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Sample records for bio-impedance signal decomposer

  1. Process techniques for human thoracic electrical bio-impedance signal in remote healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Muhammad Zia Ur; Mirza, Shafi Shahsavar

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of thoracic electrical bio-impedance (TEB) facilitates heart stroke volume in sudden cardiac arrest. This Letter proposes several efficient and computationally simplified adaptive algorithms to display high-resolution TEB component. In a clinical environment, TEB signal encounters with various physiological and non-physiological phenomenon, which masks the tiny features that are important in identifying the intensity of the stroke. Moreover, computational complexity is an important parameter in a modern wearable healthcare monitoring tool. Hence, in this Letter, the authors propose a new signal conditioning technique for TEB enhancement in remote healthcare systems. For this, the authors have chosen higher order adaptive filter as a basic element in the process of TEB. To improve filtering capability, convergence speed, to reduce computational complexity of the signal conditioning technique, the authors apply data normalisation and clipping the data regressor. The proposed implementations are tested on real TEB signals. Finally, simulation results confirm that proposed regressor clipped normalised higher order filter is suitable for a practical healthcare system.

  2. [A study of coordinates transform iterative fitting method to extract bio-impedance model parameters bio-impedance model parameters].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming; Yang, Yuxing; Yuan, Shiying

    2006-02-01

    A new algorithm, the coordinates transform iterative optimizing method based on the least square curve fitting model, is presented. This arithmetic is used for extracting the bio-impedance model parameters. It is superior to other methods, for example, its speed of the convergence is quicker, and its calculating precision is higher. The objective to extract the model parameters, such as Ri, Re, Cm and alpha, has been realized rapidly and accurately. With the aim at lowering the power consumption, decreasing the price and improving the price-to-performance ratio, a practical bio-impedance measure system with double CPUs has been built. It can be drawn from the preliminary results that the intracellular resistance Ri increased largely with an increase in working load during sitting, which reflects the ischemic change of lower limbs.

  3. Effects of metoclopramide on gastric motility measured by short-term bio-impedance

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Franco, María-Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Capaccione, Kathleen M; Yañez-Roldán, Etna; Hernández-Ledezma, Ulises; Morales-Mata, Ismael; Córdova-Fraga, Teodoro

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the accuracy of short-term bio-impedance as a means of measuring gastric motility. METHODS: We evaluated differences in the short-term electrical bio-impedance signal from the gastric region in the following conditions: (1) fasting state, (2) after the administration of metoclopramide (a drug that induces an increase in gastric motility) and (3) after food ingestion in 23 healthy volunteers. We recorded the real component of the electrical impedance signal from the gastric region for 1000 s. We performed a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on this data and then compared the signal among the fasting, medicated, and postprandial conditions using the median of the area under the curve, the relative area under the curve and the main peak activity. RESULTS: The median of the area under the curve of the frequency range in the region between 2-8 cycles per minute (cpm) decreased from 4.7 cpm in the fasting condition to 4.0 cpm in the medicated state (t = 3.32, P = 0.004). This concurred with the decrease seen in the relative area under the FFT curve in the region from 4 to 8 cpm from 38.3% to 26.6% (t = 2.81, P = 0.012) and the increase in area in the region from 2 to 4 cpm from 22.4% to 27.7%, respectively (t = -2.5, P = 0.022). Finally the main peak position also decreased in the region from 2 to 8 cpm. Main peak activity in the fasting state was 4.72 cpm and declined to 3.45 cpm in the medicated state (t = 2.47, P = 0.025). There was a decrease from the fasting state to the postprandial state at 3.02 cpm (t = 4.0, P = 0.0013). CONCLUSION: Short-term electrical bio-impedance can assess gastric motility changes in individuals experiencing gastric stress by analyzing the area medians and relative areas under the FFT curve. PMID:19824108

  4. Error correction algorithm for high accuracy bio-impedance measurement in wearable healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Kubendran, Rajkumar; Lee, Seulki; Mitra, Srinjoy; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat

    2014-04-01

    Implantable and ambulatory measurement of physiological signals such as Bio-impedance using miniature biomedical devices needs careful tradeoff between limited power budget, measurement accuracy and complexity of implementation. This paper addresses this tradeoff through an extensive analysis of different stimulation and demodulation techniques for accurate Bio-impedance measurement. Three cases are considered for rigorous analysis of a generic impedance model, with multiple poles, which is stimulated using a square/sinusoidal current and demodulated using square/sinusoidal clock. For each case, the error in determining pole parameters (resistance and capacitance) is derived and compared. An error correction algorithm is proposed for square wave demodulation which reduces the peak estimation error from 9.3% to 1.3% for a simple tissue model. Simulation results in Matlab using ideal RC values show an average accuracy of for single pole and for two pole RC networks. Measurements using ideal components for a single pole model gives an overall and readings from saline phantom solution (primarily resistive) gives an . A Figure of Merit is derived based on ability to accurately resolve multiple poles in unknown impedance with minimal measurement points per decade, for given frequency range and supply current budget. This analysis is used to arrive at an optimal tradeoff between accuracy and power. Results indicate that the algorithm is generic and can be used for any application that involves resolving poles of an unknown impedance. It can be implemented as a post-processing technique for error correction or even incorporated into wearable signal monitoring ICs.

  5. Bio-Impedance Characterization Technique with Implantable Neural Stimulator Using Biphasic Current Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Kai; Chang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Wentai

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the bio-impedance and its equivalent circuit model at the electrode-electrolyte/tissue interface is important in the application of functional electrical stimulation. Impedance can be used as a merit to evaluate the proximity between electrodes and targeted tissues. Understanding the equivalent circuit parameters of the electrode can further be leveraged to set a safe boundary for stimulus parameters in order not to exceed the water window of electrodes. In this paper, we present an impedance characterization technique and implement a proof-of-concept system using an implantable neural stimulator and an off-the-shelf microcontroller. The proposed technique yields the parameters of the equivalent circuit of an electrode through large signal analysis by injecting a single low-intensity biphasic current stimulus with deliberately inserted inter-pulse delay and by acquiring the transient electrode voltage at three well-specified timings. Using low-intensity stimulus allows the derivation of electrode double layer capacitance since capacitive charge-injection dominates when electrode overpotential is small. Insertion of the inter-pulse delay creates a controlled discharge time to estimate the Faradic resistance. The proposed method has been validated by measuring the impedance of a) an emulated Randles cells made of discrete circuit components and b) a custom-made platinum electrode array in-vitro, and comparing estimated parameters with the results derived from an impedance analyzer. The proposed technique can be integrated into implantable or commercial neural stimulator system at low extra power consumption, low extra-hardware cost, and light computation. PMID:25569999

  6. Wavelet analysis to decompose a vibration simulation signal to improve pre-distribution testing of packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, K. R.; Hicks, B. J.; Keogh, P. S.; Shires, D.

    2016-08-01

    In general, vehicle vibration is non-stationary and has a non-Gaussian probability distribution; yet existing testing methods for packaging design employ Gaussian distributions to represent vibration induced by road profiles. This frequently results in over-testing and/or over-design of the packaging to meet a specification and correspondingly leads to wasteful packaging and product waste, which represent 15bn per year in the USA and €3bn per year in the EU. The purpose of the paper is to enable a measured non-stationary acceleration signal to be replaced by a constructed signal that includes as far as possible any non-stationary characteristics from the original signal. The constructed signal consists of a concatenation of decomposed shorter duration signals, each having its own kurtosis level. Wavelet analysis is used for the decomposition process into inner and outlier signal components. The constructed signal has a similar PSD to the original signal, without incurring excessive acceleration levels. This allows an improved and more representative simulated input signal to be generated that can be used on the current generation of shaker tables. The wavelet decomposition method is also demonstrated experimentally through two correlation studies. It is shown that significant improvements over current international standards for packaging testing are achievable; hence the potential for more efficient packaging system design is possible.

  7. Congestive heart failure patient monitoring using wearable Bio-impedance sensor technology.

    PubMed

    Seulki Lee; Squillace, Gabriel; Smeets, Christophe; Vandecasteele, Marianne; Grieten, Lars; de Francisco, Ruben; Van Hoof, Chris

    2015-08-01

    A new technique to monitor the fluid status of congestive heart failure (CHF) patients in the hospital is proposed and verified in a clinical trial with 8 patients. A wearable Bio-impedance (BioZ) sensor allows a continuous localized measurement which can be complement clinical tools in the hospital. Thanks to the multi-parametric approach and correlation analysis with clinical reference, BioZ is successfully shown as a promising parameter for continuous and wearable CHF patient monitoring application.

  8. Performance evaluation of wideband bio-impedance spectroscopy using constant voltage source and constant current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamadou, Youssoufa; In Oh, Tong; Wi, Hun; Sohal, Harsh; Farooq, Adnan; Woo, Eung Je; McEwan, Alistair Lee

    2012-10-01

    Current sources are widely used in bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement systems to maximize current injection for increased signal to noise while keeping within medical safety specifications. High-performance current sources based on the Howland current pump with optimized impedance converters are able to minimize stray capacitance of the cables and setup. This approach is limited at high frequencies primarily due to the deteriorated output impedance of the constant current source when situated in a real measurement system. For this reason, voltage sources have been suggested, but they require a current sensing resistor, and the SNR reduces at low impedance loads due to the lower current required to maintain constant voltage. In this paper, we compare the performance of a current source-based BIS and a voltage source-based BIS, which use common components. The current source BIS is based on a Howland current pump and generalized impedance converters to maintain a high output impedance of more than 1 MΩ at 2 MHz. The voltage source BIS is based on voltage division between an internal current sensing resistor (Rs) and an external sample. To maintain high SNR, Rs is varied so that the source voltage is divided more or less equally. In order to calibrate the systems, we measured the transfer function of the BIS systems with several known resistor and capacitor loads. From this we may estimate the resistance and capacitance of biological tissues using the least-squares method to minimize error between the measured transimpedance excluding the system transfer function and that from an impedance model. When tested on realistic loads including discrete resistors and capacitors, and saline and agar phantoms, the voltage source-based BIS system had a wider bandwidth of 10 Hz to 2.2 MHz with less than 1% deviation from the expected spectra compared to more than 10% with the current source. The voltage source also showed an SNR of at least 60 dB up to 2.2 MHz in

  9. PREFACE: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pliquett, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    . Structures down to sub-micrometer range and complex impedance measurements tools integrated at single chips are now affordable. Moreover, the introduction of alternative signals and data processing algorithms focuses on very fast and parallel electrical characterization which in turn pushes this technique to new applications and markets. Electrical impedance tomography today yields pictures in real time with a resolution that was impossible 10 years ago. The XVth International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance in conjunction with the XIVth Electrical Impedance Tomography ICEBI/EIT 2013 organized by the Institute for Bioprocessing and Analytical Measurement Techniques, Heilbad Heiligenstadt, Germany, together with the EIT-group at the University of Göttingen, Germany, brings world leading scientists in these fields together. It is a platform to present the latest developments in instrumentation and signal processing but also points to new applications, especially in the field of biosensors and non-linear phenomena. Two Keynote lectures will extend the view of the participants above the mainstream of bio-impedance measurement. Friederich Kremer (University of Leipzig) delivers the plenary lecture on broad bandwidth dielectric spectroscopy. New achievements in the research of ligand gated ionic channels will be presented by Klaus Benndorf (University of Jena). Leading scientists in the field of bio-impedance measurement, such as, Sverre Grimnes, Orjan Martinsen, Andrea Robitzki, Richard Bayford, Jan Gimsa and Mart Min will give lectures for students but also more experienced scientists in a pre-conference tutorial which is a good opportunity to learn or refresh the basics. List of committees Conference Chair Dr Uwe Pliquett Professor Dieter Beckmann Institut für Bioprozess- und Analysenmesstechnik eV, Rosenhof, Heilbad Heiligenstadt, Germany Technical Program Chair Maik Hiller Conventus Congressmanagement & Marketing GmbH, Carl-Pulfrich-Str. 1 - 07745 Jena Pre

  10. Method and device for bio-impedance measurement with hard-tissue applications.

    PubMed

    Guimerà, A; Calderón, E; Los, P; Christie, A M

    2008-06-01

    Bio-impedance measurements can be used to detect and monitor several properties of living hard-tissues, some of which include bone mineral density, bone fracture healing or dental caries detection. In this paper a simple method and hardware architecture for hard tissue bio-impedance measurement is proposed. The key design aspects of such architecture are discussed and a commercial handheld ac impedance device is presented that is fully certified to international medical standards. It includes a 4-channel multiplexer and is capable of measuring impedances from 10 kOmega to 10 MOmega across a frequency range of 100 Hz to 100 kHz with a maximum error of 5%. The device incorporates several user interface methods and a Bluetooth link for bi-directional wireless data transfer. Low-power design techniques have been implemented, ensuring the device exceeds 8 h of continuous use. Finally, bench test results using dummy cells consisting of parallel connected resistors and capacitors, from 10 kOmega to 10 MOmega and from 20 pF to 100 pF, are discussed.

  11. Non-contact multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy system for industrial-scale bio-impedance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, M. D.; Marsh, L. A.; Davidson, J. L.; Tan, Y. M.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Biological tissues have a complex impedance, or bio-impedance, profile which changes with respect to frequency. This is caused by dispersion mechanisms which govern how the electromagnetic field interacts with the tissue at the cellular and molecular level. Measuring the bio-impedance spectra of a biological sample can potentially provide insight into the sample’s properties and its cellular structure. This has obvious applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and food-based industrial domains. However, measuring the bio-impedance spectra non-destructively and in a way which is practical at an industrial scale presents substantial challenges. The low conductivity of the sample requires a highly sensitive instrument, while the demands of industrial-scale operation require a fast high-throughput sensor of rugged design. In this paper, we describe a multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) system suitable for industrial-scale, non-contact, spectroscopic bio-impedance measurement over a bandwidth of 156 kHz-2.5 MHz. The system sensitivity and performance are investigated using calibration and known reference samples. It is shown to yield rapid and consistently sensitive results with good long-term stability. The system is then used to obtain conductivity spectra of a number of biological test samples, including yeast suspensions of varying concentration and a range of agricultural produce, such as apples, pears, nectarines, kiwis, potatoes, oranges and tomatoes.

  12. Pulse wave detection method based on the bio-impedance of the wrist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianman; Wang, Mengjun; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2016-05-01

    The real-time monitoring of pulse rate can evaluate the heart health to some extent, and the measurement of bio-impedance has the potential in wearable health monitoring system. In this paper, an effective method, which contains self-balancing bridge, flexible electrode, and high-speed digital lock-in algorithm (DLIA) with over-sampling, was designed to detect the impedance pulse wave at the wrist. By applying the self-balancing bridge, the basic impedance can be compensated as much as possible, and the low amplitude of impedance variation related to heart pulse can be obtained more easily. And the flexible conductive rubber electrode used in our experiment is human-friendly. Besides, the over-sampling method and high-speed DLIA are used to enhance the effective resolution of the existing data sampled by analog to digital converter. With the high-speed data process and simple circuit above, this proposed method has the potential in wrist-band wearable systems and it can satisfy quests of small volume and low power consumption.

  13. Prediction of body fat percentage from skinfold and bio-impedance measurements in Indian school children

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, Sarah H.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Lubree, Himangi G.; Wills, Andrew K.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Kishore, Ravi; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Kurpad, Anura

    2011-01-01

    Background Few equations for calculating body fat percentage (BF%) from field methods have been developed in South Asian children. Objective To assess agreement between BF% derived from primary reference methods and that from skinfold equations and bio-impedance analysis (BIA) in Indian children. Methods We measured BF% in two groups of Indian children. In Pune, 570 rural children aged 6-8 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. In Mysore 18O was administered to 59 urban children aged 7-9 years. We conducted BIA at 50kHz and anthropometry including subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses. We used the published equations of Wickramasinghe, Shaikh, Slaughter and Dezenburg to calculate BF% from anthropometric data and the manufacturer’s equation for BIA measurements. We assessed agreement with values derived from DXA and DLW using Bland Altman analysis. Results Children were light and thin compared to international standards. There was poor agreement between the reference BF% values and those from all equations. Assumptions for Bland Altman analysis were not met for Wickramasinghe, Shaikh and Slaughter equations. The Dezenberg equations under-predicted BF% for most children (mean difference in Pune −13.4, LOA −22.7, −4.0 and in Mysore −7.9, LOA −13.7 and −2.2). The mean bias for the BIA equation in Pune was +5.0% and in Mysore +1.95% and the LOA were wide; −5.0, 15.0 and −7.8, 11.7 respectively. Conclusions Currently available skinfold equations do not accurately predict BF% in Indian children. We recommend development of BIA equations in this population using a 4-compartment model. PMID:21731039

  14. Decomposing a signal into short-time narrow-banded modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, S. I.

    2016-07-01

    An algorithm for nonparametric decomposition of a signal into the sum of short-time narrow-banded modes (components) is introduced. Specifically, the signal data is augmented with its Hilbert transform to obtain the analytic signal. Then the set of constituent amplitude and frequency modulated (AM-FM) analytic sinusoids, each with slowly varying amplitude and frequency, is sought. The method for obtaining the short-time narrow-banded modes is derived by minimizing an objective function comprised of three criteria: smoothness of the instantaneous amplitude envelope, smoothness of the instantaneous frequency and complete reconstruction of the signal data. A minimum of the objective function is approached using a sequence of suboptimal updates of amplitude and phase. The updates are intuitive, efficient and simple to implement. For a given mode, the amplitude and phase are extracted from the band-pass filtered residual (signal after the other modes are removed), where the band-pass filter is applied about the previous modal instantaneous frequency estimate. The method is demonstrated by application to random output-only vibration data and order tracking data. It is demonstrated that vibration modal responses can be estimated from single channel data and order tracking can be performed without measured tachometer data.

  15. A current-excited triple-time-voltage oversampling method for bio-impedance model for cost-efficient circuit system.

    PubMed

    Yan Hong; Yong Wang; Wang Ling Goh; Yuan Gao; Lei Yao

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a mathematic method and a cost-efficient circuit to measure the value of each component of the bio-impedance model at electrode-electrolyte interface. The proposed current excited triple-time-voltage oversampling (TTVO) method deduces the component values by solving triple simultaneous electric equation (TSEE) at different time nodes during a current excitation, which are the voltage functions of time. The proposed triple simultaneous electric equations (TSEEs) allows random selections of the time nodes, hence numerous solutions can be obtained during a single current excitation. Following that, the oversampling approach is engaged by averaging all solutions of multiple TSEEs acquired after a single current excitation, which increases the practical measurement accuracy through the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition, a print circuit board (PCB) that consists a switched current exciter and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is designed for signal acquisition. This presents a great cost reduction when compared against other instrument-based measurement data reported [1]. Through testing, the measured values of this work is proven to be in superb agreements on the true component values of the electrode-electrolyte interface model. This work is most suited and also useful for biological and biomedical applications, to perform tasks such as stimulations, recordings, impedance characterizations, etc.

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies for a Bio-Impedance Vital-Sign Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Patterson R: Bioelectric impedance measurement. In: Bronzino JD. The biomedical engineering handbook. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1995. pp 1223-1230. 35 11...28. Cohen A: Biomedical signals: Origin and dynamic characteristics; frequency domain analysis. In: Bronzino JD. The biomedical engineering handbook

  17. Early Indication of Decompensated Heart Failure in Patients on Home-Telemonitoring: A Comparison of Prediction Algorithms Based on Daily Weight and Noninvasive Transthoracic Bio-impedance

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G; Goode, Kevin M; Reiter, Harald; Habetha, Joerg; Amft, Oliver; Cleland, John GF

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart Failure (HF) is a common reason for hospitalization. Admissions might be prevented by early detection of and intervention for decompensation. Conventionally, changes in weight, a possible measure of fluid accumulation, have been used to detect deterioration. Transthoracic impedance may be a more sensitive and accurate measure of fluid accumulation. Objective In this study, we review previously proposed predictive algorithms using body weight and noninvasive transthoracic bio-impedance (NITTI) to predict HF decompensations. Methods We monitored 91 patients with chronic HF for an average of 10 months using a weight scale and a wearable bio-impedance vest. Three algorithms were tested using either simple rule-of-thumb differences (RoT), moving averages (MACD), or cumulative sums (CUSUM). Results Algorithms using NITTI in the 2 weeks preceding decompensation predicted events (P<.001); however, using weight alone did not. Cross-validation showed that NITTI improved sensitivity of all algorithms tested and that trend algorithms provided the best performance for either measurement (Weight-MACD: 33%, NITTI-CUSUM: 60%) in contrast to the simpler rules-of-thumb (Weight-RoT: 20%, NITTI-RoT: 33%) as proposed in HF guidelines. Conclusions NITTI measurements decrease before decompensations, and combined with trend algorithms, improve the detection of HF decompensation over current guideline rules; however, many alerts are not associated with clinically overt decompensation. PMID:26892844

  18. Ozone decomposing filter

    SciTech Connect

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Whinnery, L.L. Jr.

    1999-11-02

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  19. Ozone decomposing filter

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L.

    1999-01-01

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  20. Examining the decomposed brain.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, James Mackintosh

    2014-12-01

    Examination of the decomposed brain is a largely neglected area of forensic neuropathology. However, careful examination often yields valuable information that may assist in criminal proceedings. Decomposition encompasses the processes of autolysis, putrefaction, and decay. Most decomposed brains will be affected by both autolysis and putrefaction, resulting in a brain that may, at one end of the spectrum, be almost normal or, at the other end, pulpified, depending on the conditions in which the body remained after death and the postmortem interval. Naked eye examination may detect areas of hemorrhage and also guides appropriate sampling for histology. Histological appearances are often better than what would be predicted from the state of the brain. Histology often confirms macroscopic abnormalities and may also reveal other features such as ischemic injury. Silver staining demonstrates neuritic plaques, and immunocytochemistry for β-amyloid precursor protein and other molecules produces results comparable with those seen in well-preserved fixed brains. The usefulness of information derived from the examination of the decomposed brain in criminal proceedings is illustrated with 6 case reports drawn from the author's own practice.

  1. Forensic entomology of decomposing humans and their decomposing pets.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R

    2015-02-01

    Domestic pets are commonly found in the homes of decedents whose deaths are investigated by a medical examiner or coroner. When these pets become trapped with a decomposing decedent they may resort to feeding on the body or succumb to starvation and/or dehydration and begin to decompose as well. In this case report photographic documentation of cases involving pets and decedents were examined from 2009 through the beginning of 2014. This photo review indicated that in many cases the pets were cats and dogs that were trapped with the decedent, died and were discovered in a moderate (bloat to active decay) state of decomposition. In addition three cases involving decomposing humans and their decomposing pets are described as they were processed for time of insect colonization by forensic entomological approach. Differences in timing and species colonizing the human and animal bodies were noted as was the potential for the human or animal derived specimens to contaminate one another at the scene.

  2. Oral administration of SR-110, a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst, enhances glucose homeostasis, insulin signaling, and islet architecture in B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Esmaeili Mohsen Abadi, Sakineh; Malik, Nehal; Lee, Joshua; Neumann, William L; Rausaria, Smita; Imani-Nejad, Maryam; McPherson, Timothy; Schober, Joseph; Kwon, Guim

    2016-04-15

    Peroxynitrite has been implicated in type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications. As a follow-up study to our previous work on SR-135 (Arch Biochem Biophys 577-578: 49-59, 2015), we provide evidence that this series of compounds are effective when administered orally, and their mechanisms of actions extend to the peripheral tissues. A more soluble analogue of SR-135, SR-110 (from a new class of Mn(III) bis(hydroxyphenyl)-dipyrromethene complexes) was orally administered for 2 weeks to B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat-diet (HFD). Mice fed a HFD for 4 months gained significantly higher body weights compared to lean diet-fed mice (52 ± 1.5 g vs 34 ± 1.3 g). SR-110 (10 mg/kg daily) treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and enhanced glucose tolerance as compared to HFD control or vehicle (peanut butter) group. SR-110 treatment enhanced insulin signaling in the peripheral organs, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle, and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, SR-110 increased insulin content, restored islet architecture, decreased islet size, and reduced tyrosine nitration. These results suggest that a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst is effective in improving glucose homeostasis and restoring islet morphology and β-cell insulin content under nutrient overload.

  3. Catalytic cartridge SO3 decomposer

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1982-05-25

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a crossflow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axialflow cartridge, so3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  4. Decomposing the emotional Stroop effect.

    PubMed

    Frings, Christian; Englert, Julia; Wentura, Dirk; Bermeitinger, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The emotional Stroop effect refers to the phenomenon that participants are faster in responding to the ink colour of neutral than of negative word stimuli, possibly reflecting fast and automatic allocation of attention towards negative stimuli. However, this interpretation was challenged by McKenna and Sharma (2004) who found that the emotional Stroop effect reflected a generic slowdown after negative stimuli. In fact, they even found reversed effects in a design in which neutral stimuli more often followed negative stimuli and vice versa. Yet, besides reversing the emotional Stroop effect this contingency might in fact have counteracted the fast effect, which was usually interpreted as the emotional Stroop effect. To decompose the emotional Stroop effect we used a design in which the foregoing and the current valence were uncorrelated and in which the fast and slow effects could be computed independently from each other. We found evidence for both fast and slow effects and discuss the practical implications for researchers using the emotional Stroop task as a measurement and the theoretical implications for researchers interested in the underlying cognitive mechanisms that contribute to the emotional Stroop effect.

  5. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  6. Our World without Decomposers: How Scary!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Patty; Harr, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Bugs, slugs, bacteria, and fungi are decomposers at the heart of every ecosystem. Fifth graders at Dodge Intermediate School in Twinsburg, Ohio, ventured outdoors to learn about the necessity of these amazing organisms. With the help of a naturalist, students explored their local park and discovered the wonder of decomposers and their…

  7. Decomposing Achievement Gaps among OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Lee, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use decomposition methods on PISA 2006 data to compare student academic performance across OECD countries. We first establish an empirical model to explain the variation in academic performance across individuals, and then use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to decompose the achievement gap between each of the OECD…

  8. Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Matthew Joseph

    2013-12-05

    In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.

  9. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R.

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  10. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R.

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  11. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-11-18

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  12. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1982-09-28

    A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  13. Optimal decomposable witnesses without the spanning property

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Sarbicki, Gniewomir; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2011-11-15

    One of the unsolved problems in the characterization of the optimal entanglement witnesses is the existence of optimal witnesses acting on bipartite Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n}=C{sup m} x C{sup n} such that the product vectors obeying =0 do not span H{sub m,n}. So far, the only known examples of such witnesses were found among indecomposable witnesses, one of them being the witness corresponding to the Choi map. However, it remains an open question whether decomposable witnesses exist without the property of spanning. Here we answer this question affirmatively, providing systematic examples of such witnesses. Then, we generalize some of the recently obtained results on the characterization of 2 x n optimal decomposable witnesses [R. Augusiak et al., J. Phys. A 44, 212001 (2011)] to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n} with m,n{>=}3.

  14. Signature wood modifications reveal decomposer community history.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Jonathan S; Kaffenberger, Justin T; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the links

  15. Signature Wood Modifications Reveal Decomposer Community History

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Jonathan S.; Kaffenberger, Justin T.; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as ‘signatures’ that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying ‘rot type’ along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the

  16. Corrosion and repairs of ammonium carbamate decomposers

    SciTech Connect

    De Romero, M.F.; Galban, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    Corrosion-erosion problems occurred in the carbon steel base metal of the ammonium carbamate decomposers in an urea extraction process lined with type 316L (UNS S31603) urea grade stainless steel. The cladding was replaced by weld overlay using a semiautomatic gas metal arc welding process. The first layer was alloy 25%Cr-15%Ni-2%Mo (UNS W30923); the second layer was alloy 25%Cr-22%Ni-2%Mo (UNS W31020).

  17. Domain-decomposed preconditionings for transport operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Gropp, William D.; Keyes, David E.

    1991-01-01

    The performance was tested of five different interface preconditionings for domain decomposed convection diffusion problems, including a novel one known as the spectral probe, while varying mesh parameters, Reynolds number, ratio of subdomain diffusion coefficients, and domain aspect ratio. The preconditioners are representative of the range of practically computable possibilities that have appeared in the domain decomposition literature for the treatment of nonoverlapping subdomains. It is shown that through a large number of numerical examples that no single preconditioner can be considered uniformly superior or uniformly inferior to the rest, but that knowledge of particulars, including the shape and strength of the convection, is important in selecting among them in a given problem.

  18. Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Matthew Joseph

    In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation. The main algorithms we consider are: • Domain decomposition of constructive solid geometry: enables extremely large calculations in which the background geometry is too large to fit in the memory of a single computational node. • Load Balancing: keeps the workload per processor as even as possible so the calculation runs efficiently. • Global Particle Find: if particles are on the wrong processor, globally resolve their locations to the correct processor based on particle coordinate and background domain. • Visualizing constructive solid geometry, sourcing particles, deciding that particle streaming communication is completed and spatial redecomposition. These algorithms are some of the most important parallel algorithms required for domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport. We demonstrate that our previous algorithms were not scalable, prove that our new algorithms are scalable, and run some of the algorithms up to 2 million MPI processes on the Sequoia supercomputer.

  19. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  20. Decomposing Solid Micropropulsion Nozzle Performance Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Micropropulsion technology is essential to the success of miniaturized spacecraft and can provide ultra-precise propulsion for small spacecraft. NASA Glenn Research Center has envisioned a micropropulsion concept that utilizes decomposing solid propellants for a valveless, leak-free propulsion system. Among the technical challenges of this decomposing solid micropropulsion concept is optimization of miniature, rectangular nozzles. A number of flat micronozzles were tested with ambient-temperature nitrogen and helium gas in a vacuum facility. The thrusters were etched out of silicon and had throat widths on the order of 350 microns and throat depths on the order of 250 microns. While these were half-sections of thrusters (two would be bonded together before firing), testing provided the performance trend for nozzles of this scale and geometry. Area ratios from 1 to 25 were tested, with thrust measured using an inverted pendulum thrust stand for nitrogen flows and a torsional thrust stand for helium. In the nitrogen testing, peak nozzle performance was achieved around area ratio of 5. In the helium series, nozzle performance peaked for the smallest nozzle tested area ratio 1.5. For both gases, there was a secondary performance peak above area ratio 15. At low chamber pressures (< 1.6 atm), nitrogen provided higher nozzle performance than helium. The performance curve for helium was steeper, however, and it appeared that helium would provide better performance than nitrogen at higher chamber pressures.

  1. DCMDSM: a DICOM decomposed storage model

    PubMed Central

    Savaris, Alexandre; Härder, Theo; von Wangenheim, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To design, build, and evaluate a storage model able to manage heterogeneous digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images. The model must be simple, but flexible enough to accommodate variable content without structural modifications; must be effective on answering query/retrieval operations according to the DICOM standard; and must provide performance gains on querying/retrieving content to justify its adoption by image-related projects. Methods The proposal adapts the original decomposed storage model, incorporating structural and organizational characteristics present in DICOM image files. Tag values are stored according to their data types/domains, in a schema built on top of a standard relational database management system (RDBMS). Evaluation includes storing heterogeneous DICOM images, querying metadata using a variable number of predicates, and retrieving full-content images for different hierarchical levels. Results and discussion When compared to a well established DICOM image archive, the proposal is 0.6–7.2 times slower in storing content; however, in querying individual tags, it is about 48.0% faster. In querying groups of tags, DICOM decomposed storage model (DCMDSM) is outperformed in scenarios with a large number of tags and low selectivity (being 66.5% slower); however, when the number of tags is balanced with better selectivity predicates, the performance gains are up to 79.1%. In executing full-content retrieval, in turn, the proposal is about 48.3% faster. Conclusions DCMDSM is a model built for the storage of heterogeneous DICOM content, based on a straightforward database design. The results obtained through its evaluation attest its suitability as a storage layer for projects where DICOM images are stored once, and queried/retrieved whenever necessary. PMID:24491269

  2. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny E.

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler “to speak,” [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter “to repeat,” [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer “to adore,” [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire “to drink,” [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French

  3. Cosmological constraints on a decomposed Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuting; Wands, David; Xu, Lixin; De-Santiago, Josue; Hojjati, Alireza

    2013-04-01

    Any unified dark matter cosmology can be decomposed into dark matter interacting with vacuum energy, without introducing any additional degrees of freedom. We present observational constraints on an interacting vacuum plus dark energy corresponding to a generalized Chaplygin gas cosmology. We consider two distinct models for the interaction leading to either a barotropic equation of state or dark matter that follows geodesics, corresponding to a rest-frame sound speed equal to the adiabatic sound speed or zero sound speed, respectively. For the barotropic model, the most stringent constraint on α comes from the combination of CMB+SNIa+LSS(m) gives α<5.66×10-6 at the 95% confidence level, which indicates that the barotropic model must be extremely close to the ΛCDM cosmology. For the case where the dark matter follows geodesics, perturbations have zero sound speed, and CMB+SNIa+gISW then gives the much weaker constraint -0.15<α<0.26 at the 95% confidence level.

  4. VOC Emissions From Decomposing Leaf Litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. M.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Fierer, N.; Monson, R. K.

    2007-12-01

    The emission of VOCs from the biosphere has a profound effect on the oxidative capacity of the troposphere. Most studies of the flux of reactive carbon from the biosphere have focused on BVOC emissions at leaf and canopy scales with relatively few studies investigating BVOC emissions from soils. Here we present results describing the emissions of a suite of BVOCs from different litter types under different levels of nitrogen availability. To investigate these effects, three biochemically distinct litter types (Deschampsia sp., Acomostylis sp., and Rhododendron sp.) were coarsely ground and incubated in the dark for two months under different nitrogen regimes at optimal conditions for microbial activity. We used proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to monitor BVOC emissions and CO2 production rates throughout the course of the investigation. When different leaf litter types decomposed, they released distinctly different types and quantities of VOCs. However, varying nitrogen availability caused the VOC signature from some litters to change dramatically. We suggest that decomposition of leaf litter could provide a substantive source of reactive carbon to the atmosphere at local and regional scales and hypothesize that nitrogen deposition may play a role in attenuating the release of some reactive species.

  5. Decomposer animals and bioremediation of soils.

    PubMed

    Haimi, J

    2000-02-01

    Although microorganisms are degrading the contaminants in bioremediation processes, soil animals can also have important--while usually an indirect--role in these processes. Soil animals are useful indicators of soil contamination, both before and after the bioremediation. Many toxicity and bioavailability assessment methods utilizing soil animals have been developed for hazard and risk-assessment procedures. Not only the survival of the animals, but also more sensitive parameters like growth, reproduction and community structure have often been taken into account in the assessment. The use of bioassays together with chemical analyses gives the most reliable results for risk analyses. This is because physical, chemical and biological properties of the remediated soil may be changed during the process, and it is possible that transformation rather than mineralization of the contaminants has taken place. In addition, the soil may contain other harmful substances than those searched in chemical analyses. Finally, because the ultimate goal of the bioremediation should be--together with mineralization of the harmful substances--the ecological recovery of the soil, development of diverse decomposer community as a basis of the functioning ecosystem should be ensured. Soil animals, especially the large ones, can also actively take part in the ecological recovery processes through their own activity. The potential risk of transfer of contaminants accumulated in soil animals to the above-ground food webs should be borne in mind.

  6. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  7. Procedures for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H.

    2005-01-01

    A simple algorithm for a complete enumeration of the possible ways a redox reaction (RR) might be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions (HRs) using the response reactions (RERs) formalism is presented. A complete enumeration of the possible ways a RR may be decomposed into HRs is equivalent to a complete enumeration of stoichiometrically…

  8. Increased decomposer diversity accelerates and potentially stabilises litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kitz, Florian; Steinwandter, Michael; Traugott, Michael; Seeber, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the effect of decomposer diversity on litter decomposition in alpine areas. Especially under the premise that alpine ecosystems are very sensitive to global change and are currently undergoing extensive land-use changes, a better understanding is needed to predict how environmental change will affect litter decomposition. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to compare the effects of the most common and functionally diverse invertebrates (earthworms, millipedes and sciarid larvae) found in alpine soils on decomposition rates and to assess how decomposer diversity affects litter decomposition. Experimental and estimated (i.e. projected to field decomposer-biomass) litter mass loss was 13-33% higher in the three-species treatment. Notably, the variability in decomposition was greatly reduced when decomposer diversity was high, indicating a portfolio effect. Our results suggest that invertebrate decomposer diversity is essential for sustaining litter decomposition in alpine areas and for the stability of this service.

  9. Decomposed gosling feet provide evidence of insecticide exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Torrez, M.; Williams, B.I.; Leffel, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canada goose goslings were exposed to turf sprayed with D.Z.N(R) diazinon 50W application (2.24 kg a.i./ha). The control plot was subjected to a water application. One foot from each bird was placed outdoors for 7 d to decompose and the other foot was kept frozen. Diazinon residues were analyzed on both feet. Results showed that diazinon was detected from undecomposed and decomposed feet of the birds. Diazinon residues were below the level of detection (<0.01 ppm, a.i.) on the feet from the control goslings. Decomposed feet may be used for determining insecticide exposure when the traditional matrices are not available.

  10. Catalytic activities of zeolite compounds for decomposing aqueous ozone.

    PubMed

    Kusuda, Ai; Kitayama, Mikito; Ohta, Yoshio

    2013-12-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP), chemical oxidation using aqueous ozone in the presence of appropriate catalysts to generate highly reactive oxygen species, offers an attractive option for removing poorly biodegradable pollutants. Using the commercial zeolite powders with various Si/Al ratios and crystal structures, their catalytic activities for decomposing aqueous ozone were evaluated by continuously flowing ozone to water containing the zeolite powders. The hydrophilic zeolites (low Si/Al ratio) with alkali cations in the crystal structures were found to possess high catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. The hydrophobic zeolite compounds (high Si/Al ratio) were found to absorb ozone very well, but to have no catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. Their catalytic activities were also evaluated by using the fixed bed column method. When alkali cations were removed by acid rinsing or substituted by alkali-earth cations, the catalytic activities was significantly deteriorated. These results suggest that the metal cations on the crystal surface of the hydrophilic zeolite would play a key role for catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone.

  11. Producer-decomposer co-dependency influences biodiversity effects.

    PubMed

    Naeem, S; Hahn, D R; Schuurman, G

    2000-02-17

    Producers, such as plants and algae, acquire nutrients from inorganic sources that are supplied primarily by decomposers whereas decomposers, mostly fungi and bacteria, acquire carbon from organic sources that are supplied primarily by producers. This producer-decomposer co-dependency is important in governing ecosystem processes, which implies that the impacts of declining biodiversity on ecosystem functioning should be strongly influenced by this process. Here we show, by simultaneously manipulating producer (green algal) and decomposer (heterotrophic bacterial) diversity in freshwater microcosms, that algal biomass production varies considerably among microcosms (0.0-0.67 mg ml(-1)), but that neither algal nor bacterial diversity by itself can explain this variation. Instead, production is a joint function of both algal and bacterial diversity. Furthermore, the range in algal production in microscosms in which bacterial diversity was manipulated was nearly double (1.82 times) that of microcosms in which bacterial diversity was not manipulated. Measures of organic carbon use by bacteria in these microcosms indicate that carbon usage is the mechanism responsible for these results. Because both producer and microbial diversity respond to disturbance and habitat modification, the main causes of biodiversity loss, these results suggest that ecosystem response to changing biodiversity is likely to be more complex than other studies have shown.

  12. Dust to dust - How a human corpse decomposes

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2010-01-01

    After death, the human body decomposes through four stages. The final, skeleton stage may be reached as quickly as two weeks or as slowly as two years, depending on temperature, humidity and other environmental conditions where the body lies. Dead bodies emit a surprising array of chemicals, from benzene to freon, which can help forensic scientists find clandestine graves.

  13. Decomposing Curricular Objectives To Increase Specificity of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    Advances in cognitive science have greatly increased our knowledge of how the human mind stores and uses information. That knowledge can be used to decompose curricular objectives so as to increase the specificity of instruction to a level of precision that should greatly enhance student writing. This article identifies some major types of…

  14. Catalytic-cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1981-05-22

    A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  15. Domain decomposed preconditioners with Krylov subspace methods as subdomain solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Pernice, M.

    1994-12-31

    Domain decomposed preconditioners for nonsymmetric partial differential equations typically require the solution of problems on the subdomains. Most implementations employ exact solvers to obtain these solutions. Consequently work and storage requirements for the subdomain problems grow rapidly with the size of the subdomain problems. Subdomain solves constitute the single largest computational cost of a domain decomposed preconditioner, and improving the efficiency of this phase of the computation will have a significant impact on the performance of the overall method. The small local memory available on the nodes of most message-passing multicomputers motivates consideration of the use of an iterative method for solving subdomain problems. For large-scale systems of equations that are derived from three-dimensional problems, memory considerations alone may dictate the need for using iterative methods for the subdomain problems. In addition to reduced storage requirements, use of an iterative solver on the subdomains allows flexibility in specifying the accuracy of the subdomain solutions. Substantial savings in solution time is possible if the quality of the domain decomposed preconditioner is not degraded too much by relaxing the accuracy of the subdomain solutions. While some work in this direction has been conducted for symmetric problems, similar studies for nonsymmetric problems appear not to have been pursued. This work represents a first step in this direction, and explores the effectiveness of performing subdomain solves using several transpose-free Krylov subspace methods, GMRES, transpose-free QMR, CGS, and a smoothed version of CGS. Depending on the difficulty of the subdomain problem and the convergence tolerance used, a reduction in solution time is possible in addition to the reduced memory requirements. The domain decomposed preconditioner is a Schur complement method in which the interface operators are approximated using interface probing.

  16. N2O Decomposed by Discharge Plasma with Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Huang, Hao; Xu, Jie; Yang, Qi; Tao, Gongkai

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of attention has been focused on discharge plasma as it can rapidly decompose N2O without additives, which is not only a kind of greenhouse gas but also a kind of damages to the ozone layer. The thermal equilibrium plasma is chosen to combine with catalysts to decompose N2O, and its characteristics are analyzed in the present paper. The results indicate that NO and NO2 were formed besides N2 and O2 during N2O decomposition when N2O was treated merely by discharge plasma. Concentration of NO declined greatly when the discharge plasma was combined with catalysts. Results of Raman spectra analysis on CeO2, Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 imply that the products selectivity has been obviously improved in discharge plasma decomposing N2O because of the existence of massive oxygen vacancies over the composite oxide catalysts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50677026) and the Applied Basic Research Program of Wuhan, China (No. 2015060101010068)

  17. Materials study supporting thermochemical hydrogen cycle sulfuric acid decomposer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Michael S.

    Increasing global climate change has been driven by greenhouse gases emissions originating from the combustion of fossil fuels. Clean burning hydrogen has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuels used today reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. The sulfur iodine and hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles coupled with high temperature heat from advanced nuclear reactors have shown promise for economical large-scale hydrogen fuel stock production. Both of these cycles employ a step to decompose sulfuric acid to sulfur dioxide. This decomposition step occurs at high temperatures in the range of 825°C to 926°C dependent on the catalysis used. Successful commercial implementation of these technologies is dependent upon the development of suitable materials for use in the highly corrosive environments created by the decomposition products. Boron treated diamond film was a potential candidate for use in decomposer process equipment based on earlier studies concluding good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. However, little information was available relating the interactions of diamond and diamond films with sulfuric acid at temperatures greater than 350°C. A laboratory scale sulfuric acid decomposer simulator was constructed at the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The simulator was capable of producing the temperatures and corrosive environments that process equipment would be exposed to for industrialization of the sulfur iodide or hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles. A series of boron treated synthetic diamonds were tested in the simulator to determine corrosion resistances and suitability for use in thermochemical process equipment. These studies were performed at twenty four hour durations at temperatures between 600°C to 926°C. Other materials, including natural diamond, synthetic diamond treated with titanium, silicon carbide, quartz, aluminum nitride, and Inconel

  18. Denoising, deconvolving, and decomposing photon observations. Derivation of the D3PO algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selig, Marco; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of astronomical images is a non-trivial task. The D3PO algorithm addresses the inference problem of denoising, deconvolving, and decomposing photon observations. Its primary goal is the simultaneous but individual reconstruction of the diffuse and point-like photon flux given a single photon count image, where the fluxes are superimposed. In order to discriminate between these morphologically different signal components, a probabilistic algorithm is derived in the language of information field theory based on a hierarchical Bayesian parameter model. The signal inference exploits prior information on the spatial correlation structure of the diffuse component and the brightness distribution of the spatially uncorrelated point-like sources. A maximum a posteriori solution and a solution minimizing the Gibbs free energy of the inference problem using variational Bayesian methods are discussed. Since the derivation of the solution is not dependent on the underlying position space, the implementation of the D3PO algorithm uses the nifty package to ensure applicability to various spatial grids and at any resolution. The fidelity of the algorithm is validated by the analysis of simulated data, including a realistic high energy photon count image showing a 32 × 32 arcmin2 observation with a spatial resolution of 0.1 arcmin. In all tests the D3PO algorithm successfully denoised, deconvolved, and decomposed the data into a diffuse and a point-like signal estimate for the respective photon flux components. A copy of the code is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A74

  19. Simple Thermal Decompose Method for Synthesis of Nickel Disulfide Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyghalkar, Hamideh; Sabet, Mohammad; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a simple thermal decompose method was served to synthesize NiS2 nanostructures via a nickel complex. Also polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as surfactant to increase the steric effect around nanostructure surfaces and decrease the particles size. The product was characterized with different analysis methods. The crystal structure of the product was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The particle size and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To study the nanostructures surface purity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used. And finally to study the optical properties of the product photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was served.

