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Sample records for bio-chemical sensing applications

  1. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  2. Inkjet printed (bio)chemical sensing devices.

    PubMed

    Komuro, Nobutoshi; Takaki, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Koji; Citterio, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Inkjet printing has evolved from an office printing application to become an important tool in industrial mass fabrication. In parallel, this technology is increasingly used in research laboratories around the world for the fabrication of entire (bio)chemical sensing devices or single functional elements of such devices. Regularly stated characteristics of inkjet printing making it attractive to replace an alternative material deposition method are low cost, simplicity, high resolution, speed, reproducibility, flexibility, non-contact, and low amount of waste generated. With this review, we give an overview over areas of (bio)chemical sensing device development profiting from inkjet printing applications. A variety of printable functional sensor elements are introduced by examples, and the advantages and challenges of the inkjet method are pointed out. It is demonstrated that inkjet printing is already a routine tool for the fabrication of some (bio)chemical sensing devices, but also that novel applications are being continuously developed. Finally, some inherent limitations of the method and challenges for the further exploitation of this technology are pointed out.

  3. Advanced nanoporous materials for micro-gravimetric sensing to trace-level bio/chemical molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-10-13

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing.

  4. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. PMID:25313499

  5. Chalcogenide glass fibers: Optical window tailoring and suitability for bio-chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Pierre; Coleman, Garrett J.; Jiang, Shibin; Luo, Tao; Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    Glassy materials based on chalcogen elements are becoming increasingly prominent in the development of advanced infrared sensors. In particular, infrared fibers constitute a desirable sensing platform due to their high sensitivity and versatile remote collection capabilities for in-situ detection. Tailoring the transparency window of an optical material to the vibrational signature of a target molecule is important for the design of infrared sensor, and particularly for fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy. Here we review the basic principles and recent developments in the fabrication of chalcogenide glass infrared fibers for application as bio-chemical sensors. We emphasize the challenges in designing materials that combine good rheological properties with chemical stability and sufficiently wide optical windows for bio-chemical sensing. The limitation in optical transparency due to higher order overtones of the amorphous network vibrations is established for this family of glasses. It is shown that glasses with wide optical window suffer from higher order overtone absorptions. Compositional engineering with heavy elements such as iodine is shown to widen the optical window but at the cost of lower chemical stability. The optical attenuations of various families of chalcogenide glass fibers are presented and weighed for their applications as chemical sensors. It is then shown that long-wave infrared fibers can be designed to optimize the collection of selective signal from bio-molecules such as cells and tissues. Issues of toxicity and mechanical resistance in the context of bio-sensing are also discussed.

  6. Optimizing integrated optical chips for label-free (bio-)chemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Kunz, R E; Cottier, K

    2006-01-01

    Label-free sensing is an important method for many (bio-)chemical applications in fields such as biotechnology, medicine, pharma, ecology and food quality control. The broad range of applications includes liquid refractive index sensing, molecule detection, and the detection of particles or cells. Integrated optics based on the use of waveguide modes offers a great potential and flexibility to tailor the sensor properties to these applications. In this paper, the results of a numerical study are presented, showing that this flexibility is founded on the many degrees of freedom that can be used for the integrated optical chip design, in contrast to other technologies such as those based on surface plasmon resonance, for which the materials' properties limit the range of choices. The applications that are explicitly considered and discussed include (1) bulk refractometry, (2) thin-layer sensing, for example biosensors monitoring molecular adsorption processes occurring within some 10 nm of the chip's surface, (3) thick-layer sensing with processes involving molecules or ions to be monitored within a sensing matrix extending to some 100 nm from the chip's surface, for example hydrogel-based layers and chemo-optically sensitive membranes, and (4) particle sensing with particles or, for example, biological cells to be monitored within probe volumes extending to some 1,000 nm from the chip's surface. The peculiarities for the different types of applications will be discussed, and suitable modeling methods presented. Finally, the application-specific design guidelines supplied will enable the optimization of various types of integrated optical sensors, including interferometers and grating-based sensors.

  7. SU-8 Cantilevers for Bio/chemical Sensing; Fabrication, Characterisation and Development of Novel Read-out Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Maria; Keller, Stephan; Lillemose, Michael; Johansson, Alicia; Dohn, Søren; Haefliger, Daniel; Blagoi, Gabriela; Havsteen-Jakobsen, Mogens; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five years with cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interesting polymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processing and low Young's modulus. We show examples of different integrated read-out methods and their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity to changes in the environmental temperature and pH of the buffer solution. Moreover, we show that the SU-8 cantilever surface can be functionalised directly with receptor molecules for analyte detection, thereby avoiding gold-thiol chemistry. PMID:27879783

  8. Resonant-cantilever bio/chemical sensors with an integrated heater for both resonance exciting optimization and sensing repeatability enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Li, Xinxin; Gan, Xiaohua; Liu, Yongjing; Liu, Xiang; Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Jungang; Liu, Min

    2009-04-01

    With an integrated resonance exciting heater and a self-sensing piezoresistor, resonant micro-cantilever bio/chemical sensors are optimally designed and fabricated by micromachining techniques. This study is emphasized on the optimization of the integrated heating resistor. Previous research has put the heater at either the cantilever clamp end, the midpoint or the free end. Aiming at sufficiently high and stable resonant amplitude, our research indicates that the optimized location of the thermal-electric exciting resistor is the clamp end instead of other positions. By both theoretical analysis and resonance experiments where three heating resistors are placed at the three locations of the fabricated cantilever, it is clarified that the clamp end heating provides the most efficient resonance excitation in terms of resonant amplitude, Q-factor and resonance stability. Besides, the optimized combination of dc bias and ac voltage is determined by both analysis and experimental verification. With the optimized heating excitation, the resonant cantilever is used for biotin-avidin-specific detection, resulting in a ±0.1 Hz ultra-low noise floor of the frequency signal and a 130 fg mass resolution. In addition to resonance excitation, the heater is used to heat up the cantilever for speed-up desorption after detection that helps rapid and repeated sensing to chemical vapor. The clamp end is determined (by simulation) as the optimal heating location for uniform temperature distribution on the cantilever. Using the resonant cantilever, a rapid and repeated sensing experiment on dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapor shows that a short-period heating at the detection interval significantly quickens the signal recovery and enhances the sensing repeatability.

  9. Lab-on-a-chip bio/chemical sensing system based on the liquid core optical ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ian M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Zhu, Hongying; Oveys, Hesam; Brewington, Lee; Gohring, John; Fan, Xudong

    2007-04-01

    The liquid core optical ring resonator (LCORR) sensor is a newly developed capillary-based ring resonator that integrates microfluidics with photonic sensing technology. The circular cross-section of the capillary forms a ring resonator that supports whispering gallery modes (WGM), which interact with the sample as it passes through the capillary. As in previous ring resonator sensor implementations, the interaction between the WGM evanescent field and the sample enables label-free detection. With a prototype of an LCORR sensor, we have achieved a refractive index detection limit of 10-6 RIU and a detection limit for protein of 2 pg/mm2. Several engineering developments have been accomplished as well, including a thermal noise characterization, a thermal stabilization implementation, integration of the LCORR with a planar waveguide array, and electro-kinetic sample delivery. In the near future, the LCORR will be integrated into a dense 2-dimensional sensing array by integrating multiple capillaries with a chip-based waveguide array. This lab-on-a-chip sensing system will have a number of applications, including environmental sensing for defense purposes, disease diagnostics for medical purposes, and as a lab tool for analytical chemistry and molecular analysis.

  10. Novel multi-color image sensors for bio-chemical, bio-medical, and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Achyut K.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.; Islam, M. Saif

    2005-11-01

    Detectors (sensor) having detection capability ranging from visible to near-infrared region are very much required for multi-color image sensor, necessary for next generation bio-medical, bio-chem(ical), and security applications. The capability of using broadband detection in a single sensor would help to receive real-time imaging not detectable using today's CCD or CMOS sensor. We proposed a detector structure as a single sensor element (pixel) having the detection capability ranging from visible to 1.7 μm, wavelengths requiring in bio-chem, biomedical cell detection and security application. This invited paper has two-fold objectives: (a) provide a comprehensive overview of conventional photo detectors array (focal-plan array) and their types, being used in today's imaging, and (b) introduce a development of multi-color detector array (image sensor) which authors pioneered. The features of proposed multi-color detector are simple structure, low-cost, high quantum efficiency, high sensitivity, and high speed. Performance results so far attained will be presented along with its possible applications.

  11. Optofluidics in bio-chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yunbo; Fan, Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Optofluidics organically integrates microfluidics and photonics and is an emerging technology in biological and chemical analysis. In this paper, we overview the recent studies in bio-chemical sensing applications of optofluidics. Particularly, we report the research progress in our lab in developing diverse optofluidic devices using two unique configurations: thin-walled capillary based optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) and multi-hole capillary based optofluidic platforms. The first one has been developed to be OFRR-based label-free biosensor, microfluidic laser based intra-cavity sensors, and on-column optical detectors for micro-gas chromatography (μGC), while the second one has been developed to be optofluidic Fabry-Pérot based label-free biosensor and optofluidic Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) biosensor. All of these devices take advantage of superior fluidic handling capability and high sensitivity, and have been used in detecting various biological and chemical analytes in either liquid or vapor phase.

  12. Droplet microfluidics in (bio)chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Basova, Evgenia Yu; Foret, Frantisek

    2015-01-07

    Droplet microfluidics may soon change the paradigm of performing chemical analyses and related instrumentation. It can improve not only the analysis scale, possibility for sensitivity improvement, and reduced consumption of chemical and biological reagents, but also the speed of performing a variety of unit operations. At present, microfluidic platforms can reproducibly generate monodisperse droplet populations at kHz or higher rates with droplet sizes suitable for high-throughput experiments, single-cell detection or even single molecule analysis. In addition to being used as microreactors with volume in the micro- to femtoliter range, droplet based systems have also been used to directly synthesize particles and encapsulate biological entities for biomedicine and biotechnology applications. This minireview summarizes various droplet microfluidics operations and applications for (bio)chemical assays described in the literature during the past few years.

  13. Label-Free Optical Ring Resonator Bio/Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongying; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

    Optical micro-ring resonator sensors are an emerging category of label-free optical sensors for bio/chemical sensing that have recently been under intensive investigation. Researchers of this technology have been motivated by a tremendous breadth of different applications, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, homeland security, and food quality control, which require sensitive analytical tools. Ring resonator sensors use total internal reflection to support circulating optical resonances called whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGMs have an evanescent field of several hundred nanometers into the surrounding medium, and can therefore detect the refractive index change induced when the analyte binds to the resonator surface. Despite the small physical size of a resonator, the circulating nature of the WGM creates extremely long effective lengths, greatly increasing light-matter interaction and improving its sensing performance. Moreover, only small sample volume is needed for detection because the sensors can be fabricated in sizes well below 100 μm. The small footprint allows integration of those ring resonator sensors onto lab-on-a-chip types of devices for multiplexed detection.

  14. HIgh-Q Optical Micro-cavity Resonators as High Sensitive Bio-chemical and Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Tao

    Optical micro-cavity resonators have quickly emerged in the past few years as a new sensing platform in a wide range of applications, such as bio-chemical molecular detection, environmental monitoring, acoustic and electromagnetic waves detection. In this thesis, we will mainly focus on developing high sensitivity silica micro-tube resonator bio-chemical sensors and high sensitivity polymer micro-ring resonator acoustic sensors. In high sensitivity silica micro-tube resonator bio-chemical sensors part: We first demonstrated a prism coupled silica micro-tube bio-chemical sensing platform to overcome the reliability problem in a fiber coupled thin wall silica micro-tube sensing platform. In refractive index sensing experiment, a unique resonance mode with sensitivity around 600nm/refractive index unit (RIU) has been observed. Surface sensing experiments also have been performed in this platform to detect lipid monolayer, lipid bilayer, electrostatic self assemble layer-by-layer as well as the interaction between the lipid bilayer and proteins. Then a theoretical study on various sensing properties on the silica micro-tube based sensing platform has been realized. Furthermore, we have proposed a coupled cavity system to further enhance the device's sensitivity above 1000nm/RIU. In high sensitivity polymer micro-ring resonator acoustic sensors part: We first presented a simplified fabrication process and realized a polymer microring with a Q factor around 6000. The fabricated device has been used to detect acoustic wave with noise equivalent pressure (NEP) around 230Pa over 1-75MHz frequency rang, which is comparable to state-of-art piezoelectric transducer and the device's frequency response also have been characterized to be up to 90MHz. A new fabrication process combined with resist reflow and thermal oxidation process has been used to improve the Q factor up to 10 5 and the device's NEP has been tested to be around 88Pa over 1-75MHz range. Further improving the

  15. Silicon-based optoelectronic integrated circuit for label-free bio/chemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Song, Junfeng; Luo, Xianshu; Kee, Jack Sheng; Han, Kyungsup; Li, Chao; Park, Mi Kyoung; Tu, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Qing; Jia, Lianxi; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2013-07-29

    We demonstrate a silicon-based optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) for label-free bio/chemical sensing application. Such on-chip OEIC sensor system consists of optical grating couplers for vertical light coupling into silicon waveguides, a thermal-tunable microring as a tunable filter, an exposed microring as an optical label-free sensor, and a Ge photodetector for a direct electrical readout. Different from the conventional wavelength-scanning method, we adopt low-cost broadband ASE light source, together with the on-chip tunable filter to generate sliced light source. The effective refractive index change of the sensing microring induced by the sensing target is traced by scanning the supplied electrical power applied onto the tracing microring, and the detected electrical signal is read out by the Ge photodetector. For bulk refractive index sensing, we demonstrate using such OEIC sensing system with a sensitivity of ~15 mW/RIU and a detection limit of 3.9 μ-RIU, while for surface sensing of biotin-streptavidin, we obtain a surface mass sensitivity of S(m) = ~192 µW/ng·mm(-2) and a surface detection limit of 0.3 pg/mm(2). The presented OEIC sensing system is suitable for point-of-care applications.

  16. A strategy for design and fabrication of low cost microchannel for future reproductivity of bio/chemical lab-on-chip application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humayun, Q.; Hashim, U.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Noriman, N. Z.

    2017-03-01

    The fabrication and characterization of sensitive and selective fluids delivery system for the application of nano laboratory on a single chip is a challenging task till to date. This paper is one of the initial attempt to resolve this challenging task by using a simple, cost effective and reproductive technique for pattering a microchannel structures on SU-8 resist. The objective of the research is to design, fabricate and characterize polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. The proposed device mask was designed initially by using AutoCAD software and then the designed was transferred to transparency sheet and to commercial chrome mask for better photo masking process. The standard photolithography process coupled with wet chemical etching process was used for the fabrication of proposed microchannel. This is a low cost fabrication technique for the formation of microchannel structure at resist. The fabrication process start from microchannel formation and then the structure was transformed to PDMS substrate, the microchannel structure was cured from mold and then the cured mold was bonded with the glass substrate by plasma oxidation bonding process. The surface morphology was characterized by high power microscope (HPM) and the structure was characterized by Hawk 3 D surface nanoprofiler. The next part of the research will be focus onto device testing and validation by using real biological samples by the implementation of a simple manual injection technique.

  17. Polarimetric Interferometry - Remote Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    This lecture is mainly based on the work of S.R. Cloude and presents examples for remote sensing applications Polarimetric SAR Interferometry...PolInSAR). PolInSAR has its origins in remote sensing and was first developed for applications in 1997 using SIRC L-Band data [1,2]. In its original form it

  18. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  19. Field-effect-based multifunctional hybrid sensor module for the determination of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoening, Michael J.; Poghossian, Arshak; Schultze, J. Walter; Lueth, Hans

    2002-02-01

    Sensor systems for multi-parameter detection in fluidics usually combine different sensors, which are designed to detect either a physical or (bio-)chemical parameter. Therefore, such systems include a more complicated fabrication technology and measuring set-up. In this work, an ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor), which is well known as a (bio-)chemical sensor, is utilized as transducer for the detection of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters. A multifunctional hybrid module for the determination of two (bio-)chemical parameters (pH, penicillin concentration) and three physical parameters (temperature, flow velocity and flow direction) using only two sensor structures, an ion generator and a reference electrode, is realized and its performance has been investigated. Here, a multifunctionality of the sensor system is achieved by means of different sensor arrangements and/or different operation modes. A Ta2O5-gate ISFET was used as transducer for all sensors. A novel time-of-flight type ISFET-based flow-velocity (flow rate) and flow-direction sensor using in-situ electrochemical generation of chemical tracers is presented. Due to the fast response of the ISFET (usually in the millisecond range), an ISFET-based flow sensor is suitable for the measurement of the flow velocity in a wide range. With regard to practical applications, pH measurements with this ISFET were performed in rain droplets.

  20. Metamaterials Application in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificial media structured on a size scale smaller than wavelength of external stimuli, and they can exhibit a strong localization and enhancement of fields, which may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors, and open new degrees of freedom in sensing design aspect. This paper mainly presents the recent progress concerning metamaterials-based sensing, and detailedly reviews the principle, detecting process and sensitivity of three distinct types of sensors based on metamaterials, as well as their challenges and prospects. Moreover, the design guidelines for each sensor and its performance are compared and summarized. PMID:22736975

  1. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  2. Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacha, Charlene

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would

  3. Sensing arrays based on integrated optics microresonators for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klunder, Dion; Elders, Job; Burger, Gert-Jan; Amersfoort, Martin; Krioukov, Evgueni; Otto, Cees; Hoekstra, Hugo; Driessen, Alfred

    2004-03-01

    Integrated optics micoresonators (μ-resonators) are microstructures with dimensions typically in the order of tens of microns down to a few microns, whose response depends critically on optical wavelength and material properties. Recent experimental studies have shown that they are suitable as refractive index sensors, absorption sensors, and microresonator-assisted single and two-photon fluorescence. The absorption and fluorescence spectra are material-specific properties, that the devices can readily detect by using different excitation wavelengths. Therefore, the devices are suitable for non-specific agent detection. Due to their inherent small size and the ease of cascading several microresonators, they are suitable building blocks for a sensing array allowing sensing/detection of multiple quantities/agents on a single chip, by e.g., using different chemo-optical transduction layers on top of the microresonators. Such devices have a chip-area of only a few 100 μm2, making them suitable for sensing ultra-small analyte volumes (which is advantageous for bio-chemical sensing). In this contribution, sensing arrays based on integrated optics microresonators and their prospects for Homeland Security applications are discussed. Several device-concepts based on integrated optics microresonators will be treated. Their performance is analyzed using realistic parameters and experimental results of microresonator devices realized in silicon oxynitride (SiON) technology. The potential integration of theses devices with microelectronics, micro-mechanics and micro total analysis systems is discussed.

  4. Bio/chemical microsystem designed for wafer scale testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Anders M.; Mogensen, Klaus B.; Rong, Weimin; Telleman, Pieter; Kutter, Joerg P.

    2001-04-01

    We have designed a bio/chemical microsystem for online monitoring of glucose concentrations during fermentation. The system contains several passive microfluidic components including an enzyme reactor, a flow lamination part and a detector. Detection is based on the reaction of hydrogen peroxide, that is produced from glucose in an enzyme reactor, with luminol. This chemiluminescent reaction generates light that is detected by an integrated back-side contacted photodiode array. Various tests during fabrication are outlined with the emphasis on microwave detected photo conductance decay. The presented microsystem has both fluidic and electrical connection points accessible from the backside. This allows simultaneous testing of both fluidic and electrical parts before dicing the wafer.

  5. Econophysics and bio-chemical engineering thermodynamics: The exergetic analysis of a municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Exergy is a fundamental quantity because it allows us to obtain information on the useful work obtainable in a process. The analyses of irreversibility are important not only in the design and development of the industrial devices, but also in fundamental thermodynamics and in the socio-economic analysis of municipality. Consequently, the link between entropy and exergy is discussed in order to link econophysics to the bio-chemical engineering thermodynamics. Last, this link holds to the fundamental role of fluxes and to the exergy exchanged in the interaction between the system and its environment. The result consists in a thermodynamic approach to the analysis of the unavailability of the economic, productive or social systems. The unavailability is what the system cannot use in relation to its internal processes. This quantity result is interesting also as a support to public manager for economic decisions. Here, the Alessandria Municipality is analyzed in order to highlight the application of the theoretical results.

  6. Bio-chemical sensor based on imperfected plastic optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babchenko, Anatoly; Chernyak, Valeri; Maryles, Jonathan

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we report results for an intrinsic evanescent field sensor based on not-regular plastic optical fiber with polymer film containing Malachite Green MG +([PhC(C 6H 4NMe II) 3] +) as an absorption reagent, which coats the fiber's imperfected area. A theoretical model was developed which shows that changes of light in such structure result from the attenuation of light in the strait and bent imperfected fiber. In this model, the imperfected area with malachite green polymer film is replaced by a uniform layer with a complex refractive index. The changes in color and absorption characteristics of the polymer film depend on the acidic and basic environmental properties in the sensing area. Additional increase of the evanescent field interaction can be achieved by decrease the bending radius of the fiber with the coated imperfection area at the middle of the bent fiber. An imperfected plastic optical fiber with Malachite Green coating has been presented for the detection of ammonia vapor. The initial results show that depending on the sensing application demands, it is possible to design a high sensitive sensor with a relatively long response time, while when the demands require fast response times the sensor with less sensitivity can be used. In addition, the sensors' sensitivity can be calibrated in real-time by changing the bending radius.

  7. Combinatorial Chemistry for Optical Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, M. E.; Luis, G. Pina; Rivero-Espejel, I. A.

    The recent interest in combinatorial chemistry for the synthesis of selective recognition materials for optical sensing applications is presented. The preparation, screening, and applications of libraries of ligands and chemosensors against molecular species and metal ions are first considered. Included in this chapter are also the developments involving applications of combinatorial approaches to the discovery of sol-gel and acrylic-based imprinted materials for optical sensing of antibiotics and pesticides, as well as libraries of doped sol-gels for high-throughput optical sensing of oxygen. The potential of combinatorial chemistry applied to the discovery of new sensing materials is highlighted.

  8. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance with Five-Branched Gold Nanostars in a Plastic Optical Fiber for Bio-Chemical Sensor Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Cennamo, Nunzio; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Donà, Alice; Dacarro, Giacomo; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a refractive index sensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), is presented and experimentally tested. LSPR is achieved exploiting five-branched gold nanostars (GNS) obtained using Triton X-100 in a seed-growth synthesis. They have the uncommon feature of three localized surface plasmon resonances. The strongest LSPRs fall in two ranges, one in the 600–900 nm range (LSPR 2) and the other one in the 1,100–1,600 nm range (LSPR 3), both sensible to refractive index changes. Anyway, due to the extremely strong attenuation (>102 dB/m) of the employed POF in the 1,100–1,600 nm range, only LSPR 2 will be exploited for refractive index change measurements, useful for bio-chemical sensing applications, as a proof of principle of the possibility of realizing a compact, low cost and easy-to-use GNS based device. PMID:24172284

  9. Graphene Hybrid Materials in Gas Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L

    2015-12-04

    Graphene, a two dimensional structure of carbon atoms, has been widely used as a material for gas sensing applications because of its large surface area, excellent conductivity, and ease of functionalization. This article reviews the most recent advances in graphene hybrid materials developed for gas sensing applications. In this review, synthetic approaches to fabricate graphene sensors, the nano structures of hybrid materials, and their sensing mechanism are presented. Future perspectives of this rapidly growing field are also discussed.

  10. CMOS buried multi-junction (BMJ) detector for bio-chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guo-Neng; Courcier, Thierry; Mamdy, Bastien; Feruglio, Sylvain; Charette, Paul G.; Aimez, Vincent; Romain, Olivier; Pittet, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    The CMOS buried multi-junction (BMJ) detector with multiple outputs has distinct spectral responses that may be exploited for applications such as bio-chemical analysis. We tackle here dark current issue by identifying different components inside the detector structure. The identification methods are based on the observation of bias and temperature dependence, as well as measurements of test detector chip integrating different design variations. Surface thermal generation may become predominant when the detector size shrinks, thus causing dark current degradation. To prevent this effect, we propose a low-sized detector structure with passivation of all its surrounding Si/SiO2 interface areas. Also for the detector readout, we present a multi-channel charge-amplifier architecture with noise analysis. Effects of noise coming from amplifiers and related to the coupled detector's dynamic conductances are illuminated. To pick up weak signals, synchronous detection can be implemented. A BDJ (Buried Double Junction) detector chip designed with a switched-phase architectural approach gives a minimum detectable signal of 15μlx@555nm or 1μlx@555nm at 27°C or - 10°C, for an integration time of 3s or 45s respectively.

  11. (Bio)Chemical Tailoring of Biogenic 3-D Nanopatterned Templates with Energy-Relevant Functionalities

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhage, Kenneth H; Kroger, Nils

    2014-09-08

    The overall aim of this research has been to obtain fundamental understanding of (bio)chemical methodologies that will enable utilization of the unique 3-D nanopatterned architectures naturally produced by diatoms for the syntheses of advanced functional materials attractive for applications in energy harvesting/conversion and storage. This research has been conducted in three thrusts: Thrust 1 (In vivo immobilization of proteins in diatom biosilica) is directed towards elucidating the fundamental mechanism(s) underlying the cellular processes of in vivo immobilization of proteins in diatom silica. Thrust 2 (Shape-preserving reactive conversion of diatom biosilica into porous, high-surface area inorganic replicas) is aimed at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of shape preservation and nanostructural evolution associated with the reactive conversion and/or coating-based conversion of diatom biosilica templates into porous inorganic replicas. Thrust 3 (Immobilization of energy-relevant enzymes in diatom biosilica and onto diatom biosilica-derived inorganic replicas) involves use of the results from both Thrust 1 and 2 to develop strategies for in vivo and in vitro immobilization of enzymes in/on diatom biosilica and diatom biosilica-derived inorganic replicas, respectively. This Final Report describes progress achieved in all 3 of these thrusts.

  12. UAS remote sensing missions for rangeland applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rangelands cover about 50% of the earth’s land surface, are in remote areas and have low population densities, all of which provide an ideal opportunity for remote sensing applications from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). In this paper, we describe a proven workflow for UAS-based remote sensing, an...

  13. Remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Marks, D.; Schiffman, K.; Souza, M.; Witebsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    An energy balance snowmelt model for rugged terrain was devised and coupled to a flow model. A literature review of remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling was included along with a software development outline.

  14. Remote sensing and aerial application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...

  15. Real-time nonlinear feedback control of pattern formation in (bio)chemical reaction-diffusion processes: a model study.

    PubMed

    Brandt-Pollmann, U; Lebiedz, D; Diehl, M; Sager, S; Schlöder, J

    2005-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies related to manipulation of pattern formation in self-organizing reaction-diffusion processes by appropriate control stimuli become increasingly important both in chemical engineering and cellular biochemistry. In a model study, we demonstrate here exemplarily the application of an efficient nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) algorithm to real-time optimal feedback control of pattern formation in a bacterial chemotaxis system modeled by nonlinear partial differential equations. The corresponding drift-diffusion model type is representative for many (bio)chemical systems involving nonlinear reaction dynamics and nonlinear diffusion. We show how the computed optimal feedback control strategy exploits the system inherent physical property of wave propagation to achieve desired control aims. We discuss various applications of our approach to optimal control of spatiotemporal dynamics.

  16. Real-time nonlinear feedback control of pattern formation in (bio)chemical reaction-diffusion processes: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt-Pollmann, U.; Lebiedz, D.; Diehl, M.; Sager, S.; Schlöder, J.

    2005-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies related to manipulation of pattern formation in self-organizing reaction-diffusion processes by appropriate control stimuli become increasingly important both in chemical engineering and cellular biochemistry. In a model study, we demonstrate here exemplarily the application of an efficient nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) algorithm to real-time optimal feedback control of pattern formation in a bacterial chemotaxis system modeled by nonlinear partial differential equations. The corresponding drift-diffusion model type is representative for many (bio)chemical systems involving nonlinear reaction dynamics and nonlinear diffusion. We show how the computed optimal feedback control strategy exploits the system inherent physical property of wave propagation to achieve desired control aims. We discuss various applications of our approach to optimal control of spatiotemporal dynamics.

  17. Strain sensing technology for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. Dan

    1993-01-01

    This review discusses the status of strain sensing technology for high temperature applications. Technologies covered are those supported by NASA such as required for applications in hypersonic vehicles and engines, advanced subsonic engines, as well as material and structure development. The applications may be at temperatures of 540 C (1000 F) to temperatures in excess of 1400 C (2500 F). The most promising technologies at present are the resistance strain gage and remote sensing schemes. Resistance strain gages discussed include the BCL gage, the LaRC compensated gage, and the PdCr gage. Remote sensing schemes such as laser based speckle strain measurement, phase-shifling interferometry, and x-ray extensometry are discussed. Present status and limitations of these technologies are presented.

  18. Energy and remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  19. Energy and remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  20. Survey of remote sensing applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1974-01-01

    Data from the first earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as well as from NASA and other aircraft, contain much of the information indicative of the distribution of groundwater and the extent of its utilization. Thermal infrared imagery from aircraft is particularly valuable in studying groundwater discharge to the sea and other surface water bodies. Color infrared photography from aircraft and space is also used to locate areas of potential groundwater development. Anomalies in vegetation, soils, moisture, and their pattern of distribution may be indicative of underlying groundwater conditions. Remote sensing may be used directly or indirectly to identify stream reaches for test holes or production wells. Similarly, location of submarine springs increase effectiveness of groundwater exploration in the coastal zone.

  1. Thermal remote sensing: theory, sensors, and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Applications of thermal infrared remote sensing for Earth science research are both varied and wide in scope. They range from understanding thermal energy responses that drive land-atmosphere energy exchanges in the hydrologic cycle, to measurement of dielectric surface properties for snow, ice, an...

  2. Data compression in remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    A survey of current data compression techniques which are being used to reduce the amount of data in remote sensing applications is provided. The survey aspect is far from complete, reflecting the substantial activity in this area. The purpose of the survey is more to exemplify the different approaches being taken rather than to provide an exhaustive list of the various proposed approaches.

  3. Second Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L. (Editor); Witt, R. G. (Editor); Kugelmann, D. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Participants from state and local governments share experiences in remote sensing applications with one another and with users in the Federal government, universities, and the private sector during technical sessions and forums covering agriculture and forestry; land cover analysis and planning; surface mining and energy; data processing; water quality and the coastal zone; geographic information systems; and user development programs.

  4. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  5. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China, Remote Sensing Systems, Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-17

    Partial Contents: Short Introduction to Nation’s Remote Sensing Units, Domestic Airborne Remote - Sensing System, Applications in Monitoring Natural...Disasters, Applications of Imagery From Experimental Satellites Launched in 1985, 1986, Current Status, Future Prospects for Domestic Remote - Sensing -Satellite...Ground Station, and Radar Remote - Sensing Technology Used to Monitor Yellow River Delta,

  7. Computer applications in remote sensing education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer applications to instruction in any field may be divided into two broad generic classes: computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction. The division is based on how frequently the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer takes in actually providing instruction. There are no inherent characteristics of remote sensing education to preclude the use of one or both of these techniques, depending on the computer facilities available to the instructor. The characteristics of the two classes are summarized, potential applications to remote sensing education are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of computer applications to the instructional process are considered.

  8. Practical application of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing program imagery from several types of platforms, from light aircraft to the LANDSAT (ERTS) satellites, have been utilized during the past few years, with preference for inexpensive imagery over expensive magnetic tapes. Emphasis has been on practical application of remote sensing data to increase crop yield by decreasing plant stress, disease, weeds and undesirable insects and by improving irrigation. Imagery obtained from low altitudes via aircraft provides the necessary resolution and complements but does not replace data from high altitude aircraft, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft, Skylab space station and LANDSAT satellites. Federal government centers are now able to supply imagery within about thirty days from data of order. Nevertheless, if the full potential of space imagery in practical agricultural operations is to be realized, the time span from date of imaging to user application needs to be shortened from the current several months to not more than two weeks.

  9. Silica Nanowires: Growth, Integration, and Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Kumar, Rajesh; Huey, Eric; Bhansali, Shekhar; Nair, Narayana; Nanir, Madhavan

    2014-01-01

    This review (with 129 refs.) gives an overview on how the integration of silica nanowires (NWs) into micro-scale devices has resulted, in recent years, in simple yet robust nano-instrumentation with improved performance in targeted application areas such as sensing. This has been achieved by the use of appropriate techniques such as di-electrophoresis and direct vapor-liquid-growth phenomena, to restrict the growth of NWs to site-specific locations. This also has eliminated the need for post-growth processing and enables nanostructures to be placed on pre-patterned substrates. Various kinds of NWs have been investigated to determine how their physical and chemical properties can be tuned for integration into sensing structures. NWs integrated onto interdigitated micro-electrodes have been applied to the determination of gases and biomarkers. The technique of directly growing NWs eliminates the need for their physical transfer and thus preserves their structure and performance, and further reduces the costs of fabrication. The biocompatibility of NWs also has been studied with respect to possible biological applications. This review addresses the challenges in growth and integration of NWs to understand related mechanism on biological contact or gas exposure and sensing performance for personalized health and environmental monitoring. PMID:25382871

  10. Fast, Continuous, and High-Throughput (Bio)Chemical Activity Assay for N-Acyl-l-Homoserine Lactone Quorum-Quenching Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Last, Daniel; Krüger, Georg H. E.; Dörr, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quorum sensing, the bacterial cell-cell communication by small molecules, controls important processes such as infection and biofilm formation. Therefore, it is a promising target with several therapeutic and technical applications besides its significant ecological relevance. Enzymes inactivating N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones, the most common class of communication molecules among Gram-negative proteobacteria, mainly belong to the groups of quorum-quenching lactonases or quorum-quenching acylases. However, identification, characterization, and optimization of these valuable biocatalysts are based on a very limited number of fundamentally different methods with their respective strengths and weaknesses. Here, a (bio)chemical activity assay is described, which perfectly complements the other methods in this field. It enables continuous and high-throughput activity measurements of purified and unpurified quorum-quenching enzymes within several minutes. For this, the reaction products released by quorum-quenching lactonases and quorum-quenching acylases are converted either by a secondary enzyme or by autohydrolysis to l-homoserine. In turn, l-homoserine is detected by the previously described calcein assay, which is sensitive to α-amino acids with free N and C termini. Besides its establishment, the method was applied to the characterization of three previously undescribed quorum-quenching lactonases and variants thereof and to the identification of quorum-quenching acylase-expressing Escherichia coli clones in an artificial library. Furthermore, this study indicates that porcine aminoacylase 1 is not active toward N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones as published previously but instead converts the autohydrolysis product N-acyl-l-homoserine. IMPORTANCE In this study, a novel method is presented for the identification, characterization, and optimization of quorum-quenching enzymes that are active toward N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones. These are the most common

  11. Applications of Remote Sensing to Precision Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, G. A.; Laguette, S.; Seelan, S.; Lawrence, R.; Henry, M.; Maynard, C.; Dalsted, K.; Rattling Leaf, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) has changed agricultural practices in the following ways: (1) farmers and ranchers have become partners with, not clients of, researchers; (2) experiments are carried out in the field rather than on small experimental plots; (3) the field is considered an agro-ecosystem, with all the complexities of multiple interactions, rather than attempting to isolate certain parameters and vary only a few; (4) both economic benefit to the producer and sound environmental stewardship for society are achievable. This approach has revealed that information is as significant an input to farm or ranch management as seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, and tillage. Accurate, timely information equips producers with the ability to make decisions during a growing season that optimize the yield at harvest time. An invaluable source of in-season information is imagery acquired from sensors on satellites or aircraft. In addition to sensing reflected sunlight in wavebands outside the visible, remote sensing's overview also reveals anomalous patterns in the vegetation cover that are difficult to spot on the ground. Anomalies can be caused by weeds, disease, water stress, inadequate nutrients, or other causes. Often, anomalies must be detected early or they spread too quickly to be addressed. The paper will demonstrate how remote sensing has been applied to (1) define management zones in farm fields, (2) prescribe variable rate applications of fertilizer, (3) detect pest infestations, and (4) manage cattle grazing according to forage available. The applications were possible because data were processed within 4-5 days of acquisition by the satellite, and then delivered by high-bandwidth satellite links to farmers, ranchers, and tribal government officials in minimal transit time. The applications research described was part of NASA's Synergy Program.

  12. Application of Remote Sensing in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarczyk, Jan

    2014-12-01

    With increasing intensity of agricultural crop production increases the need to obtain information about environmental conditions in which this production takes place. Remote sensing methods, including satellite images, airborne photographs and ground-based spectral measurements can greatly simplify the monitoring of crop development and decision-making to optimize inputs on agricultural production and reduce its harmful effects on the environment. One of the earliest uses of remote sensing in agriculture is crop identification and their acreage estimation. Satellite data acquired for this purpose are necessary to ensure food security and the proper functioning of agricultural markets at national and global scales. Due to strong relationship between plant bio-physical parameters and the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected (in certain ranges of the spectrum) from plants and then registered by sensors it is possible to predict crop yields. Other applications of remote sensing are intensively developed in the framework of so-called precision agriculture, in small spatial scales including individual fields. Data from ground-based measurements as well as from airborne or satellite images are used to develop yield and soil maps which can be used to determine the doses of irrigation and fertilization and to take decisions on the use of pesticides.

  13. Gated Silica Mesoporous Materials in Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sancenón, Félix; Pascual, Lluís; Oroval, Mar; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Silica mesoporous supports (SMSs) have a large specific surface area and volume and are particularly exciting vehicles for delivery applications. Such container-like structures can be loaded with numerous different chemical substances, such as drugs and reporters. Gated systems also contain addressable functions at openings of voids, and cargo delivery can be controlled on-command using chemical, biochemical or physical stimuli. Many of these gated SMSs have been applied for drug delivery. However, fewer examples of their use in sensing protocols have been reported. The approach of applying SMSs in sensing uses another concept—that of loading pores with a reporter and designing a capping mechanism that is selectively opened in the presence of a target analyte, which results in the delivery of the reporter. According to this concept, we provide herein a complete compilation of published examples of probes based on the use of capped SMSs for sensing. Examples for the detection of anions, cations, small molecules and biomolecules are provided. The diverse range of gated silica mesoporous materials presented here highlights their usefulness in recognition protocols. PMID:26491626

  14. Multimodal sensing-based camera applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordallo López, Miguel; Hannuksela, Jari; Silvén, J. Olli; Vehviläinen, Markku

    2011-02-01

    The increased sensing and computing capabilities of mobile devices can provide for enhanced mobile user experience. Integrating the data from different sensors offers a way to improve application performance in camera-based applications. A key advantage of using cameras as an input modality is that it enables recognizing the context. Therefore, computer vision has been traditionally utilized in user interfaces to observe and automatically detect the user actions. The imaging applications can also make use of various sensors for improving the interactivity and the robustness of the system. In this context, two applications fusing the sensor data with the results obtained from video analysis have been implemented on a Nokia Nseries mobile device. The first solution is a real-time user interface that can be used for browsing large images. The solution enables the display to be controlled by the motion of the user's hand using the built-in sensors as complementary information. The second application is a real-time panorama builder that uses the device's accelerometers to improve the overall quality, providing also instructions during the capture. The experiments show that fusing the sensor data improves camera-based applications especially when the conditions are not optimal for approaches using camera data alone.

  15. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  16. Layered classification techniques for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.; Wu, C. L.; Landgrebe, D. A.; Hauska, H.

    1975-01-01

    The single-stage method of pattern classification utilizes all available features in a single test which assigns the unknown to a category according to a specific decision strategy (such as the maximum likelihood strategy). The layered classifier classifies the unknown through a sequence of tests, each of which may be dependent on the outcome of previous tests. Although the layered classifier was originally investigated as a means of improving classification accuracy and efficiency, it was found that in the context of remote sensing data analysis, other advantages also accrue due to many of the special characteristics of both the data and the applications pursued. The layered classifier method and several of the diverse applications of this approach are discussed.

  17. Applications of quorum sensing in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Swati; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    Many unicellular microorganisms use small signaling molecules to determine their local concentration. The processes involved in the production and recognition of these signals are collectively known as quorum sensing (QS). This form of cell-cell communication is used by unicellular microorganisms to co-ordinate their activities, which allows them to function as multi-cellular systems. Recently, several groups have demonstrated artificial intra-species and inter-species communication through synthetic circuits which incorporate components of bacterial QS systems. Engineered QS-based circuits have a wide range of applications such as production of biochemicals, tissue engineering, and mixed-species fermentations. They are also highly useful in designing microbial biosensors to identify bacterial species present in the environment and within living organisms. In this review, we first provide an overview of bacterial QS systems and the mechanisms developed by bacteria and higher organisms to obstruct QS communications. Next, we describe the different ways in which researchers have designed QS-based circuits and their applications in biotechnology. Finally, disruption of quorum sensing is discussed as a viable strategy for preventing the formation of harmful biofilms in membrane bioreactors and marine transportation.

  18. Active structural waveguide for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Karol; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Zmojda, Jacek; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    In the article a microstructural active optical fiber for sensing application was presented. Construction consists of three hexagonal rings and a core made of SiO2 - Al2O3 - Sb2O3 glass co-doped with 1Yb2O3/0.1Tm2O3 [mol%]. Developed optical fiber is characterized by upconversion luminescence (λp=980nm) at 480nm (Tm3+: 1G4→3H6) and 650 nm (Tm3+ : 1G4→3F4). Population of thulium levels was attained in result of the Yb 3+→Tm3+ upconversion energy transfer. Sensing application of elaborated active photonic structure was presented on the example of aqueous fluorescein solution. Fabricated microstructural optical fiber enables to measure of the fluorescein solutions with the concentration of (0.25 - 5.42)·10-4 [mol%]. Sensitivity of the elaborated measurement setup is 1.51·104 [1/mol%].

  19. Nanostructured detector technologies for optical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Welser, Roger E.; Puri, Yash R.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Polla, Dennis L.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Dubey, Madan

    2014-05-01

    Optical sensing technology is critical for optical communication, defense and security applications. Advances in optoelectronics materials in the UV, Visible and Infrared, using nanostructures, and use of novel materials such as CNT and Graphene have opened doors for new approaches to apply device design methodology that are expected to offer enhanced performance and low cost optical sensors in a wide range of applications. This paper is intended to review recent advancements and present different device architectures and analysis. The chapter will briefly introduce the basics of UV and Infrared detection physics and various wave bands of interest and their characteristics [1, 2] We will cover the UV band (200-400 nm) and address some of the recent advances in nanostructures growth and characterization using ZnO/MgZnO based technologies and their applications. Recent advancements in design and development of CNT and Graphene based detection technologies have shown promise for optical sensor applications. We will present theoretical and experimental results on these device and their potential applications in various bands of interest.

  20. Novel nanophotonics geometries for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2004-10-01

    We describe our latest experimental and theoretical results on two promising nanophotonics geometries for sensor applications. These geometries are based on various combinations of nanohole and/or microdroplet arrays on the surfaces of metal films which support propagation of surface plasmon-polaritons. These novel geometries exhibit large enhancements of local electromagnetic field, which can be used in various nonlinear optical sensing arrangements. For example, liquid microdroplets on the gold film surface support surface plasmon whispering gallery modes. Local field enhancement due to excitation of such modes is determined by combination of both cavity electrodynamics and surface plasmon-polariton related effects. In addition, individual microdroplets have interesting imaging properties, which may be used in high-resolution visualization of individual viruses and cells.

  1. Applications of remote sensing to hydrologic planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loats, H., Jr.; Fowler, T.; Castruccio, P.

    1978-01-01

    The transfer of LANDSAT remote sensing technology from the research sector to user operational applications requires demonstration of the utility and accuracy of LANDSAT data in solving real problems. This report describes such a demonstration project in the area of water resources, specifically the estimation of non-point source pollutant loads. Non-point source pollutants were estimated from land cover data from LANDSAT images. Classification accuracies for three small watersheds were above 95%. Land cover was converted to pollutant loads for a fourth watershed through the use of coefficients relating significant pollutants to land use and storm runoff volume. These data were input into a simulator model which simulated runoff from average rainfall. The result was the estimation of monthly expected pollutant loads for the 17 subbasins comprising the Magothy watershed.

  2. G-protein-coupled receptors and their (Bio) chemical significance win 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsi-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane cell surface proteins specialized in cellular communication. These receptors represent a major gateway through which cells convert external cues into intracellular signals and respond with appropriate actions. While the effects of hormones, neurotransmitters, and drugs on cells, tissues, organs, and even whole organisms are well described, the molecular identity of the direct targets and the diverse signaling mechanisms of these biological ligands have been slow and hard to define. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the year 2012 acknowledges the importance of GPCRs in these processes, especially for the contribution of Profs Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka to the studies of GPCRs. In this brief review, the seminal works accomplished by the two GPCR pioneers are summarized and the (bio) chemical significance of GPCRs in health and disease is discussed.

  3. State-of-the-art of (bio)chemical sensor developments in analytical Spanish groups.

    PubMed

    Plata, María Reyes; Contento, Ana María; Ríos, Angel

    2010-01-01

    (Bio)chemical sensors are one of the most exciting fields in analytical chemistry today. The development of these analytical devices simplifies and miniaturizes the whole analytical process. Although the initial expectation of the massive incorporation of sensors in routine analytical work has been truncated to some extent, in many other cases analytical methods based on sensor technology have solved important analytical problems. Many research groups are working in this field world-wide, reporting interesting results so far. Modestly, Spanish researchers have contributed to these recent developments. In this review, we summarize the more representative achievements carried out for these groups. They cover a wide variety of sensors, including optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric or electro-mechanical devices, used for laboratory or field analyses. The capabilities to be used in different applied areas are also critically discussed.

  4. Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Microbial strains with high substrate efficiency and excellent environmental tolerance are urgently needed for the production of platform bio-chemicals. Bacillus coagulans has these merits; however, little genetic information is available about this species. Here, we determined the genome sequences of five B. coagulans strains, and used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct the central carbon metabolism of this species to explain their fermentation features. A novel xylose isomerase in the xylose utilization pathway was identified in these strains. Based on a genome-wide positive selection scan, the selection pressure on amino acid metabolism may have played a significant role in the thermal adaptation. We also researched the immune systems of B. coagulans strains, which provide them with acquired resistance to phages and mobile genetic elements. Our genomic analysis provides comprehensive insights into the genetic characteristics of B. coagulans and paves the way for improving and extending the uses of this species. PMID:24473268

  5. State-of-the-Art of (Bio)Chemical Sensor Developments in Analytical Spanish Groups

    PubMed Central

    Plata, María Reyes; Contento, Ana María; Ríos, Angel

    2010-01-01

    (Bio)chemical sensors are one of the most exciting fields in analytical chemistry today. The development of these analytical devices simplifies and miniaturizes the whole analytical process. Although the initial expectation of the massive incorporation of sensors in routine analytical work has been truncated to some extent, in many other cases analytical methods based on sensor technology have solved important analytical problems. Many research groups are working in this field world-wide, reporting interesting results so far. Modestly, Spanish researchers have contributed to these recent developments. In this review, we summarize the more representative achievements carried out for these groups. They cover a wide variety of sensors, including optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric or electro-mechanical devices, used for laboratory or field analyses. The capabilities to be used in different applied areas are also critically discussed. PMID:22319260

  6. Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-29

    Microbial strains with high substrate efficiency and excellent environmental tolerance are urgently needed for the production of platform bio-chemicals. Bacillus coagulans has these merits; however, little genetic information is available about this species. Here, we determined the genome sequences of five B. coagulans strains, and used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct the central carbon metabolism of this species to explain their fermentation features. A novel xylose isomerase in the xylose utilization pathway was identified in these strains. Based on a genome-wide positive selection scan, the selection pressure on amino acid metabolism may have played a significant role in the thermal adaptation. We also researched the immune systems of B. coagulans strains, which provide them with acquired resistance to phages and mobile genetic elements. Our genomic analysis provides comprehensive insights into the genetic characteristics of B. coagulans and paves the way for improving and extending the uses of this species.

  7. Application of remote sensing for planning purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Types of remotely sensed data are many and varied but, all are primarily dependent on the sensor platform and the kind of sensing system used. A sensor platform is the type of aircraft or satellite to which a sensing system is attached; each platform has its own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Selected attributes of several current or recently used platforms are outlined. Though sensing systems are highly varied, they may be divided into various operational categories such as cameras, electromechanical scanners, and radars.

