery at the molecular, cellular, organ and systemic nano/bio interfaces has helped us to my progress progress in the fields of nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. I will explain how the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials relate to nanoscale interactions at the membrane, intracellular organelles, tissues and organs in response to exposure to a variety of commercial ENMs as well as for therapeutic nanocarriers. I will delineate how the use of high throughput screening to establish structure-activity relationships can be used for the design of improved nanocarriers for cancer treatment as well as hazard and risk ranking of large categories of commercial ENMs on their way to the marketplace.

  5. Linear and nonlinear optical waveguiding in bio-inspired peptide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Turko, Nir; Rosenman, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Unique linear and nonlinear optical properties of bioinspired peptide nanostructures such as wideband transparency and high second-order nonlinear optical response, combined with elongated tubular shape of variable size and rapid self-assembly fabrication process, make them promising for diverse bio-nano-photonic applications. This new generation of nanomaterials of biological origin possess physical properties similar to those of biological structures. Here, we focus on new specific functionality of ultrashort peptide nanotubes to guide light at fundamental and second-harmonic generation (SHG) frequency in horizontal and vertical peptide nanotubes configurations. Conducted simulations and experimental data show that these self-assembled linear and nonlinear optical bio-waveguides provide strong optical power confinement factor, demonstrate pronounced directionality of SHG and high conversion efficiency of SHG ∼10(-5). Our study gives new insight on physics of light propagation in nanostructures of biological origin and opens the avenue towards new and unexpected applications of these waveguiding effects in bio-nanomaterials both for biomedical nonlinear microscopy imaging recognition and development of novel integrated nanophotonic devices.

  6. Fragment-Based Exploration of Binding Site Flexibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis BioA

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ran; Geders, Todd W.; Liu, Feng; Park, Sae Woong; Schnappinger, Dirk; Aldrich, Courtney C.; Finzel, Barry C.

    2015-01-01

    The PLP-dependent transaminase (BioA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens that catalyzes the second step of biotin biosynthesis is a now well-validated target for antibacterial development. Fragment screening by differential scanning fluorimetry has been performed to discover new chemical scaffolds and promote optimization of existing inhibitors. Calorimetry confirms binding of six molecules with high ligand efficiency. Thermodynamic data identifies which molecules bind with the enthalpy driven stabilization preferred in compounds that represent attractive starting points for future optimization. Crystallographic characterization of complexes with these molecules reveals the dynamic nature of the BioA active site. Different side chain conformational states are stabilized in response to binding by different molecules. A detailed analysis of conformational diversity in available BioA structures is presented, resulting in the identification of two states that might be targeted with molecular scaffolds incorporating well-defined conformational attributes. This new structural data can be used as part of a scaffold hopping strategy to further optimize existing inhibitors or create new small molecules with improved therapeutic potential. PMID:26068403

  7. [A history and philosophy of bio-medical ethics seen from a dentist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Kang, Shinik

    2002-01-01

    When we think about ethics or morals, we tend to look at them from the viewpoint of here and now. Actual implications of then and there, however, could be different. That is why we should study history of bio-ethics along with philosophy involved in it. Bio-medical ethics is situated in spatial and cultural dimension as well as temporal and historical. Dentistry has been in a peculiar situation in that although it has evolved from the same root as medicine, it has become a separate discipline. Ethical implications of dentistry, however, share the historical and philosophical background with its mother discipline, i.e., medicine, surgery, barber-surgery and even smithery. This paper tries to grasp the main ideas of bio-medical ethics from the ancient Greek and China, and picks up three of them as guiding principles, i.e., deontology and teleology from the west and self-cultivation from the east. It also tracks down the contents of modern biomedical ethics; from etiquette to ethics, from morals to contract (ethics of autonomy), and ethics of professional responsibility. Finally it reviews and analyzes two different traditions of dental professional regulation from the legal and ethical point of view (U.S. and Europe), and proposes a new direction for the construction of dental ethics in Korea.

  8. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin bio-oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Michailof, Chrysoula; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Stefanidis, Stylianos; Kalogiannis, Konstantinos; Theodoridis, Georgios; Lappas, Angelos

    2014-11-21

    Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis are efficient processes for the transformation of biomass to bio-oil, a liquid energy carrier and a general source of chemicals. The elucidation of the bio-oil's composition is essential for a rational design of both its production and utilization process. However, the complex composition of bio-oils hinders their complete qualitative and quantitative analysis, and conventional chromatographic techniques lack the necessary separation power. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) is considered a suitable technique for bio-oil analysis due to its increased separation and resolution capacity. This work presents the tentative qualitative and quantitative analysis of bio-oils resulting from the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of standard xylan, cellulose, lignin and their mixture by GC×GC-ToFMS. Emphasis is placed on the development of the quantitative method using phenol-d6 as internal standard. During the method development, a standard solution of 39 compounds was used for the determination of the respective Relative Response Factors (RRF) employing statistical methods, ANOVA and WLSLR, for verification of the data. The developed method was applied to the above mentioned bio-oils and their detailed analysis is presented. The different compounds produced and their diverse concentration allows for an elucidation of the pyrolysis mechanism and highlight the effect of the catalyst.

  9. Optimization and characterization of bio-oil produced by microwave assisted pyrolysis of oil palm shell waste biomass with microwave absorber.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Mat, Ramli; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2015-08-01

    In this study, solid oil palm shell (OPS) waste biomass was subjected to microwave pyrolysis conditions with uniformly distributed coconut activated carbon (CAC) microwave absorber. The effects of CAC loading (wt%), microwave power (W) and N2 flow rate (LPM) were investigated on heating profile, bio-oil yield and its composition. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to study the significance of process parameters on bio-oil yield. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the bio-oil yield is 0.89017 indicating 89.017% of data variability is accounted to the model. The largest effect on bio-oil yield is from linear and quadratic terms of N2 flow rate. The phenol content in bio-oil is 32.24-58.09% GC-MS area. The bio-oil also contain 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine of 10.54-21.20% GC-MS area. The presence of phenol and 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine implies that the microwave pyrolysis of OPS with carbon absorber has the potential to produce valuable fuel products.