  20. VARIANCE ESTIMATION IN DOMAIN DECOMPOSED MONTE CARLO EIGENVALUE CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mervin, Brenden T; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Mosher, Scott W; Evans, Thomas M; Wagner, John C

    2012-01-01

    The number of tallies performed in a given Monte Carlo calculation is limited in most modern Monte Carlo codes by the amount of memory that can be allocated on a single processor. By using domain decomposition, the calculation is now limited by the total amount of memory available on all processors, allowing for significantly more tallies to be performed. However, decomposing the problem geometry introduces significant issues with the way tally statistics are conventionally calculated. In order to deal with the issue of calculating tally variances in domain decomposed environments for the Shift hybrid Monte Carlo code, this paper presents an alternative approach for reactor scenarios in which an assumption is made that once a particle leaves a domain, it does not reenter the domain. Particles that reenter the domain are instead treated as separate independent histories. This assumption introduces a bias that inevitably leads to under-prediction of the calculated variances for tallies within a few mean free paths of the domain boundaries. However, through the use of different decomposition strategies, primarily overlapping domains, the negative effects of such an assumption can be significantly reduced to within reasonable levels.

  1. Multistate image restoration by transmission of bit-decomposed data.

    PubMed

    Tadaki, Takashi; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2002-01-01

    We report on the restoration of gray-scale image when it is decomposed into a binary form before transmission. We assume that a gray-scale image expressed by a set of Q-Ising spins is first decomposed into an expression using Ising (binary) spins by means of the threshold division, namely, we produce (Q-1) binary Ising spins from a Q-Ising spin by the function F(sigma(i)-m)=1 if the input data sigma(i)in[0,...,Q-1] is sigma(i)> or =m and 0 otherwise, where m in [1,...,Q-1] is the threshold value. The effects of noise are different from the case where the raw Q-Ising values are sent. We investigate whether it is more effective to use the binary data for transmission, or to send the raw Q-Ising values. By using the mean-field model, we analyze the performance of our method quantitatively. In order to investigate what kind of original picture is efficiently restored by our method, the standard image in two dimensions is simulated by the mean-field annealing, and we compare the performance of our method with that using the Q-Ising form. We show that our method is more efficient than the one using the Q-Ising form when the original picture has large parts in which the nearest-neighboring pixels take close values.

  2. Functional diversity of terrestrial microbial decomposers and their substrates.

    PubMed

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Fromin, Nathalie; Barantal, Sandra

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and biogeochemical processes gained much interest in light of the rapidly decreasing biodiversity worldwide. In this article, we discuss the current status, challenges and prospects of functional concepts to plant litter diversity and microbial decomposer diversity. We also evaluate whether these concepts permit a better understanding of how biodiversity is linked to litter decomposition as a key ecosystem process influencing carbon and nutrient cycles. Based on a literature survey, we show that plant litter and microbial diversity matters for decomposition, but that considering numbers of taxonomic units appears overall as little relevant and less useful than functional diversity. However, despite easily available functional litter traits and the well-established theoretical framework for functional litter diversity, the impact of functional litter diversity on decomposition is not yet well enough explored. Defining functional diversity of microorganisms remains one of the biggest challenges for functional approaches to microbial diversity. Recent developments in microarray and metagenomics technology offer promising possibilities in the assessment of the functional structure of microbial communities. This might allow significant progress in measuring functional microbial diversity and ultimately in our ability to predict consequences of biodiversity loss in the decomposer system for biogeochemical processes.

  3. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Decomposing the Processes Underlying Action Preparation.

    PubMed

    Bestmann, Sven; Duque, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Preparing actions requires the operation of several cognitive control processes that influence the state of the motor system to ensure that the appropriate behavior is ultimately selected and executed. For example, some form of competition resolution ensures that the right action is chosen among alternatives, often in the presence of conflict; at the same time, impulse control ought to be deployed to prevent premature responses. Here we review how state-changes in the human motor system during action preparation can be studied through motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1). We discuss how the physiological fingerprints afforded by MEPs have helped to decompose some of the dynamic and effector-specific influences on the motor system during action preparation. We focus on competition resolution, conflict and impulse control, as well as on the influence of higher cognitive decision-related variables. The selected examples demonstrate the usefulness of MEPs as physiological readouts for decomposing the influence of distinct, but often overlapping, control processes on the human motor system during action preparation.

  4. Decomposing the meridional heat transport in the climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haijun; Li, Qing; Wang, Kun; Sun, Yu; Sun, Daoxun

    2015-05-01

    The meridional heat transport (MHT) in the climate system is investigated using a state-of-the-art coupled climate model (CESM1.0). This work decomposes the MHT and studies their physics in detail. The meridional ocean heat transport (OHT) can be decomposed into the contributions from the Euler mean circulation, bolus circulation, sub-mesoscale circulation and dissipation. The Euler mean heat transport dominates the total OHT in most latitudes, except that in the Southern Ocean (40-50°S) where the OHT is determined by the eddy-induced circulation and dissipation. In the Indo-Pacific the OHT is fulfilled by the wind-driven circulation, which dominates the total global OHT in the tropics. In the Atlantic the OHT is carried by both the wind-driven circulation and the thermohaline circulation, and the latter dominates the total OHT in the mid-high latitudes. The meridional atmosphere heat transport consists of the dry static energy (DSE) and latent energy (LE) transport. In the tropics the LE transport is equatorward and compensates partially the poleward DSE transport. In the extratropics, the LE and DSE are poleward and reinforce one another, both of which are dominated by the eddy components. The LE transport can be considered as the "joint air-sea mode" since the ocean controls the moisture supply. It can be also precisely obtained from the evaporation minus precipitation over the ocean and thus this work quantifies the individual ocean basin contributions to the LE transport.

  5. Bacterial succession on decomposing leaf litter exhibits a specific occurrence pattern of cellulolytic taxa and potential decomposers of fungal mycelia.

    PubMed

    Tláskal, Vojtěch; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-11-01

    The decomposition of dead plant biomass contributes to the carbon cycle and is one of the key processes in temperate forests. While fungi in litter decomposition drive the chemical changes occurring in litter, the bacterial community appears to be important as well, especially later in the decomposition process when its abundance increases. In this paper, we describe the bacterial community composition in live Quercus petraea leaves and during the subsequent two years of litter decomposition. Members of the classes Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant throughout the experiment. Bacteria present in the oak phyllosphere were rapidly replaced by other taxa after leaf senescence. There were dynamic successive changes in community composition, in which the early-stage (months 2-4), mid-stage (months 6-8) and late-stage (months 10-24) decomposer communities could be distinguished, and the diversity increased with time. Bacteria associated with dead fungal mycelium were important during initial decomposition, with sequence relative abundances of up to 40% of the total bacterial community in months 2 and 4 when the highest fungal biomass was observed. Cellulose-decomposing bacteria were less frequent, with abundance ranging from 4% to 15%. The bacterial community dynamics reflects changes in the availability of possible resources either of the plant or microbial origin.

  6. Mining functional modules in genetic networks with decomposable graphical models.

    PubMed

    Dejori, Mathäus; Schwaighofer, Anton; Tresp, Volker; Stetter, Martin

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, graphical models have become an increasingly important tool for the structural analysis of genome-wide expression profiles at the systems level. Here we present a new graphical modelling technique, which is based on decomposable graphical models, and apply it to a set of gene expression profiles from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The new method explains probabilistic dependencies of expression levels in terms of the concerted action of underlying genetic functional modules, which are represented as so-called "cliques" in the graph. In addition, the method uses continuous-valued (instead of discretized) expression levels, and makes no particular assumption about their probability distribution. We show that the method successfully groups members of known functional modules to cliques. Our method allows the evaluation of the importance of genes for global cellular functions based on both link count and the clique membership count.

  7. Upgrading non-oxidized carbon nanotubes by thermally decomposed hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pen-Cheng; Liao, Yu-Chun; Liu, Li-Hung; Lai, Yu-Ling; Lin, Ying-Chang; Hsu, Yao-Jane

    2014-06-01

    We found that the electrical properties of conductive thin films based on non-oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could be further improved when the CNTs consecutively underwent a mild hydrazine adsorption treatment and then a sufficiently effective thermal desorption treatment. We also found that, after several rounds of vapor-phase hydrazine treatments and baking treatments were applied to an inferior single-CNT field-effect transistor device, the device showed improvement in Ion/Ioff ratio and reduction in the extent of gate-sweeping hysteresis. Our experimental results indicate that, even though hydrazine is a well-known reducing agent, the characteristics of our hydrazine-exposed CNT samples subject to certain treatment conditions could become more graphenic than graphanic, suggesting that the improvement in the electrical and electronic properties of CNT samples could be related to the transient bonding and chemical scavenging of thermally decomposed hydrazine on the surface of CNTs.

  8. Decomposing Spatiotemporal Brain Patterns into Topographic Latent Sources

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Blei, David M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Sederberg, Per B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends earlier work on spatial modeling of fMRI data to the temporal domain, providing a framework for analyzing high temporal resolution brain imaging modalities such as electroencapholography (EEG). The central idea is to decompose brain imaging data into a covariate-dependent superposition of functions defined over continuous time and space (what we refer to as topographic latent sources). The continuous formulation allows us to parametrically model spatiotemporally localized activations. To make group-level inferences, we elaborate the model hierarchically by sharing sources across subjects. We describe a variational algorithm for parameter estimation that scales efficiently to large data sets. Applied to three EEG data sets, we find that the model produces good predictive performance and reproduces a number of classic findings. Our results suggest that topographic latent sources serve as an effective hypothesis space for interpreting spatiotemporal brain imaging data. PMID:24791745

  9. Decomposing the Unsteady Flow Routing in River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Cunya, L. A.; Leon, A.; Gibson, N. L.; Vasylkivska, V.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents an optimization-based domain decomposition strategy for unsteady flow routing in complex river systems. This strategy couples the domain decomposition technique with a Precomputed Channel Hydraulics Ensemble approach, known also as HydraulicPerformance Graph (HPG), which utilizes precomputed solutions along reaches on a river system. These solutions are stored in a database. While efficient and robust, HPGs requires extensive memory allocation, especially for high resolution simulations. Decomposing the river system into subdomains reduces computer memory constraints as each sub-domain is solved independently. Further, an optimization method is used to couple the sub-domains using the stored precomputed solution. In turn, the computational efficiency of the HPG approach allows the optimization-based scheme to be competitive with a whole domain methodology. The combined strategy is expected to reduce the overall computational time for large-scale problems. This work discusses the results of the application to the Columbia River (Northwest USA).

  10. Optimizing Non-Decomposable Loss Functions in Structured Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Mani; Lan, Tian; Wang, Yang; Robinovitch, Steven N.; Li, Ze-Nian; Mori, Greg

    2012-01-01

    We develop an algorithm for structured prediction with non-decomposable performance measures. The algorithm learns parameters of Markov random fields and can be applied to multivariate performance measures. Examples include performance measures such as Fβ score (natural language processing), intersection over union (object category segmentation), Precision/Recall at k (search engines) and ROC area (binary classifiers). We attack this optimization problem by approximating the loss function with a piecewise linear function. The loss augmented inference forms a quadratic program (QP), which we solve using LP relaxation. We apply this approach to two tasks: object class-specific segmentation and human action retrieval from videos. We show significant improvement over baseline approaches that either use simple loss functions or simple scoring functions on the PASCAL VOC and H3D Segmentation datasets, and a nursing home action recognition dataset. PMID:22868650

  11. Fungal community on decomposing leaf litter undergoes rapid successional changes

    PubMed Central

    Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are considered the primary decomposers of dead plant biomass in terrestrial ecosystems. However, current knowledge regarding the successive changes in fungal communities during litter decomposition is limited. Here we explored the development of the fungal community over 24 months of litter decomposition in a temperate forest with dominant Quercus petraea using 454-pyrosequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes, which encode exocellulases, to specifically address cellulose decomposers. To quantify the involvement of phyllosphere fungi in litter decomposition, the fungal communities in live leaves and leaves immediately before abscission were also analysed. The results showed rapid succession of fungi with dramatic changes in the composition of the fungal community. Furthermore, most of the abundant taxa only temporarily dominated in the substrate. Fungal diversity was lowest at leaf senescence, increased until month 4 and did not significantly change during subsequent decomposition. Highly diverse community of phyllosphere fungi inhabits live oak leaves 2 months before abscission, and these phyllosphere taxa comprise a significant share of the fungal community during early decomposition up to the fourth month. Sequences assigned to the Ascomycota showed highest relative abundances in live leaves and during the early stages of decomposition. In contrast, the relative abundance of sequences assigned to the Basidiomycota phylum, particularly basidiomycetous yeasts, increased with time. Although cellulose was available in the litter during all stages of decomposition, the community of cellulolytic fungi changed substantially over time. The results indicate that litter decomposition is a highly complex process mediated by various fungal taxa. PMID:23051693

  12. Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.

  13. Using decision models to decompose anxiety-related bias in threat classification.

    PubMed

    White, Corey N; Skokin, Kimberly; Carlos, Brandon; Weaver, Alexandria

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with high levels of anxiety show preferential processing of threatening information, and this cognitive bias is thought to be an integral component of anxiety disorders. In threat classification tasks, this bias manifests as high-anxiety participants being more likely to classify stimuli as threatening than their low-anxiety counterparts. However, it is unclear which cognitive mechanisms drive this bias in threat classification. To better understand this phenomenon, threat classification data were analyzed with 2 decision models: a signal detection model and a drift-diffusion model. Signal detection models can dissociate measures of discriminability and bias, and diffusion models can further dissociate bias due to response preparation from bias due to stimulus evaluation. Individuals in the study completed a trait anxiety measure and classified threatening and neutral words based on whether they deemed them threatening. Signal detection analysis showed that high-anxiety participants had a bias driven by a weaker threat criterion than low-anxiety participants, but no differences in discriminability. Drift-diffusion analysis further decomposed the threat bias to show that it is driven by both an expectation bias that the threat response was more likely to be correct, and a stimulus bias driven by a weaker criterion for evaluating the stimuli under consideration. These model-based analyses provide valuable insight and show that multiple cognitive mechanisms underlie differential threat processing in anxiety. Implications for theories of anxiety are discussed.

  14. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  15. Tumebacillus algifaecis sp. nov., isolated from decomposing algal scum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Fan; Zhang, Bo; Xing, Peng; Wu, Qing-Long; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial strain THMBR28(T) was isolated from decomposing algal scum that was collected during an algal bloom in Taihu lake, China. Cells of strain THMBR28(T) were Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped. Growth was observed at 20-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 5.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 6.5-7.5), and in the presence of 0-1.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5%). Strain THMBR28(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acid. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and six unidentified polar lipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 57.6 mol% (Tm). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain THMBR28(T) belonged to the genus Tumebacillus, most closely related to Tumebacillus ginsengisoli DSM 18389(T) (95.0%) and Tumebacillus permanentifrigoris Eur1 9.5(T) (93.4%). Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization, it is concluded that strain THMBR28(T) represents a novel species of the genus Tumebacillus, for which the name Tumebacillus algifaecis sp. nov. is proposed, with THMBR28(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10949(T) = NBRC 108765(T)) as the type strain.

  16. Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Britta; Svensson, Andreas P.; Jonsson, Conny; Malm, Torleif

    2005-03-01

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l -1 dw red algae. The lethal concentration for I. baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe.

  17. Decomposing the effect of crime on population changes.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This article estimates the effect of crime on migration rates for counties in U.S. metropolitan areas and makes three contributions to the literature. First, I use administrative data on migration flows between counties, which gives me more precise estimates of population changes than data used in previous studies. Second, I am able to decompose net population changes into gross migration flows in order to identify how individuals respond to crime rate changes. Finally, I include county-level trends so that my identification comes from shocks away from the trend. I find effects that are one-fiftieth the size of the most prominent estimate in the literature; and although the long-run effects are somewhat larger, they are still only approximately one-twentieth as large. I also find that responses to crime rates differ by subgroups, and that increases in crime cause white households to leave the county, with effects almost 10 times as large as for black households.

  18. Degradation of chlorinated pesticide DDT by litter-decomposing basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Suhara, Hiroto; Adachi, Ai; Kamei, Ichiro; Maekawa, Nitaro

    2011-11-01

    One hundred and two basidiomycete strains (93 species in 41 genera) that prefer a soil environment were examined for screening of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) biodegradation. Three strains within two litter-decomposing genera, Agrocybe and Marasmiellus, were selected for their DDT biotransformation capacity. Eight metabolites; 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD), two monohydroxy-DDTs, monohydroxy-DDD, 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol, putative 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol and two unidentified compounds were detected from the culture with Marasmiellus sp. TUFC10101. A P450 inhibitor, 1-ABT, inhibited the formation of monohydroxy-DDTs and monohydroxy-DDD from DDT and DDD, respectively. These results indicated that oxidative pathway which was catalyzed by P450 monooxygenase exist beside reductive dechlorination of DDT. Monohydroxylation of the aromatic rings of DDT (and DDD) by fungal P450 is reported here for the first time.

  19. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity: evidence from Ireland.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brendan; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify and decompose the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. The analysis is performed using data from the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland survey, a nationally representative survey of 8568 nine-year-old children conducted in 2007 and 2008. We estimate concentration indices to quantify the extent of the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity and undertake a subsequent decomposition analysis to pinpoint the key factors underpinning the observed inequalities. Overall the results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. Concentration indices of obesity (CI=-0.168) and overweight/obese (CI=-0.057) show that the gradient is more pronounced in obese children, while results from the decomposition analysis suggest that the majority of the inequality in childhood obesity is explained by parental level variables. Our findings suggest that addressing childhood obesity inequalities requires coordinated policy responses at both the child and parental level.

  20. Temperature effect on photolysis decomposing of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiliang; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is recalcitrant to degrade and mineralize. Here, the effect of temperature on the photolytic decomposition of PFOA was investigated. The decomposition of PFOA was enhanced from 34% to 99% in 60 min of exposure when the temperature was increased from 25 to 85°C under UV light (201-600 nm). The limited degree of decomposition at 25°C was due to low quantum yield, which was increased by a factor of 12 at 85°C. Under the imposed conditions, the defluorination ratio increased from 8% at 25°C to 50% at 85°C in 60 min. Production of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C7-C5), PFCAs (C4-C3) and TFA (trifluoroacetic acid, C2) accelerated and attained a maximum within 30 to 90 min at 85°C. However, these reactions did not occur at 25°C despite extended irradiation to 180 min. PFOA was decomposed in a step-wise process by surrendering one CF2 unit. In each cyclical process, increased temperature enhanced the quantum yields of irradiation and reactions between water molecules and intermediates radicals. The energy consumption for removing each μmol of PFOA was reduced from 82.5 kJ at 25°C to 10.9 kJ at 85°C using photolysis. Photolysis coupled with heat achieved high rates of PFOA degradation and defluorination.

  1. Decomposing the aerodynamic forces of low-Reynolds flapping airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriche, Manuel; Garcia-Villalba, Manuel; Flores, Oscar

    2016-11-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of flow around flapping NACA0012 airfoils at relatively small Reynolds numbers, Re = 1000 . The simulations are carried out with TUCAN, an in-house code that solves the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible flow with an immersed boundary method to model the presence of the airfoil. The motion of the airfoil is composed of a vertical translation, heaving, and a rotation about the quarter of the chord, pitching. Both motions are prescribed by sinusoidal laws, with a reduced frequency of k = 1 . 41 , a pitching amplitude of 30deg and a heaving amplitude of one chord. Both, the mean pitch angle and the phase shift between pitching and heaving motions are varied, to build a database with 18 configurations. Four of these cases are analysed in detail using the force decomposition algorithm of Chang (1992) and Martín Alcántara et al. (2015). This method decomposes the total aerodynamic force into added-mass (translation and rotation of the airfoil), a volumetric contribution from the vorticity (circulatory effects) and a surface contribution proportional to viscosity. In particular we will focus on the second, analysing the contribution of the leading and trailing edge vortices that typically appear in these flows. This work has been supported by the Spanish MINECO under Grant TRA2013-41103-P. The authors thankfully acknowledge the computer resources provided by the Red Española de Supercomputacion.

  2. Decomposing ability of filamentous fungi on litter is involved in a subtropical mixed forest.

    PubMed

    Song, Fuqiang; Tian, Xingjun; Fan, Xiaoxu; He, Xingbing

    2010-01-01

    The abilities of 10 filamentous fungi, isolated from Pinus massoniana-Liquidambar formasana mixed forest (PLF), to decompose fresh, fallen needle and leaf litter were studied with pure-culture tests. The results showed that all fungi except Mucor sp. and Chaetomium bostrychodes could drive mass loss of L. formasana leaf litter significantly more than that of P. massoniasa. Mass loss of litter in the first 5 wk of the study was higher than that in the last 5 wk. The decomposition rate was negatively correlated to the original lignin/nitrogen (L/N) and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N) ratios. Based on the mass loss of litter (W), carbohydrate (C) and lignin (L), and the mutual relationship between L/W and L/C ratio, we concluded that Mucor sp. had the lowest decomposing ability on P. Massoniana and L. formasana litter and that it could not use lignin. The Chaetomium bostrychodes were lignin and carbohydrate decomposers but preferred lignin. Trichoderma sp. 1 and Cladosporium herbarum were carbohydrate-decomposing fungi. Trichoderma sp. 2, Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria sp. and Penicillium sp. 2 were able to decompose lignin and carbohydrate but preferred carbohydrate and had high ability to decompose litter. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. 1 were able to decompose lignin and carbohydrate only in the early phase of the study. The decomposing ability of fungi varied even within genus. No direct relationship was found between the frequency of isolation and the decomposing ability of fungi.

  3. Double-Resonance Facilitated Decomposion of Emission Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ryota; Ishikawa, Haruki

    2016-06-01

    Emission spectra provide us with rich information about the excited-state processes such as proton-transfer, charge-transfer and so on. In the cases that more than one excited states are involved, emission spectra from different excited states sometimes overlap and a decomposition of the overlapped spectra is desired. One of the methods to perform a decomposition is a time-resolved fluorescence technique. It uses a difference in time evolutions of components involved. However, in the gas-phase, a concentration of the sample is frequently too small to carry out this method. On the other hand, double-resonance technique is a very powerful tool to discriminate or identify a common species in the spectra in the gas-phase. Thus, in the present study, we applied the double-resonance technique to resolve the overlapped emission spectra. When transient IR absorption spectra of the excited state are available, we can label the population of the certain species by the IR excitation with a proper selection of the IR wavenumbers. Thus, we can obtain the emission spectra of labeled species by subtracting the emission spectra with IR labeling from that without IR. In the present study, we chose the charge-transfer emission spectra of cyanophenyldisilane (CPDS) as a test system. One of us reported that two charge-transfer (CT) states are involved in the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) process of CPDS-water cluster and recorded the transient IR spectra. As expected, we have succeeded in resolving the CT emission spectra of CPDS-water cluster by the double resonance facilitated decomposion technique. In the present paper, we will report the details of the experimental scheme and the results of the decomposition of the emission spectra. H. Ishikawa, et al., Chem. Phys. Phys. Chem., 9, 117 (2007).

  4. Biogeochemical implications of decomposing jellyfish blooms in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelsky, Ariella; Pitt, Kylie A.; Welsh, David T.

    2015-03-01

    Jellyfish often exhibit 'boom and bust' population dynamics whereby they proliferate rapidly and then die en masse and decompose. The few studies that have investigated post-bloom processes have not studied how changing ocean conditions will alter rates of decomposition. Climate change will result in warmer and more acidic waters, and studies therefore need to consider these factors in concert to determine their combined effect on decomposition processes. To quantify the effect, we measured oxygen consumption and nutrient regeneration rates during decomposition of Catostylus mosaicus in mesocosms at current average summer pH and temperature (pH 8.0 and 27 °C) as well as conditions projected for year 2100 (pH 7.8 and 30 °C) and compared these fluxes to control mesocosms without jellyfish over 12 days. We hypothesised that rates of jellyfish decomposition, as measured by oxygen demand and nutrient regeneration, would be accelerated in the end-of-century treatments, compared to present day treatments. Overall decomposition rates were only slightly elevated under end-of-century conditions, and the difference was only significant for ammonium fluxes from 19 h until 43 h after the experiment commenced. The difference between treatments was much smaller than would be expected due to the temperature increase, based on theoretical modelling of jellyfish decomposition which predicts a Q10 of 4.28, or a 1.5 fold increase in decomposition rates. This highlights the importance of investigating net effects on decomposition rates, as simultaneous shifts in temperature and pH may not follow patterns predicted due to one stressor alone. Ultimately, these results suggest that rates of oxygen consumption and nutrient regeneration resulting from collapsed jellyfish blooms may not change drastically over the next 100 years.

  5. Decomposer diversity and identity influence plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Reich, Peter B; Isbell, Forest

    2012-10-01

    Plant productivity and other ecosystem functions often increase with plant diversity at a local scale. Alongside various plant-centered explanations for this pattern, there is accumulating evidence that multi-trophic interactions shape this relationship. Here, we investigated for the first time if plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning are mediated or driven by decomposer animal diversity and identity using a double-diversity microcosm experiment. We show that many ecosystem processes and ecosystem multifunctionality (herbaceous shoot biomass production, litter removal, and N uptake) were affected by both plant and decomposer diversity, with ecosystem process rates often being maximal at intermediate to high plant and decomposer diversity and minimal at both low plant and decomposer diversity. Decomposers relaxed interspecific plant competition by enlarging chemical (increased N uptake and surface-litter decomposition) and spatial (increasing deep-root biomass) habitat space and by promoting plant complementarity. Anecic earthworms and isopods functioned as key decomposers; although decomposer diversity effects did not solely rely on these two decomposer species, positive plant net biodiversity and complementarity effects only occurred in the absence of isopods and the presence of anecic earthworms. Using a structural equation model, we explained 76% of the variance in plant complementarity, identified direct and indirect effect paths, and showed that the presence of key decomposers accounted for approximately three-quarters of the explained variance. We conclude that decomposer animals have been underappreciated as contributing agents of plant diversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Elevated decomposer performance at high plant diversity found in previous experiments likely positively feeds back to plant performance, thus contributing to the positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  6. Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions

    PubMed Central

    Schädler, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1–3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on

  7. Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Schädler, Martin

    2011-02-01

    The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1-3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on

  8. [Coupling Effects of Decomposed Potamogeton crispus and Growing Ceratophyllum demersum on Water Quality and Plant Growth].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Wang, Guo-xiang; Cao, Xun; Wang, Xiao-yun; Ma, Jie

    2015-07-01

    In order to study the coupling effects of decomposed Potamogeton crispus (P. crispus) and growing Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) on water quality and the effects of different decomposed biomass on plant growth, the simulating experiments for seasonal changes of submerged macrophytes were conducted. The results indicated that the nutrient concentrations in water remained at a relatively low level with different decomposed biomass and they remained stable after 29 days of the experiment. The concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (DTN), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), total dissolved phosphorous (DTP), organic carbon (TOC) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were lower than 0. 514, 0. 559, 0. 080, 0. 014, 13. 94 and 26. 546 mg . L-1, respectively. The obvious improving effects on water quality were observed under coupling condition of decomposition and growth, especially when the treatment of decomposed P. crispus was 20 g, and the removal efficiency of TN, DTN, TP, DTP, TOC and Chl-a reached 89. 67% , 52. 51%, 94. 99%, 55. 59% and 98. 55%, respectively. Compared with the physiology of C. demersum in the early stage, the contents of total chlorophyll, soluble protein and malondialdehyde all increased under different decomposed biomass conditions, which suggested that the nutrient released from decomposed P. crispus promoted the growth of C. demersum. The coupling effects between P. crispus decomposition and C. demersum growth showed better improving effect on water quality and growth of C. demersum with treatment of 20 g decomposed P. crispus.

  9. FPGA-Based Filterbank Implementation for Parallel Digital Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Stephan; DeLeon, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    One approach to parallel digital signal processing decomposes a high bandwidth signal into multiple lower bandwidth (rate) signals by an analysis bank. After processing, the subband signals are recombined into a fullband output signal by a synthesis bank. This paper describes an implementation of the analysis and synthesis banks using (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) FPGAs.

  10. Obtaining identical results on varying numbers of processors in domain decomposed particle Monte Carlo simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Thomas A.; Kalos, Malvin H.; Gentile, Nicholas A.

    2005-03-01

    Domain decomposed Monte Carlo codes, like other domain-decomposed codes, are difficult to debug. Domain decomposition is prone to error, and interactions between the domain decomposition code and the rest of the algorithm often produces subtle bugs. These bugs are particularly difficult to find in a Monte Carlo algorithm, in which the results have statistical noise. Variations in the results due to statistical noise can mask errors when comparing the results to other simulations or analytic results.

  11. [Effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Wan; Xu, Xiu-Hong; Li, Hong-Tao

    2011-10-01

    Taking the cow dung and straw as composting raw materials, effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost was investigated with the traditional culture method and PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the microbiological inocula showed a more rapid rate of temperature elevation at the start of composting and prolonged the time of high-temperature process and increased the number of microbial. The DGGE map of cellulose-decomposing strain compost was different from natural compost, the succession of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain was faster than natural compost. Sequence comparison revealed that the Pseudomonas sp. of bacterial appeared at the initial stage and Acinetobacter sp., Flavobacteria were existed at the high-temperature process in natural compost; while Arthrobacter sp. was appeared at the high-temperature process in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Bacillus sp. was dominant species at middle and later stage in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Eimeriidae of fungal appeared in compost materials, Aspergillus and thermophilic fungi were dominant species at the high-temperature process in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Ascomycota appeared at middle and later stage in natural compost; while Basidiomycetes in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Aspergillus was found throughout the process. This result suggested that the microbiological inocula were able to facilitate the bacterial microbial diversity of the compost; reduced the fungal microbial diversity of the compost. The aims of this study were to provide a scientific basis to the diversity of microbial community by monitoring the dynamics of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain compost and represent an important step towards the understanding of microbiological inocula and its function in the degradation process of compost.

  12. Development of Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical IS Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroki, Noguchi; Hiroyuki, Ota; Atsuhiko, Terada; Shinji, Kubo; Kaoru, Onuki; Ryutaro, Hino

    2006-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting R and D on thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process, which is one of most attractive water-splitting hydrogen production methods using nuclear heat of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In the IS process, sulfuric acid is evaporated and decomposed into H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 3} in a sulfuric acid decomposer operated under high temperature condition up to 500 deg C. Necessary heat is supplied by high temperature helium gas from the HTGR. Since the sulfuric acid decomposer will be exposed to severe corrosion condition, we have proposed a new decomposer concept of a block type heat exchanger made of SiC ceramic which has excellent corrosion and mechanical strength performance. To verify the concept, integrity of new type gaskets applied for boundary seal of the decomposer was examined as a first step. Pure gold gaskets coupled with absorption mechanism against thermal expansion showed good seal performance under 500 deg C. Based on this result, a mock-up model for a IS pilot-plant with 30 m{sup 3}/h-hydrogen production rate was test-fabricated as the next step. Through the fabrication and gas-tight tests, fabricability and structural integrity were confirmed. Also, the decomposer showed good mechanical strength and seal performances against horizontal loading simulating earthquake motion. (authors)

  13. Decomposers (Lumbricidae, Collembola) affect plant performance in model grasslands of different diversity.

    PubMed

    Partsch, Stephan; Milcu, Alexandru; Scheu, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Decomposer invertebrates influence soil structure and nutrient mineralization as well as the activity and composition of the microbial community in soil and therefore likely affect plant performance and plant competition. We established model grassland communities in a greenhouse to study the interrelationship between two different functional groups of decomposer invertebrates, Lumbricidae and Collembola, and their effect on plant performance and plant nitrogen uptake in a plant diversity gradient. Common plant species of Central European Arrhenatherion grasslands were transplanted into microcosms with numbers of plant species varying from one to eight and plant functional groups varying from one to four. Separate and combined treatments with earthworms and collembolans were set up. Microcosms contained 15N labeled litter to track N fluxes into plant shoots. Presence of decomposers strongly increased total plant and plant shoot biomass. Root biomass decreased in the presence of collembolans and even more in the presence of earthworms. However, it increased when both animal groups were present. Also, presence of decomposers increased total N concentration and 15N enrichment of grasses, legumes, and small herbs. Small herbs were at a maximum in the combined treatment with earthworms and collembolans. The impact of earthworms and collembolans on plant performance strongly varied with plant functional group identity and plant species diversity and was modified when both decomposers were present. Both decomposer groups generally increased aboveground plant productivity through effects on litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization leading to an increased plant nutrient acquisition. The non-uniform effects of earthworms and collembolans suggest that functional diversity of soil decomposer animals matters and that the interactions between soil animal functional groups affect the structure of plant communities.

  14. Estimate of fine root production including the impact of decomposed roots in a Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Khoon Koh, Lip; Kume, Tomonori; Makita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ohashi, Mizue

    2016-04-01

    Considerable carbon is allocated belowground and used for respiration and production of roots. It is reported that approximately 40 % of GPP is allocated belowground in a Bornean tropical rainforest, which is much higher than those in Neotropical rainforests. This may be caused by high root production in this forest. Ingrowth core is a popular method for estimating fine root production, but recent study by Osawa et al. (2012) showed potential underestimates of this method because of the lack of consideration of the impact of decomposed roots. It is important to estimate fine root production with consideration for the decomposed roots, especially in tropics where decomposition rate is higher than other regions. Therefore, objective of this study is to estimate fine root production with consideration of decomposed roots using ingrowth cores and root litter-bag in the tropical rainforest. The study was conducted in Lambir Hills National Park in Borneo. Ingrowth cores and litter bags for fine roots were buried in March 2013. Eighteen ingrowth cores and 27 litter bags were collected in May, September 2013, March 2014 and March 2015, respectively. Fine root production was comparable to aboveground biomass increment and litterfall amount, and accounted only 10% of GPP in this study site, suggesting most of the carbon allocated to belowground might be used for other purposes. Fine root production was comparable to those in Neotropics. Decomposed roots accounted for 18% of fine root production. This result suggests that no consideration of decomposed fine roots may cause underestimate of fine root production.

  15. Microbial diversity, producer-decomposer interactions and ecosystem processes: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Loreau, M

    2001-02-07

    Interactions between the diversity of primary producers and that of decomposers--the two key functional groups that form the basis of all ecosystems--might have major consequences on the functioning of depauperate ecosystems. I present a simple ecosystem model in which primary producers (plants) and decomposers (microbes) are linked through material cycling. The model considers a diversity of plant organic compounds and a diversity of microbial species. Nutrient recycling efficiency from organic compounds to decomposers is then the key parameter that controls ecosystem processes (primary productivity, secondary productivity, producer biomass and decomposer biomass). The model predicts that microbial diversity has a positive effect on nutrient recycling efficiency and ecosystem processes through either greater intensity of microbial exploitation of organic compounds or functional niche complementarity, much like in plants. Microbial niche breadth and overlap should not affect ecosystem processes unless they increase the number of organic compounds that are decomposed. In contrast, the model predicts that plant organic compound diversity can only have a negative effect or, at best, no effect on ecosystem processes, at least in a constant environment. This creates a tension between the effects of plant diversity and microbial diversity on ecosystem functioning, which may explain some recent experimental results.

  16. Limited transfer of nitrogen between wood decomposing and ectomycorrhizal mycelia when studied in the field.

    PubMed

    Wallander, Håkan; Lindahl, Björn D; Nilsson, Lars Ola

    2006-05-01

    Transfer of (15)N between interacting mycelia of a wood-decomposing fungus (Hypholoma fasciculare) and an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tomentellopsis submollis) was studied in a mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. The amount of (15)N transferred from the wood decomposer to the ectomycorrhizal fungus was compared to the amount of (15)N released from the wood-decomposing mycelia into the soil solution as (15)N-NH(4). The study was performed in peat-filled plastic containers placed in forest soil in the field. The wood-decomposing mycelium was growing from an inoculated wood piece and the ectomycorrhizal mycelium from an introduced root from a mature tree. The containers were harvested after 41 weeks when physical contact between the two foraging mycelia was established. At harvest, (15)N content was analyzed in the peat (total N and (15)NH(4) (+)) and in the mycorrhizal roots. A limited amount of (15)N was transferred to the ectomycorrhizal fungus and this transfer could be explained by (15)NH(4) (+) released from the wood-decomposing fungus without involving any antagonistic interactions between the two mycelia. Using our approach, it was possible to study nutritional interactions between basidiomycete mycelia under field conditions and this and earlier studies suggest that the outcomes of such interactions are highly species-specific and depend on environmental conditions such as resource availability.

  17. MicroCT detection of gunshot residue in fresh and decomposed firearm wounds.

    PubMed

    Cecchetto, Giovanni; Amagliani, Alessandro; Giraudo, Chiara; Fais, Paolo; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Montisci, Massimo; Feltrin, Giampietro; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2012-05-01

    Gunshot residue (GSR) evidence may be altered or obscured by after-death events such as putrefaction, autolysis, and/or damage by animals. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the amount and differential distribution of GSR utilizing microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis of fresh and decomposed gunshot wounds. A total of 60 experimental shootings at three different firing distances (5, 15, and 30 cm) were performed on human calves surgically amputated for medical reasons. Thirty specimens (10 for each tested distance) were immediately formalin-fixed, while the other 30 specimens were enclosed in a cowshed for 15 days, before formalin fixation (air temperature ranging from 11°C to 38°C). MicroCT analysis with three-dimensional image reconstruction detected GSR particles in all the investigated entrance wounds. In fresh specimens, GSR was concentrated on the skin surface around the entrance hole and in the epidermis and dermis layers around the cavity, while in decomposed specimens, the high density particles were detected only in the dermis layer. No GSR was detected in exit wounds of both fresh and decomposed specimens regardless of the tested firing distance. Statistical analysis demonstrated that also in decomposed wounds the amount of GSR roughly correlated with the distance from which the gun was fired, exhibiting, however, a higher variability than in fresh samples. The obtained results suggest that microCT analysis can be a valid screening tool for differentiating decomposed entrance and exit gunshot wounds.

  18. A novel decomposition technique of friable asbestos by CHClF2-decomposed acidic gas.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Kozawa, Takahiro; Onda, Ayumu; Kanazawa, Masazumi; Shinohara, Junichi; Takanami, Tetsuro; Shiraishi, Masatsugu

    2009-04-30

    Asbestos was widely used in numerous materials and building products due to their desirable properties. It is, however, well known that asbestos inhalation causes health damage and its inexpensive decomposition technique is necessary to be developed for pollution prevention. We report here an innovative decomposition technique of friable asbestos by acidic gas (HF and HCl) generated from the decomposition of CHClF(2) by the reaction with superheated steam at 800 degrees C. Chrysotile-asbestos fibers were completely decomposed to sellaite and magnesium silicofluoride hexahydrate by the reaction with CHClF(2)-decomposed acidic gas at 150 degrees C for 30 min. At high temperatures beyond 400 degrees C, sellaite and hematite were detected in the decomposed product. In addition, crocidolite containing wastes and amosite containing wastes were decomposed at 500 degrees C and 600 degrees C for 30 min, respectively, by CHClF(2)-decomposed acidic gas. The observation of the reaction products by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that the resulting products did not contain any asbestos.

  19. Anthropological and radiographic comparison of vertebrae for identification of decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z; Vidoli, Giovanna; Melinek, Judy

    2006-09-01

    This case study demonstrates the importance of involving an anthropologist in forensic situations with decomposed remains. Anthropological consultation was used in conjunction with the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs to establish positive identification of unknown, decomposed remains. The remains had no traditional identifying features such as fingerprints or dental. Through anthropological analysis, it was determined the decedent was male, between 20 and 23 years at time of death and c. 5'2'' tall. This information allowed for a presumptive identification and a request for antemortem radiographs. The missing person was identified comparing the spinous processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae between ante- and postmortem radiographs.

  20. A discrimination-association model for decomposing component processes of the implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, Luca; Robusto, Egidio; Vianello, Michelangelo; Anselmi, Pasquale

    2013-06-01

    A formal model is proposed that decomposes the implicit association test (IAT) effect into three process components: stimuli discrimination, automatic association, and termination criterion. Both response accuracy and reaction time are considered. Four independent and parallel Poisson processes, one for each of the four label categories of the IAT, are assumed. The model parameters are the rate at which information accrues on the counter of each process and the amount of information that is needed before a response is given. The aim of this study is to present the model and an illustrative application in which the process components of a Coca-Pepsi IAT are decomposed.

  1. Methods for assessing the impact of avermectins on the decomposer community of sheep pastures.

    PubMed

    King, K L

    1993-06-01

    This paper outlines methods which can be used in the field assessment of potentially toxic chemicals such as the avermectins. The procedures focus on measuring the effects of the drug on decomposer organisms and the nutrient cycling process in pastures grazed by sheep. Measurements of decomposer activity are described along with methods for determining dry and organic matter loss and mineral loss from dung to the underlying soil. Sampling methods for both micro- and macro-invertebrates are discussed along with determination of the percentage infection of plant roots with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. An integrated sampling unit for assessing the ecotoxicity of ivermectin in pastures grazed by sheep is presented.

  2. Mechanism and Application of Carbon Nanotube Sensors in SF6 Decomposed Production Detection: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Gui, Yingang; Tang, Ju

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have aroused extensive attentions as a new category of gas sensor materials owing to their outstanding performance for detecting specific gas among a variety of ones through diverse gas responses. This review summarizes the adsorption mechanism of CNTs and their properties related to the detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposed gases that generated in gas insulation switchgear (GIS) of power system. Their performances as sensors of both experimental analysis and theoretical calculation for various kinds of decomposed gases are summarized, and the further research trend on CNTs in the detection of SF6 decomposition components is also put forward.

  3. Mechanism and Application of Carbon Nanotube Sensors in SF6 Decomposed Production Detection: a Review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Gui, Yingang; Tang, Ju

    2017-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have aroused extensive attentions as a new category of gas sensor materials owing to their outstanding performance for detecting specific gas among a variety of ones through diverse gas responses. This review summarizes the adsorption mechanism of CNTs and their properties related to the detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposed gases that generated in gas insulation switchgear (GIS) of power system. Their performances as sensors of both experimental analysis and theoretical calculation for various kinds of decomposed gases are summarized, and the further research trend on CNTs in the detection of SF6 decomposition components is also put forward.

  4. Relating soil pore geometry to soil water content dynamics decomposed at multiple frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Mingming; Gimenez, Daniel; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Soil structure is a critical factor determining the response of soil water content to meteorological inputs such as precipitation. Wavelet analysis can be used to filter a signal into several wavelet components, each characterizing a given frequency. The purpose of this research was to investigate relationships between the geometry of soil pore systems and the various wavelet components derived from soil water content dynamics. The two study sites investigated were located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Each site was comprised of five soil profiles, the first site was situated along a 300-meter transect with about 10% slope in a tropical semi-deciduous forest, while the second one spanned 230-meter over a Brazilian savanna with a slope of about 6%. For each profile, between two to four Water Content Reflectometer CS615 (Campbell Scientific, Inc.) probes were installed according to horizonation at depths varying between 0.1 m and 2.3 m. Bulk soil, three soil cores, and one undisturbed soil block were sampled from selected horizons for determining particle size distributions, water retention curves, and pore geometry, respectively. Pore shape and size were determined from binary images obtained from resin-impregnated blocks and used to characterize pore geometry. Soil water contents were recorded at a 20-minute interval over a 4-month period. The Mexican hat wavelet was used to decompose soil water content measurements into wavelet components. The responses of wavelet components to wetting and drying cycles were characterized by the median height of the peaks in each wavelet component and were correlated with particular pore shapes and sizes. For instance, large elongated and irregular pores, largely responsible for the transmission of water, were significantly correlated with wavelet components at high frequencies (40 minutes to 48 hours) while rounded pores, typically associated to water retention, were only significantly correlated to lower frequency ranges

  5. Gastric Emptying Assessment in Frequency and Time Domain Using Bio-impedance: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Sosa, M.; Gutiérrez, G.; Reyes, P.; Mendiola, C.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance assessment to measure gastric emptying and in general gastric activity has been reported since 1985. The physiological interpretation of these measurements, is still under research. This technique usually uses a single frequency, and the conductivity parameter. The frequency domain and the Fourier analysis of the time domain behavior of the gastric impedance in different gastric conditions (fasting state, and after food administration) has not been explored in detail. This work presents some insights of the potentiality of these alternative methodologies to measure gastric activity.