  8. Graphene Hybrid Materials in Gas Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, a two dimensional structure of carbon atoms, has been widely used as a material for gas sensing applications because of its large surface area, excellent conductivity, and ease of functionalization. This article reviews the most recent advances in graphene hybrid materials developed for gas sensing applications. In this review, synthetic approaches to fabricate graphene sensors, the nano structures of hybrid materials, and their sensing mechanism are presented. Future perspectives of this rapidly growing field are also discussed. PMID:26690156

  9. MODIS Direct Broadcast and Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard both Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). Equipped with direct broadcast capability, the MODIS measurements can be received worldwide real time. There are 82 ingest sites (over 900 users, listed on the Direct Readout Portal) around the world for Terra/Aqua-MODIS Direct Broadcast DB) downlink. This represents 27 (6 from EOS science team members) science research organizations for DB land, ocean and atmospheric processing, and 53 companies that base their application algorithms and value added products on DB data. In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of aerosol/cloud optical properties, especially optical thickness and effective particle size. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional-to-global climatic effects.

  10. MODIS Direct Broadcast and Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard both Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). Equipped with direct broadcast capability, the MODIS measurements can be received worldwide real time. There are 82 ingest sites (over 900 users, listed on the Direct Readout Portal) around the world for Terra/Aqua-MODIS Direct Broadcast DB) downlink. This represents 27 (6 from EOS science team members) science research organizations for DB land, ocean and atmospheric processing, and 53 companies that base their application algorithms and value added products on DB data. In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of aerosol/cloud optical properties, especially optical thickness and effective particle size. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional-to-global climatic effects.

  11. Application of remote sensing to solution of ecological problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to solving ecological problems is discussed. The three phases of environmental ecological management are examined. The differences between discovery and exploitation of natural resources and their ecological management are described. The specific application of remote sensing to water management is developed.

  12. Structured materials for catalytic and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokenek, Selma

    The optical and chemical properties of the materials used in catalytic and sensing applications directly determine the characteristics of the resultant catalyst or sensor. It is well known that a catalyst needs to have high activity, selectivity, and stability to be viable in an industrial setting. The hydrogenation activity of palladium catalysts is known to be excellent, but the industrial applications are limited by the cost of obtaining catalyst in amounts large enough to make their use economical. As a result, alloying palladium with a cheaper, more widely available metal while maintaining the high catalytic activity seen in monometallic catalysts is, therefore, an attractive option. Similarly, the optical properties of nanoscale materials used for sensing must be attuned to their application. By adjusting the shape and composition of nanoparticles used in such applications, very fine changes can be made to the frequency of light that they absorb most efficiently. The design, synthesis, and characterization of (i) size controlled monometallic palladium nanoparticles for catalytic applications, (ii) nickel-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles and (iii) silver-palladium nanoparticles with applications in drug detection and biosensing through surface plasmon resonance, respectively, will be discussed. The composition, size, and shape of the nanoparticles formed were controlled through the use of wet chemistry techniques. After synthesis, the nanoparticles were analyzed using physical and chemical characterization techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy- Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry (STEM-EDX). The Pd and Ni-Pd nanoparticles were then supported on silica for catalytic testing using mass spectrometry. The optical properties of the Ag-Pd nanoparticles in suspension were further investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV-Vis). Monometallic palladium particles have

  13. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  14. Application of remote sensing to water resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The following conclusions were reached concerning the applications of remote sensing to water resources problems: (1) Remote sensing methods provide the most practical method of obtaining data for many water resources problems; (2) the multi-disciplinary approach is essential to the effective application of remote sensing to water resource problems; (3) there is a correlation between the amount of suspended solids in an effluent discharged into a water body and reflected energy; (4) remote sensing provides for more effective and accurate monitoring, discovery and characterization of the mixing zone of effluent discharged into a receiving water body; and (5) it is possible to differentiate between blue and blue-green algae.

  15. Industrial applications of fiber optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desforges, Francois X.; Blocksidge, Robert

    1996-08-01

    Thanks to the growth of the fiber optics telecommunication industry, fiber optic components have become less expensive, more reliable and well known by potential fiber optic sensor users. LEDs, optical fibers, couplers and connectors are now widely distributed and are the building blocks for the fiber optic sensor manufacturer. Additionally, the huge demand in consumer electronics of the past 10 years has provided the manufacturer with cheap and powerful programmable logic components which reduce the development time as well as the cost of the associated instrumentation. This market trend has allowed Photonetics to develop, manufacture and sell fiber optic sensors for the last 10 years. The company contribution in the fields of fiber optic gyros (4 licenses sold world wide), white light interferometry and fiber optic sensor networks is widely recognized. Moreover, its 1992 acquisition of some of the assets of Metricor Inc., greatly reinforced its position and allowed it to pursue new markets. Over the past four years, Photonetics has done an important marketing effort to better understand the need of its customers. The result of this research has fed R&D efforts towards a new generation instrument, the Metricor 2000, better adapted to the expectations of fiber optic sensors users, thanks to its unique features: (1) universality -- the system can accept more than 20 different sensors (T, P, RI, . . .). (2) scalability -- depending on the customer needs, the system can be used with 1 to 64 sensors. (3) performance -- because of its improved design, overall accuracies of 0.01% FS can be reached. (4) versatility -- its modular design enables a fast and easy custom design for specific applications. This paper presents briefly the Metricor 2000 and its family of FO probes. Then, it describes two fiber optic sensing (FOS) applications/markets where FOS have proven to be very useful.

  16. A selected bibliography of remote sensing applications to soil science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Carter, Daniel B.; Draeger, William C.

    1979-01-01

    The bibliography contains approximately 200 references dealing with the application of remote sensing technology to the identification and analysis of soils. The scientific papers and reports listed describe procedures and methods used in data collection and include specific applications of those data to soil studies. Most citations discuss current work from 1970 to 1978 and all references are categorized according to the type of remotely sensed data used and their application.

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing for terrestrial applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Murali Krishna Gumma,; Venkateswarlu Dheeravath,

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing data are considered hyperspectral when the data are gathered from numerous wavebands, contiguously over an entire range of the spectrum (e.g., 400–2500 nm). Goetz (1992) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The acquisition of images in hundreds of registered, contiguous spectral bands such that for each picture element of an image it is possible to derive a complete reflectance spectrum.” However, Jensen (2004) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The simultaneous acquisition of images in many relatively narrow, contiguous and/or non contiguous spectral bands throughout the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  18. Field Data Collection: an Essential Element in Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, L. R.

    1971-01-01

    Field data collected in support of remote sensing projects are generally used for the following purposes: (1) calibration of remote sensing systems, (2) evaluation of experimental applications of remote sensing imagery on small test sites, and (3) designing and evaluating operational regional resource studies and inventories which are conducted using the remote sensing imagery obtained. Field data may be used to help develop a technique for a particular application, or to aid in the application of that technique to a resource evaluation or inventory problem for a large area. Scientists at the Forestry Remote Sensing Laboratory have utilized field data for both purposes. How meaningful field data has been collected in each case is discussed.

  19. Applications of remote sensing surveys in Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The grant project continues to introduce remote sensing technology to users in Texas and other regions in the South through presentation of papers and briefings at technical and professional meetings.

  20. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  1. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  2. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  3. Landsat's role in ecological applications of remote sensing.

    Treesearch

    Warren B. Cohen; Samuel N. Goward

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing, geographic information systems, and modeling have combined to produce a virtual explosion of growth in ecological investigations and applications that are explicitly spatial and temporal. Of all remotely sensed data, those acquired by landsat sensors have played the most pivotal role in spatial and temporal scaling. Modern terrestrial ecology relies on...

  4. Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreira, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

  5. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in wildlife management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1980-01-01

    Citations of 165 selected technical reports, journal articles, and other publications on remote sensing applications for wildlife management are presented in a bibliography. These materials summarize developments in the use of remotely sensed data for wildlife habitat mapping, habitat inventory, habitat evaluation, and wildlife census. The bibliography contains selected citations published between 1947 and 1979.

  6. Remote sensing for mined area reclamation: Application inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Applications of aerial remote sensing to coal mined area reclamation are documented, and information concerning available data banks for coal producing areas in the east and midwest is given. A summary of mined area information requirements to which remote sensing methods might contribute is included.

  7. Some Defence Applications of Civilian Remote Sensing Satellite Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    This report is on a pilot study to demonstrate some of the capabilities of remote sensing in intelligence gathering. A wide variety of issues, both...colour images. The procedure will be presented in a companion report. Remote sensing , Satellite imagery, Image analysis, Military applications, Military intelligence.

  8. Remote sensing with unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Federal Aviation Administration is revising regulations for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace. An important potential application of UAS may be as a remote-sensing platform for precision agriculture, but simply down-scaling remote sensing methodologies developed usi...

  9. Membrane process designs in the recovery of bio-fuels and bio-chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this presentation, the emerging membrane unit operations and process designs that can be used in recovery of fuels and organic chemicals produced via bioconversion are briefly summarized. Product recovery costs are a major barrier to increased use of bioconversion for the production of fuels and chemicals. The integration of developing membrane unit operations into product recovery schemes may reduce process energy requirements and cost. Membrane unit operations that are used or studied in recovery of bio-fuels and organic chemicals include pervaporation (PV), vapor permeation (VPe), reverse osmosis (RO), membrane extraction, and electrodialysis (ED). Although it can be argued that ultrafiltration (UF) is used to purify bio-fuels and bio-chemicals, UF is not included in this survey for two reasons: (1) the primary uses of UF in bioprocessing are to clarify fermentation broth and to retain cells/enzymes in bioreactors and (2) the literature on UF in biotechnology is expansive. Products of bioconversion for which data are compiled include ethanol, acetone, butanol, glycerol, isopropanol, ethyl acetate, fusel oils, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, butyric acid, citric acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid. 13 refs.

  10. Bio- chemical and physical characterizations of mesenchymal stromal cells along the time course of directed differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin-Quan; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Liu, Yu-An; Wu, Yi-Chang; del Álamo, Juan C.; Chiou, Arthur; Lee, Oscar K.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular biophysical properties are novel biomarkers of cell phenotypes which may reflect the status of differentiating stem cells. Accurate characterizations of cellular biophysical properties, in conjunction with the corresponding biochemical properties could help to distinguish stem cells from primary cells, cancer cells, and differentiated cells. However, the correlated evolution of these properties in the course of directed stem cells differentiation has not been well characterized. In this study, we applied video particle tracking microrheology (VPTM) to measure intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). Our results showed that osteogenesis not only increased both elastic and viscous moduli, but also converted the intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating hMSCs from viscous-like to elastic-like. In contrast, adipogenesis decreased both elastic and viscous moduli while hMSCs remained viscous-like during the differentiation. In conjunction with bio- chemical and physical parameters, such as gene expression profiles, cell morphology, and cytoskeleton arrangement, we demonstrated that VPTM is a unique approach to quantify, with high data throughput, the maturation level of differentiating hMSCs and to anticipate their fate decisions. This approach is well suited for time-lapsed study of the mechanobiology of differentiating stem cells especially in three dimensional physico-chemical biomimetic environments including porous scaffolds. PMID:27526936

  11. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are becoming available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data ...

  12. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are becoming available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data ...

  13. Isosbestics in Infrared Aerosol Spectra: Proposed Applications for Remote Sensing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    droplet solutions and chemical reactions if the complex indices of refraction are known. The technique seems most applicable in the Rayleigh regime. Remote ... sensing , Isosbestics, Infrared, Infrared spectra, Atmosphere, Water, Aerosols, Rayleigh regime.

  14. Practical applications of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Roy A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Land managers increasingly are becoming dependent upon remote sensing and automated analysis techniques for information gathering and synthesis. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques provide quick and economical information gathering for large areas. The outputs of remote sensing classification and analysis are most effective when combined with a total natural resources data base within the capabilities of a computerized GIS. Some examples are presented of the successes, as well as the problems, in integrating remote sensing and geographic information systems. The need to exploit remotely sensed data and the potential that geographic information systems offer for managing and analyzing such data continues to grow. New microcomputers with vastly enlarged memory, multi-fold increases in operating speed and storage capacity that was previously available only on mainframe computers are a reality. Improved raster GIS software systems have been developed for these high performance microcomputers. Vector GIS systems previously reserved for mini and mainframe systems are available to operate on these enhanced microcomputers. One of the more exciting areas that is beginning to emerge is the integration of both raster and vector formats on a single computer screen. This technology will allow satellite imagery or digital aerial photography to be presented as a background to a vector display.

  15. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems. [Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Carter, B. D.; Solomon, J. L.; Williams, S. G.; Powers, J. S.; Clark, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: remote sensing applications to land use planning Lowndes County, applications of LANDSAT data to strip mine inventory and reclamation, white tailed deer habitat evaluation using LANDSAT data, remote sensing data analysis support system, and discrimination of unique forest habitats in potential lignite areas of Mississippi. Other projects discussed include LANDSAT change discrimination in gravel operations, environmental impact modeling for highway corridors, and discrimination of fresh water wetlands for inventory and monitoring.

  16. Integrated microcantilevers for high-resolution sensing and probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxin; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2012-02-01

    This topical review is focused on microcantilever-based sensing and probing functions that are realized by integrating a mechanically compliant cantilever with self-sensing and self-actuating elements, specific sensing materials as well as functionalized nano-tips. Such integrated cantilever devices have shown great promise in ultra-sensitive applications such as on-the-spot portable bio/chemical detection and in situ micro/nanoscale surface analysis and manipulation. The technical details of this review will be given in a sequence of cantilever sensors and, then, cantilever-tip probes. For the integrated cantilever sensors, the frequency-output style dynamic cantilevers are described first, with the contents including optimized resonance modes, sensing-group-modified nanostructures for specific bio/chemical mass adsorption and nanoscale sensing effects, etc. Thereafter, the static cantilever sensors for surface-stress detection are described in the sequence of the sensing mechanism, surface modification of the sensitive molecule layer and the model of specific reaction-induced surface-energy variation. After technical description of the cantilever sensors, the emphasis of the review moves to functionalized nano-tip equipped cantilever-tip probing devices. The probing functions are not only integrated on the cantilever but also integrated at the sharp apex of the tip. After description of single integrated cantilever probes and their applications in surface scanning and imaging, arrayed cantilever-tip devices and their simultaneous parallel operation for high throughput imaging and nanomechanical data storage are also addressed. With cantilever-tip probes as key elements, micro-analysis instruments are introduced that can be widely used for macro/nanoscale characterizations.

  17. Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephanie; He, Wenbo; Groat, Michael; Edwards, Benjamin; Horey, James L

    2013-01-01

    Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share personal data to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy concerns can discourage widespread adoption of new applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme based on negative surveys for both continuous and multivariate categorical data. Without relying on encryption, our algorithms enhance the privacy of sensed data in an energy and computation efficient manner. Simulations and implementation on Android smart phones illustrate how multidimensional data can be aggregated in a useful and privacy-enhancing manner.

  18. Inorganic/polymer hybrid nanoparticles for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Martin, Benjamin; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    This paper reviews a wide set of sensing applications based on the special properties associated with inorganic/polymer composite nanoparticles. We first describe optical sensing applications performed with hybrid nanoparticles and hybrid microgels with special emphasis on photoluminescence detection and imaging. Analyte detection with molecularly imprinted polymers and HPLC-based sensing using hybrid nanoparticles as stationary phase is also summarized. The final part is devoted to the study of ultra-sensitive molecule detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using core-shell hybrid materials composed of noble metal nanoparticles and cross-linked polymers.

  19. Nutritional Applications of the Chemical Senses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naim, Michael; Kare, Morley R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of taste and smell to ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Indicates that the response of these physiological systems can be chemical specific and that chemical senses may play different roles in regulating diet during nutrient deficiency and during nutrient surplus situations. (JN)

  20. Nutritional Applications of the Chemical Senses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naim, Michael; Kare, Morley R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of taste and smell to ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Indicates that the response of these physiological systems can be chemical specific and that chemical senses may play different roles in regulating diet during nutrient deficiency and during nutrient surplus situations. (JN)

  1. Physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model around seafloor cold seepages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Takeuchi, R.; Monoe, D.; Oomi, T.; Nakata, K.; Fukushima, T.

    2007-12-01

    Natural cold seepages are characterized as rapid upward transports of methane from deeper part of geological structures to the seafloors. Prior to reach the seafloors, when methane meets downwards diffusing seawater sulfate, it is oxidized anaerobically by a consortium of microorganisms that use sulfate as an oxidant, producing sulfide. The anaerobic oxidation of methane and anaerobic sulfate reduction are clarified as a coupled biological activity. A significant portion of the bicarbonate produced after the sulfate reduction as authigenic carbonate, mainly aragonite and high-Mg calcite, near the seafloor. Where the methane fluxes are much, these anaerobic reactions occur just beneath the seafloor. There, usually sulfur oxidizing microorganisms are visible on the seafloor just above the coupled consortium of microorganisms. They are called bacterial mats. When the fluxes too much, direct methane bubbling occurs and chemosynthesis-immobilization communities such as tubeworms and clams distribute around the bubbling locations with the bacterial mats. The physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model around cold seepages on seafloor and in water column has been studied by the authors and some preliminary results were reported (Yamazaki et al., 2005 and 2006; Takeuchi et al., 2007). The approach is to analyze the existing field observation and numerical modeling studies of cold seepages and to create a new physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model in the environment. The model is separated into three parts. They are methane supply, seafloor ecosystem, and water column units. The seafloor ecosystem unit has been improved to analyze the unsteady formation processes of the ecosystem. The time dependencies of formations of the consortium of microorganisms (AOM), the chemosynthetic community, and bicarbonates examined with the improved model are introduced. After the bubbling from seafloor, the methane bubble jet blows up in the water column due to the buoyancy. Then the

  2. Measurement Strategies for Remote Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.

    1999-03-06

    Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.

  3. Conjugated amplifying polymers for optical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Sébastien; Swager, Timothy M

    2013-06-12

    Thanks to their unique optical and electrochemical properties, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention over the last two decades and resulted in numerous technological innovations. In particular, their implementation in sensing schemes and devices was widely investigated and produced a multitude of sensory systems and transduction mechanisms. Conjugated polymers possess numerous attractive features that make them particularly suitable for a broad variety of sensing tasks. They display sensory signal amplification (compared to their small-molecule counterparts) and their structures can easily be tailored to adjust solubility, absorption/emission wavelengths, energy offsets for excited state electron transfer, and/or for use in solution or in the solid state. This versatility has made conjugated polymers a fluorescence sensory platform of choice in the recent years. In this review, we highlight a variety of conjugated polymer-based sensory mechanisms together with selected examples from the recent literature.

  4. Adaptive holography for optical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Residori, S.; Bortolozzo, U.; Peigné, A.; Molin, S.; Nouchi, P.; Dolfi, D.; Huignard, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive holography is a promising method for high sensitivity phase modulation measurements in the presence of slow perturbations from the environment. The technique is based on the use of a nonlinear recombining medium, here an optically addressed spatial light modulator specifically realized to operate at 1.55 μm. Owing to the physical mechanisms involved, the interferometer adapts to slow phase variations within a range of 5-10 Hz, thus filtering out low frequency noise while transmitting higher frequency phase modulations. We present the basic principles of the adaptive interferometer and show that it can be used in association with a sensing fiber in order to detect phase modulations. Finally, a phase-OTDR architecture using the adaptive holographic interferometer is presented and shown to allows the detection of localized perturbations along the sensing fiber.

  5. A newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis strain thermophilically produces 2,3-butanediol, a platform and fuel bio-chemical

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD), a platform and fuel bio-chemical, can be efficiently produced by Klebsiella pneumonia, K. oxytoca, and Serratia marcescens. However, these strains are opportunistic pathogens and not favorable for industrial application. Although some generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms have been isolated in recent years, there is still a demand for safe 2,3-BD producing strains with high productivity and yield under thermophilic fermentation. Results Bacillus licheniformis strain 10-1-A was newly isolated for 2,3-BD production. The optimum temperature and medium pH were 50°C and pH 7.0 for 2,3-BD production by strain 10-1-A. The medium composition was optimized through Plackett–Burman design and response surface methodology techniques. With a two-stage agitation speed control strategy, 115.7 g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from glucose by fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor with a high productivity (2.4 g/L·h) and yield (94% of its theoretical value). The 2,3-BD produced by strain 10-1-A comprises (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD with a ratio of nearly 1:1. The bdh and gdh genes encoding meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (meso-BDH) and glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) of strain 10-1-A were expressed in Escherichia coli and the proteins were purified. meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD were transformed from racemic acetoin by meso-BDH and GDH with NADH, respectively. Conclusions Compared with the reported GRAS 2,3-BD producers, B. licheniformis 10-1-A could thermophilically produce 2,3-BD with a high concentration, productivity and yield. Thus, the newly isolated GRAS strain 10-1-A might be a promising strain for industrial production of 2,3-BD. Two key enzymes for meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production were purified and further studied, and this might be helpful to understand the mechanism for 2,3-BD stereoisomers forming in B. licheniformis. PMID:23981315

  6. Application of Compressive Sensing to Digital Holography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    April 2015. Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Compressive sensing has been used in many imaging domains to facilitate high quality reconstruction...The Full Aperture (FA) Image Plane Architecture in which the Laser Diode (LD) Provides Coherent Illumination to an Object via Some Illumination...Optics (IO). A Small Amount of Light from the LD is Picked-Off by a Beam-Splitter (BS) to Form a Reference Field. The Scattered Object Field is Imaged

  7. Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The roles and activities of NASA and the National Conference of State Legislatures in fostering remote sensing technology utilization by the states and in promoting interstate communication and cooperation are reviewed. The reduction and interpretation of LANDSAT MSS and aerial reconnaissance data for resources management and environment assessment are described as well as resource information systems, and the value of SEASAT synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT 4 data.

  8. Remote sensing application on geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2013-09-01

    Geothermal energy is produced when water coming down from the surface of the earth and met with magma or hot rocks, which the heat comes from the very high levels of magma rises from the earth. This process produced a heated fluid supplied to a power generator system to finally use as energy. Geothermal field usually associated with volcanic area with a component from igneous rocks and a complex geological structures. The fracture and fault structure are important geological structures associated with geothermal. Furthermore, their geothermal manifestations also need to be evaluated associated their geological structures. The appearance of a geothermal surface manifestation is close to the structure of the fracture and the caldera volcanic areas. The relationship between the fault and geothermal manifestations can be seen in the form of a pattern of alignment between the manifestations of geothermal locations with other locations on the fault system. The use of remote sensing using electromagnetic radiation sensors to record images of the Earth's environment that can be interpreted to be a useful information. In this study, remote sensing was applied to determine the geological structure and mapping of the distribution of rocks and alteration rocks. It was found that remote sensing obtained a better localize areas of geothermal prospects, which in turn could cut the chain of geothermal exploration to reduce a cost of geothermal exploration.

  9. Millimeter-wave/THz FMCW radar techniques for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirando, D. Amal; Higgins, Michael D.; Wang, Fenggui; Petkie, Douglas T.

    2016-10-01

    Millimeter-wave and terahertz continuous-wave radar systems have been used to measure physiological signatures for biometric applications and for a variety of non-destructive evaluation applications, such as the detection of defects in materials. Sensing strategies for the simplest homodyne systems, such as a Michelson Interferometer, can be enhanced by using Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) techniques. This allows multiple objects or surfaces to be range resolved while monitoring the phase of the signal in a particular range bin. We will discuss the latest developments in several studies aimed at demonstrating how FMCW techniques can enhance mmW/THz sensing applications.

  10. Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing data has had an important role in identifying and responding to inter-annual variations in the African environment during the past three decades. As a largely agricultural region with diverse but generally limited government capacity to acquire and distribute ground observations of rainfall, temperature and other parameters, remote sensing is sometimes the only reliable measure of crop growing conditions in Africa. Thus, developing and maintaining the technical and scientific capacity to analyze and utilize satellite remote sensing data in Africa is critical to augmenting the continent's local weather/climate observation networks as well as its agricultural and natural resource development and management. The report Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa' has as its central goal to recommend to the US Agency for International Development an appropriate approach to support sustainable remote sensing applications at African regional remote sensing centers. The report focuses on "RS applications" to refer to the acquisition, maintenance and archiving, dissemination, distribution, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data, as well as the integration of interpreted data with other spatial data products. The report focuses on three primary remote sensing centers: (1) The AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, created in 1974, is a specialized institute of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with particular specialization in science and techniques applied to agricultural development, rural development, and natural resource management. (2) The Regional Centre for Maiming of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi, Kenya, established in 1975 under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), is an intergovernmental organization, with 15 member states from eastern and southern Africa. (3) The

  11. Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing data has had an important role in identifying and responding to inter-annual variations in the African environment during the past three decades. As a largely agricultural region with diverse but generally limited government capacity to acquire and distribute ground observations of rainfall, temperature and other parameters, remote sensing is sometimes the only reliable measure of crop growing conditions in Africa. Thus, developing and maintaining the technical and scientific capacity to analyze and utilize satellite remote sensing data in Africa is critical to augmenting the continent's local weather/climate observation networks as well as its agricultural and natural resource development and management. The report Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa' has as its central goal to recommend to the US Agency for International Development an appropriate approach to support sustainable remote sensing applications at African regional remote sensing centers. The report focuses on "RS applications" to refer to the acquisition, maintenance and archiving, dissemination, distribution, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data, as well as the integration of interpreted data with other spatial data products. The report focuses on three primary remote sensing centers: (1) The AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, created in 1974, is a specialized institute of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with particular specialization in science and techniques applied to agricultural development, rural development, and natural resource management. (2) The Regional Centre for Maiming of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi, Kenya, established in 1975 under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), is an intergovernmental organization, with 15 member states from eastern and southern Africa. (3) The

  12. Application of remote sensing to hydrological problems and floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Novo, E. M. L. M.

    1983-01-01

    The main applications of remote sensors to hydrology are identified as well as the principal spectral bands and their advantages and disadvantages. Some examples of LANDSAT data applications to flooding-risk evaluation are cited. Because hydrology studies the amount of moisture and water involved in each phase of hydrological cycle, remote sensing must be emphasized as a technique for hydrological data acquisition.

  13. RF modulated fiber optic sensing systems and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Eustace, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optic sensing system with an intensity sensor and a Radio Frequency (RF) modulated source was shown to have sensitivity and resolution much higher than a comparable system employing low modulating frequencies or DC mode of operation. Also the RF modulation with an appropriate configuration of the sensing system provides compensation for the unwanted intensity losses. The basic principles and applications of a fiber optic sensing system employing an RF modulated source are described. In addition the paper discusses various configurations of the system itself, its components, and modulation and detection schemes. Experimental data are also presented.

  14. RF modulated fiber optic sensing systems and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Eustace, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    A fiber optic sensing system with an intensity sensor and a Radio Frequency (RF) modulated source was shown to have sensitivity and resolution much higher than a comparable system employing low modulating frequencies or DC mode of operation. Also the RF modulation with an appropriate configuration of the sensing system provides compensation for the unwanted intensity losses. The basic principles and applications of a fiber optic sensing system employing an RF modulated source are described. In addition the paper discusses various configurations of the system itself, its components, and modulation and detection schemes. Experimental data are also presented.

  15. Live Cell Optical Sensing for High Throughput Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ye

    Live cell optical sensing employs label-free optical biosensors to non-invasively measure stimulus-induced dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) in live cells within the sensing volume of the biosensor. The resultant DMR signal is an integrated cellular response, and reflects cell signaling mediated through the cellular target(s) with which the stimulus intervenes. This article describes the uses of live cell optical sensing for probing cell biology and ligand pharmacology, with an emphasis of resonant waveguide grating biosensor cellular assays for high throughput applications.

  16. Application of compressed sensing to the simulation of atomic systems

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Xavier; Sanders, Jacob N.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2012-01-01

    Compressed sensing is a method that allows a significant reduction in the number of samples required for accurate measurements in many applications in experimental sciences and engineering. In this work, we show that compressed sensing can also be used to speed up numerical simulations. We apply compressed sensing to extract information from the real-time simulation of atomic and molecular systems, including electronic and nuclear dynamics. We find that, compared to the standard discrete Fourier transform approach, for the calculation of vibrational and optical spectra the total propagation time, and hence the computational cost, can be reduced by approximately a factor of five. PMID:22891294

  17. Satellite remote sensing facility for oceanograhic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. H.; Kent, S. S.; Seidman, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The project organization, design process, and construction of a Remote Sensing Facility at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at LaJolla, California are described. The facility is capable of receiving, processing, and displaying oceanographic data received from satellites. Data are primarily imaging data representing the multispectral ocean emissions and reflectances, and are accumulated during 8 to 10 minute satellite passes over the California coast. The most important feature of the facility is the reception and processing of satellite data in real time, allowing investigators to direct ships to areas of interest for on-site verifications and experiments.

  18. Applications of remote sensing to estuarine management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Gordon, H. H.; Hennigar, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing was used in the resolution of estuarine problems facing federal and Virginia governmental agencies. A prototype Elizabeth River Surface Circulation Atlas was produced from photogrammetry to aid in oil spill cleanup and source identification. Aerial photo analysis twice led to selection of alternative plans for dredging and spoil disposal which minimized marsh damage. Marsh loss due to a mud wave from a highway dyke was measured on sequential aerial photographs. An historical aerial photographic sequence gave basis to a potential Commonwealth of Virginia legal claim to accreting and migrating coastal islands.

  19. PT-symmetric metasurfaces: wave manipulation and sensing using singular points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhdari, Maryam; Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2017-06-01

    We investigate here active metasurfaces obeying parity-time (PT) symmetry and their sensing applications, taking advantage of singularities unique to non-Hermitian systems, such as the spontaneous PT-symmetry-breaking point (exceptional point or EP) and the coherent perfect absorber-laser (CPAL) point. We show theoretically that a PT-symmetric metasurface sensor may provide enhanced sensitivities compared to traditional passive sensors based on metamaterial/metasurface resonators, because the singular point of one-way zero reflection arising from the EP or the CPAL-related sharp resonance may result in dramatically modulated scattering responses or resonance offsets. We demonstrate the proposed concept with realistic metasurface sensors based on photopumped graphene metasurfaces that simultaneously offer terahertz optical gain and (bio)chemical sensing functions. The proposed PT-symmetric metasurfaces may impact not only loss compensation and extraordinary manipulation of electromagnetic waves, but also practical sensing and detection applications.

  20. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  1. Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wendao; Xie, Lijuan; Ying, Yibin

    2017-09-12

    Terahertz (THz) technology has attracted great worldwide interest and novel high-intensity THz sources and plasmonics are two of the most active fields of recent research. Being situated between infrared light and microwave radiation, the absorption of THz rays in molecular and biomolecular systems is dominated by the excitation of intramolecular and intermolecular vibrations. This indicates that THz technology is an effective tool for sensing applications. However, the low sensitivity of free-space THz detection limits the sensing applications, which gives a great opportunity to metamaterials. Metamaterials are periodic artificial electromagnetic media structured with a size scale smaller than the wavelength of external stimuli. They present localized electric field enhancement and large values of quality factor (Q factor) and show high sensitivity to minor environment changes. In the present work, the mechanism of THz metamaterial sensing and dry sample and microfluidic sensing applications based on metamaterials are introduced. Moreover, new directions of THz metamaterial sensing advancement and introduction of two-dimensional materials and nanoparticles for future THz applications are summarized and discussed.

  2. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  3. Advanced laser diodes for sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    VAWTER,GREGORY A.; MAR,ALAN; CHOW,WENG W.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed diode lasers for short pulse duration and high peak pulse power in the 0.01--100.0 m pulsewidth regime. A primary goal of the program was producing up to 10 W while maintaining good far-field beam quality and ease of manufacturability for low cost. High peak power, 17 W, picosecond pulses have been achieved by gain switching of flared geometry waveguide lasers and amplifiers. Such high powers area world record for this type of diode laser. The light emission pattern from diode lasers is of critical importance for sensing systems such as range finding and chemical detection. They have developed a new integrated optical beam transformer producing rib-waveguide diode lasers with a symmetric, low divergence, output beam and increased upper power limits for irreversible facet damage.

  4. Applications of remote sensing to water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Analyses were made of selected long-term (1985 and beyond) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and to develop alternative solutions to any potential problems. One long-term objective selected for analysis was Water Availability Forecasting. A brief overview was scheduled in FY-77 of the objective -- primarily a fact-finding study to allow Data Management personnel to gain adequate background information to perform subsequent data system analyses. This report, includes discussions on some of the larger problems currently encountered in water measurement, the potential users of water availability forecasts, projected demands of users, current sensing accuracies, required parameter monitoring, status of forecasting modeling, and some measurement accuracies likely to be achievable by 1980 and 1990.

  5. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    An urban area was studied through the use of the inventory-by-surrogate method rather than by direct interpretation of photographic imagery. Prior uses of remote sensing in urban and public research are examined. The effects of crowding, poor housing conditions, air pollution, and street conditions on public health are considered. Color infrared photography was used to categorize land use features and the grid method was used in photo interpretation analysis. The incidence of shigella and salmonella, hepatitis, meningitis, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction and veneral disease were studied, together with mortality and morbidity rates. Sample census data were randomly collected and validated. The hypothesis that land use and residential quality are associated with and act as an influence upon health and physical well-being was studied and confirmed.

  6. Remote sensing application to regional activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahrokhi, F.; Jones, N. L.; Sharber, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    Two agencies within the State of Tennessee were identified whereby the transfer of aerospace technology, namely remote sensing, could be applied to their stated problem areas. Their stated problem areas are wetland and land classification and strip mining studies. In both studies, LANDSAT data was analyzed with the UTSI video-input analog/digital automatic analysis and classification facility. In the West Tennessee area three land-use classifications could be distinguished; cropland, wetland, and forest. In the East Tennessee study area, measurements were submitted to statistical tests which verified the significant differences due to natural terrain, stripped areas, various stages of reclamation, water, etc. Classifications for both studies were output in the form of maps of symbols and varying shades of gray.

  7. Agricultural applications of remote sensing: A true life adventure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaller, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study of agricultural applications of remote sensing with a major US agricultural firm was undertaken in mid-1973. The study continued for eighteen months, and covered the areas of crop monitoring and management as well as large scale crop inventories. Pilot programs in the application of aircraft remote sensing and LANDSAT data were conducted. An operational aircraft survey program for ranch management has subsequently been implemented by the agricultural firm. LANDSAT data was successfully used to produce a ninety-seven percent accurate inventory of cotton over 4.8 million acres of California's San Joaquin Valley.

  8. Piezotronic Effect: An Emerging Mechanism for Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Kory; Nguyen, Vu; Zhu, Ren; Yang, Rusen

    2015-01-01

    Strain-induced polarization charges in a piezoelectric semiconductor effectively modulate the band structure near the interface and charge carrier transport. Fundamental investigation of the piezotronic effect has attracted broad interest, and various sensing applications have been demonstrated. This brief review discusses the fundamentals of the piezotronic effect, followed by a review highlighting important applications for strain sensors, pressure sensors, chemical sensors, photodetectors, humidity sensors and temperature sensors. Finally, the review offers some perspectives and outlook for this new field of multi-functional sensing enabled by the piezotronic effect. PMID:26378536

  9. Harnessing Poly(ionic liquid)s for Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Ryan; Ambrogi, Martina; Yuan, Jiayin

    2016-07-01

    The interest in poly(ionic liquid)s for sensing applications is derived from their strong interactions to a variety of analytes. By combining the desirable mechanical properties of polymers with the physical and chemical properties of ILs, new materials can be created. The tunable nature of both ionic liquids and polymers allows for incredible diversity, which is exemplified in their broad applicability. In this article we examine the new field of poly(ionic liquid) sensors by providing a detailed look at the current state-of-the-art sensing devices for solvents, gases, biomolecules, pH, and anions.

  10. Correlated electron perovskite films for optical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Andrew M.; Brown, Thomas D.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.

    2015-10-01

    Advanced power generation technologies including solid oxide fuel cells require advancements in sensor technologies for efficient operation. Gas sensors for SOFC anode streams must be stable in high temperature and under reducing atmospheres. Optical sensing technologies offer the potential for good stability and sensing response under harsh conditions but are relatively new as compared to alternative sensing approaches and require significant developments in underlying device and enabling materials technology. In this paper, the near infrared optical sensing response of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3, a representative correlated perovskite material, is presented. Hydrogen sensing performance was measured in laboratory scale sensing experiments in the range of 1-4% hydrogen. The effect of oxygen on sensor recovery behavior was also examined. The films show a large, recoverable response to the introduction of hydrogen to the gas stream. The results presented here suggest this unique class of materials is a strong candidate for future sensor development efforts targeted at optical sensor applications but also requires additional fundamental research to understand the mechanistic origin of observed optical sensing responses.

  11. Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Groat, Michael; Forrest, Stephanie; Horey, James L; Edwards, Benjamin; He, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share local and personal data with others to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy is an important consideration, and lack of privacy could discourage widespread adoption of many exciting applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme for multidimensional data which uses negative surveys. Multidimensional data, such as vectors of attributes that include location and environment fields, pose a particular challenge for privacy protection and are common in participatory sensing applications. When reporting data in a negative survey, an individual participant randomly selects a value from the set complement of the sensed data value, once for each dimension, and returns the negative values to a central collection server. Using algorithms described in this paper, the server can reconstruct the probability density functions of the original distributions of sensed values, without knowing the participants actual data. As a consequence, complicated encryption and key management schemes are avoided, conserving energy. We study trade-offs between accuracy and privacy, and their relationships to the number of dimensions, categories, and participants. We introduce dimensional adjustment, a method that reduces the magnification of error associated with earlier work. Two simulation scenarios illustrate how the approach can protect the privacy of a participant's multidimensional data while allowing useful population information to be aggregated.

  12. Application of remote sensing in aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Foad

    I utilized state the art remote sensing and GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques to study large scale biological, physical and ecological processes of coastal, nearshore, and offshore waters of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. These processes ranged from chlorophyll alpha and primary production time series analysies in Lake Michigan to coastal stamp sand threats on Buffalo Reef in Lake Superior. I used SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) satellite imagery to trace various biological, chemical and optical water properties of Lake Michigan during the past decade and to investigate the collapse of early spring primary production. Using spatial analysis techniques, I was able to connect these changes to some important biological processes of the lake (quagga mussels filtration). In a separate study on Lake Superior, using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, we examined natural coastal erosion in Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan, and discussed a variety of geological features that influence general sediment accumulation patterns and interactions with migrating tailings from legacy mining. These sediments are moving southwesterly towards Buffalo Reef, creating a threat to the lake trout and lake whitefish breeding ground.

  13. Environmental monitoring: civilian applications of remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.; Lapp, M.; Vitko, J. Jr.; Phipps, G.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to explore how best to utilize Sandia`s defense-related sensing expertise to meet the Department of Energy`s (DOE) ever-growing needs for environmental monitoring. In particular, we focused on two pressing DOE environmental needs: (1) reducing the uncertainties in global warming predictions, and (2) characterizing atmospheric effluents from a variety of sources. During the course of the study we formulated a concept for using unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) for making key 0798 climate measurements; designed a highly accurate, compact, cloud radiometer to be flown on those UAVs; and established the feasibility of differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) to measure atmospheric effluents from waste sites, manufacturing processes, and potential treaty violations. These concepts have had major impact since first being formulated in this ,study. The DOE has adopted, and DoD`s Strategic Environmental Research Program has funded, much of the UAV work. And the ultraviolet DIAL techniques have already fed into a major DOE non- proliferation program.

  14. An Enhanced Sensing Application Based on a Flexible Projected Capacitive-Sensing Mattress

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Ying; Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a cost-effective sensor system for mattresses that can classify the sleeping posture of an individual and prevent pressure ulcers. This system applies projected capacitive sensing to the field of health care. The charge time (CT) method was used to sensitively and accurately measure the capacitance of the projected electrodes. The required characteristics of the projected capacitor were identified to develop large-area applications for sensory mattresses. The area of the electrodes, the use of shielding, and the increased length of the transmission line were calibrated to more accurately measure the capacitance of the electrodes in large-size applications. To offer the users comfort in the prone position, a flexible substrate was selected and covered with 16 × 20 electrodes. Compared with the static charge sensitive bed (SCSB), our proposed system-flexible projected capacitive-sensing mattress (FPCSM) comes with more electrodes to increase the resolution of posture identification. As for the body pressure system (BPS), the FPCSM has advantages such as lower cost, higher aging-resistance capability, and the ability to sense the capacitance of the covered regions without physical contact. The proposed guard ring design effectively absorbs the noise and interrupts leakage paths. The projected capacitive electrode is suitable for proximity-sensing applications and succeeds at quickly recognizing the sleeping pattern of the user. PMID:24747734

  15. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing-Sensors and Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multispectral remote sensors have been traditionally used to map and monitor anthropogenic and environmental changes in the biosphere. While these sensors have proven robust for many applications, they often lack the spectral resolution necessary to differentiate characteristics of the Earth’s surfa...

  16. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing for Land Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land applications, in particular soil moisture retrieval, have been hampered by the lack of low frequency passive microwave observations and the coarse spatial resolution of existing sensors. The next decade could see several improved operational and exploratory missions using new technologies as w...

  17. Remote sensing applications to precision farming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional mechanized agriculture treats large fields with uniform agronomic practices. Precision agriculture/precision farming brings a new concept to manage in-field variability with variable rate application of fertilizers and pesticides, site-specific water management, as well as planting, etc....

  18. Silicon hybrid plasmonic microring resonator for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wu, Genzhu; Chen, Daru

    2015-08-10

    A novel silicon hybrid plasmonic microring resonator consisting of a silver nanoring on top of a silicon-on-insulator ring is proposed and investigated theoretically for possible applications in sensing at the deep subwavelength scale. By using the finite-element method, insight into how the mode properties (Q factor, effective mode volume, energy ratio, sensitivity) depend on the geometric structure of the hybrid microring resonator is presented. Simulation results reveal that this kind of hybrid microcavity maintains a high Q factor ∼600, an ultrasmall mode volume of 0.15  μm3, and high sensitivity of 497  nm/refractive index unit for refractive index sensing. The hybrid plasmonic microcavity with optimized geometric structures presented provides the potential for ultracompact sensing applications.

  19. Battlefield Acoustic Sensing, Multimodal Sensing, and Networked Sensing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    applicable to SAF, these same sensors have verifiable application to transient target localization for rocket-propelled grenades ( RPGs ) and mortars...provides a reasonably accurate measure of DOA of various transient events such as small-arms fire (SAF), mortars, and rocket-propelled grenades ( RPGs ...

  20. Advanced gloss sensing for robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deinhammer, Christian; Brandner, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Specular gloss is an important measurand used in quality control of manufacturing processes of highly reflective parts. In this work we present an in-process quality control system to evaluate the gloss of free-form surfaces to be used in an automated polishing process. Due to the geometry of our test objects the presented sensor is mounted on a robot arm and, therefore, needs to be robust against sensor misalignment. This robustness is achieved using a 2D CCD-camera as detector which allows us to properly handle sensor orientation deviations of up to 10. The required dynamic range of the sensor is obtained based on the acquisition of high dynamic range images. We present first results of a sensor prototype and show its applicability to the target application.

  1. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  2. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draeger, William C.; McClelland, David T.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography contains nearly 300 citations of selected publications and technical reports dealing with the application of remote-sensing techniques to the collection and analysis of agricultural information. Most of the items included were published between January 1968 and December 1975, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  3. Remote sensing and GIS for regional environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, Menas; El-Askary, Hesham; Chiu, Long S.; Gomez, Richard B.; Hegazy, Mohamed; Kinser, Jason M.; Liu, Xue; Liu, Yang; Liu, Zhong; McManus, James; Nie, Yixiang; Qu, Jianhe; Salem, Foudan; Sarkar, Sudipta; Shen, Suhung; Taylor, George; Wolf, Hank; Wong, David; Yang, Chaowei; Yang, Ruixin

    2003-03-01

    Virginia Access (VAccess) is a regional, remote sensing and Geographical Information Sciences project among several educational institutions. It is a prototype for regional projects in other states and other countries, and is funded by NASA's applications program. The user communities VAccess serves are the Commonwealth of Virginia and State of Maryland, local and regional users represented in a Technical Advisory Committee. Remote sensing data include global NASA and NOAA data tailored for regional applications as well as high-resolution multispectral (Landsat, MODIS, etc.), hyperspectral, LIDAR and SAR data sets. Broad beam LIDAR technology can provide canopy structure as well as other information for environmental concerns such as the state of wetlands. The data information system is based on a distributed architecture to serve remote sensing and GIS data to a variety of users via the WWW. Several remote sensing and GIS-based environmental and Earth systems science applications projects are discussed here, including flood and fire hazard mitigation, forestry, land use/land cover and epidemiology projects; as well as innovative data fusion, data access and analysis and various tools serving the users and their applications.

  4. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in geography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ripple, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography contains 82 citations of selected publications and technical reports.  The references deal with the application of remote sensing techniques to the collection and analysis of geographic data.  All of the citations were published between January 1968 and July 1977.

  5. A three stage sampling model for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual model and an empirical application of the relationship between the manner of selecting observations and its effect on the precision of estimates from remote sensing are reported. This three stage sampling scheme considers flightlines, segments within flightlines, and units within these segments. The error of estimate is dependent on the number of observations in each of the stages.

  6. Remote sensing applications for range management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  7. Effects of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and related contaminants on common tern reproduction: Integration of (bio)chemical and ecological responses

    SciTech Connect

    Murk, A.J.; Boudewijn, T.J.; Dirksen, S.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Rossaert, G.; Ysebaert, T.; Meire, P.; Meininger, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated ecotoxicological study was made to establish the possible effects of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons (PHAHs) on common tern (Stema hirundo) reproduction. In eight Dutch or Belgian colonies, breeding biology and food choice were determined. In all colonies 15 second eggs from three-egg clutches were collected for artificial incubation and (bio)chemical analysis. Results from these analyses were combined with biological data from the remaining eggs of the clutches. A relationship was found between yolksac mono-ortho PCB levels and main food species (fish or insects) of the adult terns before egg-laying. Colony average breeding data differed only slightly, and were difficult to relate to PHAH levels. When the colonies were grouped after yolksac PHAH-patterns and main food species, significant differences in average egg laying date, egg laying period, incubation period, egg volume and chick weight could be related to differences in yolksac PHAH and retinoid levels, and hepatic EROD activity. The data from all colonies also were used as one dataset and correlated with the (bio)chemical parameters. In summary there were significant correlations or clear trends between yolksac PHAHs or hepatic EROD-activity and prolonged egg laying and incubation period, and smaller eggs and chicks. Lower yolksac retinoid and plasma thyroid hormone levels, and a higher ratio of plasma retinol over yolksac retinoids correlated with longer egg laying and incubation periods, and smaller chicks and eggs (only with thyroid hormone).

  8. Liquid crystal optical fibers for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, P. K.

    2013-09-01

    Propagation characteristics of optical fibers are greatly dependent on materials, which the guides are comprised of. Varieties of materials have been developed and investigated for their usage in fabricating optical fibers for specific applications. Within the context, a liquid crystal medium is both inhomogeneous and optically anisotropic, and fibers made of such mediums are greatly useful. Also, liquid crystals exhibit strong electro-optic behavior, which allows alternation in their optical properties under the influence of external electric fields. These features make liquid crystal fibers greatly important for optical applications. The present communication is aimed at providing a glimpse of the efficacy of liquid crystals and/or fibers made of liquid crystals, followed by the analytical investigation of wave propagation through such guides. The sustainment of modes is explored in these fibers under varying fiber dimensions, and the novelty is discussed. The case of tapered liquid crystal fibers is also briefly discussed highlighting the usefulness. Control on the dispersion characteristics of such fibers may be imposed by making the guide even more complex; the possibility of devising such options is also touched upon.