  10. A traffic flow model for bio-polymerization processes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lisa; Gedeon, Jakub; Thorenson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Bio-polymerization processes like transcription and translation are central to proper function of a cell. The speed at which the bio-polymer grows is affected both by the number of pauses of elongation machinery, as well the number of bio-polymers due to crowding effects. In order to quantify these effects in fast transcribing ribosome genes, we rigorously show that a classical traffic flow model is the limit of a mean occupancy ODE model. We compare the simulation of this model to a stochastic model and evaluate the combined effect of the polymerase density and the existence of pauses on the instantaneous transcription rate of ribosomal genes. PMID:23404039

  11. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Zia; Chadwell, Brad; Taha, Rachid; Hindin, Barry; Ralston, Kevin

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  12. A traffic flow model for bio-polymerization processes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lisa; Gedeon, Tomáš; Gedeon, Jakub; Thorenson, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Bio-polymerization processes like transcription and translation are central to proper function of a cell. The speed at which the bio-polymer grows is affected both by the number of pauses of elongation machinery, as well the number of bio-polymers due to crowding effects. In order to quantify these effects in fast transcribing ribosome genes, we rigorously show that a classical traffic flow model is the limit of a mean occupancy ODE model. We compare the simulation of this model to a stochastic model and evaluate the combined effect of the polymerase density and the existence of pauses on the instantaneous transcription rate of ribosomal genes.

  13. Bio-objects’ political capacity: a research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Maeseele, Pieter; Hendrickx, Kim; Pavone, Vincenzo; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the merits of foregrounding the dichotomy of politicization vs de-politicization for our understanding of bio-objects in order to study their production, circulation, and governance in European societies. By asking how bio-objects are configured in science, policy, public, and media discourses and practices, we focus on the role of socio-technical configurations in generating political relations. The bio-object thereby serves as an entry point to approach and conceptualize “the political” in an innovative way. PMID:23630150

  14. Bio-objects' political capacity: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Maeseele, Pieter; Hendrickx, Kim; Pavone, Vincenzo; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2013-04-01

    This article explores the merits of foregrounding the dichotomy of politicization vs de-politicization for our understanding of bio-objects in order to study their production, circulation, and governance in European societies. By asking how bio-objects are configured in science, policy, public, and media discourses and practices, we focus on the role of socio-technical configurations in generating political relations. The bio-object thereby serves as an entry point to approach and conceptualize "the political" in an innovative way.

  15. A Nascent Peptide Signal Responsive to Endogenous Levels of Polyamines Acts to Stimulate Regulatory Frameshifting on Antizyme mRNA.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Martina M; Wu, Cheng; Andreev, Dmitry E; Sachs, Matthew S; Atkins, John F

    2015-07-17

    The protein antizyme is a negative regulator of cellular polyamine concentrations from yeast to mammals. Synthesis of functional antizyme requires programmed +1 ribosomal frameshifting at the 3' end of the first of two partially overlapping ORFs. The frameshift is the sensor and effector in an autoregulatory circuit. Except for Saccharomyces cerevisiae antizyme mRNA, the frameshift site alone only supports low levels of frameshifting. The high levels usually observed depend on the presence of cis-acting stimulatory elements located 5' and 3' of the frameshift site. Antizyme genes from different evolutionary branches have evolved different stimulatory elements. Prior and new multiple alignments of fungal antizyme mRNA sequences from the Agaricomycetes class of Basidiomycota show a distinct pattern of conservation 5' of the frameshift site consistent with a function at the amino acid level. As shown here when tested in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian HEK293T cells, the 5' part of this conserved sequence acts at the nascent peptide level to stimulate the frameshifting, without involving stalling detectable by toe-printing. However, the peptide is only part of the signal. The 3' part of the stimulator functions largely independently and acts at least mostly at the nucleotide level. When polyamine levels were varied, the stimulatory effect was seen to be especially responsive in the endogenous polyamine concentration range, and this effect may be more general. A conserved RNA secondary structure 3' of the frameshift site has weaker stimulatory and polyamine sensitizing effects on frameshifting.

  16. cap alpha. /sub i/-3 cDNA encodes the. cap alpha. subunit of G/sub k/, the stimulatory G protein of receptor-regulated K/sup +/ channels

    SciTech Connect

    Codina, J.; Olate, J.; Abramowitz, J.; Mattera, R.; Cook, R.G.; Birnbaumer, L.

    1988-05-15

    cDNA cloning has identified the presence in the human genome of three genes encoding ..cap alpha.. subunits of pertussis toxin substrates, generically called G/sub i/. They are named ..cap alpha../sub i/-1, ..cap alpha../sub i/-2 and ..cap alpha../sub i/-3. However, none of these genes has been functionally identified with any of the ..cap alpha.. subunits of several possible G proteins, including pertussis toxin-sensitive G/sub p/'s, stimulatory to phospholipase C or A/sub 2/, G/sub i/, inhibitory to adenylyl cyclase, or G/sub k/, stimulatory to a type of K/sup +/ channels. The authors now report the nucleotide sequence and the complete predicted amino acid sequence of human liver ..cap alpha../sub i/-3 and the partial amino acid sequence of proteolytic fragments of the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human erythrocyte G/sub k/. The amino acid sequence of the proteolytic fragment is uniquely encoded by the cDNA of ..cap alpha../sub i/-3, thus identifying it as ..cap alpha../sub k/. The probable identity of ..cap alpha../sub i/-1 with ..cap alpha../sub p/ and possible roles for ..cap alpha../sub i/-2, as well as additional roles for ..cap alpha../sub i/-1 and ..cap alpha../sub i/-3 (..cap alpha../sub k/) are discussed.

  17. Smart sensor chip based on bioMEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Rajesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Bagga, Ellis; Bajpai, Ram P.; Bharadwaj, Lalit M.

    2004-03-01

    The smart sensor chip for simultaneous detection of a large number of disease markers is the most recent interest in the field of nanobiotechnology. Potential applications include miniaturized sensors to detect biological agents and diseases, biocompatible and improved systems for drug delivery. They are the simplest biomicroelectromechanical system (BioMEMS) devices that offer a very promising future to the development of novel physical, chemical and biological sensors. They can simultaneously detect a large number of antigens, antibodies, DNA molecules, trace metals, hormones, proteins, gases, microorganisms, toxins, chemical warfare agents, explosives etc. in gaseous, vacuum and liquid medium. Smart sensor chips would be of greater use in intensive care units (ICUs) where multiple disease markers are to be assessed precisely in very less time. These sensors employ highly specific biochemical reactions between complementary biomolecules in the same way that nature has used in our body to detect, diagnose and treat various types of diseases. They have aroused considerable interest because of their high specificity, ultra-high sensitivity, simplicity, low cost, less analyte requirement (in μl), less steps involved, non-hazardous procedure, quick response, low power requirement and a unique capability of detecting a large number of analytes simultaneously in a single step.