  6. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  7. Gaze Fluctuations Are Not Additively Decomposable: Reply to Bogartz and Staub

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.; Mirman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work interpreted single-lognormal fits to inter-gaze distance (i.e., "gaze steps") histograms as evidence of multiplicativity and hence interactions across scales in visual cognition. Bogartz and Staub (2012) proposed that gaze steps are additively decomposable into fixations and saccades, matching the histograms better and…

  8. Investigating the Sources of Teachers' Instructional Technology Use through the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiue, Ya-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior, this study used path analysis to examine the relative strength of the factors that influence teachers' use of instructional technology. The study focused on teachers' use of word processors, spreadsheets, presentation software, e-mail, and Web browsers. A path analysis was performed on…

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Lignocellulose Decomposer Thermobifida fusca Strain TM51.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Akos; Barna, Terézia; Nagy, István; Horváth, Balázs; Nagy, István; Táncsics, András; Kriszt, Balázs; Baka, Erzsébet; Fekete, Csaba; Kukolya, József

    2013-07-11

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Thermobifida fusca strain TM51, which was isolated from the hot upper layer of a compost pile in Hungary. T. fusca TM51 is a thermotolerant, aerobic actinomycete with outstanding lignocellulose-decomposing activity.

  10. Plant-herbivore-decomposer stoichiometric mismatches and nutrient cycling in ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Mehdi; Loreau, Michel

    2013-03-07

    Plant stoichiometry is thought to have a major influence on how herbivores affect nutrient availability in ecosystems. Most conceptual models predict that plants with high nutrient contents increase nutrient excretion by herbivores, in turn raising nutrient availability. To test this hypothesis, we built a stoichiometrically explicit model that includes a simple but thorough description of the processes of herbivory and decomposition. Our results challenge traditional views of herbivore impacts on nutrient availability in many ways. They show that the relationship between plant nutrient content and the impact of herbivores predicted by conceptual models holds only at high plant nutrient contents. At low plant nutrient contents, the impact of herbivores is mediated by the mineralization/immobilization of nutrients by decomposers and by the type of resource limiting the growth of decomposers. Both parameters are functions of the mismatch between plant and decomposer stoichiometries. Our work provides new predictions about the impacts of herbivores on ecosystem fertility that depend on critical interactions between plant, herbivore and decomposer stoichiometries in ecosystems.

  11. [Effect of Decomposing Products of Immobilized Carriers on Desorption of Pyrene in Contaminated Soil].

    PubMed

    Tong, Dong-li; Shuang, Sheng-qing; Li, Xiao-jun; Deng, Wan-rong; Zhao, Ran-ran; Jia, Chun-yun; Gong, Zong-qiang

    2015-08-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of soluble and insoluble decomposing products (decomposed for 1 day and 120 day; noted by DP1 and DP120, respectively) from immobilized carriers (corncob) on the desorption of pyrene in PAH-contaminated soil (120 d ageing, 20 mg x kg(-1)). It was found that (1) adding decomposing products of immobilized carriers could not only increase the rapidly desorbing fraction, but also improve the desorption rate of pyrene. The desorption rates of pyrene increased from 20% to 81.8% and 84.5% because of adding insoluble DP1 and DP120, and from 40% to 89.6% and 88.5% because of adding soluble DP1 and DP120. (2) The sorption amounts of pyrene by insoluble DP1 and.DP120 were 9. 4 and 16. 6 times higher than that by natural corncob, respectively. The sorption amounts of XAD-2 resins were increased by 1.5 and 3.1 times due to the added soluble DP1 and DP120, respectively. These results indicated that decomposing products of immobilized carries could improve the desorption of pyrene by sorption or activation in contaminated soil.

  12. Kill the Song--Steal the Show: What Does Distinguish Predicative Metaphors from Decomposable Idioms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillies, Stephanie; Declercq, Christelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the semantic processing difference between decomposable idioms and novel predicative metaphors. It was hypothesized that idiom comprehension results from the retrieval of a figurative meaning stored in memory, that metaphor comprehension requires a sense creation process and that this process difference affects the processing…

  13. Obtaining Identical Results on Varying Numbers of Processors In Domain Decomposed particle Monte Carlo Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, N A; Kalos, M H; Brunner, T A

    2005-03-22

    Domain decomposed Monte Carlo codes, like other domain-decomposed codes, are difficult to debug. Domain decomposition is prone to error, and interactions between the domain decomposition code and the rest of the algorithm often produces subtle bugs. These bugs are particularly difficult to find in a Monte Carlo algorithm, in which the results have statistical noise. Variations in the results due to statistical noise can mask errors when comparing the results to other simulations or analytic results. If a code can get the same result on one domain as on many, debugging the whole code is easier. This reproducibility property is also desirable when comparing results done on different numbers of processors and domains. We describe how reproducibility, to machine precision, is obtained on different numbers of domains in an Implicit Monte Carlo photonics code.

  14. Does nutrient enrichment compensate fungicide effects on litter decomposition and decomposer communities in streams?

    PubMed

    Fernández, Diego; Tummala, Mallikarjun; Schreiner, Verena C; Duarte, Sofia; Pascoal, Cláudia; Winkelmann, Carola; Mewes, Daniela; Muñoz, Katherine; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2016-05-01

    Nutrient and pesticide pollution are widespread agricultural stressors. Fungicides may affect freshwater fungi, which play an important role in litter decomposition (LD), whereas moderate nutrient enrichment can stimulate LD. We examined potential interaction effects of nutrients and fungicides on decomposer communities and LD in a 14-day two-factorial (fungicide and nutrient treatments) mesocosm experiment. Fungicide exposure was limited to 4days to simulate episodic contamination. Only the microbial community responded significantly to the experimental factors, though non-significant increases >20% were found for invertebrate decomposer weight gain and LD under high-nutrient conditions. Fungal community structure responded more strongly to fungicides than sporulation. Sporulation responded strongest to nutrients. Bacterial community structure was affected by both factors, although only nutrients influenced bacterial density. Our results suggest effects from fungicides at field-relevant levels on the microbial community. Whether these changes propagate to invertebrate communities and LD remains unclear and should be analysed under longer and recurrent fungicide exposure.

  15. Delay-decomposing approach to robust stability for switched interval networks with state-dependent switching.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Cao, Jinde; Hayat, Tasawar

    2014-08-01

    This paper is concerned with a class of nonlinear uncertain switched networks with discrete time-varying delays . Based on the strictly complete property of the matrices system and the delay-decomposing approach, exploiting a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional decomposing the delays in integral terms, the switching rule depending on the state of the network is designed. Moreover, by piecewise delay method, discussing the Lyapunov functional in every different subintervals, some new delay-dependent robust stability criteria are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which lead to much less conservative results than those in the existing references and improve previous results. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  16. Kill the song—steal the show: what does distinguish predicative metaphors from decomposable idioms?

    PubMed

    Caillies, Stéphanie; Declercq, Christelle

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the semantic processing difference between decomposable idioms and novel predicative metaphors. It was hypothesized that idiom comprehension results from the retrieval of a figurative meaning stored in memory, that metaphor comprehension requires a sense creation process and that this process difference affects the processing time of idiomatic and metaphoric expressions. In the first experiment, participants read sentences containing decomposable idioms, predicative metaphors or control expressions and performed a lexical decision task on figurative targets presented 0, 350, and 500 ms, or 750 after reading. Results demonstrated that idiomatic expressions were processed sooner than metaphoric ones. In the second experiment, participants were asked to assess the meaningfulness of idiomatic, metaphoric and literal expressions after reading a verb prime that belongs to the target phrase (identity priming). The results showed that verb identity priming was stronger for idiomatic expressions than for metaphor ones, indicating different mental representations.

  17. Why does Kevlar decompose, while Nomex does not, when treated with aqueous chlorine solutions?

    PubMed

    Akdag, Akin; Kocer, Hasan B; Worley, S D; Broughton, R M; Webb, T R; Bray, Travis H

    2007-05-24

    Kevlar and Nomex are high-performance polymers which have wide varieties of applications in daily life. Recently, they have been proposed to be biocidal materials when reacted with household bleach (sodium hypochlorite solution) because they contain amide moieties which can be chlorinated to generate biocidal N-halamine functional groups. Although Nomex can be chlorinated without any significant decomposition, Kevlar decomposes under the same chlorination conditions. In this study, two mimics for each of the polymers were synthesized to simulate the carboxylate and diaminophenylene components of the materials. It was found that the p-diaminophenylene component of the Kevlar mimic is oxidized to a quinone-type structure upon treatment with hypochlorous acid, which then decomposes. However, such a mechanism for the Nomex mimic is not possible. In this paper, based upon these observations, a plausible answer will be provided to the title question.

  18. Attitude estimation of earth orbiting satellites by decomposed linear recursive filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kou, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    Attitude estimation of earth orbiting satellites (including Large Space Telescope) subjected to environmental disturbances and noises was investigated. Modern control and estimation theory is used as a tool to design an efficient estimator for attitude estimation. Decomposed linear recursive filters for both continuous-time systems and discrete-time systems are derived. By using this accurate estimation of the attitude of spacecrafts, state variable feedback controller may be designed to achieve (or satisfy) high requirements of system performance.

  19. Persistence of spermatozoa on decomposing human skin: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Gibelli, D; Mazzarelli, D; Rizzi, A; Kustermann, A; Cattaneo, C

    2013-09-01

    Finding spermatozoa is of the utmost importance in judicial cases involving both the living and the dead; however, most of literature actually deals with inner genitalia and does not take into consideration the chance of external deposition of semen on skin, which is not rare. In addition, the most advanced microscopic technologies such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have not been thoroughly investigated within this specific field of research. This study aims at applying SEM analysis to samples of decomposed skin in order to test its potential in detecting spermatozoa particularly in decomposed cadavers. A sample of skin was obtained at autopsy and divided into two thin strips; one of the samples was used as a negative control. Semen was then taken from a "donor" (with a normal spermiogram) and was spread onto the other skin sample. Every 3 days for the first 15 days (for a total of six samples), a standard slide was prepared from swabs on the treated and control skin and analyzed by standard light microscopy. In addition, every 7 days up to 91 days (3 months circa), a skin sample was taken from the positive and negative control and examined by SEM for a total of 14 samples. Results show that after 12 days, light microscopy failed in detecting spermatozoa, whereas they were still visible up to 84 days by SEM analysis. This study therefore suggests the persistence of sperm structures in time and in decomposing material as well as the possible application of SEM technology to decomposed skin in order to detect semen.

  20. Utilization of prey from the decomposer system by generalist predators of grassland.

    PubMed

    Oelbermann, Katja; Langel, Reinhard; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the linkage between the detrital subsystem and generalist predators of meadow ecosystems by manipulating prey availability in two different ways: we increased resource availability for the decomposer subsystem and thereby decomposer prey by adding mulch materials (detritus enhancement), and we added fruitflies (Drosophila melanogaster, Diptera; prey enhancement) to fenced plots. Both supplemented materials significantly differed in their (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N ratios from those of the natural litter. We measured density responses of detritivorous, herbivorous and predaceous arthropods to the increased resource supply. We used ratios of natural stable isotopes of N and C in arthropod tissues to trace the flux from the added resources to consumers and to relate density responses of consumers to changes in resource supply. Effects of resource enhancement propagated through at least two trophic levels, resulting in higher densities of major decomposer and predator taxa. Effects of detritus enhancement were much stronger than those of prey enhancement. Signatures of delta(13)C proved density responses of Collembola taxa to be related to the added mulch materials. Among generalist predators, densities of juvenile wolf spiders (Lycosidae) responded more to detritus-enhancement than to prey-enhancement treatments. In contrast, the density of the web-building linyphiid and the non-web gnaphosid spiders remained unaffected. Each spider taxon, including those which did not respond numerically, was significantly enriched in (13)C in detritus-enhancement treatments, suggesting that they gain energy from the decomposer system. Numbers of herbivores-cicadellids and aphids-were similar in each of the treatments, indicating that they were unaffected by changes in predator density. Our results indicate that the lack of a numerical response to resource supplementation is not necessarily due to the absence of a trophic linkage, but may be caused by compensatory

  1. Approach to calculate normal modes by decomposing the dyadic Green's function.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenhai; Yue, Wencheng; Yao, Peijun; Lu, Yonghua; Liu, Wen

    2014-11-03

    Normal mode is a very fundamental notion in quantum and classical optics. In this paper, we present a method to calculate normal modes by decomposing dyadic Green's function, where the modes are excited by dipoles. The modes obtained by our method can be directly normalized and their degeneracies can be easily removed. This method can be applied to many theoretical descriptions of cavity electrodynamics and is of interest to nanophotonics.

  2. The effect of lignin photodegradation on decomposability of Calamagrostis epigeios grass litter.

    PubMed

    Frouz, Jan; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Mudrák, Ondřej

    2011-11-01

    The common grass Calamagrostis epigeions produces a large amount of dead biomass, which remain above the soil surface for many months. In this study, we determined how exposure of dead biomass above the soil affects its subsequent decomposition in soil. Collected dead standing biomass was divided in two parts, the first one (initial litter) was stored in a dark, dry place. The other part was placed in litterbags in the field. The litterbags were located in soil, on the soil surface, or hanging in the air without contact with soil but exposed to the sun and rain. After 1 year of field exposure, litter mass loss and C and N content were measured, and changes in litter chemistry were explored using NMR and thermochemolysis-GC-MS. The potential decomposability of the litter was quantified by burying the litter from the litterbags and the initial litter in soil microcosms and measuring soil respiration. Soil respiration was greater with litter that had been hanging in air than with all other kinds of litter. These finding could not be explained by changes in litter mass or C:N ratio. NMR indicated a decrease in polysaccharides relative to lignin in litter that was buried in soil but not in litter that was placed on soil surface or that was hanging in the air. Thermochemolysis indicated that the syringyl units of the litter lignin were decomposed when the litter was exposed to light. We postulate that photochemical decay of lignin increase decomposability of dead standing biomass.

  3. An initial study of insect succession on decomposing rabbit carrions in Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mabika, Nyasha; Masendu, Ron; Mawera, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate insects visiting sun exposed and shaded decomposing rabbit carcasses and to establish the relationship between insects and carcasses which may be of forensic importance in Harare. Methods Two rabbits weighing 2.3 kg and 2.5 kg were killed by sharp blows on the head. One was exposed to the sun while the other was placed under shade. The carcasses were allowed to decompose and insects were collected twice a day for the first week and thereafter once a day up to the end of the 7 weeks. Maggots were also collected from the decomposing carcasses and reared. Results Five dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Phoridae and Drosophilidae) were identified from the sun-exposed carcass. Species collected included Lucilia cuprina (L. cuprina), Chrysomya albiceps (C. albiceps), Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp. and Drosophila sp. Four families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae) were identified from the shaded carcass. Representatives of these families included L. cuprina, C. albiceps, Musca domestica, and Hydrotaea sp. Three Coleopteran families (Histeridae, Cleridae and Dermestidae) were identified from both carcasses. The observed species were Saprinus sp., Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes sp. Formicidae (Hymenoptera) was represented by only one species (Pheidole sp.). Flies which emerged from the rearing units were L. cuprina, Lucilia sp., C. albiceps, Sarcophaga sp. and Sepsis sp.). Conclusions Of the dipteran species collected during the study, L. cuprina and C. albiceps could be important for further forensic studies since they were collected from the carcasses and also observed from the rearing units. PMID:25183277

  4. Soil and decomposer responses to grazing exclusion are weak in mountain snow-beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Risto; Salminen, Janne; Strömmer, Rauni

    2008-03-01

    Most of the empirical evidence available from different types of ecosystems have shown that aboveground plant-based and belowground decomposer systems are interconnected, and change in one leads to a response in the other. We analyzed responses of the soil decomposer system and soil decomposition processes to grazing exclusion and associated vegetation changes in a mountain snowbed. These habitats are of low productivity supporting bryophyte and graminoid-rich vegetation which is grazed by the Norwegian lemming and reindeer. We measured bacteria, enchytraeids, fungi, nematodes, microbial respiration, soil nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate), and soil water content from exclosure treatment plots of 5 and 15 years, where the exclusion of grazers had led to considerable vegetation changes. Soil decomposer variables showed only weak responses to the exclosure treatments or changes in aboveground vegetation (biomass and dead organic matter). Only nematodes responded positively to the short-term grazing exclusion. This suggests that above- and belowground processes are not necessarily closely interconnected in snowbed habitats and that the decomposition of plant material is directly controlled by grazer activity.

  5. Ecotoxicological impact of the fungicide tebuconazole on an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.

    PubMed

    Zubrod, Jochen P; Bundschuh, Mirco; Feckler, Alexander; Englert, Dominic; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    Leaf litter breakdown is a fundamental process in aquatic ecosystems that is realized by microbial decomposers and invertebrate detritivores. Although this process may be adversely affected by fungicides, among other factors, no test design exists to assess combined effects on such decomposer-detritivore systems. Hence, the present study assessed effects of the model fungicide tebuconazole (65 µg/L) on the conditioning of leaf material (by characterizing the associated microbial community) as well as the combined effects (i.e., direct toxicity and food quality-related effects (=indirect)) on the energy processing of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum using a five-week semistatic test design. Gammarids exposed to tebuconazole produced significantly less feces (≈ 20%), which in turn significantly increased their assimilation (≈ 30%). Moreover, a significantly reduced lipid content (≈ 20%) indicated lower physiological fitness. The conditioning process was altered as well, which was indicated by a significantly reduced fungal biomass (≈ 40%) and sporulation (≈ 30%) associated with the leaf material. These results suggest that tebuconazole affects both components of the investigated decomposer-detritivore system. However, adverse effects on the level of detritivores cannot be explicitly attributed to direct or indirect pathways. Nevertheless, as the endpoints assessed are directly related to leaf litter breakdown and associated energy transfer processes, the protectiveness of environmental risk assessment for this ecosystem function may be more realistically assessed in future studies by using this or comparable test designs.

  6. Annual and seasonal patterns of insect succession on decomposing remains at two locations in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Voss, Sasha C; Spafford, Helen; Dadour, Ian R

    2009-12-15

    This study considered annual, seasonal and shorter term variation in patterns of insect succession onto decomposing remains at two contrasting locations in Western Australia, bushland and agricultural. The degree of consistency in insect succession patterns over spatial and temporal scales was evaluated through multivariate analysis of occurrence-based distance matrices. Insect assemblages were strongly correlated between locations, within corresponding time periods, indicating that patterns of insect succession were similar between localised sites within the same broad geographic area. This suggests that there is reasonable scope for the application of baseline succession data generated at a single study site to a range of decomposition sites within a given region. Differences were largely due to species absences at the agricultural site. Three species of Coleoptera were identified as possible representatives of bushland habitat, Ptomaphila lacrymosa (Silphidae), Omorgus tatei (Trogidae) and Helea castor (Tenebrionidae), and may be indicative of post mortem movement between habitat types. Within locations, variation in insect assemblages was not significant between years. Within years, insect assemblages varied significantly over time on a seasonal time scale and as decomposition progressed through defined decomposition stages. Forensically relevant data detailing the seasonal pattern of insect succession onto decomposing remains for Western Australia are reported. Additional focus has been directed towards hymenopteran parasitoids that frequent decomposing remains and parasitise Diptera colonisers. Parasitoids can be used to provide an extended PMI timeframe in cases where traditional forensic indicators have completed their development.

  7. Decomposing delta, theta, and alpha time–frequency ERP activity from a visual oddball task using PCA

    PubMed Central

    Bernat, Edward M.; Malone, Stephen M.; Williams, William J.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Time–frequency (TF) analysis has become an important tool for assessing electrical and magnetic brain activity from event-related paradigms. In electrical potential data, theta and delta activities have been shown to underlie P300 activity, and alpha has been shown to be inhibited during P300 activity. Measures of delta, theta, and alpha activity are commonly taken from TF surfaces. However, methods for extracting relevant activity do not commonly go beyond taking means of windows on the surface, analogous to measuring activity within a defined P300 window in time-only signal representations. The current objective was to use a data driven method to derive relevant TF components from event-related potential data from a large number of participants in an oddball paradigm. Methods A recently developed PCA approach was employed to extract TF components [Bernat, E. M., Williams, W. J., and Gehring, W. J. (2005). Decomposing ERP time-frequency energy using PCA. Clin Neurophysiol, 116(6), 1314–1334] from an ERP dataset of 2068 17 year olds (979 males). TF activity was taken from both individual trials and condition averages. Activity including frequencies ranging from 0 to 14 Hz and time ranging from stimulus onset to 1312.5 ms were decomposed. Results A coordinated set of time–frequency events was apparent across the decompositions. Similar TF components representing earlier theta followed by delta were extracted from both individual trials and averaged data. Alpha activity, as predicted, was apparent only when time–frequency surfaces were generated from trial level data, and was characterized by a reduction during the P300. Conclusions Theta, delta, and alpha activities were extracted with predictable time-courses. Notably, this approach was effective at characterizing data from a single-electrode. Finally, decomposition of TF data generated from individual trials and condition averages produced similar results, but with predictable differences

  8. Multi-Temporal Decomposed Wind and Load Power Models for Electric Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Karim, Noha

    electricity market rules capable of providing the right incentives to manage uncertainties and of differentiating various technologies according to the rate at which they can respond to ever changing conditions. Given the overall need for modeling uncertainties in electric energy systems, we consider in this thesis the problem of multi-temporal modeling of wind and demand power, in particular. Historic data is used to derive prediction models for several future time horizons. Short-term prediction models derived can be used for look-ahead economic dispatch and unit commitment, while the long-term annual predictive models can be used for investment planning. As expected, the accuracy of such predictive models depends on the time horizons over which the predictions are made, as well as on the nature of uncertain signals. It is shown that predictive models obtained using the same general modeling approaches result in different accuracy for wind than for demand power. In what follows, we introduce several models which have qualitatively different patterns, ranging from hourly to annual. We first transform historic time-stamped data into the Fourier Transform (Fr) representation. The frequency domain data representation is used to decompose the wind and load power signals and to derive predictive models relevant for short-term and long-term predictions using extracted spectral techniques. The short-term results are interpreted next as a Linear Prediction Coding Model (LPC) and its accuracy is analyzed. Next, a new Markov-Based Sensitivity Model (MBSM) for short term prediction has been proposed and the dispatched costs of uncertainties for different predictive models with comparisons have been developed. Moreover, the Discrete Markov Process (DMP) representation is applied to help assess probabilities of most likely short-, medium- and long-term states and the related multi-temporal risks. In addition, this thesis discusses operational impacts of wind power integration in

  9. Ecosystem and decomposer effects on litter dynamics along an old field to old-growth forest successional gradient

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying the biotic (e.g. decomposers, vegetation) and abiotic (e.g. temperature, moisture) mechanisms controlling litter decomposition is key to understanding ecosystem function, especially where variation in ecosystem structure due to successional processes may alter the str...

  10. "We All Have Something that Has to Do with Tens": Counting School Days, Decomposing Number, and Determining Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrow, Anne M.; Kidd, Kasia

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at how the activity of decomposing number--having students write numerical expressions equivalent to the number of days in school--can help students develop understanding of place value. (Contains 3 figures.)

  11. Experimentally Simulated Global Warming and Nitrogen Enrichment Effects on Microbial Litter Decomposers in a Marsh▿

    PubMed Central

    Flury, Sabine; Gessner, Mark O.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric warming and increased nitrogen deposition can lead to changes of microbial communities with possible consequences for biogeochemical processes. We used an enclosure facility in a freshwater marsh to assess the effects on microbes associated with decomposing plant litter under conditions of simulated climate warming and pulsed nitrogen supply. Standard batches of litter were placed in coarse-mesh and fine-mesh bags and submerged in a series of heated, nitrogen-enriched, and control enclosures. They were retrieved later and analyzed for a range of microbial parameters. Fingerprinting profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that simulated global warming induced a shift in bacterial community structure. In addition, warming reduced fungal biomass, whereas bacterial biomass was unaffected. The mesh size of the litter bags and sampling date also had an influence on bacterial community structure, with the apparent number of dominant genotypes increasing from spring to summer. Microbial respiration was unaffected by any treatment, and nitrogen enrichment had no clear effect on any of the microbial parameters considered. Overall, these results suggest that microbes associated with decomposing plant litter in nutrient-rich freshwater marshes are resistant to extra nitrogen supplies but are likely to respond to temperature increases projected for this century. PMID:21148695

  12. Comparison of ATP and Ergosterol as Indicators of Fungal Biomass Associated with Decomposing Leaves in Streams

    PubMed Central

    Suberkropp, K.; Gessner, M. O.; Chauvet, E.

    1993-01-01

    ATP and ergosterol were compared as indicators of fungal biomass associated with leaves decomposing in laboratory microcosms and streams. In all studies, the sporulation rates of the fungi colonizing leaves were also determined to compare patterns of fungal reproductive activity with patterns of mycelial growth. During leaf degradation, ATP concentrations exhibited significant, positive correlations with ergosterol concentrations in the laboratory and when leaves had been air dried prior to being submerged in a stream. However, when freshly shed leaves were submerged in a stream, concentrations of ATP and ergosterol were negatively correlated during degradation. This appeared to be due to the persistence of leaf-derived ATP in freshly shed leaves during the first 1 to 2 weeks in the stream. Estimates of fungal biomass from ergosterol concentrations of leaf litter were one to three times those calculated from ATP concentrations. ATP, ergosterol, and sporulation data generally provided similar information about the fungi associated with decomposing leaves in streams during periods when fungi were growing. Ergosterol concentrations provide a more accurate indication of fungal biomass in situations in which other organisms make significant contributions to ATP pools. PMID:16349069

  13. Using red clump stars to decompose the galactic magnetic field with distance

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel, Michael D.

    2014-09-01

    A new method for measuring the large-scale structure of the Galactic magnetic field is presented. The Galactic magnetic field has been probed through the Galactic disk with near-infrared starlight polarimetry; however, the distance to each background star is unknown. Using red clump stars as near-infrared standard candles, this work presents the first attempt to decompose the line-of-sight structure of the sky-projected Galactic magnetic field. Two example lines of sight are decomposed: toward a field with many red clump stars and toward a field with few red clump stars. A continuous estimate of magnetic field orientation over several kiloparsecs of distance is possible in the field with many red clump stars, while only discrete estimates are possible in the sparse example. Toward the outer Galaxy, there is a continuous field orientation with distance that shows evidence of perturbation by the Galactic warp. Toward the inner Galaxy, evidence for a large-scale change in the magnetic field geometry is consistent with models of magnetic field reversals, independently derived from Faraday rotation studies. A photo-polarimetric method for identifying candidate intrinsically polarized stars is also presented. The future application of this method to large regions of the sky will begin the process of mapping the Galactic magnetic field in a way never before possible.

  14. Toenails as an alternative source material for the extraction of DNA from decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Andrew; Grimble, Katelyn; Azim, Arani; Owen, Rebecca; Hartman, Dadna

    2016-01-01

    The DNA identification of decomposed human remains for coronial investigations at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine routinely requires the retrieval and processing of a bone sample obtained from the deceased. Bone is a difficult sample type to work with as it requires surgical removal from the deceased, refrigerated storage, and additional processing steps prior to DNA analysis in comparison to other samples types such as buccal swabs or blood stains. In an attempt to overcome the issues posed by bone, a DNA extraction method utilising toenails as an alternate source material was optimised and trialled. Two DNA extraction methods were optimised for digestion of toenail material, with the method utilising the QIAGEN DNA Investigator Kit selected for a casework trial. Single source DNA profiles, matching those of the conventional samples taken, were obtained for toenail samples collected from 28 of 30 coronial cases available for this study. Of these, 26 toenail samples produced full profiles. Although the overall DNA profile quality from the toenails was less than that of the conventional sample, the profiles from toenails met the reporting requirements for identification. Based on the results obtained, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine will be implementing toenails as the primary sample type for collection from decomposed remains when blood is not a suitable sample type.

  15. Shared processing of perception and imagery of music in decomposed EEG.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rebecca S; Desain, Peter; Farquhar, Jason

    2013-04-15

    The current work investigates the brain activation shared between perception and imagery of music as measured with electroencephalography (EEG). Meta-analyses of four separate EEG experiments are presented, each focusing on perception and imagination of musical sound, with differing levels of stimulus complexity. Imagination and perception of simple accented metronome trains, as manifested in the clock illusion, as well as monophonic melodies are discussed, as well as more complex rhythmic patterns and ecologically natural music stimuli. By decomposing the data with principal component analysis (PCA), similar component distributions are found to explain most of the variance in each experiment. All data sets show a fronto-central and a more central component as the largest sources of variance, fitting with projections seen for the network of areas contributing to the N1/P2 complex. We expanded on these results using tensor decomposition. This allows us to add in the tasks to find shared activation, but does not make assumptions of independence or orthogonality and calculates the relative strengths of these components for each task. The components found in the PCA were shown to be further decomposable into parts that load primarily on to the perception or imagery task, or both, thereby adding more detail. It is shown that the frontal and central components have multiple parts that are differentially active during perception and imagination. A number of possible interpretations of these results are discussed, taking into account the different stimulus materials and measurement conditions.

  16. Experimentally simulated global warming and nitrogen enrichment effects on microbial litter decomposers in a marsh.

    PubMed

    Flury, Sabine; Gessner, Mark O

    2011-02-01

    Atmospheric warming and increased nitrogen deposition can lead to changes of microbial communities with possible consequences for biogeochemical processes. We used an enclosure facility in a freshwater marsh to assess the effects on microbes associated with decomposing plant litter under conditions of simulated climate warming and pulsed nitrogen supply. Standard batches of litter were placed in coarse-mesh and fine-mesh bags and submerged in a series of heated, nitrogen-enriched, and control enclosures. They were retrieved later and analyzed for a range of microbial parameters. Fingerprinting profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that simulated global warming induced a shift in bacterial community structure. In addition, warming reduced fungal biomass, whereas bacterial biomass was unaffected. The mesh size of the litter bags and sampling date also had an influence on bacterial community structure, with the apparent number of dominant genotypes increasing from spring to summer. Microbial respiration was unaffected by any treatment, and nitrogen enrichment had no clear effect on any of the microbial parameters considered. Overall, these results suggest that microbes associated with decomposing plant litter in nutrient-rich freshwater marshes are resistant to extra nitrogen supplies but are likely to respond to temperature increases projected for this century.

  17. Decomposed fuzzy systems and their application in direct adaptive fuzzy control.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yao-Chu; Su, Shun-Feng; Chen, Ming-Chang

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a novel fuzzy structure termed as the decomposed fuzzy system (DFS) is proposed to act as the fuzzy approximator for adaptive fuzzy control systems. The proposed structure is to decompose each fuzzy variable into layers of fuzzy systems, and each layer is to characterize one traditional fuzzy set. Similar to forming fuzzy rules in traditional fuzzy systems, layers from different variables form the so-called component fuzzy systems. DFS is proposed to provide more adjustable parameters to facilitate possible adaptation in fuzzy rules, but without introducing a learning burden. It is because those component fuzzy systems are independent so that it can facilitate minimum distribution learning effects among component fuzzy systems. It can be seen from our experiments that even when the rule number increases, the learning time in terms of cycles is still almost constant. It can also be found that the function approximation capability and learning efficiency of the DFS are much better than that of the traditional fuzzy systems when employed in adaptive fuzzy control systems. Besides, in order to further reduce the computational burden, a simplified DFS is proposed in this paper to satisfy possible real time constraints required in many applications. From our simulation results, it can be seen that the simplified DFS can perform fairly with a more concise decomposition structure.

  18. Increasing litter species richness reduces variability in a terrestrial decomposer system.

    PubMed

    Keith, Aidan M; Van der Wal, René; Brooker, Rob W; Osler, Graham H R; Chapman, Stephen J; Burslem, David F R P; Elston, David A

    2008-09-01

    Debate on the relationship between diversity and stability has been driven by the recognition that species loss may influence ecosystem properties and processes. We conducted a litterbag experiment in the Scottish Highlands, United Kingdom, to examine the effects of altering plant litter diversity on decomposition, microbial biomass, and microfaunal abundance. The design of treatments was fully factorial and included five species from an upland plant community (silver birch, Betula pendula; Scots' pine, Pinus sylvestris; heather, Calluna vulgaris; bilberry, Vaccinium myrtillus; wavy-hair grass, Deschampsia flexuosa); species richness ranged from one to five species. We tested the effects of litter species richness and composition on variable means, whether increasing litter species richness reduced variability in the decomposer system, and whether any richness-variability relationships were maintained over time (196 vs. 564 days). While litter species composition effects controlled variable means, we revealed reductions in variability with increasing litter species richness, even after accounting for differences between litter types. These findings suggest that higher plant species richness per se may result in more stable ecosystem processes (e.g., decomposition) and decomposer communities. Negative richness-variation relationships generally relaxed over time, presumably because properties of litter mixtures became more homogeneous. However, given that plant litter inputs continue to enter the belowground system over time, we conclude that variation in ecosystem properties may be buffered by greater litter species richness.

  19. Chronic Exposure Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Stream Microbial Decomposer Communities and Ecosystem Functions.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Ahmed; Jabiol, Jérémy; Behra, Renata; Gil-Allué, Carmen; Gessner, Mark O

    2017-02-21

    With the accelerated use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in commercial products, streams will increasingly serve as recipients of, and repositories for, AgNP. This raises concerns about the potential toxicity of these nanomaterials in the environment. Here we aimed to assess the impacts of chronic AgNP exposure on the metabolic activities and community structure of fungal and bacterial plant litter decomposers as central players in stream ecosystems. Minimal variation in the size and surface charge of AgNP indicated that nanoparticles were rather stable during the experiment. Five days of exposure to 0.05 and 0.5 μM AgNP in microcosms shifted bacterial community structure but had no effect on a suite of microbial metabolic activities, despite silver accumulation in the decomposing leaf litter. After 25 days, however, a broad range of microbial endpoints, as well as rates of litter decomposition, were strongly affected. Declines matched with the total silver concentration in the leaves and were accompanied by changes in fungal and bacterial community structure. These results highlight a distinct sensitivity of litter-associated microbial communities in streams to chronic AgNP exposure, with effects on both microbial functions and community structure resulting in notable ecosystem consequences through impacts on litter decomposition and further biogeochemical processes.

  20. Northward range extension of an endemic soil decomposer with a distinct trophic position.

    PubMed

    Melody, Carol; Schmidt, Olaf

    2012-12-23

    Ecological niche theory asserts that invading species become established only if introduced propagules survive stochastic mortality and can exploit resources unconsumed by resident species. Because their transportation is not controlled by plant health or biosecurity regulations, soil macrofauna decomposers, including earthworms are probably introduced frequently into non-native soils. Yet even with climatic change, exotic earthworm species from southern Europe have not been reported to become established in previously glaciated areas of northern Europe that already have trophically differentiated earthworm communities of 'peregrine' species. We discovered established populations of the earthworm Prosellodrilus amplisetosus (Lumbricidae), a member of a genus endemic to southern France, in six habitats of an urban farm in Dublin, Ireland, about 1000 km north of the genus's endemic range. Not only was P. amplisetosus the dominant endogeic (geophagous) earthworm species in two habitats, it also occupied a significantly different trophic position from the resident species, as evinced by stable isotope ratio analysis. The suggested ability of this non-native species to feed on and assimilate isotopically more enriched soil carbon (C) and nitrogen fractions that are inaccessible to resident species portends potential implications of decomposer range expansions for soil functioning including C sequestration.

  1. Studies on the interactions of bisphenols with anionic phospholipids of decomposer membranes in model systems.

    PubMed

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Sobolewska, Katarzyna; Flasiński, Michał; Wydro, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and other bisphenols constitute a class of organic pollutants, which because of their estrogenic properties, low dose activity and bioaccumulation pose considerable risk for public health as well as for the environment. Accumulated in the sediment bisphenols can endanger the decomposers' populations being incorporated into their cellular membranes; however, the mechanism of their membrane activity is unknown. Therefore, to study these phenomena we applied anionic phospholipid Langmuir monolayers as simple but versatile models of decomposers biomembranes. Phosphatidylglycerols and cardiolipins are not only the main components of bacterial membranes but also of crucial importance in mitochondrial and thylakoid membranes in eukaryotic cells. In our investigations we applied five compounds of the bisphenol class most commonly detected in the environment. To characterize the bisphenols-model membrane interactions we applied multiple mutually independent methods of physical chemistry; namely: the Langmuir monolayer technique, surface potential measurements, Brewster angle microscopy for the visualization of the monolayers' texture and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction for the discussion of the phospholipids packing within the monolayers. Our studies indicated that all the investigated bisphenols interact with the model membrane, but the strength of the interactions is dependent on the bisphenol structure and hydrophobicity and the fluidity of the model membranes. We proved that bisphenol S often treated as the least toxic BPA analog can also be incorporated to the model membranes changing their structure and fluidity.

  2. Gauge-invariant dynamical quantities of QED with decomposed gauge potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Baohua; Huang Yongchang

    2011-09-15

    We discover an inner structure of the QED system; i.e., by decomposing the gauge potential into two orthogonal components, we obtain a new expansion of the Lagrangian for the electron-photon system, from which, we realize the orthogonal decomposition of the canonical momentum conjugate to the gauge potential with the canonical momentum's two components conjugate to the gauge potential's two components, respectively. Using the new expansion of Lagrangian and by the general method of field theory, we naturally derive the gauge invariant separation of the angular momentum of the electron-photon system from Noether theorem, which is the rational one and has the simplest form in mathematics, compared with the other four versions of the angular momentum separation available in literature. We show that it is only the longitudinal component of the gauge potential that is contained in the orbital angular momentum of the electron, as Chen et al. have said. A similar gauge invariant separation of the momentum is given. The decomposed canonical Hamiltonian is derived, from which we construct the gauge invariant energy operator of the electron moving in the external field generated by a proton [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012107 (2010)], where we show that the form of the kinetic energy containing the longitudinal part of the gauge potential is due to the intrinsic requirement of the gauge invariance. Our method provides a new perspective to look on the nucleon spin crisis and indicates that this problem can be solved strictly and systematically.

  3. Mycorrhiza-mediated competition between plants and decomposers drives soil carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Averill, Colin; Turner, Benjamin L; Finzi, Adrien C

    2014-01-23

    Soil contains more carbon than the atmosphere and vegetation combined. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the accumulation and stability of soil carbon is critical to predicting the Earth's future climate. Recent studies suggest that decomposition of soil organic matter is often limited by nitrogen availability to microbes and that plants, via their fungal symbionts, compete directly with free-living decomposers for nitrogen. Ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal (EEM) fungi produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes, allowing them greater access to organic nitrogen sources than arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This leads to the theoretical prediction that soil carbon storage is greater in ecosystems dominated by EEM fungi than in those dominated by AM fungi. Using global data sets, we show that soil in ecosystems dominated by EEM-associated plants contains 70% more carbon per unit nitrogen than soil in ecosystems dominated by AM-associated plants. The effect of mycorrhizal type on soil carbon is independent of, and of far larger consequence than, the effects of net primary production, temperature, precipitation and soil clay content. Hence the effect of mycorrhizal type on soil carbon content holds at the global scale. This finding links the functional traits of mycorrhizal fungi to carbon storage at ecosystem-to-global scales, suggesting that plant-decomposer competition for nutrients exerts a fundamental control over the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  4. First-principles study of SF6 decomposed gas adsorbed on Au-decorated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Yu, Lei; Gui, Yingang; Hu, Weihua

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically investigated the decomposed gaseous components of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), namely, H2S, SO2, SOF2, and SO2F2, adsorbed on pristine and Au-embedded graphene based on the revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof calculation, which empirically includes a dispersion correction (DFT-D) for van der Waals interaction with standard generalized gradient approximation. Pristine graphene exhibits weak adsorption and absence of charge transfer, which indicates barely satisfactory sensing for decomposed components. The Au atom introduces magnetism to the pristine graphene after metal-embedded decoration as well as enhances conductivity. All four molecules induce certain hybridization between the molecules and Au-graphene, which results in chemical interactions. SOF2 and SO2F2 exhibit a strong chemisorption interaction with Au-graphene, while H2S and SO2 exhibit quasi-molecular binding effects. Only H2S exhibits n-type doping to Au-graphene, whereas the rest gases exhibit p-type doping. Magnetic moments fluctuate substantially in the original Au-graphene when H2S and SO2 are adsorbed. While the adsorption effects of SOF2 and SO2F2 generate magnetism quenching. The charge transfer mechanism is also discussed in this paper. These results will shed light on the valuable application of Au-embedded graphene for selective gas sensing and spintronics.

  5. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis.

  6. Functional breadth and home-field advantage generate functional differences among soil microbial decomposers.

    PubMed

    Fanin, Nicolas; Fromin, Nathalie; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    In addition to the effect of litter quality (LQ) on decomposition, increasing evidence is demonstrating that carbon mineralization can be influenced by the past resource history, mainly through following two processes: (1) decomposer communities from recalcitrant litter environments may have a wider functional ability to decompose a wide range of litter species than those originating from richer environments, i.e., the functional breadth (FB) hypothesis; and/or (2) decomposer communities may be specialized towards the litter they most frequently encounter, i.e., the home-field advantage (HFA) hypothesis. Nevertheless, the functional dissimilarities among contrasting microbial communities, which are generated by the FB and the HFA, have rarely been simultaneously quantified in the same experiment, and their relative contributions over time have never been assessed. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a reciprocal transplant decomposition experiment under controlled conditions using litter and soil originating from four ecosystems along a land-use gradient (forest, plantation, grassland, and cropland) and one additional treatment using 13C-labelled flax litter allowing us to assess the priming effect (PE) in each ecosystem. We found substantial effects of LQ on carbon mineralization (more than two-thirds of the explained variance), whereas the contribution of the soil type was fairly low (less than one-tenth), suggesting that the contrasting soil microbial communities play only a minor role in regulating decomposition rates. Although the results on PE showed that we overestimated litter-derived CO2 fluxes, litter-microbe interactions contributed significantly to the unexplained variance observed in carbon mineralization models. The magnitudes of FB and HFA were relatively similar, but the directions of these mechanisms were sometimes opposite depending on the litter and soil types. FB and HFA estimates calculated on parietal sugar mass loss were positively

  7. Double decomposition: decomposing the variance in subcomponents of male extra-pair reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Losdat, Sylvain; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M

    2015-09-01

    1. Extra-pair reproductive success (EPRS) is a key component of male fitness in socially monogamous systems and could cause selection on female extra-pair reproduction if extra-pair offspring (EPO) inherit high value for EPRS from their successful extra-pair fathers. However, EPRS is itself a composite trait that can be fully decomposed into subcomponents of variation, each of which can be further decomposed into genetic and environmental variances. However, such decompositions have not been implemented in wild populations, impeding evolutionary inference. 2. We first show that EPRS can be decomposed into the product of three life-history subcomponents: the number of broods available to a focal male to sire EPO, the male's probability of siring an EPO in an available brood and the number of offspring in available broods. This decomposition of EPRS facilitates estimation from field data because all subcomponents can be quantified from paternity data without need to quantify extra-pair matings. Our decomposition also highlights that the number of available broods, and hence population structure and demography, might contribute substantially to variance in male EPRS and fitness. 3. We then used 20 years of complete genetic paternity and pedigree data from wild song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to partition variance in each of the three subcomponents of EPRS, and thereby estimate their additive genetic variance and heritability conditioned on effects of male coefficient of inbreeding, age and social status. 4. All three subcomponents of EPRS showed some degree of within-male repeatability, reflecting combined permanent environmental and genetic effects. Number of available broods and offspring per brood showed low additive genetic variances. The estimated additive genetic variance in extra-pair siring probability was larger, although the 95% credible interval still converged towards zero. Siring probability also showed inbreeding depression and increased with male age

  8. Are Bulges and Disks Real? Decomposing Spectral Data Cubes Into Their Astrophysical Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrifield, Michael; Tabor, Martha; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Cappellari, Michele; Johnston, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Decomposing galaxies photometrically into bulge and disk components is now a well-established technique, but it remains unclear how distinct and real these components are, and how they relate to each other. To address these questions, we have been developing novel techniques to extract the various structural components from integral field unit (IFU) spectral observations of galaxies, in order to study simultaneously their spectral and spatial properties.As a first approach, by spatially decomposing each wavelength in a spectral data cube, we can discover how much light comes from the separate components as a function of wavelength, and hence derive unprecedentedly high quality spectra of bulge and disk for detailed analysis of their stellar populations.In addition, we have decomposed spectral data cubes by fitting the spectrum at each location with the sum of two components, with the spectral properties left entirely free to fit both kinematic and stellar population properties, subject only to the constraint that the relative flux contributions match those of a conventional bulge-disk decomposition.Initial results applied to MaNGA and other IFU surveys show the power of these techniques when applied to such high quality data. The first method allows us to understand the formation sequence of bulges and disks, with, for example, bulges showing the younger stellar populations in S0 galaxies, implying that this was where the last gasp of star formation occurred. The second technique reveals subtle population gradients within individual components, but also confirms that the decomposition into separate components is a credible procedure, as the resulting bulges and disks have entirely plausible kinematic properties that are in no way imposed by the decomposition.Although our initial application of these decomposition techniques has been to studying bulges and disks in S0 galaxies, the methods have much wider application to the spectral data cubes that MaNGA and other

  9. Preservation and rapid purification of DNA from decomposing human tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Amy; Rahman, Elizabeth; Canela, Cassandra; Gangitano, David; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree

    2016-11-01

    One of the key features to be considered in a mass disaster is victim identification. However, the recovery and identification of human remains are sometimes complicated by harsh environmental conditions, limited facilities, loss of electricity and lack of refrigeration. If human remains cannot be collected, stored, or identified immediately, bodies decompose and DNA degrades making genotyping more difficult and ultimately decreasing DNA profiling success. In order to prevent further DNA damage and degradation after collection, tissue preservatives may be used. The goal of this study was to evaluate three customized (modified TENT, DESS, LST) and two commercial DNA preservatives (RNAlater and DNAgard(®)) on fresh and decomposed human skin and muscle samples stored in hot (35°C) and humid (60-70% relative humidity) conditions for up to three months. Skin and muscle samples were harvested from the thigh of three human cadavers placed outdoors for up to two weeks. In addition, the possibility of purifying DNA directly from the preservative solutions ("free DNA") was investigated in order to eliminate lengthy tissue digestion processes and increase throughput. The efficiency of each preservative was evaluated based on the quantity of DNA recovered from both the "free DNA" in solution and the tissue sample itself in conjunction with the quality and completeness of downstream STR profiles. As expected, DNA quantity and STR success decreased with time of decomposition. However, a marked decrease in DNA quantity and STR quality was observed in all samples after the bodies entered the bloat stage (approximately six days of decomposition in this study). Similar amounts of DNA were retrieved from skin and muscle samples over time, but slightly more complete STR profiles were obtained from muscle tissue. Although higher amounts of DNA were recovered from tissue samples than from the surrounding preservative, the average number of reportable alleles from the "free DNA" was

  10. Diversity and dynamics of the microbial community on decomposing wheat straw during mushroom compost production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Zhong, Yaohua; Yang, Shida; Zhang, Weixin; Xu, Meiqing; Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

    2014-10-01

    The development of communities of three important composting players including actinobacteria, fungi and clostridia was explored during the composting of wheat straw for mushroom production. The results revealed the presence of highly diversified actinobacteria and fungal communities during the composting process. The diversity of the fungal community, however, sharply decreased in the mature compost. Furthermore, an apparent succession of both actinobacteria and fungi with intensive changes in the composition of communities was demonstrated during composting. Notably, cellulolytic actinomycetal and fungal genera represented by Thermopolyspora, Microbispora and Humicola were highly enriched in the mature compost. Analysis of the key cellulolytic genes revealed their prevalence at different composting stages including several novel glycoside hydrolase family 48 exocellulase lineages. The community of cellulolytic microbiota also changed substantially over time. The prevalence of the diversified cellulolytic microorganisms holds the great potential of mining novel lignocellulose decomposing enzymes from this specific ecosystem.