  9. Novel Developments of Mobile Sensing Based on the Integration of Microfluidic Devices and Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Liu, Yong; Lin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Portable electronic devices and wireless communication systems enable a broad range of applications such as environmental and food safety monitoring, personalized medicine and healthcare management. Particularly, hybrid smartphone and microfluidic devices provide an integrated solution for the new generation of mobile sensing applications. Such mobile sensing based on microfluidic devices (broadly defined) and smartphones (MS2) offers a mobile laboratory for performing a wide range of bio-chemical detection and analysis functions such as water and food quality analysis, routine health tests and disease diagnosis. MS2 offers significant advantages over traditional platforms in terms of test speed and control, low cost, mobility, ease-of-operation and data management. These improvements put MS2 in a promising position in the fields of interdisciplinary basic and applied research. In particular, MS2 enables applications to remote infield testing, homecare, and healthcare in low-resource areas. The marriage of smartphones and microfluidic devices offers a powerful on-chip operating platform to enable various bio-chemical tests, remote sensing, data analysis and management in a mobile fashion. The implications of such integration are beyond telecommunication and microfluidic-related research and technology development. In this review, we will first provide the general background of microfluidic-based sensing, smartphone-based sensing, and their integration. Then, we will focus on several key application areas of MS2 by systematically reviewing the important literature in each area. We will conclude by discussing our perspectives on the opportunities, issues and future directions of this emerging novel field. PMID:26899264

  10. Novel developments in mobile sensing based on the integration of microfluidic devices and smartphones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Liu, Yong; Lin, Francis

    2016-03-21

    Portable electronic devices and wireless communication systems enable a broad range of applications such as environmental and food safety monitoring, personalized medicine and healthcare management. Particularly, hybrid smartphone and microfluidic devices provide an integrated solution for the new generation of mobile sensing applications. Such mobile sensing based on microfluidic devices (broadly defined) and smartphones (MS(2)) offers a mobile laboratory for performing a wide range of bio-chemical detection and analysis functions such as water and food quality analysis, routine health tests and disease diagnosis. MS(2) offers significant advantages over traditional platforms in terms of test speed and control, low cost, mobility, ease-of-operation and data management. These improvements put MS(2) in a promising position in the fields of interdisciplinary basic and applied research. In particular, MS(2) enables applications to remote in-field testing, homecare, and healthcare in low-resource areas. The marriage of smartphones and microfluidic devices offers a powerful on-chip operating platform to enable various bio-chemical tests, remote sensing, data analysis and management in a mobile fashion. The implications of such integration are beyond telecommunication and microfluidic-related research and technology development. In this review, we will first provide the general background of microfluidic-based sensing, smartphone-based sensing, and their integration. Then, we will focus on several key application areas of MS(2) by systematically reviewing the important literature in each area. We will conclude by discussing our perspectives on the opportunities, issues and future directions of this emerging novel field.

  11. Single crystal diamond for infrared sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Majdi, S. Kovi, K. K.; Isberg, J.; Kolahdouz, M.; Moeen, M.; Radamson, H. H.; Balmer, R. S.

    2014-10-20

    The synthesis of new materials for thermal infrared (IR) detection has been an intensive research area in recent years. Among new semiconductor materials, synthetic diamond has the ability to function even under very high temperature and high radiation conditions. In the present work, diamond Schottky diodes with boron concentrations in the range of 10{sup 14 }< B < 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} are presented as candidates for IR thermal sensors with an excellent temperature coefficient of resistance (−8.42%/K) and very low noise levels around 6.6 × 10{sup −15} V{sup 2}/Hz. This enables huge performance enhancements for a wide variety of systems, e.g., automotive and space applications.

  12. Earth Remote Sensing for Weather Forecasting and Disaster Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew; Bell, Jordan; Case, Jonathan; Cole, Tony; Elmer, Nicholas; McGrath, Kevin; Schultz, Lori; Zavodsky, Brad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's constellation of current missions provide several opportunities to apply satellite remote sensing observations to weather forecasting and disaster response applications. Examples include: Using NASA's Terra and Aqua MODIS, and the NASA/NOAA Suomi-NPP VIIRS missions to prepare weather forecasters for capabilities of GOES-R; Incorporating other NASA remote sensing assets for improving aspects of numerical weather prediction; Using NASA, NOAA, and international partner resources (e.g. ESA/Sentinel Series); and commercial platforms (high-res, or UAV) to support disaster mapping.

  13. Zinc sulfide quantum dots for photocatalytic and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander A.; Leonov, Andrei A.; Zhuikova, Elena I.; Postnova, Irina V.; Voznesenskiy, Sergey S.

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report the photocatalytic and sensing applications of pure and Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots. The quantum dots were prepared by a chemical precipitation in an aqueous solution in the presence of glutathione as a stabilizing agent. The synthesized quantum dots were used as effective photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue dye. Interestingly, fully degradation of methylene blue dye was achieved in 5 min using pure ZnS quantum dots. Further, the synthesized quantum dots were used as efficient sensing element for methane fluorescent sensor. Interfering studies confirmed that the developed sensor possesses very good sensitivity and selectivity towards methane.

  14. High-speed optical 3D sensing and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    This paper reviews high-speed optical 3D sensing technologies for obtaining the 3D shape of a target using a camera. The focusing speed is from 100 to 1000 fps, exceeding normal camera frame rates, which are typically 30 fps. In particular, contactless, active, and real-time systems are introduced. Also, three example applications of this type of sensing technology are introduced, including surface reconstruction from time-sequential depth images, high-speed 3D user interaction, and high-speed digital archiving.

  15. Magnetoelectric excitations in hexaferrites utilizing solenoid coil for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-11-01

    We have developed techniques for H- and E-field sensors utilizing single phase magnetoelectric hexaferrite materials in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz. Novel excitation method incorporating solenoid coils and single and multi-capacitor banks were developed and tested for sensor detections. For H-field sensing we obtained sensitivity of about 3000 V/mG and for E-field sensing the sensitivity was 10-4 G/Vm-1. Tunability of about 0.1% was achieved for tunable inductor applications. However, the proposed designs lend themselves to significant ( 106) improvements in sensitivity and tunability.

  16. Applications of biological pores in nanomedicine, sensing, and nanoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Majd, Sheereen; Yusko, Erik C; Billeh, Yazan N; Macrae, Michael X; Yang, Jerry; Mayer, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Biological protein pores and pore-forming peptides can generate a pathway for the flux of ions and other charged or polar molecules across cellular membranes. In nature, these nanopores have diverse and essential functions that range from maintaining cell homeostasis and participating in cell signaling to activating or killing cells. The combination of the nanoscale dimensions and sophisticated - often regulated - functionality of these biological pores make them particularly attractive for the growing field of nanobiotechnology. Applications range from single-molecule sensing to drug delivery and targeted killing of malignant cells. Potential future applications may include the use of nanopores for single strand DNA sequencing and for generating bio-inspired, and possibly, biocompatible visual detection systems and batteries. This article reviews the current state of applications of pore-forming peptides and proteins in nanomedicine, sensing, and nanoelectronics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applications of biological pores in nanomedicine, sensing, and nanoelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Majd, Sheereen; Yusko, Erik C; Billeh, Yazan N; Macrae, Michael X; Yang, Jerry; Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Biological protein pores and pore-forming peptides can generate a pathway for the flux of ions and other charged or polar molecules across cellular membranes. In nature, these nanopores have diverse and essential functions that range from maintaining cell homeostasis and participating in cell signaling to activating or killing cells. The combination of the nanoscale dimensions and sophisticated – often regulated – functionality of these biological pores make them particularly attractive for the growing field of nanobiotechnology. Applications range from single-molecule sensing to drug delivery and targeted killing of malignant cells. Potential future applications may include the use of nanopores for single strand DNA sequencing and for generating bio-inspired, and possibly, biocompatible visual detection systems and batteries. This article reviews the current state of applications of pore-forming peptides and proteins in nanomedicine, sensing, and nanoelectronics. PMID:20561776

  18. Fiberoptic Temperature Sensing For Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, D. A.

    1988-06-01

    Fiberoptic temperature sensors have found valuable application in several areas of research and treatment in biology and medicine. These include tissue monitoring during electromagnetic heating for cancer therapy, catheter-tip sensors as part of multi-purpose fiberoptic probes, patient monitoring during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and microwave biohazards studies. The advantage of fiberoptic probes compared to more conventional temperature sensors such as thermistors or thermocouples lies in the nonconductive property of the glass or plastic fibers used. This avoids shock hazard to the patient, and perturbation of the readings in electromagnetic environments. Fiberoptic temperature sensors may be classified into one of three general categories: 1) intensity, 2) wavelength, and 3) time-domain. Types of optical sensors which have been successfully employed with fibers include fluorescent materials, semiconductors, birefringent crystals, and Fabry-Perot interferometers. An example of a wavelength-based sensor is described herein; it is a new technique based upon wavelength shifts in a GaAs sensor using broadband illumination and a fast-scanning spectrometer, and appears useful over the biological temperature range of 25-50°C.

  19. Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

  20. China national space remote sensing infrastructure and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Space Infrastructure is a space system that provides communication, navigation and remote sensing service for broad users. China National Space Remote Sensing Infrastructure includes remote sensing satellites, ground system and related systems. According to the principle of multiple-function on one satellite, multiple satellites in one constellation and collaboration between constellations, series of land observation, ocean observation and atmosphere observation satellites have been suggested to have high, middle and low resolution and fly on different orbits and with different means of payloads to achieve a high ability for global synthetically observation. With such an infrastructure, we can carry out the research on climate change, geophysics global surveying and mapping, water resources management, safety and emergency management, and so on. I This paper gives a detailed introduction about the planning of this infrastructure and its application in different area, especially the international cooperation potential in the so called One Belt and One Road space information corridor.

  1. C-MEMS for bio-sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yin; Agrawal, Richa; Wang, Chunlei

    2015-05-01

    Developing highly sensitive, selective, and reproducible miniaturized bio-sensing platforms require reliable biointerface which should be compatible with microfabrication techniques. In this study, we have fabricated pyrolyzed carbon arrays with high surface area as a bio-sensing electrode, and developed the surface functionalization methods to increase biomolecules immobilization efficiency and further understand electrochemical phenomena at biointerfaces. The carbon microelectrode arrays with high aspect ratio have been fabricated by carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) and nanomaterials such as graphene have been integrated to further increase surface area. To achieve the efficient covalent immobilization of biomolecules, various oxidation and reduction functionalization methods have been investigated. The oxidation treatment in this study includes vacuum ultraviolet, electrochemical activation, UV/Ozone and oxygen RIE. The reduction treatment includes direct amination and diazonium grafting. The developed bio-sensing platform was then applied for several applications, such as: DNA sensor; H2O2 sensor; aptamer sensor and HIV sensor.

  2. Application of remote sensing image interpretation in seismic safety evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Wei, Wen-xia; Wang, Gang

    2005-10-01

    As one of essential design gist in important engineering projects, the seismic safety evaluation on choosing engineering site has been applied widely. Using remote sensing images, the analysis to regional seismotectonic environment can bring macroscopic, integrative, dynamic and high efficiency information, so the application of remote sensing technology in seismic safety evaluation of engineering site has fine prospect and will bring great benefit. In this paper, based on remote sensing interpretation to Landsat7 ETM images, also using GIS and field geological investigations, as a case study in Qingdao City, we analyze the physiognomy environment, new tectonic movement, faults activities, and the distributing of deleterious geological objects around the site. Then we find this method can provide good basic geological information for seismic safety evaluation.

  3. The importance of geobotany in geological remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Collins, W.; Elvidge, C.; Lyon, R. J. P.; Labovitz, M. L.; Milton, N. M.; Parrish, J.; Rock, B. N.; Wickland, D. E.; Arp, G. K.

    1983-01-01

    A description of the different effects of variations in ground cover vegetation on remote sensing data in geological and prospecting applications is presented. The different variations are divided into three categories: structural; taxonomic and spectral. Structural variations include changes in the physical appearance of ground cover which may be detectable by a remote sensing instrument. Taxonomic variations occur in those plant communities which are associated with specific geological regions. Spectral variations are due to specific geochemical stresses which may be useful in characterizing geological features at a site. The need for a general scheme for the interpretation of geobotanical remote sensing data is discussed: Geosat data for the field reflectance spectra of different tree species in West Virginia are presented as examples.

  4. Remote sensing of aquatic vegetation: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thiago S F; Costa, Maycira P F; Melack, John M; Novo, Evlyn M L M

    2008-05-01

    Aquatic vegetation is an important component of wetland and coastal ecosystems, playing a key role in the ecological functions of these environments. Surveys of macrophyte communities are commonly hindered by logistic problems, and remote sensing represents a powerful alternative, allowing comprehensive assessment and monitoring. Also, many vegetation characteristics can be estimated from reflectance measurements, such as species composition, vegetation structure, biomass, and plant physiological parameters. However, proper use of these methods requires an understanding of the physical processes behind the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and vegetation, and remote sensing of aquatic plants have some particular difficulties that have to be properly addressed in order to obtain successful results. The present paper reviews the theoretical background and possible applications of remote sensing techniques to the study of aquatic vegetation.

  5. Hybrid Materials for Sensing and Catalyst Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Alexandra

    Novel hybrid materials are fabricated with the goal of achieving properties that are superior to those of each component individually. The properties of hybrid materials can be tailored by changing the composition or configuration, making them attractive for use in a wide variety of applications ranging from photovoltaics to drug delivery systems. In this work, several hybrid material systems were fabricated and evaluated as photocatalysts or electrochemical sensors. Polyelectrolyte microspheres with different surface chemistry and charge were created through layer by layer deposition. Two model enzymes, acetylcholinesterase and horseradish peroxidase, were immobilized on the microsphere surfaces via electrostatic adsorption and hydrogen bonding. The polyelectrolyte-enzyme hybrids were incorporated into amperometric biosensors for the detection of organophosphate pesticides and hydrogen peroxide. The effect of surface charge of the terminal polyelectrolyte layer on enzyme activity was investigated. Biosensor performance for each system was evaluated by determination of detection limits, amperometric response, and long-term stability. Electrochemical sensors based on graphene were also fabricated in order to take advantage of graphene's superior electrical properties. In the first system, a graphene - chitosan hybrid film was investigated as an immobilization matrix for acetylcholinesterase. Dispersion of graphene throughout chitosan was dependent on pH of the polymer solution, since pH will greatly affect surface charge. An electrochemical hydrogen peroxide sensor was formed from the combination of graphene oxide with Ag2O nanocrystals synthesized with different morphologies (hexapods, octahedra, and cubes). Amperometric response and sensitivity were greatest for sensors fabricated with Ag 2O hexapods. The configuration of the system was optimized by layering graphene oxide and Ag2O and comparing electrochemical performance. Overall, the presence of graphene oxide

  6. Polarization Remote Sensing Physical Mechanism, Key Methods and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Wu, T.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Knjazihhin, J.; Asundi, A.; Yan, L.

    2017-09-01

    China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1) Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2) Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3) Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  7. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hagy, J.; Spiering, B.; Barnes, B.; Hu, C.; Le, C.; McEachron, L.; Underwood, L. W.; Ellis, C.; Fisher, B.

    2013-12-01

    Optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are increasingly available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data for local and regional coastal water quality management. Our presentation will highlight two recent applications of optical data and remote sensing to water quality decision-making in coastal regions of the state of Florida; (1) informing the development of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria for the state of Florida and (2) informing the rezoning of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. These efforts involved building up the underlying science to demonstrate the applicability of satellite data as well as an outreach component to educate decision-makers about the use, utility, and uncertainties of remote sensing data products. Scientific developments included testing existing algorithms and generating new algorithms for water clarity and chlorophylla in case II (CDOM or turbidity dominated) estuarine and coastal waters and demonstrating the accuracy of remote sensing data products in comparison to traditional field based measurements. Including members from decision-making organizations on the research team and interacting with decision-makers early and often in the process were key factors for the success of the outreach efforts and the eventual adoption of satellite data into the data records and analyses used in decision-making. Florida coastal water bodies (black boxes) for which remote sensing imagery were applied to derive numeric nutrient criteria and in situ observations (black dots) used to validate imagery. Florida ocean color applied to development of numeric nutrient criteria

  8. Remote sensing applications for transportation and traffic engineering studies: A review of the literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epps, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current references were surveyed for the application of remote sensing to traffic and transportation studies. The major problems are presented that concern traffic engineers and transportation managers, and the literature references that discuss remote sensing applications are summarized.

  9. Some applications of remote sensing in atmospheric monitoring programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, A. N.; Bryson, J. C.; Vasuki, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    The applications of remote sensing in atmospheric monitoring programs are described. The organization, operations, and functions of an air quality monitoring network at New Castle County, Delaware is discussed. The data obtained by the air quality monitoring network ground stations and the equipment used to obtain atmospheric data are explained. It is concluded that correlation of the information obtained by the network will make it possible to anticipate air pollution problems in the Chesapeake Bay area before a crisis develops.

  10. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F. (Principal Investigator); Tingle, J.; Wright, L. H.; Tebbs, B.

    1984-01-01

    Progress was made in the hydroclimatology, habitat modeling and inventory, computer analysis, wildlife management, and data comparison programs that utilize LANDSAT and SEASAT data provided to Mississippi researchers through the remote sensing applications program. Specific topics include water runoff in central Mississippi, habitat models for the endangered gopher tortoise, coyote, and turkey Geographic Information Systems (GIS) development, forest inventory along the Mississipppi River, and the merging of LANDSAT and SEASAT data for enhanced forest type discrimination.

  11. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Littoral Applications Andrew T. Jessup Chris Chickadel, Gordon Farquharson, Jim Thomson Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington Seattle... Jim Thomson) and IR-dervied estiamtes of wave dissipation. Though the remote sensing methodologies are based on different data metrics, their...TKE dissipation rates (provided by Jim Thomson) compared against IR-derived wave dissipation rates at location near the bar crest, x = 190m. Tidal

  12. Future Roles of Structural Sensing for Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Future Roles of Structural Sensing for Aerospace Applications Mark M. Derriso Air Vehicles Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory 2790 D...Multi-Role Mobility. New weapon RTO-MP-AVT-141 5 - 1 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Derriso , M.M.; Chang, F.-K. (2006) Future Roles...F.K. Chang, and M. Derriso , “Structural Health Monitoring Technology for Thermal Protection Panels,” Proceedings of the First European Structural

  13. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The procedures used as well as the results obtained and conclusions derived are described for the following applications of remote sensing in South Dakota: (1) sage grouse management; (2) censusing Canada geese; (3) monitoring grasshopper infestation in rangeland; (4) detecting Dutch elm disease in an urban environment; (5) determining water usage from the Belle Fourche River; (6) resource management of the Lower James River; and (7) the National Model Implantation Program: Lake Herman watershed.

  14. Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Tyo, J Scott; Goldstein, Dennis L; Chenault, David B; Shaw, Joseph A

    2006-08-01

    Imaging polarimetry has emerged over the past three decades as a powerful tool to enhance the information available in a variety of remote sensing applications. We discuss the foundations of passive imaging polarimetry, the phenomenological reasons for designing a polarimetric sensor, and the primary architectures that have been exploited for developing imaging polarimeters. Considerations on imaging polarimeters such as calibration, optimization, and error performance are also discussed. We review many important sources and examples from the scientific literature.

  15. Interpretation of remotely sensed data and its applications in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Tanaka, K.; Inostroza, H. M.; Verdesio, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology of interpretation of remote sensing data and its oceanographic applications are described. The elements of image interpretation for different types of sensors are discussed. The sensors utilized are the multispectral scanner of LANDSAT, and the thermal infrared of NOAA and geostationary satellites. Visual and automatic data interpretation in studies of pollution, the Brazil current system, and upwelling along the southeastern Brazilian coast are compared.

  16. Polymer planar waveguide Bragg gratings: fabrication, characterization, and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberger, M.; Hessler, S.; Pauer, H.; Girschikofsky, M.; Roth, G. L.; Adelmann, B.; Woern, H.; Schmauss, B.; Hellmann, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this contribution, we give a comprehensive overview of the fabrication, characterization, and application of integrated planar waveguide Bragg gratings (PPBGs) in cyclo-olefin copolymers (COC). Starting with the measurement of the refractive index depth profile of integrated UV-written structures in COC by phase shifting Mach-Zehnder- Interferometry, we analyze the light propagation using numerical simulations. Furthermore, we show the rapid fabrication of humidity insensitive polymer waveguide Bragg gratings in cyclo-olefin copolymers and discuss the influence of the UV-dosage onto the spectral characteristics and the transmission behavior of the waveguide. Based on these measurements we exemplify that our Bragg gratings exhibit a reflectivity of over 99 % and are highly suitable for sensing applications. With regard to a negligible affinity to absorb water and in conjunction with high temperature stability these polymer devices are ideal for mechanical deformation sensing. Since planar structures are not limited to tensile but can also be applied for measuring compressive strain, we manufacture different functional devices and corroborate their applicability as optical sensors. Exemplarily, we highlight a temperature referenced PPBG sensor written into a femtosecond-laser cut tensile test geometry for tensile and compressive strain sensing. Furthermore, a flexible polymer planar shape sensor is presented.

  17. Terahertz spectroscopy for chemicals and biological sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai-Bo

    Terahertz (THz) radiation offers innovative sensing and imaging technologies that can provide information unavailable through other conventional electromagnetic techniques. With the advancement of THz technologies, THz sensing will impact a broad range of areas. This thesis focuses on the use of THz spectroscopy for sensing applications including explosives detection, pharmaceutical identification and biological characterization. Using both a THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system and a Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometer (FT-FIR), a THz spectral database of explosives and related compounds (ERCs) in the range of 0.1-20 THz was established. The transmission measurements show good agreement with the diffuse reflectance measurements, which are more feasible for practical applications. Density Functional Theory was employed to calculate structures and vibrational modes of several important ERCs and the calculated spectra are in good accordance with the experimental data in the 3-20 THz range. The detection and identification of the explosive RDX using diffusely reflected THz waves were also demonstrated. THz-TDS was applied successfully for pharmaceutical study, such as investigating drug interactions, as well as identifying hydrated and anhydrous drugs, based upon the intermolecular vibrational modes of drug substances. Dehydrations and complex solid state reactions of pharmaceutical materials were studied with THz-TDS and the reaction kinetics was successfully probed. These investigations have opened new avenues for using THz technologies in pharmaceutical science and industry. THz spectra of amino acids, purines and other biomolecules were recorded. Most of these solid-state biocompounds have THz spectral features in the 0.1-3.0 THz range. THz spectroscopy of solid-state proteins and bioactive protein micro suspensions in organic media was studied and their THz absorption features may reflect their collective vibrational modes which could be used to

  18. Integrated cantilever sensors with a torsional resonance mode for ultraresoluble on-the-spot bio/chemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Dazhong; Li, Xinxin; Bao, Hanhan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Wang, Yuelin; Yu, Haitao; Zuo, Guomin

    2007-01-01

    Torsion-mode resonance is built in an integrated cantilever sensor for ultraresoluble detection of specifically bio/chemical mass adsorption. The superior mass resolution of the torsion-mode cantilever to a conventional bending-mode one is verified by energy-dissipation analysis and Q-factor simulation. With integrated transverse piezoresistance for frequency-shift signal readout and Lorentz force for resonance excitation, the torsion-mode sensor is optimally designed for high sensitivity. The microfabricated torsion-mode sensor is measured with a high close-loop Q factor in air. By Allan-variance analysis for the measured frequency stability, 23fg resolution is obtained for the torsion-mode sensor, which is much improved compared to the 313fg for the conventional flexure-mode sensor. The torsional sensor is used to recognize biotin-avidin specific combination, resulting in 443Hz frequency shift for 50μM streptavidin solution.

  19. Numerical modeling of gas mixing and bio-chemical transformations during underground hydrogen storage within the project H2STORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, B.; Feldmann, F.; Panfilov, M.; Ganzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    The change from fossil to renewable energy sources is demanding an increasing amount of storage capacities for electrical energy. A promising technological solution is the storage of hydrogen in the subsurface. Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis using excessive electrical energy and subsequently converted back into electricity by fuel cells or engine generators. The development of this technology starts with adding small amounts of hydrogen to the high pressure natural gas grid and continues with the creation of pure underground hydrogen storages. The feasibility of hydrogen storage in depleted gas reservoirs is investigated in the lighthouse project H2STORE financed by the German Ministry for Education and Research. The joint research project has project members from the University of Jena, the Clausthal University of Technology, the GFZ Potsdam and the French National Center for Scientic Research in Nancy. The six sub projects are based on laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and analytical work which cover the investigation of mineralogical, geochemical, physio-chemical, sedimentological, microbiological and gas mixing processes in reservoir and cap rocks. The focus in this presentation is on the numerical modeling of underground hydrogen storage. A mathematical model was developed which describes the involved coupled hydrodynamic and microbiological effects. Thereby, the bio-chemical reaction rates depend on the kinetics of microbial growth which is induced by the injection of hydrogen. The model has been numerically implemented on the basis of the open source code DuMuX. A field case study based on a real German gas reservoir was performed to investigate the mixing of hydrogen with residual gases and to discover the consequences of bio-chemical reactions.

  20. Workshop on remote sensing/lineament applications for energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.F.; Komar, C.A.; Cooper, L.M.

    1984-04-01

    The following six papers are presented in this proceedings: (1) lineaments - a look forward and backward; (2) remote sensing/lineament analysis applications workshop - a general summary; (3) geologic controls on lineament systems, Pike County, Kentucky; (4) air-photo lineament domains in a portion of the Appalachian Basin - an application for exploration; (5) subsurface anomalies expressed as lineaments in the Northwest Pennsylvania portion of the Appalachian Plateau; and (6) effect of short lineaments on gas well yield from Devonian shales in Eastern Kentucky. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  1. Luminescent AIE materials for high-performance sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Chris Wai Tung; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Luminescent materials have been widely applied in chemo- and bio-sensing applications because these luminescent materials offer high signal-to-background ratio, superior sensitivity and broad dynamic ranges in various detections. Conventional luminogens suffer from aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect due to strong π-π stacking interaction upon aggregate formation of the luminogens with analytes. Such ACQ effect limits the scope of practical sensing applications. Luminogens with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics enjoy high emission efficiency in solid or aggregated state while they are non-emissive in solution. AIE luminogens (AIEgens) tackle the lethal problem of ACQ materials in the sensing applications. Siloles and tetraphenylethene (TPE) are archetypal AIE cores and possess advantages of facile synthesis and readily functionalization. AIEgens have been utilized to develop various fluorescent chemosensors. For example, hyperbranched AIE polymers with different topologies can be worked as turn-off explosive sensor with high sensitivity. The explosive detections can be done in solid film, which facilitates practical usage. The AIEgens can also be used as sensors for volatile organic compounds and metal ions through alternating fluorescence on/off mechanisms. Besides chemosensor, the AIEgens have been applied in the fields of biology. Water-soluble AIEgens have been developed for quantifying nucleic acids and proteins. They can serve as bioprobes for real-time monitoring and studying the kinetic of protein conformational changes, making them promising for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. These demonstrations significantly expand the scope of analysis applications of AIEgens and offer new strategies to the design of new fluorescent chemo- and bio-sensors.

  2. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  3. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  4. Wireless power using magnetic resonance coupling for neural sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hargsoon; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Sang H.; Sanford, Larry D.; Geddis, Demetris; Lee, Kunik; Kim, Jaehwan; Song, Kyo D.

    2012-04-01

    Various wireless power transfer systems based on electromagnetic coupling have been investigated and applied in many biomedical applications including functional electrical stimulation systems and physiological sensing in humans and animals. By integrating wireless power transfer modules with wireless communication devices, electronic systems can deliver data and control system operation in untethered freely-moving conditions without requiring access through the skin, a potential source of infection. In this presentation, we will discuss a wireless power transfer module using magnetic resonance coupling that is specifically designed for neural sensing systems and in-vivo animal models. This research presents simple experimental set-ups and circuit models of magnetic resonance coupling modules and discusses advantages and concerns involved in positioning and sizing of source and receiver coils compared to conventional inductive coupling devices. Furthermore, the potential concern of tissue heating in the brain during operation of the wireless power transfer systems will also be addressed.

  5. Application of L3 technology to wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulloch, Simon M.

    2004-10-01

    The new L3 Technology CCDs from E2V combine sub-electron read noise with high pixel rates. This makes them ideal candidates for wavefront sensing. ING's NAOMI adaptive optics instrument is currently limited by the readout noise of its wavefront sensor CCDs. Upgrading to L3 detectors has the potential to give a large increase in performance; simulations suggest a 2 magnitude improvement to the guide star limit. At ING we have explored the behaviour of various L3 devices in applications ranging from fast photometry, fast spectroscopy through to wavefront sensing. The investigations have been done using our own cryogenic cameras containing L3 devices coupled to an SDSU controller. An integral Peltier packaged CCD60 has also been purchased specifically for the WFS upgrade. This paper describes the progress we have made to date on the L3 wavefront sensor upgrade and our future plans for its use with a Rayleigh laser beacon.

  6. Functionalized DNA materials for sensing and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolard, Dwight L.; Jensen, James O.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Army has strong interests in nanoscale architectures that enable enhanced extraction and controllable multiplication of the THz/IR regime spectral signatures associated with specific bio-molecular targets. Emerging DNAbased nano-assemblies (i.e., either materials or structural devices) will be discussed that realize novel sensing paradigms through the incorporation of organic and/or biological molecules such that they effect highly predictable and controllable changes into the electro-optical properties of the resulting superstructures. Results will be given to illustrate the utility of functionalized DNA materials in biological (and chemical) sensing, and to demonstrate how the basic science can be leveraged to study and develop synthetic antibodies, reporters and vaccines for future medical applications.

  7. A CMOS Humidity Sensor for Passive RFID Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 μW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs. PMID:24841250

  8. Remote sensing of snowpack with microwave radiometers for hydrologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Chang, A. T. C.; Boyne, H.; Ellerbruch, D.

    1978-01-01

    A microwave remote sensing of snowpack experiment is described and some preliminary data presented. A mobile field laboratory consisting of a four-frequency (5, 10.7, 18 and 37 GHz), all with dual linear (vertical and horizontal) polarizations, microwave radiometer system attached to a truck-mounted aerial lift was used to study the microwave emission characteristics of snowpacks in the Colorado Rocky Mountains during the winter of 1977-78. The influence of snowpack physical parameters such as water equivalent, grain size, and melt-freeze cycle on its microwave brightness temperature and its implications to the application of microwave radiometric technique to remote sensing of snowpack for runoff prediction are discussed.

  9. Application of airborne remote sensing to the ancient Pompeii site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitiello, Fausto; Giordano, Antonio; Borfecchia, Flavio; Martini, Sandro; De Cecco, Luigi

    1996-12-01

    The ancient Pompeii site is in the Sarno Valley, an area of about 400 km2 in the South of Italy near Naples, that was utilized by man since old time (thousands of years ago). Actually the valley is under critical environmental conditions because of the relevant industrial development. ENEA is conducting various studies and research in the valley. ENEA is employing historical research, ground campaigns, cartography and up-to-date airborne multispectral remote sensing technologies to make a geographical information system. Airborne remote sensing technologies are very suitable for situations as that of the Sarno Valley. The paper describes the archaeological application of the research in progress as regarding the ancient site of Pompeii and its fluvial port.

  10. A CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-05-16

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 µW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs.

  11. Advanced aerospace remote sensing systems for global resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    The Landsat program, which was concerned with testing the use of satellite data for global resource observations, has been an unqualified success, and users of Landsat data demand now that repetitive global multispectral data be provided on a routine basis for a wide variety of applications. A review is provided of the current status of NASA's land observation program, new developments in advanced aerospace remote sensing techniques, and issues related to the development and testing of new prototype systems by the U.S. The current Landsat program is considered along with developments in solid-state imaging technology, short wave infrared research using the Space Shuttle, the Shuttle Orbiter camera payload system large format camera, and advanced research in thermal remote sensing. Attention is also given to the potential of imaging radar for global resource observations, and research related to geopotential field mapping.

  12. Nanocomposite films on mylar for temperature sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neella, Nagarjuna; Nayak, M. M.; Rajanna, K.

    2017-05-01

    Here in, we are reporting the fabrication of graphene oxide (GO) - Platinum (Pt) nanocomposite films on Mylar substrate for temperature sensor application on the basis of negative temperature coefficient (NTC) resistive element. The nanocomposite was successfully prepared by the solution mixing of GO nanosheets and Pt metal nanoparticles in N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) using ultra sonication process. It was found that, the as-formed nanocomposite shows the Pt nanoparticles were dispersed no homogeneously on the surface of the GO nanosheets. The as-synthesized GO nanosheets and nanocomposite were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for their surface analysis and structural properties respectively. The sensing film formation is carried out onto the flexible Mylar membrane for the fabrication of temperature sensor using drop casting method. The thickness of the sensing film is around 50 μm. As cab be observed that, the resistivity of nanocomposite sensing film decreased with the increase of temperature resulting in NTC behavior. The measured NTC and sensitivity of the sensor were found to be -4.26 x 10-3 Ω / Ω / K and 1.5231 Ω /K respectively. Therefore, the synthesized graphene oxide-Platinum nanocomposite film is an attractive candidate for making temperature sensors. Since the output is linear with respect to temperature variation, the electronic readout circuitry will be simpler. However, the change of electrical resistance of nanocomposite films can also be used in sensing environmental parameters such as chemical, biological, moisture and mechanical for their gas, glucose, humidity and strain/pressure sensor applications respectively.

  13. Enhanced performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and OLED-based photoluminescent sensing platforms by novel microstructures and device architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have advanced dramatically since they exhibit great promise in various applications such as displays, solid-state lighting, and (bio)chemical sensing. In this dissertation, multiple approaches were employed to enhance the performance of OLEDs and OLED-based sensing platforms. Comprehensive investigations were conducted on electroluminescence (EL) spikes and tails in charge trapping guest-host OLEDs and their influence on OLED-based sensor performance. Novel microstructures and device architectures were developed to construct OLED sources with spectrally selective and enhanced emission. The peak emission wavelength of the multicolor microcavity devices with MoO3 as the HIL/spacer was tunable from 493 to 639 nm. The controlled microporous structures formed by polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) was able to enhance the forward light extraction of the OLED by up to ˜60%. The combination of the PtOEP:PS:PEG sensing film coupled with the multicolor microcavity OLEDs and the appropriate OPD, and the possibility to combine time- and intensity-domain analyses have shed light on the opportunities to realize simple, compact, potentially disposable sensors for the detection of O2, pH and other (bio)chemical analytes and parameters.

  14. The Application of NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    With the help of satellites, the Earth's environment can be monitored from a distance. Earth observing satellites and sensors collect data and survey patterns that supply important information about the environment relating to its affect on human health. Combined with ground data, such patterns and remote sensing data can be essential to public health applications. Remote sensing technology is providing information that can help predict factors that affect human health, such as disease, drought, famine, and floods. A number of public health concerns that affect Earth's human population are part of the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Applications Plan to provide remotely gathered data to public health decision-makers to aid in forming and implementing policy to protect human health and preserve well-being. These areas of concern are: air quality; water quality; weather and climate change; infectious, zoonotic, and vector-borne disease; sunshine; food resource security; and health risks associated with the built environment. Collaborations within the Earth Science Applications Plan join local, state, national, or global organizations and agencies as partners. These partnerships engage in projects that strive to understand the connection between the environment and health. The important outcome is to put this understanding to use through enhancement of decision support tools that aid policy and management decisions on environmental health risks. Future plans will further employ developed models in formats that are compatible and accessible to all public health organizations.

  15. The Application of NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    With the help of satellites, the Earth's environment can be monitored from a distance. Earth observing satellites and sensors collect data and survey patterns that supply important information about the environment relating to its affect on human health. Combined with ground data, such patterns and remote sensing data can be essential to public health applications. Remote sensing technology is providing information that can help predict factors that affect human health, such as disease, drought, famine, and floods. A number of public health concerns that affect Earth's human population are part of the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Applications Plan to provide remotely gathered data to public health decision-makers to aid in forming and implementing policy to protect human health and preserve well-being. These areas of concern are: air quality; water quality; weather and climate change; infectious, zoonotic, and vector-borne disease; sunshine; food resource security; and health risks associated with the built environment. Collaborations within the Earth Science Applications Plan join local, state, national, or global organizations and agencies as partners. These partnerships engage in projects that strive to understand the connection between the environment and health. The important outcome is to put this understanding to use through enhancement of decision support tools that aid policy and management decisions on environmental health risks. Future plans will further employ developed models in formats that are compatible and accessible to all public health organizations.

  16. Novel diode laser-based sensors for gas sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittel, F. K.; Lancaster, D. G.; Richter, D.

    2000-01-01

    The development of compact spectroscopic gas sensors and their applications to environmental sensing will be described. These sensors employ mid-infrared difference-frequency generation (DFG) in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystals pumped by two single-frequency solid state lasers such as diode lasers, diode-pumped solid state, and fiber lasers. Ultrasensitive, highly selective, and real-time measurements of several important atmospheric trace gases, including carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde [correction of formaldehye], and methane, have been demonstrated.

  17. Calculations of atmospheric refraction for spacecraft remote-sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical solutions to the refraction integrals appropriate for ray trajectories along slant paths through the atmosphere are derived in this paper. This type of geometry is commonly encountered in remote-sensing applications utilizing an occultation technique. The solutions are obtained by evaluating higher-order terms from expansion of the refraction integral and are dependent on the vertical temperature distributions. Refraction parameters such as total refraction angles, air masses, and path lengths can be accurately computed. It is also shown that the method can be used for computing refraction parameters in astronomical refraction geometry for large zenith angles.

  18. Investigation of Malaysian Low Earth Orbits for Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okasha, M.; Shuib, I.; Idres, M.

    2017-03-01

    This paper explores the orbit design procedures of a low Earth satellite orbit for remote sensing mission. The mission objective is to gather images over Malaysia as an area of interest for a variety of applications such as land monitoring and digital mapping. The design procedures are mainly driven by the payload performance, lighting conditions and the coverage requirements. Standard CubeSat platform with a NanoCam is considered for the mission. Numerical investigations show the trade studies of various satellite orbital parameters and their impact on the performance. The orbital parameters are optimized to meet the mission design requirements.

  19. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems. [mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Powers, J. S.; Clark, J. R.; Solomon, J. L.; Williams, S. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The methods and procedures used, accomplishments, current status, and future plans are discussed for each of the following applications of LANDSAT in Mississippi: (1) land use planning in Lowndes County; (2) strip mine inventory and reclamation; (3) white-tailed deer habitat evaluation; (4) remote sensing data analysis support systems; (5) discrimination of unique forest habitats in potential lignite areas; (6) changes in gravel operations; and (7) determining freshwater wetlands for inventory and monitoring. The documentation of all existing software and the integration of the image analysis and data base software into a single package are now considered very high priority items.

  20. Ultrafast laser inscribed fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailov, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on femtosecond infrared laser-material processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This tutorial paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments.

  1. Calculations of atmospheric refraction for spacecraft remote-sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical solutions to the refraction integrals appropriate for ray trajectories along slant paths through the atmosphere are derived in this paper. This type of geometry is commonly encountered in remote-sensing applications utilizing an occultation technique. The solutions are obtained by evaluating higher-order terms from expansion of the refraction integral and are dependent on the vertical temperature distributions. Refraction parameters such as total refraction angles, air masses, and path lengths can be accurately computed. It is also shown that the method can be used for computing refraction parameters in astronomical refraction geometry for large zenith angles.

  2. Novel diode laser-based sensors for gas sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittel, F. K.; Lancaster, D. G.; Richter, D.

    2000-01-01

    The development of compact spectroscopic gas sensors and their applications to environmental sensing will be described. These sensors employ mid-infrared difference-frequency generation (DFG) in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystals pumped by two single-frequency solid state lasers such as diode lasers, diode-pumped solid state, and fiber lasers. Ultrasensitive, highly selective, and real-time measurements of several important atmospheric trace gases, including carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde [correction of formaldehye], and methane, have been demonstrated.

  3. Methodology of remote sensing data interpretation and geological applications. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Veneziani, P.; Dosanjos, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Elements of photointerpretation discussed include the analysis of photographic texture and structure as well as film tonality. The method used is based on conventional techniques developed for interpreting aerial black and white photographs. By defining the properties which characterize the form and individuality of dual images, homologous zones can be identified. Guy's logic method (1966) was adapted and used on functions of resolution, scale, and spectral characteristics of remotely sensed products. Applications of LANDSAT imagery are discussed for regional geological mapping, mineral exploration, hydrogeology, and geotechnical engineering in Brazil.

  4. Remote sensing applied to agriculture: Basic principles, methodology, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The general principles of remote sensing techniques as applied to agriculture and the methods of data analysis are described. the theoretical spectral responses of crops; reflectance, transmittance, and absorbtance of plants; interactions of plants and soils with reflectance energy; leaf morphology; and factors which affect the reflectance of vegetation cover are dicussed. The methodologies of visual and computer-aided analyses of LANDSAT data are presented. Finally, a case study wherein infrared film was used to detect crop anomalies and other data applications are described.

  5. Application of optical remote sensing in the Wenchuan earthquake assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Lei, Liping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Liangyun; Zhu, Boqin; Zuo, Zhengli

    2009-06-01

    A mega-earthquake of magnitude 8 of Richter scale occurred in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China on May 12, 2008. The earthquake inflicted heavy loss of human lives and properties. The Wenchuan earthquake induced geological disasters, house collapse, and road blockage. In this paper, we demonstrate an application of optical remote sensing images acquired from airborne and satellite platforms in assessing the earthquake damages. The high-resolution airborne images were acquired by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The pre- and post-earthquake satellite images of QuickBird, IKONOS, Landsat TM, ALOS, and SPOT were collected by the Center for Earth Observation & Digital Earth (CEODE), CAS, and some of the satellite data were provided by the United States, Japan, and the European Space Agency. The pre- and post-earthquake remote sensing images integrated with DEM and GIS data were adopted to monitor and analyze various earthquake disasters, such as road blockage, house collapse, landslides, avalanches, rock debris flows, and barrier lakes. The results showed that airborne optical images provide a convenient tool for quick and timely monitoring and assessing of the distribution and dynamic changes of the disasters over the earthquake-struck regions. In addition, our study showed that the optical remote sensing data integrated with GIS data can be used to assess disaster conditions such as damaged farmlands, soil erosion, etc, which in turn provides useful information for the postdisaster reconstruction.

  6. Optical carrier-based microwave interferometers for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jie; Lan, Xinwei; Wang, Hanzheng; Yuan, Lei; Xiao, Hai

    2014-06-01

    Optical fiber interferometers (OFIs) have been extensively utilized for precise measurements of various physical/chemical quantities (e.g., temperature, strain, pressure, rotation, refractive index, etc.). However, the random change of polarization states along the optical fibers and the strong dependence on the materials and geometries of the optical waveguides are problematic for acquiring high quality interference signal. Meanwhile, difficulty in multiplexing has always been a bottleneck on the application scopes of OFIs. Here, we present a sensing concept of optical carrier based microwave interferometry (OCMI) by reading optical interferometric sensors in microwave domain. It combines the advantages from both optics and microwave. The low oscillation frequency of the microwave can hardly distinguish the optical differences from both modal and polarization dispersion making it insensitive to the optical waveguides/materials. The phase information of the microwave can be unambiguitly resolved so that it has potential in fully distributed sensing. The OCMI concept has been implemented in different types of interferometers (i.e., Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Fabry-Perot) among different optical waveguides (i.e., singlemode, multimode, and sapphire fibers) with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and low polarization dependence. A spatially continuous distributed strain sensing has been demonstrated.

  7. Evaluation and Application of Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, J.; Crow, W.; Zhan, X.; Jackson, T.; Reynolds, C.; Rodell, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in-situ measurements of soil moisture are very accurate, achieving accurate regional soil moisture estimates derived solely from point measurements is difficult because of the dependence upon the density of the gauge network and the proper upkeep of these instruments, which can be costly. Microwave remote sensing is the only technology capable of providing timely direct measurements of regional soil moisture in areas that are lacking in-situ networks. Soil moisture remote sensing technology is well established has been successfully applied in many fashions to Earth Science applications. Since the microwave emission from the soil surface has such a high dependency upon the moisture content within the soil, we can take advantage of this relationship and combined with physically-based models of the land surface, derive accurate regional estimates of the soil column water content from the microwave brightness temperature observed from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. However, there still remain many questions regarding the most efficient methodology for evaluating and applying satellite-based soil moisture estimates. As discussed below, we to use satellite-based estimates of soil moisture dynamics to improve the predictive capability of an optimized hydrologic model giving more accurate root-zone soil moisture estimates.

  8. Research investigations in and demonstrations of remote sensing applications to urban environmental problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hidalgo, J. U.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing to transportation and traffic analysis, urban quality, and land use problems is discussed. Other topics discussed include preliminary user analysis, potential uses, traffic study by remote sensing, and urban condition analysis using ERTS.

  9. New Optical Sensing Materials for Application in Marine Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, S.; Klimant, I.

    2012-04-01

    Optical chemosensors are versatile analytical tools which find application in numerous fields of science and technology. They proved to be a promising alternative to electrochemical methods and are applied increasingly often in marine research. However, not all state-of-the- art optical chemosensors are suitable for these demanding applications since they do not fully fulfil the requirements of high luminescence brightness, high chemical- and photochemical stability or their spectral properties are not adequate. Therefore, development of new advanced sensing materials is still of utmost importance. Here we present a set of novel optical sensing materials recently developed in the Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry which are optimized for marine applications. Particularly, we present new NIR indicators and sensors for oxygen and pH which feature high brightness and low level of autofluorescence. The oxygen sensors rely on highly photostable metal complexes of benzoporphyrins and azabenzoporphyrins and enable several important applications such as simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and chlorophyll or ultra-fast oxygen monitoring (Eddy correlation). We also developed ulta-sensitive oxygen optodes which enable monitoring in nM range and are primary designed for investigation of oxygen minimum zones. The dynamic range of our new NIR pH indicators based on aza-BODIPY dyes is optimized for the marine environment. A highly sensitive NIR luminescent phosphor (chromium(III) doped yttrium aluminium borate) can be used for non-invasive temperature measurements. Notably, the oxygen, pH sensors and temperature sensors are fully compatible with the commercially available fiber-optic readers (Firesting from PyroScience). An optical CO2 sensor for marine applications employs novel diketopyrrolopyrrol indicators and enables ratiometric imaging using a CCD camera. Oxygen, pH and temperature sensors suitable for lifetime and ratiometric imaging of analytes

  10. Overview of novel integrated optical ring resonator bio/chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xudong; White, Ian M.; Zhu, Hongying; Suter, Jonanthan D.; Oveys, Hesam

    2007-02-01

    In parallel to a stand-alone microsphere resonator and a planar ring resonator on a wafer, the liquid core optical ring resonator (LCORR) is regarded as the third type of ring resonator that integrates microfluidics with state-of-the-art photonics. The LCORR employs a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall thickness of a few microns. The circular cross section of the capillary forms a ring resonator that supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs), which has the evanescent field in the core, allowing for repetitive interaction with the analytes carried inside the capillary. Despite the small physical size of the LCORR and sub-nanoliter sensing volume, the effective interaction length can exceed 10 cm due to high Q-factor (10 6), significantly improving the LCORR detection limit. The LCORR is a versatile system that exhibits excellent fluid handling capability inherent to capillaries and permits non-invasive and quantitative measurement at any location along the capillary. Furthermore, the LCORR uses the refractive index change as a transduction signal, which enables label-free detection. Therefore, the LCORR is a promising technology platform for future sensitive, miniaturized, lab-on-a-chip type sensors. In this paper, we will introduce the concept of the LCORR and present the theoretical analysis and the experimental results related to the LCORR sensor development.

  11. Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyacinthe, Berg P.

    2006-05-01

    The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a quarantine-before-inhalation approach to biochemical warfare, the author introduces the notion of autonomous biochemical decontamination against WMD. In the unfortunate event of a biochemical attack, the apparatus proposed herein is intended to automatically detect, identify, and more importantly neutralize a biochemical threat. Along with warnings concerning a cyber-WMD nexus, various sections cover discussions on human senses and computer sensors, corroborating evidence related to detection and neutralization of chemical toxins, and cyber-assisted olfaction in stand alone, peer-to-peer, and network settings. In essence, the apparatus can be used in aviation and mass transit security to initiate mass decontamination by dispersing a decontaminant aerosol or to protect the public water supply against a potential bioterrorist attack. Future effort may involve a system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment of this apparatus that allows a safer environment for the emerging phenomenon of cyber-assisted olfaction and morph cell phones into ubiquitous sensors/decontaminators. Although this paper covers mechanisms and protocols to avail a neutralizing substance, further research will need to explore the substance's various pharmacological profiles and potential side effects.

  12. Bacterial quorum sensing: functional features and potential applications in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mangwani, Neelam; Dash, Hirak Ranjan; Chauhan, Ashvini; Das, Surajit

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) represents an exceptional pattern of cell-to-cell communication in bacteria using self-synthesized signalling molecules known as autoinducers. Various features regulated by QS in bacteria include virulence, biofilm formation, sporulation, genetic competence and bioluminescence, among others. Other than the diverse signalling properties of autoinducers, there are non-signalling properties also associated with these signalling molecules which make them potential antimicrobial agents and metal chelators. Additionally, QS signal antagonism has also been shown to be a promising alternative for blocking pathogenic diseases. Besides, QS has impressive design features useful in tissue engineering and biosensor technology. Although many aspects of QS are well understood, several other features remain largely unknown, especially in biotechnology applications. This review focuses on the functional features and potential applications of QS signalling molecules in biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Graphene field-effect transistor application for flow sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuszczek, Maciej; Świsulski, Dariusz; Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Petryka, Leszek

    Microflow sensors offer great potential for applications in microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip systems. However, thermal-based sensors, which are commonly used in modern flow sensing technology, are mainly made of materials with positive temperature coefficients (PTC) and suffer from a self-heating effect and slow response time. Therefore, the design of novel devices and careful selection of materials are required to improve the overall flow sensor performance. In this work we propose graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) to be used as microflow sensor. Temperature distribution in graphene channel was simulated and the analysis of heat convection was performed to establish the relation between the fluidic flow velocity and the temperature gradient. It was shown that the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) of graphene could enable the self-protection of the device and should minimize sensing error from currentinduced heating. It was also argued that the planar design of the GFET sensor makes it suitable for the real application due to supposed mechanical stability of such a construction.