  18. Retrofitting hetrotrophically cultivated algae biomass as pyrolytic feedstock for biogas, bio-char and bio-oil production encompassing biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Omprakash; Agarwal, Manu; Naresh Kumar, A; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    Algal biomass grown hetrotrophically in domestic wastewater was evaluated as pyrolytic feedstock for harnessing biogas, bio-oil and bio-char. Freshly harvested microalgae (MA) and lipid extracted microalgae (LEMA) were pyrolysed in packed bed reactor in the presence and absence of sand as additive. MA (without sand additive) depicted higher biogas (420 ml/g; 800 °C; 3 h) and bio-oil (0.70 ml/g; 500 °C; 3 h). Sand addition enhanced biogas production (210 ml/g; 600 °C; 2 h) in LEMA operation. The composition of bio-gas and bio-oil was found to depend on the nature of feedstock as well as the process conditions viz., pyrolytic-temperature, retention time and presence of additive. Sand additive improved the H2 composition while pyrolytic temperature increment caused a decline in CO2 fraction. Bio-char productivity increased with increasing temperature specifically with LEMA. Integration of thermo-chemical process with microalgae cultivation showed to yield multiple resources and accounts for environmental sustainability in the bio-refinery framework.

  19. 78 FR 5165 - First Phase of the Forest Planning Process for the Bio-Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Forest Service First Phase of the Forest Planning Process for the Bio-Region AGENCY: U.S.D.A. Forest... the forest planning process for the Bio-Region. SUMMARY: Come gather 'round people Wherever you roam... the Bio-Regional Assessment has begun. DATES: The Bio-Regional Assessment Report will be completed...

  20. Bio-related noble metal nanoparticle structure property relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Donovan Nicholas

    Structure property relationships of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) can be drastically different than bulk properties of the same metals. This research study used state-of-the-art analytical electron microscopy and scanned probe microscopy to determine material properties on the nanoscale of bio-related Au and Pd NPs. Recently, it has been demonstrated the self-assembly of Au NPs on functionalized silica surfaces creates a conductive surface. Determination of the aggregate morphology responsible for electron conduction was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, changes in the electrical properties of the substrates after low temperature (<350°C) annealing was also studied. It was found that coalescence and densification of the Au NP aggregates disrupted the interconnected network which subsequently created a loss of conductivity. Investigation of bio-related Au/SiO2 core-shell NPs determined why published experimental results showed the sol-gel silica shell improved, by almost an order of magnitude, the detection efficiency of a DNA detection assay. Novel 360° rotation scanning TEM (STEM) imaging allowed study of individual NP surface morphology and internal structure. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum imaging determined optoelectronic properties and chemical composition of the silica shell used to encapsulate Au NPs. Results indicated the sol-gel deposited SiO2 had a band gap energy of ˜8.9eV, bulk plasmon-peak energy of ˜25.5eV and chemical composition of stoichiometric SiO2. Lastly, an attempt to elicit structure property relationships of novel RNA mediated Pd hexagon NPs was performed. Selected area electron diffraction (SAD), low voltage scanning transmission electron microscopy (LV-STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were chosen for characterization of atomic ordering, chemical composition and optoelectronic properties of the novel

  1. Optical and electrical interfacing technologies for living cell bio-chips.

    PubMed

    Shacham-Diamand, Y; Belkin, S; Rishpon, J; Elad, T; Melamed, S; Biran, A; Yagur-Kroll, S; Almog, R; Daniel, R; Ben-Yoav, H; Rabner, A; Vernick, S; Elman, N; Popovtzer, R

    2010-06-01

    Whole-cell bio-chips for functional sensing integrate living cells on miniaturized platforms made by micro-system-technologies (MST). The cells are integrated, deposited or immersed in a media which is in contact with the chip. The cells behavior is monitored via electrical, electrochemical or optical methods. In this paper we describe such whole-cell biochips where the signal is generated due to the genetic response of the cells. The solid-state platform hosts the biological component, i.e. the living cells, and integrates all the required micro-system technologies, i.e. the micro-electronics, micro-electro optics, micro-electro or magneto mechanics and micro-fluidics. The genetic response of the cells expresses proteins that generate: a. light by photo-luminescence or bioluminescence, b. electrochemical signal by interaction with a substrate, or c. change in the cell impedance. The cell response is detected by a front end unit that converts it to current or voltage amplifies and filters it. The resultant signal is analyzed and stored for further processing. In this paper we describe three examples of whole-cell bio chips, photo-luminescent, bioluminescent and electrochemical, which are based on the genetic response of genetically modified E. coli microbes integrated on a micro-fluidics MEMS platform. We describe the chip outline as well as the basic modeling scheme of such sensors. We discuss the highlights and problems of such system, from the point of view of micro-system-technology.

  2. Impact of bio-palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) on the activity and structure of a marine microbial community.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Andrea; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Boon, Nico; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) represent a promising catalyst for organohalide remediation in water and sediments. However, the available information regarding their possible impact in case of release into the environment, particularly on the environmental microbiota, is limited. In this study the toxicity of bio-Pd NPs on the model marine bacterium V. fischeri was assessed. The impacts of different concentrations of bio-Pd NPs on the respiratory metabolisms (i.e. organohalide respiration, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) and the structure of a PCB-dechlorinating microbial community enriched form a marine sediment were also investigated in microcosms mimicking the actual sampling site conditions. Bio-Pd NPs had no toxic effect on V. fischeri. In addition, they had no significant effects on PCB-dehalogenating activity, while showing a partial, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on sulfate reduction as well as on methanogenesis. No toxic effects by bio-Pd NPs could be also observed on the total bacterial community structure, as its biodiversity was increased compared to the not exposed community. In addition, resilience of the microbial community to bio-Pd NPs exposure was observed, being the final community organization (Gini coefficient) of samples exposed to bio-Pd NPs similar to that of the not exposed one. Considering all the factors evaluated, bio-Pd NPs could be deemed as non-toxic to the marine microbiota in the conditions tested. This is the first study in which the impact of bio-Pd NPs is extensively evaluated over a microbial community in relevant environmental conditions, providing important information for the assessment of their environmental safety.