  11. Synthesis of Graphene-Based Sensors and Application on Detecting SF6 Decomposing Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Gui, Yingang

    2017-02-13

    Graphene-based materials have aroused enormous focus on a wide range of engineering fields because of their unique structure. One of the most promising applications is gas adsorption and sensing. In electrical engineering, graphene-based sensors are also employed as detecting devices to estimate the operation status of gas insulated switchgear (GIS). This paper reviews the main synthesis methods of graphene, gas adsorption, and sensing mechanism of its based sensors, as well as their applications in detecting SF6 decomposing products, such as SO2, H2S, SO2F2, and SOF2, in GIS. Both theoretical and experimental researches on gas response of graphene-based sensors to these typical gases are summarized. Finally, the future research trend about graphene synthesis technique and relevant perspective are also given.

  12. The plant cell wall decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, Daniel C.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Baker, Scott E.; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Vries, Ronald P. de; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hä; vard,; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José; L.; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José; A.; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kü; es, Ursula; Hibbett, David S.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hö; gberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Watkinson, Sarah C.

    2011-05-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood?residual lignin contributing up to 30percent of forest soil carbon?and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the ?dry rot? fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota

  13. Molecular identification of fungi found on decomposed human bodies in forensic autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Patrick; Dannaoui, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Felske-Zech, Heike; Birngruber, Christoph G; Dettmeyer, Reinhard B; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2015-07-01

    To investigate which fungi can be found during forensic autopsies, a PubMed literature review was done in regard to fungal growth on decomposed human bodies. Unfortunately, the existing data is limited and not all fungi were identified to the species level. We, therefore, collected skin samples with macroscopically visible fungal growth from 23 autopsy cases in Germany and identified the fungi to the species level by molecular methods. The identified species included Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, which pose an allergenic risk, especially to persons with underlying lung diseases. Because safety standards are lacking, we recommend the use of respiratory protection during exhumations and forensic autopsies, when fungal growth is noted. With regard to the future, a database was set up which could possibly be used as a forensic tool to determine the time of death.

  14. Macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical assessment of gunshot lesions on decomposed pig skin.

    PubMed

    Gibelli, Daniele; Brandone, Alberto; Andreola, Salvatore; Porta, Davide; Giudici, Elena; Grandi, Marco Aurelio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    Very little literature exists on gunshot wounds on decomposed material. In this study, seven pig heads underwent a shooting test. Entrance wounds from the first head underwent neutron activation analysis (NAA) and histological testing immediately after the firing test; the other six heads were exposed to two different environments (open air and soil) and analyzed by radiochemical and histological tests every 15 days. Gunshot wounds in air maintained their morphological characteristics, and those in soil showed severe alteration after 5 weeks. Microscopic testing verified positive results for lead in all gunshot wounds in open air, whereas in most of those in soil lead could not be detected. Radiochemical analysis performed by NAA yielded for all gunshot wounds but one antimony quantities in the range of 0.07-13.89 microg. In conclusion, it may be possible to detect residues of antimony even in degraded tissues.

  15. Tangent linear super-parameterization: attributable, decomposable moist processes for tropical variability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapes, B. E.; Kelly, P.; Song, S.; Hu, I. K.; Kuang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    An economical 10-layer global primitive equation solver is driven by time-independent forcing terms, derived from a training process, to produce a realisting eddying basic state with a tracer q trained to act like water vapor mixing ratio. Within this basic state, linearized anomaly moist physics in the column are applied in the form of a 20x20 matrix. The control matrix was derived from the results of Kuang (2010, 2012) who fitted a linear response function from a cloud resolving model in a state of deep convecting equilibrium. By editing this matrix in physical space and eigenspace, scaling and clipping its action, and optionally adding terms for processes that do not conserve moist statice energy (radiation, surface fluxes), we can decompose and explain the model's diverse moist process coupled variability. Recitified effects of this variability on the general circulation and climate, even in strictly zero-mean centered anomaly physic cases, also are sometimes surprising.

  16. Decomposing the causes of inequalities in health care use: a micro-simulations approach.

    PubMed

    Huber, Hélène

    2008-12-01

    We propose an innovative method for the decomposition of factors associated with inequalities in the use of health care. We analyze individual data and make use of micro-simulations to evaluate the effect of heterogeneity of individual behaviors on inequality in access to care. Our study employs methods that, unlike earlier work, permits evaluation of heterogeneity of individual behaviors. We provide an application of this method by decomposing inequality of health care use in France in 1998. We show that half of the inequity in access to care is due to the heterogeneity of behaviors relative to the rank of individuals in the income distribution. This approach reconciles Oaxaca-like decompositions of inequality, focused on outcome gaps, with analyses involving decompositions of inequality by factors, focused on inequity indices.

  17. The applications of a higher-dimensional Lie algebra and its decomposed subalgebras.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhang; Zhang, Yufeng

    2009-01-15

    With the help of invertible linear transformations and the known Lie algebras, a higher-dimensional 6 x 6 matrix Lie algebra smu(6) is constructed. It follows a type of new loop algebra is presented. By using a (2 + 1)-dimensional partial-differential equation hierarchy we obtain the integrable coupling of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KN integrable hierarchy, then its corresponding Hamiltonian structure is worked out by employing the quadratic-form identity. Furthermore, a higher-dimensional Lie algebra denoted by E, is given by decomposing the Lie algebra smu(6), then a discrete lattice integrable coupling system is produced. A remarkable feature of the Lie algebras smu(6) and E is used to directly construct integrable couplings.

  18. Predicting the Knudsen paradox in long capillaries by decomposing the flow into ballistic and collision parts.

    PubMed

    Tatsios, Giorgos; Stefanov, Stefan K; Valougeorgis, Dimitris

    2015-06-01

    The well-known Knudsen paradox observed in pressure driven rarefied gas flows through long capillaries is quantitatively explored by decomposing the particle distribution function into its ballistic and collision parts. The classical channel, tube, and duct Poiseuille flows are considered. The solution is obtained by a typical direct simulation Monte Carlo algorithm supplemented by a suitable particle decomposition indexation process. It is computationally confirmed that in the free-molecular and early transition regimes the reduction rate of the ballistic flow is larger than the increase rate of the collision flow deducing the Knudsen minimum of the overall flow. This description interprets in a precise, quantitative manner the appearance of the Knudsen minimum and verifies previously reported qualitative physical arguments.

  19. Predicting the Knudsen paradox in long capillaries by decomposing the flow into ballistic and collision parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsios, Giorgos; Stefanov, Stefan K.; Valougeorgis, Dimitris

    2015-06-01

    The well-known Knudsen paradox observed in pressure driven rarefied gas flows through long capillaries is quantitatively explored by decomposing the particle distribution function into its ballistic and collision parts. The classical channel, tube, and duct Poiseuille flows are considered. The solution is obtained by a typical direct simulation Monte Carlo algorithm supplemented by a suitable particle decomposition indexation process. It is computationally confirmed that in the free-molecular and early transition regimes the reduction rate of the ballistic flow is larger than the increase rate of the collision flow deducing the Knudsen minimum of the overall flow. This description interprets in a precise, quantitative manner the appearance of the Knudsen minimum and verifies previously reported qualitative physical arguments.

  20. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research.

  1. The Microstructure of Action Perception in Infancy: Decomposing the Temporal Structure of Social Information Processing.

    PubMed

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Daum, Moritz M

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we review recent evidence of infants' early competence in perceiving and interpreting the actions of others. We present a theoretical model that decomposes the timeline of action perception into a series of distinct processes that occur in a particular order. Once an agent is detected, covert attention can be allocated to the future state of the agent (priming), which may lead to overt gaze shifts that predict goals (prediction). Once these goals are achieved, the consequence of the agents' actions and the manner in which the actions were performed can be evaluated (evaluation). We propose that all of these processes have unique requirements, both in terms of timing and cognitive resources. To understand more fully the rich social world of infants, we need to pay more attention to the temporal structure of social perception and ask what information is available to infants and how this changes over time.

  2. A spectral analysis of the domain decomposed Monte Carlo method for linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, S. R.; Wilson, P. P. H.; Evans, T. M.

    2013-07-01

    The domain decomposed behavior of the adjoint Neumann-Ulam Monte Carlo method for solving linear systems is analyzed using the spectral properties of the linear operator. Relationships for the average length of the adjoint random walks, a measure of convergence speed and serial performance, are made with respect to the eigenvalues of the linear operator. In addition, relationships for the effective optical thickness of a domain in the decomposition are presented based on the spectral analysis and diffusion theory. Using the effective optical thickness, the Wigner rational approximation and the mean chord approximation are applied to estimate the leakage fraction of stochastic histories from a domain in the decomposition as a measure of parallel performance and potential communication costs. The one-speed, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is used as a model problem to test the models for symmetric operators. In general, the derived approximations show good agreement with measured computational results. (authors)

  3. Synthesis of Graphene-Based Sensors and Application on Detecting SF6 Decomposing Products: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Gui, Yingang

    2017-01-01

    Graphene-based materials have aroused enormous focus on a wide range of engineering fields because of their unique structure. One of the most promising applications is gas adsorption and sensing. In electrical engineering, graphene-based sensors are also employed as detecting devices to estimate the operation status of gas insulated switchgear (GIS). This paper reviews the main synthesis methods of graphene, gas adsorption, and sensing mechanism of its based sensors, as well as their applications in detecting SF6 decomposing products, such as SO2, H2S, SO2F2, and SOF2, in GIS. Both theoretical and experimental researches on gas response of graphene-based sensors to these typical gases are summarized. Finally, the future research trend about graphene synthesis technique and relevant perspective are also given. PMID:28208836

  4. May Ingestion of Leachate from Decomposed Corpses Cause Appendicitis? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Domingues-Ferreira, Maurício; Saddi-Rosa, Pedro; dos Santos, André Luis

    2011-01-01

    The general consensus is that appendicitis is basically provoked by fecaliths or lymphoid hyperplasic obstruction. Several studies based on histological diagnosis have not confirmed this hypothesis. On the contrary, obstruction has been proved in only a minority of cases. Diverse infections by parasites, bacteria, fungus, and noninfective agents have been associated with appendicitis in the medical literature. We describe a firefighter, who ingested a small quantity of leachate from decomposing corpses while working and developed enteritis a few hours later, which lasted several days and evolved to appendicitis. This case raises the possibility that the high quantity of bacteria concentration present in the leachate could have provoked enteritis and the subsequent appendicitis due to a direct effect of the bacteria on the appendix. PMID:21541232

  5. 2+1 flavor lattice QCD with Luscher's Domain-Decomposed HMC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramashi, Yoshinobu

    2006-12-01

    We report on a study of 2+1 flavor lattice QCD with the O(a)-improved Wilson quarks on a 163 × 32 lattice at the lattice spacing 1/a ≈ 2GeV employing Lüscher's domain-decomposed HMC(LDDHMC) algorithm. This is dedicated to a preliminary study for the PACS-CS project which plans to complete the Wilson-clover N f = 2 + 1 program lowering the up-down quark masses close to the physical values as much as possible. We focus on three issues: (i) how light quark masses we can reach with LDDHMC, (ii) efficiency of the algorithm compared with the conventional HMC, (iii) parameter choice for the production runs on PACS-CS.

  6. A Time-scale Decomposed Threshold Regression Downscaling Approach to Forecasting South China Early Summer Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linye; Duan, Wansuo; Li, Yun; Mao, Jiangyu

    2015-04-01

    A time-scale decomposed threshold regression (TSDTR) downscaling approach to forecasting South China early summer rainfall (SCESR) is described by using long-term observed station rainfall data and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Extended Reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST) data. It makes use of two distinct regression downscaling models corresponding to the interannual and interdecadal rainfall variability of SCESR. The two models were developed based on the partial least square (PLS) regression technique linking SCESR to SST modes in preceding months on both interannual and interdecadal timescales. Specially, using the datasets in the calibration period 1915-1984, the variability of SCESR and SST were decomposed into interannual and interdecadal components. On the interannual timescale, a threshold PLS regression model was fitted to interannual components of SCESR and March SST patterns by taking account of the modulation of negative and positive phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). On the interdecadal timescale, a standard PLS regression model was fitted to the relationship between SCESR and preceding November SST patterns. The total rainfall prediction was obtained by the sum of the outputs from both interannual and interdecadal models. Results show that the TSDTR downscaling approach achieved a reasonable skill to predict the observed rainfall in the validation period 1985-2006, compared to other simpler approaches. This study suggests that the TSDTR approach considering different interannual SCESR-SST relationships under the modulation of PDO phases, as well as the interdecadal variability of SCESR associated with SST patterns may provide a new perspective to improve the climate predictions.

  7. Effects of riparian plant diversity loss on aquatic microbial decomposers become more pronounced with increasing time.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Isabel; Duarte, Sofia; Cássio, Fernanda; Pascoal, Cláudia

    2013-11-01

    We examined the potential long-term impacts of riparian plant diversity loss on diversity and activity of aquatic microbial decomposers. Microbial assemblages were obtained in a mixed-forest stream by immersion of mesh bags containing three leaf species (alder, oak and eucalyptus), commonly found in riparian corridors of Iberian streams. Simulation of species loss was done in microcosms by including a set of all leaf species, retrieved from the stream, and non-colonized leaves of three, two or one leaf species. Leaves were renewed every month throughout six months, and microbial inoculum was ensured by a set of colonized leaves from the previous month. Microbial diversity, leaf mass loss and fungal biomass were assessed at the second and sixth months after plant species loss. Molecular diversity of fungi and bacteria, as the total number of operational taxonomic units per leaf diversity treatment, decreased with leaf diversity loss. Fungal biomass tended to decrease linearly with leaf species loss on oak and eucalyptus, suggesting more pronounced effects of leaf diversity on lower quality leaves. Decomposition of alder and eucalyptus leaves was affected by leaf species identity, mainly after longer times following diversity loss. Leaf decomposition of alder decreased when mixed with eucalyptus, while decomposition of eucalyptus decreased in mixtures with oak. Results suggest that the effects of leaf diversity on microbial decomposers depended on leaf species number and also on which species were lost from the system, especially after longer times. This may have implications for the management of riparian forests to maintain stream ecosystem functioning.

  8. Strategizing a Comprehensive Laboratory Protocol to Determine the Decomposability of Soil Organic Matter in Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedel, C.; Ernakovich, J. G.; Harden, J. W.; Natali, S.; Richter, A.; Schuur, E.; Treat, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter decomposition depends on physical, chemical, and biological factors, such as the amount and quality of the organic matter stored, abiotic conditions (such as soil temperature and moisture), microbial community dynamics, and physical protection by soil minerals. Soils store immense amounts of carbon with 1330-1580 Pg of carbon in the permafrost region alone. Increasing temperatures in the Arctic will thaw large amounts of previously frozen organic carbon making it available for decomposition. The rate at which carbon is being released from permafrost soils is crucial for understanding future changes in permafrost carbon storage and carbon flux to the atmosphere. The potential magnitude and form of carbon release (carbon dioxide or methane) from permafrost can be investigated using soil incubation studies. Over the past 20 years, many incubation studies have been published with soils from the permafrost zone and three recent syntheses have summarized current findings from aerobic and anaerobic incubation studies. However, the breadth of the incubation synthesis projects was hampered by incomplete meta-data and the use of different methods. Here, we provide recommendations to improve and standardize future soil incubation studies (which are not limited to permafrost soils) to make individual studies useful for inclusion in syntheses and meta-analyses, which helps to broaden their impact on our understanding of organic matter cycling. Additionally, we identify gaps in the understanding of permafrost carbon decomposability, that, when coupled with emerging knowledge from field observations and experiments, can be implemented in future studies to gain a better overview of the overall decomposability of permafrost carbon.

  9. Antibiotics as a chemical stressor affecting an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Gessner, Mark O; Schulz, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a variety of antibiotic residues may affect the integrity of streams located downstream from wastewater treatment plants. Aquatic communities comprising bacterial and fungal decomposers and invertebrate detritivores (shredders) play an important role in the decomposition of allochthonous leaf litter, which acts as a primary energy source for small running waters. The aim of the present study was to assess whether an antibiotic mixture consisting of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H2O, roxithromycin, and clarithromycin has an effect on such a decomposer-detritivore system. Leaf discs were exposed to these antibiotics (total concentration of 2 or 200 microg/L) for approximately 20 d before offering these discs and corresponding control discs to an amphipod shredder, Gammarus fossarum, in a food choice experiment. Gammarus preferred the leaf discs conditioned in the presence of the antibiotic mixture at 200 microg/L over the control discs (pair-wise t test; p = 0.006). A similar tendency, while not significant, was observed for leaves conditioned with antibiotics at a concentration of 2 microg/L. The number of bacteria associated with leaves did not differ between treatments at either antibiotic concentration (t test; p = 0.57). In contrast, fungal biomass (measured as ergosterol) was significantly higher in the 200 microg/L treatment (t test; p = 0.038), suggesting that the preference of Gammarus may be related to a shift in fungal communities. Overall these results indicate that mixtures of antibiotics may disrupt important ecosystem processes such as organic matter flow in stream ecosystems, although effects are likely to be weak at antibiotic concentrations typical of streams receiving wastewater treatment plant effluents.

  10. Biomass and nutrient concentrations of sporocarps produced by mycorrhizal and decomposer fungi in Abies amabilis stands.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Kristiina A; Edmonds, Robert L; Grier, Charles C

    1981-08-01

    Sporocarps and sclerotia were collected for a one-year period in 23- and 180-year-old Abies amabilis stands in western Washington. All sporocarps were classified and chemically analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. Lactarius sp. and Cortinarius sp. contributed the largest proportion of the total annual epigeous sporocarp production in both stands. Annual epigeous production was 34 kg/ha in the young stand and 27 kg/ha in the mature stand. Hypogeous sporocarp production increased from 1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) to 380 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) with increasing stand age. High sclerotia biomass occurred in the young (2,300 kg/ha) and mature (3,000 kg/ha) stands. Peak sclerotia and epigeous sporocarp biomass in the young stand and epigeous and hypogeous sporocarp biomass in the mature stand coincided with the fall peak of mycorrhizal root biomass.In the young stand, sporocarps produced by decomposer fungi concentrated higher levels of Ca and Mn than those produced by mycorrhizal fungi. In the mature stand, sporocarps of decomposer fungi concentrated higher levels of N, P, Mn, Ca and Fe than sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi. Epigeous and hypogeous sporocarps concentrated higher levels of N, P, and K than sclerotia or mycelium. The highest concentration of N (4.36%), P (0.76%), K (3.22%) and Na (1,678 ppm) occurred in epigeous sporocarps. Highest Mn (740 ppm) and Ca (20,600 ppm) concentrations occurred in mycelium, while highest Mg (1,929 ppm) concentrations were in hypogeous sporocarps and highest Fe (4,153 ppm) concentrations were in sclerotia.

  11. Drivers of inter-year variability of plant production and decomposers across contrasting island ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wardle, David A; Jonsson, Micael; Kalela-Brundin, Maarit; Lagerström, Anna; Bardgett, Richard D; Yeates, Gregor W; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Despite the likely importance of inter-year dynamics of plant production and consumer biota for driving community- and ecosystem-level processes, very few studies have explored how and why these dynamics vary across contrasting ecosystems. We utilized a well-characterized system of 30 lake islands in the boreal forest zone of northern Sweden across which soil fertility and productivity vary considerably, with larger islands being more fertile and productive than smaller ones. In this system we assessed the inter-year dynamics of several measures of plant production and the soil microbial community (primary consumers in the decomposer food web) for each of nine years, and soil microfaunal groups (secondary and tertiary consumers) for each of six of those years. We found that, for measures of plant production and each of the three consumer trophic levels, inter-year dynamics were strongly affected by island size. Further, many variables were strongly affected by island size (and thus bottom-up regulation by soil fertility and resources) in some years, but not in other years, most likely due to inter-year variation in climatic conditions. For each of the plant and microbial variables for which we had nine years of data, we also determined the inter-year coefficient of variation (CV), an inverse measure of stability. We found that CVs of some measures of plant productivity were greater on large islands, whereas those of other measures were greater on smaller islands; CVs of microbial variables were unresponsive to island size. We also found that the effects of island size on the temporal dynamics of some variables were related to inter-year variability of macroclimatic variables. As such, our results show that the inter-year dynamics of both plant productivity and decomposer biota across each of three trophic levels, as well as the inter-year stability of plant productivity, differ greatly across contrasting ecosystems, with potentially important but largely overlooked

  12. Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, B.

    2009-04-01

    Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients. B. Berg, Dipartimento Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Complesso Universitario, Monte San Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy and Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland. Studies of several processes, using climatic gradients do provide new information as compared with studies at e.g. a single site. Decomposition of plant litter in such gradients give response in decomposition rates to natural climate conditions. Thus Scots pine needle litter incubated in a climate gradient with annual average temperature (AVGT) ranging from -0.5 to 6.8oC had a highly significant increase in initial mass-loss rate with R2 = 0.591 (p<0.001) and a 5o increase in temperature doubled the mass-loss rate. As a contrast - needle litter of Norway spruce incubated in the same transect had no significant response to climate and for initial litter a 5o increase increased mass-loss rate c. 6%. For more decomposed Scots pine litter we could see that the effect of temperature on mass-loss rate gradually decreased until it disappeared. Long-term decomposition studies revealed differences in litter decomposition patterns along a gradient, even for the same type of litter. This could be followed by using an asymptotic function that gave, (i) a measure a maximum level of decomposition, (ii) the initial decomposition rate. Over a gradient the calculated maximum level of decomposition decreased with increasing AVGT. Other gradient studies revealed an effect of AVGT on litter chemical composition. Pine needle litter from stands under different climate conditions had nutrient concentrations related to AVGT. Thus N, P, K, and S were positively related to AVGT and Mn negatively, all of them significantly. This information may be used to explain the changing pattern in decomposition over the gradient.

  13. Contrasting patterns of litterfall seasonality and seasonal changes in litter decomposability in a tropical rainforest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, S. A.; Valdez-Ramirez, V.; Congdon, R. A.; Williams, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    The seasonality of litter inputs in forests has important implications for understanding ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. We quantified the drivers of seasonality in litterfall and leaf decomposability using plots throughout the Australian wet tropical region. Litter fell mostly in the summer (wet, warm) months in the region, but other peaks occurred throughout the year. Litterfall seasonality was modelled well with the level of deciduousness of the site (plots with more deciduous species had lower seasonality than evergreen plots), temperature (higher seasonality in the uplands), disturbance (lower seasonality with more early secondary species) and soil fertility (higher seasonality with higher N : P/P limitation) (SL total litterfall model 1 = deciduousness + soil N : P + early secondary sp.: r2 = 0.63, n = 30; model 2 = temperature + early secondary sp. + soil N : P: r2 = 0.54, n = 30; SL leaf = temperature + early secondary sp. + rainfall seasonality: r2 = 0.39, n = 30). Leaf litter decomposability was lower in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by higher phenolic concentrations in the dry, with the difference exacerbated particularly by lower dry season moisture. Our results are contrary to the global trend for tropical rainforests; in that seasonality of litterfall input was generally higher in wetter, cooler, evergreen forests, compared to generally drier, warmer, semi-deciduous sites that had more uniform monthly inputs. We consider this due to more diverse litter shedding patterns in semi-deciduous and raingreen rainforest sites, and an important consideration for ecosystem modellers. Seasonal changes in litter quality are likely to have impacts on decomposition and biogeochemical cycles in these forests due to the litter that falls in the dry season being more recalcitrant to decay.

  14. Contrasting patterns of litterfall seasonality and seasonal changes in litter decomposability in a tropical rainforest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, S. A.; Valdez-Ramirez, V.; Congdon, R. A.; Williams, S. E.

    2014-06-01

    The seasonality of litter inputs in forests has important implications for understanding ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. We quantified the drivers of seasonality in litterfall and leaf decomposability, using plots throughout the Australian wet tropical region. Litter fell mostly in the summer (wet, warm) months in the region, but other peaks occurred throughout the year. Litterfall seasonality was modelled well with the level of deciduousness of the site (plots with more deciduous species had lower seasonality than evergreen plots), temperature (higher seasonality in the uplands), disturbance (lower seasonality with more early secondary species) and soil fertility (higher seasonality with higher N : P/P limitation) (SL total litterfall model 1 = deciduousness + soil N : P + early secondary sp: r2 = 0.63, n = 30 plots; model 2 = temperature + early secondary sp. + soil N : P: r2 = 0.54, n = 30; SL leaf = temperature + early secondary sp. + rainfall seasonality: r2 = 0.39, n = 30). Leaf litter decomposability was lower in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by higher phenolic concentrations in the dry, with the difference exacerbated particularly by lower dry season moisture. Our results are contrary to the global trend for tropical rainforests; in that seasonality of litterfall inputs were generally higher in wetter, cooler, evergreen forests, compared to generally drier, warmer, semi-deciduous sites that had more uniform monthly inputs. We consider this due to more diverse litter shedding patterns in semi-deciduous and raingreen rainforest sites, and an important consideration for ecosystem modellers. Seasonal changes in litter quality are likely to have impacts on decomposition and biogeochemical cycles in these forests due to the litter that falls in the dry being more recalcitrant to decay.

  15. A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Fukui; Isao Minatsuki; Kazuo Ishino

    2006-07-01

    The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is very corrosive due to a sulfuric acid atmosphere with high temperature and high pressure. In the IS process, a sulfuric acid decomposer is the key component which performs evaporating of sulfuric acid from liquid to gas and disassembling to SO{sub 2} gas. SiC was selected as ceramic material to apply for the sulfuric acid decomposer and a new type of binding material was also developed for SiC junction. This technology is expected to wide application not only for a sulfuric acid decomposer but also for various type components in this process. Process parameters were provided as design condition for the decomposer. The configuration of the sulfuric acid decomposer was studied, and a cylindrical tubes assembling type was selected. The advantage of this type is applicable for various type of components in the IS process due to manufacturing with using only simple shape part. A sulfuric acid decomposer was divided into two regions of the liquid and the gaseous phase of sulfuric acid. The thermal structural integrity analysis was studied for the liquid phase part. From the result of this analysis, it was investigated that the stress was below the strength of the breakdown probability 1/100,000 at any position, base material or junction part. The prototype model was manufactured, which was a ceramic portion in the liquid phase part, comparatively complicated configuration, of a sulfuric acid decomposer. The size of model was about 1.9 m in height, 1.0 m in width. Thirty-six cylinders including inlet and outlet nozzles were combined and each part article was joined using the new binder

  16. A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minatsuki, Isao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Ishino, Kazuo

    The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is very corrosive due to a sulfuric acid atmosphere with high temperature and high pressure. In the IS process, a sulfuric acid decomposer is the key component which performs evaporating of sulfuric acid from liquid to gas and disassembling to SO2 gas. SiC was selected as ceramic material to apply for the sulfuric acid decomposer and a new type of binding material was also developed for SiC junction. This technology is expected to wide application not only for a sulfuric acid decomposer but also for various type components in this process. Process parameters were provided as design condition for the decomposer. The configuration of the sulfuric acid decomposer was studied, and a cylindrical tubes assembling type was selected. The advantage of this type is applicable for various type of components in the IS process due to manufacturing with using only simple shape part. A sulfuric acid decomposer was divided into two regions of the liquid and the gaseous phase of sulfuric acid. The thermal structural integrity analysis was studied for the liquid phase part. From the result of this analysis, it was investigated that the stress was below the strength of the breakdown probability 1/100,000 at any position, base material or junction part. The prototype model was manufactured, which was a ceramic portion in the liquid phase part, comparatively complicated configuration, of a sulfuric acid decomposer. The size of model was about 1.9m in height, 1.0m in width. Thirty-six cylinders including inlet and outlet nozzles were combined and each part article was joined using the new binder (slurry

  17. Carbon transferred from living to decomposing in the late April 2011 tornado outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C. J.; Cannon, J. B.; Hepinstall-Cymerman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Rare but extreme climatic events are difficult to study but likely have major impacts on the carbon cycle when they occur. Recent research has begun to reveal the carbon footprint of major hurricanes, but the impact of other types of wind disturbances remains unexplored. The late April 2011 tornado outbreak across the Southeastern U.S. was one of the largest in history. We have conducted detailed analyses of one long-track (64 km) tornado across northern Georgia, whose damage track was almost entirely in forest. This tornado, rated an EF-3, damaged a total of 4492.8 ha out of 12,875 ha. Using a supervised classification of aerial imagery, we quantified the forest area that experienced different severities of wind damage; the great majority of the damage was light (54.6% of the tornado track lost < 20% of standing basal area), and only ~ 1% of the track experienced > 80% basal area loss. We subsequently estimated the carbon transferred from living to decomposing from this one tornado track to be 0.212 Tg. We scaled the proportion of forest area experiencing different severities of damage to the entire outbreak (310 tornado segments surveyed by NWS teams), and used Google Earth imagery to calculate the linear length of forest within all of the late April 2011 tornado tracks. The outbreak tornadoes created 2691 km of linear damage track through forest (total track length through all land use types was much greater). Forested path length was converted to forest area using estimates of damage path width from NWS damage surveys, yielding an estimated total forest damage area of 123,434 ha for the outbreak. Assuming a similar distribution of damage severities to that seen in the north GA tornado track, we estimated the total area impacted at different severities. Finally, the areas experiencing these severities were converted to biomass using US Forest Service FIA data on county-by-county standing forest biomass, and then converted to carbon. Summing across all 310

  18. Particle Communication and Domain Neighbor Coupling: Scalable Domain Decomposed Algorithms for Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M. J.; Brantley, P. S.

    2015-01-20

    In order to run Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on new supercomputers with hundreds of thousands or millions of processors, care must be taken to implement scalable algorithms. This means that the algorithms must continue to perform well as the processor count increases. In this paper, we examine the scalability of:(1) globally resolving the particle locations on the correct processor, (2) deciding that particle streaming communication has finished, and (3) efficiently coupling neighbor domains together with different replication levels. We have run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on up to 221 = 2,097,152 MPI processes on the IBM BG/Q Sequoia supercomputer and observed scalable results that agree with our theoretical predictions. These calculations were carefully constructed to have the same amount of work on every processor, i.e. the calculation is already load balanced. We also examine load imbalanced calculations where each domain’s replication level is proportional to its particle workload. In this case we show how to efficiently couple together adjacent domains to maintain within workgroup load balance and minimize memory usage.

  19. Decomposing time series data by a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm with temporally constrained coefficients.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Vincent C K; Devarajan, Karthik; Severini, Giacomo; Turolla, Andrea; Bonato, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    The non-negative matrix factorization algorithm (NMF) decomposes a data matrix into a set of non-negative basis vectors, each scaled by a coefficient. In its original formulation, the NMF assumes the data samples and dimensions to be independently distributed, making it a less-than-ideal algorithm for the analysis of time series data with temporal correlations. Here, we seek to derive an NMF that accounts for temporal dependencies in the data by explicitly incorporating a very simple temporal constraint for the coefficients into the NMF update rules. We applied the modified algorithm to 2 multi-dimensional electromyographic data sets collected from the human upper-limb to identify muscle synergies. We found that because it reduced the number of free parameters in the model, our modified NMF made it possible to use the Akaike Information Criterion to objectively identify a model order (i.e., the number of muscle synergies composing the data) that is more functionally interpretable, and closer to the numbers previously determined using ad hoc measures.

  20. Effects of fungicides on decomposer communities and litter decomposition in vineyard streams.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Diego; Voss, Katharina; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2015-11-15

    Large amounts of fungicides are applied globally and partly enter freshwater ecosystems. A few laboratory studies examined their effects on decomposer communities and the ecosystem process of litter decomposition (LD), whereas the field situation remains largely unknown. We conducted a field study with 17 stream sites in a German vineyard area where fungicides represent the dominant pest control agent. Passive samplers were used to monitor 15 fungicides and 4 insecticides in streams and their toxicity was described using the toxic unit approach, whereas sediment samples were taken to characterise total copper concentrations. Microbial and leaf-shredding invertebrate community composition and related LD rates were assessed at each site. The structure of microbial and shredder communities as well as fungal biomass changed along the fungicide toxicity gradient. The changes in microbial endpoints were associated with a reduction of microbial LD rate of up to 40% in polluted streams. By contrast, neither the invertebrate LD rate nor in-situ measured gammarid feeding rates correlated with fungicide toxicity, but both were negatively associated with sediment copper concentrations. A subsequent laboratory experiment employing field fungicide concentrations suggested that the microbial community changes are causal. Overall, our results suggest that fungicides can affect LD under field conditions.

  1. A decomposable silica-based antibacterial coating for percutaneous titanium implant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Xiangwei; Sun, Guanyang; Li, Dehua; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    Although percutaneous titanium implants have become one of the best choices as retainers in the facial defects, peri-implantitis still occurs at a significant rate. This unwanted complication occurs due to adhesion of bacteria and subsequent biofilm formation. To solve this problem, we have developed a novel antibiotic nanodelivery system based on self-decomposable silica nanoparticles. In this study, silica-gentamycin (SG) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated using an innovative one-pot solution. The nanoparticles were incorporated within a gelatin matrix and cross-linked on microarc-oxidized titanium. To characterize the SG nanoparticles, their particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, in vitro drug release, and decomposition process were sequentially evaluated. The antibacterial properties against the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, including bacterial viability, antibacterial rate, and bacteria morphology, were analyzed using SG-loaded titanium specimens. Any possible influence of released gentamycin on the viability of human fibroblasts, which are the main component of soft tissues, was investigated. SG nanoparticles from the antibacterial titanium coating continuously released gentamycin and inhibited S. aureus growth. In vitro investigation showed that the obtained nanodelivery system has good biocompatibility. Therefore, this design can be further investigated as a method to prevent infection around percutaneous implants.

  2. Photo-decomposable Organic Nanoparticles for Combined Tumor Optical Imaging and Multiple Phototherapies

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Wenjun; Kim, Hyungjun; Gujrati, Vipul; Kim, Jin Yong; Jon, Hyeongsu; Lee, Yonghyun; Choi, Minsuk; Kim, Jinjoo; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Dong Yun; Kang, Sukmo; Jon, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    Combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with photothermal therapy (PTT) has achieved significantly improved therapeutic efficacy compared to a single phototherapy modality. However, most nanomaterials used for combined PDT/PTT are made of non-biodegradable materials (e.g., gold nanorods, carbon nanotubes, and graphenes) and may remain intact in the body for long time, raising concerns over their potential long-term toxicity. Here we report a new combined PDT/PTT nanomedicine, designated SP3NPs, that exhibit photo-decomposable, photodynamic and photothermal properties. SP3NPs were prepared by self-assembly of PEGylated cypate, comprising FDA-approved PEG and an ICG derivative. We confirmed the ability of SP3NPs to generate both singlet oxygen for a photodynamic effect and heat for photothermal therapy in response to NIR laser irradiation in vitro. Also, the unique ability of SP3NPs to undergo irreversible decomposition upon NIR laser irradiation was demonstrated. Further our experimental results demonstrated that SP3NPs strongly accumulated in tumor tissue owing to their highly PEGylated surface and relatively small size (~60 nm), offering subsequent imaging-guided combined PDT/PTT treatment that resulted in tumor eradication and prolonged survival of mice. Taken together, our SP3NPs described here may represent a novel and facile approach for next-generation theranostics with great promise for translation into clinical practice in the future. PMID:27877241

  3. Cellulose utilization in forest litter and soil: identification of bacterial and fungal decomposers.

    PubMed

    Stursová, Martina; Zifčáková, Lucia; Leigh, Mary Beth; Burgess, Robert; Baldrian, Petr

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter decomposition in the globally widespread coniferous forests has an important role in the carbon cycle, and cellulose decomposition is especially important in this respect because cellulose is the most abundant polysaccharide in plant litter. Cellulose decomposition was 10 times faster in the fungi-dominated litter of Picea abies forest than in the bacteria-dominated soil. In the soil, the added (13)C-labelled cellulose was the main source of microbial respiration and was preferentially accumulated in the fungal biomass and cellulose induced fungal proliferation. In contrast, in the litter, bacterial biomass showed higher labelling after (13)C-cellulose addition and bacterial biomass increased. While 80% of the total community was represented by 104-106 bacterial and 33-59 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 80% of the cellulolytic communities of bacteria and fungi were only composed of 8-18 highly abundant OTUs. Both the total and (13)C-labelled communities differed substantially between the litter and soil. Cellulolytic bacteria in the acidic topsoil included Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria, whereas these typically found in neutral soils were absent. Most fungal cellulose decomposers belonged to Ascomycota; cellulolytic Basidiomycota were mainly represented by the yeasts Trichosporon and Cryptococcus. Several bacteria and fungi demonstrated here to derive their carbon from cellulose were previously not recognized as cellulolytic.

  4. The potential and limits of termites (Isoptera) as decomposers of waste paper products.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Michael; Lee, Chow-Yang; Lacey, Michael J; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Tsunoda, Kunio

    2011-02-01

    Termites (Isoptera) have often been proposed as decomposers oflignocellulosic waste, such as paper products, while termite biomass could be harvested for food supplements. Groups of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) were kept for 4 and 8 wk, respectively, in the laboratory and given up to 10 different types of paper as their food source. Paper consumption, survival, caste composition, and lipid content were recorded. Corrugated cardboard was by far the most consumed paper product, although survival on it was not necessarily favorable. In R. speratus, lipid reserves and neotenic numbers were quite high, but no breeding occurred. Cardboard may be the "junk food" equivalent for termites. Within the tested period, termites did not perform well on paper products that form the bulk of waste paper--corrugated cardboard, newsprint, and pamphlets and magazines. On all paper products (except recycled office paper), neotenic reproductives were formed, but larvae were observed only on kraft pulp and tissue paper. That all waste paper products contain lignocellulosic fibers does not automatically make them suitable for decomposition by termites. Each paper product has to be assessed on its own merit to see whether termites can reproduce on this diet, if it were to be a candidate for sustainable "termidegradation" and termite biomass production.

  5. A spectral analysis of the domain decomposed Monte Carlo method for linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Stuart R.; Evans, Thomas M.; Wilson, Paul P. H.

    2015-09-08

    The domain decomposed behavior of the adjoint Neumann-Ulam Monte Carlo method for solving linear systems is analyzed using the spectral properties of the linear oper- ator. Relationships for the average length of the adjoint random walks, a measure of convergence speed and serial performance, are made with respect to the eigenvalues of the linear operator. In addition, relationships for the effective optical thickness of a domain in the decomposition are presented based on the spectral analysis and diffusion theory. Using the effective optical thickness, the Wigner rational approxi- mation and the mean chord approximation are applied to estimate the leakage frac- tion of random walks from a domain in the decomposition as a measure of parallel performance and potential communication costs. The one-speed, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is used as a model problem in numerical experiments to test the models for symmetric operators with spectral qualities similar to light water reactor problems. We find, in general, the derived approximations show good agreement with random walk lengths and leakage fractions computed by the numerical experiments.

  6. Decomposer animal communities in forest soil along heavy metal pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Haimi, J; Siira-Pietikäinen, A

    1996-03-01

    Responses of soil decomposer animals to heavy metal contamination and to concomitant changes in organic matter quality and quantity and in soil microbial biomasses have been studied along a pollution gradient from a Cu-Ni smelter. Samples have been taken separately for nematodes, enchytraeids and microarthropods 0.5, 2 and 8 km from the smelter. Special attention has been paid to the changes in the collembolan fauna. The sampling sites have been located in homogeneous Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forests with podsolic soil profiles. In addition, an experiment has been carried out in which intact soil cores have been transferred in mesh baskets between the sites 2 and 8 km from the smelter (control samples have been transferred within the sites). Although most soil animals seemed to be quite resistant to direct and indirect effects of heavy metals, results indicate that certain soil animals like enchytraeids can be useful and easy to monitor when the effects of heavy metals on soil decomposition systems are assessed.

  7. Contrasting effects of elevated temperature and invertebrate grazing regulate multispecies interactions between decomposer fungi.

    PubMed

    A'Bear, A Donald; Murray, William; Webb, Rachel; Boddy, Lynne; Jones, T Hefin

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on species interactions and ecosystem processes is among the primary aims of community ecologists. The composition of saprotrophic fungal communities is a consequence of competitive mycelial interactions, and a major determinant of woodland decomposition and nutrient cycling rates. Elevation of atmospheric temperature is predicted to drive changes in fungal community development. Top-down regulation of mycelial growth is an important determinant of, and moderator of temperature-driven changes to, two-species interaction outcomes. This study explores the interactive effects of a 4 °C temperature increase and soil invertebrate (collembola or woodlice) grazing on multispecies interactions between cord-forming basidiomycete fungi emerging from colonised beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks. The fungal dominance hierarchy at ambient temperature (16 °C; Phanerochaete velutina > Resinicium bicolor > Hypholoma fasciculare) was altered by elevated temperature (20 °C; R. bicolor > P. velutina > H. fasciculare) in ungrazed systems. Warming promoted the competitive ability of the fungal species (R. bicolor) that was preferentially grazed by all invertebrate species. As a consequence, grazing prevented the effect of temperature on fungal community development and maintained a multispecies assemblage. Decomposition of fungal-colonised wood was stimulated by warming, with implications for increased CO2 efflux from woodland soil. Analogous to aboveground plant communities, increasing complexity of biotic and abiotic interactions appears to be important in buffering climate change effects on soil decomposers.

  8. Modelling soil nitrogen: the MAGIC model with nitrogen retention linked to carbon turnover using decomposer dynamics.

    PubMed

    Oulehle, F; Cosby, B J; Wright, R F; Hruška, J; Kopáček, J; Krám, P; Evans, C D; Moldan, F

    2012-06-01

    We present a new formulation of the acidification model MAGIC that uses decomposer dynamics to link nitrogen (N) cycling to carbon (C) turnover in soils. The new model is evaluated by application to 15-30 years of water chemistry data at three coniferous-forested sites in the Czech Republic where deposition of sulphur (S) and N have decreased by >80% and 40%, respectively. Sulphate concentrations in waters have declined commensurately with S deposition, but nitrate concentrations have shown much larger decreases relative to N deposition. This behaviour is inconsistent with most conceptual models of N saturation, and with earlier versions of MAGIC which assume N retention to be a first-order function of N deposition and/or controlled by the soil C/N ratio. In comparison with earlier versions, the new formulation more correctly simulates observed short-term changes in nitrate leaching, as well as long-term retention of N in soils. The model suggests that, despite recent deposition reductions and recovery, progressive N saturation will lead to increased future nitrate leaching, ecosystem eutrophication and re-acidification.

  9. Responses of microbial activity and decomposer organisms to contamination in microcosms containing coniferous forest soil.