  14. Application of synthetic aperture radar remote sensing in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunxia; Deng, Fanghui; Wan, Lei; Wang, Zemin; E, Dongchen; Zhou, Yu

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) delivers high-resolution radar images day or night, and in all weather conditions. It also offers the capability for penetrating materials. These unique capabilities boost the application of SAR remote sensing techniques in Antarctica. Based on the key area of Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) - PANDA (Prydz Bay, Amery Ice Shelf and Dome A) section, this paper summarized the typical applications of SAR data, and discussed the crevasse detection with semi-variance analysis in the SAR images of the Grove Mountains area, DEM generation with InSAR pairs and ICESat GLAS data of the Grove Mountains area and nearby areas, and ice flow velocity derivation from D-InSAR and offset tracking of the Grove Mountains area and downstream areas in East Antarctica. The studies provide important information for Antarctic fieldwork and scientific researches. It is further confirmed that Synthetic Aperture Radar remote sensing has tremendous potential in the field of glacial geomorphology, topographic mapping and glacier dynamics, etc.

  15. Application of telecom planar lightwave circuits for homeland security sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldhuis, Gert J.; Elders, Job; van Weerden, Harm; Amersfoort, Martin

    2004-03-01

    Over the past decade, a massive effort has been made in the development of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) for application in optical telecommunications. Major advances have been made, on both the technological and functional performance front. Highly sophisticated software tools that are used to tailor designs to required functional performance support these developments. In addition extensive know-how in the field of packaging, testing, and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has been built up in the struggle for meeting the stringent Telcordia requirements that apply to telecom products. As an example, silica-on-silicon is now a mature technology available at several industrial foundries around the world, where, on the performance front, the arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) has evolved into an off-the-shelf product. The field of optical chemical-biological (CB) sensors for homeland security application can greatly benefit from the advances as described above. In this paper we discuss the currently available technologies, device concepts, and modeling tools that have emerged from the telecommunications arena and that can effectively be applied to the field of homeland security. Using this profound telecom knowledge base, standard telecom components can readily be tailored for detecting CB agents. Designs for telecom components aim at complete isolation from the environment to exclude impact of environmental parameters on optical performance. For sensing applications, the optical path must be exposed to the measurand, in this area additional development is required beyond what has already been achieved in telecom development. We have tackled this problem, and are now in a position to apply standard telecom components for CB sensing. As an example, the application of an AWG as a refractometer is demonstrated, and its performance evaluated.

  16. Overview of detector technologies for EO/IR sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Zeller, John W.; Welser, Roger E.; Puri, Yash R.; Lewis, Jay S.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal

    2016-05-01

    Optical sensing technology is critical for optical communication, defense and security applications. Advances in optoelectronics materials in the UV, Visible and Infrared, using nanostructures, and use of novel materials such as CNT and Graphene have opened doors for new approaches to apply device design methodology that are expected to offer enhanced performance and low cost optical sensors in a wide range of applications. This paper is intended to review recent advancements and present different device architectures and analysis. The chapter will briefly introduce the basics of UV and Infrared detection physics and various wave bands of interest and their characteristics [1, 2] We will cover the UV band (200-400 nm) and address some of the recent advances in nanostructures growth and characterization using ZnO/MgZnO based technologies and their applications. Recent advancements in design and development of CNT and Graphene based detection technologies have shown promise for optical sensor applications. We will present theoretical and experimental results on these device and their potential applications in various bands of interest.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels. PMID:22253508

  18. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C B

    2011-10-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.

  19. Wearable technology for bio-chemical analysis of body fluids during exercise.

    PubMed

    Morris, Deirdre; Schazmann, Benjamin; Wu, Yangzhe; Coyle, Shirley; Brady, Sarah; Fay, Cormac; Hayes, Jer; Lau, King Tong; Wallace, Gordon; Diamond, Dermot

    2008-01-01

    This paper details the development of a textile based fluid handling system with integrated wireless biochemical sensors. Such research represents a new advancement in the area of wearable technologies. The system contains pH, sodium and conductivity sensors. It has been demonstrated during on-body trials that the pH sensor has close agreement with measurements obtained using a reference pH probe. Initial investigations into the sodium and conductivity sensors have shown their suitability for integration into the wearable system. It is thought that applications exist in personal health and sports performance and training.

  20. Graphene-based hybrid for enantioselective sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Zor, Erhan; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Alpaydin, Sabri; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-01-15

    Chirality is a major field of research of chemical biology and is essential in pharmacology. Accordingly, approaches for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound are of great interest. We report on an efficient and generic enantioselective sensor that is achieved by coupling reduced graphene oxide with γ-cyclodextrin (rGO/γ-CD). The enantioselective sensing capability of the resulting structure was operated in both electrical and optical mode for of tryptophan enantiomers (D-/L-Trp). In this sense, voltammetric and photoluminescence measurements were conducted and the experimental results were compared to molecular docking method. We gain insight into the occurring recognition mechanism with selectivity toward D- and L-Trp as shown in voltammetric, photoluminescence and molecular docking responses. As an enantioselective solid phase on an electrochemical transducer, thanks to the different dimensional interaction of enantiomers with hybrid material, a discrepancy occurs in the Gibbs free energy leading to a difference in oxidation peak potential as observed in electrochemical measurements. The optical sensing principle is based on the energy transfer phenomenon that occurs between photoexcited D-/L-Trp enantiomers and rGO/γ-CD giving rise to an enantioselective photoluminescence quenching due to the tendency of chiral enantiomers to form complexes with γ-CD in different molecular orientations as demonstrated by molecular docking studies. The approach, which is the first demonstration of applicability of molecular docking to show both enantioselective electrochemical and photoluminescence quenching capabilities of a graphene-related hybrid material, is truly new and may have broad interest in combination of experimental and computational methods for enantiosensing of chiral molecules.

  1. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  2. Application of stochastic radiative transfer to remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, Nikolay V.

    2002-01-01

    The availability of high quality remote sensing data during the past decade provides an impetus for the development of methods that facilitate accurate retrieval of structural and optical properties of vegetation required for the study of global vegetation dynamics. Empirical and statistical methods have proven to be quite useful in many applications, but they often do not shed light on the underlying physical processes. Approaches based on radiative transfer and the physics of matter-energy interaction are therefore required to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for signal generation. The goal of this dissertation is the development of advanced methods based on radiative transfer for the retrieval of biophysical information from satellite data. Classical radiative transfer theory is applicable to homogeneous vegetation and is generally inaccurate in characterizing the radiation regime in natural vegetation communities, such as forests or woodlands. A stochastic approach to radiative transfer was introduced in this dissertation to describe the radiation regime in discontinuous vegetation canopies. The resulting stochastic model was implemented and tested with field data and Monte Carlo simulations. The effect of gaps on radiation fluxes in vegetation canopies was quantified analytically and compared to classical representations. Next, the stochastic theory was applied to vegetation remote sensing in two case studies. First, the radiative transfer principles underlying an algorithm for leaf area index (LAI) retrieval were studied with data from Harvard Forest. The classical expression for uncollided radiation was modified according to stochastic principles to explain radiometric measurements and vegetation structure. In the second case study, vegetation dynamics in the northern latitudes inferred from the Pathfinder Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer Land data were investigated. The signatures of interannual and seasonal variation recorded in the

  3. Potential rainwater harvesting improvement using advanced remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A

    2014-01-01

    The amount of water on earth is the same and only the distribution and the reallocation of water forms are altered in both time and space. To improve the rainwater harvesting a better understanding of the hydrological cycle is mandatory. Clouds are major component of the hydrological cycle; therefore, clouds distribution is the keystone of better rainwater harvesting. Remote sensing technology has shown robust capabilities in resolving challenges of water resource management in arid environments. Soil moisture content and cloud average distribution are essential remote sensing applications in extracting information of geophysical, geomorphological, and meteorological interest from satellite images. Current research study aimed to map the soil moisture content using recent Landsat 8 images and to map cloud average distribution of the corresponding area using 59 MERIS satellite imageries collected from January 2006 to October 2011. Cloud average distribution map shows specific location in the study area where it is always cloudy all the year and the site corresponding soil moisture content map came in agreement with cloud distribution. The overlay of the two previously mentioned maps over the geological map of the study area shows potential locations for better rainwater harvesting.

  4. Characterization of Flexible Copolymer Optical Fibers for Force Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Krehel, Marek; Rossi, René M.; Bona, Gian-Luca; Scherer, Lukas J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, different polymer optical fibres for applications in force sensing systems in textile fabrics are reported. The proposed method is based on the deflection of the light in fibre waveguides. Applying a force on the fibre changes the geometry and affects the wave guiding properties and hence induces light loss in the optical fibre. Fibres out of three different elastic and transparent copolymer materials were successfully produced and tested. Moreover, the influence of the diameter on the sensing properties was studied. The detectable force ranges from 0.05 N to 40 N (applied on 3 cm of fibre length), which can be regulated with the material and the diameter of the fibre. The detected signal loss varied from 0.6% to 78.3%. The fibres have attenuation parameters between 0.16–0.25 dB/cm at 652 nm. We show that the cross-sensitivies to temperature, strain and bends are low. Moreover, the high yield strength (0.0039–0.0054 GPa) and flexibility make these fibres very attractive candidates for integration into textiles to form wearable sensors, medical textiles or even computing systems. PMID:24021967

  5. Characterization of flexible copolymer optical fibers for force sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Krehel, Marek; Rossi, René M; Bona, Gian-Luca; Scherer, Lukas J

    2013-09-09

    In this paper, different polymer optical fibres for applications in force sensing systems in textile fabrics are reported. The proposed method is based on the deflection of the light in fibre waveguides. Applying a force on the fibre changes the geometry and affects the wave guiding properties and hence induces light loss in the optical fibre. Fibres out of three different elastic and transparent copolymer materials were successfully produced and tested. Moreover, the influence of the diameter on the sensing properties was studied. The detectable force ranges from 0.05 N to 40 N (applied on 3 cm of fibre length), which can be regulated with the material and the diameter of the fibre. The detected signal loss varied from 0.6% to 78.3%. The fibres have attenuation parameters between 0.16-0.25 dB/cm at 652 nm. We show that the cross-sensitivies to temperature, strain and bends are low. Moreover, the high yield strength (0.0039-0.0054 GPa) and flexibility make these fibres very attractive candidates for integration into textiles to form wearable sensors, medical textiles or even computing systems.

  6. Potential Rainwater Harvesting Improvement Using Advanced Remote Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of water on earth is the same and only the distribution and the reallocation of water forms are altered in both time and space. To improve the rainwater harvesting a better understanding of the hydrological cycle is mandatory. Clouds are major component of the hydrological cycle; therefore, clouds distribution is the keystone of better rainwater harvesting. Remote sensing technology has shown robust capabilities in resolving challenges of water resource management in arid environments. Soil moisture content and cloud average distribution are essential remote sensing applications in extracting information of geophysical, geomorphological, and meteorological interest from satellite images. Current research study aimed to map the soil moisture content using recent Landsat 8 images and to map cloud average distribution of the corresponding area using 59 MERIS satellite imageries collected from January 2006 to October 2011. Cloud average distribution map shows specific location in the study area where it is always cloudy all the year and the site corresponding soil moisture content map came in agreement with cloud distribution. The overlay of the two previously mentioned maps over the geological map of the study area shows potential locations for better rainwater harvesting. PMID:25114973

  7. Carbon Nanotubes Based Nanoelectrode Arrays: Fabrication, Evaluation, and Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Tu, Yi; Lu, Fang; Yantasee, Wassana; Ren, Zhifeng

    2004-10-05

    The fabrication, electrochemical characterization, and applications of low-site density carbon nanotubes based nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) are reported in this work. Spin-coating of an epoxy resin provides a new way to create the electrode passivation layer that effectively reduces the current leakage and eliminates the electrode capacitance by sealing the side-wall of CNTs. The CNT-NEAs fabricated in our work effectively use the open ends of CNTs for electrochemical sensing. The open ends of the CNTs have fast electron transfer rates similar to a graphite edge-plane electrode, while the side-walls present very slow electron transfer rates similar to the graphitic basal plane. Cyclic voltammetry showed the sigmoidal shape curves with low capacitive current and scan-rate-independent limiting current. The CNT-NEAs were used successfully for voltammetric detection of trace concentrations of lead (II) at ppb level. The successful development of a glucose biosensor based on CNT-NEAs for the selective detection of glucose is also described. Glucose oxidase was covalently immobilized on the CNTs tips via carbodiimide chemistry by forming amide linkages between the amine residues and carboxylic acid groups on the open ends of CNTs. The biosensor effectively performs selective electrochemical detections of glucose in the presence of common interferences. The CNT-NEAs provide an excellent platform for ultra sensitive electrochemical sensors for chemical and biological sensing.

  8. Atmospheric effects on cluster analyses. [for remote sensing application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Ground reflected radiance, from which information is extracted through techniques of cluster analyses for remote sensing application, is altered by the atmosphere when it reaches the satellite. Therefore it is essential to understand the effects of the atmosphere on Landsat measurements, cluster characteristics and analysis accuracy. A doubling model is employed to compute the effective reflectivity, observed from the satellite, as a function of ground reflectivity, solar zenith angle and aerosol optical thickness for standard atmosphere. The relation between the effective reflectivity and ground reflectivity is approximately linear. It is shown that for a horizontally homogeneous atmosphere, the classification statistics from a maximum likelihood classifier remains unchanged under these transforms. If inhomogeneity is present, the divergence between clusters is reduced, and correlation between spectral bands increases. Radiance reflected by the background area surrounding the target may also reach the satellite. The influence of background reflectivity on effective reflectivity is discussed.

  9. Through-container THz sensing: applications for biodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, David J.; Decker, Brian K.; Dadusc, Gami; Allen, Mark G.

    2004-02-01

    The potential container penetrating capabilities of THz radiation leads to possible applications for container penetrating sensors for biological hazards. Such an approach requires the presence of distinct THz frequency resonances in the target compounds coupled with sufficiently transparent container materials to allow through container sensing. The results of a THz spectroscopic survey of container and clothing materials are presented along with spectra of materials that were chosen as simulants and markers for illicit biological substances. The spectroscopic data presented show at least partial transparency for materials commonly used for clothing and packaging. We also measure distinct spectral signatures in dipicolinic acid, calcium dipicolinate, peptidoglycan, and 2,6-diaminopimelic acid, biologically significant molecules that are indicative of hazardous spore forming bacteria. These spectra differ significantly from those of the container materials to provide a potential contrast mechanism which could be used for identification.

  10. Applications of thermal remote sensing to detailed ground water studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souto-Maior, J.

    1973-01-01

    Three possible applications of thermal (8-14 microns) remote sensing to detailed hydrogeologic studies are discussed in this paper: (1) the direct detection of seeps and springs, (2) the indirect evaluation of shallow ground water flow through its thermal effects on the land surface, and (3) the indirect location of small volumes of ground water inflow into surface water bodies. An investigation carried out with this purpose in an area containing a complex shallow ground water flow system indicates that the interpretation of the thermal imageries is complicated by many factors, among which the most important are: (1) altitude, angle of view, and thermal-spatial resolution of the sensor; (2) vegetation type, density, and vigor; (3) topography; (4) climatological and micrometeorological effects; (5) variation in soil type and soil moisture; (6) variation in volume and temperature of ground water inflow; (7) the hydraulic characteristics of the receiving water body, and (8) the presence of decaying organic material.

  11. High-Temperature Strain Sensing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony; Richards, Lance W.; Hudson, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are utilizing advanced materials that operate at temperatures that exceed abilities to measure structural performance. Robust strain sensors that operate accurately and reliably beyond 1800 F are needed but do not exist. These shortcomings hinder the ability to validate analysis and modeling techniques and hinders the ability to optimize structural designs. This presentation examines high-temperature strain sensing for aerospace applications and, more specifically, seeks to provide strain data for validating finite element models and thermal-structural analyses. Efforts have been made to develop sensor attachment techniques for relevant structural materials at the small test specimen level and to perform laboratory tests to characterize sensor and generate corrections to apply to indicated strains. Areas highlighted in this presentation include sensors, sensor attachment techniques, laboratory evaluation/characterization of strain measurement, and sensor use in large-scale structures.

  12. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  13. Acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing: from evolution to application.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Martin; Sexton, D Joseph; Diggle, Stephen P; Greenberg, E Peter

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread process in bacteria that employs autoinducing chemical signals to coordinate diverse, often cooperative activities such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation, and exoenzyme secretion. Signaling via acyl-homoserine lactones is the paradigm for QS in Proteobacteria and is particularly well understood in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite thirty years of mechanistic research, empirical studies have only recently addressed the benefits of QS and provided support for the traditional assumptions regarding its social nature and its role in optimizing cell-density-dependent group behaviors. QS-controlled public-goods production has served to investigate principles that explain the evolution and stability of cooperation, including kin selection, pleiotropic constraints, and metabolic prudence. With respect to medical application, appreciating social dynamics is pertinent to understanding the efficacy of QS-inhibiting drugs and the evolution of resistance. Future work will provide additional insight into the foundational assumptions of QS and relate laboratory discoveries to natural ecosystems.

  14. Efficient Characterization of Parametric Uncertainty of Complex (Bio)chemical Networks.

    PubMed

    Schillings, Claudia; Sunnåker, Mikael; Stelling, Jörg; Schwab, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Parametric uncertainty is a particularly challenging and relevant aspect of systems analysis in domains such as systems biology where, both for inference and for assessing prediction uncertainties, it is essential to characterize the system behavior globally in the parameter space. However, current methods based on local approximations or on Monte-Carlo sampling cope only insufficiently with high-dimensional parameter spaces associated with complex network models. Here, we propose an alternative deterministic methodology that relies on sparse polynomial approximations. We propose a deterministic computational interpolation scheme which identifies most significant expansion coefficients adaptively. We present its performance in kinetic model equations from computational systems biology with several hundred parameters and state variables, leading to numerical approximations of the parametric solution on the entire parameter space. The scheme is based on adaptive Smolyak interpolation of the parametric solution at judiciously and adaptively chosen points in parameter space. As Monte-Carlo sampling, it is "non-intrusive" and well-suited for massively parallel implementation, but affords higher convergence rates. This opens up new avenues for large-scale dynamic network analysis by enabling scaling for many applications, including parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and systems design.

  15. Efficient Characterization of Parametric Uncertainty of Complex (Bio)chemical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schillings, Claudia; Sunnåker, Mikael; Stelling, Jörg; Schwab, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Parametric uncertainty is a particularly challenging and relevant aspect of systems analysis in domains such as systems biology where, both for inference and for assessing prediction uncertainties, it is essential to characterize the system behavior globally in the parameter space. However, current methods based on local approximations or on Monte-Carlo sampling cope only insufficiently with high-dimensional parameter spaces associated with complex network models. Here, we propose an alternative deterministic methodology that relies on sparse polynomial approximations. We propose a deterministic computational interpolation scheme which identifies most significant expansion coefficients adaptively. We present its performance in kinetic model equations from computational systems biology with several hundred parameters and state variables, leading to numerical approximations of the parametric solution on the entire parameter space. The scheme is based on adaptive Smolyak interpolation of the parametric solution at judiciously and adaptively chosen points in parameter space. As Monte-Carlo sampling, it is “non-intrusive” and well-suited for massively parallel implementation, but affords higher convergence rates. This opens up new avenues for large-scale dynamic network analysis by enabling scaling for many applications, including parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and systems design. PMID:26317784

  16. Triplet excited States as a source of relevant (bio)chemical information.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and α1-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external quenchers. With proteins, formation of spatially confined triplet excited states is favored over competitive processes affording ionic species. Remarkably, under aerobic atmosphere, the triplet decay of drug@protein complexes is dramatically longer than in bulk solution. This offers a convenient dynamic range for assignment of different triplet populations or for stereochemical discrimination. In this review, selected examples of the application of the laser flash photolysis technique are described, including drug distribution between the bulk solution and the protein cavities, or between two types of proteins, detection of drug-drug interactions inside proteins, and enzyme-like activity processes mediated by proteins. Finally, protein encapsulation can also modify the photoreactivity of the guest. This is illustrated by presenting an example of retarded photooxidation.

  17. Flue gas compounds and microalgae: (bio-)chemical interactions leading to biotechnological opportunities.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Vervaeren, Han; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Flue gases are a resource yet to be fully utilised in microalgal biotechnology, not only to moderate the anthropogenic effects on our climate, but also to steer microalgal resource management towards innovative applications of microalgal biomass compounds. These gases, both untreated and treated into current discharge standards, contain CO2, N2, H2O, O2, NOx, SOx, CxHy, CO, particulate matter, halogen acids and heavy metals. To better steer and engineer flue gas-fed microalgal cultures, all these compounds need to be considered. Therefore, here, we review (i) the chemical composition and treatment technologies of flue gas, (ii) the uptake pathways and removal of the different compounds in microalgae reactors, and (iii) the tolerance and effects on microalgae of all flue gas compounds. By emphasising the interactions between microalgae and flue gas compounds, we envisage new pathways for microalgal biomass valorisation such as enzyme production for environmental technology, novel biogas production and biosequestration of minerals. Furthermore, we highlight fundamental and applied research niches that merit further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tapered optical fibres for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martan, Tomas; Kanka, Jiri; Kasik, Ivan; Matejec, Vlastimil

    2008-11-01

    Recently, optical fibre tapers have intensively been investigated for many applications e.g. in telecommunications, medicine and (bio-) chemical sensing. The paper deals with enhancement of evanescent-field sensitivity of the solid-core microstructured fibre with steering-wheel air-cladding. Enhancement of a performance of the microstructured fibre is based on reduction of fibre core diameter down to narrow filament by tapering thereby defined part of light power is guided by an evanescent wave traveling in axial cladding air holes. The original fibre structure with outer diameter of 125 µm was reduced 2×, 2.5×, 3.33×, and 4× for increasing relatively small intensity overlap of guided core mode at wavelength of 1.55 μm with axial air holes. The inner structures of tapered microstructured fibre with steering-wheel aircladding were numerically analyzed and mode intensity distributions were calculated using the FDTD technique. Analyzed fiber tapers were prepared by constructed fibre puller employing 'flame brush technique'.

  19. Programmable genetic algorithm IP core for sensing and surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katkoori, Srinivas; Fernando, Pradeep; Sankaran, Hariharan; Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Zebulum, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    Real-time evolvable systems are possible with a hardware implementation of Genetic Algorithms (GA). We report the design of an IP core that implements a general purpose GA engine which has been successfully synthesized and verified on a Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA Device (XC2VP30). The placed and routed IP core has an area utilization of only 13% and clock speed of 50MHz. The GA core can be customized in terms of the population size, number of generations, cross-over and mutation rates, and the random number generator seed. The GA engine can be tailored to a given application by interfacing with the application specific fitness evaluation module as well as the required storage memory (to store the current and new populations). The core is soft in nature i.e., a gate-level netlist is provided which can be readily integrated with the user's system. The GA IP core can be readily used in FPGA based platforms for space and military applications (for e.g., surveillance, target tracking). The main advantages of the IP core are its programmability, small footprint, and low power consumption. Examples of concept systems in sensing and surveillance domains will be presented.

  20. Hierarchical Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Bo; Ding, Ailing; Liu, Yuqing; Diao, Jianglin; Razal, Joselito; Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, Roderick; Li, Changming; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    This work describes the fabrication of hierarchical 3D Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels (NECAGs) for sensing applications via a fast freeze drying method. Graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Nafion were mixed and extruded into liquid nitrogen followed by the removal of ice crystals by freeze drying. The addition of Nafion enhanced the mechanical strength of NECAGs and effective control of the cellular morphology and pore size was achieved. The resultant NECAGs demonstrated high strength, low density, and high specific surface area and can achieve a modulus of 20 kPa, an electrical conductivity of 140 S m-1, and a specific capacity of 136.8 F g-1 after reduction. Therefore, NECAG monoliths performed well as a gas sensor and as a biosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity. The remarkable sensitivity of 8.52 × 103 μA mM-1 cm-2 was obtained in dopamine (DA) detection, which is two orders of magnitude better than the literature reported values using graphene aerogel electrodes made from a porous Ni template. These outstanding properties make the NECAG a promising electrode candidate for a wide range of applications. Further in-depth investigations are being undertaken to probe the structure-property relationship of NECAG monoliths prepared under various conditions.This work describes the fabrication of hierarchical 3D Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels (NECAGs) for sensing applications via a fast freeze drying method. Graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Nafion were mixed and extruded into liquid nitrogen followed by the removal of ice crystals by freeze drying. The addition of Nafion enhanced the mechanical strength of NECAGs and effective control of the cellular morphology and pore size was achieved. The resultant NECAGs demonstrated high strength, low density, and high specific surface area and can achieve a modulus of 20 kPa, an electrical conductivity of 140 S m-1, and a specific capacity of 136.8 F g-1 after reduction. Therefore, NECAG

  1. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the thin film to build a thin film device for measurements and analyses. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial had a significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNTs. Moreover, the hybrid nanomaterial thin film devices exhibited a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which could be further enhanced up to ten times with asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials was demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. In addition, CuS nanoparticles have great optical absorption especially in the near-infrared region. Therefore, the hybrid nanomaterial thin films also have the potential for IR sensing applications. The first application to be covered in this dissertation is the IR sensing application. IR thin film sensors based on the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated. The IR response in the photocurrent of the hybrid thin film sensor was significantly enhanced, increasing the photocurrent by 300% when the IR light illuminates the thin film device asymmetrically. The detection limit could be as low as 48mW mm-2. The dramatically enhanced

  2. Cyromazine resistance in a field strain of house flies, Musca domestica L.: Resistance risk assessment and bio-chemical mechanism.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2017-01-01

    Developing resistance management strategies for eco-friendly insecticides is essential for the management of insect pests without harming the environment. Cyromazine is a biorational insecticide with very low mammalian toxicity. Resistance to cyromazine has recently been reported in house flies from Punjab, Pakistan. In order to propose a resistance management strategy for cyromazine, experiments were planned to study risk for resistance development, possibility of cross-resistance and bio-chemical mechanisms. A field strain of house flies with 8.78 fold resistance ratio (RR) to cyromazine was re-selected under laboratory conditions. After seven rounds of selection (G1-G7), the RR values rapidly increased from 8.8 to 211 fold. However, these values declined to 81fold when the cyromazine selected (CYR-SEL) strain was reared without selection pressure, suggesting an unstable nature of resistance. The CYR-SEL strain showed lack of cross-resistance to pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, and methoxyfenozide. Synergism bioassays using enzyme inhibitors: piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), and metabolic enzyme analyses revealed increased activity of carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed-function oxidase (MFO) in the CYR-SEL strain compared to the laboratory susceptible (Lab-susceptible) strain, suggesting the metabolic resistance mechanism responsible for cyromazine resistance in the CYR-SEL strain. In conclusion, risk of rapid development of cyromazine resistance under consistent selection pressure discourages the sole reliance on cyromazine for controlling house flies in the field. The unstable nature of cyromazine resistance provides window for restoring cyromazine susceptibility by uplifting selection pressure in the field. Moreover, lack of cross-resistance between cyromazine and pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, or methoxyfenozide in the CYR-SEL strain suggest that cyromazine could be rotated with these insecticides whenever resistance crisis occur

  3. Engineering photo-plasmonic devices for spectroscopy and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, Alyssa J.

    The control of light on the nano-scale has driven the development of novel optical devices such as biosensors, antennas and guiding elements. These applications benefit from the distinctive resonant properties of noble metal thin films and nanoparticles. Many optimization parameters exist in order to engineer nanoparticle properties for spectroscopy and sensing applications: for example, the choice of metal, the particle morphology, and the array geometry. By utilizing various designs from simple monomer gratings to more complex engineered arrays, we model and characterize plasmonic arrays for sensing applications. In this thesis, I have focused on the novel paradigm of photonic-plasmonic coupling to design, fabricate, and characterize optimized nanosensors. In particular, nanoplasmonic necklaces, which consist of circular loops of closely spaced gold nanoparticles, are designed using 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, fabricated with electron-beam lithography, and characterized using dark-field scattering and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of p-mercaptoaniline (pMA) monolayers. I show that such necklaces are able to support hybridized dipolar scattering resonances and polarization-controlled electromagnetic hot-spots. In addition, necklaces exhibit strong intensity enhancement when the necklace diameter leads to coupling between the broadband plasmonic resonance and the circular resonator structure of the necklace. Hence, these necklaces lead to stronger field intensity enhancement than nanoparticle monomers and dimers, which are also carefully studied. Furthermore, by embedding a dimer into one or more concentric necklace resonators, I am able to efficiently couple radiation into the dimer hot-spot by utilizing first- and second-order far-field coupling. This nanolensing leads to an order of 6-18 times improvement in Raman enhancement over isolated dimers, which is a promising platform for compact on-chip sensors. Additionally, I

  4. Remote sensing applications in evaluation of cadmium pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma-Bognar, Veronika; Martin, Gizella; Berke, Jozsef

    2013-04-01

    According to the 21st century developments in information technology the remote sensing applications open new perspectives to the data collection of our environment. Using the images in different spectral bands we get more reliable and accurate information about the condition, process and phenomena of the earth surface compared to the traditional aircraft image technologies (RGB images). The effects of particulate pollution originated from road traffic were analysed by the research team of Department of Meteorology and Water Management (University of Pannonia, Georgikon Faculty) with the application of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared remote sensing aircraft images. In the scope of our research was to detect and monitor the effects of heavy metal contamination in plant-atmosphere system under field experiments. The testing area was situated at Agro-meteorological Research Station in Keszthely (Hungary), where maize crops were polluted once a week (0,5 M concentration) by cadmium. In our study we simulated the effects of cadmium pollution because this element is one of the most common toxic heavy metals in our environment. During two growing seasons (2011, 2012) time-series analyses were carried out based on the remote sensing data and parallel collected variables of field measurement. In each phenological phases of plant we took aerial images, in order to follow the changes of the structure and intensity values of plots images. The spatial resolution of these images were under 10x10 cm, which allowed to use a plot-level evaluation. The structural and intensity based measurement evaluation methods were applied to examine cadmium polluted and control maize canopy after data pre-processing. Research activities also focused on the examination of the influence of the irrigation and the comparison of aerial and terrain parameters. As conclusion, it could be determined the quantification of cadmium pollution effects is possible on maize plants by using remote

  5. Taste sensing systems (electronic tongues) for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Woertz, Katharina; Tissen, Corinna; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2011-09-30

    Electronic tongues are sensor array systems able to detect single substances as well as complex mixtures by means of particular sensor membranes and electrochemical techniques. Two systems are already commercially available, the Insent taste sensing system and the αAstree electronic tongue. In addition, various laboratory prototype versions exist. Besides the successful use in food industry, the implementation for pharmaceutical purposes has strongly grown within the recent years. A reason for this is the increased interest of developing palatable formulations, especially for children. As taste assessment of drugs comes along with challenges due to possible toxicity and subjectivity of the taste assessors, electronic tongues could offer a safe and objective alternative. In order to provide guidance on the use of these systems, possible fields of interest are presented in this review, as for example, system qualification, quality control, formulation development, comparison between marketed drug products, and the validation of the methods used. Further, different approaches for solid and liquid dosage forms are summarized. But, also the difficulty to obtain absolute statements regarding taste was identified and the need of more validated data was discussed to offer guidance for the next years of research and application of electronic tongues for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diamond micro-milling of lithium niobate for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Dehong; Jie Choong, Zi; Shi, Yilun; Hedley, John; Zhao, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is a crystalline material which is widely applied in surface acoustic wave, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and optical devices, owing to its superior physical, optical, and electronic properties. Due to its low toughness and chemical inactivity, LiNbO3 is considered to be a hard-to-machine material and has been traditionally left as as an inert substrate upon which other micro structures are deposited. However, in order to make use of its superior material properties and increase efficiency, the fabrication of microstructures directly on LiNbO3 is in high demand. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the micro machinability of LiNbO3 via micro milling with the aim of obtaining optimal process parameters. Machining of micro slots was performed on Z-cut LiNbO3 wafers using single crystal diamond tools. Surface and edge quality, cutting forces, and the crystallographic effect were examined and characterized. Ductile mode machining of LiNbO3 was found to be feasible at a low feed rate and small depth of cut. A strong crystallographic effect on the machined surface quality was also observed. Finally, some LiNbO3 micro components applicable to sensing applications were fabricated.

  7. Light-sensing ambipolar organic transistors for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Wöbkenberg, Paul H.; Bradley, Donal D. C.

    2008-04-01

    Since their invention use of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) has been restricted to applications that explore their unifunctional, i.e. current switching, characteristics. Recently, however, OFETs with additional functionalities have been designed and demonstrated with most notable examples the light-emitting (LE-OFET) [1] and light-sensing (LS-OFET) [2] transistors. These devices are of particular significance since design and fabrication of a new type of organic circuits can now be envisioned. Here we report on electro-optical circuits based on ambipolar LS-OFETs and unipolar OFETs. By carefully tuning the ambipolar transport of LS-OFETs their photosensitivity can be controlled and optimised. By going a step further and integrating LS-OFETs with unipolar OFETs we are able to demonstrate various optoelectronic circuits including electro-optical switches and logic gates. A unique characteristic of these gates is that their input signal(s) can be designed to be either all-optical or electro-optical. An additional advantage of the technology is that LS-OFETs can be integrated with the driving electronics using the same number of processing steps, hence eliminating the need of additional fabrication costs. This is one of the first demonstrations of organic circuits where signal processing involves the use of both optical and electrical input signals. Such optoelectronic devices/circuits could one day be explored in various applications including electro-optical transceivers and optical sensor arrays.

  8. Sensing applications based on plasmonic nanopores: The hole story.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Andreas B

    2015-07-21

    A review of sensing applications based on plasmonic nanopores is given. Many new types of plasmonic nanopores have recently been fabricated, including pores penetrating multilayers of thin films, using a great variety of fabrication techniques based on either serial nanolithography or self-assembly. One unique advantage with nanopores compared to other plasmonic sensors is that sample liquids can flow through the surface, which increases the rate of binding and improves the detection limit under certain conditions. Also, by utilizing the continuous metal films, electrical control can be implemented for electrochemistry, dielectrophoresis and resistive heating. Much effort is still spent on trying to improve sensor performance in various ways, but the literature uses inconsistent benchmark parameters. Recently plasmonic nanopores have been used to analyse targets of high clinical or academic interest. Although this is an important step forward, one should probably reflect upon whether the same results could have been achieved with another optical technique. Overall, this critical review suggests that the research field would benefit by focusing on applications where plasmonic nanopores truly can offer unique advantages over similar techniques.

  9. Stochastic holey optical fibers for gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian; Ma, Cheng; Cooper, Kristie; Wang, Anbo

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of gaseous species is important in a variety of applications including industrial process gas monitoring, mine safety, and homeland security. Fiber optic sensors have been used in a variety of forms to monitor various types of gaseous species. Optical fiber sensors utilizing both random hole and photonic crystal fibers have been investigated. One limitation to these types of fiber sensors is the fact that the holes run parallel to the optic axis of the fiber, requiring gases to diffuse over long distances. Diffusion of gases over long distances through tube sizes which are on the order of microns is a relatively slow process. This can significantly impact the response time of the sensors which are made from these types of fibers. This paper presents results on the development of optical fibers for gas sensing applications which have holes extending in the radial direction as opposed to the longitudinal direction (as in the case of photonic crystal fibers). The holes are made by a process which utilizes phase separation of the glass matrix at relatively low temperatures. The secondary phase is removed by subsequent leaching processes, leaving a three dimensionally porous structure. The porosity is arranged in a stochastic fashion within the fiber. Results of the fiber sensor development and testing will be presented. The microstructural analysis of the fibers by scanning electron microscopy as well as the optical characterization of the fibers will be presented. Fabrication procedures for the optical fibers and the optical fiber sensors will also be described.

  10. Optical fiber meta-tips: perspectives in sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, Maria; Consales, Marco; Micco, Alberto; Crescitelli, Alessio; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Esposito, Emanuela; La Ferrara, Vera; Cutolo, Antonello; Galdi, Vincenzo; Cusano, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    In this work we review the concept of optical fiber meta-tips, recently introduced by the authors. Optical fiber meta-tips come from the integration of plasmonic optical metasurfaces and the fiber optics technology. In particular, this integration is a major breakthrough in the recently emerged "Lab-On-Fiber" technology, where nanostructured platforms with special capabilities of light manipulation are integrated onto the tip of an optical fiber. Optical fiber meta-tips can, on one side, boost the real world applicability of optical metasurfaces, and, on the other side, bring about more advanced capabilities of on-fiber control and manipulation of light wavefront and polarization. With a view towards possible practical applications to label-free chemical and biological sensing, we inspect the potentialities of optical fiber meta-tips to work as sensors of local refractive index variations, and aim at studying the effect that the phase gradient impressed by the metasurface has on the surface sensitivity of proposed devices.

  11. Soil surface roughness characterization for microwave remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, P.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-04-01

    With this poster we present a simple and efficient method to measure soil surface roughness in an agricultural environment. Micro scale soil surface roughness is a crucial parameter in many environmental applications. In recent studies it is strongly recognized that soil surface roughness significantly influences the backscatter of agricultural surface, especially on bare fields. Indeed, while different roughness indices depend on their measurement length, no satisfying roughness parametrization and measurement technique has been found yet, introducing large uncertainty in the interpretation of the radar backscattering. In this study, we introduce a photogrammetric system which consists of a customized consumer grade Canon EOS 5d camera and a reference frame providing ground control points. With the system one can generate digital surface models (DSM) with a minimum size of 1 x 2.5 m2, extendable to any desired size, with a ground x,y- resolution of 2 mm. Using this approach, we generated a set of DSM with sizes ranging from 2.5 m2 to 22 m2, acquired over different roughness conditions representing ploughed, harrowed as well as crusted fields on different test sites. For roughness characterization we calculated in microwave remote sensing common roughness indices such as the RMS- height s and the autocorrelation length l. In an extensive statistical investigation we show the behavior of the roughness indices for different acquisition sizes of the proposed method. Results indicate, compared to results from profiles generated out of the dataset, that using a three dimensional measuring device, the calculated roughness indices are more robust in their estimation. In addition, a strong directional dependency of the proposed roughness indices was observed which could be related to the orientation of the seedbed rows to the acqusition direction. In a geostatistical analysis, we decomposed the acquired roughness indices into different scales, yielding a roughness quantity

  12. Basic considerations in development cooperation: the application of remote sensing in developing and newly industrialized countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itten, K. I.; Specter, C. N.; Sausen, T. M.

    Questions of principle concerning applications of remote sensing technology in developing, newly industrialized, and industrialized countries are discussed in terms of such problems as scale, accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The paper concludes that successful technology transfer and applications must be based on true cooperation between local and expatriate experts. Only in this way can the promise of remote sensing be realized.

  13. Remote sensing applications in water resources - An opportunity for research in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menenti, M.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of first-hand experience with remote sensing research in developing countries to illustrate the inherent semiempirical basis of remote sensing applications. This task is accomplished by means of examples drawn from actual research work. Results of case studies in different farming systems and countries are summarized to exemplify the relative, application-dependent, weight of satellite versus ground information.

  14. An examination of applications of remote sensing data to Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments' planning requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallon, H. J.; Howard, J. Y.; Karch, K. M.

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of a series of remote sensing applications for a variety of regional planning programs in metropolitan Washington was undertaken. Examples of application, methods for data utilization, and corresponding photographic illustrations are provided illustrating how remote sensing would prove particularly useful as a unique and/or supplemental data source.

  15. Remote sensing applications in water resources - An opportunity for research in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menenti, M.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of first-hand experience with remote sensing research in developing countries to illustrate the inherent semiempirical basis of remote sensing applications. This task is accomplished by means of examples drawn from actual research work. Results of case studies in different farming systems and countries are summarized to exemplify the relative, application-dependent, weight of satellite versus ground information.

  16. Integrated Photonic Comb Generation: Applications in Coherent Communication and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, John S.

    Integrated photonics combines many optical components including lasers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors in close proximity via homogeneous (monolithic) or heterogeneous (using multiple materials) integration. This improves stability for interferometers and lasers, reduces the occurrence of unwanted reflections, and it avoids coupling losses between different components as they are on the same chip. Thus, less power is needed to compensate for these added losses, and less heat needs to be removed due to these power savings. In addition, integration allows the many components that comprise a system to be fabricated together, thereby reducing the cost per system and allowing rapid scaling in production throughput. Integrated optical combs have many applications including: metrology, THz frequency generation, arbitrary waveform generation, optical clocks, photonic analog-to-digital converters, sensing (imaging), spectroscopy, and data communication. A comb is a set of optical sources evenly spaced in frequency. Several methods of comb generation including mode-locking and optical parametric oscillation produce phase-matched optical outputs with a fixed phase relationship between the frequency lines. When the absolute frequency of a single comb line is stabilized along with the frequency spacing between comb lines, absolute phase and frequency precision can be achieved over the entire comb bandwidth. This functionality provides tremendous benefits to many applications such as coherent communication and optical sensing. The goals for this work were achieving a broad comb bandwidth and noise reduction, i.e., frequency and phase stability. Integrated mode-locked lasers on the InGaAsP/InP material platform were chosen, as they could be monolithically integrated with the wide range of highly functional and versatile photonic integrated circuits (PICs) previously demonstrated on this platform at UCSB. Gain flattening filters were implemented to increase the comb

  17. Proceedings of the Conference on Practical Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers dealing with the principles of remote sensing are summarized. Summaries cover problem solving capabilities within the realms of urbanism, agriculture, forestry, and environmental impact assessment.

  18. Plasmonic Nanoparticles and Nanowires: Design, Fabrication and Application in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Dhawan, Anuj; Norton, Stephen J.; Khoury, Christopher G.; Wang, Hsin-Neng; Misra, Veena; Gerhold, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study involves two aspects of our investigations of plasmonics-active systems: (i) theoretical and simulation studies and (ii) experimental fabrication of plasmonics-active nanostructures. Two types of nanostructures are selected as the model systems for their unique plasmonics properties: (1) nanoparticles and (2) nanowires on substrate. Special focus is devoted to regions where the electromagnetic field is strongly concentrated by the metallic nanostructures or between nanostructures. The theoretical investigations deal with dimers of nanoparticles and nanoshells using a semi-analytical method based on a multipole expansion (ME) and the finite-element method (FEM) in order to determine the electromagnetic enhancement, especially at the interface areas of two adjacent nanoparticles. The experimental study involves the design of plasmonics-active nanowire arrays on substrates that can provide efficient electromagnetic enhancement in regions around and between the nanostructures. Fabrication of these nanowire structures over large chip-scale areas (from a few millimeters to a few centimeters) as well as FDTD simulations to estimate the EM fields between the nanowires are described. The application of these nanowire chips using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detection of chemicals and labeled DNA molecules is described to illustrate the potential of the plasmonics chips for sensing. PMID:24839505

  19. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  20. Tellurium based glasses for bio-sensing and space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Allison Anne

    2009-12-01

    Te2As3Se5 (TAS) fibers are often used in bio-sensing applications requiring direct contact between the fiber and live cells. However, the toxicity and stability of chalcogenide glasses typically used in such bio-sensing applications are not well known. The stability and toxicity of TAS glass fibers were therefore examined. The surface of TAS fibers stored for up to three years in air were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is shown that an oxide layer develops on the surface of TAS fibers stored in air. This oxide layer is highly soluble in water and therefore easily removed. Additional studies using cyclic voltammetry show that the fresh TAS glass surface is insoluble in water for at least a few days, and attenuation measurements show that oxidation does not affect the transmission properties of the glass fibers. It was also determined that old, oxidized fibers pose a toxic threat to cells, while washed and new fibers show no toxic effect. Therefore, it is concluded that a soluble oxide layer forms on the surface of TAS fibers stored in air and that this layer has a toxic effect on cells in an aqueous environment. However, through etching, the oxide layer and the toxicity can be easily removed. In other applications of telluride glasses, such as the search for possible signs of life on exoplanets, a glass transmitting further into the IR is required in order to detect molecules, such as CO2. A new family of Tellurium based glasses from the Ge-Te-I ternary system has therefore been investigated for use in space and bio-sensing applications. A systematic series of compositions has been synthesized in order to explore the ternary phase diagram in an attempt to optimize the glass composition for the fiber drawing and molding process. The resulting glass transition temperature range lies between 139°C and 174°C, with DeltaT values between 64°C and 124

  1. Large scale electromechanical transistor with application in mass sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2014-12-07

    Nanomechanical transistor (NMT) has evolved from the single electron transistor, a device that operates by shuttling electrons with a self-excited central conductor. The unfavoured aspects of the NMT are the complexity of the fabrication process and its signal processing unit, which could potentially be overcome by designing much larger devices. This paper reports a new design of large scale electromechanical transistor (LSEMT), still taking advantage of the principle of shuttling electrons. However, because of the large size, nonlinear electrostatic forces induced by the transistor itself are not sufficient to drive the mechanical member into vibration—an external force has to be used. In this paper, a LSEMT device is modelled, and its new application in mass sensing is postulated using two coupled mechanical cantilevers, with one of them being embedded in the transistor. The sensor is capable of detecting added mass using the eigenstate shifts method by reading the change of electrical current from the transistor, which has much higher sensitivity than conventional eigenfrequency shift approach used in classical cantilever based mass sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the mass sensor.

  2. Optical properties and sensing applications of stellated and bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alison F.

    This dissertation focuses on developing guidelines to aid in the design of new bimetallic platforms for sensing applications. Stellated metal nanostructures are a class of plasmonic colloids in which large electric field enhancements can occur at sharp features, making them excellent candidates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SE-IRS) platforms. Shape-dependent rules for convex polyhedra such as cubes or octahedra exist, which describe far-field scattering and near-field enhancements. However, such rules are lacking for their concave (stellated) counterparts. This dissertation presents the optical response of stellated Au nanocrystals with Oh, D4h, D3h, C2v, and T d symmetry, which were modeled to systematically investigate the role of symmetry, branching, and particle orientation with respect to excitation source using finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations. Expanding on stellated nanostructures, bimetallic compositions introduce an interplay between overall architecture and composition to provide tunable optical properties and the potential of new functionality. However, decoupling the complex compositional and structural contributions to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) remains a challenge, especially when the monometallic counterparts are not synthetically accessible for comparison and the theoretical tools for capturing gradient compositions are lacking. This dissertation explores a stellated Au-Pd nanocrystal model system with Oh symmetry to decouple structural and complex compositional effects on LSPR. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  3. Fabrication of Organic Transistors Using Nanomaterials for Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harb, Mohamed E.; Ebrahim, Shaker; Soliman, Moataz; Shabana, Mahmoud

    2017-09-01

    In this work, an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) was fabricated and characterized based on the bottom contact of a polyaniline (PANI) or PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite as an active layer and SiO2 as an insulating layer to be used for ammonia gas sensing applications. The OFET sensors exhibited a change in the drain current when exposed to NH3. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with different weight percentages (0-50 wt.%) were added to dope PANI and enhance charge carrier transport, although the response of both the PANI OFET sensor and PANI/TiO2 OFET sensor has reached saturation value at almost the same period. The response of PANI/TiO2 transistor is (2.5), which is much higher than that of PANI (0.17). The results showed that the sensor response of the OFET device fabricated with PANI/TiO2 is 15 times greater than that with an OFET device fabricated using pristine PANI.