  3. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  4. A proposed bio-panel to predict risk for spontaneous preterm birth among African American women.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Shannon L; Christian, Lisa M; Neal, Jeremy L

    2015-11-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), or birth prior to 37 weeks gestation, impacts 11.5% of U.S. deliveries. PTB results in significant morbidity and mortality among affected children and imposes a large societal financial burden. Racial disparities in PTB are alarming. African American women are at more than 1.5 times the risk for PTB than white women. Unfortunately, the medical community's ability to predict who is at risk for PTB is extremely limited. History of a prior PTB remains the strongest predictor during a singleton gestation. Cervical length and fetal fibronectin measurement are helpful tools. However, usefulness is limited, particularly among the 95% of U.S. women currently pregnant and lacking a history of PTB. Therefore, preventive therapies do not reach a great number of women who may benefit from them. This manuscript, in response to the pressing need for predictors of PTB risk and elimination of racial disparities in PTB, presents a proposed bio-panel for use in predicting risk for spontaneous PTB among African American women. This bio-panel, measured each trimester, includes stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra), soluble(s) TNF receptor(R) 1, and sTNFR2, and cortisol responsiveness. We hypothesize that greater IL-1β and TNF-α production, decreased IL-1Ra, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 production, and decreased cortisol responsiveness at each time point as well as a more expedient alignment with this unfavorable profile over time will be associated with PTB. The choice to focus on inflammatory parameters is supported by data highlighting a crucial role for inflammation in labor. Specific inflammatory mediators have been chosen due to their potential importance in preterm labor among African American women. The bio-panel also focuses on inflammatory regulation (i.e., cytokine production upon ex vivo stimulation), which is hypothesized to provide insight into potential in vivo leukocyte responses and

  5. Bio-immunotherapy for cancer in experimental studies and clinical application: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Shen, R N; Lu, L; Kaiser, H E; Broxmeyer, H E

    1994-01-01

    Although successful treatment of patients with primary tumor by conventional surgery and radiotherapy is often possible, death frequently results from tumor metastases. Since metastasis has already occurred in many cancer patients at the time of diagnosis, a major emphasis of cancer treatment is and will continue to be the prevention or successful management of tumor metastases. Systemic chemotherapy has been widely used in the past in the hope of preventing or controlling micrometastases. The results of this treatment have been disappointing with little impact on survival in the vast majority of solid tumors. Bio-immunotherapy has emerged as another modality and is finding acceptance and use in treating patients with cancer. The role of bio-immunotherapy in traditional surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hyperthermia will be discussed. In order to evaluate new and innovative treatments, we and others have used murine models of erythroleukemia and solid tumors with metastatic potential to assess the effects in vivo of bio-immunotherapy. Tumor metastases can be dampened and immunosuppression restored by bio-immunotherapy, especially when used in combination with other forms of treatment. Most of the combination treatments used in animal models are encouraging but are by no means totally adequate or curative yet. The molecular basis of cancer is now understood to involve activation of dominant oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. These genetic events may represent novel targets for cancer treatment. The potential use and ethical implications of gene transfer to alter the behavior of somatic cells in patients with cancer has been noted. Also reported is genetic immunomodulation by introducting genes for cytokines into tumor cells or lymphocytes to stimulate a cytotoxic immune response against the tumor. As with bone marrow, human cord blood can be used for transplantation in the autologous, related allogeneic and unrelated allogeneic settings, and

  6. Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sanita

    2003-01-01

    The multidisciplinary concept of "bioinspired engineering of exploration systems" (BEES) is described, which is a guiding principle of the continuing effort to develop biomorphic explorers as reported in a number of articles in the past issues of NASA Tech Briefs. The intent of BEES is to distill from the principles found in successful nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods but that are accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological organisms. The intent is not just to mimic operational mechanisms found in a specific biological organism but to imbibe the salient principles from a variety of diverse bio-organisms for the desired crucial function. Thereby, we can build explorer systems that have specific capabilities endowed beyond nature, as they will possess a combination of the best nature-tested mechanisms for that particular function. The approach consists of selecting a crucial function, for example, flight or some selected aspects of flight, and develop an explorer that combines the principles of those specific attributes as seen in diverse flying species into one artificial entity. This will allow going beyond biology and achieving unprecedented capability and adaptability needed in encountering and exploring what is as yet unknown. A classification of biomorphic flyers into two main classes of surface and aerial explorers is illustrated in the figure, with examples of a variety of biological organisms that provide the inspiration in each respective subclass. Such biomorphic explorers may possess varied mobility modes: surface-roving, burrowing, hopping, hovering, or flying, to accomplish surface, subsurface, and aerial exploration. Preprogrammed for a specific function, they could serve as one-way communicating beacons, spread over the exploration site, autonomously looking for/at the targets of interest. In a hierarchical organization, these biomorphic explorers would report to the next

  7. The BioPAX community standard for pathway data sharing.

    PubMed

    Demir, Emek; Cary, Michael P; Paley, Suzanne; Fukuda, Ken; Lemer, Christian; Vastrik, Imre; Wu, Guanming; D'Eustachio, Peter; Schaefer, Carl; Luciano, Joanne; Schacherer, Frank; Martinez-Flores, Irma; Hu, Zhenjun; Jimenez-Jacinto, Veronica; Joshi-Tope, Geeta; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Lopez-Fuentes, Alejandra C; Mi, Huaiyu; Pichler, Elgar; Rodchenkov, Igor; Splendiani, Andrea; Tkachev, Sasha; Zucker, Jeremy; Gopinath, Gopal; Rajasimha, Harsha; Ramakrishnan, Ranjani; Shah, Imran; Syed, Mustafa; Anwar, Nadia; Babur, Ozgün; Blinov, Michael; Brauner, Erik; Corwin, Dan; Donaldson, Sylva; Gibbons, Frank; Goldberg, Robert; Hornbeck, Peter; Luna, Augustin; Murray-Rust, Peter; Neumann, Eric; Ruebenacker, Oliver; Reubenacker, Oliver; Samwald, Matthias; van Iersel, Martijn; Wimalaratne, Sarala; Allen, Keith; Braun, Burk; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Dahlquist, Kam; Finney, Andrew; Gillespie, Marc; Glass, Elizabeth; Gong, Li; Haw, Robin; Honig, Michael; Hubaut, Olivier; Kane, David; Krupa, Shiva; Kutmon, Martina; Leonard, Julie; Marks, Debbie; Merberg, David; Petri, Victoria; Pico, Alex; Ravenscroft, Dean; Ren, Liya; Shah, Nigam; Sunshine, Margot; Tang, Rebecca; Whaley, Ryan; Letovksy, Stan; Buetow, Kenneth H; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Schachter, Vincent; Sobral, Bruno S; Dogrusoz, Ugur; McWeeney, Shannon; Aladjem, Mirit; Birney, Ewan; Collado-Vides, Julio; Goto, Susumu; Hucka, Michael; Le Novère, Nicolas; Maltsev, Natalia; Pandey, Akhilesh; Thomas, Paul; Wingender, Edgar; Karp, Peter D; Sander, Chris; Bader, Gary D

    2010-09-01

    Biological Pathway Exchange (BioPAX) is a standard language to represent biological pathways at the molecular and cellular level and to facilitate the exchange of pathway data. The rapid growth of the volume of pathway data has spurred the development of databases and computational tools to aid interpretation; however, use of these data is hampered by the current fragmentation of pathway information across many databases with incompatible formats. BioPAX, which was created through a community process, solves this problem by making pathway data substantially easier to collect, index, interpret and share. BioPAX can represent metabolic and signaling pathways, molecular and genetic interactions and gene regulation networks. Using BioPAX, millions of interactions, organized into thousands of pathways, from many organisms are available from a growing number of databases. This large amount of pathway data in a computable form will support visualization, analysis and biological discovery.