    PubMed

    Salminen, J; Liiri, M; Haimi, J

    2002-09-01

    Soil respiration from microcosms contaminated with pentachlorophenol, 2-ethanolhexanoate, creosote, CuSO4, and benomyl was measured in order to evaluate usefulness of soil microcosms and microbial respiration rate monitoring as a toxicity test in soils with high organic matter content. Coniferous forest soil and its organisms were used as test objects. In addition, how a short-term low temperature period including frost affects respiration dynamics in stressed soils was studied, i.e., whether contaminants reduce resistance of the community to other (also natural) stresses. In addition, at the end of the experiment, effects of contaminants on faunal and microbial community structures were analyzed. Soil respiration measurements from the microcosms appeared to be a sensitive parameter for testing community-level effects of chemicals in the soil with high organic matter content. An 84-day exposure had acute effects, long-term effects, delaying effects, and total recovery of community respiration. Direct negative and indirect positive effects of chemical contamination on the community of soil organisms were found. Responses to contamination of soil respiration rate and structure of the soil community were parallel. Addition of pentachlorophenol, 2-ethanolhexane, and Cu into the soil reduced frost resistance of the decomposer community. It was concluded that soil respiration monitoring of artificially contaminated soil microcosms seems to be a useful tool for testing community-level toxic effects of chemicals.

  10. A decomposable silica-based antibacterial coating for percutaneous titanium implant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Xiangwei; Sun, Guanyang; Li, Dehua; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    Although percutaneous titanium implants have become one of the best choices as retainers in the facial defects, peri-implantitis still occurs at a significant rate. This unwanted complication occurs due to adhesion of bacteria and subsequent biofilm formation. To solve this problem, we have developed a novel antibiotic nanodelivery system based on self-decomposable silica nanoparticles. In this study, silica-gentamycin (SG) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated using an innovative one-pot solution. The nanoparticles were incorporated within a gelatin matrix and cross-linked on microarc-oxidized titanium. To characterize the SG nanoparticles, their particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, in vitro drug release, and decomposition process were sequentially evaluated. The antibacterial properties against the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, including bacterial viability, antibacterial rate, and bacteria morphology, were analyzed using SG-loaded titanium specimens. Any possible influence of released gentamycin on the viability of human fibroblasts, which are the main component of soft tissues, was investigated. SG nanoparticles from the antibacterial titanium coating continuously released gentamycin and inhibited S. aureus growth. In vitro investigation showed that the obtained nanodelivery system has good biocompatibility. Therefore, this design can be further investigated as a method to prevent infection around percutaneous implants. PMID:28123297

  11. Double loaded self-decomposable SiO₂ nanoparticles for sustained drug release.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Saisai; Zhang, Silu; Ma, Jiang; Fan, Li; Yin, Chun; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-10-21

    Sustained drug release for a long duration is a desired feature of modern drugs. Using double-loaded self-decomposable SiO2 nanoparticles, we demonstrated sustained drug release in a controllable manner. The double loading of the drugs was achieved using two different mechanisms-the first one via a co-growth mechanism, and the second one by absorption. A two-phase sustained drug release was firstly revealed in an in vitro system, and then further demonstrated in mice. After a single intravenous injection, the drug was controllably released from the nanoparticles into blood circulation with a Tmax of about 8 h, afterwards a long lasting release pattern was achieved to maintain drug systemic exposure with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 28 h. We disclosed that the absorbed drug molecules contributed to the initial fast release for quickly reaching the therapeutic level with relatively higher plasma concentrations, while the "grown-in" drugs were responsible for maintaining the therapeutic level via the later controlled slow and sustained release. The present nanoparticle carrier drug configuration and the loading/maintenance release mechanisms provide a promising platform that ensures a prolonged therapeutic effect by controlling drug concentrations within the therapeutic window-a sustained drug delivery system with a great impact on improving the management of chronic diseases.

  12. Peroxynitrite does not decompose to singlet oxygen (1ΔgO2) and nitroxyl (NO−)

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Glaucia R.; Di Mascio, Paolo; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Augusto, Ohara; Briviba, Karlis; Sies, Helmut; Maurer, Patrick; Röthlisberger, Ursula; Herold, Susanna; Koppenol, Willem H.

    2000-01-01

    According to Khan et al. [Khan, A. U., Kovacic, D., Kolbanovskiy, A., Desai, M., Frenkel, K. & Geacintov, N. E. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2984–2989], peroxynitrite (ONOO−) decomposes after protonation to singlet oxygen (1ΔgO2) and singlet oxonitrate (nitroxyl, 1NO−) in high yield. They claimed to have observed nitrosyl hemoglobin from the reaction of NO− with methemoglobin; however, contamination with hydrogen peroxide gave rise to ferryl hemoglobin, the spectrum of which was mistakenly assigned to nitrosyl hemoglobin. We have carried out UV–visible and EPR experiments with methemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide-free peroxynitrite and find that no NO− is formed. With this peroxynitrite preparation, no light emission from singlet oxygen at 1270 nm is observed, nor is singlet oxygen chemically trapped; however, singlet oxygen was trapped when hydrogen peroxide was also present, as previously described [Di Mascio, P., Bechara, E. J. H., Medeiros, M. H. G., Briviba, K. & Sies, H. (1994) FEBS Lett. 355, 287–289]. Quantum mechanical and thermodynamic calculations show that formation of the postulated intermediate, a cyclic form of peroxynitrous acid (trioxazetidine), and the products 1NO− and 1ΔgO2 requires Gibbs energies of ca. +415 kJ⋅mol−1 and ca. +180 kJ⋅mol−1, respectively. Our results show that the results of Khan et al. are best explained by interference from contaminating hydrogen peroxide left from the synthesis of peroxynitrite. PMID:10973492

  13. Profiler - A Fast and Versatile New Program for Decomposing Galaxy Light Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.

    2016-12-01

    I introduce Profiler, a user-friendly program designed to analyse the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. With an intuitive graphical user interface, Profiler can accurately model galaxies of a broad range of morphological types, with various parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat, and Ferrers). In addition to these, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model for disc truncations or anti-truncations, and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: along the disc's major or minor axis. The convolution of (circular or elliptical) models with the point spread function is performed in 2D, and offers a choice between Gaussian, Moffat or a user-provided profile for the point spread function. Profiler is optimised to work with galaxy light profiles obtained from isophotal measurements, which allow for radial gradients in the geometric parameters of the isophotes, and are thus often better at capturing the total light than 2D image-fitting programs. Additionally, the 1D approach is generally less computationally expensive and more stable. I demonstrate Profiler's features by decomposing three case-study galaxies: the cored elliptical galaxy NGC 3348, the nucleated dwarf Seyfert I galaxy Pox 52, and NGC 2549, a double-barred galaxy with an edge-on, truncated disc.

  14. A Study on Electrolytic Corrosion of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes when Decomposing Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, Takeshi; Watanabe, Takeshi; Ootani, Yusuke; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-03-02

    Electrolytic corrosion of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes after applying a high positive potential to decompose organic compounds in aqueous solution was studied. Scanning electron microscopy images, Raman spectra, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy revealed that relatively highly boron-doped domains were primarily corroded and relatively low boron-doped domains remained after electrolysis. The corrosion due to electrolysis was observed especially in aqueous solutions of acetic acid or propionic acid, while it was not observed in other organic compounds such as formic acid, glucose, and methanol. Electron spin resonance measurements after electrolysis in the acetic acid solution revealed the generation of methyl radicals on the BDD electrodes. Here, the possible mechanisms for the corrosion are discussed. Dangling bonds may be formed due to abstraction of OH groups from C-OH functional groups by methyl radicals generated on the surface of the BDD electrodes. As a result, the sp(3) diamond structure would be converted to the sp(2) carbon structure, which can be easily etched. Furthermore, to prevent electrolytic corrosion during electrolysis, both the current density and the pH condition in the aqueous solution were optimized. At low current densities or high pH, the BDD electrodes were stable without electrolytic corrosion even in the acetic acid aqueous solution.

  15. High-throughput nucleotide sequence analysis of diverse bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Hak; Lim, Joung Soo; Khan, Modabber Ahmed; Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Dong Yoon; Lee, Eun Young; Ahn, Hee Kwon

    2015-01-01

    The leachate generated by the decomposition of animal carcass has been implicated as an environmental contaminant surrounding the burial site. High-throughput nucleotide sequencing was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in leachates from the decomposition of pig carcasses. We acquired 51,230 reads from six different samples (1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 14 week-old carcasses) and found that sequences representing the phylum Firmicutes predominated. The diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in the leachate was the highest at 6 weeks, in contrast to those at 2 and 14 weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes was reduced, while the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria increased from 3-6 weeks. The representation of phyla was restored after 14 weeks. However, the community structures between the samples taken at 1-2 and 14 weeks differed at the bacterial classification level. The trend in pH was similar to the changes seen in bacterial communities, indicating that the pH of the leachate could be related to the shift in the microbial community. The results indicate that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses shifted continuously during the study period and might be influenced by the burial site.

  16. A spectral analysis of the domain decomposed Monte Carlo method for linear systems

    DOE PAGES

    Slattery, Stuart R.; Evans, Thomas M.; Wilson, Paul P. H.

    2015-09-08

    The domain decomposed behavior of the adjoint Neumann-Ulam Monte Carlo method for solving linear systems is analyzed using the spectral properties of the linear oper- ator. Relationships for the average length of the adjoint random walks, a measure of convergence speed and serial performance, are made with respect to the eigenvalues of the linear operator. In addition, relationships for the effective optical thickness of a domain in the decomposition are presented based on the spectral analysis and diffusion theory. Using the effective optical thickness, the Wigner rational approxi- mation and the mean chord approximation are applied to estimate the leakagemore » frac- tion of random walks from a domain in the decomposition as a measure of parallel performance and potential communication costs. The one-speed, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is used as a model problem in numerical experiments to test the models for symmetric operators with spectral qualities similar to light water reactor problems. We find, in general, the derived approximations show good agreement with random walk lengths and leakage fractions computed by the numerical experiments.« less

  17. Simulation analysis of LER and dose tradeoffs for EUV resists with photo-decomposable quenchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Suchit; Neureuther, Andrew R.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2013-04-01

    The SuMMIT stochastic simulator has been used to conduct a simulation study of photo-decomposable quencher (PDQ) based EUV resists and performance comparison between PDQ resists and conventional quencher (regQ) resists analyzed from the standpoint of dose and LER metrics. The dose and LER Tradeoffs have been analyzed as a function of base loading, base diffusion lengths and relative deprotection/quenching rates. About 3.5% LER improvements with PDQ has been predicted at a dose of 15 mJ/cm2 with base loaded at 20% of PAG loading, for 25 nm half-pitch line-space patterns. Dose savings of 2 mJ/cm2 and LER improvement of 0.1 nm between regQ and PDQ resists are predicted with a base diffusion length equal to the acid diffusion length of 10 nm, and base loaded at 30% of PAG loading. Dose improvements of 1 mJ/cm2 for equal regQ and PDQ LERs of 3.5 nm is possible at a deprotection rate that is half as fast as the acid/base quenching rate of 10 nm3/s. Improvement in the deprotection gradient is found to be the dominant factor behind lower PDQ LERs, while the difference in deprotection noise between conventional quenchers and PDQs is found to be marginal.

  18. Decomposing the Drivers of Past, Present, and Future Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 500 years, global agricultural area has grown from 2 million km2 (1500) to 15 million km2 (2005), displacing forests and other natural ecosystems in the process (Hurtt et al., 2011). This expansion in area has been driven by changes in population, income, diet, and agricultural productivity. These factors will continue to evolve in the future; however, the effect of these changes on future land use, land cover, and emissions remains uncertain (e.g., Calvin et al., In Press). Additionally, future changes in land depend critically on the implementation of land-based mitigation options, such as bioenergy and afforestation (Wise et al., 2009; Reilly et al., 2012; Popp et al., 2013; Calvin et al., 2014). As all of these factors are uncertain in the future, the future evolution of land use and land cover is also uncertain. This presentation decomposes the drivers of past, present, and future land use change, characterizing the contribution of factors such as population, income, diet, agricultural productivity, and mitigation. In the historical period, we rely on a variety of land-based datasets (e.g., FAO, HYDE). For the future period, we analyze the integrated assessment modeling community's implementation of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs; O'Neill et al., In Press). The SSPs describe five different evolutions of socioeconomic development, varying several factors relevant to land use and land use change.

  19. A phytotoxic active substance in the decomposing litter of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2015-03-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific stands throughout the temperate to tropical Asia. The objective of this study was the investigation of allelopathic property and substances of the decomposing litter of the fern to evaluate the possible involvement of its allelopathy in the domination. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica litter inhibited the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). This result suggests that G. japonica litter contains growth inhibitory substances. The extract was purified by chromatography while monitoring the inhibitory activity, and a growth inhibitory substance was isolated. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by spectral data to be a novel compound, 13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool. This compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and barnyard grass at concentrations ranging from 89.7 to 271 μM for 50% inhibition. In addition, the compound had potent growth inhibitory activity with the soil taken from near the colony. The concentration of the compound in soil under a pure colony of G. japonica was 790 μM, suggesting that the compound may contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this fern.

  20. Proposed classes of morphological autopsy findings for decomposed and skeletal remains in mass death investigations.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra; Lathrop, Sarah; Potter, Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of mass death events, often involving partial or skeletal human remains, requires investigators to condense information on a large number of victims into a single report. Prosecution of war crimes typically requires that victims be categorized according to the injuries sustained. Reports recognizing only the presence or absence of trauma are misleading or misrepresentative. This study introduces a 4 class system for skeletal remains based on morphologic autopsy findings. Each class corresponds to the lethal potential of the trauma or pathologic conditions evident at autopsy, and the certainty with which cause of death can be determined. Data were extracted from 766 autopsy cases involving decomposed or skeletal remains from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator in which cause and manner of death were ruled. Statistically significant associations between morphology class and the cause and manner of death, positive identification, and natural and non-natural deaths were evident in this study. Intraobserver and interobserver tests revealed excellent replicability and reliability in the assignment of morphology classes to individual cases. In addition to its mass death applications, this classification system offers potential research contributions to physical anthropologists and bioarchaeologists studying human populations in antiquity.

  1. Does drought modify the decomposability of grassland species ? An incubation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouskov, B.; Heim, A.; Abiven, S.

    2009-04-01

    Climate projections in Europe predict an increase in length and frequency of droughts within the next decades. This might be particularly an issue in sensitive ecosystems that are considered as carbon sink, like for example alpine grasslands. A variation in moisture content directly affects both litter decomposition and biomass production. Additionally, drought may alsopotentially affect the biochemical quality of plant litter reaching the soil. Under water limiting conditions, significant modifications of plant tissues composition have been observed (for example an increase of the cutin content), which could modify decomposition dynamics of the litter layer. In this study, we followed the decomposition of three grassland species (Poa pratensis L., Lolium multiflorum et Trifolium repens L.) that grew i/ under real climate and ii/ during an artificial drought. These plants were sampled on an experimental site (Chamau, Switzerland) during a three-year drought simulation experiment. The biochemical characteristics of the different plants were estimated by C, N content, water-soluble C, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and lignin CuO oxidation. We followed the microbial community structure before and after the decomposition study using a Biolog system. The decomposition of the organic matter was followed under controlled conditions (23°C, water level regularly adjusted). The decomposition dynamics were measured by CO2 trapping in NaOH. First results show that Trifolium litter that grew under drought decomposes more slowly than one that grew under regular conditions. No significant difference was found for the other species.

  2. High-throughput nucleotide sequence analysis of diverse bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seung Hak; Lim, Joung Soo; Khan, Modabber Ahmed; Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Dong Yoon; Lee, Eun Young; Ahn, Hee Kwon

    2015-01-01

    The leachate generated by the decomposition of animal carcass has been implicated as an environmental contaminant surrounding the burial site. High-throughput nucleotide sequencing was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in leachates from the decomposition of pig carcasses. We acquired 51,230 reads from six different samples (1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 14 week-old carcasses) and found that sequences representing the phylum Firmicutes predominated. The diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in the leachate was the highest at 6 weeks, in contrast to those at 2 and 14 weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes was reduced, while the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria increased from 3–6 weeks. The representation of phyla was restored after 14 weeks. However, the community structures between the samples taken at 1–2 and 14 weeks differed at the bacterial classification level. The trend in pH was similar to the changes seen in bacterial communities, indicating that the pH of the leachate could be related to the shift in the microbial community. The results indicate that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses shifted continuously during the study period and might be influenced by the burial site. PMID:26500442

  3. Understanding E-Learning Adoption among Brazilian Universities: An Application of the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dos Santos, Luiz Miguel Renda; Okazaki, Shintaro

    2013-01-01

    This study sheds light on the organizational dimensions underlying e-learning adoption among Brazilian universities. We propose an organizational e-learning adoption model based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior (TPB). A series of hypotheses are posited with regard to the relationships among the proposed constructs. The model is…

  4. Role of phyllosphere fungi of forest trees in the development of decomposer fungal communities and decomposition processes of leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Osono, T

    2006-08-01

    The ecology of endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungi of forest trees is reviewed with special emphasis on the development of decomposer fungal communities and decomposition processes of leaf litter. A total of 41 genera of phyllosphere fungi have been reported to occur on leaf litter of tree species in 19 genera. The relative proportion of phyllosphere fungi in decomposer fungal communities ranges from 2% to 100%. Phyllosphere fungi generally disappear in the early stages of decomposition, although a few species persist until the late stages. Phyllosphere fungi have the ability to utilize various organic compounds as carbon sources, and the marked decomposing ability is associated with ligninolytic activity. The role of phyllosphere fungi in the decomposition of soluble components during the early stages is relatively small in spite of their frequent occurrence. Recently, the roles of phyllosphere fungi in the decomposition of structural components have been documented with reference to lignin and cellulose decomposition, nutrient dynamics, and accumulation and decomposition of soil organic matter. It is clear from this review that several of the common phyllosphere fungi of forest trees are primarily saprobic, being specifically adapted to colonize and utilize dead host tissue, and that some phyllosphere fungi with marked abilities to decompose litter components play important roles in decomposition of structural components, nutrient dynamics, and soil organic matter accumulation.

  5. Populations of Dalapon-decomposing Bacteria in Soil as Influenced by Additions of Dalapon or Other Carbon Sources

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Wylie D.

    1969-01-01

    The numbers of bacteria capable of decomposing the herbicide dalapon were determined for five soils by the most-probable-number method. Before treatment of the soils with dalapon, the numbers varied from 1,000 to 10,000 cells per g of soil. Incubation of the soils with dalapon resulted in large increases (100-fold) in two of three soils in which dalapon was decomposed rapidly. Lack of increase in numbers in spite of rapid decomposition in the other soil probably indicated breakdown by a chemical process or decomposition by fungi. In the remaining two soils, in which decomposition was slow in one and did not occur in the other, the initial numbers were at the low end of the range and the increase was small on incubation with dalapon. Addition of ground alfalfa or ground corn plant material to a soil did not result in significant increases in the numbers of dalapon-decomposing bacteria, either during or after decomposition of the plant material. Glucose depressed the rate of breakdown of dalapon in the soil and increased dalapon-decomposing Bacillus species rather than Arthrobacter and Agrobacterium species, which were found to increase on incubation with dalapon itself. The most-probable-number method appears to be a valuable tool for pesticide-ecology studies. PMID:5772393

  6. Gas sensitivity and sensing mechanism studies on Au-doped TiO₂ nanotube arrays for detecting SF₆ decomposed components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Yu, Lei; Tie, Jing; Dong, Xingchen

    2014-10-17

    The analysis to SF6 decomposed component gases is an efficient diagnostic approach to detect the partial discharge in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) for the purpose of accessing the operating state of power equipment. This paper applied the Au-doped TiO2 nanotube array sensor (Au-TiO2 NTAs) to detect SF6 decomposed components. The electrochemical constant potential method was adopted in the Au-TiO2 NTAs' fabrication, and a series of experiments were conducted to test the characteristic SF6 decomposed gases for a thorough investigation of sensing performances. The sensing characteristic curves of intrinsic and Au-doped TiO2 NTAs were compared to study the mechanism of the gas sensing response. The results indicated that the doped Au could change the TiO2 nanotube arrays' performances of gas sensing selectivity in SF6 decomposed components, as well as reducing the working temperature of TiO2 NTAs.

  7. Is the brain a decomposable or nondecomposable system?. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Pessoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Evan

    2014-09-01

    Pessoa's review [4] casts new light on a deep and difficult question: is the brain a "decomposable" or "nondecomposable" system [1,5,7]? This question pertains to the functional organization of the brain as a cognitive system. In a decomposable system, each subsystem's operation is determined by the subsystem's intrinsic properties independent of the other subsystems, making the system's organization strongly modular. Modularity decreases depending on how strongly the subsystems interact, especially through feedback and reentrant or recursive processes. If the subsystems are only weakly coupled, such that the causal interactions within a subsystem play a stronger role in determining its operation than do the causal interactions between it and other subsystems, then the system is "nearly decomposable." If the subsystems are strongly coupled, then the functional organization of the system becomes less governed by the intrinsic properties of its subsystems and more governed by the ways the subsystems interact, making the system "minimally decomposable." In a "nondecomposable" system, the coupling is such that the subsystems no longer have clearly separable operations apart from the larger context of their interdependent operation. (Note that such strong coupling can involve weak local connections, as Pessoa discusses in Section 9.1.) The current debate about whether cognitive functions can be localized to specific brain regions [2], or whether cognitive functions need to be mapped onto dynamic networks instantiated in shifting coalitions or assemblies of regions [3,6], can be regarded also as a debate about the extent to which the brain's cognitive organization is decomposable (modular) or nondecomposable (nonmodular).

  8. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management

    PubMed Central

    WILSON, P.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input–output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  9. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P

    2011-08-01

    The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input-output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  10. EEG Signal Decomposition and Improved Spectral Analysis Using Wavelet Transform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    research and medical applications. Wavelet transform (WT) is a new multi-resolution time-frequency analysis method. WT possesses localization feature both... wavelet transform , the EEG signals are successfully decomposed and denoised. In this paper we also use a ’quasi-detrending’ method for classification of EEG

  11. Forest Gaps Alter the Total Phenol Dynamics in Decomposing Litter in an Alpine Fir Forest

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Ni, Xiangyin; He, Jie; Tan, Bo; Hu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The total phenol content in decomposing litter not only acts as a crucial litter quality indicator, but is also closely related to litter humification due to its tight absorption to clay particles. However, limited attention has been focused on the total phenol dynamics in foliar litter in relation to forest gaps. Here, the foliar litter of six representative tree species was incubated on the forest floor from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dynamics of total phenol concentration in the incubated litter was measured from November 2012 to October 2014. Over two-year incubation, 78.22% to 94.06% of total phenols were lost from the foliar litter, but 52.08% to 86.41% of this occurred in the first year. Forest gaps accelerated the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter in the winter, although they inhibited the loss of total phenols during the growing season in the first year. In comparison with the effects of forest gaps, the variations of litter quality among different species were much stronger on the dynamics of total phenols in the second year. Overall, the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter was slightly higher in both the canopy gap and the expanded gap than in the gap center and under the closed canopy. The results suggest that the predicted decline in snow cover resulting from winter warming or vanishing gaps caused by forest regeneration will retard the loss of total phenol content in the foliar litter of alpine forest ecosystems, especially in the first decomposition year. PMID:26849120

  12. Evaluation on the decomposability of tropical forest peat soils after conversion to an oil palm plantation.

    PubMed

    Sangok, Faustina E; Maie, Nagamitsu; Melling, Lulie; Watanabe, Akira

    2017-06-01

    To understand the variations in the decomposability of tropical peat soil following deforestation for an oil palm plantation, a field incubation experiment was conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia. Peat soils collected from three types of primary forest, namely Mixed Peat Swamp (MPS; Gonystylus-Dactylocladus-Neoscrotechinia association), Alan Batu (ABt; Shorea albida-Gonstylus-Strenonurus association), and Alan Bunga (ABg; Shorea albida association), were packed in polyvinyl chloride pipes and installed in an oil palm plantation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from soil were monthly measured for 3years. Environmental variables including soil temperature, soil moisture content, and groundwater table were also monitored. The pH, loss on ignition, and total carbon (C) content were similar among the three soils, while total N content was larger in the MPS than in the ABg soils. Based on (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, C composition of the MPS and ABg soils was characterized by the largest proportion of C present as alkyl C and O-alkyl C, respectively. The C composition of the ABt soil was intermediate between the MPS and ABg soils. The CO2 fluxes from the three soils ranged from 78 to 625mgCm(-2)h(-1) with a negative correlation to groundwater level. The CH4 fluxes ranged from -67 to 653μgCm(-2)h(-1). Both total CO2 and CH4 fluxes were larger in the order ABg>ABt>MPS (P<0.05). Annual rate of peat decomposition as was estimated from cumulative C loss differed up to 2 times, and the rate constant in exponential decay model was 0.033y(-1) for the MPS soil and 0.066y(-1) for the ABg soil. The field incubation results of the three forest peat soils seem to reflect the difference in the labile organic matter content, represented by polysaccharides.

  13. Forest Gaps Alter the Total Phenol Dynamics in Decomposing Litter in an Alpine Fir Forest.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Ni, Xiangyin; He, Jie; Tan, Bo; Hu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The total phenol content in decomposing litter not only acts as a crucial litter quality indicator, but is also closely related to litter humification due to its tight absorption to clay particles. However, limited attention has been focused on the total phenol dynamics in foliar litter in relation to forest gaps. Here, the foliar litter of six representative tree species was incubated on the forest floor from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dynamics of total phenol concentration in the incubated litter was measured from November 2012 to October 2014. Over two-year incubation, 78.22% to 94.06% of total phenols were lost from the foliar litter, but 52.08% to 86.41% of this occurred in the first year. Forest gaps accelerated the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter in the winter, although they inhibited the loss of total phenols during the growing season in the first year. In comparison with the effects of forest gaps, the variations of litter quality among different species were much stronger on the dynamics of total phenols in the second year. Overall, the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter was slightly higher in both the canopy gap and the expanded gap than in the gap center and under the closed canopy. The results suggest that the predicted decline in snow cover resulting from winter warming or vanishing gaps caused by forest regeneration will retard the loss of total phenol content in the foliar litter of alpine forest ecosystems, especially in the first decomposition year.

  14. Time-dependent VOC-profile of decomposed human and animal remains in laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Rosier, E; Loix, S; Develter, W; Van de Voorde, W; Tytgat, J; Cuypers, E

    2016-09-01

    A validated method using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer was used to identify the volatile organic compounds released in decomposed human and animal remains after 9 and 12 months in glass jars in a laboratory environment. This is a follow-up study on a previous report where the first 6 months of decomposition of 6 human and 26 animal remains was investigated. In the first report, out of 452 identified compounds, a combination of 8 compounds was proposed as human and pig specific. The goal of the current study was to investigate if these 8 compounds were still released after 9 and 12 months. The next results were noticed: 287 compounds were identified; only 9 new compounds were detected and 173 were no longer seen. Sulfur-containing compounds were less prevalent as compared to the first month of decomposition. The appearance of nitrogen-containing compounds and alcohols was increasingly evident during the first 6 months, and the same trend was seen in the following 6 months. Esters became less important after 6 months. From the proposed human and pig specific compounds, diethyl disulfide was only detected during the first months of decomposition. Interestingly, the 4 proposed human and pig specific esters, as well as pyridine, 3-methylthio-1-propanol and methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide were still present after 9 and 12 months of decomposition. This means that these 7 human and pig specific markers can be used in the development of training aids for cadaver dogs during the whole decomposition process. Diethyl disulfide can be used in training aids for the first month of decomposition.

  15. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Cobaugh, Kelly L; Schaeffer, Sean M; DeBruyn, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death). Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a) periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b) human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia) and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem), respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance) and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%), with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%). Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem), respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9%) and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional succession

  16. Clostridium algifaecis sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterial species from decomposing algal scum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Fan; Zheng, Hui; Wu, Qing-Long; Yang, Hong; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Two anaerobic bacterial strains, MB9-7(T) and MB9-9, were isolated from decomposing algal scum and were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains MB9-7(T) and MB9-9 are closely related to each other (99.7% similarity) and they are also closely related to Clostridium tyrobutyricum (96.5%). The two strains were Gram-stain positive and rod-shaped. Growth occurred at 20-45 °C, at pH 4.0-8.0 and at NaCl concentrations of up to 2% (w/v). Acid was produced from glucose, xylose and mannose. Products of fermentation in PYG medium were mainly butyrate, acetate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C(14:0) and C(16:0). The cellular polar lipids comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two glycolipids, one phospholipid, one aminophospholipid and two aminolipids. The DNA G+C contents of strain MB9-7(T) and MB9-9 were 27.9 and 28.7 mol%, respectively. These results support the assignment of the new isolates to the genus Clostridium and also distinguish them from other species of the genus Clostridium. Hence, it is proposed that strains MB9-7(T) and MB9-9 represent a novel species of the genus Clostridium, with the suggested name Clostridium algifaecis sp. nov. The type strain is MB9-7(T) ( =CGMCC 1.5188(T) =DSM 28783(T)).

  17. Ecological Dynamics of Two Distinct Viruses Infecting Marine Eukaryotic Decomposer Thraustochytrids (Labyrinthulomycetes, Stramenopiles).

    PubMed

    Takao, Yoshitake; Tomaru, Yuji; Nagasaki, Keizo; Honda, Daiske

    2015-01-01

    Thraustochytrids are cosmopolitan osmotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms that are considered as important decomposers in coastal ecosystems. However, because of a lack of estimation method for each genus or systematic group of them, relatively little is known about their ecology in situ. Previously, we reported two distinct types of virus infecting thraustochytrids (AuRNAV: reported as SssRNAV, and SmDNAV) suggesting they have wide distributions in the host-virus systems of coastal environments. Here we conducted a field survey from 2004 through 2005 to show the fluctuation pattern of thraustochytrids and their viruses in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. During the field survey, we monitored the dynamics of the two types of thraustochytrid-infecting virus: small viruses causing lysis of Aurantiochytrium sp. NIBH N1-27 (identified as AuRNAV) and the large viruses of Sicyoidochytrium minutum NBRC 102975 (similar to SmDNAV in physiology and morphology). Fluctuation patterns of the two distinct types of virus were different from each other. This may reflect the difference in the preference of organic substrates; i.e., it may be likely the host of AuRNAV (Aurantiochytrium sp.) increases utilizing algal dead bodies or feeble cells as the virus shows a large increase in abundance following raphidophyte blooms; whereas, the trophic nutrient supply for S. minutum may primarily depend on other constantly-supplied organic compounds because it did not show any significant change in abundance throughout the survey. Further study concerning the population composition of thraustochytrids and their viruses may demonstrate the microbial ecology (especially concerning the detrital food web) of marine environments.

  18. Microbial decomposer communities are mainly structured by trophic status in circumneutral and alkaline streams.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Sofia; Pascoal, Cláudia; Garabétian, Frédéric; Cássio, Fernanda; Charcosset, Jean-Yves

    2009-10-01

    In streams, the release of nitrogen and phosphorus is reported to affect microbial communities and the ecological processes they govern. Moreover, the type of inorganic nitrogen (NO(3), NO(2), or NH(4)) may differently impact microbial communities. We aimed to identify the environmental factors that structure aquatic microbial communities and drive leaf litter decomposition along a gradient of eutrophication. We selected five circumneutral (Portuguese) and five alkaline (French) streams differing in nutrient concentrations to monitor mass loss of alder leaves, bacterial and fungal diversity by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, fungal biomass and reproduction, and bacterial biomass during 11 weeks of leaf immersion. The concentrations of inorganic nutrients in the stream water ranged from 5 to 300 microg liter(-1) soluble reactive phosphorus, 0.30 to 5.50 mg liter(-1) NO(3)-N, 2 to 103 microg liter(-1) NO(2)-N, and <4 to 7,100 microg liter(-1) NH(4)-N. Species richness was maximum in moderately anthropized (eutrophic) streams but decreased in the most anthropized (hypertrophic) streams. Different species assemblages were found in subsets of streams with different trophic statuses. In both geographic areas, the limiting nutrient, either nitrate or phosphate, stimulated the microbial activity in streams of intermediate trophic status. In the hypertrophic streams, fungal biomass and reproduction were significantly lower, and bacterial biomass dramatically decreased at the site with the highest ammonium concentration. The limiting nutrients that defined the trophic status were the main factor structuring fungal and bacterial communities, whatever the geographic area. A very high ammonium concentration in stream water most probably has negative impacts on microbial decomposer communities.

  19. Litter dynamics in two Sierran mixed conifer forests. II. Nutrient release in decomposing leaf litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    The factors influencing leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release patterns were investigated for 3.6 years in two mixed conifer forests in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The giant sequoia–fir forest was dominated by giant sequoia (Sequoiadendrongiganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.), white fir (Abiesconcolor Lindl. & Gord.), and sugar pine (Pinuslambertiana Dougl.). The fir–pine forest was dominated by white fir, sugar pine, and incense cedar (Calocedrusdecurrens (Torr.) Florin). Initial concentrations of nutrients and percent lignin, cellulose, and acid detergent fiber vary considerably in freshly abscised leaf litter of the studied species. Giant sequoia had the highest concentration of lignin (20.3%) and the lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.52%), while incense cedar had the lowest concentration of lignin (9.6%) and second lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.63%). Long-term (3.6 years) foliage decomposition rates were best correlated with initial lignin/N (r2 = 0.94, p r2 = 0.92, p r2 = 0.80, p < 0.05). Patterns of nutrient release were highly variable. Giant sequoia immobilized N and P, incense cedar immobilized N and to a lesser extent P, while sugar pine immobilized Ca. Strong linear or negative exponential relationships existed between initial concentrations of N, P, K, and Ca and percent original mass remaining of those nutrients after 3.6 years. This suggests efficient retention of these nutrients in the litter layer of these ecosystems. Nitrogen concentrations steadily increase in decomposing leaf litter, effectively reducing the C/N ratios from an initial range of 68–96 to 27–45 after 3.6 years.

  20. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Cobaugh, Kelly L.; Schaeffer, Sean M.; DeBruyn, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death). Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a) periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b) human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia) and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem), respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance) and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%), with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%). Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem), respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9%) and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional succession

  1. Decomposing trends in adult body mass index, obesity, and morbid obesity, 1971-2012.

    PubMed

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell; Wagmiller, Robert L

    2016-10-01

    Trends in adult obesity have been used to motivate key public health policies in the United States. While these analyses provide important insights into the broad historical contours of the obesity epidemic in the U.S., they shed less light on the proximate mechanisms that have generated these changes and that will ultimately determine the long-term course and pace of change in obesity rates. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), Glenn Firebaugh's linear decomposition technique, and Kitagawa's algebraic decomposition method to decompose change in body mass index (BMI), obesity, and morbid obesity from 1971 through 2012 for adults aged 20+. We partitioned change into that attributable to (1) older, fitter cohorts in the population being replaced by newer, less fit cohorts (intercohort change), and (2) cohort members becoming less fit over time (intracohort change). We found that the rise in mean BMI and rates of obesity and morbid obesity was primarily a consequence of intracohort change driven by variation in the demographic and socioeconomic composition and in the diet of the population over time. Obesity and BMI in the population rose largely because of individual increases in weight status that were broadly distributed across age and cohort groups. Cohort replacement reinforced and amplified intracohort change over the study period, leading to rapid increases in mean BMI and obesity. Because intracohort change has been the central force in the increase in BMI and obesity, successful social, dietary, medical, or policy interventions have the potential to quickly slow or reverse the upward trend in weight status. Our results also imply that policy efforts and health interventions should be broadly targeted at all age groups and birth cohorts because increases in obesity have been widely distributed across all ages and generations.

  2. Sensitivity of laccase activity to the fungicide tebuconazole in decomposing litter.

    PubMed

    Artigas, J; Rossi, F; Gerphagnon, M; Mallet, C

    2017-01-31

    The present study investigates the sensitivity of laccase activity to the fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ) in order to seek for new functional toxicity descriptors in aquatic microbial communities associated to decomposing litter. With this aim, we analyzed the sensitivity of laccase from the different microbial components (fungi and bacteria growing separately and in co-existence), as well as that of their corresponding enzyme fractions (cell bound and diffusible), forming microbial communities in Alnus glutinosa leaves. Results show that fungi are pivotal for laccase activity in leaves and that their activity is repressed when they co-exist with bacteria. The sensitivity of laccase activity to the TBZ was only detectable in leaves colonized by fungi separately (Alatospora acuminata populations), but absent in those colonized by bacteria separately and/or mixed fungi plus bacteria. Specifically, the increase of TBZ concentration enhances laccase activity in Alatospora acuminata populations but decreases ergosterol concentration as well as the amount of 18S RNA gene copies. This activity response suggests a detoxification mechanism employed by the fungus in order to reduce TBZ toxicity. Besides, enzyme fractioning showed that laccase activity in the cell bound fraction (76% of the total activity) was sensitive to the fungicide, but not that in the diffusible fraction (24% of total activity). Hence, TBZ would influence laccase activity in the presence of fungal cells but not in enzymes already synthesized in the extracellular space. The present study highlights the importance of the biological complexity level (i. e. population, community, ecosystem) when seeking for appropriate functional ecotoxicity descriptors in aquatic microbial communities.

  3. Decomposing metaphor processing at the cognitive and neural level through functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Valentina; Gentili, Claudio; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bertinetto, Pier Marco; Pietrini, Pietro

    2011-10-10

    Prior neuroimaging studies on metaphor comprehension have tended to focus on the role of the right hemisphere, without reaching consensus and leaving aside the functional architecture of this process. The present work aimed to break down metaphor comprehension into its functional components. The study rationale is two-fold: on the one hand, the large-scale network model as emerging in cognitive neuroscience led us to a consideration of metaphor as supported by a distributed and bilateral network; on the other hand, we based on the accounts of figurative language put forward in pragmatics and cognitive science to postulate a decomposition of such a network into multiple sub-systems. During scanning, participants implicitly processed metaphorical (familiar and unfamiliar) and non-metaphorical passages, while being explicitly involved in an adjective matching task to be performed after reading the target passages. Several regions showed greater activity to metaphors as compared to non-metaphors, including left and right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and anterior cingulate. This pattern of activations, markedly bilateral, can be decomposed into circumscribed functional sub-systems mediating different aspects of metaphor resolution, as foreseen in the pragmatic and cognitive literature: (a) the conceptual/pragmatic machinery in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus, which supports the integration of linguistic material and world knowledge in context; (b) the attentional component in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal areas, which is set to monitor and filter for the relevant aspects of context and for the appropriate meanings; (c) the Theory of Mind system along the right superior temporal sulcus, which deals with the recognition of speakers' communicative intentions and is more extensively activated by unfamiliar metaphors. The results have several implications for the field of neuropragmatics

  4. [EEMD-ICA Applied in Signal Extraction in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zha, Yu-tong; Liu, Guang-da; Zhou, Run-dong; Zhang, Xiao-feng; Niu, Jun-qi; Yu, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Currently, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is widely used in the field of Neuroimaging. To solve the signal-noise frequency spectrum aliasing in non-linear and non-stationary fNIRS characteristic signal extraction, a new joint multi-resolution algorithm, EEMD-ICA, is proposed based on combining Independent Component Analysis with Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposing. After functional brain imaging instrument detected the multi-channel and multi-wavelength NIR optical density signals, EEMD was performed to decompose measurement signals into multiple intrinsic mode function according to the signal frequency component. Then ICA was applied to extract the interest data from IMFs into ICs. Finally, reconstructed signals were obtained by accumulating the ICs set. EEMD-ICA was applied in de-noising Valsalva test signals which were considered as original signals and compared with Empirical Mode Decomposing and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposing to illustrate validity of this algorithm. It is proved that useful information loss during de-noising and invalidity of noise elimination are completely solved by EEMD-ICA. This algorithm is more optimized than other two de-noising methods in error parameters and signal-noise-ratio analysis.

  5. (A)synchronous Availabilities of N and P Regulate the Activity and Structure of the Microbial Decomposer Community.

    PubMed

    Fanin, Nicolas; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Chavez Soria, Paola F; Fromin, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability both control microbial decomposers and litter decomposition. However, these two key nutrients show distinct release patterns from decomposing litter and are unlikely available at the same time in most ecosystems. Little is known about how temporal differences in N and P availability affect decomposers and litter decomposition, which may be particularly critical for tropical rainforests growing on old and nutrient-impoverished soils. Here we used three chemically contrasted leaf litter substrates and cellulose paper as a widely accessible substrate containing no nutrients to test the effects of temporal differences in N and P availability in a microcosm experiment under fully controlled conditions. We measured substrate mass loss, microbial activity (by substrate induced respiration, SIR) as well as microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acids, PLFAs) in the litter and the underlying soil throughout the initial stages of decomposition. We generally found a stronger stimulation of substrate mass loss and microbial respiration, especially for cellulose, with simultaneous NP addition compared to a temporally separated N and P addition. However, litter types with a relatively high N to P availability responded more to initial P than N addition and vice versa. A third litter species showed no response to fertilization regardless of the sequence of addition, likely due to strong C limitation. Microbial community structure in the litter was strongly influenced by the fertilization sequence. In particular, the fungi to bacteria ratio increased following N addition alone, a shift that was reversed with complementary P addition. Opposite to the litter layer microorganisms, the soil microbial community structure was more strongly influenced by the identity of the decomposing substrate than by fertilization treatments, reinforcing the idea that C availability can strongly constrain decomposer communities

  6. (A)synchronous Availabilities of N and P Regulate the Activity and Structure of the Microbial Decomposer Community

    PubMed Central

    Fanin, Nicolas; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Chavez Soria, Paola F.; Fromin, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability both control microbial decomposers and litter decomposition. However, these two key nutrients show distinct release patterns from decomposing litter and are unlikely available at the same time in most ecosystems. Little is known about how temporal differences in N and P availability affect decomposers and litter decomposition, which may be particularly critical for tropical rainforests growing on old and nutrient-impoverished soils. Here we used three chemically contrasted leaf litter substrates and cellulose paper as a widely accessible substrate containing no nutrients to test the effects of temporal differences in N and P availability in a microcosm experiment under fully controlled conditions. We measured substrate mass loss, microbial activity (by substrate induced respiration, SIR) as well as microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acids, PLFAs) in the litter and the underlying soil throughout the initial stages of decomposition. We generally found a stronger stimulation of substrate mass loss and microbial respiration, especially for cellulose, with simultaneous NP addition compared to a temporally separated N and P addition. However, litter types with a relatively high N to P availability responded more to initial P than N addition and vice versa. A third litter species showed no response to fertilization regardless of the sequence of addition, likely due to strong C limitation. Microbial community structure in the litter was strongly influenced by the fertilization sequence. In particular, the fungi to bacteria ratio increased following N addition alone, a shift that was reversed with complementary P addition. Opposite to the litter layer microorganisms, the soil microbial community structure was more strongly influenced by the identity of the decomposing substrate than by fertilization treatments, reinforcing the idea that C availability can strongly constrain decomposer communities

  7. Signal voter

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, Roy L.

    1981-01-01

    A voter for providing a single accurate output signal that is derived from the closest two signal levels of three input signals, each of which signals represents a measurement of the same phenomena. By means of the voting circuit, the signals are first sorted by level of amplitude and then ranked as highest, middle or lowest. The highest or lowest signal that is furthest from the middle signal is rejected, while the other highest or lowest signal is selected for processing. The selected high or low signal is then averaged with the middle signal to provide the output signal.

  8. Signal voter

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.L.

    1981-04-28

    A voter for providing a single accurate output signal that is derived from the closest two signal levels of three input signals , each of which signals represents a measurement of the same phenomena. By means of the voting circuit, the signals are first sorted by level of amplitude and then ranked as highest, middle or lowest. The highest or lowest signal that is furthest from the middle signal is rejected, while the other highest or lowest signal is selected for processing. The selected high or low signal is then averaged with the middle signal to provide the output signal.

  9. Do Nonnative Language Speakers "Chew the Fat" and "Spill the Beans" with Different Brain Hemispheres? Investigating Idiom Decomposability with the Divided Visual Field Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslicka, Anna B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore possible cerebral asymmetries in the processing of decomposable and nondecomposable idioms by fluent nonnative speakers of English. In the study, native language (Polish) and foreign language (English) decomposable and nondecomposable idioms were embedded in ambiguous (neutral) and unambiguous (biasing…

  10. Social dynamics within decomposer communities lead to nitrogen retention and organic matter build-up in soils.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Christina; Franklin, Oskar; Richter, Andreas; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-12-01

    The chemical structure of organic matter has been shown to be only marginally important for its decomposability by microorganisms. The question of why organic matter does accumulate in the face of powerful microbial degraders is thus key for understanding terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling. Here we demonstrate, based on an individual-based microbial community model, that social dynamics among microbes producing extracellular enzymes ('decomposers') and microbes exploiting the catalytic activities of others ('cheaters') regulate organic matter turnover. We show that the presence of cheaters increases nitrogen retention and organic matter build-up by downregulating the ratio of extracellular enzymes to total microbial biomass, allowing nitrogen-rich microbial necromass to accumulate. Moreover, increasing catalytic efficiencies of enzymes are outbalanced by a strong negative feedback on enzyme producers, leading to less enzymes being produced at the community level. Our results thus reveal a possible control mechanism that may buffer soil CO2 emissions in a future climate.