  4. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  5. Speckle characterization in multimode fibers for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Cobo, Luis; Lomer, Mauro; Galindez, Carlos; Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposes the characterization of speckle patterns of multimode fibers in view of sensing applications and particularly for detection of vibration or seismic activity. Plastic optical fibers are used in this work due to its excellent flexibility and adaptability to build sensor heads. We are interested in the response to vibration, for which we use a short cylindrical piezoelectric transducer (PZT) vibrating in radial direction. The multimode fiber was coiled as tightly as possible around the mandrel of the PZT and periodic stretching effect was caused by the radial oscillations of the actuator. The PZT is modulated with a frequency generator by applying a sinusoidal signal in the range of 0 to 20 Hz, so the speckle patterns can be time averaged. The fiber extreme is attached to a high speed camera with a plastic adaptor, centering the speckle pattern into the CCD. Maintaining the fiber position, a region of interest is selected to capture the video sequence and it is captured to detect the variations in the speckle pattern. Once having the video sequence, it is processed by averaging the pixel differences between two consecutive frames. This processed sequence is also filtered in order to reduce the high frequency noise component. In this work we report the results of the characterization of 3 types of multimode fibers, with core diameters of 50 μm, 240 μm and 980 μm.

  6. Applications of UAVs for Remote Sensing of Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steve; Brass, James; Schoenung, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The surveillance of critical facilities and national infrastructure such as waterways, roadways, pipelines and utilities requires advanced technological tools to provide timely, up to date information on structure status and integrity. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are uniquely suited for these tasks, having large payload and long duration capabilities. UAVs also have the capability to fly dangerous and dull missions, orbiting for 24 hours over a particular area or facility providing around the clock surveillance with no personnel onboard. New UAV platforms and systems are becoming available for commercial use. High altitude platforms are being tested for use in communications, remote sensing, agriculture, forestry and disaster management. New payloads are being built and demonstrated onboard the UAVs in support of these applications. Smaller, lighter, lower power consumption imaging systems are currently being tested over coffee fields to determine yield and over fires to detect fire fronts and hotspots. Communication systems that relay video, meteorological and chemical data via satellite to users on the ground in real-time have also been demonstrated. Interest in this technology for infrastructure characterization and mapping has increased dramatically in the past year. Many of the UAV technological developments required for resource and disaster monitoring are being used for the infrastructure and facility mapping activity. This paper documents the unique contributions from NASA;s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program to these applications. ERAST is a UAV technology development effort by a consortium of private aeronautical companies and NASA. Details of demonstrations of UAV capabilities currently underway are also presented.

  7. Applications of UAVs for Remote Sensing of Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steve; Brass, James; Schoenung, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The surveillance of critical facilities and national infrastructure such as waterways, roadways, pipelines and utilities requires advanced technological tools to provide timely, up to date information on structure status and integrity. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are uniquely suited for these tasks, having large payload and long duration capabilities. UAVs also have the capability to fly dangerous and dull missions, orbiting for 24 hours over a particular area or facility providing around the clock surveillance with no personnel onboard. New UAV platforms and systems are becoming available for commercial use. High altitude platforms are being tested for use in communications, remote sensing, agriculture, forestry and disaster management. New payloads are being built and demonstrated onboard the UAVs in support of these applications. Smaller, lighter, lower power consumption imaging systems are currently being tested over coffee fields to determine yield and over fires to detect fire fronts and hotspots. Communication systems that relay video, meteorological and chemical data via satellite to users on the ground in real-time have also been demonstrated. Interest in this technology for infrastructure characterization and mapping has increased dramatically in the past year. Many of the UAV technological developments required for resource and disaster monitoring are being used for the infrastructure and facility mapping activity. This paper documents the unique contributions from NASA;s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program to these applications. ERAST is a UAV technology development effort by a consortium of private aeronautical companies and NASA. Details of demonstrations of UAV capabilities currently underway are also presented.

  8. Systematic metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for high-yield production of fuel bio-chemical 2,3-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Youqiang; Chu, Haipei; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Zhou, Zikang; Li, Kun; Li, Lixiang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-05-01

    The production of biofuels by recombinant Escherichia coli is restricted by the toxicity of the products. 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD), a platform and fuel bio-chemical with low toxicity to microbes, could be a promising alternative for biofuel production. However, the yield and productivity of 2,3-BD produced by recombinant E. coli strains are not sufficient for industrial scale fermentation. In this work, the production of 2,3-BD by recombinant E. coli strains was optimized by applying a systematic approach. 2,3-BD biosynthesis gene clusters were cloned from several native 2,3-BD producers, including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter cloacae, inserted into the expression vector pET28a, and compared for 2,3-BD synthesis. The recombinant strain E. coli BL21/pETPT7-EcABC, carrying the 2,3-BD pathway gene cluster from Enterobacter cloacae, showed the best ability to synthesize 2,3-BD. Thereafter, expression of the most efficient gene cluster was optimized by using different promoters, including PT7, Ptac, Pc, and Pabc. E. coli BL21/pET-RABC with Pabc as promoter was superior in 2,3-BD synthesis. On the basis of the results of biomass and extracellular metabolite profiling analyses, fermentation conditions, including pH, agitation speed, and aeration rate, were optimized for the efficient production of 2,3-BD. After fed-batch fermentation under the optimized conditions, 73.8g/L of 2,3-BD was produced by using E. coli BL21/pET-RABC within 62h. The values of both yield and productivity of 2,3-BD obtained with the optimized biological system are the highest ever achieved with an engineered E. coli strain. In addition to the 2,3-BD production, the systematic approach might also be used in the production of other important chemicals through recombinant E. coli strains. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Application requirement analysis of high spectral and high spatial resolution satellite for environment remote sensing monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. H.; Yang, Y. P.; Zhao, Z. H.; Yao, Y. J.; Mao, X. J.; Wu, Y. T.; Gao, Y. H.

    2016-03-01

    China's environmental situation is still grim, environmental pressure continues to increase. The demand of environmental protection work in the new era for high resolution remote sensing application will continue to increase. Environmental monitoring has multi factor, quantitative inversion and high precision as features, environment department need to use a wide spectrum of remote sensing data with high spectral resolution capability to monitor the total amount of pollutants in macro scale and long time series. The implementation of the high resolution earth observation project provides support for the improvement of the quantitative application of environmental remote sensing. On the basis of sorting out the key work of environmental protection, the application requirements of high spectral resolution and high spatial resolution satellite remote sensing in the field of environmental protection and the building needs of national environmental remote sensing application platform are put forward.

  10. Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors

  11. Background and principle applications of remote sensing in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, J. A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing, or the collection of information from objectives at a distance, crystallizes the interest in implementing techniques which assist in the search for solutions to the problems raised by the detection, exploitation, and conservation of the natural resources of the earth. An attempt is made to present an overview of the studies and achievements which have been obtained with remote sensing in Mexico.

  12. Hydrological Application of Remote Sensing: Surface States -- Snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Foster, James L.; Chang, Alfred T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing research of snow cover has been accomplished for nearly 40 years. The use of visible, near-infrared, active and passive-microwave remote sensing for the analysis of snow cover is reviewed with an emphasis on the work on the last decade.

  13. Sensing applications of rare-earth doped luminescent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Simpson, M.L.; Noel, B.W.; Turley, D.; Gillies, G.T.

    1988-01-01

    We are developing sensing techniques using phosphors and luminescing crystals. While their use in temperature sensing is becoming well known, there exists the potential to exploit them for other diagnostics. Examples are stress/strain, heat flux, skin friction, pressure, laser-beam profiling, aerodynamic flow, and radiation. We describe our recent results in these areas. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Hybridization of Zinc Oxide Tetrapods for Selective Gas Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Lupan, O; Postica, V; Gröttrup, J; Mishra, A K; de Leeuw, N H; Carreira, J F C; Rodrigues, J; Ben Sedrine, N; Correia, M R; Monteiro, T; Cretu, V; Tiginyanu, I; Smazna, D; Mishra, Y K; Adelung, R

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the exceptionally improved sensing capability of highly porous three-dimensional (3-D) hybrid ceramic networks toward reducing gases is demonstrated for the first time. The 3-D hybrid ceramic networks are based on doped metal oxides (MexOy and ZnxMe1-xOy, Me = Fe, Cu, Al) and alloyed zinc oxide tetrapods (ZnO-T) forming numerous junctions and heterojunctions. A change in morphology of the samples and formation of different complex microstructures is achieved by mixing the metallic (Fe, Cu, Al) microparticles with ZnO-T grown by the flame transport synthesis (FTS) in different weight ratios (ZnO-T:Me, e.g., 20:1) followed by subsequent thermal annealing in air. The gas sensing studies reveal the possibility to control and change/tune the selectivity of the materials, depending on the elemental content ratio and the type of added metal oxide in the 3-D ZnO-T hybrid networks. While pristine ZnO-T networks showed a good response to H2 gas, a change/tune in selectivity to ethanol vapor with a decrease in optimal operating temperature was observed in the networks hybridized with Fe-oxide and Cu-oxide. In the case of hybridization with ZnAl2O4, an improvement of H2 gas response (to ∼7.5) was reached at lower doping concentrations (20:1), whereas the increase in concentration of ZnAl2O4 (ZnO-T:Al, 10:1), the selectivity changes to methane CH4 gas (response is about 28). Selectivity tuning to different gases is attributed to the catalytic properties of the metal oxides after hybridization, while the gas sensitivity improvement is mainly associated with additional modulation of the electrical resistance by the built-in potential barriers between n-n and n-p heterojunctions, during adsorption and desorption of gaseous species. Density functional theory based calculations provided the mechanistic insights into the interactions between different hybrid networks and gas molecules to support the experimentally observed results. The studied networked materials and

  15. Two Dimensional Materials for Sensing and Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuru, Cihan

    Since the discovery of graphene in 2004, two dimensional materials (2D) have become the focus of tremendous research owing to their unprecedented properties. Atomically thin nature of 2D materials gives rise to unique physicochemical properties, which makes them attractive for flexible electronics, chemical and biological sensing, energy storage, and solar cells. In this dissertation, sensing and energy related applications of 2D materials are studied. In chapter 1, graphene based ammonia sensors are presented, in which nano-structuring graphene significantly improves the sensitivity towards ammonia due to the formation of highly reactive edge defects. It was found that sensitivity could be further enhanced by decoration of Pd nanoparticles on the nano-structured graphene. In chapter 2, hydrogen sensors based on solution processed transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) nanosheets-Pd nanoparticles composites are introduced. The sensors can detect hydrogen at room temperature with high sensitivities. The ease of fabrication holds a great potential for low-cost and scalable manufacturing of chemical sensors. In chapter 3, the fabrication and characterization of graphene/Si heterojunction solar cells are described and various methods to improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) are presented. A single layer graphene is highly transparent; therefore suitable as a transparent Schottky electrode for solar cells. However, the PCEs of the pristine graphene/Si solar cells are low due to the high sheet resistance of graphene as well as the low Schottky barrier height between pristine graphene and Si. We improved the PCE by a magnitude of order (achieving 9% PCE) with Au nanoparticle decoration followed by a nitric acid treatment owing to the dramatic reduction in the series resistance of the cells and the enhanced Schottky barrier height. Furthermore, we used NiO as a transparent and stable hole doping material for graphene, in which NiO doped cell shows enhanced PCE

  16. Novel Magnetic Materials for Sensing and Cooling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Anurag

    2011-12-01

    The overall goals of the present PhD research are to explore the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) and giant magnetocaloric (GMC) effects in functional magnetic materials and provide guidance on the optimization of the material properties for use in advanced magnetic sensor and refrigeration applications. GMI has attracted growing interest due to its promising applications in high-performance magnetic sensors. Research in this field is focused on the development of new materials with properties appropriate for practical GMI sensor applications. In this project, we have successfully set up a new magneto-impedance measurement system in the Functional Materials Laboratory at USF. We have established, for the first time, the correlation between sample surface, magnetic softness, critical length, and GMI in Co-based amorphous ribbon materials, which provide a good handle on selecting the suitable operating frequency range of magnetic materials for GMI-based field sensor applications. The impact of field-induced magnetic anisotropy on the GMI effect in Co-based nanocrystalline ribbon materials has also been investigated, providing an important understanding of the correlation between the microstructure, magnetic anisotropy, and GMI in these materials. We have shown that coating a thin layer of magnetic metal on the surface of a magnetic ribbon can reduce stray fields due to surface irregularities and enhance the magnetic flux paths closure of the bilayer structure, both of which, in effect, increase the GMI and its field sensitivity. This finding provides a new way for tailoring GMI in surface-modified soft ferromagnetic ribbons for use in highly sensitive magnetic sensors. We have also introduced the new concepts of incorporating GMI technology with superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biosensing applications and with carbon nanotubes for gas and chemical sensing applications. GMC forms the basis for developing advanced magnetic refrigeration technology and research in this

  17. An Update of NASA Public Health Applications Projects using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue M.; Haynes, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth s environment from space which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The session will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications. This session will an overview of many of the NASA public health applications using Remote Sensing Data and will also discuss opportunities to become a research collaborator with NASA.

  18. Remote Sensing Sensors and Applications in Environmental Resources Mapping and Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Melesse, Assefa M.; Weng, Qihao; S.Thenkabail, Prasad; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2007-01-01

    The history of remote sensing and development of different sensors for environmental and natural resources mapping and data acquisition is reviewed and reported. Application examples in urban studies, hydrological modeling such as land-cover and floodplain mapping, fractional vegetation cover and impervious surface area mapping, surface energy flux and micro-topography correlation studies is discussed. The review also discusses the use of remotely sensed-based rainfall and potential evapotranspiration for estimating crop water requirement satisfaction index and hence provides early warning information for growers. The review is not an exhaustive application of the remote sensing techniques rather a summary of some important applications in environmental studies and modeling. PMID:28903290

  19. Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melesse, Assefa M.; Weng, Qihao; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2007-01-01

    The history of remote sensing and development of different sensors for environmental and natural resources mapping and data acquisition is reviewed and reported. Application examples in urban studies, hydrological modeling such as land-cover and floodplain mapping, fractional vegetation cover and impervious surface area mapping, surface energy flux and micro-topography correlation studies is discussed. The review also discusses the use of remotely sensed-based rainfall and potential evapotranspiration for estimating crop water requirement satisfaction index and hence provides early warning information for growers. The review is not an exhaustive application of the remote sensing techniques rather a summary of some important applications in environmental studies and modeling.

  20. Principles and applications of imaging radar. Manual of remote sensing: Third edition, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.M.; Lewis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    This second volume in the Third Edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing offers a current and comprehensive survey of the theory, methods, and applications of imaging radar for geoscientists, engineers and application scientists interested in the advantages of radar remote sensing. Produced under the auspices of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, it brings together contributions from experts around the world to discuss the basic principles of imaging radars and trace the research activity--past, present, and future--across the many sciences where radar remote sensing may be applied. This book offers an invaluable snapshot of radar remote sensing technology, including radargrammetry, radar polarimetry and interferometry and its uses. It combines technical and procedural coverage of systems, data interpretation, and other fundamentals with generous coverage of practical applications in agriculture; forestry; soil moisture monitoring; geology; geomorphology and hydrology; oceanography; land use, land cover mapping and archeology.

  1. Remote sensing in forestry: Application to the Amazon region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.

  2. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

  3. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

  4. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchillon, C. W.; Miller, W. F.; Landphair, H.; Zitta, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques to help the state of Mississippi recognize and solve its environmental, resource, and socio-economic problems through inventory, analysis, and monitoring is suggested.

  5. Remote sensing and GIS applications for modeling species distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Grant

    Habitat loss is the leading cause of species endangerment. It fragments what remains (most harmful for habitat specialists) and isolates populations (applicable to all species). The fragments, parks and other protected areas where species remain are often too small for the long-term persistence of many species. Although these effects are more pronounced in tropical forests, where most species live, the problem is so widespread that it manifests itself across suites of ecosystems and taxa. Mitigating the problems caused by habitat and population fragmentation requires more information. Specifically, we must determine which species are most extinction prone, find ways to cheaply and quickly determine priority areas for conservation, quantify the minimum areas required for species persistence, and identify the key variables needed for species presence. Here, I analyze each of these four key points, using a spectrum of species, and a variety of remote sensing and GIS techniques. For habitat specialists, exemplified by tropical forest birds, I quantify habitat loss directly. It's simply a matter of measuring the remaining forest. To model habitat generalists, such as African elephants, I incorporate habitat and other variables (water, people, greenness) that dictate their presence. For birds, I find that habitat loss affects all forest endemic species equally. Species not threatened have large remaining ranges and high abundances in their ranges. My methods also refine conservation priorities in biological hotspots. The key lies in finding where species live now, and broad-scale natural history information plus coarse-scale imagery suits this purpose. Coarse imagery is also sufficient to understand the minimum range size at which birds become threatened. Be it habitat loss directly or induced by climate change, bird ranges must be over 20,000 km2 in lowland species, and 10,000 km2 for montane birds to avoid threat. For elephants, it is water and people that predict

  6. Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korde-Patel, Asmita; Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing is an emerging technology for data compression and simultaneous data acquisition. This is an enabling technique for significant reduction in data bandwidth, and transmission power and hence, can greatly benefit spaceflight instruments. We apply this process to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. We experiment with various impact parameters that describe microlensing curves to determine the effectiveness and uncertainty caused by Compressive Sensing. Finally, we describe implications for spaceflight missions.

  7. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    a data assimilation model of wave and circulation dynamics in an area characterized by a river mouth or tidal inlet and surrounding beaches. As a...guided) with environmental parameters derived from remote sensing measurements. 3. Bathymetry on open beaches, river mouths , and at tidal inlets can be...under the ONR-sponsored Inlets and Rivers Mouth Dynamics Departmental Research Initiative (RIVET). This approach will benefit both the remote sensing

  8. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  9. Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korde-Patel, Asmita; Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2017-06-01

    Compressive Sensing is an emerging technology for data compression and simultaneous data acquisition. This is an enabling technique for significant reduction in data bandwidth, and transmission power and hence, can greatly benefit space-flight instruments. We apply this process to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. We experiment with various impact parameters that describe microlensing curves to determine the effectiveness and uncertainty caused by Compressive Sensing. Finally, we describe implications for space-flight missions.

  10. Applications of remote sensing techniques to county land use and flood hazard mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. B.; Conn, J. S.; Miller, D. A.; Mouat, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in Arizona is discussed. Land use and flood hazard mapping completed by the Applied Remote Sensing Program is described. Areas subject to periodic flood inundation are delineated and land use maps monitoring the growth within specific counties are provided.

  11. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems. [for Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Bouchillon, C. W.; Harris, J. C.; Carter, B.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, R.

    1974-01-01

    The primary purpose of the remote sensing applications program is for various members of the university community to participate in activities that improve the effective communication between the scientific community engaged in remote sensing research and development and the potential users of modern remote sensing technology. Activities of this program are assisting the State of Mississippi in recognizing and solving its environmental, resource and socio-economic problems through inventory, analysis, and monitoring by appropriate remote sensing systems. Objectives, accomplishments, and current status of the following individual projects are reported: (1) bark beetle project; (2) state park location planning; and (3) waste source location and stream channel geometry monitoring.

  12. Application of Remote Sensing to the Chesapeake Bay Region. Volume 2: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. T. (Editor); Freas, G. W., Jr. (Editor); Hickman, G. D. (Editor); Pemberton, D. A. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. D. (Editor); Adler, I. (Editor); Laurie, V. J. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A conference was held on the application of remote sensing to the Chesapeake Bay region. Copies of the papers, resource contributions, panel discussions, and reports of the working groups are presented.

  13. A forestry application simulation of man-machine techniques for analyzing remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkebile, J.; Russell, J.; Lube, B.

    1976-01-01

    The typical steps in the analysis of remotely sensed data for a forestry applications example are simulated. The example uses numerically-oriented pattern recognition techniques and emphasizes man-machine interaction.

  14. Performance analysis of wireless sensor networks in geophysical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uligere Narasimhamurthy, Adithya

    Performance is an important criteria to consider before switching from a wired network to a wireless sensing network. Performance is especially important in geophysical sensing where the quality of the sensing system is measured by the precision of the acquired signal. Can a wireless sensing network maintain the same reliability and quality metrics that a wired system provides? Our work focuses on evaluating the wireless GeoMote sensor motes that were developed by previous computer science graduate students at Mines. Specifically, we conducted a set of experiments, namely WalkAway and Linear Array experiments, to characterize the performance of the wireless motes. The motes were also equipped with the Sticking Heartbeat Aperture Resynchronization Protocol (SHARP), a time synchronization protocol developed by a previous computer science graduate student at Mines. This protocol should automatically synchronize the mote's internal clocks and reduce time synchronization errors. We also collected passive data to evaluate the response of GeoMotes to various frequency components associated with the seismic waves. With the data collected from these experiments, we evaluated the performance of the SHARP protocol and compared the performance of our GeoMote wireless system against the industry standard wired seismograph system (Geometric-Geode). Using arrival time analysis and seismic velocity calculations, we set out to answer the following question. Can our wireless sensing system (GeoMotes) perform similarly to a traditional wired system in a realistic scenario?

  15. Indian remote sensing satellites: Planned missions and future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Jayaraman, V.; Rao, Mukund

    1996-02-01

    To cater the enhanced user demands, Indian Space Research Organisation is stepping a giant leap forward towards development of the state-of-the-art second generation Indian Remote Sensing Satellites, IRS-1C/1D following the successful design, launch and in-orbit performance of the first generation satellites, IRS-1A/1B. Characterised by improved spatial resolution, extended spectral bands, stereo-viewing and more frequent revisit capability, IRS-1C/1D are expected for launch during the timeframe of 1995-96/8. The IRS-1C and ID, which are identical, will have three major payloads. The Linear Imaging Spectral Scanner (LISS-III) in four spectral bands covering from 0.52 to 1.70 microns will have a spatial resolution of 23m along with a swath of 142 km in the visible and NIR spectral bands and a spatial resolution of 70m along with a swath of 148 km in the SWIR spectral band. The Panchromatic Camera (PAN) with a spectral band of 0.50 to 0.75 microns will have a spatial resolution of < 10m along with a swath of 70 km and a payload steering capability upto ±26 °. The Wide Field Sensor (WiFS) in visible and near IR with two bands and a spatial resolution of 188m will provide a swath of 774 kms. These sensors will provide better information on water stress, pest infestation and vegetation indices to arrive at better agricultural management practices, besides providing enhanced capabilities for arriving solutions for micro-level resource development and generation of digital terrain models. Having marked by the successful launch of IRS-P2 in 1994 through the indigenous development flight of PSLV, India is now poised to launch IRS-P3 satellite with unique payloads in the timeframe of 1995-1996 The IRS-P3 will carry three operational payloads viz., Wide Field Sensor (WiFS), Modular Opto-electronic Scanner (MOS) imaging spectrometer and an X-ray Astronomy payload. These payload mix of sensors will provide further capabilities for application studies related to vegetation

  16. Optical methods for sensing and imaging oxygen: materials, spectroscopies and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-dong; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2014-05-21

    We review the current state of optical methods for sensing oxygen. These have become powerful alternatives to electrochemical detection and in the process of replacing the Clark electrode in many fields. The article (with 694 references) is divided into main sections on direct spectroscopic sensing of oxygen, on absorptiometric and luminescent probes, on polymeric matrices and supports, on additives and related materials, on spectroscopic schemes for read-out and imaging, and on sensing formats (such as waveguide sensing, sensor arrays, multiple sensors and nanosensors). We finally discuss future trends and applications and summarize the properties of the most often used indicator probes and polymers. The ESI† (with 385 references) gives a selection of specific applications of such sensors in medicine, biology, marine and geosciences, intracellular sensing, aerodynamics, industry and biotechnology, among others.

  17. Application of sensing techniques to cellular force measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wang, James H-C

    2010-01-01

    Cell traction forces (CTFs) are the forces produced by cells and exerted on extracellular matrix or an underlying substrate. CTFs function to maintain cell shape, enable cell migration, and generate and detect mechanical signals. As such, they play a vital role in many fundamental biological processes, including angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. Therefore, a close examination of CTFs can enable better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such processes. To this end, various force-sensing techniques for CTF measurement have been developed over the years. This article will provide a concise review of these sensing techniques and comment on the needs for improved force-sensing technologies for cell mechanics and biology research.

  18. Transparent and Flexible Triboelectric Sensing Array for Touch Security Applications.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zuqing; Zhou, Tao; Yin, Yingying; Cao, Ran; Li, Congju; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-08-22

    Tactile sensors with large-scale array and high sensitivity is essential for human-machine interaction, smart wearable devices, and mobile networks. Here, a transparent and flexible triboelectric sensing array (TSA) with fingertip-sized pixels is demonstrated by integrating ITO electrodes, FEP film, and signal transmission circuits on an undivided palm-sized polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sensing pixels can be triggered by the corresponding external contact to induce the electrostatic potential in the transparent electrodes without power consumption, which is individually recognized by the sensor. By testing the response of the pixels, the electrical characterization is systematically investigated. The proposed TSA exhibits excellent durability, independence, and synchronicity, which is able to realize real-time touch sensing, spatial mapping, and motion monitoring. The integrated TSA has great potential for an active tactile system, human-machine interface, wearable electronics, private communication, and advanced security identification.

  19. Applications of Microwaves to Remote Sensing of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A survey and study was conducted to define the role that microwaves may play in the measurement of a variety of terrain-related parameters. The survey consisted of discussions with many users and researchers in the field of remote sensing. In addition, a survey questionnaire was prepared and replies were solicited from these and other users and researchers. The results of the survey, and associated bibliography, were studied and conclusions were drawn as to the usefulness of radiometric systems for remote sensing of terrain.

  20. Resource analysis applications in Michigan. [NASA remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schar, S. W.; Enslin, W. R.; Sattinger, I. J.; Robinson, J. G.; Hosford, K. R.; Fellows, R. S.; Raad, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    During the past two years, available NASA imagery has been applied to a broad spectrum of problems of concern to Michigan-based agencies. These demonstrations include the testing of remote sensing for the purposes of (1) highway corridor planning and impact assessments, (2) game management-area information bases, (3) multi-agency river basin planning, (4) timber resource management information systems, (5) agricultural land reservation policies, and (6) shoreline flooding damage assessment. In addition, cost accounting procedures have been developed for evaluating the relative costs of utilizing remote sensing in land cover and land use analysis data collection procedures.

  1. Resource analysis applications in Michigan. [NASA remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schar, S. W.; Enslin, W. R.; Sattinger, I. J.; Robinson, J. G.; Hosford, K. R.; Fellows, R. S.; Raad, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    During the past two years, available NASA imagery has been applied to a broad spectrum of problems of concern to Michigan-based agencies. These demonstrations include the testing of remote sensing for the purposes of (1) highway corridor planning and impact assessments, (2) game management-area information bases, (3) multi-agency river basin planning, (4) timber resource management information systems, (5) agricultural land reservation policies, and (6) shoreline flooding damage assessment. In addition, cost accounting procedures have been developed for evaluating the relative costs of utilizing remote sensing in land cover and land use analysis data collection procedures.

  2. Computational Imaging, Sensing and Diagnostics for Global Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    In this Review, we summarize some of the recent work in emerging computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics techniques, along with some of the complementary non-computational modalities that can potentially transform the delivery of health care globally. As computational resources are becoming more and more powerful, while also getting cheaper and more widely available, traditional imaging, sensing and diagnostic tools will continue to experience a revolution through simplification of their designs, making them compact, light-weight, cost-effective, and yet quite powerful in terms of their performance when compared to their bench-top counterparts. PMID:24484875

  3. [Development and application of quantum cascade laser based gas sensing system].

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi-yu; Wang, Ling-fang; Chen, Gang

    2010-08-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an ideal mid-infrared source for gas sensing in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 25 microm, due to its fast response, high sensitivity and selectivity for gas detecting. Prototypes of gas sensing system based on QCL have been developed by worldwide research groups. They have great potential in many applications, such as environment monitoring, space exploration, anti-terrorism and so on. The present paper gives a broad review of QCL gas sensing system, including the basic working principle, existing systems, and its application and future development.

  4. [Spatial resolution standardization of payload on board of remote sensing satellite based on application requirements].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang-qin; Gu, Xing-fa; Yu, Tao; Meng, Qing-yan; Li, Bin; Guo, Hong

    2012-03-01

    Remote sensing application requirements are the starting point for design of payload on board earth observation satellite. The generalization, standardization and serialization of payload are the future development trend for payload design. In the present paper, based on the analysis of remote sensing application requirements, the spatial resolution standardization of satellite remote sensing payload, which is the main concerned indicator, was investigated. The design standards of national payload spatial resolution of earth observation satellite are presented, which are important to the promotion of satellite payload production and saving in design cost.

  5. VTT's Fabry-Perot interferometer technologies for hyperspectral imaging and mobile sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissanen, Anna; Guo, Bin; Saari, Heikki; Näsilä, Antti; Mannila, Rami; Akujärvi, Altti; Ojanen, Harri

    2017-02-01

    VTT's Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) technology enables creation of small and cost-efficient microspectrometers and hyperspectral imagers - these robust and light-weight sensors are currently finding their way into a variety of novel applications, including emerging medical products, automotive sensors, space instruments and mobile sensing devices. This presentation gives an overview of our core FPI technologies with current advances in generation of novel sensing applications including recent mobile technology demonstrators of a hyperspectral iPhone and a mobile phone CO2 sensor, which aim to advance mobile spectroscopic sensing.

  6. Fiber inline Michelson interferometer fabricated by one-step femtosecond laser micromachining for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lei; Wu, Hongbin; Wang, Cong; Yu, Yingyu; Wang, Sumei; Xiao, Hai

    2013-12-01

    A fiber inline Michelson interferometer fiber optic sensor was presented for sensing applications, including high temperature performance and refractive index change. The sensor was fabricated using one-step femtosecond (fs) laser micromachining technique. A step structure at the tip of a single mode optical fiber was formed during the micromachining process. The device had a loss of 16 dB and an interference visibility exceeding 18 dB. The capability of this device for temperature sensing up to 1000 °C and refractive index sensing application in various concentrations of ethanol solution were all demonstrated.

  7. AmericaView - A State-Based Remote Sensing Initiative Integrating Remote Sensing Data Into Geospatial Education and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, R. L.; Lawrence, R.

    2007-12-01

    AmericaView (AV) is a national program created to advance the availability, timely distribution, and widespread use of land remote sensing data, especially among users within the university and government communities. Since the 1970s the federal government and private sector have spent billions of dollars on satellite-based earth observing systems, but distribution of data and development of real-world applications have been tough issues for the government and the academic research communities. It has often been hard for researchers to use or even access the data, particularly at smaller schools or research facilities, hindering applied research and current and future workforce development. Many state and local agencies working with applied research programs have not been able to effectively integrate remote sensing data into their geospatial management or decision-support programs. AV addresses these issues through a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey and the AmericaView Consortium, which is a 501c3 non-profit comprised of university-led, state-based consortia. AmericaView is the federal government's partner in achieving the program vision and goals, which focus both on making data available in usable, cost-effective formats and on helping the university, secondary-education, and public sectors in each state identify, develop, and implement the kinds of remote sensing applications each state needs most. AV is developing applied remote sensing research programs in each of its thirty StateViews. Partner academic institutions are creating internships programs involving students and faculty with applications development, in cooperation with local, state, and federal government agencies. Education and training outreach programs are improving workforce preparation at K-12, post-secondary, and professional levels. Data distribution and sharing infrastructure that leverages funding and avoids duplication is enabling practical archive expansion and distribution

  8. Application of nano-structured conducting polymers to humidity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Pilyeon

    Nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanocolumns, and nanotubes, have attracted a lot of attention because of their huge potential impact on a variety of applications. For sensor applications, nanostructures provide high surface area to volume ratios. The high surface area to volume ratio allows more reaction areas between target species and detection materials and also improves the detection sensitivity and response time. The main goal of this research was to exploit the advantages and develop innovative methods to accomplish the synthesis of nanowires and nano-coulmn conducting polymers used in humidity detection. To accomplish this, two fabrication methods are used. The first one utilizes the geometric confinement effect of a temporary nanochannel template to orient, precisely position, and assemble Polyaniline (PANI) nanowires as they are synthesized. The other approach is to simply spin-coat a polymer onto a substrate, and then oxygen plasma etch to generate a nano-columned Polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) thin film. 200 nm silicon oxide coated wafers with embedded platinum electrodes are used as a substrate for both fabrication methods. The biggest advantage of this first method is that it is simple, requires a single-step, i.e., synthesizing and positioning procedures are carried out simultaneously. The second method is potentially manufacturable and economic yet environmentally safe. These two methods do not produce extra nano-building materials to discard or create a health hazard. Both PANI nanowires and nano-columned PEDOT films have been tested for humidity detection using a system designed and built for this research to monitor response (current changes) to moisture, To explain the surface to volume ratio effect, 200 nm PANI nanowires and 10 microm PANI wires were directly compared for detecting moisture, and it was shown that the PANI nanowire had a better sensitivity. It was found difficult to monitor the behaviors of the PEDOT reaction to varying

  9. Applications of Remote Sensing to Alien Invasive Plant Studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cho-ying; Asner, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions can affect ecosystems across a wide spectrum of bioclimatic conditions. Therefore, it is often important to systematically monitor the spread of species over a broad region. Remote sensing has been an important tool for large-scale ecological studies in the past three decades, but it was not commonly used to study alien invasive plants until the mid 1990s. We synthesize previous research efforts on remote sensing of invasive plants from spatial, temporal and spectral perspectives. We also highlight a recently developed state-of-the-art image fusion technique that integrates passive and active energies concurrently collected by an imaging spectrometer and a scanning-waveform light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system, respectively. This approach provides a means to detect the structure and functional properties of invasive plants of different canopy levels. Finally, we summarize regional studies of biological invasions using remote sensing, discuss the limitations of remote sensing approaches, and highlight current research needs and future directions. PMID:22408558

  10. Applications of satellite remote sensing to forested ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Robin Lambert Graham; Elizabeth A. Cook; Elizabeth A. Cook

    1989-01-01

    Since the launch of the first civilian earth-observing satellite in 1972, satellite remote sensing has provided increasingly sophisticated information on the structure and function of forested ecosystems. Forest classification and mapping, common uses of satellite data, have improved over the years as a result of more discriminating sensors, better classification...

  11. Gas sensing using porous materials for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Wales, Dominic J; Grand, Julien; Ting, Valeska P; Burke, Richard D; Edler, Karen J; Bowen, Chris R; Mintova, Svetlana; Burrows, Andrew D

    2015-07-07

    Improvements in the efficiency of combustion within a vehicle can lead to reductions in the emission of harmful pollutants and increased fuel efficiency. Gas sensors have a role to play in this process, since they can provide real time feedback to vehicular fuel and emissions management systems as well as reducing the discrepancy between emissions observed in factory tests and 'real world' scenarios. In this review we survey the current state-of-the-art in using porous materials for sensing the gases relevant to automotive emissions. Two broad classes of porous material - zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) - are introduced, and their potential for gas sensing is discussed. The adsorptive, spectroscopic and electronic techniques for sensing gases using porous materials are summarised. Examples of the use of zeolites and MOFs in the sensing of water vapour, oxygen, NOx, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen are then detailed. Both types of porous material (zeolites and MOFs) reveal great promise for the fabrication of sensors for exhaust gases and vapours due to high selectivity and sensitivity. The size and shape selectivity of the zeolite and MOF materials are controlled by variation of pore dimensions, chemical composition (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity), crystal size and orientation, thus enabling detection and differentiation between different gases and vapours.

  12. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for aerial applicators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An airborne remote sensing system was developed and tested for recording aerial images of field crops, which were analyzed for variations of crop health or pest infestation. The multicomponent system consists of a multi-spectral camera system, a camera control system, and a radiometer for normalizi...

  13. Advances on Aryldiazonium Salt Chemistry Based Interfacial Fabrication for Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chaomin; Zhang, Yin; Jiang, Cheng; Qi, Meng; Liu, Guozhen

    2017-02-15

    Aryldiazonium salts as coupling agents for surface chemistry have evidenced their wide applications for the development of sensors. Combined with advances in nanomaterials, current trends in sensor science and a variety of particular advantages of aryldiazonium salt chemistry in sensing have driven the aryldiazonium salt-based sensing strategies to grow at an astonishing pace. This review focuses on the advances in the use of aryldiazonium salts for modifying interfaces in sensors and biosensors during the past decade. It will first summarize the current methods for modification of interfaces with aryldiazonium salts, and then discuss the sensing applications of aryldiazonium salts modified on different transducers (bulky solid electrodes, nanomaterials modified bulky solid electrodes, and nanoparticles). Finally, the challenges and perspectives that aryldiazonium salt chemistry is facing in sensing applications are critically discussed.

  14. State-Of in Uav Remote Sensing Survey - First Insights Into Applications of Uav Sensing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasen, H.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are increasingly adapted as remote sensing platforms. Together with specialized sensors, they become powerful sensing systems for environmental monitoring and surveying. Spectral data has great capabilities to the gather information about biophysical and biochemical properties. Still, capturing meaningful spectral data in a reproducible way is not trivial. Since a couple of years small and lightweight spectral sensors, which can be carried on small flexible platforms, have become available. With their adaption in the community, the responsibility to ensure the quality of the data is increasingly shifted from specialized companies and agencies to individual researchers or research teams. Due to the complexity of the data acquisition of spectral data, this poses a challenge for the community and standardized protocols, metadata and best practice procedures are needed to make data intercomparable. In November 2016, the ESSEM COST action Innovative optical Tools for proximal sensing of ecophysiological processes (OPTIMISE; http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/) held a workshop on best practices for UAV spectral sampling. The objective of this meeting was to trace the way from particle to pixel and identify influences on the data quality / reliability, to figure out how well we are currently doing with spectral sampling from UAVs and how we can improve. Additionally, a survey was designed to be distributed within the community to get an overview over the current practices and raise awareness for the topic. This talk will introduce the approach of the OPTIMISE community towards best practises in UAV spectral sampling and present first results of the survey (http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/uav-survey/). This contribution briefly introduces the survey and gives some insights into the first results given by the interviewees.

  15. Perspectives in remote sensing in Brazil. An approach of the remote sensing applications to Earth resources surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Novaes, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Since the systematic use of earth surface data collection by orbital sensor systems started in 1972 with the launching of the North American LANDSAT satellite, a great effort has been made to assimilate, develop and transfer remote sensing technology (data acquisition and analysis) in its many applications in Brazil. The availability of sensor systems and existing data is considered approached, as well as those which will soon be available to the Brazilian researchers. The new systems of the LANDSAT-4, of the Columbia space shuttle and of the French satellites of the SPOT series are discussed. Some characteristics of the sensor system for the first Brazilian remote sensing satellite, to be launched by the end of the decade, are presented. Some LANDSAT-4 and SPOT simulation products are shown, emphasizing how the data obtained by these new satellites can be applied.

  16. [Application and prospect of multi-spectral remote sensing in major natural disaster assessment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-tao; Wang, Shi-xin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Li-tao; Yan, Fu-li

    2011-03-01

    After the occurrence of major natural disasters, it is of great significance that disaster states are assessed timely and accurately for decision-making departments to draw up effective response programs. Multi-spectral remote sensing has a great advantage and potential in disaster assessment, with the characteristics of a wide range of data acquisition, high speed, etc. In several major natural disaster assessments in China, multi-spectral remote sensing technology has played an important role. Firstly, the present paper takes earthquake disasters, floods disasters and drought disasters as examples to summarize the specific applications of major natural disaster assessment based on the multi-spectral remote sensing. Secondly, in these specific applications they suffer from both relative shortage of data sources and limited breadth and depth of application; both of these problems are analyzed. Finally, the future development direction of major natural disaster assessment based on the multi-spectral remote sensing, such as the expansion of multi-spectral remote sensing data acquisition means, the establishment of major natural disasters assessment index system based on remote sensing, and the improvement of the assessment technology system based on multi-spectral remote sensing are also discussed.

  17. Application of remote sensing to estimating soil erosion potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques has been tested in a 6136 hectare watershed with agricultural, forest and urban land cover to determine the relative utility of alternative aerial photographic data sources for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. The principal photographic data sources are high altitude 9 x 9 inch color infrared photos at 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 and multi-date medium altitude color and color infrared photos at 1:60,000. Principal data for estimating soil erosion potential include precipitation, soil, slope, crop, crop practice, and land use/land cover data derived from topographic maps, soil maps, and remote sensing. A computer-based geographic information system organized on a one-hectare grid cell basis is used to store and quantify the information collected using different data sources and interpretation techniques. Research results are compared with traditional Universal Soil Loss Equation field survey methods.

  18. Remote Sensing Applications to the Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, E.; Warnick, L.

    1982-01-01

    Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Inventory demonstrated the effective use of remote sensing techniques within the context of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The inventory combined data from field work, a literature search, and photointerpretation to fulfill both State and Federal requirements. A primary project objective was to accurately identify and map all surface features and disturbances from abandoned surface and underground mining. Black-and-white aerial photographs were used to record pits, contour benches, highwalls, spoil material, graded and recontoured areas, impounded water, and serious erosion and slide prone areas. In addition, vegetation cover estimates and surrounding land uses were noted. The inventory data base provides Pennsylvania with a valuable resource management tool that should be systematically updated. The utilization of remotely sensed data from SPOT or LANDSAT-D satellites may prove valuable in the anticipated updating and monitoring of the Pennsylvania AML inventory over the next several years.

  19. Fabrication of diamond nanorods for gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, Marina; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Babchenko, Oleg; Stuchlik, Martin; Hruska, Karel

    2010-07-01

    Diamond nanorods were fabricated for a sensing device by utilizing reactive ion etching in CF 4/O 2 radio frequency plasma. The length of the nanorods has been controlled by the ion etching time. The obtained morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The gas sensing properties of the H-terminated diamond-based sensor structures are indicating that we have achieved high sensitivity to detect phosgene gas. Also, our sensor exhibited good selectivity between humid air and phosgene gas if the measurement is conducted at elevated temperatures, such as 140 °C. Furthermore, such sensor response rating could reach as high value as 4344 for the phosgene gas, which was evaluated for the sample consisting of the longest nanorods (up to 200 nm).

  20. Application of remote sensing to estimating soil erosion potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques has been tested in a 6136 hectare watershed with agricultural, forest and urban land cover to determine the relative utility of alternative aerial photographic data sources for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. The principal photographic data sources are high altitude 9 x 9 inch color infrared photos at 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 and multi-date medium altitude color and color infrared photos at 1:60,000. Principal data for estimating soil erosion potential include precipitation, soil, slope, crop, crop practice, and land use/land cover data derived from topographic maps, soil maps, and remote sensing. A computer-based geographic information system organized on a one-hectare grid cell basis is used to store and quantify the information collected using different data sources and interpretation techniques. Research results are compared with traditional Universal Soil Loss Equation field survey methods.

  1. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  2. Remote Sensing Applications to the Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, E.; Warnick, L.

    1982-01-01

    Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Inventory demonstrated the effective use of remote sensing techniques within the context of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The inventory combined data from field work, a literature search, and photointerpretation to fulfill both State and Federal requirements. A primary project objective was to accurately identify and map all surface features and disturbances from abandoned surface and underground mining. Black-and-white aerial photographs were used to record pits, contour benches, highwalls, spoil material, graded and recontoured areas, impounded water, and serious erosion and slide prone areas. In addition, vegetation cover estimates and surrounding land uses were noted. The inventory data base provides Pennsylvania with a valuable resource management tool that should be systematically updated. The utilization of remotely sensed data from SPOT or LANDSAT-D satellites may prove valuable in the anticipated updating and monitoring of the Pennsylvania AML inventory over the next several years.

  3. Microfiber Bragg grating for temperature and strain sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jie; Liu, Shuhui; Yu, Wenbing; Deng, Peigang

    2017-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating is inscribed on microfiber with femtosecond laser pulses irradiation. The microfiber is fabricated by stretching a section of single mode fiber over a flame. Periodic grooves are carved on the microfiber by the laser as have been observed experimentally. The microfiber Bragg grating is demonstrated for temperature and strain sensing, and the strain sensitivity is improved with decreased diameters of the microfibers.

  4. Microscale Electrospinning of Polymer Nanowires for Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Yes PVA - Poly(vinyl alcohol) PEO - Poly(ethylene oxide) PECH - Poly( epichlorohydrin ) PIB - Poly(isobutylene) PNVP - Poly(n-vinyl pyrrolidone) Figure 3...0.14 Current (Anus) Figure 6: I-V curve for the device of figure 5 Poly( epichlorohydrin ) - PECH is an attractive polymer for chemical sensing due to...four-component array was measured and was distinct for each vapor. Poly( epichlorohydrin ) (PECH), Mw of 700,000 , poly(ethylene Oxide) (PEO) Mw of

  5. Remote sensing applications to Missouri environmental resources information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    An efficient system for retrieval of remotely sensed data to be used by natural resources oriented agencies, and a natural resources data system that can meet the needs of state agencies were studied. To accomplish these objectives, natural resources data sources were identified, and study of systems already in operation which address themselves to the more efficient utilization of natural resources oriented data was prepared.

  6. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    success of using remote sensing data to drive DA models, and produced a dynamically consistent representation of the wave, circulation, and...198-208. 12. Hopkins, J., S. Elgar, and B. Raubenheimer (2017), Flow separation effects on shoreline evolution , Coastal Engineering, in review. 13...relative vorticity values reaching up to 50. We specifically focus on the front on the north edge of the plume and examine the evolution in plume

  7. Application of joint orthogonal bases in compressive sensing ghost image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Zheng-dong; Liang, Zheng-yu; Zhu, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Sparse decomposition is one of the core issue of compressive sensing ghost image. At this stage, traditional methods still have the problems of poor sparsity and low reconstruction accuracy, such as discrete fourier transform and discrete cosine transform. In order to solve these problems, joint orthogonal bases transform is proposed to optimize ghost imaging. First, introduce the principle of compressive sensing ghost imaging and point out that sparsity is related to the minimum sample data required for imaging. Then, analyze the development and principle of joint orthogonal bases in detail and find out it can use less nonzero coefficients to reach the same identification effect as other methods. So, joint orthogonal bases transform is able to provide the sparsest representation. Finally, the experimental setup is built in order to verify simulation results. Experimental results indicate that the PSNR of joint orthogonal bases is much higher than traditional methods by using same sample data in compressive sensing ghost image.Therefore, joint orthogonal bases transform can realize better imaging quality under less sample data, which can satisfy the system requirements of convenience and rapid speed in ghost image.

  8. A stochastic atmospheric model for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    There are many factors which reduce the accuracy of classification of objects in the satellite remote sensing of Earth's surface. One important factor is the variability in the scattering and absorptive properties of the atmospheric components such as particulates and the variable gases. For multispectral remote sensing of the Earth's surface in the visible and infrared parts of the spectrum the atmospheric particulates are a major source of variability in the received signal. It is difficult to design a sensor which will determine the unknown atmospheric components by remote sensing methods, at least to the accuracy needed for multispectral classification. The problem of spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric quantities which can affect the measured radiances are examined. A method based upon the stochastic nature of the atmospheric components was developed, and, using actual data the statistical parameters needed for inclusion into a radiometric model was generated. Methods are then described for an improved correction of radiances. These algorithms will then result in a more accurate and consistent classification procedure.

  9. Finite element analysis of (SA) mechanoreceptors in tactile sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, Syamimi; Yahud, S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the structural design of a fingertip model in order to analyse the sensory function of slow adapting (SA) mechanoreceptors by using the finite element analysis (FEA) method. A biologically inspired tactile sensor was designed to mimic a similar response of the human mechanoreceptors in the human glabrous skin. The simulation work was done by using COMSOL Multiphysics. The artificial skin was modelled as a solid square block of silicone elastomer with a semi cylinder protrusion on top. It was modelled as a nearly incompressible and linear hyperelastic material defined by Neo Hookean constitutive law. The sensing element on the other hand was modelled by using constantan alloy mimicking the SA1 receptor. Boundary loads of 1 N/m² to 4 N/m² with the increment of 1 N/m² were applied to the top surface of the protrusion in z and x-direction for normal and shear stress, respectively. The epidermal model base was constrained to maintain the same boundary conditions throughout all simulations. The changes of length experienced by the sensing element were calculated. The simulations result in terms of strain was identified. The simulated result was plotted in terms of sensing element strain against the boundary load and the graph should produce a linear response.

  10. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 3 - From theory to applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of volume scattering and emission theory are discussed, taking into account a weakly scattering medium, the Born approximation, first-order renormalization, the radiative transfer method, and the matrix-doubling method. Other topics explored are related to scatterometers and probing systems, the passive microwave sensing of the atmosphere, the passive microwave sensing of the ocean, the passive microwave sensing of land, the active microwave sensing of land, and radar remote sensing applications. Attention is given to inversion techniques, atmospheric attenuation and emission, a temperature profile retrieval from ground-based observations, mapping rainfall rates, the apparent temperature of the sea, the emission behavior of bare soil surfaces, the emission behavior of vegetation canopies, the emission behavior of snow, wind-vector radar scatterometry, radar measurements of sea ice, and the back-scattering behavior of cultural vegetation canopies.