  8. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers

  9. [Bio-active substances derived from marine microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanyong; Hu, Jiangchun; Xue, Delin; Ma, Chengxin; Wang, Shujin

    2002-07-01

    Marine microorganisms, which are taxonomically diverse and genetically special, have powerful potential in producing novel bio-active substances. This article summarized research progress in this respect. The results showed that marine bacteria which are main marine microorganism flora can produce rich kinds of bio-active substances and that even though marine actinomycetes and marine fungi are not as many as marine bacteria in species and quantity, they should be paid no less attention about their bio-active substances. Besides, present research are limited to those marine microorganisms which are easily cultured. One of the future research trends will be focused on bio-active substances derived from non-culturable marine microorganisms.

  10. Bio-Functional Au/Si Nanorods for Pathogen Detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabr...

  11. Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponganis, Paul J.

    2007-02-01

    Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.

  12. Bio-based polyurethane foams from renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanzione, M.; Russo, V.; Sorrentino, A.; Tesser, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Oliviero, M.; Di Serio, M.; Iannace, S.; Verdolotti, L.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, bio-derived natural materials, such as vegetable oils, polysaccharides and biomass represent a rich source of hydroxyl precursors for the synthesis of polyols which can be potentially used to synthesize "greener" polyurethane foams. Herein a bio-based precursor (obtained from succinic acid) was used as a partial replacement of conventional polyol to synthesize PU foams. A mixture of conventional and bio-based polyol in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Experimental results highlighted the suitability of this bio-precursor to be used in the production of flexible PU foams. Furthermore the chemo-physical characterization of the resulting foams show an interesting improvement in thermal stability and elastic modulus with respect to the PU foams produced with conventional polyol.

  13. PubChem BioAssay: 2017 update

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H.; Cheng, Tiejun; Wang, Jiyao; Gindulyte, Asta; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Thiessen, Paul A.; He, Siqian; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    PubChem's BioAssay database (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) has served as a public repository for small-molecule and RNAi screening data since 2004 providing open access of its data content to the community. PubChem accepts data submission from worldwide researchers at academia, industry and government agencies. PubChem also collaborates with other chemical biology database stakeholders with data exchange. With over a decade's development effort, it becomes an important information resource supporting drug discovery and chemical biology research. To facilitate data discovery, PubChem is integrated with all other databases at NCBI. In this work, we provide an update for the PubChem BioAssay database describing several recent development including added sources of research data, redesigned BioAssay record page, new BioAssay classification browser and new features in the Upload system facilitating data sharing. PMID:27899599

  14. Learning from nature: building bio-inspired smart nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xu; Jiang, Lei

    2009-11-24

    Learning from nature has inspired the fabrication of novel artificial materials that enable researchers to understand and to imitate biology. Bio-inspired research, in particular, owes much of its current development to advances in materials science and creative "smart" system design. The development and application of bio-inspired nanochannels is a burgeoning area in this field of research. Bio-inspired nanochannels enable many potential approaches to study various biomolecules in confined spaces and in real-time by current measurements. In this Perspective, we describe how these bio-inspired systems can be used to build novel, smart nanodevices with precisely controlled functions. Applications for these systems range from simulating the process of ion transport in living organisms by using biomimetic nanochannels to applying artificial nanochannel systems to investigate the chemistry, structure, size, and conformational states of biomolecules.

  15. Bio-Defense Now: 56 Suggestions for Immediate Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    RAM Measures.........................................................22 Vaccinate All Military...25 viii Research New Prophylaxis and Vaccines ....................................................25 Institute the 922 Concept...Aerial Port of Debarkation AVIP Anthrax Vaccination Immunization Program AVRP Anthrax Vaccine Research Program BACE Bio-Attack Climatology

  16. The BioPAX community standard for pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Syed, Mustafa H

    2010-01-01

    Biological Pathway Exchange (BioPAX) is a standard language to represent biological pathways at the molecular and cellular level and to facilitate the exchange of pathway data. The rapid growth of the volume of pathway data has spurred the development of databases and computational tools to aid interpretation; however, use of these data is hampered by the current fragmentation of pathway information across many databases with incompatible formats. BioPAX, which was created through a community process, solves this problem by making pathway data substantially easier to collect, index, interpret and share. BioPAX can represent metabolic and signaling pathways, molecular and genetic interactions and gene regulation networks. Using BioPAX, millions of interactions, organized into thousands of pathways, from many organisms are available from a growing number of databases. This large amount of pathway data in a computable form will support visualization, analysis and biological discovery.

  17. Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shuangyan; Fischer, Jürgen; Schaale, Michael; He, Ming-xia

    2014-03-01

    An optical closure study on bio-optical relationships was carried out using radiative transfer model matrix operator method developed by Freie Universität Berlin. As a case study, the optical closure of bio-optical relationships empirically parameterized with in situ data for the East China Sea was examined. Remote-sensing reflectance ( R rs) was computed from the inherent optical properties predicted by these biooptical relationships and compared with published in situ data. It was found that the simulated R rs was overestimated for turbid water. To achieve optical closure, bio-optical relationships for absorption and scattering coefficients for suspended particulate matter were adjusted. Furthermore, the results show that the Fournier and Forand phase functions obtained from the adjusted relationships perform better than the Petzold phase function. Therefore, before bio-optical relationships are used for a local sea area, the optical closure should be examined.

  18. FORMULA 206-1x BIO-WASH™

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this surface washing agent is most effective on hydrocarbon and bio-organic soiling on hard surfaces including beaches, shorelines, and rocks; specifically to aid in the removal of oil and oil saturated soiling.

  19. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ji-Lu Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  20. Bio-Inspired Sampling and Reconstruction Framework for Scientific Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0287 Bio-Inspired Sampling and Reconstruction Framework for Scientific Visualization Alireza Entezari UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA...Final Report 09/17/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ RTA2 Arlington, Virginia...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Bio-inspired Sampling and Reconstruction Framework for Scientific Visualization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550

  1. Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya

    2011-06-01

    Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.