  11. Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2013-11-07

    Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination.

  12. On the utility of the multi-level algorithm for the solution of nearly completely decomposable Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leutenegger, Scott T.; Horton, Graham

    1994-01-01

    Recently the Multi-Level algorithm was introduced as a general purpose solver for the solution of steady state Markov chains. In this paper, we consider the performance of the Multi-Level algorithm for solving Nearly Completely Decomposable (NCD) Markov chains, for which special-purpose iteractive aggregation/disaggregation algorithms such as the Koury-McAllister-Stewart (KMS) method have been developed that can exploit the decomposability of the the Markov chain. We present experimental results indicating that the general-purpose Multi-Level algorithm is competitive, and can be significantly faster than the special-purpose KMS algorithm when Gauss-Seidel and Gaussian Elimination are used for solving the individual blocks.

  13. Converted-waves Imaging Condition for Elastic Reverse-Time Migration with Decomposed Wavefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Choi, H.; Seol, S. J.; Byun, J.

    2015-12-01

    To successfully deal with responses from the elastic earth, imaging techniques need to incorporate the elastic wave equation. Elastic Reverse-Time Migration (ERTM) with separating-while-imaging approach is capable of yielding physically meaningful PP, PS, SP, and SS images from multicomponent data. Even in PP images, ERTM has brought enhancements comparing to those from acoustic RTM because ERTM can handle converted waves. Converted-wave images, core results of ERTM, however, have two major problems related to characteristics of S-waves. First, polarity reversals according to propagation directions of S-waves cause destructive effect to final PS and SP images while each migrated result is stacked over the shots. In addition, non-existent spurious events which are produced by crosscorrelating downgoing S-waves in source wavefields and reflections associated with downgoing P-waves in receiver wavefields lead masking effects over true reflection events in SP and SS images. In this study, we adopt a wavefield decomposition method to solve the polarity problems and derive a new converted-wave imaging condition for SP and SS images to alleviate the generation of spurious events. The acceleration vector wavefield decomposition method used in our ERTM has advantages over the conventional wavefield separation method based on the Helmholtz decomposition because the wavefield decomposition can automatically compensate polarity changes in PS and SP images when the zero-lag crosscorrelation for vector wavefields is applied. To suppress spurious events in SP and SS images, our imaging condition is designed to make images only where S- and converted P-waves from source wavefields are coexisted with decomposed wavefields from receiver wavefields at reflection boundaries. To verify our new imaging condition, we tested our algorithm with OBC (Ocean Bottom Cable) data from elastic Marmousi-II model and compared the migrated images with those from ERTM with the zero

  14. Modelling the dissipation and leaching of two herbicides in decomposing mulch of crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Sohaib; Iqbal, Akhtar; Lafolie, François; Recous, Sylvie; Benoit, Pierre; Garnier, Patricia

    2013-04-01

    greater leaching from mulch than S-metolachlor because of its lower adsorption coefficients to organic mulch. Moreover, simulated results showed a much faster degradation of glyphosate but greater non-extractable residue formation for S-metolachlor. Keywords: Mulch; Pesticides; Transport; Degradation; Modeling; Pastis-mulch References Findeling, A., Garnier, P., Coppens, F., Lafolie, F., Recous, S., 2007. Modelling water, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in soil covered with decomposing mulch. European Journal of Soil Science 58, 196-206. Lashermes, G., Zhang, Y., Houot, S., Barriuso, E., Steyer, J.P., Patureau, D., Garnier, P., 2013. A model coupling organic carbon and organic pollutant dynamics during composting. Journal of Environmental Quality. In Press.

  15. Decomposing risk: landscape structure and wolf behavior generate different predation patterns in two sympatric ungulates.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, Vincenzo; Sand, Hakan; Zimmermann, Barbara; Mattisson, Jenny; Wabakken, Petter; Linnell, John D C

    2013-10-01

    Recolonizing carnivores can have a large impact on the status of wild ungulates, which have often modified their behavior in the absence of predation. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of reestablished predator-prey systems is crucial to predict their potential ecosystem effects. We decomposed the spatial structure of predation by recolonizing wolves (Canis lupus) on two sympatric ungulates, moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in Scandinavia during a 10-year study. We monitored 18 wolves with GPS collars, distributed over 12 territories, and collected records from predation events. By using conditional logistic regression, we assessed the contributions of three main factors, the utilization patterns of each wolf territory, the spatial distribution of both prey species, and fine-scale landscape structure, in determining the spatial structure of moose and roe deer predation risk. The reestablished predator-prey system showed a remarkable spatial variation in kill occurrence at the intra-territorial level, with kill probabilities varying by several orders of magnitude inside the same territory. Variation in predation risk was evident also when a spatially homogeneous probability for a wolf to encounter a prey was simulated. Even inside the same territory, with the same landscape structure, and when exposed to predation by the same wolves, the two prey species experienced an opposite spatial distribution of predation risk. In particular, increased predation risk for moose was associated with open areas, especially clearcuts and young forest stands, whereas risk was lowered for roe deer in the same habitat types. Thus, fine-scale landscape structure can generate contrasting predation risk patterns in sympatric ungulates, so that they can experience large differences in the spatial distribution of risk and refuge areas when exposed to predation by a recolonizing predator. Territories with an earlier recolonization were not associated with a lower

  16. Self-decomposable Fibrous Bridging Additives for Temporary Cementitious Fracture Sealers in EGS Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.; Kisslinger, K.; Iverson, B.; Bour, D.

    2012-11-01

    potential as a self-decomposable bridging additive in the SSASC cement sealer.

  17. Method for decomposing observed line shapes resulting from multiple causes - Application to plasma charge-exchange-neutral spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patch, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is given for decomposing the widths of observed spectral lines resulting from unresolved line splitting, additive kinetic processes of different types, instrumental broadening (slit function), Doppler broadening, etc. all superimposed. The second moments are used as measures of the various widths involved. The method is not applicable if dispersion type (Lorentz) broadening occurs. Application is made to plasma charge-exchange-neutral spectra of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium.

  18. A quantification method for heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers and its application on 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigast, Maria; Mutzel, Anke; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2017-03-01

    Methylglyoxal forms oligomeric compounds in the atmospheric aqueous particle phase, which could establish a significant contribution to the formation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). Thus far, no suitable method for the quantification of methylglyoxal oligomers is available despite the great effort spent for structure elucidation. In the present study a simplified method was developed to quantify heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers as a sum parameter. The method is based on the thermal decomposition of oligomers into methylglyoxal monomers. Formed methylglyoxal monomers were detected using PFBHA (o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride) derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The method development was focused on the heating time (varied between 15 and 48 h), pH during the heating process (pH = 1-7), and heating temperature (50, 100 °C). The optimised values of these method parameters are presented. The developed method was applied to quantify heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers formed during the OH-radical oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) in the Leipzig aerosol chamber (LEipziger AerosolKammer, LEAK). Oligomer formation was investigated as a function of seed particle acidity and relative humidity. A fraction of heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers of up to 8 % in the produced organic particle mass was found, highlighting the importance of those oligomers formed solely by methylglyoxal for SOA formation. Overall, the present study provides a new and suitable method for quantification of heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers in the aqueous particle phase.

  19. The Influence of Time and Plant Species on the Composition of the Decomposing Bacterial Community in a Stream Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wymore, Adam S; Liu, Cindy M; Hungate, Bruce A; Schwartz, Egbert; Price, Lance B; Whitham, Thomas G; Marks, Jane C

    2016-05-01

    Foliar chemistry influences leaf decomposition, but little is known about how litter chemistry affects the assemblage of bacterial communities during decomposition. Here we examined relationships between initial litter chemistry and the composition of the bacterial community in a stream ecosystem. We incubated replicated genotypes of Populus fremontii and P. angustifolia leaf litter that differ in percent tannin and lignin, then followed changes in bacterial community composition during 28 days of decomposition using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Using a nested experimental design, the majority of variation in bacterial community composition was explained by time (i.e., harvest day) (R(2) = 0.50). Plant species, nested within harvest date, explained a significant but smaller proportion of the variation (R(2) = 0.03). Significant differences in community composition between leaf species were apparent at day 14, but no significant differences existed among genotypes. Foliar chemistry correlated significantly with community composition at day 14 (r = 0.46) indicating that leaf litter with more similar phytochemistry harbor bacterial communities that are alike. Bacteroidetes and β-proteobacteria dominated the bacterial assemblage on decomposing leaves, and Verrucomicrobia and α- and δ-proteobacteria became more abundant over time. After 14 days, bacterial diversity diverged significantly between leaf litter types with fast-decomposing P. fremontii hosting greater richness than slowly decomposing P. angustifolia; however, differences were no longer present after 28 days in the stream. Leaf litter tannin, lignin, and lignin: N ratios all correlated negatively with diversity. This work shows that the bacterial community on decomposing leaves in streams changes rapidly over time, influenced by leaf species via differences in genotype-level foliar chemistry.

  20. Efficient algorithms for solving the non-linear vibrational coupled-cluster equations using full and decomposed tensors.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Niels K; Godtliebsen, Ian H; Christiansen, Ove

    2017-04-07

    Vibrational coupled-cluster (VCC) theory provides an accurate method for calculating vibrational spectra and properties of small to medium-sized molecules. Obtaining these properties requires the solution of the non-linear VCC equations which can in some cases be hard to converge depending on the molecule, the basis set, and the vibrational state in question. We present and compare a range of different algorithms for solving the VCC equations ranging from a full Newton-Raphson method to approximate quasi-Newton models using an array of different convergence-acceleration schemes. The convergence properties and computational cost of the algorithms are compared for the optimization of VCC states. This includes both simple ground-state problems and difficult excited states with strong non-linearities. Furthermore, the effects of using tensor-decomposed solution vectors and residuals are investigated and discussed. The results show that for standard ground-state calculations, the conjugate residual with optimal trial vectors algorithm has the shortest time-to-solution although the full Newton-Raphson method converges in fewer macro-iterations. Using decomposed tensors does not affect the observed convergence rates in our test calculations as long as the tensors are decomposed to sufficient accuracy.

  1. Familiarity breeds dissent: Reliability analyses for British-English idioms on measures of familiarity, meaning, literality, and decomposability.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A; Bull, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    To date, there have been several attempts made to build a database of normative data for English idiomatic expressions (e.g., Libben & Titone, 2008; Titone & Connine, 1994), however, there has been some discussion in the literature as to the validity and reliability of the data obtained, particularly for decomposability ratings. Our work aimed to address these issues by looking at ratings from native and non-native speakers and to extend the deeper investigation and analysis of decomposability to other aspects of idiomatic expressions, namely familiarly, meaning and literality. Poor reliability was observed on all types of ratings, suggesting that rather than decomposability being a special case, individual variability plays a large role in how participants rate idiomatic phrases in general. Ratings from native and non-native speakers were positively correlated and an analysis of covariance found that once familiarity with an idiom was accounted for, most of the differences between native and non-native ratings were not significant. Overall, the results suggest that individual experience with idioms plays an important role in how they are perceived and this should be taken into account when selecting stimuli for experimental studies. Furthermore, the results are suggestive of the inability of speakers to inhibit the figurative meanings for idioms that they are highly familiar with.

  2. Enhanced summer warming reduces fungal decomposer diversity and litter mass loss more strongly in dry than in wet tundra.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Casper T; Haugwitz, Merian S; Priemé, Anders; Nielsen, Cecilie S; Elberling, Bo; Michelsen, Anders; Grogan, Paul; Blok, Daan

    2017-01-01

    Many Arctic regions are currently experiencing substantial summer and winter climate changes. Litter decomposition is a fundamental component of ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles, with fungi being among the primary decomposers. To assess the impacts of seasonal climatic changes on litter fungal communities and their functioning, Betula glandulosa leaf litter was surface-incubated in two adjacent low Arctic sites with contrasting soil moisture regimes: dry shrub heath and wet sedge tundra at Disko Island, Greenland. At both sites, we investigated the impacts of factorial combinations of enhanced summer warming (using open-top chambers; OTCs) and deepened snow (using snow fences) on surface litter mass loss, chemistry and fungal decomposer communities after approximately 1 year. Enhanced summer warming significantly restricted litter mass loss by 32% in the dry and 17% in the wet site. Litter moisture content was significantly reduced by summer warming in the dry, but not in the wet site. Likewise, fungal total abundance and diversity were reduced by OTC warming at the dry site, while comparatively modest warming effects were observed in the wet site. These results suggest that increased evapotranspiration in the OTC plots lowered litter moisture content to the point where fungal decomposition activities became inhibited. In contrast, snow addition enhanced fungal abundance in both sites but did not significantly affect litter mass loss rates. Across sites, control plots only shared 15% of their fungal phylotypes, suggesting strong local controls on fungal decomposer community composition. Nevertheless, fungal community functioning (litter decomposition) was negatively affected by warming in both sites. We conclude that although buried soil organic matter decomposition is widely expected to increase with future summer warming, surface litter decay and nutrient turnover rates in both xeric and relatively moist tundra are likely to be significantly restricted by

  3. Enzymatic Strategies and Carbon Use Efficiency of a Litter-Decomposing Fungus Grown on Maize Leaves, Stems, and Roots

    PubMed Central

    Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Gainvors-Claisse, Angélique; Recous, Sylvie; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms can control the soil cycles of carbon (C), and depending on their C-use efficiency (CUE), these microorganisms either contribute to C stabilization in soil or produce CO2 when decomposing organic matter. However, little is known regarding the enzyme investment of microbial decomposers and the effects on their CUE. Our objective was to elucidate the strategies of litter-decomposing fungi as a function of litter quality. Fungal biosynthesis and respiration were accounted for by quantifying the investment in enzyme synthesis and enzyme efficiency. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown on the leaves, stems, and roots of maize over 126 days in controlled conditions. We periodically measured the fungal biomass, enzyme activity, and chemical composition of the remaining litter and continuously measured the evolved C–CO2. The CUE observed for the maize litter was highest in the leaves (0.63), intermediate in the roots (0.40), and lowest in the stems (0.38). However, the enzyme efficiency and investment in enzyme synthesis did not follow the same pattern. The amount of litter C decomposed per mole of C-acquiring hydrolase activity was 354 μg C in the leaves, 246 μg C in the roots, and 1541 μg C in the stems (enzyme efficiency: stems > leaves > roots). The fungus exhibited the highest investment in C-acquiring enzyme when grown on the roots and produced 40–80% less enzyme activity when grown on the stems and leaves (investment in enzymes: roots > leaves > stems). The CUE was dependent on the initial availability and replenishment of the soluble substrate fraction with the degradation products. The production of these compounds was either limited because of the low enzyme efficiency, which occurred in the roots, or because of the low investments in enzyme synthesis, which occurred in the stems. Fungal biosynthesis relied on the ability of the fungus to invest in enzyme synthesis and the efficient interactions between the enzymes

  4. Enzymatic Strategies and Carbon Use Efficiency of a Litter-Decomposing Fungus Grown on Maize Leaves, Stems, and Roots.

    PubMed

    Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Gainvors-Claisse, Angélique; Recous, Sylvie; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms can control the soil cycles of carbon (C), and depending on their C-use efficiency (CUE), these microorganisms either contribute to C stabilization in soil or produce CO2 when decomposing organic matter. However, little is known regarding the enzyme investment of microbial decomposers and the effects on their CUE. Our objective was to elucidate the strategies of litter-decomposing fungi as a function of litter quality. Fungal biosynthesis and respiration were accounted for by quantifying the investment in enzyme synthesis and enzyme efficiency. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown on the leaves, stems, and roots of maize over 126 days in controlled conditions. We periodically measured the fungal biomass, enzyme activity, and chemical composition of the remaining litter and continuously measured the evolved C-CO2. The CUE observed for the maize litter was highest in the leaves (0.63), intermediate in the roots (0.40), and lowest in the stems (0.38). However, the enzyme efficiency and investment in enzyme synthesis did not follow the same pattern. The amount of litter C decomposed per mole of C-acquiring hydrolase activity was 354 μg C in the leaves, 246 μg C in the roots, and 1541 μg C in the stems (enzyme efficiency: stems > leaves > roots). The fungus exhibited the highest investment in C-acquiring enzyme when grown on the roots and produced 40-80% less enzyme activity when grown on the stems and leaves (investment in enzymes: roots > leaves > stems). The CUE was dependent on the initial availability and replenishment of the soluble substrate fraction with the degradation products. The production of these compounds was either limited because of the low enzyme efficiency, which occurred in the roots, or because of the low investments in enzyme synthesis, which occurred in the stems. Fungal biosynthesis relied on the ability of the fungus to invest in enzyme synthesis and the efficient interactions between the enzymes and

  5. Nitrogen release pattern in decomposing leaf litter of banj oak and chir pine seedlings leaf under glass house condition.

    PubMed

    Usman, Samina

    2013-01-01

    Decomposition rate for leaf litter of banj oak (Quercus leucotrichophora) and chir pine (Pinus roxburghii), seedlings was studied over a period of one year, under glass house condition. The leaf litter of Quercus leucotrichophora decomposed faster as compared to Pinus roxburghii. Initially during 0-62 days of placement, the decomposition rate was slower for leaf litter of both species but after 123 days of placement it was 53% for Quercus leucotrichophora leaf litter and 33% for Pinus roxburghii leaf litter. The Quercus leucotrichophora leaf litter was completely decomposed after 11 months; however, 65% weight loss was recorded in Pinus roxburghii leaf litter after 12 months study. In Quercus leucotrichophora leaf litter the, initial (at the start of decomposition) nitrogen concentration was much higher (1.15%) than that of Pinus roxburghii leaf litter (1.41%), release of N was slower in chir pine leaf litter compared to banj oak leaf litter. Material with higher C/N ratio had longer duration of immobilization and in turn slower release phase. The concentration of N increased approximately linearly as a function of mass loss towards the end of annual cycle. Concentration of N was about 1.2 to 1.9 fold higher than the initial litter for seedlings of both the species.

  6. Extracting the left and right critical eigenvectors from the LDU-decomposed non-symmetric Jacobian matrix in stability problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Fumio; Yamakawa, Yuki; Noguchi, Hirohisa

    2010-07-01

    In the previous publications of the authors, an eigenanalysis-free computational procedure has been proposed to extract the bifurcation buckling mode(s) from the LDL T -decomposed symmetric stiffness matrix in the vicinity of a stability point. Any eigensolver, for instance, inverse iteration or subspace method, is not necessary. The procedure has been verified in numerical examples and well works in multiple and clustered bifurcation problems too. This present paper will extend the eigenanalysis-free procedure to the LDU-decomposed non-symmetric Jacobian matrix, from which both left and right critical eigenvectors relevant to the stability point may be extracted in a similar way. The idea is mathematical and totally independent of the physical problem to be solved, so that it is applicable to any non-symmetric square matrix in stability problems including plasticity with non-associated flow rules, contact and fluid-structure interaction. The linear-algebraic background of non-symmetric eigenvalue problems is firstly described. The present paper will then mention the role play of the left and right critical eigenvectors in stability analysis and the eigenanalysis-free LDU-procedure is proposed. Numerical examples of elastoplastic bifurcation are illustrated for verification and discussion. In APPENDICES, a bench model visualizes the mechanical meaning of the left and right critical singular vectors of a rectangular matrix.

  7. There's no place like home? An exploration of the mechanisms behind plant litter-decomposer affinity in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Austin, Amy T; Vivanco, Lucía; González-Arzac, Adelia; Pérez, Luis I

    2014-08-08

    Litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems is an important first step for carbon and nutrient cycling, as senescent plant material is degraded and consequently incorporated, along with microbial products, into soil organic matter. The identification of litter affinity effects, whereby decomposition is accelerated in its home environment (home-field advantage, HFA), highlights the importance of plant-soil interactions that have consequences for biogeochemical cycling. While not universal, these affinity effects have been identified in a range of ecosystems, particularly in forests without disturbance. The optimization of the local decomposer community to degrade a particular combination of litter traits is the most oft-cited explanation for HFA effects, but the ways in which this specialized community can develop are only beginning to be understood. We explore ways in which HFA, or more broadly litter affinity effects, could arise in terrestrial ecosystems. Plant-herbivore interactions, microbial symbiosis, legacies from phyllosphere communities and attractors of specific soil fauna could contribute to spatially defined affinity effects for litter decomposition. Pyrosequencing soil communities and functional linkages of soil fauna provide great promise in advancing our mechanistic understanding of these interactions, and could lead to a greater appreciation of the role of litter-decomposer affinity in the maintenance of soil functional diversity.

  8. Decomposer communities in contaminated soil: Is altered community regulation a proper tool in ecological risk assessment of toxicants?

    PubMed

    Salminen, J E; Sulkava, P O

    1997-01-01

    Effects of patchy soil contamination on decomposer organisms, their community regulation and nutrient mineralization were studied in a microcosm experiment. Coniferous forest soil was patchily contaminated with three concentrations of sodiumpentachlorophenate PCP (0, 50 and 500 mg PCP kg(-1) of dry soil). Abundance of microbes, enchytraeids, nematodes, small oribatids and predatory mites were reduced by the PCP. Direct toxicity of PCP and lowered microbial biomass seemed to affect animal community composition in the most contaminated patches. Some large oribatids which seemed to be tolerant to PCP increased their numbers in the most contaminated patches. Although predatory mites suffered from PCP, no altered predator-prey interactions were observed. At the beginning of the experiment more nutrients were released in the patches with highest PCP concentration and the nutrients accumulated in the soil. Soil decomposer food webs seemed to be mainly bottom-up controlled: PCP strongly affects microbes and hence caused changes in the community structure of soil animals and nutrient cycling. Hence top-down orientated ecological models on community regulation and food web dynamics seem to be unsuitable when assessing effects of pesticides on soil communities.

  9. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; John, Katharina; Arida, Gertrudo; Auge, Harald; Brandl, Roland; Horgan, Finbarr G; Hotes, Stefan; Marquez, Leonardo; Radermacher, Nico; Settele, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Schädler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil) on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices.

  10. Discrimination between patterns of drug exposure by toxicological analysis of decomposed skeletal tissues. Part II: Amitriptyline and citalopram.

    PubMed

    Watterson, James H; Cornthwaite, Heather M

    2013-10-01

    Decomposed bone and plasma samples of rats exposed to amitriptyline (AMI) and citalopram (CIT) under different dosing patterns were analyzed. Wistar rats received one acute dose (120 mg AMI/kg and 40 mg CIT/kg; n = 5) or two doses (40 mg AMI/kg and 13 mg CIT/kg, n = 5) 40 min apart. After collection of perimortem blood, the rats were euthanized and placed outdoors to decompose to skeleton. Recovered bone was ground and subjected to methanolic extraction. Bone extracts and plasma samples underwent solid-phase extraction and were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of drugs and the primary metabolites [nortriptyline (NORT), desmethylcitalopram (DMCIT) and didesmethylcitalopram (DDMCIT)] were expressed as mass-normalized response ratios (RR/m). Concentrations (RR/m) of AMI, CIT and metabolites did not differ significantly between exposure types in plasma and all bone types examined or for the pooled bone samples (P > 0.05). However, ratios of concentrations of NORT to those of AMI differed significantly between exposure patterns for all bone types except for rib (P < 0.05). Values of DMCIT/CIT differed significantly between exposure patterns in rib, pelvi and femora (P < 0.05). Values of DDMCIT/CIT did not differ significantly between exposure types (P > 0.05), while those of DDMCIT/DMCIT were significantly different for all bones except the vertebrae and rib (P < 0.05).

  11. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anja; John, Katharina; Arida, Gertrudo; Auge, Harald; Brandl, Roland; Horgan, Finbarr G.; Hotes, Stefan; Marquez, Leonardo; Radermacher, Nico; Settele, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Schädler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil) on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices. PMID:26225556

  12. Social dynamics within decomposer communities lead to nitrogen retention and organic matter build-up in soils

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christina; Franklin, Oskar; Richter, Andreas; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The chemical structure of organic matter has been shown to be only marginally important for its decomposability by microorganisms. The question of why organic matter does accumulate in the face of powerful microbial degraders is thus key for understanding terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling. Here we demonstrate, based on an individual-based microbial community model, that social dynamics among microbes producing extracellular enzymes (‘decomposers') and microbes exploiting the catalytic activities of others (‘cheaters') regulate organic matter turnover. We show that the presence of cheaters increases nitrogen retention and organic matter build-up by downregulating the ratio of extracellular enzymes to total microbial biomass, allowing nitrogen-rich microbial necromass to accumulate. Moreover, increasing catalytic efficiencies of enzymes are outbalanced by a strong negative feedback on enzyme producers, leading to less enzymes being produced at the community level. Our results thus reveal a possible control mechanism that may buffer soil CO2 emissions in a future climate. PMID:26621582

  13. Adsorption of SF6 decomposed gas on anatase (101) and (001) surfaces with oxygen defect: a density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Chen, Qinchuan; Tang, Ju; Hu, Weihua; Zhang, Jinbin

    2014-04-23

    The detection of partial discharge by analyzing the components of SF6 gas in gas-insulated switchgears is important to the diagnosis and assessment of the operational state of power equipment. A gas sensor based on anatase TiO2 is used to detect decomposed gases in SF6. In this paper, first-principle density functional theory calculations are adopted to analyze the adsorption of SO2, SOF2, and SO2F2, the primary decomposition by-products of SF6 under partial discharge, on anatase (101) and (001) surfaces. Simulation results show that the perfect anatase (001) surface has a stronger interaction with the three gases than that of anatase (101), and both surfaces are more sensitive and selective to SO2 than to SOF2 and SO2F2. The selection of a defect surface to SO2, SOF2, and SO2F2 differs from that of a perfect surface. This theoretical result is corroborated by the sensing experiment using a TiO2 nanotube array (TNTA) gas sensor. The calculated values are analyzed to explain the results of the Pt-doped TNTA gas sensor sensing experiment. The results imply that the deposited Pt nanoparticles on the surface increase the active sites of the surface and the gas molecules may decompose upon adsorption on the active sites.

  14. Spinodally Decomposed PbSe-PbTe Nanoparticles for High-Performance Thermoelectrics: Enhanced Phonon Scattering and Unusual Transport Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Seok; Lee, Woo-Jin; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Sung, Yun-Mo

    2016-07-26

    Dramatic enhancements in the figure of merit have been obtained in bulk thermoelectric materials by doping, band engineering, and nanostructuring. Especially, in p-type thermoelectrics, high figure of merits near 2.0 have been reported in a few papers through the reduction in lattice thermal conductivity and the advancement in power factors. However, there exists no report on the n-type systems showing high figure of merits because of their intrinsically low Seebeck coefficients. Here, we demonstrate that a nanostructured bulk n-type thermoelectric material that was assembled by sintering spinodally decomposed lead chalcogenide nanoparticles having a composition of PbSe0.5Te0.5 reaches a high figure of merit of 1.85. The spinodally decomposed nanoparticles permit our thermoelectric material to have extremely low lattice thermal conductivity and a high power factor as a result of nanostructuring, electronic optimization, insertion of an impurity phase and phase change in local areas. We propose that this interesting concept would be one of the promising approaches that overcome limitation arising from the fact that most parameters in the figure of merit are closely correlated.

  15. Application of supercritical water to decompose brominated epoxy resin and environmental friendly recovery of metals from waste memory module.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-02-03

    Waste Memory Modules (WMMs), a particular kind of waste printed circuit board (WPCB), contain a high amount of brominated epoxy resin (BER), which may bring a series of environmental and health problems. On the other hand, metals like gold and copper are very valuable and are important to recover from WMMs. In the present study, an effective and environmental friendly method using supercritical water (SCW) to decompose BER and recover metals from WMMs was developed instead of hydrometallurgy or pyrometallurgy simultaneously. Experiments were conducted under external-catalyst-free conditions with temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 °C, pressures from 25 to 40 MPa, and reaction times from 120 to 360 min in a semibatch-type reactor. The results showed that BER could be quickly and efficiently decomposed under SCW condition, and the mechanism was possibly free radical reaction. After the SCW treatments, the glass fibers and metal foils in the solid residue could be easily liberated and recovered, respectively. The metal recovery rate reached 99.80%. The optimal parameters were determined as 495 °C, 33 MPa, and 305 min on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM). This study provides an efficient and environmental friendly approach for WMMs recycling compared with electrolysis, pyrometallurgy, and hydrometallurgy.

  16. Optimal Averages for Nonlinear Signal Decompositions - Another Alternative for Empirical Mode Decomposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    IMFs ), and each of the IMFs has better behaved instan- taneous frequency analysis. This paper presents an alternative approach for EMD. The main idea is...Therefore, an IMF can be produced by simply subtracting the average from the signal without iteration. Our numerical examples illustrate that the...stationary signals. It aims at decomposing a signal, via an iterative sifting procedure into several intrinsic mode functions ( IMFs ), and each of the

  17. Decomposing effects of time on task reveals an anteroposterior gradient of perceptual decision regions.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R; Erickson, Drew T; Kayser, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    In perceptual decision making, the selection of an appropriate action depends critically on an organism's ability to use sensory inputs to accumulate evidence for a decision. However, differentiating decision-related processes from effects of "time on task" can be difficult. Here we combine the response signal paradigm, in which the experimenter rather than the subject dictates the time of the response, and independent components analysis (ICA) to search for signatures consistent with time on task and decision making, respectively, throughout the brain. Using this novel approach, we identify two such independent components from BOLD activity related to a random dot motion task: one sensitive to the main effect of stimulus duration, and one to both the main effect of motion coherence and its interaction with duration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these two components are expressed differently throughout the brain, with activity in occipital regions most reflective of the former, activity within intraparietal sulcus modulated by both factors, and more anterior regions including the anterior insula, pre-SMA, and inferior frontal sulcus driven almost exclusively by the latter. Consistent with these ICA findings, cluster analysis identifies a posterior-to-anterior gradient that differentiates regions sensitive to time on task from regions whose activity is strongly tied to motion coherence. Together, these findings demonstrate that progressively more anterior regions are likely to participate in progressively more proximate decision-related processes.

  18. Constraints Placed by Community Diversity on the Enzymatic Response of Microbial Decomposer Communities to Climate Change in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, N. R.; Allison, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The return of organic carbon to the atmosphere through terrestrial decomposition is mediated through the breakdown of complex organic polymers by extracellular enzymes produced by microbial decomposer communities. It is unclear how microbial diversity constrains enzymatic potential, making it difficult to predict future carbon cycling under climate change scenarios that could alter microbial community composition. To address this question, we deployed fine-pore nylon mesh "microbial cage" litterbags containing grassland litter with and without local inoculum across five sites in southern California, spanning a gradient of 4.0-24.5º C in mean annual temperature and 129-630 mm mean annual precipitation. Litterbags were deployed in October 2014 and collected in March and June 2015. Collected litterbags were assayed for mass loss and potential activity of nine extracellular enzyme classes. We hypothesized that extracellular enzyme potential would be greatest in litter transplanted to moister sites, given the importance of moisture as a driver of ecosystem function in southern California. We also hypothesized that litter inoculated with local microbiota would exhibit greater extracellular enzyme potential than litter containing only grassland microbes, with the assumption that local decomposer microbes would be more effective than grassland microbes at decomposing litter in their native environment. We found that potential extracellular enzyme activities varied significantly (p<0.01) by site for all nine enzyme classes. Six of the nine enzymes assayed (and six of the seven hydrolytic enzymes) failed to support our hypothesis, exhibiting significantly lower enzyme activity in the coldest and wettest site in comparison to the other four sites (p<0.01). Conversely, both oxidative enzymes assayed exhibited the greatest observed activity in the coldest, wettest site, supporting our hypothesis and indicating that hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme classes from the same

  19. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straková, P.; Niemi, R. M.; Freeman, C.; Peltoniemi, K.; Toberman, H.; Heiskanen, I.; Fritze, H.; Laiho, R.

    2011-09-01

    Peatlands are carbon (C) storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT). High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years). We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years) and long-term (decades) WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen). The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees. Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition). Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period) summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P and N acquisition towards C

  20. Decomposing the association between the amount of exposure and the frequency of self-reported involvement in a road crash

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Pulido Manzanero, José; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan de Dios

    2013-01-01

    We tried to obtain preliminary evidence to test the hypothesis that the association between driving exposure and the frequency of reporting a road crash can be decomposed into two paths: direct and indirect (mediated by risky driving patterns). In a cross-sectional study carried out between 2007 and 2010, a sample of 1114 car drivers who were students at the University of Granada completed a questionnaire with items about driving exposure during the previous year, risk-related driving circumstances and involvement in road crashes. We applied the decomposition procedure proposed by Buis for logit models. The indirect path showed a strong dose-response relationship with the frequency of reporting a road crash, whereas the direct path did not. The decomposition procedure was able to identify the indirect path as the main explanatory mechanism for the association between exposure and the frequency of reporting a road crash. PMID:23129719

  1. Awareness is awareness is awareness? Decomposing different aspects of awareness and their role in operant learning of pain sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Hölzl, Rupert

    2012-09-01

    Regarding awareness as a consistent concept has contributed to the controversy about implicit learning. The present study emphasized the importance of distinguishing aspects of awareness in order to determine whether learning is implicit. By decomposing awareness into awareness of contingencies, of the procedure being a learning task, and of the reinforcing stimuli, it was demonstrated that implicit operant learning modulated pain sensitivity. All of these aspects of awareness were demonstrated to not be necessary for learning. Additionally, discrimination of contingencies was not necessary on different levels of processing as demonstrated by a verbal and a behavioral method. It was demonstrated that explicit cognitive processes about one's own behavior, impaired learning, even though these cognitions were not immediately related to the learning process. The results of this study are of special interest in the context of pain, since implicit operant learning can explain the gradual development of hypersensitivity in chronic pain.

  2. Contents, accumulation and release of energy in green, dead and decomposing plant materials in an upland grassland near Kamenicky, Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Ulehlová, B

    1980-01-01

    The energy content was studied in above-ground live plant material and in litter in a natural grassland ecosystem with dominant Nardus stricta L., defined phytosociologically as Polygalo-Nardetum strictae. PREISING 1950 corr. OBERDORFER 1957, and in two of its fertilized variants in the course of 1975 to 1977. Based on the determined production characteristics and data on decomposition processes, the amounts of energy accumulated by the green parts of the stands and the amount of energy released during decomposition from the litter were calculated. Changes in the energy content of litter in different stages of decomposition were determined. With progressing decomposition the energy content per gram ash-free decomposing plant litter increases.

  3. Origin of pingo-like features on the Beaufort Sea shelf and their possible relationship to decomposing methane gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W.; Dallimore, S.R.; Blasco, S.M.; Lorenson, T.D.; Melling, H.; Medioli, B.E.; Nixon, F.M.; McLaughlin, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic shelf is currently undergoing dramatic thermal changes caused by the continued warming associated with Holocene sea level rise. During this transgression, comparatively warm waters have flooded over cold permafrost areas of the Arctic Shelf. A thermal pulse of more than 10??C is still propagating down into the submerged sediment and may be decomposing gas hydrate as well as permafrost. A search for gas venting on the Arctic seafloor focused on pingo-like-features (PLFs) on the Beaufort Sea Shelf because they may be a direct consequence of gas hydrate decomposition at depth. Vibracores collected from eight PLFs had systematically elevated methane concentrations. ROV observations revealed streams of methane-rich gas bubbles coming from the crests of PLFs. We offer a scenario of how PLFs may be growing offshore as a result of gas pressure associated with gas hydrate decomposition. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Fate of bisphenol A during treatment with the litter-decomposing fungi Stropharia rugosoannulata and Stropharia coronilla.

    PubMed

    Kabiersch, Grit; Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Ullrich, René; Tuomela, Marja; Hofrichter, Martin; Virta, Marko; Hatakka, Annele; Steffen, Kari

    2011-04-01

    Bisphenol A is an endocrine disrupting compound, which is ubiquitous in the environment due to its wide use in plastic and resin production. Seven day old cultures of the litter-decomposing fungus Stropharia coronilla removed the estrogenic activity of bisphenol A (BPA) rapidly and enduringly. Treatment of BPA with purified neutral manganese peroxidase (MnP) from this fungus also resulted in 100% reduction of estrogenic activity, as analyzed using a bioluminescent yeast assay, and in the formation of polymeric compounds. In cultures of Stropharia rugosoannulata, estrogenic activity also quickly disappeared but temporarily re-emerged in the further course of cultivation. LC-MS analysis of the extracted estrogenic culture liquid revealed [M-H](-) ions with m/z values of 219 and 235. We hypothesize that these compounds are ring fission products of BPA, which still exhibit one intact hydroxyphenyl group to interact with estrogen receptors displayed by the yeast.

  5. Scalable control of graphene growth on 4H-SiC C-face using decomposing silicon nitride masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Hankinson, John; Palmer, James; Bouvier, Clément; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Voss, Paul L.; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.

    2015-04-01

    Selective epitaxial graphene growth is achieved in pre-selected areas on the 4H-SiC(0 0 0 \\bar{1}) C-face with a SiN masking method. The mask decomposes during the growth process leaving a clean, resist free, high temperature annealed graphene surface, in a one-step process. Depending on the off-stoichiometry composition of a Si3 + xN4 mask evaporated on SiC prior to graphitization, the number of layers on the C-face increases (Si-rich) or decreases (N-rich). Graphene grown in masked areas shows excellent quality as observed by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and transport data.

  6. Canonical quantization theory of general singular QED system of Fermi field interaction with generally decomposed gauge potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen-Lu; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2014-03-15

    Quantization theory gives rise to transverse phonons for the traditional Coulomb gauge condition and to scalar and longitudinal photons for the Lorentz gauge condition. We describe a new approach to quantize the general singular QED system by decomposing a general gauge potential into two orthogonal components in general field theory, which preserves scalar and longitudinal photons. Using these two orthogonal components, we obtain an expansion of the gauge-invariant Lagrangian density, from which we deduce the two orthogonal canonical momenta conjugate to the two components of the gauge potential. We then obtain the canonical Hamiltonian in the phase space and deduce the inherent constraints. In terms of the naturally deduced gauge condition, the quantization results are exactly consistent with those in the traditional Coulomb gauge condition and superior to those in the Lorentz gauge condition. Moreover, we find that all the nonvanishing quantum commutators are permanently gauge-invariant. A system can only be measured in physical experiments when it is gauge-invariant. The vanishing longitudinal vector potential means that the gauge invariance of the general QED system cannot be retained. This is similar to the nucleon spin crisis dilemma, which is an example of a physical quantity that cannot be exactly measured experimentally. However, the theory here solves this dilemma by keeping the gauge invariance of the general QED system. -- Highlights: •We decompose the general gauge potential into two orthogonal parts according to general field theory. •We identify a new approach for quantizing the general singular QED system. •The results obtained are superior to those for the Lorentz gauge condition. •The theory presented solves dilemmas such as the nucleon spin crisis.

  7. How do physicochemical properties influence the toxicity of silver nanoparticles on freshwater decomposers of plant litter in streams?

    PubMed

    Batista, Daniela; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2017-06-01

    AgNP physicochemical properties may affect AgNP toxicity, but their effects on plant litter decomposition and the species driving this key ecosystem process in freshwaters have been poorly investigated. We assessed the impacts of AgNPs with different size and surface coating (100nm PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone)-dispersant, 50-60nm and 35nm uncoated) on freshwater decomposers of leaf litter by exposing leaf associated microbial assemblages to increasing concentrations of AgNPs (up to 200mgL(-1)) and of AgNO3 (up to 25mgL(-1)). We further conducted a feeding preference experiment with a common invertebrate shredder, Limnephilus sp., which was allowed to feed on microbially-colonized leaves previously exposed to AgNPs and AgNO3. Leaf decomposition and microbial activity and diversity were inhibited when exposed to increased concentrations of 100nm AgNPs (≥25mgL(-1)), while microbial activity was stimulated by exposure to 35nm AgNPs (≥100mgL(-1)). Invertebrate shredders preferred leaves exposed to 35nm AgNPs (25mgL(-1)) and avoided leaves exposed to AgNO3 (≥2mgL(-1)). Results from the characterization of AgNPs by dynamic light scattering revealed that AgNps with PVP-dispersant were more stable than the uncoated AgNPs. Our results highlight the importance of considering the physicochemical properties of NPs when assessing their toxicity to litter decomposers in freshwaters.

  8. Pollution-induced community tolerance and functional redundancy in a decomposer food web in metal-stressed soil.

    PubMed

    Salminen, J; van Gestel, C A; Oksanen, J

    2001-10-01

    Pollution may lead to the development of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) in a stressed community. We studied the presence of PICT in soil food webs using soil microcosms. Soil microcosms containing soil invertebrates and microbes were collected from polluted and unpolluted areas and exposed to a range of soil zinc concentrations. A pine seedling was planted in each microcosm to measure the effects of the origin of the community and Zn pollution on above-ground plant production. The effects of the treatments on nutrient content in the soil were also measured. The diversity of soil microarthropods and the soil's mineral nutrient content were low at the Zn-polluted site. We did not observe an increasing Zn tolerance among the soil organisms in the polluted soil. However, low population growth rates of soil invertebrates from the polluted site may indicate the deleterious effects on fitness of long-lasting pollution. In the soil from the nonpolluted site, Zn additions caused changes in the invertebrate food web structure. These changes were explained by the good physiological condition of the animals and their insensitivity to Zn. The fact that the food web structure in soil from the polluted site did not change can be used as a rough indicator of PICT. Structural stability is presumed by the lack of Zn-sensitive species at this site and the inability of populations to acclimate by altering their growth or reproduction patterns in response to changing soil conditions. Although microbial-based soil decomposer systems may have a high functional redundancy, our results indicate that metal stress at the polluted site exceeds the tolerance limits of the system. As a consequence, ecosystem function at this site is endangered. This study also shows that the evolution of metal tolerance by soil decomposer organisms may not be a common reaction to soil pollution, although changes of population and community structure indicated severe metal stress on organisms.

  9. Stoichiometric imbalances between terrestrial decomposer communities and their resources: mechanisms and implications of microbial adaptations to their resources.

    PubMed

    Mooshammer, Maria; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial microbial decomposer communities thrive on a wide range of organic matter types that rarely ever meet their elemental demands. In this review we synthesize the current state-of-the-art of microbial adaptations to resource stoichiometry, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the interactions between heterotrophic microbial communities and their chemical environment. The stoichiometric imbalance between microbial communities and their organic substrates generally decreases from wood to leaf litter and further to topsoil and subsoil organic matter. Microbial communities can respond to these imbalances in four ways: first, they adapt their biomass composition toward their resource in a non-homeostatic behavior. Such changes are, however, only moderate, and occur mainly because of changes in microbial community structure and less so due to cellular storage of elements in excess. Second, microbial communities can mobilize resources that meet their elemental demand by producing specific extracellular enzymes, which, in turn, is restricted by the C and N requirement for enzyme production itself. Third, microbes can regulate their element use efficiencies (ratio of element invested in growth over total element uptake), such that they release elements in excess depending on their demand (e.g., respiration and N mineralization). Fourth, diazotrophic bacteria and saprotrophic fungi may trigger the input of external N and P to decomposer communities. Theoretical considerations show that adjustments in element use efficiencies may be the most important mechanism by which microbes regulate their biomass stoichiometry. This review summarizes different views on how microbes cope with imbalanced supply of C, N and P, thereby providing a framework for integrating and linking microbial adaptation to resource imbalances to ecosystem scale fluxes across scales and ecosystems.

  10. Stoichiometric imbalances between terrestrial decomposer communities and their resources: mechanisms and implications of microbial adaptations to their resources

    PubMed Central

    Mooshammer, Maria; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial microbial decomposer communities thrive on a wide range of organic matter types that rarely ever meet their elemental demands. In this review we synthesize the current state-of-the-art of microbial adaptations to resource stoichiometry, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the interactions between heterotrophic microbial communities and their chemical environment. The stoichiometric imbalance between microbial communities and their organic substrates generally decreases from wood to leaf litter and further to topsoil and subsoil organic matter. Microbial communities can respond to these imbalances in four ways: first, they adapt their biomass composition toward their resource in a non-homeostatic behavior. Such changes are, however, only moderate, and occur mainly because of changes in microbial community structure and less so due to cellular storage of elements in excess. Second, microbial communities can mobilize resources that meet their elemental demand by producing specific extracellular enzymes, which, in turn, is restricted by the C and N requirement for enzyme production itself. Third, microbes can regulate their element use efficiencies (ratio of element invested in growth over total element uptake), such that they release elements in excess depending on their demand (e.g., respiration and N mineralization). Fourth, diazotrophic bacteria and saprotrophic fungi may trigger the input of external N and P to decomposer communities. Theoretical considerations show that adjustments in element use efficiencies may be the most important mechanism by which microbes regulate their biomass stoichiometry. This review summarizes different views on how microbes cope with imbalanced supply of C, N and P, thereby providing a framework for integrating and linking microbial adaptation to resource imbalances to ecosystem scale fluxes across scales and ecosystems. PMID:24550895

  11. Biochemical and molecular characterization of an atypical manganese peroxidase of the litter-decomposing fungus Agrocybe praecox.