  11. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 3 - From theory to applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of volume scattering and emission theory are discussed, taking into account a weakly scattering medium, the Born approximation, first-order renormalization, the radiative transfer method, and the matrix-doubling method. Other topics explored are related to scatterometers and probing systems, the passive microwave sensing of the atmosphere, the passive microwave sensing of the ocean, the passive microwave sensing of land, the active microwave sensing of land, and radar remote sensing applications. Attention is given to inversion techniques, atmospheric attenuation and emission, a temperature profile retrieval from ground-based observations, mapping rainfall rates, the apparent temperature of the sea, the emission behavior of bare soil surfaces, the emission behavior of vegetation canopies, the emission behavior of snow, wind-vector radar scatterometry, radar measurements of sea ice, and the back-scattering behavior of cultural vegetation canopies.

  12. All-metal meta-surfaces for narrowband light absorption and high performance sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengqi; Liu, Guiqiang; Fu, Guolan; Liu, Xiaoshan; Huang, Zhenping; Gu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    We report an experimental scheme for high performance sensing by an all-metal meta-surface (AMMS) platform. A dual-band resonant absorption spectrum with a bandwidth down to a single-digit nanometer level and an absorbance up to 89% is achieved due to the surface lattice resonances supported by the resonators array and their hybridization coupling with the particle plasmon resonances. The sensing application in the analysis of the sodium chloride solution has been demonstrated, where remarkable changes from a spectral ‘dark state’ to ‘bright state’ and vice versa are observed. Sensing performance factors of the figure of merit exceeding 50 and the spectral intensity change related FoM* up to 1075 are simultaneously achieved. The corresponding detection limit is as low as 8.849  ×  10-6 RIU. These features make such an AMMS-based sensor a promising route for efficient bio-chemical sensing, etc.

  13. Using NASA Using Remote Sensing in Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John

    2011-01-01

    The Public Health application area focuses on Earth science applications to public health and safety, particularly regarding infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health issues. The application explores issues of toxic and pathogenic exposure, as well as natural and man-made hazards and their effects, for risk characterization/mitigation and improvements to health and safety.

  14. Parallel processing of remotely sensed data: Application to the ATSR-2 instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J.; McIntire, T.; Berg, J.; Tsou, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Massively parallel computational paradigms can mitigate many issues associated with the analysis of large and complex remotely sensed data sets. Recently, the Beowulf cluster has emerged as the most attractive, massively parallel architecture due to its low cost and high performance. Whereas most Beowulf designs have emphasized numerical modeling applications, the Parallel Image Processing Environment (PIPE) specifically addresses the unique requirements of remote sensing applications. Automated, parallelization of user-defined analyses is fully supported. A neural network application, applied to Along Track Scanning Radiometer-2 (ATSR-2) data shows the advantages and performance characteristics of PIPE.

  15. Current achievements of nanoparticle applications in developing optical sensing and imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-ryul; Shin, Dong-Myeong; Song, Hyerin; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Kyujung

    2016-11-01

    Metallic nanostructures have recently been demonstrated to improve the performance of optical sensing and imaging techniques due to their remarkable localization capability of electromagnetic fields. Particularly, the zero-dimensional nanostructure, commonly called a nanoparticle, is a promising component for optical measurement systems due to its attractive features, e.g., ease of fabrication, capability of surface modification and relatively high biocompatibility. This review summarizes the work to date on metallic nanoparticles for optical sensing and imaging applications, starting with the theoretical backgrounds of plasmonic effects in nanoparticles and moving through the applications in Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence biosensors. Various efforts for enhancing the sensitivity, selectivity and biocompatibility are summarized, and the future outlooks for this field are discussed. Convergent studies in optical sensing and imaging have been emerging field for the development of medical applications, including clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications.

  16. Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leahy-Hoppa, Megan R.; Miragliotta, Joseph; Osiander, Robert; Burnett, Jennifer; Dikmelik, Yamac; McEnnis, Caroline; Spicer, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast pulsed lasers find application in a range of spectroscopy and sensing techniques including laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), coherent Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Whether based on absorption or emission processes, the characteristics of these techniques are heavily influenced by the use of ultrafast pulses in the signal generation process. Depending on the energy of the pulses used, the essential laser interaction process can primarily involve lattice vibrations, molecular rotations, or a combination of excited states produced by laser heating. While some of these techniques are currently confined to sensing at close ranges, others can be implemented for remote spectroscopic sensing owing principally to the laser pulse duration. We present a review of ultrafast laser-based spectroscopy techniques and discuss the use of these techniques to current and potential chemical and environmental sensing applications. PMID:22399883

  17. Commodity Cluster Computing for Remote Sensing Applications using Red Hat LINUX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been doing research at Goddard Space Flight Center on implementing a wide variety of applications on commodity based computing clusters. This talk is about these clusters and haw they are used on these applications including ones for remote sensing.

  18. Unmanned aircraft missions for rangeland remote sensing applications in the US National Airspace

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  19. Rangeland remote sensing applications with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace: challenges and experiences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  20. Enhanced modes excitation in photonic crystal fiber by long-period gratings for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shijie; Zhu, Yinian

    2016-03-01

    Evanescent-wave sensing platform is proposed by two interrogating schemes, core-cladding coupling and core-cladding-core coupling and re-coupling, in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM-PCF) with long-period gratings (LPGs). The sensing characteristics are experimentally investigated by stress relaxation technique and point-by-point grating inscription via CO2 laser. It shows that the evanescent wave in cladding mode is significantly increased due to LPGs, compared with in core mode only. The introduced concept will further help explore the PCF evanescent-wave sensing and its applications.

  1. The application of remote sensing techniques to selected inter and intra urban data acquisition problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1970-01-01

    The utility of remote sensing techniques to urban data acquisition problems in several distinct areas was identified. This endeavor included a comparison of remote sensing systems for urban data collection, the extraction of housing quality data from aerial photography, utilization of photographic sensors in urban transportation studies, urban change detection, space photography utilization, and an application of remote sensing techniques to the acquisition of data concerning intra-urban commercial centers. The systematic evaluation of variable extraction for urban modeling and planning at several different scales, and the model derivation for identifying and predicting economic growth and change within a regional system of cities are also studied.

  2. The application of remote sensing techniques to inter and intra urban analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    This is an effort to assess the applicability of air and spaceborne photography toward providing data inputs to urban and regional planning, management, and research. Through evaluation of remote sensing inputs to urban change detection systems, analyzing an effort to replicate an existing urban land use data file using remotely sensed data, estimating population and dwelling units from imagery, and by identifying and evaluating a system of urban places ultilizing space photography, it was determined that remote sensing can provide data concerning land use, changes in commercial structure, data for transportation planning, housing quality, residential dynamics, and population density.

  3. The application of remote sensing techniques to selected inter and intra urban data acquisition problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1970-01-01

    The utility of remote sensing techniques to urban data acquisition problems in several distinct areas was identified. This endeavor included a comparison of remote sensing systems for urban data collection, the extraction of housing quality data from aerial photography, utilization of photographic sensors in urban transportation studies, urban change detection, space photography utilization, and an application of remote sensing techniques to the acquisition of data concerning intra-urban commercial centers. The systematic evaluation of variable extraction for urban modeling and planning at several different scales, and the model derivation for identifying and predicting economic growth and change within a regional system of cities are also studied.

  4. Investigation of the application of remote sensing technology to environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Activities and results are reported of a project to investigate the application of remote sensing technology developed for the LACIE, AgRISTARS, Forestry and other NASA remote sensing projects for the environmental monitoring of strip mining, industrial pollution, and acid rain. Following a remote sensing workshop for EPA personnel, the EOD clustering algorithm CLASSY was selected for evaluation by EPA as a possible candidate technology. LANDSAT data acquired for a North Dakota test sight was clustered in order to compare CLASSY with other algorithms.

  5. The application of remote sensing to resource management and environmental quality programs in Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G.; Martinko, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Activities of the Kansas Applied Remote Sensing Program (KARS) designed to establish interactions on cooperative projects with decision makers in Kansas agencies in the development and application of remote sensing procedures are reported. Cooperative demonstration projects undertaken with several different agencies involved three principal areas of effort: Wildlife Habitat and Environmental Analysis; Urban and Regional Analysis; Agricultural and Rural Analysis. These projects were designed to concentrate remote sensing concepts and methodologies on existing agency problems to insure the continued relevancy of the program and maximize the possibility for immediate operational use. Completed projects are briefly discussed.

  6. Design and Validation of a 150 MHz HFFQCM Sensor for Bio-Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Román; García, Pablo; García, María; García, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda; Arnau, Antonio

    2017-09-08

    Acoustic wave resonators have become suitable devices for a broad range of sensing applications due to their sensitivity, low cost, and integration capability, which are all factors that meet the requirements for the resonators to be used as sensing elements for portable point of care (PoC) platforms. In this work, the design, characterization, and validation of a 150 MHz high fundamental frequency quartz crystal microbalance (HFF-QCM) sensor for bio-sensing applications are introduced. Finite element method (FEM) simulations of the proposed design are in good agreement with the electrical characterization of the manufactured resonators. The sensor is also validated for bio-sensing applications. For this purpose, a specific sensor cell was designed and manufactured that addresses the critical requirements associated with this type of sensor and application. Due to the small sensing area and the sensor's fragility, these requirements include a low-volume flow chamber in the nanoliter range, and a system approach that provides the appropriate pressure control for assuring liquid confinement while maintaining the integrity of the sensor with a good base line stability and easy sensor replacement. The sensor characteristics make it suitable for consideration as the elemental part of a sensor matrix in a multichannel platform for point of care applications.

  7. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Fowler, R.; Heilman, J.; Schmer, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cooperative projects between RSI and numerous South Dakota agencies have provided a means of incorporating remote sensing techniques into operational programs. Eight projects discussed in detail are: (1) detection of high moisture zones near interstate 90; (2) thermal infrared census of Canada geese in South Dakota; (3) dutch elm disease detection in urban environment; (4) a feasibility study for monitoring effective precipitation in South Dakota using TIROS-N; (5) open and abandoned dump sites in Spink county; (6) the influence of soil reflectance on LANDSAT signatures of crops; (7) A model implementation program for Lake Herman watershed; and (8) the Six-Mile Creek investigation follow-on.

  8. Applications of Earth Remote Sensing in Response to Meteorological Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Bell, Jordan R.; Schultz, Lori A.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Short-­-term Predic1on Research and Transi1on (SPoRT) Center supports the transi1on of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasing community. Our primary partners are NOAA's National Weather Service, their Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs), and National Centers. These organizations predict natural hazards and also assist in the disaster assessment process, benefiting from remotely sensed data. In 2013, SPoRT continued to transition high resolution satellite imagery, derived products, and value-­-added analysis to WFO partners and NASA's Applied Sciences Program.

  9. Plastic optical fiber fuse and its impact on sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Lee, Heeyoung; Hayashi, Neisei; Nakamura, Kentaro; Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2017-04-01

    We review the unique properties of a so-called optical fiber fuse phenomenon in plastic optical fibers (POFs), including its slow propagation velocity (1-2 orders of magnitude slower than that in silica fibers) and threshold power density (1/180 of the value for silica fibers). We also show that an oscillatory continuous curve instead of periodic voids is formed after the passage of the fuse, and that the bright spot is not a plasma but an optical discharge, the temperature of which is 3600 K. We then discuss its impact on distributed Brillouin sensing based on POFs.

  10. Applications of densitometry in remote sensing learning experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the use of densitometry in remote sensing courses is provided. The use of a densitometer provides the student with a type of hands on experience in which direct manipulation of image products is involved, and the procedures are easily and quickly learned facilitating the collection and analysis of quantitative data on the radiometric properties of aerial photographs and satellite images. These data can then be used for examining relationships between image tones or colors and ground conditions. Suggestions regarding the selection of equipment and imagery are made.

  11. The application of remote sensing techniques: Technical and methodological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Wagner, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Capabilities and limitations of modern imaging electromagnetic sensor systems are outlined, and the products of such systems are compared with those of the traditional aerial photographic system. Focus is given to the interface between the rapidly developing remote sensing technology and the information needs of operational agencies, and communication gaps are shown to retard early adoption of the technology by these agencies. An assessment is made of the current status of imaging remote sensors and their potential for the future. Public sources of remote sensor data and several cost comparisons are included.

  12. Remote sensing applications in marine science programs at VIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. H.; Penney, M. E.; Byrne, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Scientists at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) utilized remote sensing in three programs: (1) tonal variations in imagery of wetlands; (2) use of the thermal infrared to delineate the discharge cooling water at the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO) nuclear power station on the James River; and (3) the use of aerial photography to determine the volume storage function for water in the marsh-bay complex fed by Wachapreague Inlet on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Details of the investigations are given, along with significant results.

  13. Enhanced electricity generation by triclosan and iron anodes in the three-chambered membrane bio-chemical reactor (TC-MBCR).

    PubMed

    Song, Jing; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin; Ren, Nanqi; Crittenden, John

    2013-11-01

    A three-chambered membrane bio-chemical reactor (TC-MBCR) was developed. The stainless steel membrane modules were used as cathodes and iron plates in the middle chamber served as the anode. The TC-MBCR was able to reduce fouling, remove triclosan (TCS) from a synthetic wastewater treatment and enhance electricity generation by ~60% compared with the cell voltage before TCS addition. The TC-MBCR system generated a relatively stable power output (cell voltage ~0.2V) and the corrosion of iron plates contributed to electricity generation together with microbes on iron anode. The permeation flow from anode to cathode chamber was considered important in electricity generation. In addition, the negatively charged cathode membrane and Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) released by iron plates mitigated membrane fouling by approximately 30%, as compared with the control. The removal of COD and total phosphorus was approximately 99% and 90%. The highest triclosan removal rate reached 97.9%.

  14. Self-sensing miniature electromagnetic actuators for a cardiac assist device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Ben M.; Walker, Peter G.; Levesley, Martin C.; Watterson, Kevin; Richardson, Robert C.; Yang, Ming

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the application of self-sensing control to a cardiac assist device. We propose to improve the pumping performance of diseased or weakened hearts by applying direct cardiac compression using artificial muscle. This particular application imposes strict limitations on size, weight and system complexity, therefore employing self-sensing could offer advantages over separate sensors and actuators. Many electromagnetic actuators produce a back-e.m.f. proportional to velocity. Using a simple system model, it is possible to separate this back-e.m.f. from the supply voltage, thus the actuator velocity can be self-sensed. Furthermore, using a more detailed model, it also is possible to self-sense the force being applied. Experimental results are presented for linear moving-coil actuators and miniature d.c. motors. Estimation of position has been performed by numerical integration of self-sensed velocity, and shown to compare favourably to data from displacement sensors. Force estimation has also been shown to closely agree with data from a load cell. Combined force and position control has been implemented, without using sensors. Unfortunately, since self-sensed position is derived by integrating velocity, the estimated position can suffer from drifting. An automatic re-calibration scheme is proposed for the cardiac assist application.

  15. Applications of remote-sensing data in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    Public and private agencies were introduced to the use of remotely sensed data obtained by both satellite and aircraft, and benefitted from facilities for data processing enhancement and interpretation as well as from the institute's data library. Cooperative ventures involving the performance of operational activities included assistance to the Bureau of Land Management in the suppression of wildfires; the selection of sites for power line right-of-way; the mapping of leads in sea ice; determination of portions of public lands to be allocated for small scale farming; the identification of areas for large scale farming of barley; the observation of coastal processes and sediment transport near Prudhoe Bay; the establishment of a colar infrared file of the entire state; and photomapping for geological surveys. Monitoring of the outer continental shelf environment and reindeer herds was also conducted. Institutional constraints to full utilization of satellite remote sensing in the state are explored and plans for future activites include the generation of awareness by government agencies, the training of state personnel, and improving coordination and communication with users.

  16. Applications of remote sensing to wind power facility siting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, J. E.; Rosenfeld, C. L.; Maule, P. A.

    A method by which wind energy prospectors can use remote sensing to rapidly examine extensive geographical areas to identify potential wind turbine generators' sites is outlined. Remote sensing in wind prospecting is not being considered as a tool for determining wind power potential but, rather, as an aid in identifying terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric characteristics associated with desirable wind power sites. It is noted that locations with interesting features noted in a regional assessment can be more closely evaluated using medium-scale imagery, which can be acquired from a number of different agencies, among them the U.S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, Water and Power Resources and the Soil Conservation Service. Once specific locations have been identified from small- and medium-scale imagery, low-level aerial reconnaissance in a locally chartered aircraft can verify the information obtained. Wind-deformed trees, active slip faces on dunes, snow cornices, snow fences, and the slopes of ridges can be evaluated.

  17. Amorphous photonic membranes for broadband chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Sonja P.; Whaley, Ralph D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    While there has been extensive development on integrated sensors in the near-IR region due to the maturation of Si, SOI, and III-V materials, these technologies are not easily translated into the visible and near-UV regions which are critical for the detection of many chemicals of environmental and security interest. This work focuses on the use of wide bandgap, amorphous materials, specifically, amorphous zinc oxide (a-ZnO), amorphous hafnium oxide (a-HfO2) and amorphous beryllium zinc oxide (a-BeZnO), in the development of broadband chemical sensors operating at critical absorption lines spanning the near-UV (200 nm) to the near-IR (1.55 μm). The architecture employed for this research is a nanoscale membrane (typically 40 - 100 nm thick) that supports a guided low optical overlap mode (LOOM) - an optical mode in which approximately 1% of the electric field is confined to the lossy core region. The resulting extended mode has a greatly enhanced analyte overlap, yielding a device sensitivity (~70%) that is over an order of magnitude higher than current high-performance, dielectric evanescent wave sensors (~2%) as modeled by analytical and finite element methods. Due to the extended nature of the LOOM, sensing across the entire spectral range can be achieved with a single waveguide design - critical for multi-point chemical sensing architectures.

  18. Zinc oxide doped graphene oxide films for gas sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chetna, Kumar, Shani; Chaudhary, S.; Kapoor, A.; Garg, A.; Chowdhuri, A.; Dhingra, V.

    2016-05-06

    Graphene Oxide (GO) is analogous to graphene, but presence of many functional groups makes its physical and chemical properties essentially different from those of graphene. GO is found to be a promising material for low cost fabrication of highly versatile and environment friendly gas sensors. Selectivity, reversibility and sensitivity of GO based gas sensor have been improved by hybridization with Zinc Oxide nanoparticles. The device is fabricated by spin coating of deionized water dispersed GO flakes (synthesized using traditional hummer’s method) doped with Zinc Oxide on standard glass substrate. Since GO is an insulator and functional groups on GO nanosheets play vital role in adsorbing gas molecules, it is being used as an adsorber. Additionally, on being exposed to certain gases the electric and optical characteristics of GO material exhibit an alteration in behavior. For the conductivity, we use Zinc Oxide, as it displays a high sensitivity towards conduction. The effects of the compositions, structural defects and morphologies of graphene based sensing layers and the configurations of sensing devices on the performances of gas sensors were investigated by Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Keithley Sourcemeter.

  19. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Quorum-sensing of bacteria and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guoliang; Su, Mingxia

    2009-12-01

    Quorum sensing, or auto induction, as a cell density dependent signaling mechanism in many microorganisms, is triggered via auto inducers which passively diffuse across the bacterial envelope and therefore intracellulaly accumulate only at higher bacterial densities to regulate specialized processes such as genetic competence, bioluminescence, virulence and sporulation. N-acyl homoserine lactones are the most common type of signal molecules. Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing food-producing industries, but disease outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria are a significant constraint on the development of the sector worldwide. Many of these pathogens have been found to be controlled by their quorum sensing systems. As there is relevance between the pathogenic bacteria's virulence factor expression and their auto inducers, quorum quenching is a new effective anti-infective strategy to control infections caused by bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. The techniques used to do this mainly include the following: (1) the inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis, (2) blocking signal transduction, and (3) chemical inactivation and biodegradation of signal molecules. To provide a basis for finding alternative means of controlling aquatic diseases by quorum quenching instead of treatment by antibiotics and disinfectants, we will discuss the examination, purification and identification of auto inducers in this paper.

  20. Remote sensing image denoising application by generalized morphological component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chong; Chen, Xiong

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we introduced a remote sensing image denoising method based on generalized morphological component analysis (GMCA). This novel algorithm is the further extension of morphological component analysis (MCA) algorithm to the blind source separation framework. The iterative thresholding strategy adopted by GMCA algorithm firstly works on the most significant features in the image, and then progressively incorporates smaller features to finely tune the parameters of whole model. Mathematical analysis of the computational complexity of GMCA algorithm is provided. Several comparison experiments with state-of-the-art denoising algorithms are reported. In order to make quantitative assessment of algorithms in experiments, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) index and Structural Similarity (SSIM) index are calculated to assess the denoising effect from the gray-level fidelity aspect and the structure-level fidelity aspect, respectively. Quantitative analysis on experiment results, which is consistent with the visual effect illustrated by denoised images, has proven that the introduced GMCA algorithm possesses a marvelous remote sensing image denoising effectiveness and ability. It is even hard to distinguish the original noiseless image from the recovered image by adopting GMCA algorithm through visual effect.

  1. Array Independent Component Analysis with Application to Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuyeva, Irina A.

    2012-11-01

    There are three ways to learn about an object: from samples taken directly from the site, from simulation studies based on its known scientific properties, or from remote sensing images. All three are carried out to study Earth and Mars. Our goal, however, is to learn about the second largest storm on Jupiter, called the White Oval, whose characteristics are unknown to this day. As Jupiter is a gas giant and hundreds of millions of miles away from Earth, we can only make inferences about the planet from retrieval algorithms and remotely sensed images. Our focus is to find latent variables from the remotely sensed data that best explain its underlying atmospheric structure. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is currently the most commonly employed technique to do so. For a data set with more than two modes, this approach fails to account for all of the variable interactions, especially if the distribution of the variables is not multivariate normal; an assumption that is rarely true of multispectral images. The thesis presents an overview of PCA along with the most commonly employed decompositions in other fields: Independent Component Analysis, Tucker-3 and CANDECOMP/PARAFAC and discusses their limitations in finding unobserved, independent structures in a data cube. We motivate the need for a novel dimension reduction technique that generalizes existing decompositions to find latent, statistically independent variables for one side of a multimodal (number of modes greater than two) data set while accounting for the variable interactions with its other modes. Our method is called Array Independent Component Analysis (AICA). As the main question of any decomposition is how to select a small number of latent variables that best capture the structure in the data, we extend the heuristic developed by Ceulemans and Kiers in [10] to aid in model selection for the AICA framework. The effectiveness of each dimension reduction technique is determined by the degree of

  2. Fabrication strategies, sensing modes and analytical applications of ratiometric electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Gui, Rijun; Yu, Jianbo; Lv, Wei; Wang, Zonghua

    2017-05-15

    Previously developed electrochemical biosensors with single-electric signal output are probably affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In contrast, the ratiometric electrochemical biosensors (RECBSs) with dual-electric signal outputs have an intrinsic built-in correction to the effects from system or background electric signals, and therefore exhibit a significant potential to improve the accuracy and sensitivity in electrochemical sensing applications. In this review, we systematically summarize the fabrication strategies, sensing modes and analytical applications of RECBSs. First, the different fabrication strategies of RECBSs were introduced, referring to the analytes-induced single- and dual-dependent electrochemical signal strategies for RECBSs. Second, the different sensing modes of RECBSs were illustrated, such as differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, alternating current voltammetry, electrochemiluminescence, and so forth. Third, the analytical applications of RECBSs were discussed based on the types of target analytes. Finally, the forthcoming development and future prospects in the research field of RECBSs were also highlighted.

  3. Analysis on the application of background parameters on remote sensing classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Y.

    Drawing accurate crop cultivation acreage, dynamic monitoring of crops growing and yield forecast are some important applications of remote sensing to agriculture. During the 8th 5-Year Plan period, the task of yield estimation using remote sensing technology for the main crops in major production regions in China once was a subtopic to the national research task titled "Study on Application of Remote sensing Technology". In 21 century in a movement launched by Chinese Ministry of Agriculture to combine high technology to farming production, remote sensing has given full play to farm crops' growth monitoring and yield forecast. And later in 2001 Chinese Ministry of Agriculture entrusted the Northern China Center of Agricultural Remote Sensing to forecast yield of some main crops like wheat, maize and rice in rather short time to supply information for the government decision maker. Present paper is a report for this task. It describes the application of background parameters in image recognition, classification and mapping with focuses on plan of the geo-science's theory, ecological feature and its cartographical objects or scale, the study of phrenology for image optimal time for classification of the ground objects, the analysis of optimal waveband composition and the application of background data base to spatial information recognition ;The research based on the knowledge of background parameters is indispensable for improving the accuracy of image classification and mapping quality and won a secondary reward of tech-science achievement from Chinese Ministry of Agriculture. Keywords: Spatial image; Classification; Background parameter

  4. Applications of remote sensing data to the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Iller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS program provides a means to overcome the formidable logistic and economic costs of preparing environmental surveys of the vast and relatively unexplored regions of Alaska. There is an excellent potential in satellite remote sensing to benefit Federal, state, local, and private agencies, by providing a new synoptic data base which is necessary for the preparation of the needed surveys and the search for solutions to environmental management problems. One approach in coupling satellite data to Alaskan problems is a major program initiated by the University of Alaska and funded by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. This included 12 projects whose aims were to study the feasibility of applying ERTS data to the disciplines of ecology, agriculture, hydrology, wildlife management, oceanography, geology, glaciology, volcanology, and archaeology.

  5. Space-Time Data fusion for Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Nguyen, H.; Cressie, N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been collecting massive amounts of remote sensing data about Earth's systems for more than a decade. Missions are selected to be complementary in quantities measured, retrieval techniques, and sampling characteristics, so these datasets are highly synergistic. To fully exploit this, a rigorous methodology for combining data with heterogeneous sampling characteristics is required. For scientific purposes, the methodology must also provide quantitative measures of uncertainty that propagate input-data uncertainty appropriately. We view this as a statistical inference problem. The true but notdirectly- observed quantities form a vector-valued field continuous in space and time. Our goal is to infer those true values or some function of them, and provide to uncertainty quantification for those inferences. We use a spatiotemporal statistical model that relates the unobserved quantities of interest at point-level to the spatially aggregated, observed data. We describe and illustrate our method using CO2 data from two NASA data sets.

  6. Environmental Public Health Applications Using Remotely Sensed Data.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Crosson, William L; Economou, Sigrid A; Estes, Maurice G; Estes, Sue M; Hemmings, Sarah N; Kent, Shia T; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale A; Rickman, Douglas L; Wade, Gina M; McClure, Leslie A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a remote sensing and GIS-based study that has three objectives: (1) characterize fine particulate matter (PM2.5), insolation and land surface temperature using NASA satellite observations, EPA ground-level monitor data and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data products on a national scale; (2) link these data with public health data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes; and (3) disseminate the environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses to end users for decision-making through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. This study directly addresses a public health focus of the NASA Applied Sciences Program, utilization of Earth Sciences products, by addressing issues of environmental health to enhance public health decision-making.

  7. Environmental Public Health Applications Using Remotely Sensed Data

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Economou, Sigrid A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Hemmings, Sarah N.; Kent, Shia T.; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Wade, Gina M.; McClure, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a remote sensing and GIS-based study that has three objectives: (1) characterize fine particulate matter (PM2.5), insolation and land surface temperature using NASA satellite observations, EPA ground-level monitor data and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data products on a national scale; (2) link these data with public health data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes; and (3) disseminate the environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses to end users for decision-making through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. This study directly addresses a public health focus of the NASA Applied Sciences Program, utilization of Earth Sciences products, by addressing issues of environmental health to enhance public health decision-making. PMID:24910505

  8. Grapefruit photonic crystal fiber sensor for gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chuanyi; Wei, Heming; Zhu, Yinian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-05-01

    Use of long period gratings (LPGs) formed in grapefruit photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with thin-film overlay coated on the inner surface of air holes for gas sensing is demonstrated. The finite-element method was used to numerically simulate the grapefruit PCF-LPG modal coupling characteristics and resonance spectral response with respect to the refractive index of thin-film inside the holey region. A gas analyte-induced index variation of the thin-film immobilized on the inner surface of the holey region of the fiber can be observed by a shift of the resonance wavelength. As an example, we demonstrate a 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) sensor using grapefruit PCF-LPGs. The sensor exhibits a wavelength blue-shift of ˜820 pm as a result of exposure to DNT vapor with a vapor pressure of 411 ppbv at 25°C, and a sensitivity of 2 pm ppbv-1 can be achieved.

  9. Some applications of NIR tunable diodes for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, H. I.; Mackay, G. I.; Nadler, S. D.

    1996-02-01

    Three versions of a near infrared system based on commercial communication type laser diodes have been developed. They have high selectivity and good sensitivity for a number of important gases. All three systems use a common control and data logging and analysis box. The LASAIR-R is a simple, inexpensive, remote sensing instrument using a single 10 cm Cassegrain telescope to both transmit and receive the laser beam. The LASAIR-S is a system for continuous, non-extractive stack monitoring. Fibre optics are used to take the laser beam from the control box (suitably located in the plant), to the stack and to return the absorbed beam. The LASAIR-P is a point source instrument using a multipath cell inside the box to provide the sensitivity required. The ease of operation and the relatively low cost should make these systems an attractive method for measuring specific gases for industrial and regulatory markets as well as for specific scientific measurements.

  10. Multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber sensor for alcohol sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofi'ah, Iftihatur; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol is volatile and flammable liquid which is soluble substances both on polar and non polar substances that has been used in some industrial sectors. Alcohol detection method now widely used one of them is the optical fiber sensor. In this paper used fiber optic sensor based on Multimode-Single-mode-Multimode (MSM) to detect alcohol solution at a concentration range of 0-3%. The working principle of sensor utilizes the modal interference between the core modes and the cladding modes, thus make the sensor sensitive to environmental changes. The result showed that characteristic of the sensor not affect the length of the single-mode fiber (SMF). We obtain that the sensor with a length of 5 mm of single-mode can sensing the alcohol with a sensitivity of 0.107 dB/v%.

  11. Remote Sensing of Arizona Monsoons: Application of GOES Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Cerveny, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Large, violent thunder and dust storms occur in the Phoenix area during monsoon season. Currently, the best ways to predict these dangerous and potentially damaging storms are not very accurate. The primary goal of this investigation is to attempt to develop a new technique to identify and predict these storms before they reach Phoenix. In order to address this question, two data sets (remote sensing satellite imagery and ground-based weather information) will be analyzed and compared against one another using time as a corresponding variable. The goal is to discern any correlations between data sets which be used as an indicator of imminent large monsoons. The moisture needed for the storms is carried to Arizona by events known as gulf surges (from the California Gulf); these will be the target of investigation. These chutes of moisture surge through Arizona, primarily up through Yuma in a northeasterly direction towards central/south central Arizona. The main goal is to identify if satellite imagery can be used as an accurate identifier of moisture movements preceding a storm in areas where ground measurements are not available. Presently, ground measurements of dew points are the primary technique by which these moisture surges are identified. However, while these measurements do have a fairly high temporal resolution (once an hour) they cover an awfully poor spacial range. Furthermore, it is suspected that because of interference to the instruments, the ground point data may not be as accurate as is preferred. On the other hand, satellite imagery such as GOES - the instrument used in this investigation - has both a remarkably high temporal resolution and spacial coverage. If a correlation can be demonstrated, then the high temporal resolution of the remote sensing data could be used as an identifier of oncoming monsoon storms. In order to proceed in this research, a software package known as Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS) for

  12. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing, summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    Health and its association with the physical environment was studied based on the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the man-made physical environment and health status of a population. The statistical technique of regression analysis was employed to show the degree of association and aspects of physical environment which accounted for the greater variation in health status. Mortality, venereal disease, tuberculosis, hepatitis, meningitis, shigella/salmonella, hypertension and cardiac arrest/myocardial infarction were examined. The statistical techniques were used to measure association and variation, not necessarily cause and effect. Conclusions drawn show that the association still exists in the decade of the 1970's and that it can be successfully monitored with the methodology of remote sensing.

  13. Space-Time Data fusion for Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Nguyen, H.; Cressie, N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been collecting massive amounts of remote sensing data about Earth's systems for more than a decade. Missions are selected to be complementary in quantities measured, retrieval techniques, and sampling characteristics, so these datasets are highly synergistic. To fully exploit this, a rigorous methodology for combining data with heterogeneous sampling characteristics is required. For scientific purposes, the methodology must also provide quantitative measures of uncertainty that propagate input-data uncertainty appropriately. We view this as a statistical inference problem. The true but notdirectly- observed quantities form a vector-valued field continuous in space and time. Our goal is to infer those true values or some function of them, and provide to uncertainty quantification for those inferences. We use a spatiotemporal statistical model that relates the unobserved quantities of interest at point-level to the spatially aggregated, observed data. We describe and illustrate our method using CO2 data from two NASA data sets.

  14. Airborne remote sensing applications to coastal wave research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Paul A.; Walsh, Edward J.; Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Scott, John F.; Earle, Marshall D.

    1998-08-01

    Airborne sensors provide effective coverage of a broad region and are suitable for large-scale experiments. In this paper, two scanning sensors that use the direct ranging technique to measure surface wave displacement are described. On a NASA P-3 aircraft the sensors can complete one run across a 100-km continental shelf in 17 min. A case study is presented using radar-measured, two-dimensional surface topography to derive wave damping due to bottom friction. The results are in good agreement with an analytical model based on a quadratic formulation of bottom shear stress. This study demonstrates that remote sensing measurements can be used for rapid characterization of surface waves on the continental shelf and in coastal regions. Examples illustrated in this paper include the derivation of wavenumber spectra and estimation of the dissipation rate of shoaling ocean swell.

  15. Gold/polypyrrole nanorods for gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šetka, Milena; Drbohlavová, Jana; Vallejos, Stella; Márik, Marian; Llobet, Eduard; Hubálek, Jaromír.

    2017-06-01

    This work describes the preparation of gold/polypyrrole nanorods (AuPPy NRs) using anodized alumina oxide (AAO) template and both pulsed galvanic deposition and electropolymerization for the deposition of Au and polypyrrole (PPy) nanorods (NRs), respectively. Characterization of the whole structure after AAO etching revealed the formation of a high density of NRs along the substrate with uniform diameters of approximately 50 nm and total lengths of 700 nm, the last corresponding to 1/3 and 2/3 of the length of the Au and PPy NRs, respectively. These structures are provided of bottom/top electrodes and a heating element coupled to the backside of the substrate, and their gas sensing properties towards various concentrations of NO2 in resistive configuration are presented.

  16. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehr, J. P.; Hewson, I.; Moisander, P.

    2009-05-01

    The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Molecular techniques can form the basis of remote instrumentation sensing technologies for marine microbial diversity and ecological function. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity), oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  17. Application of an ADS-B Sense and Avoid Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Kotcher, Robert; Cavalin, Moshe; Dandachy, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California is leading a program aimed towards integrating unmanned aircraft system into the national airspace system (UAS in the NAS). The overarching goal of the program is to reduce technical barriers associated with related safety issues as well as addressing challenges that will allow UAS routine access to the national airspace. This research paper focuses on three novel ideas: (1) A design of an integrated UAS equipped with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast that constructs a more accurate state-based airspace model; (2) The use of Stratway Algorithm in a real-time environment; and (3) The verification and validation of sense and avoid performance and usability test results which provide a pilot's perspective on how our system will benefit the UAS in the NAS program for both piloted and unmanned aircraft.

  18. Remote Sensing Application in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, Oleg; Aloltsov, Alexander; Rubtsova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    The main environmental problems of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (a federal subject of Russia) related to the activities of oil and gas industry (82 active companies which hold 77,000 oil wells). As on the 1st of January 2013 the subject produces more than 50% of all oil in Russia. The principle of environmental responsibility makes it necessary to minimize human impact and ecological impact. One of the most effective tools for environmental monitoring is remote sensing. The main advantages of such approach are: wide coverage of areas of interest, high temporal resolution, precise location, automatic processing, large set of extracted parameters, etc. Authorities of KhMAO are interested in regular detection of the impact on the environment by processing satellite data and plan to increase the coverage from 434.9 to 659.9 square kilometers with resolution not less than 10 m/pixel. Years of experience of our company shows the significant potential to expand the use of such remote sensing data in the solution of environmental problems. The main directions are: monitoring of rational use of associated petroleum gas (detection of all gas flares and volumes of burned gas), monitoring of soil pollution (detection of areas of oil pollution, assess of the extent of pollution, planning of reclamation activities and assessment of their efficiency, detection of potential areas of pipelines corrosion), monitoring of status of sludge pits (inventory of all sludge pits, assessment of their liquidation), monitoring of technogenic impact (detection of changes), upgrading of a geospatial database (topographic map of not less than 1:50000 scale). Implementation of modeling, extrapolation and remote analysis techniques based on satellite images will help to reduce unnecessary costs for instrumental methods. Thus, the introduction of effective remote monitoring technology to the activity of oil and gas companies promotes environmental responsibility of these companies.

  19. Application of ring down measurement approach to micro-cavities for bio-sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, M. I.; Kirk, Andrew G.

    2011-03-01

    Optical biosensors can detect biomarkers in the blood serum caused by either infections or exposure to toxins. Until now, most work on the micro-cavity biosensors has been based on measurement of the resonant frequency shift induced by binding of biomarkers to a cavity. However, frequency domain measurements are not precise for such high Q micro-cavities. We hypothesize that more accurate measurements and better noise tolerance can be achieved by the application of the ring down measurement approach to the micro-cavity in a biosensor. To test our hypothesis, we have developed a full vectorial finite element model of a silica toroidal micro-cavity immersed in water. Our modeling results show that a toroidal cavity with a major diameter of 70μm and a minor diameter of 6μm can achieve a sensitivity of 28.6μs/RIU refractive index units (RIU) at 580nm. Therefore, our sensor would achieve the resolution of 5 x 10-8 RIU by employing a detector with picosecond resolution. Hence we propose a micro-cavity ring down biosensor with high sensitivity which will find wide applications in real time and label free bio-sensing.

  20. Submillimeter-Wave Radiometer Technology for Earth Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, P.

    2000-01-01

    Recent innovations in ultra-high frequency, semiconductor device/component technology have enabled both traditional and new applications for space-borne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometer instruments.

  1. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Clark, J. R.; Solomon, J. L.; Duffy, B.; Minchew, K.; Wright, L. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The objectives, accomplishments, and future plans of several LANDSAT applications projects in Mississippi are discussed. The applications include land use planning in Lowandes County, strip mine inventory and reclamation, white tailed deer habitat evaluation, data analysis support systems, discrimination of forest habitats in potential lignite areas, changes in gravel operations, and determination of freshwater wetlands for inventory and monitoring. In addition, a conceptual design for a LANDSAT based information system is discussed.

  2. Applications of high-resolution remote sensing image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Leckie, D.; Miller, J.; Buxton, R.

    1990-01-01

    There are many situations in which the image resolution of satellite data is insufficient to provide the detail required for resource management and environmental monitoring. This paper will focus on applications of high-resolution (0.4 to 10 m) airborne multispectral and imaging spectrometer data acquired in Canada using the MEIS II multispectral line imager and the PMI imaging spectrometer. Applications discussed will include forestry, mapping, and geobotany.

  3. The Application of GeoRSC Based on Domestic Satellite in Field Remote Sensing Anomaly Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ting; Yang, Min; Han, Haihui; Li, Jianqiang; Yi, Huan

    2016-11-01

    The Geo REC is the digital remote sensing survey system which based on domestic satellites, and by means of it, the thesis carriedy out a remote sensing anomaly verification field application test in Nachitai area of Qinghai. Field test checks the system installation, the stability of the system operation, the efficiency of reading and show the romoate image or vector data, the security of the data management system and the accuracy of BeiDou navigation; through the test data, the author indicated that the hardware and software system could satisfy the remote sensing anomaly verification work in field, which could also could make it convenient forconvenient the workflow of remote sense survey and, improve the work efficiency,. Aat the same time, in the course of the experiment, we also found some shortcomings of the system, and give some suggestions for improvement combineding with the practical work for the system.

  4. Research On Fiber Optic Sensing Systems And Their Application As Final Repository Monitoring Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Jobmann, M.; Biurrun, E.

    2003-02-24

    For several years, fiber-optic sensing devices had been used for straightforward on/off monitoring functions such as presence and position detection. Recently, they gained interest as they offer a novel, exciting technology for a multitude of sensing applications. In the deep geological environment most physical properties, and thus most parameters important to safety, can be measured with fiber-optic technology. Typical examples are displacements, strains, radiation dose and dose rate, presence of some gases, temperature, pressure, etc. Their robustness, immunity to electromagnetic interference, as well as their large bandwidths and data rates ensure high reliability and superior performance. Moreover, the networking capabilities of meanwhile available fiber-optic sensors allow for efficient management of large sensor systems. Distributed sensing with multiple sensing locations on a single fiber reduces significantly the number of cables and connecting points. Reliable, cost effective, and maintenance-free solutions can thus be implemented.

  5. On multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This research is directed toward development of a practical, operational remote sensing water quality monitoring system. To accomplish this, five fundamental aspects of the problem have been under investigation during the past three years. These are: (1) development of practical and economical methods of obtaining, handling and analyzing remote sensing data; (2) determination of the correlation between remote sensed imagery and actual water quality parameters; (3) determination of the optimum technique for monitoring specific water pollution parameters and for evaluating the reliability with which this can be accomplished; (4) determination of the extent of masking due to depth of penetration, bottom effects, film development effects, and angle falloff, and development of techniques to eliminate or minimize them; and (5) development of operational procedures which might be employed by a municipal, state or federal agency for the application of remote sensing to water quality monitoring, including space-generated data.

  6. The Archaeological Application of Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Data in Qin Yongcheng Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Wan, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Remote sensing archaeology bases on the use of remote sensing images and interpretation of the principles. The historic relics and sites are resulted from human activities and have constantly caused influences on the soil component, moisture content, temperature, vegetation growth and so on. Based on this thought, this paper proposed a new remote sensing model and approach that integrates optical and thermal infrared remote sensing data for archaeology. Taking the Qin Yongcheng site as the example, this method conducts a comprehensive analysis of key factors affecting archaeological application, that is, LST estimated with Landsat TM data, soil brightness, humidity and greenness obtained from GF-1 data, and then interprets the potential site targets. By conducting the field verification, it is shown that the interpreted potential sites are well consisted with the field investigations and have a high interpretation precision. It can provide a guide for further archaeological research.

  7. Orbital remote sensing - Space technology applications in south-east Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malingreau, J.-P.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of remote sensing techniques in the developing countries of southeast Asia is reviewed. The use of the images for monitoring soil, water, and vegetation resources, in order to develop a national policy for conservation of the resources, is described. The remote sensing data are helpful in observing deforestation in southeast Asia; however, excessive cloud coverage does not allow accurate evaluation of the rice crop. The effects of the capabilities of the developing countries to process the data and remote sensing program of industrial countries on the future application of satellite imagery in developing countries are studied. The need for improved data banking and dissemination of the imagery is analyzed. Agreements on proprietary rights due to the improved ground resolution of orbital sensors are required. The designing of remote sensing equipment to meet the requirements of its users is discussed.

  8. International Conference on Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeological Research and World Heritage Conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Monitoring the Ancient Countryside: Remote Sensing and GIS at the Chora of Chersonesos (Crimea, Ukraine). Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS for Management Decision Support in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Republic of Benin). Monitoring of deforestation invasion in natural reserves of northern Madagascar based on space imagery. Cartography of Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Cartography and Land Use Change of World Heritage Areas and the Benefits of Remote Sensing and GIS for Conservation. Assessing and Monitoring Vegetation in Nabq Protected Area, South Sinai, Egypt, using combine approach of Satellite Imagery and Land Surveys. Evaluation of forage resources in semi-arid savannah environments with satellite imagery: contribution to the management of a protected area (Nakuru National Park) in Kenya. SOGHA, the Surveillance of Gorilla Habitat in World Heritage sites using Space Technologies. Application of Remote Sensing to monitor the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (France). Application of Remote Sensing & GIS for the Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. Social and Environmental monitoring of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve: Case Study over the Vosges du Nord and Pfalzerwald Parks using Corona and Spot Imagery. Satellite Remote Sensing as tool to Monitor Indian Reservation in the Brazilian Amazonia. Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Monitoring UNESCO World Heritage Sites - A Pilot Project. Urban Green Spaces: Modern Heritage. Monitoring of the technical condition of the St. Sophia Cathedral and related monastic buildings in Kiev with Space Applications, geo-positioning systems and GIS tools. The Murghab delta palaeochannel Reconstruction on the Basis of Remote Sensing from Space. Acquisition, Registration and Application of IKONOS Space Imagery for the cultural World Heritage site at Mew, Turkmenistan. Remote Sensing and VR applications for the reconstruction of archaeological landscapes

  9. Laser vibration sensing at Fraunhofer IOSB: review and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutzmann, Peter; Göhler, Benjamin; Hill, Chris A.; van Putten, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Laser vibrometry based on coherent detection allows noncontact measurements of small-amplitude vibration characteristics of objects. This technique, commonly using the Doppler effect, offers high potential for short-range civil applications and for medium- or long-range applications in defense and security. Most commercially available laser Doppler vibrometers are for short ranges (up to a few tens of meters) and use a single beam from a low-power HeNe laser source (λ=633 nm). Medium- or long-range applications need higher laser output power, and thus, appropriate vibrometers typically operate at 1.5, 2, or 10.6 μm to meet the laser safety regulations. Spatially resolved vibrational information can be obtained from an object by using scanning laser vibrometers. To reduce measuring time and to measure transient object movements and vibrational mode structures of objects, several approaches to multibeam laser Doppler vibrometry have been developed, and some of them are already commercially available for short ranges. We focus on applications in the field of defense and security, such as target classification and identification, including camouflaged or partly concealed targets, and the detection of buried land mines. Examples of civil medium-range applications are also given.

  10. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscape Ecological Processes: Methods and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing data can provide important measurements of surface energy fluxes and temperatures, which are integral to understanding landscape processes and responses. One example of this is the successful application of TIR remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration and soil moisture, where results from a number of studies suggest that satellite-based measurements from TIR remote sensing data can lead to more accurate regional-scale estimates of daily evapotranspiration. With further refinement in analytical techniques and models, the use of TIR data from airborne and satellite sensors could be very useful for parameterizing surface moisture conditions and developing better simulations of landscape energy exchange over a variety of conditions and space and time scales. Thus, TIR remote sensing data can significantly contribute to the observation, measurement, and analysis of energy balance characteristics (i.e., the fluxes and redistribution of thermal energy within and across the land surface) as an implicit and important aspect of landscape dynamics and landscape functioning. The application of TIR remote sensing data in landscape ecological studies has been limited, however, for several fundamental reasons that relate primarily to the perceived difficulty in use and availability of these data by the landscape ecology community, and from the fragmentation of references on TIR remote sensing throughout the scientific literature. It is our purpose here to provide evidence from work that has employed TIR remote sensing for analysis of landscape characteristics to illustrate how these data can provide important data for the improved measurement of landscape energy response and energy flux relationships. We examine the direct or indirect use of TIR remote sensing data to analyze landscape biophysical characteristics, thereby offering some insight on how these data can be used more robustly to further the understanding and modeling of

  11. Six-Port Based Interferometry for Precise Radar and Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Koelpin, Alexander; Lurz, Fabian; Linz, Sarah; Mann, Sebastian; Will, Christoph; Lindner, Stefan

    2016-09-22

    Microwave technology plays a more important role in modern industrial sensing applications. Pushed by the significant progress in monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology over the past decades, complex sensing systems operating in the microwave and even millimeter-wave range are available for reasonable costs combined with exquisite performance. In the context of industrial sensing, this stimulates new approaches for metrology based on microwave technology. An old measurement principle nearly forgotten over the years has recently gained more and more attention in both academia and industry: the six-port interferometer. This paper reviews the basic concept, investigates promising applications in remote, as well as contact-based sensing and compares the system with state-of-the-art metrology. The significant advantages will be discussed just as the limitations of the six-port architecture. Particular attention will be paid to impairment effects and non-ideal behavior, as well as compensation and linearization concepts. It will be shown that in application fields, like remote distance sensing, precise alignment measurements, as well as interferometrically-evaluated mechanical strain analysis, the six-port architecture delivers extraordinary measurement results combined with high measurement data update rates for reasonable system costs. This makes the six-port architecture a promising candidate for industrial metrology.