  2. Bio-inspired aquatic robotics by untethered piezohydroelastic actuation.

    PubMed

    Cen, L; Erturk, A

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates fish-like aquatic robotics using flexible bimorphs made of macro-fiber composite (MFC) piezoelectric laminates for carangiform locomotion. In addition to noiseless and efficient actuation over a range of frequencies, geometric scalability, and simple design, bimorph propulsors made of MFCs offer a balance between the actuation force and velocity response for performance enhancement in bio-inspired swimming. The experimental component of the presented work focuses on the characterization of an elastically constrained MFC bimorph propulsor for thrust generation in quiescent water as well as the development of a robotic fish prototype combining a microcontroller and a printed-circuit-board amplifier to generate high actuation voltage for untethered locomotion. From the theoretical standpoint, a distributed-parameter electroelastic model including the hydrodynamic effects and actuator dynamics is coupled with the elongated-body theory for predicting the mean thrust in quiescent water. In-air and underwater experiments are performed to verify the incorporation of hydrodynamic effects in the linear actuation regime. For electroelastically nonlinear actuation levels, experimentally obtained underwater vibration response is coupled with the elongated-body theory to predict the thrust output. The measured mean thrust levels in quiescent water (on the order of ∼10 mN) compare favorably with thrust levels of biological fish. An untethered robotic fish prototype that employs a single bimorph fin (caudal fin) for straight swimming and turning motions is developed and tested in free locomotion. A swimming speed of 0.3 body-length/second (7.5 cm s⁻¹ swimming speed for 24.3 cm body length) is achieved at 5 Hz for a non-optimized main body-propulsor bimorph combination under a moderate actuation voltage level.

  3. Brucella BioR regulator defines a complex regulatory mechanism for bacterial biotin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Youjun; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Huimin; Chen, Zeliang; Srinivas, Swaminath

    2013-08-01

    The enzyme cofactor biotin (vitamin H or B7) is an energetically expensive molecule whose de novo biosynthesis requires 20 ATP equivalents. It seems quite likely that diverse mechanisms have evolved to tightly regulate its biosynthesis. Unlike the model regulator BirA, a bifunctional biotin protein ligase with the capability of repressing the biotin biosynthetic pathway, BioR has been recently reported by us as an alternative machinery and a new type of GntR family transcriptional factor that can repress the expression of the bioBFDAZ operon in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, quite unusually, a closely related human pathogen, Brucella melitensis, has four putative BioR-binding sites (both bioR and bioY possess one site in the promoter region, whereas the bioBFDAZ [bio] operon contains two tandem BioR boxes). This raised the question of whether BioR mediates the complex regulatory network of biotin metabolism. Here, we report that this is the case. The B. melitensis BioR ortholog was overexpressed and purified to homogeneity, and its solution structure was found to be dimeric. Functional complementation in a bioR isogenic mutant of A. tumefaciens elucidated that Brucella BioR is a functional repressor. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the four predicted BioR sites of Brucella plus the BioR site of A. tumefaciens can all interact with the Brucella BioR protein. In a reporter strain that we developed on the basis of a double mutant of A. tumefaciens (the ΔbioR ΔbioBFDA mutant), the β-galactosidase (β-Gal) activity of three plasmid-borne transcriptional fusions (bioBbme-lacZ, bioYbme-lacZ, and bioRbme-lacZ) was dramatically decreased upon overexpression of Brucella bioR. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed that the expression of bioBFDA and bioY is significantly elevated upon removal of bioR from B. melitensis. Together, we conclude that Brucella BioR is not only a negative autoregulator but also a repressor of

  4. Programming cell fate on bio-functionalized silicon.

    PubMed

    Premnath, Priyatha; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-04-01

    Controlling the growth of cells on the surface of silicon without an additive layer or topographical modification is unexplored. This research article delineates the discovery of unique properties of a bio-functionalized silicon substrate, programmed to repel or control cells, generated by ultrafast femtosecond pulse interaction with silicon. Remarkably, bio-functionalization in any shape or size without change in topology or morphology is observed indicating only sub-surface phase transformations. Material characterization reveals the presence of a unique mixture of phases of SiO2 and Si. Consequently, these variations in phase alter the physicochemical characteristics on the surface of silicon resulting in its bio-functionalization. The culture of mouse embryonic fibroblasts shows unique adhesion characteristics on these bio-functionalized silicon surfaces that include cell controlling, cell trapping, and cell shaping. Furthermore, the directionality of fibroblasts is restrained parallel to bio-functionalized zones as evidenced by changes in cytoskeleton. The controlling of proliferation, migration and adhesion of cells is attributed to unique phase bio-functionalization. This method presents considerable promise in a myriad of applications such as tissue engineering, MEMS, and lab-on-a-chip devices.

  5. The BioGRID interaction database: 2017 update

    PubMed Central

    Chatr-aryamontri, Andrew; Oughtred, Rose; Boucher, Lorrie; Rust, Jennifer; Chang, Christie; Kolas, Nadine K.; O'Donnell, Lara; Oster, Sara; Theesfeld, Chandra; Sellam, Adnane; Stark, Chris; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID: https://thebiogrid.org) is an open access database dedicated to the annotation and archival of protein, genetic and chemical interactions for all major model organism species and humans. As of September 2016 (build 3.4.140), the BioGRID contains 1 072 173 genetic and protein interactions, and 38 559 post-translational modifications, as manually annotated from 48 114 publications. This dataset represents interaction records for 66 model organisms and represents a 30% increase compared to the previous 2015 BioGRID update. BioGRID curates the biomedical literature for major model organism species, including humans, with a recent emphasis on central biological processes and specific human diseases. To facilitate network-based approaches to drug discovery, BioGRID now incorporates 27 501 chemical–protein interactions for human drug targets, as drawn from the DrugBank database. A new dynamic interaction network viewer allows the easy navigation and filtering of all genetic and protein interaction data, as well as for bioactive compounds and their established targets. BioGRID data are directly downloadable without restriction in a variety of standardized formats and are freely distributed through partner model organism databases and meta-databases. PMID:27980099

  6. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported. PMID:25196110

  7. Bio-mimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted membranes.

    PubMed

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-07-30

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  8. Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Chemical Models for Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.