    PubMed

    Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkelä, Miia R; Steffen, Kari T; Hofrichter, Martin; Hatakka, Annele; Archer, David B; Lundell, Taina K

    2014-11-01

    Agrocybe praecox is a litter-decomposing Basidiomycota species of the order Agaricales, and is frequently found in forests and open woodlands. A. praecox grows in leaf-litter and the upper soil and is able to colonize bark mulch and wood chips. It produces extracellular manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities and mineralizes synthetic lignin. In this study, the A. praecox MnP1 isozyme was purified, cloned and enzymatically characterized. The enzyme catalysed the oxidation of Mn(2+) to Mn(3+), which is the specific reaction for manganese-dependent class II heme-peroxidases, in the presence of malonate as chelator with an activity maximum at pH 4.5; detectable activity was observed even at pH 7.0. The coding sequence of the mnp1 gene demonstrates a short-type of MnP protein with a slightly modified Mn(2+) binding site. Thus, A. praecox MnP1 may represent a novel group of atypical short-MnP enzymes. In lignocellulose-containing cultures composed of cereal bran or forest litter, transcription of mnp1 gene was followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. On spruce needle litter, mnp1 expression was more abundant than on leaf litter after three weeks cultivation. However, the expression was constitutive in wheat and rye bran cultures. Our data show that the atypical MnP of A. praecox is able to catalyse Mn(2+) oxidation, which suggests its involvement in lignocellulose decay by this litter-decomposer.

  12. The NIFTY way of Bayesian signal inference

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, Marco

    2014-12-05

    We introduce NIFTY, 'Numerical Information Field Theory', a software package for the development of Bayesian signal inference algorithms that operate independently from any underlying spatial grid and its resolution. A large number of Bayesian and Maximum Entropy methods for 1D signal reconstruction, 2D imaging, as well as 3D tomography, appear formally similar, but one often finds individualized implementations that are neither flexible nor easily transferable. Signal inference in the framework of NIFTY can be done in an abstract way, such that algorithms, prototyped in 1D, can be applied to real world problems in higher-dimensional settings. NIFTY as a versatile library is applicable and already has been applied in 1D, 2D, 3D and spherical settings. A recent application is the D{sup 3}PO algorithm targeting the non-trivial task of denoising, deconvolving, and decomposing photon observations in high energy astronomy.

  13. Analysis of the photoplethysmographic signal by means of the decomposition in principal components.

    PubMed

    Hong Enríquez, Rolando; Sautié Castellanos, Miguel; Falcón Rodríguez, Jersys; Hernández Cáceres, José Luis

    2002-08-01

    We study the plethysmographic signal using principal component analysis (PCA). By decomposing the signal using this method, we are able to regenerate it again, preserving in the process the functional relationships between the components. We have also found the relative contributions of each specific component to the signal. First return maps have been made for the series of residues of the decomposition. Further analysis using spectral methods has shown that the residues have a 1/f -like structure, which confirms the presence and conservation of this component in the signal and its relative independence with respect to the oscillating component (Hernández et al 2000 Rev. Cubana Inform. Medica 1 5). Our conclusions are that: (i) PCA is a good method to decompose the plethysmographic signal since it preserves the functional relationships in the variables, and this could be potentially useful in finding new clinically relevant indices; (ii) the 1/f process of the plethysmographic signal is preserved in the residues of the decomposed signal when PCA is used; (iii) clinically relevant parameters can potentially be obtained from photoplethysmographic signals when PCA is used.

  14. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  15. Pingos, craters and methane-leaking seafloor in the central Barents Sea: signals of decomposing gas hydrate releasing gas from deeper hydrocarbon reservoirs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreassen, K.; Plaza-Faverola, A. A.; Winsborrow, M.; Deryabin, A.; Mattingsdal, R.; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Serov, P.; Mienert, J.; Bünz, S.

    2015-12-01

    A cluster of large craters and mounds appear on the gas-leaking sea floor in the central Barents Sea around the upper limit for methane hydrate stability, covering over 360 km2. We use multibeam bathymetry, single-beam echo sounder and high-resolution seismic data to reveal the detailed geomorphology and internal structure of craters and mounds, map the distribution gas in the water and to unravel the subsurface plumbing system and sources of gas leakage. Distinct morphologies and geophysical signatures of mounds and craters are inferred to reflect different development stages of shallow gas hydrate formation and dissociation. Over 600 gas flares extending from the sea floor into the water are mapped, many of these from the seafloor mounds and craters, but most from their flanks and surroundings. Analysis of geophysical data link gas flares in the water, craters and mounds to seismic indications of gas advection from deeper hydrocarbon reservoirs along faults and fractures. We present a conceptual model for formation of mounds, craters and gas leakage of the area.

  16. Community structure and estimated contribution of primary consumers (Nematodes and Copepods) of decomposing plant litter (Juncus roemerianus and Rhizophora mangle) in South Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Fell, J.W.; Cefalu, R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the meiofauna associated with decomposing leaf litter from two species of coastal marshland plants: the black needle rush, Juncus roemerianus and the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The following aspects were investigated: (1) types of meiofauna present, especially nematodes; (2) changes in meiofaunal community structures with regard to season, station location, and type of plant litter; (3) amount of nematode and copepod biomass present on the decomposing plant litter; and (4) an estimation of the possible role of the nematodes in the decomposition process. 28 references, 5 figures, 9 tables. (ACR)

  17. Signal Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... product. The signal word can be ei- ther: DANGER,WARNING or CAUTION. Products with the DANGER signal word are the most toxic. Products with ... causes moderate eye or skin irritation. 2,4 DANGER means that the pesticide product is highly toxic ...

  18. Decomposing Composing Conventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Terry

    Recent research has invited critiques of the authoritative descriptions of composing found in many rhetoric textbooks. The concept of "convention" may be especially useful in rethinking the teleological basis of these textbook descriptions. Conventions found in composition textbooks need to be unmasked as arbitrary concepts which serve…

  19. Decomposing Nekrasov decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.

    2016-02-01

    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions — this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition — into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair "interaction" is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  20. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change. PMID:25608664

  1. Litter Supply as a Driver of Microbial Activity and Community Structure on Decomposing Leaves: a Test in Experimental Streams

    PubMed Central

    Gerull, Linda; Mutz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Succession of newly created landscapes induces profound changes in plant litter supplied to streams. Grasses dominate inputs into open-land streams, whereas tree litter is predominant in forested streams. We set out to elucidate whether the activity and structure of microbial communities on decomposing leaves are determined by litter quality (i.e., grass or tree leaves colonized) or whether changes during riparian succession affecting litter standing stocks on the stream bed play an overriding role. We used 15 outdoor experimental streams to simulate changes in litter supplies reflecting five stages of riparian succession: (i) a biofilm stage with no litter, (ii) an open-land stage characterized by grass litter inputs, (iii) a transitional stage with a mix of grass and tree litter, (iv) an early forested stage with tree litter, and (v) an advanced forested stage with 2.5 times the amount of tree litter. Microbial activities on tree (Betula pendula) and grass (Calamagrostis epigejos) litter were unaffected by either the quantity or type of litter supplied to the experimental streams (i.e., litter standing stock) but differed between the two litter types. This was in stark contrast with bacterial and fungal community structure, which markedly differed on grass and tree litter and, to a lesser extent, also among streams receiving different litter inputs. These patterns reveal distinct responses of microbial community structure and activity to the bulk litter available in streams but consistent responses to the litter type colonized. PMID:23770903

  2. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-22

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change.

  3. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change.

  4. Permafrost carbon-climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Koven, Charles D; Lawrence, David M; Riley, William J

    2015-03-24

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon-nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost region is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. Although nitrogen dynamics are highly uncertain, the future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.

  5. Hair cells use active zones with different voltage dependence of Ca2+ influx to decompose sounds into complementary neural codes

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Tzu-Lun; Rutherford, Mark A.; Jing, Zhizi; Jung, Sangyong; Duque-Afonso, Carlos J.; Hoch, Gerhard; Picher, Maria Magdalena; Scharinger, Anja; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    For sounds of a given frequency, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) with different thresholds and dynamic ranges collectively encode the wide range of audible sound pressures. Heterogeneity of synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and SGNs is an attractive candidate mechanism for generating complementary neural codes covering the entire dynamic range. Here, we quantified active zone (AZ) properties as a function of AZ position within mouse IHCs by combining patch clamp and imaging of presynaptic Ca2+ influx and by immunohistochemistry. We report substantial AZ heterogeneity whereby the voltage of half-maximal activation of Ca2+ influx ranged over ∼20 mV. Ca2+ influx at AZs facing away from the ganglion activated at weaker depolarizations. Estimates of AZ size and Ca2+ channel number were correlated and larger when AZs faced the ganglion. Disruption of the deafness gene GIPC3 in mice shifted the activation of presynaptic Ca2+ influx to more hyperpolarized potentials and increased the spontaneous SGN discharge. Moreover, Gipc3 disruption enhanced Ca2+ influx and exocytosis in IHCs, reversed the spatial gradient of maximal Ca2+ influx in IHCs, and increased the maximal firing rate of SGNs at sound onset. We propose that IHCs diversify Ca2+ channel properties among AZs and thereby contribute to decomposing auditory information into complementary representations in SGNs. PMID:27462107

  6. Decomposing variation in population growth into contributions from environment and phenotypes in an age-structured population.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Fanie; Moyes, Kelly; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-22

    Evaluating the relative importance of ecological drivers responsible for natural population fluctuations in size is challenging. Longitudinal studies where most individuals are monitored from birth to death and where environmental conditions are known provide a valuable resource to characterize complex ecological interactions. We used a recently developed approach to decompose the observed fluctuation in population growth of the red deer population on the Isle of Rum into contributions from climate, density and their interaction and to quantify their relative importance. We also quantified the contribution of individual covariates, including phenotypic and life-history traits, to population growth. Fluctuations in composition in age and sex classes ((st)age structure) of the population contributed substantially to the population dynamics. Density, climate, birth weight and reproductive status contributed less and approximately equally to the population growth. Our results support the contention that fluctuations in the population's (st)age structure have important consequences for population dynamics and underline the importance of including information on population composition to understand the effect of human-driven changes on population performance of long-lived species.

  7. Evaluation of the infectivity and the persistence of Trichinella patagoniensis in muscle tissue of decomposing guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Ilgová, J; Cardillo, N; Ercole, M; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Kašný, M; Ribicich, M

    2017-01-01

    Trichinella patagoniensis, a new species of Trichinella, is widespread in Argentina. The success of parasite transmission depends, among other factors, on the resistance of L1 larvae present in the muscle tissue (ML) of dead hosts undergoing the decomposition process in different environmental conditions. The aim of the present work was to study the infectivity of T. patagoniensis muscle larvae in Cavia porcellus and the capability of the parasite to survive in decomposed muscle tissue of guinea pigs subjected to different environmental conditions. Thirty-two female Ssi:AL guinea pigs were orally inoculated with 2000 ML of T. patagoniensis (ISS2311). All the animals were sacrificed 42 days post-infection. Twenty-six animals were eviscerated, and carcasses were placed on the surface of soil inside plastic boxes that were exposed to environmental conditions in the summer 2014-2015 and autumn of 2015 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Carcasses from six animals were placed into a plastic box inside the refrigerator at a temperature of 4 °C. The muscle tissue samples from the carcasses were examined weekly for the presence of larvae, and the infectivity of recovered ML was tested in BALB/c mice. Our results showed for the first time the ability of T. patagoniensis to complete its life cycle in guinea pigs, thus serving as a potential natural host. Also, larvae of T. patagoniensis remained infective in muscle tissue for several weeks while undergoing decomposition under different environmental conditions.

  8. Function of terahertz spectra in monitoring the decomposing process of biological macromolecules and in investigating the causes of photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuangang; Zhang, Shuai; Lian, Yuji; Kuang, Tingyun

    2016-10-31

    Chlorophyll a and β-carotene play an important role in harvesting light energy, which is used to drive photosynthesis in plants. In this study, terahertz (THz) and visible range spectra of chlorophyll a and β-carotene and their changes under light treatment were investigated. The results show that the all THz transmission and absorption spectra of chlorophyll a and β-carotene changed upon light treatment, with the maximum changes at 15 min of illumination indicating the greatest changes of the collective vibrational mode of chlorophyll a and β-carotene. The absorption spectra of chlorophyll a in the visible light region decreased upon light treatment, signifying the degradation of chlorophyll a molecules. It can be inferred from these results that the THz spectra are very sensitive in monitoring the changes of the collective vibrational mode, despite the absence of changes in molecular configuration. The THz spectra can therefore be used to monitor the decomposing process of biological macromolecules; however, visible absorption spectra can only be used to monitor the breakdown extent of biological macromolecules.

  9. Litter supply as a driver of microbial activity and community structure on decomposing leaves: a test in experimental streams.

    PubMed

    Frossard, Aline; Gerull, Linda; Mutz, Michael; Gessner, Mark O

    2013-08-01

    Succession of newly created landscapes induces profound changes in plant litter supplied to streams. Grasses dominate inputs into open-land streams, whereas tree litter is predominant in forested streams. We set out to elucidate whether the activity and structure of microbial communities on decomposing leaves are determined by litter quality (i.e., grass or tree leaves colonized) or whether changes during riparian succession affecting litter standing stocks on the stream bed play an overriding role. We used 15 outdoor experimental streams to simulate changes in litter supplies reflecting five stages of riparian succession: (i) a biofilm stage with no litter, (ii) an open-land stage characterized by grass litter inputs, (iii) a transitional stage with a mix of grass and tree litter, (iv) an early forested stage with tree litter, and (v) an advanced forested stage with 2.5 times the amount of tree litter. Microbial activities on tree (Betula pendula) and grass (Calamagrostis epigejos) litter were unaffected by either the quantity or type of litter supplied to the experimental streams (i.e., litter standing stock) but differed between the two litter types. This was in stark contrast with bacterial and fungal community structure, which markedly differed on grass and tree litter and, to a lesser extent, also among streams receiving different litter inputs. These patterns reveal distinct responses of microbial community structure and activity to the bulk litter available in streams but consistent responses to the litter type colonized.

  10. Cerasibacillus quisquiliarum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a semi-continuous decomposing system of kitchen refuse.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kohei; Haruta, Shin; Ueno, Shintaro; Ishii, Masaharu; Yokota, Akira; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2004-07-01

    A moderately thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacillus, which had been reported and designated BLx (Haruta et al., 2002), was isolated from a semi-continuous decomposing system of kitchen refuse. Cells of strain BLxT were strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, motile and spore forming. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were approximately 50 degrees C and pH 8-9. Strain BLxT was able to grow at NaCl concentrations from 0.5 to 7.5%, with optimum growth at 0.5% NaCl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, and the major fatty acid was iso-C(15 : 0). Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain BLxT was positioned in an independent lineage within the cluster that includes the genera Virgibacillus and Lentibacillus in Bacillus rRNA group 1. Strain BLxT exhibited 16S rDNA similarity of 92.8-94.8% to Virgibacillus species and 92.3% to Lentibacillus salicampi. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses supported the classification of strain BLxT in a novel genus and species. Cerasibacillus quisquiliarum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data. The type strain is BLxT (DSM 15825T=IAM15044T=KCTC 3815T).

  11. Gas Sensitivity and Sensing Mechanism Studies on Au-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Detecting SF6 Decomposed Components

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Yu, Lei; Tie, Jing; Dong, Xingchen

    2014-01-01

    The analysis to SF6 decomposed component gases is an efficient diagnostic approach to detect the partial discharge in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) for the purpose of accessing the operating state of power equipment. This paper applied the Au-doped TiO2 nanotube array sensor (Au-TiO2 NTAs) to detect SF6 decomposed components. The electrochemical constant potential method was adopted in the Au-TiO2 NTAs' fabrication, and a series of experiments were conducted to test the characteristic SF6 decomposed gases for a thorough investigation of sensing performances. The sensing characteristic curves of intrinsic and Au-doped TiO2 NTAs were compared to study the mechanism of the gas sensing response. The results indicated that the doped Au could change the TiO2 nanotube arrays' performances of gas sensing selectivity in SF6 decomposed components, as well as reducing the working temperature of TiO2 NTAs. PMID:25330053

  12. Instantaneous frequency time analysis of physiology signals: The application of pregnant women’s radial artery pulse signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-Chen; Wu, Tzuyin; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This study used the Hilbert-Huang transform, a recently developed, instantaneous frequency-time analysis, to analyze radial artery pulse signals taken from women in their 36th week of pregnancy and after pregnancy. The acquired instantaneous frequency-time spectrum (Hilbert spectrum) is further compared with the Morlet wavelet spectrum. Results indicate that the Hilbert spectrum is especially suitable for analyzing the time series of non-stationary radial artery pulse signals since, in the Hilbert-Huang transform, signals are decomposed into different mode functions in accordance with signal’s local time scale. Therefore, the Hilbert spectrum contains more detailed information than the Morlet wavelet spectrum. From the Hilbert spectrum, we can see that radial artery pulse signals taken from women in their 36th week of pregnancy and after pregnancy have different patterns. This approach could be applied to facilitate non-invasive diagnosis of fetus’ physiological signals in the future.

  13. Method and apparatus for automatically detecting patterns in digital point-ordered signals

    SciTech Connect

    Brudnoy, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    The present invention is a method and system for detecting a physical feature of a test piece by detecting a pattern in a signal representing data from inspection of the test piece. The pattern is detected by automated additive decomposition of a digital point-ordered signal which represents the data. The present invention can properly handle a non-periodic signal. A physical parameter of the test piece is measured. A digital point-ordered signal representative of the measured physical parameter is generated. The digital point-ordered signal is decomposed into a baseline signal, a background noise signal, and a peaks/troughs signal. The peaks/troughs from the peaks/troughs signal are located and peaks/troughs information indicating the physical feature of the test piece is output.

  14. Method and apparatus for automatically detecting patterns in digital point-ordered signals

    DOEpatents

    Brudnoy, D.M.

    1998-10-20

    The present invention is a method and system for detecting a physical feature of a test piece by detecting a pattern in a signal representing data from inspection of the test piece. The pattern is detected by automated additive decomposition of a digital point-ordered signal which represents the data. The present invention can properly handle a non-periodic signal. A physical parameter of the test piece is measured. A digital point-ordered signal representative of the measured physical parameter is generated. The digital point-ordered signal is decomposed into a baseline signal, a background noise signal, and a peaks/troughs signal. The peaks/troughs from the peaks/troughs signal are located and peaks/troughs information indicating the physical feature of the test piece is output. 14 figs.

  15. Method and apparatus for automatically detecting patterns in digital point-ordered signals

    DOEpatents

    Brudnoy, David M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method and system for detecting a physical feature of a test piece by detecting a pattern in a signal representing data from inspection of the test piece. The pattern is detected by automated additive decomposition of a digital point-ordered signal which represents the data. The present invention can properly handle a non-periodic signal. A physical parameter of the test piece is measured. A digital point-ordered signal representative of the measured physical parameter is generated. The digital point-ordered signal is decomposed into a baseline signal, a background noise signal, and a peaks/troughs signal. The peaks/troughs from the peaks/troughs signal are located and peaks/troughs information indicating the physical feature of the test piece is output.

  16. Decomposed pairwise regression analysis of genetic and geographic distances reveals a metapopulation structure of stream-dwelling Dolly Varden charr.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Itsuro; Yamamoto, Shoichiro; Maekawa, Koji

    2006-10-01

    Isolation by distance is usually tested by the correlation of genetic and geographic distances separating all pairwise populations' combinations. However, this method can be significantly biased by only a few highly diverged populations and lose the information of individual population. To detect outlier populations and investigate the relative strengths of gene flow and genetic drift for each population, we propose a decomposed pairwise regression analysis. This analysis was applied to the well-described one-dimensional stepping-stone system of stream-dwelling Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus malma). When genetic and geographic distances were plotted for all pairs of 17 tributary populations, the correlation was significant but weak (r(2) = 0.184). Seven outlier populations were determined based on the systematic bias of the regression residuals, followed by Akaike's information criteria. The best model, 10 populations included, showed a strong pattern of isolation by distance (r(2) = 0.758), suggesting equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift in these populations. Each outlier population was also analysed by plotting pairwise genetic and geographic distances against the 10 nonoutlier populations, and categorized into one of the three patterns: strong genetic drift, genetic drift with a limited gene flow and a high level of gene flow. These classifications were generally consistent with a priori predictions for each population (physical barrier, population size, anthropogenic impacts). Combined the genetic analysis with field observations, Dolly Varden in this river appeared to form a mainland-island or source-sink metapopulation structure. The generality of the method will merit many types of spatial genetic analyses.

  17. Real-time polymerase chain reaction monitoring of recombinant DNA entry into soil from decomposing roundup ready leaf biomass.

    PubMed

    Levy-Booth, David J; Campbell, Rachel G; Gulden, Robert H; Hart, Miranda M; Powell, Jeff R; Klironomos, John N; Pauls, K Peter; Swanton, Clarence J; Trevors, Jack T; Dunfield, Kari E

    2008-08-13

    Glyphosate-tolerant, Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans account for about 57% of all genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide. The entry of recombinant DNA into soil from GM crops has been identified as an environmental concern due to the possibility of their horizontal transfer to soil microorganisms. RR soybeans contain recombinant gene sequences that can be differentiated from wild-type plant and microbial genes in soil by using a sequence-specific molecular beacon and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A molecular beacon-based real-time PCR system to quantify a wild-type soybean lectin ( le1) gene was designed to compare amounts of endogenous soybean genes to recombinant DNA in soil. Microcosm studies were carried out to develop methodologies for the detection of recombinant DNA from RR soybeans in soil. RR soybean leaf litterbags were imbedded in the soil under controlled environmental conditions (60% water holding capacity, 10/15 degrees C, and 8/16 h day/night) for 30 days. The soybean biomass decomposition was described using a single-phase exponential equation, and the DNA concentration in planta and in soil was quantified using real-time PCR using sequence-specific molecular beacons for the recombinant cp4 epsps and endogenous soybean lectin ( le1) genes. The biomass of RR soybean leaves was 8.6% less than nontransgenic (NT) soybean leaves after 30 days. The pooled half-disappearance time for cp4 epsps and le1 in RR and of le1 in NT soybean leaves was 1.4 days. All genes from leaves were detected in soil after 30 days. This study provides a methodology for monitoring the entry of RR and NT soybean DNA into soil from decomposing plant residues.

  18. Coupled high-throughput functional screening and next generation sequencing for identification of plant polymer decomposing enzymes in metagenomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Nyyssönen, Mari; Tran, Huu M; Karaoz, Ulas; Weihe, Claudia; Hadi, Masood Z; Martiny, Jennifer B H; Martiny, Adam C; Brodie, Eoin L

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies generate new predictions and hypotheses about the functional roles of environmental microorganisms. Yet, until we can test these predictions at a scale that matches our ability to generate them, most of them will remain as hypotheses. Function-based mining of metagenomic libraries can provide direct linkages between genes, metabolic traits and microbial taxa and thus bridge this gap between sequence data generation and functional predictions. Here we developed high-throughput screening assays for function-based characterization of activities involved in plant polymer decomposition from environmental metagenomic libraries. The multiplexed assays use fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, combine automated liquid handling and use a genetically modified expression host to enable simultaneous screening of 12,160 clones for 14 activities in a total of 170,240 reactions. Using this platform we identified 374 (0.26%) cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin, starch, phosphate and protein hydrolyzing clones from fosmid libraries prepared from decomposing leaf litter. Sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform, followed by assembly and gene prediction of a subset of 95 fosmid clones, identified a broad range of bacterial phyla, including Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, multiple Proteobacteria sub-phyla in addition to some Fungi. Carbohydrate-active enzyme genes from 20 different glycoside hydrolase (GH) families were detected. Using tetranucleotide frequency (TNF) binning of fosmid sequences, multiple enzyme activities from distinct fosmids were linked, demonstrating how biochemically-confirmed functional traits in environmental metagenomes may be attributed to groups of specific organisms. Overall, our results demonstrate how functional screening of metagenomic libraries can be used to connect microbial functionality to community composition and, as a result, complement large-scale metagenomic sequencing efforts.

  19. Environmental safety to decomposer invertebrates of azadirachtin (neem) as a systemic insecticide in trees to control emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Kreutzweiser, David; Thompson, Dean; Grimalt, Susana; Chartrand, Derek; Good, Kevin; Scarr, Taylor

    2011-09-01

    The non-target effects of an azadirachtin-based systemic insecticide used for control of wood-boring insect pests in trees were assessed on litter-dwelling earthworms, leaf-shredding aquatic insects, and microbial communities in terrestrial and aquatic microcosms. The insecticide was injected into the trunks of ash trees at a rate of 0.2 gazadirachtin cm(-1) tree diameter in early summer. At the time of senescence, foliar concentrations in most (65%) leaves where at or below detection (<0.01 mg kg(-1) total azadirachtin) and the average concentration among leaves overall at senescence was 0.19 mg kg(-1). Leaves from the azadirachtin-treated trees at senescence were added to microcosms and responses by test organisms were compared to those in microcosms containing leaves from non-treated ash trees (controls). No significant reductions were detected among earthworm survival, leaf consumption rates, growth rates, or cocoon production, aquatic insect survival and leaf consumption rates, and among terrestrial and aquatic microbial decomposition of leaf material in comparison to controls. In a further set of microcosm tests containing leaves from intentional high-dose trees, the only significant, adverse effect detected was a reduction in microbial decomposition of leaf material, and only at the highest test concentration (∼6 mg kg(-1)). Results indicated no significant adverse effects on litter-dwelling earthworms or leaf-shredding aquatic insects at concentrations up to at least 30 × the expected field concentrations at operational rates, and at 6 × expected field concentrations for adverse effects on microbial decomposition. We conclude that when azadirachtin is used as a systemic insecticide in trees for control of insect pests such as the invasive wood-boring beetle, emerald ash borer, resultant foliar concentrations in senescent leaf material are likely to pose little risk of harm to decomposer invertebrates.

  20. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    PubMed

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites.

  1. Coupled high-throughput functional screening and next generation sequencing for identification of plant polymer decomposing enzymes in metagenomic libraries

    PubMed Central

    Nyyssönen, Mari; Tran, Huu M.; Karaoz, Ulas; Weihe, Claudia; Hadi, Masood Z.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies generate new predictions and hypotheses about the functional roles of environmental microorganisms. Yet, until we can test these predictions at a scale that matches our ability to generate them, most of them will remain as hypotheses. Function-based mining of metagenomic libraries can provide direct linkages between genes, metabolic traits and microbial taxa and thus bridge this gap between sequence data generation and functional predictions. Here we developed high-throughput screening assays for function-based characterization of activities involved in plant polymer decomposition from environmental metagenomic libraries. The multiplexed assays use fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, combine automated liquid handling and use a genetically modified expression host to enable simultaneous screening of 12,160 clones for 14 activities in a total of 170,240 reactions. Using this platform we identified 374 (0.26%) cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin, starch, phosphate and protein hydrolyzing clones from fosmid libraries prepared from decomposing leaf litter. Sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform, followed by assembly and gene prediction of a subset of 95 fosmid clones, identified a broad range of bacterial phyla, including Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, multiple Proteobacteria sub-phyla in addition to some Fungi. Carbohydrate-active enzyme genes from 20 different glycoside hydrolase (GH) families were detected. Using tetranucleotide frequency (TNF) binning of fosmid sequences, multiple enzyme activities from distinct fosmids were linked, demonstrating how biochemically-confirmed functional traits in environmental metagenomes may be attributed to groups of specific organisms. Overall, our results demonstrate how functional screening of metagenomic libraries can be used to connect microbial functionality to community composition and, as a result, complement large-scale metagenomic sequencing efforts. PMID:24069019

  2. Temporal changes in elemental composition in decomposing filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis) determined with PIXE and PIGE.

    PubMed

    Lill, J-O; Salovius-Laurén, S; Harju, L; Rajander, J; Saarela, K-E; Lindroos, A; Heselius, S-J

    2012-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission and particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry were successfully applied in a study of the elemental composition of decomposing filamentous algae. Fresh brown (Pilayella littoralis) and green (Cladophora glomerata) algal materials were placed in cages at 4m depth in a water column of 8m in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea. Every second week decaying algae were sampled from the cages to allow measurements of changes in the elemental compositions. In the study of the elemental losses the concentrations were compensated for the mass reduction. The results show that sulphur, chlorine and partly potassium were lost during decomposition of P. littoralis and C. glomerata. Most of the other elements studied were recovered in the remaining algal mass. Special attention was paid to sorption and desorption of elements, including metal binding capacity, in the decaying algal materials. The affinity order of different cations to the two algal species was established by calculation of conditional distribution coefficients, D'(M). For instance for P. littoralis the following series of binding strength (affinity) of cations were obtained: Al>Ti>Fe > Mn>Ni, Cu>Ba, Cr, Zn>Rb>K, Sr>Pb>Ca>Na>Mg. Notably is that the binding strength of strontium was more than 10 times higher for P. littoralis than for C. glomerata. Due to their high binding capacity and good affinity and selectivity for heavy metal ions these algae have great potential as biological sorbents. Large variations in elemental content during decomposition complicate the use of algae for environmental monitoring.

  3. Theoretical and experimental study on competitive adsorption of SF6 decomposed components on Au-modified anatase (101) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Dong, Xingchen; Gui, Yingang

    2016-11-01

    Partial discharge inside gas insulated switchgear in electric systems will lead to the decomposition of SF6 gas, the insulating medium, producing several kinds of characteristic components. Detecting the species and concentrations of decomposed components of SF6 is considered a feasible way of early-warning to avoid occurrence of sudden fault. As a research hotspot in gas-sensing field, TiO2 nanotubes possess wide application prospect in online monitoring of fault gases in gas insulated switchgear. In this paper, adsorption parameters of SO2, SOF2, and SO2F2, characteristic products of SF6 decomposition, on Au-doped anatase TiO2 (101) surface were calculated using software Materials Studio. The adsorption processes of gas molecules on Au-doped anatase TiO2 (101) surface were theoretically analyzed, which can be used to explain the gas-sensing mechanism of TiO2 nanotubes sensor. Besides, adsorption parameters of Au-doped anatase TiO2 (101) surface were compared with those of intrinsic anatase TiO2 (101) surface. As can be concluded, Au doping changes the sensitivity and selectivity of TiO2 nanotubes to the above three kinds of gases. Furthermore, gas-sensing experiment of intrinsic and Au-doped TiO2 nanotubes to SO2, SOF2, and SO2F2 was carried out, of which the results were consistent with simulation analysis. Research of this paper illustrates sensitive and selective changes of TiO2 nanotubes gas sensor after Au doping, which lays foundation for preparation of gas sensors applied for detection of partial discharge inside gas insulated switchgear.

  4. Species-specific effects of live roots and shoot litter on soil decomposer abundances do not forecast plant litter-nitrogen uptake.

    PubMed

    Saj, Stéphane; Mikola, Juha; Ekelund, Flemming

    2009-08-01

    Plant species produce litter of varying quality and differ in the quality and quantity of compounds they release from live roots, which both can induce different decomposer growth in the soil. To test whether differences in decomposer growth can forecast the amount of N species acquire from plant litter, as suggested by theory, we grew individuals of three grassland plants-Holcus lanatus, Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus-in soils into which (15)N-labelled litter of either Holcus, Plantago or Lotus was added. We measured the effects of live roots and litter of each species on soil microbes and their protozoan and nematode feeders, and to link decomposer growth and plant nutrient uptake, we measured the amount of N taken up by plants from the added litter. We hypothesised that those species that induce the highest growth of microbes, and especially that of microbial feeders, will also take up the highest amount of N from the litter. We found, however, that although numbers of bacterial-feeding Protozoa and nematodes were on average lower after addition of Holcus than Plantago or Lotus litter, N uptake was higher from Holcus litter. Further, although the effects on Protozoa and bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes did not differ between the live plants, litter-N uptake differed, with Holcus being the most efficient compared to Plantago and Lotus. Hence, although microbes and their feeders unquestionably control N mineralization in the soil, and their growth differs among plant species, these differences cannot predict differences in litter-N uptake among plant species. A likely reason is that for nutrient uptake, other species-specific plant traits, such as litter chemistry, root proliferation ability and competitiveness for soil N, override in significance the species-specific ability of plants to induce decomposer growth.

  5. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity and turnover of the vegetation and decomposing C pools in the CMIP5 ESMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Knox, R. G.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C.

    2014-12-01

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in modeled terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on productivity-driven from turnover-driven equilibrium carbon changes of both vegetation and decomposing carbon pools for a set of models participating in the CMIP5 1%/yr CO2 ESM experiments. We find that changes to the live vegetation pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes to equilibrium carbon stocks, with only one model showing large compensating change to vegetation turnover times. The changes in vegetation turnover in response to global change that are projected arise mainly from changes to allocation and fire regimes. For the decomposing carbon pools, the situation is more complex as the production-driven changes are not independent from turnover-driven changes. This dependence arises from the multi-pool representation of decomposition in the models, in which respiration responds more rapidly to perturbations than C stocks, and thus leads to transient but long-lived reductions in turnover times in all models in response to increases in productivity. This mechanism, which we refer to as "tau compression", masks much of the intrinsic response of turnover to changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully-coupled, biogeochemically-coupled, and radiatively-coupled experiments, demonstrating the importance of production changes in governing turnover changes, particularly for decomposing carbon pools, under global change scenarios.

  6. Are leaves that fall from imidacloprid-treated maple trees to control Asian longhorned beetles toxic to non-target decomposer organisms?

    PubMed

    Kreutzweiser, David P; Good, Kevin P; Chartrand, Derek T; Scarr, Taylor A; Thompson, Dean G

    2008-01-01

    The systemic insecticide imidacloprid may be applied to deciduous trees for control of the Asian longhorned beetle, an invasive wood-boring insect. Senescent leaves falling from systemically treated trees contain imidacloprid concentrations that could pose a risk to natural decomposer organisms. We examined the effects of foliar imidacloprid concentrations on decomposer organisms by adding leaves from imidacloprid-treated sugar maple trees to aquatic and terrestrial microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. Imidacloprid in maple leaves at realistic field concentrations (3-11 mg kg(-1)) did not affect survival of aquatic leaf-shredding insects or litter-dwelling earthworms. However, adverse sublethal effects at these concentrations were detected. Feeding rates by aquatic insects and earthworms were reduced, leaf decomposition (mass loss) was decreased, measurable weight losses occurred among earthworms, and aquatic and terrestrial microbial decomposition activity was significantly inhibited. Results of this study suggest that sugar maple trees systemically treated with imidacloprid to control Asian longhorned beetles may yield senescent leaves with residue levels sufficient to reduce natural decomposition processes in aquatic and terrestrial environments through adverse effects on non-target decomposer organisms.

  7. Accumulation of Trace Metal Elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in Surface Sediment via Decomposed Seagrass Leaves: A Mesocosm Experiment Using Zostera marina L.

    PubMed Central

    Konuma, Susumu; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sediment of seagrass ecosystems was examined using mesocosm experiments containing Zostera marina (eelgrass) and reference pools. Lead was approximately 20-fold higher in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool than in eelgrass leaves and epiphytes on the eelgrass leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium were significantly lower in the surface sediment than in the leaves, with intermediate concentrations in epiphytes. Copper concentrations were similar in both the surface sediment and leaves but significantly lower in epiphytes. Carbon and nitrogen contents increased significantly with increasing δ13C in surface sediments of both the eelgrass and reference pools. Copper, Zn, Cd, and Pb also increased significantly with increasing δ13C in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool but not in the reference pool. By decomposition of eelgrass leaves with epiphytes, which was examined in the eelgrass pool, copper and lead concentrations increased more than 2-fold and approximately a 10-fold, whereas zinc and cadmium concentrations decreased. The high copper and lead concentrations in the surface sediment result from accumulation in decomposed, shed leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium remobilized from decomposed shed leaves but may remain at higher concentrations in the leaves than in the original sediments. The results of our mesocosm study demonstrate that whether the accumulation or remobilization of trace metals during the decomposition of seagrass leaves is trace metal dependent, and that the decomposed seagrass leaves can cause copper and lead accumulation in sediments in seagrass ecosystems. PMID:27336306

  8. Accumulation of Trace Metal Elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in Surface Sediment via Decomposed Seagrass Leaves: A Mesocosm Experiment Using Zostera marina L.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Shinya; Konuma, Susumu; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sediment of seagrass ecosystems was examined using mesocosm experiments containing Zostera marina (eelgrass) and reference pools. Lead was approximately 20-fold higher in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool than in eelgrass leaves and epiphytes on the eelgrass leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium were significantly lower in the surface sediment than in the leaves, with intermediate concentrations in epiphytes. Copper concentrations were similar in both the surface sediment and leaves but significantly lower in epiphytes. Carbon and nitrogen contents increased significantly with increasing δ13C in surface sediments of both the eelgrass and reference pools. Copper, Zn, Cd, and Pb also increased significantly with increasing δ13C in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool but not in the reference pool. By decomposition of eelgrass leaves with epiphytes, which was examined in the eelgrass pool, copper and lead concentrations increased more than 2-fold and approximately a 10-fold, whereas zinc and cadmium concentrations decreased. The high copper and lead concentrations in the surface sediment result from accumulation in decomposed, shed leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium remobilized from decomposed shed leaves but may remain at higher concentrations in the leaves than in the original sediments. The results of our mesocosm study demonstrate that whether the accumulation or remobilization of trace metals during the decomposition of seagrass leaves is trace metal dependent, and that the decomposed seagrass leaves can cause copper and lead accumulation in sediments in seagrass ecosystems.

  9. Do nonnative language speakers chew the fat and spill the beans with different brain hemispheres? Investigating idiom decomposability with the divided visual field paradigm.

    PubMed

    Cieślicka, Anna B

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore possible cerebral asymmetries in the processing of decomposable and nondecomposable idioms by fluent nonnative speakers of English. In the study, native language (Polish) and foreign language (English) decomposable and nondecomposable idioms were embedded in ambiguous (neutral) and unambiguous (biasing figurative meaning) context and presented centrally, followed by laterally presented target words related to the figurative meaning of the idiom or literal meaning of the last word of the idiom. The target appeared either immediately at sentence offset (Experiment 1), or 400 ms (Experiment 2) after sentence offset. Results are inconsistent with the Idiom Decomposition Hypothesis (Gibbs et al. in Mem Cogn 17:58-68, 1989a; J Mem Lang 28:576-593, 1989b) and only partially consistent with the idea of the differential cerebral involvement in processing (non)decomposable idioms [the Fine/Coarse Coding Theory, Beeman (Right hemisphere language comprehension: perspectives from cognitive neuroscience, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, 1998)]. A number of factors, rather than compositionality per se, emerge as crucial in determining idiom processing, such as language status (native vs. nonnative), salience, or context.

  10. A new blind fault component separation algorithm for a single-channel mechanical signal mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Tse, Peter W.

    2012-10-01

    A vibration signal collected from a complex machine consists of multiple vibration components, which are system responses excited by several sources. This paper reports a new blind component separation (BCS) method for extracting different mechanical fault features. By applying the proposed method, a single-channel mixed signal can be decomposed into two parts: the periodic and transient subsets. The periodic subset is related to the imbalance, misalignment and eccentricity of a machine. The transient subset refers to abnormal impulsive phenomena, such as those caused by localized bearing faults. The proposed method includes two individual strategies to deal with these different characteristics. The first extracts the sub-Gaussian periodic signal by minimizing the kurtosis of the equalized signals. The second detects the super-Gaussian transient signal by minimizing the smoothness index of the equalized signals. Here, the equalized signals are derived by an eigenvector algorithm that is a successful solution to the blind equalization problem. To reduce the computing time needed to select the equalizer length, a simple optimization method is introduced to minimize the kurtosis and smoothness index, respectively. Finally, simulated multiple-fault signals and a real multiple-fault signal collected from an industrial machine are used to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is able to effectively decompose the multiple-fault vibration mixture into periodic components and random non-stationary transient components. In addition, the equalizer length can be intelligently determined using the proposed method.

  11. A microsatellite based method for quantification of fungi in decomposing plant material elucidates the role of Fusarium graminearum DON production in the saprophytic competition with Trichoderma atroviride in maize tissue microcosms.

    PubMed

    Naef, Andreas; Senatore, Mauro; Défago, Geneviève

    2006-02-01

    Common PCR assays for quantification of fungi in living plants cannot be used to study saprophytic colonization of fungi because plant decomposition releases PCR-inhibiting substances and saprophytes degrade the plant DNA which could serve as internal standard. The microsatellite PCR assays presented here overcome these problems by spiking samples prior to DNA extraction with mycelium of a reference strain. PCR with fluorescent primers co-amplifies microsatellite fragments of different length from target and reference strains. These fragments were separated in a capillary sequencer with fluorescence detection. The target/reference ratio of fluorescence signal was used to calculate target biomass in the sample. Such PCR assays were developed for the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing wheat and maize pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride, using new microsatellite markers. In contrast to real-time PCR assays, the novel PCR assays showed reliable fungal biomass quantification in samples with differentially decomposed plant tissue. The PCR assays were used to quantify the two fungi after competitive colonization of autoclaved maize leaf tissue in microcosms. Using a DON-producing F. graminearum wild-type strain and its nontoxigenic mutant we found no evidence for a role of DON production in F. graminearum defense against T. atroviride. The presence of T. atroviride resulted in a 36% lower wild-type DON production per biomass.

  12. A novel signal compression method based on optimal ensemble empirical mode decomposition for bearing vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Tse, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Today, remote machine condition monitoring is popular due to the continuous advancement in wireless communication. Bearing is the most frequently and easily failed component in many rotating machines. To accurately identify the type of bearing fault, large amounts of vibration data need to be collected. However, the volume of transmitted data cannot be too high because the bandwidth of wireless communication is limited. To solve this problem, the data are usually compressed before transmitting to a remote maintenance center. This paper proposes a novel signal compression method that can substantially reduce the amount of data that need to be transmitted without sacrificing the accuracy of fault identification. The proposed signal compression method is based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the vibration signal into different bands of signal components, termed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). An optimization method was designed to automatically select appropriate EEMD parameters for the analyzed signal, and in particular to select the appropriate level of the added white noise in the EEMD method. An index termed the relative root-mean-square error was used to evaluate the decomposition performances under different noise levels to find the optimal level. After applying the optimal EEMD method to a vibration signal, the IMF relating to the bearing fault can be extracted from the original vibration signal. Compressing this signal component obtains a much smaller proportion of data samples to be retained for transmission and further reconstruction. The proposed compression method were also compared with the popular wavelet compression method. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization of EEMD parameters can automatically find appropriate EEMD parameters for the analyzed signals, and the IMF-based compression method provides a higher compression ratio, while retaining the bearing defect

  13. Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    ORGANIZATION Univ of Minnesota (f*fto U. S. Army Research Office 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (Wiy Stat, and ZIP Code...Minneapolis, MN 55455 P. 0. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Sa. NAME Of FUNDING ISPONSORING Sb. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT...PROJECT ITASK jWORK UNIT Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 EMNTO.I NO NO CESOIO 11. TITLE (Incudt Security Classifiratio") Signal Processing of, he auth

  14. Signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, David M.

    The application of signal processing technology to conventional weapons systems can lower operator workloads and enhance kill probabilities, while automating wide-area surveillance, target search and classification, target tracking, and aimpoint selection. Immediate opportunities exist for automatic target cueing in underwater and over-the-horizon targeting, as well as for airborne multiple-target fire control. By embedding the transit/receive electronics into conformal aircraft sensor arrays, a 'smart' skin can be created. Electronically scanned phased arrays can be used to yield accurate azimuthal and elevation positions while nullifying EW threats. Attention is given to major development thrusts in algorithm design.

  15. Minimum Kullback-Leibler-Based Turbo Multiuser Detector over Decomposition CDMA Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploysuwan, Tuchsanai; Tantiphanwadi, Sawat; Teekaput, Prasit

    In this paper, we develop a new iterative turbo multiuser detector for direct sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems over unknown frequency-selective channels by decomposing the observation signal into a number of signal components. Virtual trellis model representing the ISI channel for each separating signal user is designed to generate extrinsic probability in term of BCJR algorithm for exchange with a single channel decoder as priori information. Minimum kullback-leibler (MKL) framework is derived to calculate numerical channel estimation and extrinsic probability. In comparison with other similar receiver, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves the desirable performance.

  16. Influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on soil bacterial community structure and function in a rice-wheat cropping system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Ni, Tian; Xun, Weibing; Huang, Xiaolei; Huang, Qiwei; Ran, Wei; Shen, Biao; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-14

    To study the influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on bacterial community structure and biological traits, a 3-year field experiments, including four treatments: control without fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha(-1) straw incorporation (NPKS), and chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha(-1) straw incorporation and 300 kg ha(-1) straw decomposer (NPKSD), were performed in a rice-wheat cropping system in Changshu (CS) and Jintan (JT) city, respectively. Soil samples were taken right after wheat (June) and rice (October) harvest in both sites, respectively. The NPKS and NPKSD treatments consistently increased crop yields, cellulase activity, and bacterial abundance in both sampling times and sites. Moreover, the NPKS and NPKSD treatments altered soil bacterial community structure, particularly in the wheat harvest soils in both sites, separating from the CK and NPK treatments. In the rice harvest soils, both NPKS and NPKSD treatments had no considerable impacts on bacterial communities in CS, whereas the NPKSD treatment significantly shaped bacterial communities compared to the other treatments in JT. These practices also significantly shifted the bacterial composition of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rather than shared OTUs. The relative abundances of copiotrophic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) were positively correlated with soil total N, available N, and available P. Taken together, these results indicate that application of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer could particularly stimulate the copiotrophic bacteria, enhance the soil biological activity, and thus, contribute to the soil productivity and sustainability in agro-ecosystems.