  12. Six-Port Based Interferometry for Precise Radar and Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Koelpin, Alexander; Lurz, Fabian; Linz, Sarah; Mann, Sebastian; Will, Christoph; Lindner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Microwave technology plays a more important role in modern industrial sensing applications. Pushed by the significant progress in monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology over the past decades, complex sensing systems operating in the microwave and even millimeter-wave range are available for reasonable costs combined with exquisite performance. In the context of industrial sensing, this stimulates new approaches for metrology based on microwave technology. An old measurement principle nearly forgotten over the years has recently gained more and more attention in both academia and industry: the six-port interferometer. This paper reviews the basic concept, investigates promising applications in remote, as well as contact-based sensing and compares the system with state-of-the-art metrology. The significant advantages will be discussed just as the limitations of the six-port architecture. Particular attention will be paid to impairment effects and non-ideal behavior, as well as compensation and linearization concepts. It will be shown that in application fields, like remote distance sensing, precise alignment measurements, as well as interferometrically-evaluated mechanical strain analysis, the six-port architecture delivers extraordinary measurement results combined with high measurement data update rates for reasonable system costs. This makes the six-port architecture a promising candidate for industrial metrology. PMID:27669246

  13. Developing Remote Sensing Applications Through an Engineering Life Cycle Development Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalluri, S.; Gilruth, P.

    2005-12-01

    Remote sensing applications have become an integral part of several federal and state government agencies for the monitoring and management of natural resources, land use planning and disaster mitigation. Traditionally, remote sensing applications were developed within the academic research community and these algorithms were adopted by the users for various applications. However, it is not a common practice within the academic environment to involve the end users in all stages of the research and development process. During 2000-2005, NASA funded several remote sensing application development projects under the Synergy program to promote the use of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite data within the federal, state and local agencies. Several universities were funded around the US to develop applications in precision agriculture, management of water and other natural resources, urban planning, disaster mitigation and human health. Each application was aimed at providing spatial datasets derived from EOS satellites as decision aid tools for users within various agencies. One of the important lessons learned within this project was that a planned life cycle development improves the transition of remote sensing research to operations. The application lifecycle can be broadly divided into three stages: user needs and technical feasibility analysis, prototype development, and production and deployment. There are several checks within each phase to ensure that the final operational system adequately meets users needs. Metrics were instituted to track how the applications were being used and to plan improvements. While metrics such as web hits and data downloads could be automated and quantified, other metrics such as benefits to society and environment, impacts on policy, and other institutional benefits were difficult to quantify and monetize. Nonetheless, the metrics were useful for project management and to achieve project goals. Specific examples of applications

  14. Infrared laser-based sensing in medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, Markus W.; Bartlome, Richard; Gianella, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Laser-spectroscopic applications in medicine increase in importance. We present two medical applications of laser-based analyses of trace gases. The analysis of exhaled breath concerns the determination of the D/H isotope ratio after intake of a small amount of heavy water. The D/H isotope ratio can be used to deduce the total body water weight and lays the foundation for many other laser-based clinical applications. An elevated D/H ratio could be monitored in breath samples up to 30 days after ingestion of only 5 ml of D2O. A second example concerns the analysis of surgical smoke produced in minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery with electroknives. The quantitative determination of harmless and hazardous compounds down to the ppm level is demonstrated. A specific example is the presence of sevoflurane at concentrations of 80 to 300 ppm, an anesthetic, which to our knowledge is measured for the first time in an abdominal cavity.

  15. New spectral methods in cloud and aerosol remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K. Sebastian; McBride, Patrick; Pilewskie, Peter; Feingold, Graham; Jiang, Hongli

    2010-05-01

    We present new remote sensing techniques that rely on spectral observations of clouds and aerosols in the solar wavelength range. As a first example, we show how the effects of heterogeneous clouds, aerosols of changing optical properties, and the surface within one pixel can be distinguished by means of their spectral signatures. This example is based on data from the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS, Houston, Texas, 2006), Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of polluted boundary layer clouds, and 3-dimensional radiative transfer calculations. In a second example, we show that the uncertainty of cloud retrievals can be improved considerably by exploiting the spectral information around liquid water absorption features in the near-infrared wavelength range. This is illustrated with spectral transmittance data from the NOAA International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic LOwer Troposphere (ICEALOT, 2008). In contrast to reflected radiance, transmitted radiance is only weakly sensitive to cloud effective drop radius, and only cloud optical thickness can be obtained from the standard dual-channel technique. We show that effective radius and liquid water path can also be retrieved with the new spectral approach, and validate our results with microwave liquid water path measurements.

  16. Optimization of a radiative membrane for gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Anthony; Boutami, Salim; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Benisty, Henri

    2014-05-01

    To engineer a cheap, portable and low-power optical gas sensor, incandescent sources are more suitable than expensive quantum cascade lasers and low-efficiency light-emitting diodes. Such sources of radiation have already been realized, using standard MEMS technology, consisting in free standing circular micro-hotplates. This paper deals with the design of such membranes in order to maximize their wall-plug efficiency. Specification constraints are taken into account, including available energy per measurement and maximum power delivered by the electrical supply source. The main drawback of these membranes is known to be the power lost through conduction to the substrate, thus not converted in (useful) radiated power. If the membrane temperature is capped by technological requirements, radiative flux can be favored by increasing the membrane radius. However, given a finite amount of energy, the larger the membrane and its heat capacity, the shorter the time it can be turned on. This clearly suggests that an efficiency optimum has to be found. Using simulations based on a spatio-temporal radial profile, we demonstrate how to optimally design such membrane systems, and provide an insight into the thermo-optical mechanisms governing this kind of devices, resulting in a nontrivial design with a substantial benefit over existing systems. To further improve the source, we also consider tailoring the membrane stack spectral emissivity to promote the infrared signal to be sensed as well as to maximize energy efficiency.

  17. High T(sub c) leads for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selim, R.; Caton, R.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Hooker, M. W.; Wise, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Several NASA programs designed to monitor the Earth's atmosphere from space utilize infrared detectors which operate at or below 4.2 K for optimum performance. At present, the detectors are maintained at cryogenic temperatures by a stored volume of liquid helium. These detectors must be electrically linked to amplification electronics data storage instruments maintained at 80 K. The electrical connections over the temperature gradient account for approximately 20% of the total heat load on the Dewar for some systems, accelerating the boil-off of liquid helium cryogen and reducing the operational lifetime of the space-borne instruments. The recent discovery of high temperature superconductors has provided an opportunity to develop electrically conductive, thermally insulating links to bridge this thermal gradient. This paper describes the modelling of the thermal transport properties of thick film, high T(sub c) electrical bridges across a 4.2-80 K temperature gradient and the impact of such devices on a spaceborne remote sensing system.

  18. Geological applications of machine learning on hyperspectral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, C. H.; Li, Yi-liang; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2015-02-01

    The CRISM imaging spectrometer orbiting Mars has been producing a vast amount of data in the visible to infrared wavelengths in the form of hyperspectral data cubes. These data, compared with those obtained from previous remote sensing techniques, yield an unprecedented level of detailed spectral resolution in additional to an ever increasing level of spatial information. A major challenge brought about by the data is the burden of processing and interpreting these datasets and extract the relevant information from it. This research aims at approaching the challenge by exploring machine learning methods especially unsupervised learning to achieve cluster density estimation and classification, and ultimately devising an efficient means leading to identification of minerals. A set of software tools have been constructed by Python to access and experiment with CRISM hyperspectral cubes selected from two specific Mars locations. A machine learning pipeline is proposed and unsupervised learning methods were implemented onto pre-processed datasets. The resulting data clusters are compared with the published ASTER spectral library and browse data products from the Planetary Data System (PDS). The result demonstrated that this approach is capable of processing the huge amount of hyperspectral data and potentially providing guidance to scientists for more detailed studies.

  19. Remote Sensing Based Flood Mapping for Disaster Management Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, R.; Ouzounov, D. P.; Sun, J.; Slayback, D. A.; Fatoyinbo, L.

    2010-12-01

    Flooding is among the most destructive and costly natural disasters faced by modern society. The disaster management community requires flood extent information with very little latency and frequent updating. With the advent of near real time satellite data acquisition and rapid processing and distribution techniques, there is every reason to develop and deploy an automated system for near real time flood map production. Funded by a NASA Applied Sciences grant to conduct a “feasibility study”, the authors have developed the algorithms and methodology necessary to automate the production of global near real time flood maps based on remote sensing data from the MODIS instruments on the NASA AQUA and TERRA satellites. A number of challenges to developing a useful product have been addressed by this applied research, including minimizing product latency, identifying water in the data scenes and distinguishing flood water from “normal” water levels, minimizing the impact of data loss due to cloud and cloud shadow, and providing context. We provide an overview of the data sources used, the algorithms employed, the processing techniques, the initial results, and the validation approach.

  20. Flexible pH-Sensing Hydrogel Fibers for Epidermal Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tamayol, Ali; Akbari, Mohsen; Zilberman, Yael; Comotto, Mattia; Lesha, Emal; Serex, Ludovic; Bagherifard, Sara; Chen, Yu; Fu, Guoqing; Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Ruan, Weitong; Miller, Eric L.; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal pH is an indication of the skin’s physiological condition. For example, pH of wound can be correlated to angiogenesis, protease activity, bacterial infection, etc. Chronic non-healing wounds are known to have an elevated alkaline environment, while healing process occurs more readily in an acidic environment. Thus, dermal patches capable of continuous monitoring of pH can be used as point-of-care systems for monitoring skin disorder and the wound healing process. Here, we present pH-responsive hydrogel fibers that can be used for long-term monitoring of epidermal wound condition. We load pH-responsive dyes into mesoporous microparticles and incorporate them into hydrogel fibers developed through microfluidic spinning. The fabricated pH-responsive microfibers are flexible and can create conformal contact with skin. The response of pH-sensitive fibers with different compositions and thicknesses are characterized. The suggested technique is scalable and can be used to fabricate hydrogel based wound dressing with a wide range of sizes. Images of the pH-sensing fibers during real-time pH measurement can be captured with a smart phone camera for convenient readout on-site. Through image processing, a quantitative pH map of the hydrogel fibers and the underlying tissue can be extracted. The developed skin dressing can act as a point-of-care device for monitoring the wound healing process. PMID:26799457

  1. [A remote sensing application to investigate urban endemics].

    PubMed

    Correia, Virginia Ragoni de Moraes; Monteiro, Antônio Miguel Vieira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a case study on environmental aspects related to the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, from 1993 to 1996, in order to discuss the use of some appropriate geo-processing methods for median-resolution remote sensing images potentially useful for studying vector-borne transmissible diseases in urban areas. We present the main techniques: registration, geometric correction, restoration, fusion, segmentation, and classification. Using intra-class correlation indices applied to the proportion of area by class in the census tract, we compare four classifiers: Maxver, Bhattacharya, K-means, and Isoseg. This comparison was not devised to choose the best classifier, but to depict different classification scenarios aimed at recognizing the best identifiable image classes in urban settings. We conclude that even with limited resources, using low-cost and easily available median resolution images and free software to process and integrate information, it is possible to identify land use characteristics, potentially appropriate for analyzing urban areas exposed to environmental risk for vector-borne diseases.

  2. Acoustic waves in tilted fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Carlos A. F.; Alberto, Nélia J.; Domingues, Fátima; Leitão, Cátia; Antunes, Paulo; Pinto, João. L.; André, Paulo

    2017-05-01

    Tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) are one of the most attractive kind of optical fiber sensor technology due to their intrinsic properties. On the other hand, the acousto-optic effect is an important, fast and accurate mechanism that can be used to change and control several properties of fiber gratings in silica and polymer optical fiber. Several all-optical devices for optical communications and sensing have been successfully designed and constructed using this effect. In this work, we present the recent results regarding the production of optical sensors, through the acousto-optic effect in TFBGs. The cladding and core modes amplitude of a TFBG can be controlled by means of the power levels from acoustic wave source. Also, the cladding modes of a TFBG can be coupled back to the core mode by launching acoustic waves. Induced bands are created on the left side of the original Bragg wavelength due to phase matching to be satisfied. The refractive index (RI) is analyzed in detail when acoustic waves are turned on using saccharose solutions with different RI from 1.33 to 1.43.

  3. Flexible pH-Sensing Hydrogel Fibers for Epidermal Applications.

    PubMed

    Tamayol, Ali; Akbari, Mohsen; Zilberman, Yael; Comotto, Mattia; Lesha, Emal; Serex, Ludovic; Bagherifard, Sara; Chen, Yu; Fu, Guoqing; Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Ruan, Weitong; Miller, Eric L; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Sonkusale, Sameer; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Epidermal pH is an indication of the skin's physiological condition. For example, pH of wound can be correlated to angiogenesis, protease activity, bacterial infection, etc. Chronic nonhealing wounds are known to have an elevated alkaline environment, while healing process occurs more readily in an acidic environment. Thus, dermal patches capable of continuous pH measurement can be used as point-of-care systems for monitoring skin disorder and the wound healing process. Here, pH-responsive hydrogel fibers are presented that can be used for long-term monitoring of epidermal wound condition. pH-responsive dyes are loaded into mesoporous microparticles and incorporated into hydrogel fibers using a microfluidic spinning system. The fabricated pH-responsive microfibers are flexible and can create conformal contact with skin. The response of pH-sensitive fibers with different compositions and thicknesses are characterized. The suggested technique is scalable and can be used to fabricate hydrogel-based wound dressings with clinically relevant dimensions. Images of the pH-sensing fibers during real-time pH measurement can be captured with a smart phone camera for convenient readout on-site. Through image processing, a quantitative pH map of the hydrogel fibers and the underlying tissue can be extracted. The developed skin dressing can act as a point-of-care device for monitoring the wound healing process. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Application of remote sensing to plant health and productivity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Chong, Chuan-Shin; Basart, John P.; Nutter, Forrest W., Jr.; Guan, Jie; Tylka, Gregory L.; Moreira, Antonio J. D.

    2002-12-01

    It has been found that a close relationship exists between the spectral reflectance and the health as well as the productivity of soybean canopies. Basing on this property, a remote sensing method was used to assess the plant productivity and health, which was able to cover a large area simultaneously. In this project, aerial images and reflectance measurements were obtained from two soybean fields located in Story Country, Iowa during summer 2000 and 2001. Aerial image were taken on both infrared band and color band. An eight-band radiometer was used to obtain the reflectance reading at ground level, which ranged from 460-nm to 810-nm. A study on aerial-radiometer data relation for two continuous years was carried out. The reflectance measurement from radiometer served as ground truth. Also, the calibration procedure for aerial image was applied. Because the atmospheric distortion became more pronounced when the aerial image was taken at higher altitude. Scattering and absorption will affect the image intensity which indirectly affect our analysis. The red, green and blue ground cloths were put beside the fields when the aerial image was taken. They are used as references to evaluate color distortion in the red, blue and green bands respectively.

  5. Advanced Magnetoresistance Sensing of Rotation Rate for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avram, Marioara; Volmer, Marius; Avram, Andrei

    2008-06-01

    We propose to build a non-Newtonian fluids viscosimeter, in order to measure the viscosity of biological fluids such as blood. The system is based on a rotating microgear wheel and a magnetoresistive sensor with a non-contacting transduction mechanism to transform the rotor rotation rate into an electrical signal. As the rotor turns, the field from this microscopic magnet will modulate the resistance of a bar of a low coercitivity material such as Permalloy, with an in-plane uniaxial magnetization, placed nearby, close to the rotor flanges. The change in resistivity provides an electrical signal with frequency proportional to the rotation rate, and hence the fluid velocity. The rotor is fabricated from polysilicon and coated with a soft magnetic material. The magnetoresistive sensor is formed of two Wheatstone bridges orientated on the X and Y axes. As the microgear wheel rotates, a tooth passing by the sensing GMR of the Wheatstone bridge changes the magnetic field, thus enabling us to measure the velocity of the gear wheel. The gear wheel has the outer diameter of 200 μm and is obtained by using the cut and refill technique. The basis for fabrication of movable parts is the use of sacrificial layers that act both as spacers and also to keep the parts attached to the silicon wafer during fabrication.

  6. Renewable resource applications of remote sensing in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, R. M.; Calabrese, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    A number of renewable resource applications in the areas of agriculture, land, and water are summarized; and some of the current and future research efforts designed to enhance the utility of this tool are explored. Programs to incorporate microwave sensors with higher resolutions into the resource planning and management processes are also considered. Particular consideration is given to experience with LACIE and AgRISTARS; the current hydrologic land use, watershed physiography, and snow covered area applications of Landsat; and land cover mapping with MSS technology. Needed improvements are discussed with regard to goals of fundamental research, data acquisition requirements, and data handling and merging with other data sources.

  7. Engineered nanomaterials for biophotonics applications: improving sensing, imaging, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    West, Jennifer L; Halas, Naomi J

    2003-01-01

    Advances in chemistry and physics are providing an expanding array of nanostructured materials with unique and powerful optical properties. These nanomaterials provide a new set of tools that are available to biomedical engineers, biologists, and medical scientists who seek new tools as biosensors and probes of biological fluids, cells, and tissue chemistry and function. Nanomaterials are also being used to develop optically controlled devices for applications such as modulated drug delivery as well as optical therapeutics. This review discusses applications that have been successfully demonstrated using nanomaterials including semiconductor nanocrystals, gold nanoparticles, gold nanoshells, and silver plasmon resonant particles.

  8. Renewable resource applications of remote sensing in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, R. M.; Calabrese, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    A number of renewable resource applications in the areas of agriculture, land, and water are summarized; and some of the current and future research efforts designed to enhance the utility of this tool are explored. Programs to incorporate microwave sensors with higher resolutions into the resource planning and management processes are also considered. Particular consideration is given to experience with LACIE and AgRISTARS; the current hydrologic land use, watershed physiography, and snow covered area applications of Landsat; and land cover mapping with MSS technology. Needed improvements are discussed with regard to goals of fundamental research, data acquisition requirements, and data handling and merging with other data sources.

  9. Application of remote sensing to state and regional programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Carter, B. D.; Pettry, D. E.; Higgs, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    The problem includes data acquisition and transformation to products acceptable to the users. Optimized institutionalization of data management, product transfer, and education of the user community are also of major concern. With respect to the lattice, various structures were suggested and the fields of application are presented.

  10. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers and Highly Porous Materials in Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    materials with applications in synthesis and catalysis”, Tetrahedron 59, 2025- 2057 (2003). 4. J. J. Becker and M.R. Gagne , “Exploiting the synergy...Dong Min Wu, Nicolas Fang, Xiang Zhang, Joseph Roberts , and Kenneth J. Shea, “Functional Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Microstructures Fabricated Using

  11. Application of terrestrial microwave remote sensing to agricultural drought monitoring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root-zone soil moisture information is a valuable diagnostic for detecting the onset and severity of agricultural drought. Current attempts to globally monitor root-zone soil moisture are generally based on the application of soil water balance models driven by observed meteorological variables. Suc...

  12. Nanoporous anodic alumina platforms: engineered surface chemistry and structure for optical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Kumeria, Tushar; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan

    2014-07-07

    Electrochemical anodization of pure aluminum enables the growth of highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) structures. This has made NAA one of the most popular nanomaterials with applications including molecular separation, catalysis, photonics, optoelectronics, sensing, drug delivery, and template synthesis. Over the past decades, the ability to engineer the structure and surface chemistry of NAA and its optical properties has led to the establishment of distinctive photonic structures that can be explored for developing low-cost, portable, rapid-response and highly sensitive sensing devices in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and reflective interference spectroscopy (RIfS) techniques. This review article highlights the recent advances on fabrication, surface modification and structural engineering of NAA and its application and performance as a platform for SPR- and RIfS-based sensing and biosensing devices.

  13. Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Platforms: Engineered Surface Chemistry and Structure for Optical Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kumeria, Tushar; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical anodization of pure aluminum enables the growth of highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) structures. This has made NAA one of the most popular nanomaterials with applications including molecular separation, catalysis, photonics, optoelectronics, sensing, drug delivery, and template synthesis. Over the past decades, the ability to engineer the structure and surface chemistry of NAA and its optical properties has led to the establishment of distinctive photonic structures that can be explored for developing low-cost, portable, rapid-response and highly sensitive sensing devices in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and reflective interference spectroscopy (RIfS) techniques. This review article highlights the recent advances on fabrication, surface modification and structural engineering of NAA and its application and performance as a platform for SPR- and RIfS-based sensing and biosensing devices. PMID:25004150

  14. Optimization of design parameters for bulk micromachined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belwanshi, Vinod; Topkar, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Finite element analysis study has been carried out to optimize the design parameters for bulk micro-machined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing applications. The design is targeted for measurement of pressure up to 200 bar for nuclear reactor applications. The mechanical behavior of bulk micro-machined silicon membranes in terms of deflection and stress generation has been simulated. Based on the simulation results, optimization of the membrane design parameters in terms of length, width and thickness has been carried out. Subsequent to optimization of membrane geometrical parameters, the dimensions and location of the high stress concentration region for implantation of piezoresistors have been obtained for sensing of pressure using piezoresistive sensing technique.

  15. Polyaniline-lead titanate composites for humidity sensing and EMI shielding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, Aarushi; Thomas, Jocelyn T.; Fathima, Hana; V, Suveetha; Faisal, Muhammad

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports the humidity sensing and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of synthesized polyaniline-lead titanate (PANi/PbTiO3) composites. The humidity sensing of the PAni/PbTiO3 composites was discussed in terms of change in direct current (DC) resistance with respect to percentage relative humidity (% RH) ranging from 20% to 90%. The EMI shielding properties of the composites were measured in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz (X-band), relevant for practical applications. The composites showed shielding effectiveness (SE) in the range -29 dB to -34 dB and the variations in the shielding effectiveness with the frequency was minimal at a fixed composition. The observed effective humidity sensing and EMI shielding properties highlights the prospects of multifunctional applications of these composites.

  16. Optimization of design parameters for bulk micromachined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing application

    SciTech Connect

    Belwanshi, Vinod; Topkar, Anita

    2016-05-23

    Finite element analysis study has been carried out to optimize the design parameters for bulk micro-machined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing applications. The design is targeted for measurement of pressure up to 200 bar for nuclear reactor applications. The mechanical behavior of bulk micro-machined silicon membranes in terms of deflection and stress generation has been simulated. Based on the simulation results, optimization of the membrane design parameters in terms of length, width and thickness has been carried out. Subsequent to optimization of membrane geometrical parameters, the dimensions and location of the high stress concentration region for implantation of piezoresistors have been obtained for sensing of pressure using piezoresistive sensing technique.

  17. Fabrication technologies and sensing applications of graphene-based composite films: Advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Wensi; Zhang, Panpan; Su, Zhiqiang

    2017-03-15

    Graphene (G)-based composite materials have been widely explored for the sensing applications ascribing to their atom-thick two-dimensional conjugated structures, high conductivity, large specific surface areas and controlled modification. With the enormous advantages of film structure, G-based composite films (GCFs), prepared by combining G with different functional nanomaterials (noble metals, metal compounds, carbon materials, polymer materials, etc.), show unique optical, mechanical, electrical, chemical, and catalytic properties. Therefore, great quantities of sensors with high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability have been created in recent years. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the fabrication technologies of GCFs and their specific sensing applications. In addition, the relationship between the properties of GCFs and sensing performance is concentrated on. Finally, the personal perspectives and key challenges of GCFs are mentioned in the hope to shed a light on their potential future research directions.

  18. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Stuart G; Farinholt, Kevin M; Figueiredo, Eloi; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Flynn, Eric B; Mascarenas, David L; Todd, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    A new wireless sensing network paradigm is presented for structural monitoring applications. In this approach, both power and data interrogation commands are conveyed via a mobile agent that is sent to sensor nodes to perform intended interrogations, which can alleviate several limitations of the traditional sensing networks. Furthermore, the mobile agent provides computational power to make near real-time assessments on the structural conditions. This paper will discuss such prototype systems, which are used to interrogate impedance-based sensors for structural health monitoring applications. Our wireless sensor node is specifically designed to accept various energy sources, including wireless energy transmission, and to be wirelessly triggered on an as-needed basis by the mobile agent or other sensor nodes. The capabilities of this proposed sensing network paradigm are demonstrated in the laboratory and the field.

  19. Thin film materials and devices for resistive temperature sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basantani, Hitesh A.

    Thin films of vanadium oxide (VOx) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are the two dominant material systems used in resistive infrared radiation detectors (microbolometers) for sensing long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths in the 8--14 microm range. Typical thin films of VO x (x < 2) currently used in the bolometer industry have a magnitude of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) between 2%/K -- 3%/K. In contrast, thin films of hydrogenated germanium (SiGe:H) have |TCR| between 3%/K to 4%/K. Devices made from either of these materials have resulted in similar device performance with NETD ≈ 25 mK. The performance of the microbolometers is limited by the electronic noise, especially 1/f noise. Therefore, regardless of the choice of bolometer sensing material and read out circuitry, manufacturers are constantly striving to reduce 1/f noise while simultaneously increasing TCR to give better signal to noise ratios in their bolometers and ultimately, better image quality with more thermal information to the end user. In this work, thin films of VOx and hydrogenated germanium (Ge:H), having TCR values > 4 %/K are investigated as potential candidates for higher sensitivity next generation of microbolometers. Thin films of VO x were deposited by Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) (˜85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivity ranging from 104 O--cm to 2.1 x 104 O--cm, TCR varying from --4%/K to --5%/K, normalized Hooge parameter (alphaH/n) of 5 x 10 -21 to 5 x 10-18 cm3. Thin films of Ge:H were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by incorporating an increasing amount of crystal fraction in the growing thin films. Thin films of Ge:H having a mixed phase, amorphous + nanocrystalline, having a |TCR| > 6 %/K were deposited with resistivity < 2,300 O--cm and a normalized Hooge's parameter 'alphaH/n' < 2 x 10-20 cm3. Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials have

  20. The Application of Reflected GPS Signals to Ocean Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, James L.; Katzberg, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    The L-band broadcast signal from the Global Positioning System (GPS) which has reflected off of the sea surface is under study for use as a ocean, coastal and wetlands remote sensing tool. The reflected signal from a given GPS satellite is cross-correlated with the pseudorandom noise code uniquely identifying that satellite. The shape of this cross-correlation, ordinarily a very sharp triangle when tracking a direct line of sight signal, becomes wider and smoother as the mean square slope of the reflecting surface increases. It is proposed that the surface wind speed can be determined by matching the recorded shape of this cross-correlation to that predicted by theoretical models as a function of wind speed and direction. The significance of these effects increases with altitude of the receiver. Experimental data have been collected using a specially modified GPS receiver on aircraft and on a balloon at altitudes of up to 25 km. These data compare favorably with predictions of analytical models and demonstrate the dependence of the waveform shape on surface wind speed and receiver altitude. The advantages that this measurement technique has over conventional scatterometers is the small size, low cost and simplicity of the receiver hardware, no requirement for a transmitter, and the ability to simultaneously collect data from usually 10 or more points (from a low earth orbiting satellite). This number could if the Russian GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System) satellites are also considered as additional sources of radiation. Furthermore, the bistatic scattering geometry is complementary to the backscatter used by conventional scatterometers.

  1. Management impacts and remote sensing applications for water quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, David Patrick

    This research, consisting of three parts, was designed to improve understanding of non-point pollution sources in the Minnesota River Basin and how adoption of conservation tillage practice (chisel plow with about 30% residue cover) might affect non-point source pollution and crop yield from relatively flat lands in the Minnesota River Basin. The first part was a plot experiment at Lamberton, MN that tested the water quality impacts of two tillage (moldboard vs. chisel) systems, and two nutrient source (liquid hog manure vs. urea) treatments. Four years of natural surface runoff and tile drainage showed few significant differences in water quality parameters from these relatively flat plots. Annual average sediment loss from the plots was 1260 kg/ha with 1.4 kg/ha and 0.13 kg/ha associated total and dissolved P loss respectively. Annual average NO3-N losses through tile drainage were 9.1 kg/ha. Average annual corn grain yield was reduced by 0.4 Mg/ha in the four-year average yield under the chisel system. The second project investigated remote sensing and the Tillage Transect Survey (TTS) accuracy for measuring crop residue cover. When residues were grouped into 5 cover categories the TTS accuracy (49%) outperformed all models (best model = 39%), but models performed as good or better (up to 80%) than the TTS when only two cover categories were used. The third project used airborne scanning laser altimetry to determine mass wasting of bank materials from the Blue Earth River. For the time between the April 2000 and April 2001 scans, between 23 and 56% of the sediment transported by the river had its source from bank collapse and erosion. For the same period, total P contribution from riverbank erosion was 201 t.

  2. The Application of Reflected GPS Signals to Ocean Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, James L.; Katzberg, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    The L-band broadcast signal from the Global Positioning System (GPS) which has reflected off of the sea surface is under study for use as a ocean, coastal and wetlands remote sensing tool. The reflected signal from a given GPS satellite is cross-correlated with the pseudorandom noise code uniquely identifying that satellite. The shape of this cross-correlation, ordinarily a very sharp triangle when tracking a direct line of sight signal, becomes wider and smoother as the mean square slope of the reflecting surface increases. It is proposed that the surface wind speed can be determined by matching the recorded shape of this cross-correlation to that predicted by theoretical models as a function of wind speed and direction. The significance of these effects increases with altitude of the receiver. Experimental data have been collected using a specially modified GPS receiver on aircraft and on a balloon at altitudes of up to 25 km. These data compare favorably with predictions of analytical models and demonstrate the dependence of the waveform shape on surface wind speed and receiver altitude. The advantages that this measurement technique has over conventional scatterometers is the small size, low cost and simplicity of the receiver hardware, no requirement for a transmitter, and the ability to simultaneously collect data from usually 10 or more points (from a low earth orbiting satellite). This number could if the Russian GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System) satellites are also considered as additional sources of radiation. Furthermore, the bistatic scattering geometry is complementary to the backscatter used by conventional scatterometers.

  3. REVIEW OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES AND DATA FOR DOE-EM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D

    1999-01-01

    Various governmental agencies and private companies throughout the world are involved in remote sensing activities. Remote sensing is a technology used for the purpose of monitoring the earth's environment, keeping track of the earth's resources, and for agricultural vegetation monitoring, among other things. There is a vast number of remote sensing technologies and data already commercially available for different applications (e.g., environmental, agricultural, and so on). Many entities are actively conducting research to generate new technologies and data (e.g., NASA). In addition, some of DOE's offices and programs have engaged in collection and analysis of remote sensing data. It is likely that some of these technologies and data could be useful for characterization and monitoring of EM's sites. Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) has reviewed remote sensing technologies and data that are currently available or in an advanced research state. The review focused on the technologies and data applicable to the environmental field. DOE has over 800 national laboratories and sites dispersed throughout the United States. involved in some current and past remote sensing projects. FIU-HCET personnel have searched governmental agency databases (e.g., DOE, NASA), the Internet, and library resources to obtain information about these technologies and generated a user-friendly database. This review km also produced an inventory and will be available on the Internet and on a CD-ROM that can be distributed to individuals or entities requesting information on remote sensing technologies and data for environmental applications. This database contains information regarding each technology, such as type of sensor, applications, and technical specifications (e.g., resolution). To the best of FIU-HCET's knowledge, a database of this type and with this level of detail does not exist within DOE. With the amount of remote

  4. Suspended core photonic microcells for sensing and device applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Jin, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Ying; Ho, Hoi Lut; Shi, Xin

    2013-06-01

    In-line fiber-optic microcells are fabricated by postprocessing NKT LMA10 photonic crystal fibers. The cells are suspended core (SC) elements created by locally inflating some of the air holes while the core is being tapered. Based on a SC microcell with six air holes, a cantilever beam accelerometer is demonstrated. The microcells could also be used as gain and absorption cells for amplifier and spectroscopy applications.

  5. Chemically Modified Graphene for Sensing and Nanomechanical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    chemical vapors at parts-per-billion concentrations,5 although these sensors require somewhat sophisticated electronics to realize their full...chemically (e.g., with hydrazine , N2H4) or thermally (e.g., by annealing in H2), providing a knob with which to tune the sensor response. These devices are...and mechanical devices. CMG can be fine-tuned to its specific application and has been used to produce sensors of extraordinary sensitivity

  6. Development and Applications of Technology for Sensing Zooplankton

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    their natural habitat. Our current focus involves extending multi-frequency acoustics to include measurements at more than one angle with respect to the...scattering. The nature of the problem has required us to shift our emphasis between these four kinds of effort as we learn more about this multi...to determine target aspect in the more general 3-D case. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS Observation of aquatic animals in their natural environments

  7. Recent advances in M13 bacteriophage-based optical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Inhong; Moon, Jong-Sik; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2016-10-01

    Recently, M13 bacteriophage has started to be widely used as a functional nanomaterial for various electrical, chemical, or optical applications, such as battery components, photovoltaic cells, sensors, and optics. In addition, the use of M13 bacteriophage has expanded into novel research, such as exciton transporting. In these applications, the versatility of M13 phage is a result of its nontoxic, self-assembling, and specific binding properties. For these reasons, M13 phage is the most powerful candidate as a receptor for transducing chemical or optical phenomena of various analytes into electrical or optical signal. In this review, we will overview the recent progress in optical sensing applications of M13 phage. The structural and functional characters of M13 phage will be described and the recent results in optical sensing application using fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, Förster resonance energy transfer, and surface enhanced Raman scattering will be outlined.

  8. Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, Caterina; Campanella, Clarissa Martina; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; Armenise, Mario Nicola

    2013-03-01

    For a number of years, the scientific community has been paying growing attention to the monitoring and enhancement of public health and the quality of life through the detection of all dangerous agents for the human body, including gases, proteins, virus, and bacterial agents. When these agents are detected through label-free biochemical sensors, the molecules are not modified structurally or functionally by adding fluorescent or radioactive dyes. This work focuses on label-free optical ring resonator-based configurations suited for bio-chemical sensing, highlighting their physical aspects and specific applications. Resonant wavelength shift and the modal splitting occurring when the analyte interacts with microresonant structures are the two major physical aspects analyzed in this paper. Competitive optical platforms proposed in the literature are also illustrated together with their properties and performance.

  9. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Pe, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Corbiere, Franck; Belliot, Pierre; Estribeau, Magali

    2004-11-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding space applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this paper will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments and performances of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process will be presented in the corresponding section.

  10. On the spectrum of radiation pressure driven optomechanical oscillator and its application in sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Hossein-Zadeh, M.

    2013-05-01

    We study the RF spectrum of radiation pressure driven optomechanical oscillators (OMO). Using experiments and theoretical estimations we have characterized the relative amplitude of OMO's spectral components as a function of optical detuning and optical input power. We have identified a regime where the optical resonance shift can be directly extracted from the RF spectrum for resonant optical sensing applications.

  11. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in land-use and land-cover inventory tasks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.

    1978-01-01

    The bibliography contains more than 300 citations of selected publications on the application of remote-sensing techniques to regional and metropolitan land-use and land-cover inventroy and analysis tasks.  Most of the citations were published between January 1968 and June 1977, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  12. Application of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems to ecosystem-based urban natural resource management

    Treesearch

    Xiaohui Zhang; George Ball; Eve Halper

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated system to support urban natural resource management. With the application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS), the paper emphasizes the methodology of integrating information technology and a scientific basis to support ecosystem-based management. First, a systematic integration framework is developed and...

  13. The application of remote sensing to the development and formulation of hydrologic planning models: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Fowler, T. R.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for the reduction of remotely sensed data and its application in hydrologic land use assessment, surface water inventory, and soil property studies are presented. LANDSAT data is used to provide quantitative parameters and coefficients to construct watershed transfer functions for a hydrologic planning model aimed at estimating peak outflow from rainfall inputs.

  14. Moderate resolution remote sensing alternatives: a review of Landsat-like sensors and their applications

    Treesearch

    Scott L. Powell; Dirk Pflugmacher; Alan A. Kirschbaum; Yunsuk Kim; Warren B. Cohen

    2007-01-01

    Earth observation with Landsat and other moderate resolution sensors is a vital component of a wide variety of applications across disciplines. Despite the widespread success of the Landsat program, recent problems with Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 create uncertainty about the future of moderate resolution remote sensing. Several other Landsat-like sensors have demonstrated...

  15. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare pixel sampling with plot-scale metrics for the remo...

  16. Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHU, MengRu

    2015-04-01

    Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China Remote sensing technology , is one of the pillars of the space information technology in the 21st century ,play an important role in the study of vegetation. Vegetation coverage as an important parameter reflecting surface information, has been an important research topic in the field of vegetation remote sensing. Administrative region in zhejiang Province as the study area, use of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote sensing technology, combined with the related data, to survey the area of forest resources in zhejiang Province, establishes an index system of sustainable forest resources management ability in zhejiang, and to evaluate its ability. Remote Sensing is developed in the 1960 s of the earth observation technology, comprehensive instruments refers to the application, not contact with the object detection phase, the target characteristics of electromagnetic waves recorded from a distance, through the analysis, reveals the characteristics of the object properties and changes of comprehensive detection technology. Investigation of vegetation is an important application field of remote sensing investigation. Vegetation is an important factor of environment, and also is one of the best sign to reflect the regional ecological environment, at the same times is the interpretation of soil, hydrological elements such as logo, individual or prospecting indicator plant. Vegetation imaging and interpretation of research results for environmental monitoring, biodiversity conservation, agriculture, forestry and other relevant departments to provide information services.Microwave remote sensing hyperspectral remote sensing technology and application in the research of vegetation is an important direction of remote sensing technology in the future. This paper introduces the principle of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote

  17. New quantum cascade laser sources for sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troccoli, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    In this presentation we will review our most recent results on development of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for analytical and industrial applications. QCLs have demonstrated the capability to cover the entire range of Mid-IR, Far-IR, and THz wavelengths by skillful tuning of the material design and composition and by use of intrinsic material properties via a set of techniques collectively called "bandgap engineering". The use of MOCVD, pioneered on industrial scale by AdTech Optics, has enabled the deployment of QCL devices into a diverse range of environments and applications. QCLs can be tailored to the specific application requirements due to their unprecedented flexibility in design and thanks to the leveraging of well-known III-V fabrication technologies inherited from the NIR domain. Nevertheless, several applications and new frontiers in R and D need the constant support of new developments in device features, capabilities, and performances. We have developed a wide range of devices, from high power, high efficiency multi-mode sources, to narrow-band, single mode devices with low-power consumption, and from non-linear, multi-wavelength generating devices to broadband sources and multi-emitter arrays. All our devices are grown and processed using MOCVD technology and allow us to attain competitive performances across the whole mid-IR spectral range. This talk will present an overview of our current achievements. References 1. M. Troccoli, "High power emission and single mode operation of quantum cascade lasers for industrial applications", J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron., 21 (6), 1-7 (2015). Invited Review. 2. Seungyong Jung, Aiting Jiang, Yifan Jiang, Karun Vijayraghavan, Xiaojun Wang, Mariano Troccoli, and Mikhail A. Belkin, "Broadly Tunable Monolithic Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources", Nature Comm. 5, 4267 (2014).. 3. Mariano Troccoli, Arkadiy Lyakh, Jenyu Fan, Xiaojun Wang, Richard Maulini, Alexei G Tsekoun, Rowel Go, C Kumar N Patel, "Long

  18. Application of the Development in Environment Measurement and Sensibility Nano-Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Kazutoshi; Aizawa, Hidenobu

    Recently, environmental pollution is social problem with nano materials and food contamination is a new social problem. On the other hand, the complaint related to the offensive odor in Japan exceeded 20,000 affairs in 1998, and these problems are not solved. The odor sensing system for detecting and control an offensive odor at an early stage is required. The sensing system using the sense of odor known as one of the fifth senses of human is proposed to these demands. Especially as for e-NOSE system, application will be expected from now on in many fields, such as medical diagnosis, health monitoring, environment, food, robot and a car. The sensing technology in which an electrochemical sensor called quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is mainly used is making detection mechanisms, such as an electrode and a detection thin film on the nano-level. Therefore, detection films of sensor depend on the characteristic of the sensing devices using on material and processing technology. That the new technology sensor is asked can detect extremely low concentration from ppm to ppb level, and it is the sensor with low influence of environment, such as a gas of the outside for detection, temperature and humidity.

  19. Dynamic position sense during a cyclical drawing movement: effects of application and withdrawal of tendon vibration.

    PubMed

    Verschueren, S M; Swinnen, S P

    2001-01-01

    The present study addressed the stability of dynamic position sense across time as well as the resetting of position sense following its disturbance by means of tendon vibration. Blindfolded subjects drew circles within a specific location of the workspace for a duration of 28 s and at a repetition rate of 1 s(-1). To study the stability of dynamic position sense, the changes in circle drawing performance across time were studied (control condition). Resetting of dynamic position sense was studied by application and subsequent withdrawal of biceps tendon vibration during movement (vibration condition). The results showed that the spatial characteristics of circle drawing in the control condition did not change significantly over the course of the 28 s trial, suggesting that dynamic position sense does not drift systematically across time. Whereas vibration leads to a decrease in diameter, a deterioration of the circularity of the pattern, and a drift of the hand movement toward the body, a restoration of these features was obtained during withdrawal of vibration. This suggests that subjects are able to reset dynamic position sense to reasonable values without the help of vision during active cyclical movement.

  20. Refractive Index Sensing with D-Shaped Plastic Optical Fibers for Chemical and Biochemical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Filipa; Duarte, Daniel; Bilro, Lúcia; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi; Cennamo, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    We report the optimization of the length of a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) sensor for refractive index (RI) sensing from a numerical and experimental point of view. The sensing principle is based on total internal reflection (TIR). POFs with 1 mm in diameter were embedded in grooves, realized in planar supports with different lengths, and polished to remove the cladding and part of the core. All D-shaped POF sensors were tested using aqueous medium with different refractive indices (from 1.332 to 1.471) through intensity-based configuration. Results showed two different responses. Considering the refractive index (RI) range (1.33–1.39), the sensitivity and the resolution of the sensor were strongly dependent on the sensing region length. The highest sensitivity (resolution of 6.48 × 10−3 refractive index units, RIU) was obtained with 6 cm sensing length. In the RI range (1.41–1.47), the length of the sensing region was not a critical aspect to obtain the best resolution. These results enable the application of this optical platform for chemical and biochemical evanescent field sensing. The sensor production procedure is very simple, fast, and low-cost. PMID:27983608

  1. Universal and efficient compressed sensing by spread spectrum and application to realistic Fourier imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puy, Gilles; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Gribonval, Rémi; Wiaux, Yves

    2012-12-01

    We advocate a compressed sensing strategy that consists of multiplying the signal of interest by a wide bandwidth modulation before projection onto randomly selected vectors of an orthonormal basis. First, in a digital setting with random modulation, considering a whole class of sensing bases including the Fourier basis, we prove that the technique is universal in the sense that the required number of measurements for accurate recovery is optimal and independent of the sparsity basis. This universality stems from a drastic decrease of coherence between the sparsity and the sensing bases, which for a Fourier sensing basis relates to a spread of the original signal spectrum by the modulation (hence the name "spread spectrum"). The approach is also efficient as sensing matrices with fast matrix multiplication algorithms can be used, in particular in the case of Fourier measurements. Second, these results are confirmed by a numerical analysis of the phase transition of the ℓ1-minimization problem. Finally, we show that the spread spectrum technique remains effective in an analog setting with chirp modulation for application to realistic Fourier imaging. We illustrate these findings in the context of radio interferometry and magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Dario; Belli, Claudio; Gioli, Beniamino; Miglietta, Franco; Ronchi, Cesare; Vaccari, Francesco Primo; Valentini, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. In this paper we describe a new system (ASPIS) composed by a 4-CCD spectral sensor, a thermal IR camera and a laser altimeter that is mounted on a flexible Sky-Arrow airplane. A test application of the multispectral sensor to estimate durum wheat quality is also presented. PMID:27879875

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing for water quality applications in Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Christopher, S. A.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Water quality measurements are relevant to control and prevent the pollution of surface water essential for human use. Previous studies have used standard methods of water sampling to estimate water quality parameters. Nevertheless those methods are extremely expensive and time-consuming and do not provide information for an entire water body. Hence it is important to implement techniques that allow for the monitoring of water quality parameters in a timely and cost-effective manner, and remote sensing represents a feasible alternative. This study focuses on the largest algal bloom affecting Lake Atitlan, located in Guatemala, by using the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion on board the EO-1 satellite. This algal bloom had a life span that extended for a little more than a month and had a maximum coverage of approximately 40% of the lake's 137 square kilometer surface. This algal bloom occurred at the end of the year 2009, with November being the most critical month. Different satellite sensors were used to monitor the extent of the algal bloom, including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). However, Hyperion images were used to distinguish the characteristics of the vegetation populating the algal bloom. Hyperion satellite images provided a more complete spectral profile of the algal bloom affecting the lake due to its high spectral resolution characteristics. This enabled the identification of unique peaks of reflectance and absorption features of the spectral signature obtained from the algal bloom. The algal bloom was formed mainly by the cyanobacteria Lyngbya robusta. Hyperion satellite images were used to characterize the algal bloom and the unique pigments of cyanobacteria such as phycocyanin. Atmospheric correction was critical to obtain the pure reflectance of the algal bloom and differentiate the spectral features unique to the cyanobacteria

  4. Combustion synthesis of tin dioxide nanocomposites for gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakrania, Smitesh Dhirajlal

    The current work focuses on understanding the mechanisms controlling tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticle morphology in combustion synthesis systems and how nanoarchitecture affects performance of solid-state gas sensors. A range of analytical methods (including transmission and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, nitrogen absorption, and XEDS) were used to characterize the materials properties as a function of the combustion synthesis conditions. A novel method of generating tin dioxide materials was developed which provides a new degree of control over SnO2 morphology; including spherical, nanorod and encapsulated particle architectures. A simplified model for particle formation based on characteristic times was developed to identify the physical and chemical processes affecting the morphologies observed using transmission electron microscope imaging. The SnO2 nanoparticles evolve from primary particles sizes of 7 nm to 14 nm through the synthesis region, and the results indicate interparticle collision and sintering are the dominant mechanisms in determining particle size and morphology for the flame conditions studied. Metal acetates were used to create metal/SnO 2 nanocomposite materials, and the processes controlling gold acetate decomposition in particular were explored. The results of the studies suggest a relationship between the precursor crystallite size and the product nanoparticles. The well-characterized SnO2 particles were evaluated as the active materials for gas-sensing. Sensor sensitivity and time response to carbon monoxide in dry air was used to investigate microstructure-performance links. Excellent sensitivity (3 7, based on the ratio of the resistance of the sensor in air to the resistance in the target gas) and time response (4--20 seconds) were demonstrated for the thin film gas sensors. Fabrication studies demonstrated the sensor performance was a strong function of the film deposition method. A novel method for manufacturing

  5. Fluid Lensing and Applications to Remote Sensing of Aquatic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirayath, Ved

    2017-01-01

    The use of fluid lensing technology on UAVs is presented as a novel means for 3D imaging of aquatic ecosystems from above the water's surface at the centimeter scale. Preliminary results are presented from airborne fluid lensing campaigns conducted over the coral reefs of Ofu Island, American Samoa (2013) and the stromatolite reefs of Shark Bay, Western Australia (2014), covering a combined area of 15km2. These reef ecosystems were revealed with centimetre-scale 2D resolution, and an accompanying 3D bathymetry model was derived using fluid lensing, Structure from Motion and UAV position data. Data products were validated from in-situ survey methods including underwater calibration targets, depth measurements and millimetre-scale high-dynamic range gigapixel photogrammetry. Fluid lensing is an experimental technology that uses water transmitting wavelengths to passively image underwater objects at high-resolution by exploiting time-varying optical lensing events caused by surface waves. Fluid lensing data are captured from low-altitude, cost-effective electric UAVs to achieve multispectral imagery and bathymetry models at the centimetre scale over regional areas. As a passive system, fluid lensing is presently limited by signal-to-noise ratio and water column inherent optical properties to approximately 10 m depth over visible wavelengths in clear waters. The datasets derived from fluid lensing present the first centimetre-scale images of a reef acquired from above the ocean surface, without wave distortion. The 3D multispectral data distinguish coral, fish and invertebrates in American Samoa, and reveal previously undocumented, morphologically distinct, stromatolite structures in Shark Bay. These findings suggest fluid lensing and multirotor electric drones represent a promising advance in the remote sensing of aquatic environments at the centimetre scale, or 'reef scale' relevant to the conservation of reef ecosystems. Pending further development and validation of

  6. Paper as a platform for sensing applications and other devices: a review.

    PubMed

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Walus, Konrad; Stoeber, Boris

    2015-04-29

    Paper is a ubiquitous material that has various applications in day to day life. A sheet of paper is produced by pressing moist wood cellulose fibers together. Paper offers unique properties: paper allows passive liquid transport, it is compatible with many chemical and biochemical moieties, it exhibits piezoelectricity, and it is biodegradable. Hence, paper is an attractive low-cost functional material for sensing devices. In recent years, researchers in the field of science and engineering have witnessed an exponential growth in the number of research contributions that focus on the development of cost-effective and scalable fabrication methods and new applications of paper-based devices. In this review article, we highlight recent advances in the development of paper-based sensing devices in the areas of electronics, energy storage, strain sensing, microfluidic devices, and biosensing, including piezoelectric paper. Additionally, this review includes current limitations of paper-based sensing devices and points out issues that have limited the commercialization of some of the paper-based sensing devices.