    2008-12-12

    Bio-oil (product liquids from fast pyrolysis of biomass) is a complex mixture of oxygenates derived from the thermal breakdown of the bio-polymers in biomass. In the case of lignocellulosic biomass, the structures of three major components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, are well represented by the bio-oil components. In order to study the chemical mechanisms of catalytic hydroprocessing of bio-oil, three model compounds were chosen to represent those components. Guaiacol represents the large number of mono- and di-methoxy phenols found in bio-oil derived from softwood or hardwood, respectively. Furfural represents a major pyrolysis product group from cellulosics. Acetic acid is a major product from biomass pyrolysis, derived from the hemicellulose, which has important impacts on the further processing of the bio-oil because of the acidic character. These three compounds were processed using palladium or ruthenium catalyst over a temperature range from 150°C to 300°C. The batch reactor was sampled during each test over a period of four hours. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with both a mass selective detector and a flame ionization detector. The products were determined and the reaction pathways for their formation are suggested based on these results. Both temperature and catalyst metal have significant effects on the product composition.

  9. Bio-inspired self-shaping ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargardi, Fabio L.; Le Ferrand, Hortense; Libanori, Rafael; Studart, André R.

    2016-12-01

    Shaping ceramics into complex and intricate geometries using cost-effective processes is desirable in many applications but still remains an open challenge. Inspired by plant seed dispersal units that self-fold on differential swelling, we demonstrate that self-shaping can be implemented in ceramics by programming the material's microstructure to undergo local anisotropic shrinkage during heat treatment. Such microstructural design is achieved by magnetically aligning functionalized ceramic platelets in a liquid ceramic suspension, subsequently consolidated through an established enzyme-catalysed reaction. By fabricating alumina compacts exhibiting bio-inspired bilayer architectures, we achieve deliberate control over shape change during the sintering step. Bending, twisting or combinations of these two basic movements can be successfully programmed to obtain a myriad of complex shapes. The simplicity and the universality of such a bottom-up shaping method makes it attractive for applications that would benefit from low-waste ceramic fabrication, temperature-resistant interlocking structures or unusual geometries not accessible using conventional top-down manufacturing.

  10. BIO-Plex Information System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Boulanger, Richard; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a suggested design for an integrated information system for the proposed BIO-Plex (Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex) at Johnson Space Center (JSC), including distributed control systems, central control, networks, database servers, personal computers and workstations, applications software, and external communications. The system will have an open commercial computing and networking, architecture. The network will provide automatic real-time transfer of information to database server computers which perform data collection and validation. This information system will support integrated, data sharing applications for everything, from system alarms to management summaries. Most existing complex process control systems have information gaps between the different real time subsystems, between these subsystems and central controller, between the central controller and system level planning and analysis application software, and between the system level applications and management overview reporting. An integrated information system is vitally necessary as the basis for the integration of planning, scheduling, modeling, monitoring, and control, which will allow improved monitoring and control based on timely, accurate and complete data. Data describing the system configuration and the real time processes can be collected, checked and reconciled, analyzed and stored in database servers that can be accessed by all applications. The required technology is available. The only opportunity to design a distributed, nonredundant, integrated system is before it is built. Retrofit is extremely difficult and costly.

  11. Bio-Inspired Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warncke, Kurt

    2009-11-01

    The areas of solar-powered catalysts for energy rich fuels formation and bio-inspired molecular assemblies for integrating photon-to-fuels pathways have been identified by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. S. Department of Energy as challenges for the next generation of sustainable, high-efficiency solar energy conversion systems [1]. The light-harvesting, energy-transducing and carbon compound-synthesizing (carbon dioxide-fixing) reactions that are encompassed by natural photosynthesis offer molecular paradigms for efficient free energy capture and storage. We seek to emulate these features in cell-free, protein-based systems. Our goal is to transform the robust (alpha,beta)8-barrel fold of an enzyme that naturally catalyzes radical reactions into a catalytic module for the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate, by using the cobalt-containing cobalamins and other organocobalt centers. The activation of the catalytic center will be driven by photo-reduction, by using soluble and attached organic or semiconductor architectures. Progress on the biochemical, chemical, physical, and molecular biological (including rational design of high binding affinity and reactivity towards carbon dioxide) approaches to the development of the photocatalytic system will be presented.[4pt] [1] Lewis, N.; Crabtree, G. In: Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science: 2005.

  12. Terahertz signature characterization of bio-simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Alexander J.; Miller, Peter; Abreu, Rene; Grotts, Jeffrey; Globus, Tatiana; Brown, Elliott

    2005-05-01

    Collaboration with the University of Virginia (UVa) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) has resulted in the collection of signature data in the THz region of the spectrum for ovalbumin, Bacillus Subtilis (BG) and RNA from MS2 phage. Two independent experimental measurement systems were used to characterize the bio-simulants. Prior to our efforts, only a limited signature database existed. The goal was to evaluate a larger ensemble of biological agent simulants (BG, MS2 and ovalbumin) by measuring their THz absorption spectra. UCSB used a photomixer spectrometer and UVa a Fourier Transform spectrometer to measure absorption spectra. Each group used different sample preparation techniques and made multiple measurements to provide reliable statistics. Data processing culminated in applying proprietary algorithms to develop detection filters for each simulant. Through a covariance matrix approach, the detection filters extract signatures over regions with strong absorption and ignore regions with large signature variation (noise). The discrimination capability of these filters was also tested. The probability of detection and false alarm for each simulant was analyzed by each simulant specific filter. We analyzed a limited set of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) data (a near neighbor to BG) and were capable of discriminating between BT and BG. The signal processing and filter construction demonstrates signature specificity and filter discrimination capabilities.

  13. Bio-inspired self-shaping ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Bargardi, Fabio L.; Le Ferrand, Hortense; Libanori, Rafael; Studart, André R.