  7. Novel synthesis approach for stable sodium superoxide (NaO2) nanoparticles for LPG sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemade, Kailash; Waghuley, Sandeep

    2017-05-01

    The synthesis of stable superoxide is still great challenge for the researchers working in the field of materials science. Through this letter, we report the novel and simple synthesis approach for the preparation of stable sodium superoxide (NaO2) nanoparticles. NaO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a spray pyrolysis technique, under oxygen rich environment for gas sensing application. The texture characterizations show that as-obtained NaO2 nanoparticles have high structural purity. Most importantly, NaO2 nanoparticles exhibits higher sensing response, shorter response time and recovery time, low operating temperature and good stability during sensing of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The main accomplishment of present work is that as-fabricated sensor has low operating temperature (423 K), which is below auto-ignition temperature of LPG. The gas sensing mechanism of NaO2 nanoparticles was discussed without the conventional oxygen bridging mechanism. Through this short communication, LPG sensing application of stable sodium superoxide nanoparticle is explored.

  8. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  9. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  10. Integrated microsystems for optical sensing and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleindienst, Roman; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Compact optical systems generally form the backbone of integrated optoelectronic microsystems. Miniaturization as well as integration requirements result in system configurations with folded optical axis such as in planar integrated freespace optics. For optimum performance in such systems geometries, the surface profiles of the corresponding optical elements deviate from classical spherical or aspherical shapes. Optimized plane-symmetric or freeform optical elements are required instead. We discuss design, fabrication and characterization of freeform optical elements for the integration of optical microsystems. The systems performance is demonstrated for imaging as well as sensor applications.

  11. Tilted fiber Bragg gratings: Principle and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Miao, Yinping

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the mode coupling mechanism of tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) is briefly introduced at first. And a general review on the fabrication, theoretical and experimental research development of TFBGs is presented from a worldwide perspective, followed by an introduction of our current research work on TFBGs at the Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University (IMONK), including TFBG sensors for single-parameter measurements, temperature cross sensitivity of TFBG sensors, and TFBG-based interrogation technique. Finally, we would make a summary of the related key techniques and a remark on prospects of the research and applications of TFBGs.

  12. Autonomous control systems: applications to remote sensing and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, Mohammad

    2001-11-01

    One of the main challenges of any control (or image processing) paradigm is being able to handle complex systems under unforeseen uncertainties. A system may be called complex here if its dimension (order) is too high and its model (if available) is nonlinear, interconnected, and information on the system is uncertain such that classical techniques cannot easily handle the problem. Examples of complex systems are power networks, space robotic colonies, national air traffic control system, and integrated manufacturing plant, the Hubble Telescope, the International Space Station, etc. Soft computing, a consortia of methodologies such as fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms and genetic programming, has proven to be powerful tools for adding autonomy and semi-autonomy to many complex systems. For such systems the size of soft computing control architecture will be nearly infinite. In this paper new paradigms using soft computing approaches are utilized to design autonomous controllers and image enhancers for a number of application areas. These applications are satellite array formations for synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) and enhancement of analog and digital images.

  13. Environment Sensing Merocyanine Dyes for Live Cell Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    MacNevin, Christopher J.; Gremyachinskiy, Dmitriy; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Li, Li; Rougie, Marie; Davis, Tamara T.; Hahn, Klaus M.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent biosensors based on environmentally sensitive dyes enable visualization and quantification of endogenous protein activation within living cells. Merocyanine dyes are especially useful for live cell imaging applications as they are extraordinarily bright, have long wavelengths of excitation and emission, and can exhibit readily detectable fluorescence changes in response to environment. We sought to systematically examine the effects of structural features on key photophysical properties, including dye brightness, environmental responsiveness, and photostability, through the synthesis of a library of 25 merocyanine dyes, derived from combinatorial reaction of 5 donor and 5 acceptor heterocycles. Four of these dyes showed optimal properties for specific imaging applications and were subsequently prepared with reactive side chains and enhanced aqueous solubility using a one-pot synthetic method. The new dyes were then applied within a biosensor design for Cdc42 activation, where dye mero60 showed a remarkable 1470% increase in fluorescence intensity on binding activated Cdc42 in vitro. The dye-based biosensors were used to report activation of endogenous Cdc42 in living cells. PMID:23297747

  14. Fundamentals and applications of SERS-based bioanalytical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, Mehmet; Mullen, Emma R.; Korkmaz, Aysun; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field that examines the interaction between light and metallic nanostructures at the metal-dielectric interface. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful analytical technique that uses plasmonics to obtain detailed chemical information of molecules or molecular assemblies adsorbed or attached to nanostructured metallic surfaces. For bioanalytical applications, these surfaces are engineered to optimize for high enhancement factors and molecular specificity. In this review we focus on the fabrication of SERS substrates and their use for bioanalytical applications. We review the fundamental mechanisms of SERS and parameters governing SERS enhancement. We also discuss developments in the field of novel SERS substrates. This includes the use of different materials, sizes, shapes, and architectures to achieve high sensitivity and specificity as well as tunability or flexibility. Different fundamental approaches are discussed, such as label-free and functional assays. In addition, we highlight recent relevant advances for bioanalytical SERS applied to small molecules, proteins, DNA, and biologically relevant nanoparticles. Subsequently, we discuss the importance of data analysis and signal detection schemes to achieve smaller instruments with low cost for SERS-based point-of-care technology developments. Finally, we review the main advantages and challenges of SERS-based biosensing and provide a brief outlook.

  15. Miniature mass spectrometer for chemical sensing in homeland defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.; Houseman, John

    2003-07-01

    A Miniature Mass Spectrometer (MMS) with an array detector has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The spectrometer has a focal plane geometry, and an array detector that can measure the intensities of different masses simultaneously after their separation along the focal plane. In the past, the large mass, size and the lack of an array detector with high gain (such as an electron multiplier) did not allow the application of focal plane mass spectrometer to the measurement that required high sensitivity and portability. In the JPL developed-MMS, miniaturization has been accomplished by using rare earth magnet material and novelties in the design of the magnetic and electric sectors. A new ion detector was developed for the measurement of the intensities of different mass ions. The array detector is based on the conversion sequence of ions into electrons into photons and their final measurement by a photon array detector. MMS possesses high sensitivity, specificity, and fast response time and can be used as a universal chemical analyzer. It will find application in a variety of Home Defense tasks. MMS is presently being applied for the detection of propellants (hydrazine and its derivatives). The instrument will have a mass of 1-2 kg and consume a power of 2-4 W for operation

  16. Remote Sensing Applications for Antrim Shale Fracture Characterization, Michigan Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuuskraa, Vello

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Research International (ARI) sent seven staff members to the 1997 International Coalbed Methane Symposium, held in Tuscaloosa, Alabama from May 12-17. ARI gave a short course on risk reduction strategies, including remote fracture detection, for coalbed methane exploration and development that was attended by about 25 coalbed methane industry professionals; and presented a paper entitled 'Optimizing coalbed methane cavity completion operations with the application of a new discrete element model.' We met with many potential clients and discussed our fracture detection services. China has vast coalbed methane resources, but is still highly dependent on coal-and wood-burning. This workshop, sponsored by the United Nations, was intended to help China develop its less-polluting energy reserves. ARI is successfully finding new applications for its fracture detection services. Coalbed methane exploration became an important market in this quarter, with the inception of a joint industry/government collaboration between ARI, Texaco and DOE to use remote fracture detection to identify areas with good potential for coalbed methane production in the Ferron Coal Trend of central Utah. Geothermal energy exploration is another emerging market for ARI, where fracture detection is applied to identify pathways for groundwater recharge, movement, and the locations of potential geothermal reservoirs. Ari continued work on two industry/government collaborations to demonstrate fracture detection to potential clients. Also completed the technical content layout for multimedia CD-ROM that describes our remote fracture detection services.

  17. Applications of compressed sensing to coherent radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qian

    Although meteoroids fragmentation has been observed and studied in the optical meteor community since the 1950s, no definitive fragmentation mechanisms for the relatively small meteoroids (mass .10.4 kg) have been proposed. This is in part due to the lack of observations to constrain physical mechanisms of the fragmentation process. While it is challenging to record fragmentation in faint optical meteors, observing meteors using HPLA (High-Power, Large- Aperture) radars can yield considerable information especially when employing coherent radar imaging (CRI). CRI can potentially resolve the fragmentation process in three spatial dimensions by monitoring the evolution of the plasma in the meteor head-echo, flare-echo, and trail-echo regions. On the other hand, the emerging field of compressed sensing (CS) provides a novel paradigm for signal acquisition and processing. Furthermore, it has been, and continues to be, applied with great success in radar systems, offering various benefits such as better resolution compared to traditional techniques, reduced resource requirements, and so forth. In this dissertation, we examine how CS can be incorporated to improve the performance of CRI using HPLA radars. We propose a single CS-based formalism that enables the threedimensions (3D).the range, Doppler frequency, and cross range (represented by the direction cosines) domain.coherent imaging. We show that the CS-based CRI can not only reduce the system costs and decrease the needed number of baselines by spatial sparse sampling, which can be much less than the number required by Nyquist-Shannon sampling criterion, but also achieve high resolution for target detection. We implement the CS-based CRI for meteor studies with observations conducted at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) in Peru. We present the unprecedented resolved details of meteoroids fragmentation, including both along and transverse to the trajectory spreading of the developing plasma, apparently caused by

  18. Upconversion Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Applications in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Upconversion is an optical process that involves the conversion of lower-energy photons into higher-energy photons. It has been extensively studied since mid-1960s and widely applied in optical devices. Over the past decade, high-quality rare earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the rapid development of nanotechnology and are becoming more prominent in biological sciences. The synthesis methods are usually phase-based processes, such as thermal decomposition, hydrothermal reaction, and ionic liquids-based synthesis. The main difference between upconversion nanoparticles and other nanomaterials is that they can emit visible light under near infrared irradiation. The near infrared irradiation leads to low autofluorescence, less scattering and absorption, and deep penetration in biological samples. In this review, the synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles and the mechanisms of upconversion process will be discussed, followed by their applications in different areas, especially in the biological field for biosensing. PMID:22736958

  19. Adaptive Sensing of Time Series with Application to Remote Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Furlong, Michael; Hardgrove, Craig; Low, Bryan K. H.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Wettergreen, David

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive informationoptimal data collection in time series. Here a remote sensor or explorer agent throttles its sampling rate in order to track anomalous events while obeying constraints on time and power. This problem is challenging because the agent has limited visibility -- all collected datapoints lie in the past, but its resource allocation decisions require predicting far into the future. Our solution is to continually fit a Gaussian process model to the latest data and optimize the sampling plan on line to maximize information gain. We compare the performance characteristics of stationary and nonstationary Gaussian process models. We also describe an application based on geologic analysis during planetary rover exploration. Here adaptive sampling can improve coverage of localized anomalies and potentially benefit mission science yield of long autonomous traverses.

  20. A hybrid silicon-PDMS optofluidic platform for sensing applications

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Genni; Persichetti, Gianluca; Sarro, Pasqualina M.; Bernini, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid silicon-poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS) optofluidic platform for lab-on-a-chip applications is proposed. A liquid-core waveguide with a self-aligned solid-core waveguide and a microfluidic device are integrated with a multilayer approach, resulting in a three-dimensional device assembly. The optofluidic layer was fabricated with a hybrid silicon-polymer technology, whereas the microfluidic layer was fabricated with a soft lithography technique. The combination of different materials and fabrication processes allows a modular approach, enabling both the benefits from the high optical quality achievable with silicon technology and the low cost of polymer processing. The proposed chip has been tested for fluorescence measurements on Cy5 water solutions, demonstrating the possibility to obtain a limit of detection of 2.5 nM. PMID:24575337

  1. Adaptive Sensing of Time Series with Application to Remote Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Furlong, Michael; Hardgrove, Craig; Low, Bryan K. H.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Wettergreen, David

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive informationoptimal data collection in time series. Here a remote sensor or explorer agent throttles its sampling rate in order to track anomalous events while obeying constraints on time and power. This problem is challenging because the agent has limited visibility -- all collected datapoints lie in the past, but its resource allocation decisions require predicting far into the future. Our solution is to continually fit a Gaussian process model to the latest data and optimize the sampling plan on line to maximize information gain. We compare the performance characteristics of stationary and nonstationary Gaussian process models. We also describe an application based on geologic analysis during planetary rover exploration. Here adaptive sampling can improve coverage of localized anomalies and potentially benefit mission science yield of long autonomous traverses.

  2. Inexpensive photonic crystal spectrometer for colorimetric sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Kurt M; Jia, Zhang; Pervez, Nadia K; Cox, Marshall P; Gazes, Michael J; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2013-02-25

    Photonic crystal spectrometers possess significant size and cost advantages over traditional grating-based spectrometers. In a previous work [Pervez, et al, Opt. Express 18, 8277 (2010)] we demonstrated a proof of this concept by implementing a 9-element array photonic crystal spectrometer with a resolution of 20 nm. Here we demonstrate a photonic crystal spectrometer with improved performance. The dependence of the spectral recovery resolution on the number of photonic crystal arrays and the width of the response function from each photonic crystal is investigated. A mathematical treatment, regularization based on known information of the spectrum, is utilized in order to stabilize the spectral estimation inverse problem and achieve improved spectral recovery. Colorimetry applications, the measurement of CIE 1931 chromaticities and the color rendering index, are demonstrated with the improved spectrometer.

  3. Upconversion nanomaterials: synthesis, mechanism, and applications in sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Upconversion is an optical process that involves the conversion of lower-energy photons into higher-energy photons. It has been extensively studied since mid-1960s and widely applied in optical devices. Over the past decade, high-quality rare earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the rapid development of nanotechnology and are becoming more prominent in biological sciences. The synthesis methods are usually phase-based processes, such as thermal decomposition, hydrothermal reaction, and ionic liquids-based synthesis. The main difference between upconversion nanoparticles and other nanomaterials is that they can emit visible light under near infrared irradiation. The near infrared irradiation leads to low autofluorescence, less scattering and absorption, and deep penetration in biological samples. In this review, the synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles and the mechanisms of upconversion process will be discussed, followed by their applications in different areas, especially in the biological field for biosensing.

  4. Optofluidic devices and applications in photonics, sensing and imaging.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lin; Chen, H Matthew; Freeman, Lindsay M; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2012-10-07

    Optofluidics integrates the fields of photonics and microfluidics, providing new freedom to both fields and permitting the realization of optical and fluidic property manipulations at the chip scale. Optofluidics was formed only after many breakthroughs in microfluidics, as understanding of fluid behaviour at the micron level enabled researchers to combine the advantages of optics and fluids. This review describes the progress of optofluidics from a photonics perspective, highlighting various optofluidic aspects ranging from the device's property manipulation to an interactive integration between optics and fluids. First, we describe photonic elements based on the functionalities that enable fluid manipulation. We then discuss the applications of optofluidic biodetection with an emphasis on nanosensing. Next, we discuss the progress of optofluidic lenses with an emphasis on its various architectures, and finally we conceptualize on where the field may lead.

  5. The application of remote sensing to resource management and environmental quality programs in Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G.

    1975-01-01

    Specific assistance to state agencies and public bodies on over 15 remote sensing projects concerned with (1) urban and regional analysis, (2) rural development, and (3) habitat management and environmental analysis is discussed. Specific problems of officials are considered and a basis for communication by demonstration is provided. In addition to data products in support of specific agency projects; consultation and training in use of satellite and aircraft imagery is provided to personnel from several state, regional, and county agencies. Effective communication and confidence is established through these efforts and users now routinely seek information and advice about the application of remote sensing technology to solution of their agency problems.

  6. Applications of remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential applications of remote sensing technology to the study of coastal marine environments are reviewed, emphasizing water quality and biological measurements. Parameters measurable by airborne or spaceborne remote sensors include particulates, measured by visual or multispectral photography, chlorophyll a, measured by the Ocean Color Scanner or Coastal Zone Color Scanner, temperature distributions, by IR or microwave sensors, and salinity, by means of microwave radiometers. Research projects in which wide area synoptic or repetitive remote sensing can make a major contribution include the study of estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, marine pollutant transport, marine phytoplankton dynamics and ocean fronts.

  7. Wavefront phase retrieval with multi-aperture Zernike filter for atmospheric sensing and adaptive optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, Behzad; Farwell, Nathan H.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

    2016-09-01

    A novel scintillation resistant wavefront sensor based on a densely packed array of classical Zernike filters, referred to as the multi-aperture Zernike wavefront sensor (MAZ-WFS), is introduced and analyzed through numerical simulations. Wavefront phase reconstruction in the MAZ-WFS is performed using iterative algorithms that are optimized for phase aberration sensing in severe atmospheric turbulence conditions. The results demonstrate the potential of the MAZ-WFS for high-resolution retrieval of turbulence-induced phase aberrations in strong scintillation conditions for atmospheric sensing and adaptive optics applications.

  8. Stainless steel component with compressed fiber Bragg grating for high temperature sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinesh, Mathew; MacPherson, William N.; Hand, Duncan P.; Maier, Robert R. J.

    2016-05-01

    A smart metal component having the potential for high temperature strain sensing capability is reported. The stainless steel (SS316) structure is made by selective laser melting (SLM). A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is embedded in to a 3D printed U-groove by high temperature brazing using a silver based alloy, achieving an axial FBG compression of 13 millistrain at room temperature. Initial results shows that the test component can be used for up to 700°C for sensing applications.

  9. UV-laser-inscribed fiber Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiping; Bartelt, Hartmut; Ecke, Wolfgang; Willsch, Reinhardt; Kobelke, Jens

    2011-11-01

    We report about fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) inscribed in two different types of small-core Ge-doped photonic crystal fibers with a UV laser. Sensing applications of the FBGs were systematically investigated by means of demonstrating the responses of Bragg wavelengths to temperature, strain, bending, and transverse-loading. The Bragg wavelength of the FBGs shifts toward longer wavelengths with increasing temperature, tensile strain, and transverse-loading. Moreover, the bending and transverse-loading properties of the FBGs are sensitive to the fiber orientations. The reasonable analyses for these sensing properties also are presented.

  10. An Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment for the Application of Remote Sensing in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".

  11. Rapid On-Site Formation of a Free-Standing Flexible Optical Link for Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Carlos Angulo

    2016-01-01

    An optical link, based on a conventional Scotch tape waveguide, for sensing applications requiring rapid on-site assembly is proposed and demonstrated. The flexible waveguide contains an integrated aluminum one-dimensional grating coupler that, when stuck on the radiative surface of a light emitting device, allows light to be coupled in and transmitted through the tape, whose tip end is, in turn, adhered onto the photosensitive surface of a photodetector. The (de)coupling approaches exhibit high alignment tolerances that permit the formation of a free-standing flexible optical connection between surface-normal optoelectronic devices without the need of specialized equipment. As the first demonstration of a sensing application, the proposed optical link is easily configured as a cost-effective intensity-based refractometric sensor for liquid detection, which can be applicable to on-site quality and process control of, for example, beverages. PMID:27782049

  12. Hybrid plasmonic microcavity with an air-filled gap for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Binbin; Wu, Genzhu; Chen, Daru

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity with air-filled regions in the low-permittivity dielectric gap is proposed for sensing applications. Compared with the conventional structure with homogeneous gap, the introduced air-filled regions could improve the key modal characteristics of the hybrid mode. Simulation results reveal that this kind of hybrid microcavity maintains low loss with high quality factor ∼3062, and high field confinement with small mode volume 0.891 μm3. Moreover, in the sensing applications, this hybrid microcavity features simultaneously large refractive index sensitivity of 100 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and relatively high quality factor of 3062. Hence, it shows that the hybrid plasmonic microcavity has potential applications in ultra-compact refractive index sensor.

  13. A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, Sally

    1991-01-01

    Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

  14. Theoretical Studies of Spectroscopic Line Mixing in Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of collisional transfer of intensity due to line mixing has an increasing importance for atmospheric monitoring. From a theoretical point of view, all relevant information about the collisional processes is contained in the relaxation matrix where the diagonal elements give half-widths and shifts, and the off-diagonal elements correspond to line interferences. For simple systems such as those consisting of diatom-atom or diatom-diatom, accurate fully quantum calculations based on interaction potentials are feasible. However, fully quantum calculations become unrealistic for more complex systems. On the other hand, the semi-classical Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism, which has been widely used to calculate half-widths and shifts for decades, fails in calculating the off-diagonal matrix elements. As a result, in order to simulate atmospheric spectra where the effects from line mixing are important, semi-empirical fitting or scaling laws such as the ECS and IOS models are commonly used. Recently, while scrutinizing the development of the RB formalism, we have found that these authors applied the isolated line approximation in their evaluating matrix elements of the Liouville scattering operator given in exponential form. Since the criterion of this assumption is so stringent, it is not valid for many systems of interest in atmospheric applications. Furthermore, it is this assumption that blocks the possibility to calculate the whole relaxation matrix at all. By eliminating this unjustified application, and accurately evaluating matrix elements of the exponential operators, we have developed a more capable formalism. With this new formalism, we are now able not only to reduce uncertainties for calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to remove a once insurmountable obstacle to calculate the whole relaxation matrix. This implies that we can address the line mixing with the semi-classical theory based on interaction potentials between molecular absorber and

  15. Theoretical Studies of Spectroscopic Line Mixing in Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of collisional transfer of intensity due to line mixing has an increasing importance for atmospheric monitoring. From a theoretical point of view, all relevant information about the collisional processes is contained in the relaxation matrix where the diagonal elements give half-widths and shifts, and the off-diagonal elements correspond to line interferences. For simple systems such as those consisting of diatom-atom or diatom-diatom, accurate fully quantum calculations based on interaction potentials are feasible. However, fully quantum calculations become unrealistic for more complex systems. On the other hand, the semi-classical Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism, which has been widely used to calculate half-widths and shifts for decades, fails in calculating the off-diagonal matrix elements. As a result, in order to simulate atmospheric spectra where the effects from line mixing are important, semi-empirical fitting or scaling laws such as the ECS (Energy-Corrected Sudden) and IOS (Infinite-Order Sudden) models are commonly used. Recently, while scrutinizing the development of the RB formalism, we have found that these authors applied the isolated line approximation in their evaluating matrix elements of the Liouville scattering operator given in exponential form. Since the criterion of this assumption is so stringent, it is not valid for many systems of interest in atmospheric applications. Furthermore, it is this assumption that blocks the possibility to calculate the whole relaxation matrix at all. By eliminating this unjustified application, and accurately evaluating matrix elements of the exponential operators, we have developed a more capable formalism. With this new formalism, we are now able not only to reduce uncertainties for calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to remove a once insurmountable obstacle to calculate the whole relaxation matrix. This implies that we can address the line mixing with the semi-classical theory based on

  16. Direct laser deposition of nanostructured tungsten oxide for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla-Papavlu, Alexandra; Filipescu, Mihaela; Schneider, Christof W.; Antohe, Stefan; Ossi, Paolo M.; Radnóczi, György; Dinescu, Maria; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency (RF) assisted PLD onto interdigitated sensor structures. Structural characterization by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy shows the WO3 films are polycrystalline, with a pure monoclinic phase for the PLD grown films. The as-fabricated WO3 sensors are tested for ammonia (NH3) detection, by measuring the electrical response to NH3 at different temperatures. Sensors based on WO3 deposited by RF-PLD do not show any response to NH3. In contrast, sensors fabricated by PLD operating at 100 °C and 200 °C show a slow recovery time whilst at 300 °C, these sensors are highly sensitive in the low ppm range with a recovery time in the range of a few seconds. The microstructure of the films is suggested to explain their excellent electrical response. Columnar WO3 thin films are obtained by both deposition methods. However, the WO3 films grown by PLD are porous, (which may allow NH3 molecules to diffuse through the film) whereas RF-PLD films are dense. Our results highlight that WO3 thin films deposited by PLD can be applied for the fabrication of gas sensors with a performance level required for industrial applications.

  17. Terahertz sources and detectors and their application to biological sensing.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Thomas W; Globus, Tatiana; Woolard, Dwight L; Hesler, Jeffrey L

    2004-02-15

    Terahertz spectroscopy has long been used as an important measurement tool in fields such as radio astronomy, physical chemistry, atmospheric studies and plasma research. More recently terahertz technology has been used to develop an exciting new technique to investigate the properties of a wide range of biological materials. Although much research remains before a full understanding of the interaction between biomaterials and terahertz radiation is developed, these initial studies have created a compelling case for further scientific study. Also, the potential development of practical tools to detect and identify biological materials such as biological-warfare agents and food contaminants, or of medical diagnostic tools, is driving the need for improved terahertz technology. In particular, improved terahertz sources and detectors that can be used in practical spectroscopy systems are needed. This paper overviews some of the recent measurements of the terahertz spectra of biomaterials and the ongoing efforts to create an all-solid-state technology suitable not only for improved scientific experiments but also for military and commercial applications.

  18. Application of remote sensing to monitoring and studying dispersion in ocean dumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Remotely sensed wide area synoptic data provides information on ocean dumping that is not readily available by other means. A qualitative approach has been used to map features, such as river plumes. Results of quantitative analyses have been used to develop maps showing quantitative distributions of one or more water quality parameters, such as suspended solids or chlorophyll a. Joint NASA/NOAA experiments have been conducted at designated dump areas in the U.S. coastal zones to determine the applicability of aircraft remote sensing systems to map plumes resulting from ocean dumping of sewage sludge and industrial wastes. A second objective is related to the evaluation of previously developed quantitative analysis techniques for studying dispersion of materials in these plumes. It was found that plumes resulting from dumping of four waste materials have distinctive spectral characteristics. The development of a technology for use in a routine monitoring system, based on remote sensing techniques, is discussed.

  19. Research for applications of remote sensing to state and local governments (ARSIG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, K. E.; Johnson, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and its application to problems confronted by local and state planners are reported. The added dimension of remote sensing as a data gathering tool has been explored identifying pertinent land use factors associated with urban growth such as soil associations, soil capability, vegetation distribution, and flood prone areas. Remote sensing within rural agricultural setting has also been utilized to determine irrigation runoff volumes, cropping patterns, and land use. A variety of data sources including U-2 70 mm multispectral black and white photography, RB-57 9-inch color IR, HyAC panoramic color IR and ERTS-1 imagery have been used over selected areas of Arizona including Tucson, Arizona (NASA Test Site #30) and the Sulphur Springs Valley.

  20. Aerospace remote sensing of the coastal zone for water quality and biotic productivity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harriss, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing can provide the wide area synoptic coverage of surface waters which is required for studies of such phenomena as river plume mixing, phytoplankton dynamics, and pollutant transport and fate, but which is not obtainable by conventional oceanographic techniques. The application of several remote sensors (aircraftborne and spacecraftborne multispectral scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and active laser systems) to coastal zone research is discussed. Current measurement capabilities (particulates, chlorophyll a, temperature, salinity, ocean dumped materials, other pollutants, and surface winds and roughness) are defined and the results of recent remote sensing experiments conducted in the North Atlantic coastal zone are presented. The future development of remote sensing must rely on an integrated laboratory research program in optical physics. Recent results indicate the potential for separation of particulates into subsets by remote sensors.

  1. Application of remote sensing to monitoring and studying dispersion in ocean dumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Remotely sensed wide area synoptic data provides information on ocean dumping that is not readily available by other means. A qualitative approach has been used to map features, such as river plumes. Results of quantitative analyses have been used to develop maps showing quantitative distributions of one or more water quality parameters, such as suspended solids or chlorophyll a. Joint NASA/NOAA experiments have been conducted at designated dump areas in the U.S. coastal zones to determine the applicability of aircraft remote sensing systems to map plumes resulting from ocean dumping of sewage sludge and industrial wastes. A second objective is related to the evaluation of previously developed quantitative analysis techniques for studying dispersion of materials in these plumes. It was found that plumes resulting from dumping of four waste materials have distinctive spectral characteristics. The development of a technology for use in a routine monitoring system, based on remote sensing techniques, is discussed.

  2. High resolution remote sensing image processing technology and its application to uranium geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie-lin

    2008-12-01

    Hyperspectral and high spatial resolution remote sensing technology take important role in uranium geological application, data mining and knowledge discovery methods are key to character spectral and spatial information of uranium mineralization factors. Based on curvelet transform algorithm, this paper developed the image fusion technology of hyperspectral (Hyperion) and high spatial data (SPOT5), and results demonstrated that fusion image had advantage in denoising, enhancing and information identification. Used discrete wavelet transform, the spectral parameters of uranium mineralization factors were acquired, the spectral identification pedigrees of typical quadrivalence and hexavalence uranium minerals were established. Furthermore, utilizing hyperspectral remote sensing observation technology, this paper developed hyperspectral logging of drill cores and trench, it can quickly processed lots of geological and spectral information, and the relationship between radioactive intensity and abnormal spectral characteristics of Fe3+ was established. All those provided remote sensing technical bases to uranium geology, and the better results have been achieved in Taoshan uranium deposits in south China.

  3. 3D sensing for machine guidance in meat cutting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Wayne; Britton, Doug; Usher, Colin; Diao, Mamadou; Ruffin, Kevin

    2005-11-01

    Most cutting and deboning operations in meat processing require accurate cuts be made to obtain maximum yield and ensure food safety. This is a significant concern for purveyors of deboned product. This task is made more difficult by the variability that is present in most natural products. The specific application of interest in this paper is the production of deboned poultry breast. This is typically obtained from a cut of the broiler called a 'front half' that includes the breast and the wings. The deboning operation typically consists of a cut that starts at the shoulder joint and then continues along the scapula. Attentive humans with training do a very good job of making this cut. The breast meat is then removed by pulling on the wings. Inaccurate cuts lead to poor yield (amount of boneless meat obtained relative to the weight of the whole carcass) and increase the probability that bone fragments might end up in the product. As equipment designers seek to automate the deboning operation, the cutting task has been a significant obstacle to developing automation that maximizes yield without generating unacceptable levels of bone fragments. The current solution is to sort the bone-in product into different weight ranges and then to adjust the deboning machines to the average of these weight ranges. We propose an approach for obtaining key cut points by extrapolation from external reference points based on the anatomy of the bird. We show that this approach can be implemented using a stereo imaging system, and the accuracy in locating the cut points of interest is significantly improved. This should result in more accurate cuts and with this concomitantly improved yield while reducing the incidence of bones. We also believe the approach could be extended to the processing of other species.

  4. A new application of compressive sensing in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Lenti, Flavia; Pascazio, Vito

    2014-03-01

    Image formation in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the procedure which allows the generation of the image starting from data acquired in the so called k-space. At the present, many image formation techniques have been presented, working with different k-space filling strategies. Recently, Compressive Sampling (CS) has been successfully used for image formation from non fully sampled k-space acquisitions, due to its interesting property of reconstructing signal from highly undetermined linear systems. The main advantage consists in greatly reducing the acquisition time. Within this manuscript, a novel application of CS to MRI field is presented, named Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA). The idea is to achieve the so-called super resolution, i.e. the possibility of distinguish anatomical structures smaller than the spatial resolution of the image. For this aim, multiple Spin Echo images acquired with different Echo Times are required. The output of the algorithm is the estimation of the number of contributions present in the same pixel, i.e. the number of tissues inside the same voxel, and their spin-spin relaxation times. This allows us not only to identify the number of involved tissues, but also to discriminate them. At the present, simulated case studies have been considered, obtaining interesting and promising results. In particular, a study on the required number of images, on the estimation noise and on the regularization parameter of different CS algorithms has been conducted. As future work, the method will be applied to real clinical datasets, in order to validate the estimations.

  5. Temporal Analysis of Remotely Sensed Precipitation Products for Hydrological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, K. J.; Bennett, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    No study has systematically evaluated streamflow modeling between monthly and daily timescales. This study examines streamflow from eight watersheds across the United States where five different precipitation products were used as primary input into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to generate simulated streamflow. Timescales examined include monthly, dekad (10 day), pentad (5 day), triad (3 day), and daily. The eight basins studied are the San Pedro (Arizona); Cimarron (north-central Oklahoma); mid-Nueces (south Texas); mid-Rio Grande (south Texas and northern Mexico), Yocano (northern Mississippi); Alapaha (south Georgia); Upper Tar (North Carolina) and mid-St. Francis (eastern Arkansas). The precipitation products used to drive simulations include rain gauge, NWS Multisensor Precipitation Estimator, Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, Multi-Satellite (TRMM) Precipitation Analysis, TRMM 3B42-V6, and Climate Prediction Center Morphing Method (CMORPH). Understanding how streamflow varies at sub-monthly timescales is important because there are a host of hydrological applications such a flood forecast guidance and reservoir inflow forecasts that reside in a temporal domain between monthly and daily timescales. The major finding of this study is the quantification of a strong positive correlation between performance metrics and time step at which model performance deteriorates. Basically, better performing simulations, with higher Nash-Sutcliffe values of 0.80 and above can support modeling at finer timescales to at least daily and perhaps beyond into the sub-daily realm. These findings are significant in that they clearly document the ability of SWAT to support modeling at sub-monthly time steps, which is beyond the capability for which SWAT was initially designed.

  6. Parallel K-dimensional tree classification based on semi-matroid structure for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yang-Lang; Chen, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Jin-Nan; Chang, Lena; Fang, Jyh Perng

    2010-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing images can be interpreted to provide important information of large-scale natural resources, such as lands, oceans, mountains, rivers, forests and minerals for Earth observations. Recent advances of remote sensing technologies have improved the availability of satellite imagery in a wide range of applications including high dimensional remote sensing data sets (e.g. high spectral and high spatial resolution images). The information of high dimensional remote sensing images obtained by state-of-the-art sensor technologies can be identified more accurately than images acquired by conventional remote sensing techniques. However, due to its large volume of image data, it requires a huge amount of storages and computing time. In response, the computational complexity of data processing for high dimensional remote sensing data analysis will increase. Consequently, this paper proposes a novel classification algorithm based on semi-matroid structure, known as the parallel k-dimensional tree semi-matroid (PKTSM) classification, which adopts a new hybrid parallel approach to deal with high dimensional data sets. It is implemented by combining the message passing interface (MPI) library, the open multi-processing (OpenMP) application programming interface and the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) of graphics processing units (GPU) in a hybrid mode. The effectiveness of the proposed PKTSM is evaluated by using MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) images and airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) images for land cover classification during the Pacrim II campaign. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed hybrid PKTSM can significantly improve the performance in terms of both computational speed-up and classification accuracy.

  7. Thermal infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subjects of infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications is reviewed with respect to the basic physical concepts involved at the Earth's surface and up through the atmosphere, as well as the historical development of satellite systems which produce such data at increasingly greater spatial resolution. With this general background in hand, the growth of a variety of specific renewable resource applications using the developing thermal infrared technology are discussed, including data from HCMM investigators. Recommendations are made for continued growth in this field of applications.

  8. Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Data and Implications for Miniaturized Space Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korde-Patel, Asmita (Inventor); Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing is a technique for simultaneous acquisition and compression of data that is sparse or can be made sparse in some domain. It is currently under intense development and has been profitably employed for industrial and medical applications. We here describe the use of this technique for the processing of astronomical data. We outline the procedure as applied to exoplanet gravitational microlensing and analyze measurement results and uncertainty values. We describe implications for on-spacecraft data processing for space observatories. Our findings suggest that application of these techniques may yield significant, enabling benefits especially for power and volume-limited space applications such as miniaturized or micro-constellation satellites.

  9. Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticle films for optical sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ohodnicki, Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark

    2013-07-31

    The ability to monitor gas species selectively, sensitively, and reliably in extreme temperatures and harsh conditions is critically important for more efficient energy production using conventional fossil energy based production technologies, enabling advanced technologies for fossil based power plants of the future, and improving efficiency in domestic manufacturing industries. Optical waveguide based sensing platforms have become increasingly important but a need exists for materials that exhibit useful changes in optical properties in response to changing gas atmospheres at high temperatures. In this manuscript, the onset of a near-IR absorption associated with an increase in free carrier density in doped metal oxide nanoparticles to form so-called conducting metal oxides is discussed in the context of results obtained for undoped and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticle based films. Detailed film characterization results are presented along with measured changes in optical absorption resulting from various high temperature treatments in a range of gas atmospheres. Optical property changes are also discussed in the context of a simple model for optical absorption in conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and thin films. The combination of experimental results and theoretical modeling presented here suggests that such materials have potential for high temperature optical gas sensing applications. Simulated sensing experiments were performed at 500 °C and a useful, rapid, and reproducible near-IR optical sensing response to H{sub 2} confirms that this class of materials shows great promise for optical gas sensing.

  10. Development of techniques required for the application of a laser to three dimensional visual sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Arthur M.; Gerhardt, Lester A.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing vision research at the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) is directed toward identifying and addressing the relevant issues involved in applying visual sensing to space assembly tasks. A considerable amount of effort has been devoted to passive sensing techniques such as using multiple cameras to identify objects in a scene. To compliment the capabilities of the passive visual system in the CIRSSE robotics testbed, research is being conducted in active sensing techniques. This report is description of the research associated with the testbed's laser scanner and its application as an active sensing device. The report is comprised of five major topics. First is a brief description of the CIRSSE visual system and a summary of the active sensing research that has been conducted up to this point. Second, some of the methods currently used to calibrate CIRSSE's laser scanner are described as well as an appraisal of the effectiveness of these methods. Third, is a discussion of how the laser scanner can be employed in concert with a camera to provide a three dimensional point estimation capability. Fourth, there is a description of methods that can be used to detect the presence of the laser beam in a cluttered camera image. Finally, there is a summary of the current state of this research and a description of research planned for the future.

  11. Dynamically tunable chemiluminescence of luminol-functionalized silver nanoparticles and its application to protein sensing arrays.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; He, Xiao; Liu, Xiaoying; Gao, Lingfeng; Cui, Hua

    2014-12-16

    It is still a great challenge to develop an array-based sensing system that can obtain only multiparameters, according to a single experiment and device. The role of conventional chemiluminescence (CL) in biosensing has been limited to a signal transducer in which a single signal (CL intensity) can be obtained for quantifying the concentrations of analytes. In this work, we have developed an dynamically tunable CL system, based on the reaction of luminol-functionalized silver nanoparticles (luminol-AgNPs) with H2O2, which could be tunable via adjusting various conditions such as the concentration of H2O2, pH value, and addition of protein. A single experiment operation could obtain multiparameters including CL intensity, the time to appear CL emission and the time to reach CL peak value. The tunable, low-background, and highly reproducible CL system based on luminol-AgNPs is applied, for the first time, as a sensing platform with trichannel properties for protein sensing arrays by principal component analysis. Identification of 35 unknowns demonstrated a success rate of >96%. The developed sensing arrays based on the luminol-AgNPs provide a new way to use nanoparticles-based CL for the fabrication of sensing arrays and hold great promise for biomedical application in the future.

  12. The application analysis of the multi-angle polarization technique for ocean color remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongchao; Zhu, Jun; Yin, Huan; Zhang, Keli

    2017-02-01

    The multi-angle polarization technique, which uses the intensity of polarized radiation as the observed quantity, is a new remote sensing means for earth observation. With this method, not only can the multi-angle light intensity data be provided, but also the multi-angle information of polarized radiation can be obtained. So, the technique may solve the problems, those could not be solved with the traditional remote sensing methods. Nowadays, the multi-angle polarization technique has become one of the hot topics in the field of the international quantitative research on remote sensing. In this paper, we firstly introduce the principles of the multi-angle polarization technique, then the situations of basic research and engineering applications are particularly summarized and analysed in 1) the peeled-off method of sun glitter based on polarization, 2) the ocean color remote sensing based on polarization, 3) oil spill detection using polarization technique, 4) the ocean aerosol monitoring based on polarization. Finally, based on the previous work, we briefly present the problems and prospects of the multi-angle polarization technique used in China's ocean color remote sensing.

  13. Application of Convolutional Neural Network in Classification of High Resolution Agricultural Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of Precision Agriculture (PA) promoted by high-resolution remote sensing, it makes significant sense in management and estimation of agriculture through crop classification of high-resolution remote sensing image. Due to the complex and fragmentation of the features and the surroundings in the circumstance of high-resolution, the accuracy of the traditional classification methods has not been able to meet the standard of agricultural problems. In this case, this paper proposed a classification method for high-resolution agricultural remote sensing images based on convolution neural networks(CNN). For training, a large number of training samples were produced by panchromatic images of GF-1 high-resolution satellite of China. In the experiment, through training and testing on the CNN under the toolbox of deep learning by MATLAB, the crop classification finally got the correct rate of 99.66 % after the gradual optimization of adjusting parameter during training. Through improving the accuracy of image classification and image recognition, the applications of CNN provide a reference value for the field of remote sensing in PA.

  14. Crosscutting Airborne Remote Sensing Technologies for Oil and Gas and Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, A. D.; Frankenberg, C.; Green, R. O.; Eastwood, M. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectroscopy has evolved dramatically since the 1980s as a robust remote sensing technique used to generate 2-dimensional maps of surface properties over large spatial areas. Traditional applications for passive airborne imaging spectroscopy include interrogation of surface composition, such as mapping of vegetation diversity and surface geological composition. Two recent applications are particularly relevant to the needs of both the oil and gas as well as government sectors: quantification of surficial hydrocarbon thickness in aquatic environments and mapping atmospheric greenhouse gas components. These techniques provide valuable capabilities for petroleum seepage in addition to detection and quantification of fugitive emissions. New empirical data that provides insight into the source strength of anthropogenic methane will be reviewed, with particular emphasis on the evolving constraints enabled by new methane remote sensing techniques. Contemporary studies attribute high-strength point sources as significantly contributing to the national methane inventory and underscore the need for high performance remote sensing technologies that provide quantitative leak detection. Imaging sensors that map spatial distributions of methane anomalies provide effective techniques to detect, localize, and quantify fugitive leaks. Airborne remote sensing instruments provide the unique combination of high spatial resolution (<1 m) and large coverage required to directly attribute methane emissions to individual emission sources. This capability cannot currently be achieved using spaceborne sensors. In this study, results from recent NASA remote sensing field experiments focused on point-source leak detection, will be highlighted. This includes existing quantitative capabilities for oil and methane using state-of-the-art airborne remote sensing instruments. While these capabilities are of interest to NASA for assessment of environmental impact and global climate

  15. Aerosol Remote Sensing Applications for Airborne Multiangle, Multispectral Shortwave Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bismarck, Jonas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Starace, Marco; Hollstein, André; Preusker, René; Fischer, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    and ground based operations of the instruments so far, only two exemplary campaigns shall be introduced here. FUBEX in July 2008 was the first airborne campaign with FUBISS-ASA2, FUBISS-ZENITH and AMSSP-EM simultaneously mounted on the Cessna 207T of the Institute for Space Sciences, based in Berlin. Vertical radiation profiles recorded on July 28 in 2008 where used for a first application of the introduced inversion algorithm. In Oktober/November 2009, FUBISS-ASA2 and FUBISS-ZENITH where mounted on the German research icebreaker FS Polarstern, crossing the Atlantic on its cruise from Bremerhaven (Germany) to Punta Arenas (Chile). Measurements where performed throughout the whole cruise on days with a variety of different atmospheric conditions, as a Saharan dust outbreak over Cape Verde, typical marine conditions with salt particles in the marine boundary layer and also pristine conditions in the southern Atlantic. Access to the data of other instruments aboard the ship, as a Raman-Lidar, a cloud camera, weather station, and a microwave radiometer, provided valuable a priori information for processing and calibration of the measurements. The results may be of special interest for the validation of satellite aerosol products.

  16. Application of multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to remote sensing hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Tauler, Romà

    2013-01-31

    The application of the MCR-ALS method is demonstrated on two simulated remote sensing spectroscopic images and on one experimental reference remote sensing spectroscopic image obtained by the Airborn Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). By application of MCR-ALS, the spectra signatures of the pure constituents present in the image and their concentration distribution at a pixel level are estimated. Results obtained by MCR-ALS are compared to those obtained by other methods frequently used in the remote sensing spectroscopic imaging field like VCA and MVSA. In the case of the analysis of the experimental data set, the resolved pure spectra signatures were compared to reference spectra from USGS library for their identification. In all cases, results were also evaluated for the presence of rotational ambiguities using the MCR-BANDS method. The obtained results confirmed that the MCR-ALS method can be successfully used for remote sensing hyperspectral image resolution purposes. However, the amount of rotation ambiguity still present in the solutions obtained by this and other resolution methods (like VCA or MVSA) can still be large and it should be evaluated with care, trying to reduce its effects by selecting the more appropriate constraints. Only in this way it is possible to increase the reliability of the solutions provided by these methods and decrease the uncertainties associated to their use.

  17. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Matthew J.; Colna, Kaitlyn E.; El-Mezayen, Mahmoud M.; Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E.; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Otis, Daniel B.; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2017-08-01

    Management of coastal and marine natural resources presents a number of challenges as a growing global population and a changing climate require us to find better strategies to conserve the resources on which our health, economy, and overall well-being depend. To evaluate the status and trends in changing coastal resources over larger areas, managers in government agencies and private stakeholders around the world have increasingly turned to remote sensing technologies. A surge in collaborative and innovative efforts between resource managers, academic researchers, and industry partners is becoming increasingly vital to keep pace with evolving changes of our natural resources. Synoptic capabilities of remote sensing techniques allow assessments that are impossible to do with traditional methods. Sixty years of remote sensing research have paved the way for resource management applications, but uncertainties regarding the use of this technology have hampered its use in management fields. Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and decision-making goals.

  18. Metal-core@metal oxide-shell nanomaterials for gas-sensing applications: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, A.; Janghorban, K.; Hashemi, B.; Neri, G.

    2015-09-01

    With an ever-increasing number of applications in many advanced fields, gas sensors are becoming indispensable devices in our daily life. Among different types of gas sensors, conductometric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are found to be the most appealing for advanced applications in the automotive, biomedical, environmental, and safety sectors because of the their high sensitivity, reduced size, and low cost. To improve their sensing characteristics, new metal oxide-based nanostructures have thus been proposed in recent years as sensing materials. In this review, we extensively review gas-sensing properties of core@ shell nanocomposites in which metals as the core and metal oxides as the shell structure, both of nanometer sizes, are assembled into a single metal@metal oxide core-shell. These nanostructures not only combine the properties of both noble metals and metal oxides, but also bring unique synergetic functions in comparison with single-component materials. Up-dated achievements in the synthesis and characterization of metal@metal oxide core-shell nanostructures as well as their use in MOS sensors are here reported with the main objective of providing an overview about their gas-sensing properties.

  19. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Matthew J; Colna, Kaitlyn E; El-Mezayen, Mahmoud M; Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Otis, Daniel B; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Muller-Karger, Frank E

    2017-08-01

    Management of coastal and marine natural resources presents a number of challenges as a growing global population and a changing climate require us to find better strategies to conserve the resources on which our health, economy, and overall well-being depend. To evaluate the status and trends in changing coastal resources over larger areas, managers in government agencies and private stakeholders around the world have increasingly turned to remote sensing technologies. A surge in collaborative and innovative efforts between resource managers, academic researchers, and industry partners is becoming increasingly vital to keep pace with evolving changes of our natural resources. Synoptic capabilities of remote sensing techniques allow assessments that are impossible to do with traditional methods. Sixty years of remote sensing research have paved the way for resource management applications, but uncertainties regarding the use of this technology have hampered its use in management fields. Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and decision-making goals.

  20. Public health applications of remote sensing of the environment, an evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The available techniques were examined in the field of remote sensing (including aerial photography, infrared detection, radar, etc.) and applications to a number of problems in the wide field of public health determined. The specific areas of public health examined included: air pollution, water pollution, communicable disease, and the combined problems of urban growth and the effect of disasters on human communities. The assessment of the possible applications of remote sensing to these problems was made primarily by examination of the available literature in each field, and by interviews with health authorities, physicists, biologists, and other interested workers. Three types of programs employing remote sensors were outlined in the air pollution field: (1) proving ability of sensors to monitor pollutants at three levels of interest - point source, ambient levels in cities, and global patterns; (2) detection of effects of pollutants on the environment at local and global levels; and (3) routine monitoring.