    2016-01-01

    Shaping ceramics into complex and intricate geometries using cost-effective processes is desirable in many applications but still remains an open challenge. Inspired by plant seed dispersal units that self-fold on differential swelling, we demonstrate that self-shaping can be implemented in ceramics by programming the material's microstructure to undergo local anisotropic shrinkage during heat treatment. Such microstructural design is achieved by magnetically aligning functionalized ceramic platelets in a liquid ceramic suspension, subsequently consolidated through an established enzyme-catalysed reaction. By fabricating alumina compacts exhibiting bio-inspired bilayer architectures, we achieve deliberate control over shape change during the sintering step. Bending, twisting or combinations of these two basic movements can be successfully programmed to obtain a myriad of complex shapes. The simplicity and the universality of such a bottom-up shaping method makes it attractive for applications that would benefit from low-waste ceramic fabrication, temperature-resistant interlocking structures or unusual geometries not accessible using conventional top–down manufacturing. PMID:28008930

  14. Bio-inspired self-shaping ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bargardi, Fabio L; Le Ferrand, Hortense; Libanori, Rafael; Studart, André R

    2016-12-23

    Shaping ceramics into complex and intricate geometries using cost-effective processes is desirable in many applications but still remains an open challenge. Inspired by plant seed dispersal units that self-fold on differential swelling, we demonstrate that self-shaping can be implemented in ceramics by programming the material's microstructure to undergo local anisotropic shrinkage during heat treatment. Such microstructural design is achieved by magnetically aligning functionalized ceramic platelets in a liquid ceramic suspension, subsequently consolidated through an established enzyme-catalysed reaction. By fabricating alumina compacts exhibiting bio-inspired bilayer architectures, we achieve deliberate control over shape change during the sintering step. Bending, twisting or combinations of these two basic movements can be successfully programmed to obtain a myriad of complex shapes. The simplicity and the universality of such a bottom-up shaping method makes it attractive for applications that would benefit from low-waste ceramic fabrication, temperature-resistant interlocking structures or unusual geometries not accessible using conventional top-down manufacturing.

  15. Rotational molding of bio-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Antonio; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Forleo, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    This paper is aimed to study the suitability of bio-polymers, including poly-lactic acid (PLLA) and Mater-Bi, for the production of hollow components by rotational molding. In order to reduce the brittleness of PLLA, the material was mixed with two different plasticizers, bis-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP) and poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG). The materials were characterized in terms of sinterability. To this purpose, thermomechanical (TMA) analysis was performed at different heating rates, in order to identify the endset temperatures of densification and the onset temperatures of degradation. Results obtained indicated that the materials are characterized by a very fast sintering process, occurring just above the melting temperature, and an adequately high onset of degradation. The difference between the onset of degradation and the endset of sintering, defined as the processing window of the polymer, is sufficiently wide, indicating that the polymers can be efficiently processed by rotational molding. Therefore, a laboratory scale apparatus was used for the production of PLLA and Mater-Bi prototypes. The materials were processed using very similar conditions to those used for LLDPE. The production of void-free samples of uniform wall thickness was considered as an indication of the potentiality of the process for the production of biodegradable containers.

  16. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  17. Comparison of the Rear Impact Biofidelity of BioRID II and RID2.

    PubMed

    Philippens, M; Cappon, H; van Ratingen, M; Wismans, J; Svensson, M; Sirey, F; Ono, K; Nishimoto, N; Matsuoka, F

    2002-11-01

    Researchers worldwide try to define a unique test procedure for the assessment of whiplash protection of seats and restraint systems in low speed rear-end impact. Apart from valid injury criteria and uniform crash conditions, there is no clear answer to the question, which dummy to use. There are two impact dummies currently available, which have been designed for rear-end impact testing: BioRID and RID2. Both dummies have been evaluated in several test programs, however, both dummies have never been compared with each other in the test conditions, which form the basis of their design. BioRID was based on and validated against volunteer tests performed by Davidsson and Ono, while RID2 was designed with and validated against PMHS tests done by Bertholon and compared to volunteer tests reported by Van den Kroonenberg. This paper compares the responses of both rear impact dummies and the Hybrid III for the test conditions mentioned above. The setup of Davidsson used a rigid seat with flexible back and head restraint panels, while the setups from Ono and Bertholon used a rigid seat without a head restraint, in spite of being not representative for real car seats. This configuration creates a well defined test environment which will not affect nor obscure the dummy response Results of the performance of both rear impact dummies and the Hybrid III in comparison to the human responses will be presented in this paper. The results show that both rear impact dummies are capable of simulating rear impact responses, especially the head-neck kinematics. A difference in load pattern was found, which could be relevant when injury criteria will be based on neck forces and/or torques. Moreover, the dummies show a different interaction with the seat back, illustrated by the differences in T1 kinematics: BioRID shows larger T1 rotation and more ramping up than RID2, while spine straightening is comparable for both dummies. The current study showed good scores for both dummies in the

  18. Economic Assessment of FMDv Releases from the National Bio and Agro Defense Facility

    PubMed Central

    Pendell, Dustin L.; Marsh, Thomas L.; Coble, Keith H.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Szmania, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease releases from the future National Bio and Agro Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Using an economic framework that estimates the impacts to agricultural firms and consumers, quantifies costs to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and assesses costs of response to the government, we find the distribution of economic impacts to be very significant. Furthermore, agricultural firms and consumers bear most of the impacts followed by the government and the regional non-agricultural firms. PMID:26114546

  19. Advances in a framework to compare bio-dosimetry methods for triage in large-scale radiation events

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Ann Barry; Boyle, Holly K.; Du, Gaixin; Demidenko, Eugene; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2014-01-01

    Planning and preparation for a large-scale nuclear event would be advanced by assessing the applicability of potentially available bio-dosimetry methods. Using an updated comparative framework the performance of six bio-dosimetry methods was compared for five different population sizes (100–1 000 000) and two rates for initiating processing of the marker (15 or 15 000 people per hour) with four additional time windows. These updated factors are extrinsic to the bio-dosimetry methods themselves but have direct effects on each method's ability to begin processing individuals and the size of the population that can be accommodated. The results indicate that increased population size, along with severely compromised infrastructure, increases the time needed to triage, which decreases the usefulness of many time intensive dosimetry methods. This framework and model for evaluating bio-dosimetry provides important information for policy-makers and response planners to facilitate evaluation of each method and should advance coordination of these methods into effective triage plans. PMID:24729594

  20. Field-effect-based multifunctional hybrid sensor module for the determination of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoening, Michael J.; Poghossian, Arshak; Schultze, J. Walter; Lueth, Hans

    2002-02-01

    Sensor systems for multi-parameter detection in fluidics usually combine different sensors, which are designed to detect either a physical or (bio-)chemical parameter. Therefore, such systems include a more complicated fabrication technology and measuring set-up. In this work, an ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor), which is well known as a (bio-)chemical sensor, is utilized as transducer for the detection of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters. A multifunctional hybrid module for the determination of two (bio-)chemical parameters (pH, penicillin concentration) and three physical parameters (temperature, flow velocity and flow direction) using only two sensor structures, an ion generator and a reference electrode, is realized and its performance has been investigated. Here, a multifunctionality of the sensor system is achieved by means of different sensor arrangements and/or different operation modes. A Ta2O5-gate ISFET was used as transducer for all sensors. A novel time-of-flight type ISFET-based flow-velocity (flow rate) and flow-direction sensor using in-sit