  17. Evolved pseudo-wavelet function to optimally decompose sEMG for automated classification of localized muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulla, Mohamed R; Sepulveda, Francisco; Colley, M

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm for automated muscle fatigue detection in sports related scenarios. Surface electromyography (sEMG) of the biceps muscle was recorded from ten subjects performing semi-isometric (i.e., attempted isometric) contraction until fatigue. For training and testing purposes, the signals were labelled in two classes (Non-Fatigue and Fatigue), with the labelling being determined by a fuzzy classifier using elbow angle and its standard deviation as inputs. A genetic algorithm was used for evolving a pseudo-wavelet function for optimising the detection of muscle fatigue on any unseen sEMG signals. Tuning of the generalised evolved pseudo-wavelet function was based on the decomposition of twenty sEMG trials. After completing twenty independent pseudo-wavelet evolution runs, the best run was selected and then tested on ten previously unseen sEMG trials to measure the classification performance. Results show that an evolved pseudo-wavelet improved the classification of muscle fatigue between 7.31% and 13.15% when compared to other wavelet functions, giving an average correct classification of 88.41%.

  18. Simultaneous Continuous Wave Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    signals are transmitted from a source and incident signals are received at a receiver for processing . The processed signals provide...in Doppler resolution. This is because the narrowband signal can be filtered from the other signals and processed as if it was sent alone. [0011... signals are filtered to separate narrowband and broadband incident signals before processing each signal type. The incident signals may then be used

  19. A Binaural Neuromorphic Auditory Sensor for FPGA: A Spike Signal Processing Approach.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Cerezuela-Escudero, Elena; Miro-Amarante, Lourdes; Dominguez-Moralse, Manuel Jesus; de Asis Gomez-Rodriguez, Francisco; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new architecture, design flow, and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation analysis of a neuromorphic binaural auditory sensor, designed completely in the spike domain. Unlike digital cochleae that decompose audio signals using classical digital signal processing techniques, the model presented in this paper processes information directly encoded as spikes using pulse frequency modulation and provides a set of frequency-decomposed audio information using an address-event representation interface. In this case, a systematic approach to design led to a generic process for building, tuning, and implementing audio frequency decomposers with different features, facilitating synthesis with custom features. This allows researchers to implement their own parameterized neuromorphic auditory systems in a low-cost FPGA in order to study the audio processing and learning activity that takes place in the brain. In this paper, we present a 64-channel binaural neuromorphic auditory system implemented in a Virtex-5 FPGA using a commercial development board. The system was excited with a diverse set of audio signals in order to analyze its response and characterize its features. The neuromorphic auditory system response times and frequencies are reported. The experimental results of the proposed system implementation with 64-channel stereo are: a frequency range between 9.6 Hz and 14.6 kHz (adjustable), a maximum output event rate of 2.19 Mevents/s, a power consumption of 29.7 mW, the slices requirements of 11141, and a system clock frequency of 27 MHz.

  20. Urothelial Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The urothelium, which lines the inner surface of the renal pelvis, the ureters, and the urinary bladder, not only forms a high-resistance barrier to ion, solute and water flux, and pathogens, but also functions as an integral part of a sensory web which receives, amplifies, and transmits information about its external milieu. Urothelial cells have the ability to sense changes in their extracellular environment, and respond to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli by releasing various factors such as ATP, nitric oxide, and acetylcholine. They express a variety of receptors and ion channels, including P2X3 purinergic receptors, nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and TRP channels, which all have been implicated in urothelial-neuronal interactions, and involved in signals that via components in the underlying lamina propria, such as interstitial cells, can be amplified and conveyed to nerves, detrusor muscle cells, and ultimately the central nervous system. The specialized anatomy of the urothelium and underlying structures, and the possible communication mechanisms from urothelial cells to various cell types within the bladder wall are described. Changes in the urothelium/lamina propria (“mucosa”) produced by different bladder disorders are discussed, as well as the mucosa as a target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23589830

  1. Number of bacteria decomposing organic phosphorus compounds and phosphatase activity in the sand of two marine beaches differing in the level of anthropopressure.

    PubMed

    Mudryk, Z J; Perliński, P; Antonowicz, J; Robak, D

    2015-12-30

    Number of heterotrophic bacteria ability to decompose organic phosphorus compounds and the level of phosphatase activity in the sand of two marine beaches (southern coast of the Baltic Sea) differing in the level of anthropopressure were studied. The study showed that the number of bacteria and level phosphatase activity were higher in the sand of the beach subjected to stronger anthropopressure. In both studied beaches bacteria hydrolysing DNA were the most numerous (92.7-302.8 CFU·g(-1) d.w.). The least numerous were phytin (26.0·10(3) CFU·g(-1) d.w.) and phenolphthalein diphosphate (11.1·10(3) CFU·g(-1) d.w.) decomposing bacteria. Number of bacteria able to attack tested organic phosphorus compounds were the most numerous in dry zones (10.77-739.92 CFU·g(-1) d.w.) then wet zones (3.34-218.15 CFU·g(-1) d.w.). In both studied beaches bacteria hydrolysing organic phosphorus compounds and phosphatase activity generally were more numerous in surface sand layer. Seasonal variation in the occurrence of bacteria in both studied beaches was observed.

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers fabricated by using (CTA)2S2O8 as self-decomposed soft templates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianyou; Du, Binyang; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2012-10-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers were successfully synthesized by using a template-directed free radical polymerization technique in aqueous solution at 0-5 °C with oxidative complexes as self-decomposed soft templates. The oxidative complexes ((CTA)(2)S(2)O(8)), which were formed between anionic oxidant (S(2)O(8)(2-)) and cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) at 0-5 °C, can be automatically decomposed due to the reduction of S(2)O(8)(2-). No additional treatment was needed to remove the templates. The reactive functional monomer, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA), was used as main monomer. Styrene was used as the comonomer. With simultaneous free radical copolymerization of TMSPMA and styrene, condensation of methoxysilyl groups, and the self-decomposition of (CTA)(2)S(2)O(8), organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers were successfully obtained. The mesoporous structures and morphologies of the resultant hybrid mesoporous polymers were found to be strongly dependent on the feed amounts of TMSPMA and styrene. In the absence of styrene, the hybrid polymer PTMSPMA exhibited mesh-like bicontinuous structures with mesopores and high surface area (335 m(2)/g). With the incorporation of styrene, mesoporous nanoparticles were obtained. The surface areas of the mesoporous nanoparticles decreased with the increase of styrene contents. The adsorption capabilities of such mesoporous polymers for organic dye (Congo red) and protein (bovine serum albumin) were also studied.

  3. From a conservative to a liberal welfare state: decomposing changes in income-related health inequalities in Germany, 1994-2011.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Martin; Vogt, Verena; Sundmacher, Leonie

    2014-05-01

    Individual socio-economic status and the respective socio-economic and political contexts are both important determinants of health. Welfare regimes may be linked with health and health inequalities through two potential pathways: first, they may influence the associations between socio-economic status and health. Second, they may influence the income-related distributions of socio-economic determinants of health within a society. Using the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1994-2011, we analyze how income-related health inequalities evolved in the context of the transformation from a conservative to a liberal welfare system in Germany. We use the concentration index to measure health inequalities, and the annual concentration indices are decomposed to reveal how the contributions of the explanatory variables age, sex, income, education, and occupation changed over time. The changes in the contributions are further decomposed to distinguish whether changes in health inequalities stem from redistributions of the explanatory variables, from changes in their associations with health, or from changes in their means. Income-related health inequalities to the disadvantage of the economically deprived roughly doubled over time, which can largely be explained by changes in the contributions of individual characteristics representing weaker labor market positions, particularly income and unemployment. The social and labor market reforms coincide with the observed changes in the distributions of these characteristics and, to a lesser extent, with changes of their associations with health.

  4. Involvement of lipid peroxidation in the degradation of a non-phenolic lignin model compound by manganese peroxidase of the litter-decomposing fungus Stropharia coronilla.

    PubMed

    Kapich, Alexander N; Steffen, Kari T; Hofrichter, Martin; Hatakka, Annele

    2005-05-06

    Culture liquids of the litter-decomposing basidiomycete Stropharia coronilla showed pro-oxidant activity promoting the peroxidation of linoleic acid. This activity depended on the presence of manganese peroxidase (MnP) in the fungal culture. Pro-oxidant activity maxima coincided with maximum MnP activities during the separation of extracellular proteins by anion-exchange chromatography. Purified MnP1 showed substantial pro-oxidant activity in the presence of acetate and Mn2+ ions, even without the addition of hydrogen peroxide. A non-phenolic beta-O-4 lignin model compound [LMC; 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-dihydroxypropane] was partially oxidized in an in vitro reaction system developing MnP-dependent lipid peroxidation. The chelating organic acids malonate and tartrate noticeably inhibited both the peroxidation of linoleic acid and the conversion of LMC in the system. The major product of the LMC oxidation was 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-3-hydroxypropane; in addition, small amounts of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (veratraldehyde) and 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic (veratric) acid were detected. Thus, MnP-initiated lipid peroxidation may be involved in the degradation of recalcitrant non-phenolic lignin substructures by litter-decomposing fungi similar to MnPs of wood-decaying fungi.

  5. Analyses of tracer time series to decompose the watershed response across a spectrum of spatio-temporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The different processes affecting the transport and fate of solutes in watersheds are often difficult to quantify, partly because the governing mechanisms responsible for the transport dynamics span over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Here we propose a novel methodology to evaluate the watershed solute response using a distributed solute transport model with spatially variable parameters. The model is applied to a network of surface and sub-surface transport pathways representing the watershed scale. By transforming the watershed response from the time domain into the frequency domain closed-form solutions of the transport problem were used to derive formal expressions of the power spectral response. This spectral decomposition attributes the watershed solute response in specific intervals of frequencies to governing processes and spatial regions within the watershed. The spectral decomposition methodology was evaluated using chloride and sodium concentration time series extracted from a set of high-frequency long-term hydrochemical data collected by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) in the Upper Hafren Watershed, Wales. In our analyses we observed a systematic smoothing of the solute concentration in the output signal compared with the input signal. Further, we linked the damping of the concentration fluctuations to the watershed dispersion mechanisms in selected frequency intervals reflecting various environments responsible for the damping. In the Upper Hafren Watershed, we found frequency-dependencies of some of the key model parameters affecting the transport and dispersion of solutes, which can be interpreted such that different pathways contributed to the concentration fluctuations at different frequencies. Thus, the evaluation indicates that environments with different transport characteristics dominate the watershed solute response at different temporal scales. The specific findings include typical transit time of chloride ranging

  6. Compressed sensing techniques for arbitrary frequency-sparse signals in structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhongdong; Kang, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Structural health monitoring requires collection of large number sample data and sometimes high frequent vibration data for detecting the damage of structures. The expensive cost for collecting the data is a big challenge. The recent proposed Compressive Sensing method enables a potentially large reduction in the sampling, and it is a way to meet the challenge. The Compressed Sensing theory requires sparse signal, meaning that the signals can be well-approximated as a linear combination of just a few elements from a known discrete basis or dictionary. The signal of structure vibration can be decomposed into a few sinusoid linear combinations in the DFT domain. Unfortunately, in most cases, the frequencies of decomposed sinusoid are arbitrary in that domain, which may not lie precisely on the discrete DFT basis or dictionary. In this case, the signal will lost its sparsity, and that makes recovery performance degrades significantly. One way to improve the sparsity of the signal is to increase the size of the dictionary, but there exists a tradeoff: the closely-spaced DFT dictionary will increase the coherence between the elements in the dictionary, which in turn decreases recovery performance. In this work we introduce three approaches for arbitrary frequency signals recovery. The first approach is the continuous basis pursuit (CBP), which reconstructs a continuous basis by introducing interpolation steps. The second approach is a semidefinite programming (SDP), which searches the sparest signal on continuous basis without establish any dictionary, enabling a very high recovery precision. The third approach is spectral iterative hard threshold (SIHT), which is based on redundant DFT dictionary and a restricted union-of-subspaces signal model, inhibiting closely spaced sinusoids. The three approaches are studied by numerical simulation. Structure vibration signal is simulated by a finite element model, and compressed measurements of the signal are taken to perform

  7. Nucleon matrix elements from lattice QCD with all-mode-averaging and a domain-decomposed solver: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hippel, Georg; Rae, Thomas D.; Shintani, Eigo; Wittig, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    We study the performance of all-mode-averaging (AMA) when used in conjunction with a locally deflated SAP-preconditioned solver, determining how to optimize the local block sizes and number of deflation fields in order to minimize the computational cost for a given level of overall statistical accuracy. We find that AMA enables a reduction of the statistical error on nucleon charges by a factor of around two at the same cost when compared to the standard method. As a demonstration, we compute the axial, scalar and tensor charges of the nucleon in Nf = 2 lattice QCD with non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson quarks, using O(10,000) measurements to pursue the signal out to source-sink separations of ts ∼ 1.5 fm. Our results suggest that the axial charge is suffering from a significant amount (5-10%) of excited-state contamination at source-sink separations of up to ts ∼ 1.2 fm, whereas the excited-state contamination in the scalar and tensor charges seems to be small.

  8. Scram signal generator

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, Edward W.; Simms, Richard

    1981-01-01

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  9. Scram signal generator

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, E.W.; Simms, R.

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  10. Applications of Hilbert Spectral Analysis for Speech and Sound Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed, and the natural applications are to speech and sound signals. The key part of the method is the Empirical Mode Decomposition method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). An IMF is defined as any function having the same numbers of zero-crossing and extrema, and also having symmetric envelopes defined by the local maxima and minima respectively. The IMF also admits well-behaved Hilbert transform. This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. Since the decomposition is based on the local characteristic time scale of the data, it is applicable to nonlinear and nonstationary processes. With the Hilbert transform, the Intrinsic Mode Functions yield instantaneous frequencies as functions of time, which give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. This method invention can be used to process all acoustic signals. Specifically, it can process the speech signals for Speech synthesis, Speaker identification and verification, Speech recognition, and Sound signal enhancement and filtering. Additionally, as the acoustical signals from machinery are essentially the way the machines are talking to us. Therefore, the acoustical signals, from the machines, either from sound through air or vibration on the machines, can tell us the operating conditions of the machines. Thus, we can use the acoustic signal to diagnosis the problems of machines.

  11. An intelligent approach for variable size segmentation of non-stationary signals

    PubMed Central

    Azami, Hamed; Hassanpour, Hamid; Escudero, Javier; Sanei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    In numerous signal processing applications, non-stationary signals should be segmented to piece-wise stationary epochs before being further analyzed. In this article, an enhanced segmentation method based on fractal dimension (FD) and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for non-stationary signals, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetoencephalogram (MEG) and electromyogram (EMG), is proposed. In the proposed approach, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes the signal into orthonormal time series with different frequency bands. Then, the FD of the decomposed signal is calculated within two sliding windows. The accuracy of the segmentation method depends on these parameters of FD. In this study, four EAs are used to increase the accuracy of segmentation method and choose acceptable parameters of the FD. These include particle swarm optimization (PSO), new PSO (NPSO), PSO with mutation, and bee colony optimization (BCO). The suggested methods are compared with other most popular approaches (improved nonlinear energy operator (INLEO), wavelet generalized likelihood ratio (WGLR), and Varri’s method) using synthetic signals, real EEG data, and the difference in the received photons of galactic objects. The results demonstrate the absolute superiority of the suggested approach. PMID:26425359

  12. An intelligent approach for variable size segmentation of non-stationary signals.

    PubMed

    Azami, Hamed; Hassanpour, Hamid; Escudero, Javier; Sanei, Saeid

    2015-09-01

    In numerous signal processing applications, non-stationary signals should be segmented to piece-wise stationary epochs before being further analyzed. In this article, an enhanced segmentation method based on fractal dimension (FD) and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for non-stationary signals, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetoencephalogram (MEG) and electromyogram (EMG), is proposed. In the proposed approach, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes the signal into orthonormal time series with different frequency bands. Then, the FD of the decomposed signal is calculated within two sliding windows. The accuracy of the segmentation method depends on these parameters of FD. In this study, four EAs are used to increase the accuracy of segmentation method and choose acceptable parameters of the FD. These include particle swarm optimization (PSO), new PSO (NPSO), PSO with mutation, and bee colony optimization (BCO). The suggested methods are compared with other most popular approaches (improved nonlinear energy operator (INLEO), wavelet generalized likelihood ratio (WGLR), and Varri's method) using synthetic signals, real EEG data, and the difference in the received photons of galactic objects. The results demonstrate the absolute superiority of the suggested approach.

  13. Decomposing cerebral blood flow MRI into functional and structural components: A non-local approach based on prediction

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Benjamin M.; Wang, Danny JJ; Detre, John A.; Gee, James C.; Avants, Brian B.

    2014-01-01

    We present RIPMMARC (Rotation Invariant Patch-based Multi-Modality Analysis aRChitecture), a flexible and widely applicable method for extracting information unique to a given modality from a multi-modal data set. We use RIPMMARC to improve interpretation of arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion images by removing the component of perfusion that is predicted by the underlying anatomy. Using patch-based, rotation invariant descriptors derived from the anatomical image, we learn a predictive relationship between local neuroanatomical structure and the corresponding perfusion image. This relation allows us to produce an image of perfusion that would be predicted given only the underlying anatomy and a residual image that represents perfusion information that cannot be predicted by anatomical features. Our learned structural features are significantly better at predicting brain perfusion than tissue probability maps, which are the input to standard partial volume correction techniques. Studies in test-retest data show that both the anatomically predicted and residual perfusion signal are highly replicable for a given subject. In a pediatric population, both the raw perfusion and structurally predicted images are tightly linked to age throughout adolescence throughout the brain. Interestingly, the residual perfusion also shows a strong correlation with age in select regions including the hippocampi (corr= 0.38, p-value < 10−6), precuneus (corr= −0.44, p < 10−5), and combined default mode network regions (corr= −0.45, p < 10−8) that is independent of global anatomy-perfusion trends. This finding suggests that there is a regionally heterogeneous pattern of functional specialization that is distinct from that of cortical structural development. PMID:25449745

  14. Decomposing cerebral blood flow MRI into functional and structural components: a non-local approach based on prediction.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Benjamin M; Wang, Danny J J; Detre, John A; Gee, James C; Avants, Brian B

    2015-01-15

    We present RIPMMARC (Rotation Invariant Patch-based Multi-Modality Analysis aRChitecture), a flexible and widely applicable method for extracting information unique to a given modality from a multi-modal data set. We use RIPMMARC to improve the interpretation of arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion images by removing the component of perfusion that is predicted by the underlying anatomy. Using patch-based, rotation invariant descriptors derived from the anatomical image, we learn a predictive relationship between local neuroanatomical structure and the corresponding perfusion image. This relation allows us to produce an image of perfusion that would be predicted given only the underlying anatomy and a residual image that represents perfusion information that cannot be predicted by anatomical features. Our learned structural features are significantly better at predicting brain perfusion than tissue probability maps, which are the input to standard partial volume correction techniques. Studies in test-retest data show that both the anatomically predicted and residual perfusion signals are highly replicable for a given subject. In a pediatric population, both the raw perfusion and structurally predicted images are tightly linked to age throughout adolescence throughout the brain. Interestingly, the residual perfusion also shows a strong correlation with age in selected regions including the hippocampi (corr = 0.38, p-value <10(-6)), precuneus (corr = -0.44, p < 10(-5)), and combined default mode network regions (corr = -0.45, p < 10(-8)) that is independent of global anatomy-perfusion trends. This finding suggests that there is a regionally heterogeneous pattern of functional specialization that is distinct from that of cortical structural development.

  15. Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis methods in biomedical signal applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Feng; Zhu, Jin-De

    2012-03-01

    Hilbert-Huang transformation, wavelet transformation, and Fourier transformation are the principal time-frequency analysis methods. These transformations can be used to discuss the frequency characteristics of linear and stationary signals, the time-frequency features of linear and non-stationary signals, the time-frequency features of non-linear and non-stationary signals, respectively. The Hilbert-Huang transformation is a combination of empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert spectral analysis. The empirical mode decomposition uses the characteristics of signals to adaptively decompose them to several intrinsic mode functions. Hilbert transforms are then used to transform the intrinsic mode functions into instantaneous frequencies, to obtain the signal's time-frequency-energy distributions and features. Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis can be applied to natural physical signals such as earthquake waves, winds, ocean acoustic signals, mechanical diagnosis signals, and biomedical signals. In previous studies, we examined Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalogram FPI signals of clinical alcoholics, and 'sharp I' wave-based Hilbert-Huang transformation time-frequency features. In this paper, we discuss the application of Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis to biomedical signals, such as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram signals, electrogastrogram recordings, and speech signals.

  16. Geographical features of the distribution and renewal of easily decomposable organic matter in virgin and arable zonal soils of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, B. A.; Ganzhara, N. F.

    2008-09-01

    A decrease in the depth of organic surface horizons (forest litters and steppe mats), the reserves of organic matter in them, and an increase in their renewal rate were noted for virgin and fallow soils when going from the southern taiga to the dry steppe zone. Zonal changes in the content and reserve of easily decomposable soil organic matter showed a similar tendency: these parameters regularly decreased from soddy-podzolic soils of the southern taiga to chestnut and light chestnut soils of the dry steppe. An exception from this series is provided by fallow chernozems of the steppe zone noted for the lowest content and reserve of labile organic matter in the series of soils studied. Similar, although less pronounced, tendencies were observed for the arable soils.

  17. Involvement of the Ligninolytic System of White-Rot and Litter-Decomposing Fungi in the Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia N.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are natural and anthropogenic aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings. Because of their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, PAHs are a significant environmental concern. Ligninolytic fungi, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus, have the capacity of PAH degradation. The enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are ligninolytic and include lignin peroxidase, versatile peroxidase, Mn-peroxidase, and laccase. This paper summarizes the data available on PAH degradation by fungi belonging to different ecophysiological groups (white-rot and litter-decomposing fungi) under submerged cultivation and during mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. The role of the ligninolytic enzymes of these fungi in PAH degradation is discussed. PMID:22830035

  18. Successive binary algebraic reconstruction technique: an algorithm for reconstruction from limited angle and limited number of projections decomposed into individual components.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Alia S; Beck, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high radiation CT techniques are being widely used in diagnostic imaging raising the concerns about cancer risk especially for routine screening of asymptomatic populations. An important strategy for dose reduction is to reduce the number of projections, although doing so with high image quality is technically difficult. We developed an algorithm to reconstruct discrete (limited gray scale) images decomposed into individual tissue types from a small number of projections acquired over a limited view angle. The algorithm was tested using projection simulations from segmented CT scans of different cross sections including mid femur, distal femur and lower leg. It can provide high quality images from as low as 5-7 projections if the skin boundary of the cross section is used as prior information in the reconstruction process, and from 11-13 projections if the skin boundary is unknown.

  19. Application of the Huang-Hilbert transform and natural time to the analysis of seismic electric signal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulou, K. A.; Skordas, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Huang method is applied to Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activities in order to decompose them into their components, named Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). We study which of these components contribute to the basic characteristics of the signal. The Hilbert transform is then applied to the IMFs in order to determine their instantaneous amplitudes. The results are compared with those obtained from the analysis in a new time domain termed natural time, after having subtracted the magnetotelluric background from the original signal. It is shown that these instantaneous amplitudes, when combined with the natural time analysis, can be used for the distinction of SES from artificial noises.

  20. Sub-Audible Speech Recognition Based upon Electromyographic Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Lee, Diana D. (Inventor); Agabon, Shane T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for processing and identifying a sub-audible signal formed by a source of sub-audible sounds. Sequences of samples of sub-audible sound patterns ("SASPs") for known words/phrases in a selected database are received for overlapping time intervals, and Signal Processing Transforms ("SPTs") are formed for each sample, as part of a matrix of entry values. The matrix is decomposed into contiguous, non-overlapping two-dimensional cells of entries, and neural net analysis is applied to estimate reference sets of weight coefficients that provide sums with optimal matches to reference sets of values. The reference sets of weight coefficients are used to determine a correspondence between a new (unknown) word/phrase and a word/phrase in the database.

  1. Reiteration of Hankel singular value decomposition for modeling of complex-valued signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniszewski, Michał; Skorupa, Agnieszka; Boguszewicz, Łukasz; Wicher, Magdalena; Konopka, Marek; Sokół, Maria; Polański, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Modeling signal which forms complex values is a common scientific problem, which is present in many applications, i.e. in medical signals, computer graphics and vision. One of the possible solution is utilization of Hankel Singular Value Decomposition. In the first step complex-valued signal is arranged in a special form called Hankel matrix, which is in the next step decomposed in operation of Singular Value Decomposition. Obtained matrices can be then reformulated in order to get parameters describing system. Basic method can be applied for fitting whole signal but it fails in modeling each particular component of signal. Modification of basic HSVD method, which relies on reiteration and is used for main components, and application of prior knowledge solves presented problem.

  2. Detecting laser-range-finding signals in surveying converter lining based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongsheng; Yang, Xiaofei; Shi, Tielin; Yang, Shuzi

    1998-08-01

    The precision of the laser range finding subsystem has important influences on the performances of the whole measurement system applied to survey the steelmaking converter lining erosion state. In the system, the object of laser beams is some rough lighting surfaces in high temperature. the laser range finding signals to reach the microcomputer system would be submerged in intense disturb environments. Common laser range finding devices could not work normally. This paper presents a method based on the wavelet transform to test solving the problem. The idea of this method includes encoding the measuring signals, decomposing the encoded received signals of components in different frequency scales and time domains by the wavelet transform method, extracting the features of encoded signals according to queer points to confirm the arrival of signals, and accurately calculating out the measured distances. In addition, the method is also helpful to adopt some digital filter algorithms in time. It could make further in improvement on the precision.

  3. Electrocardiogram Signal Denoising Using Extreme-Point Symmetric Mode Decomposition and Nonlocal Means

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaoying; Li, Yongshuai; Zhou, Huan; Li, Xiang; Chen, Lisha; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals contain a great deal of essential information which can be utilized by physicians for the diagnosis of heart diseases. Unfortunately, ECG signals are inevitably corrupted by noise which will severely affect the accuracy of cardiovascular disease diagnosis. Existing ECG signal denoising methods based on wavelet shrinkage, empirical mode decomposition and nonlocal means (NLM) cannot provide sufficient noise reduction or well-detailed preservation, especially with high noise corruption. To address this problem, we have proposed a hybrid ECG signal denoising scheme by combining extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition (ESMD) with NLM. In the proposed method, the noisy ECG signals will first be decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and adaptive global mean using ESMD. Then, the first several IMFs will be filtered by the NLM method according to the frequency of IMFs while the QRS complex detected from these IMFs as the dominant feature of the ECG signal and the remaining IMFs will be left unprocessed. The denoised IMFs and unprocessed IMFs are combined to produce the final denoised ECG signals. Experiments on both simulated ECG signals and real ECG signals from the MIT-BIH database demonstrate that the proposed method can suppress noise in ECG signals effectively while preserving the details very well, and it outperforms several state-of-the-art ECG signal denoising methods in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), root mean squared error (RMSE), percent root mean square difference (PRD) and mean opinion score (MOS) error index. PMID:27681729

  4. Signal processor for processing ultrasonic receiver signals

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1980-01-01

    A signal processor is provided which uses an analog integrating circuit in conjunction with a set of digital counters controlled by a precision clock for sampling timing to provide an improved presentation of an ultrasonic transmitter/receiver signal. The signal is sampled relative to the transmitter trigger signal timing at precise times, the selected number of samples are integrated and the integrated samples are transferred and held for recording on a strip chart recorder or converted to digital form for storage. By integrating multiple samples taken at precisely the same time with respect to the trigger for the ultrasonic transmitter, random noise, which is contained in the ultrasonic receiver signal, is reduced relative to the desired useful signal.

  5. Retained energy-based coding for EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Bazán-Prieto, Carlos; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cárdenas-Barrera, Julián; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    The recent use of long-term records in electroencephalography is becoming more frequent due to its diagnostic potential and the growth of novel signal processing methods that deal with these types of recordings. In these cases, the considerable volume of data to be managed makes compression necessary to reduce the bit rate for transmission and storage applications. In this paper, a new compression algorithm specifically designed to encode electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is proposed. Cosine modulated filter banks are used to decompose the EEG signal into a set of subbands well adapted to the frequency bands characteristic of the EEG. Given that no regular pattern may be easily extracted from the signal in time domain, a thresholding-based method is applied for quantizing samples. The method of retained energy is designed for efficiently computing the threshold in the decomposition domain which, at the same time, allows the quality of the reconstructed EEG to be controlled. The experiments are conducted over a large set of signals taken from two public databases available at Physionet and the results show that the compression scheme yields better compression than other reported methods.

  6. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling

    PubMed Central

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D.; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verification can lead to reliability in repeated interactions that typically characterize mutualisms. Specifically, we model whether fruit consumers that discriminate among poor- and good-quality fruits within a population can select for reliable fruit signals. In our model, plants either signal or they do not; costs associated with signalling are fixed and independent of plant quality. We find parameter combinations where discriminating fruit consumers can select for signal reliability by abandoning unprofitable plants more quickly. This self-serving behaviour imposes costs upon plants as a by-product, rendering it unprofitable for unrewarding plants to signal. Thus, strategic costs to signalling are not a prerequisite for reliable communication. We expect verification to more generally explain signal reliability in repeated consumer–resource interactions that typify mutualisms but also in antagonistic interactions such as mimicry and aposematism. PMID:24068354

  7. Retroactive Signaling in Short Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sepulchre, Jacques-Alexandre; Merajver, Sofía D.; Ventura, Alejandra C.

    2012-01-01

    In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles. PMID:22848403

  8. Effects of sediment burial disturbance on macro and microelement dynamics in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhigao; Mou, Xiaojie

    2016-03-01

    From April 2008 to November 2009, a field decomposition experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sediment burial on macro (C, N) and microelement (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Mn) variations in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary. Three one-off sediment burial treatments [no sediment burial (0 mm year(-1), S0), current sediment burial (100 mm year(-1), S10), and strong sediment burial (200 mm year(-1), S20)] were laid in different decomposition sites. Results showed that sediment burials showed significant influence on the decomposition rate of P. australis, in the order of S10 (0.001990 day(-1)) ≈ S20 (0.001710 day(-1)) > S0 (0.000768 day(-1)) (p < 0.05). The macro and microelement in decomposing litters of the three burial depths exhibited different temporal variations except for Cu, Zn, and Ni. No significant differences in C, N, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn concentrations were observed among the three burial treatments except for Cu and Ni (p > 0.05). With increasing burial depth, N, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn concentrations generally increased, while C, Pb, and Zn concentrations varied insignificantly. Sediment burial was favorable for C and N release from P. australis, and, with increasing burial depth, the C release from litter significantly increased, and the N in litter shifted from accumulation to release. With a few exceptions, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the three treatments evidenced the export of metals from litter to environment, and, with increasing burial depth, the export amounts increased greatly. Stocks of Cu and Ni in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were generally positive, evidencing incorporation of the two metals in most sampling times. Except for Ni, the variations of C, N, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were approximated, indicating that the strong burial episodes (S20) occurred in P. australis marsh in

  9. Examination of the effect of dose-death interval on detection of meperidine exposure in decomposed skeletal tissues using microwave-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Watterson, James H; Desrosiers, Nathalie A

    2011-04-15

    The effect of dose-death interval and tissue distribution on the detection of meperidine in selected skeletal tissues was examined using a rapid microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methodology. Rats (n=14) were dosed with 0 (n=2) or 30 mg/kg (n=12) meperidine (i.p.). Drug-positive rats were sacrificed with CO(2) after 20, 30, 90 and 150 min (n=3 per group). Heart blood was collected immediately after death. Tibiae were excised and frozen for further analysis. The remaining carcasses were allowed to decompose outside in secured cages to the point of complete skeletonization in a rural Northern Ontario location during the late summer months. Vertebrae and pelvi were collected for each animal. Tibial marrow was homogenized in 3 mL PB6 (phosphate buffer, 0.1M, pH 6). Fresh tibiae, and decomposed vertebrae and pelvi were cleaned in PB8.5 (phosphate buffer, 0.1M, pH 8.5) and sonicated to remove remaining soft tissue. Samples of dried, ground bone (0.5-1g) suspended in 2 mL PB6 were then irradiated in a domestic microwave oven (1100 W) at atmospheric pressure for 15 min. Samples of vertebral bone (1g) were also extracted by passive incubation in methanol (3 mL, 50°C, 72 h). All supernatants then underwent solid-phase extraction and analysis by GC/MS, using electron impact ionization in the Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode. Mean GC/MS responses for each tissue type were negatively correlated with dose-death interval, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.32 to -0.87. Analysis of variance showed dose-death interval to be a main effect (p<0.05) with respect to GC/MS response for blood, marrow, tibial epiphyses prepared by MAE, and vertebral bone prepared by passive extraction, but not for tibial diaphyses, pelvi or vertebrae prepared by MAE. Overall, MAE is advantageous as a rapid extraction tool for screening purposes in skeletal tissues, but assignment of significance to quantitative expressions of skeletal drug concentrations is complex and should be approached

  10. Capacity of microorganisms to decompose organic carbon affected by an increasing content of reactive mineral phases in a podzolic soil chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeire, Marie-Liesse; Doetterl, Sebastian; Bode, Samuel; Delmelle, Pierre; Van Oost, Kristof; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter stabilization has received considerable interest in the last decades due to the importance of the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the global C budget. There is increasing evidence that the formation of organo-mineral associations play a major role in the mechanisms of organic carbon stabilization, indicating that the persistence of organic matter in soils relates primarily to soil physico-chemical and biological conditions than to intrinsic recalcitrance. Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides and short-range ordered aluminosilicates are known for their high capacity to sorb organic carbon. However, the impact of the evolution of these reactive mineral phases over short time scale on the distribution of microorganisms and their ability to decompose SOC is still poorly understood. To further study the short-term evolution of organo-mineral associations, we investigated a 500-year podzolic soil chronosequence which is characterized by an increasing amount of secondary reactive mineral phases with pedogenesis and soil age, and thus by increased organo-mineral associations. In order to determine the impact of these secondary mineral phases on the degradation of SOC by microorganisms, an incubation experiment was carried out using soil horizons up to 1m deep from 6 profiles of different ages along the chronosequence. Furthermore, we used amino sugars and phospholipid fatty acids as tracers of dead and living microbial biomass, respectively, in the incubated samples. Our results show that SOC mineralization was significantly lower in the illuvial Bh/Bhs horizons (which contain more reactive mineral phases) compared to the surface E horizons (depleted in reactive mineral phases), although the content in amino sugars is similar in these horizons. In the deeper Bw and BC horizons, as well as in the young profiles (<300 yrs) that have not yet undergone podzolization and related formation of organo-mineral associations, SOC mineralization rates were the highest. These

  11. Error reduction in EMG signal decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kline, Joshua C; De Luca, Carlo J

    2014-12-01

    Decomposition of the electromyographic (EMG) signal into constituent action potentials and the identification of individual firing instances of each motor unit in the presence of ambient noise are inherently probabilistic processes, whether performed manually or with automated algorithms. Consequently, they are subject to errors. We set out to classify and reduce these errors by analyzing 1,061 motor-unit action-potential trains (MUAPTs), obtained by decomposing surface EMG (sEMG) signals recorded during human voluntary contractions. Decomposition errors were classified into two general categories: location errors representing variability in the temporal localization of each motor-unit firing instance and identification errors consisting of falsely detected or missed firing instances. To mitigate these errors, we developed an error-reduction algorithm that combines multiple decomposition estimates to determine a more probable estimate of motor-unit firing instances with fewer errors. The performance of the algorithm is governed by a trade-off between the yield of MUAPTs obtained above a given accuracy level and the time required to perform the decomposition. When applied to a set of sEMG signals synthesized from real MUAPTs, the identification error was reduced by an average of 1.78%, improving the accuracy to 97.0%, and the location error was reduced by an average of 1.66 ms. The error-reduction algorithm in this study is not limited to any specific decomposition strategy. Rather, we propose it be used for other decomposition methods, especially when analyzing precise motor-unit firing instances, as occurs when measuring synchronization.

  12. EMD-WVD time-frequency distribution for analysis of multi-component signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yunzi; Zhang, Xudong

    2016-10-01

    Time-frequency distribution (TFD) is two-dimensional function that indicates the time-varying frequency content of one-dimensional signals. And The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) is an important and effective time-frequency analysis method. The WVD can efficiently show the characteristic of a mono-component signal. However, a major drawback is the extra cross-terms when multi-component signals are analyzed by WVD. In order to eliminating the cross-terms, we decompose signals into single frequency components - Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) - by using the Empirical Mode decomposition (EMD) first, then use WVD to analyze each single IMF. In this paper, we define this new time-frequency distribution as EMD-WVD. And the experiment results show that the proposed time-frequency method can solve the cross-terms problem effectively and improve the accuracy of WVD time-frequency analysis.

  13. Computer implemented empirical mode decomposition method, apparatus, and article of manufacture for two-dimensional signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computer implemented method of processing two-dimensional physical signals includes five basic components and the associated presentation techniques of the results. The first component decomposes the two-dimensional signal into one-dimensional profiles. The second component is a computer implemented Empirical Mode Decomposition that extracts a collection of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF's) from each profile based on local extrema and/or curvature extrema. The decomposition is based on the direct extraction of the energy associated with various intrinsic time scales in the profiles. In the third component, the IMF's of each profile are then subjected to a Hilbert Transform. The fourth component collates the Hilbert transformed IMF's of the profiles to form a two-dimensional Hilbert Spectrum. A fifth component manipulates the IMF's by, for example, filtering the two-dimensional signal by reconstructing the two-dimensional signal from selected IMF(s).

  14. Signal denoising and ultrasonic flaw detection via overcomplete and sparse representations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Ming; Harvey, David M; Braden, Derek R

    2008-11-01

    Sparse signal representations from overcomplete dictionaries are the most recent technique in the signal processing community. Applications of this technique extend into many fields. In this paper, this technique is utilized to cope with ultrasonic flaw detection and noise suppression problem. In particular, a noisy ultrasonic signal is decomposed into sparse representations using a sparse Bayesian learning algorithm and an overcomplete dictionary customized from a Gabor dictionary by incorporating some a priori information of the transducer used. Nonlinear postprocessing including thresholding and pruning is then applied to the decomposed coefficients to reduce the noise contribution and extract the flaw information. Because of the high compact essence of sparse representations, flaw echoes are packed into a few significant coefficients, and noise energy is likely scattered all over the dictionary atoms, generating insignificant coefficients. This property greatly increases the efficiency of the pruning and thresholding operations and is extremely useful for detecting flaw echoes embedded in background noise. The performance of the proposed approach is verified experimentally and compared with the wavelet transform signal processor. Experimental results to detect ultrasonic flaw echoes contaminated by white Gaussian additive noise or correlated noise are presented in the paper.

  15. Multidimensional signal processing for ultrasonic signal classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Ramuhalli, P.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S.

    2001-04-01

    Neural network based signal classification systems are being used increasingly in the analysis of large volumes of data obtained in NDE applications. One example is in the interpretation on ultrasonic signals obtained from inspection of welds where signals can be due to porosity, slag, lack of fusion and cracks in the weld region. Standard techniques rely on differences in individual A-scans to classify the signals. This paper proposes an ultrasonic signal classification technique based on the information in a group of signals and examining the statistical characteristics of the signals. The method was 2-dimensional signal processing algorithms to analyze the information in B- and B'-scan images. In this paper, 2-dimensional transform based coefficients of the images are used as features and a multilayer perceptron is used to classify them. These results are then combined to get the final classification for the inspected region. Results of applying the technique to data obtained from the inspection of welds are presented.

  16. SR-135, a Peroxynitrite Decomposing Catalyst, Enhances β-cell Function and Survival in B6D2F1 Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Michael; Fyalka, Robert; Shea, Jennifer A.; Neumann, William L.; Rausaria, Smita; Msengi, Eliwaza Naomi; Imani-Nejad, Maryam; Zollars, Harry; McPherson, Timothy; Schober, Joseph; Wooten, Joshua; Kwon, Guim

    2015-01-01

    Peroxynitrite has been implicated in β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity. Chemical catalysts that destroy peroxynitrite, therefore, may have therapeutic value for treating type 2 diabetes. To this end, we have recently demonstrated that Mn(III) bis(hydroxyphenyl)-dipyrromethene complexes, SR-135 and its analogues, can effectively catalyze the decomposition of peroxynitrite in vitro and in vivo through a 2-electron mechanism (Rausaria et al. 2011). To study the effects of SR-135 on glucose homeostasis in obesity, B6D2F1 mice were fed with a high fat-diet (HFD) for 12 weeks and treated with vehicle, SR-135 (5 mg/kg), or a control drug SRB for 2 weeks. SR-135 significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and enhanced glucose tolerance as compared to HFD control, vehicle or SRB. SR-135 also enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion based on ex vivo studies. Moreover, SR-135 increased insulin content, restored islet architecture, decreased islet size, and reduced tyrosine nitration and apoptosis. These results suggest that a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst enhances β-cell function and survival under nutrient overload. PMID:25935364

  17. Decomposing transverse momentum balance contributions for quenched jets in PbPb collisions at $ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{N}\\;\\mathrm{N}}}=2.76 $ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D’Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Forthomme, L.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Susa, T.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulte, J. F.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hamer, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Flügge, G.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Borras, K.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eren, E.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Bahinipati, S.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Kole, G.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Hegde, V.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Behnamian, H.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall’Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell’Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Cipriani, M.; D’imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Shchelina, K.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Traczyk, P.; Belforte, S.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Lee, A.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Oh, S. B.; Seo, S. h.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Carpinteyro, S.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Korenkov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Yuldashev, B. S.; Zarubin, A.; Chtchipounov, L.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Sulimov, V.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Rusakov, S. V.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Demiyanov, A.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Kodolova, O.; Korotkikh, V.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Vardanyan, I.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Barrio Luna, M.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Suárez Andrés, I.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; D’Alfonso, M.; d’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krammer, M.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. 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S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Topakli, H.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Barducci, D.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Penning, B.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Jesus, O.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Spencer, E.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. 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F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Malta Rodrigues, A.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Hortiangtham, A.; Knapp, B.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R. -J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Kumar, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mei, K.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2016-11-09

    Interactions between jets and the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions are studied via the angular distributions of summed charged-particle transverse momenta (pT) with respect to both the leading and subleading jet axes in high-pt dijet events. The contributions of charged particles in different momentum ranges to the overall event pt balance are decomposed into short-range jet peaks and a long-range azimuthal asymmetry in charged-particle pT. The results for PbPb collisions are compared to those in pp collisions using data collected in 2011 and 2013, at collision energy $ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{N}\\;\\mathrm{N}}}=2.76 $ TeV with integrated luminosities of 166 μb–1 and 5.3 pb–1, respectively, by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Furthermore, measurements are presented as functions of PbPb collision centrality, charged-particle pt, relative azimuth, and radial distance from the jet axis for balanced and unbalanced dijets.

  18. Decomposing the profile of PM in two low polluted German cities--mapping of air mass residence time, focusing on potential long range transport impacts.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to decompose the profile of particulates in Karlsruhe and Potsdam (Germany), focusing on the localization of PM potential transboundary sources. An air mass cluster analysis was implemented, followed by a study of air mass residence time on a grid of a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. Particulate/gaseous daily air pollution and meteorological data were used to indicate PM local sources. Four Principal Component Analysis (PCA) components were produced: traffic, photochemical, industrial/domestic and particulate. PM2.5/PM10 ratio seasonal trends, indicated production of PMCOARSE (PM10-PM2.5) from secondary sources in Potsdam during warm period (WP). The residing areas of incoming slow moving air masses are potential transboundary PM sources. For Karlsruhe those areas were mainly around the city. An air mass residence time secondary peak was observed over Stuttgart. For Potsdam, areas with increased dwelling time of the arriving air parcels were detected particularly above E/SE Germany.

  19. Diversity of Fungi on Decomposing Leaf Litter in a Sugarcane Plantation and Their Response to Tillage Practice and Bagasse Mulching: Implications for Management Effects on Litter Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toshiko; Niswati, Ainin; Swibawa, I G; Haryani, Sri; Gunito, Heru; Shimano, Satoshi; Fujie, Koichi; Kaneko, Nobuhiro

    2015-10-01

    To minimize the degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) content in conventional sugarcane cropping, it is important to understand how the fungal community contributes to SOM dynamics during the decomposition of sugarcane leaf litter. However, our knowledge of fungal diversity in tropical agroecosystems is currently limited. Thus, we determined the fungal community structure on decomposing sugarcane leaf litter and their response to different soil management systems using the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) amplicon sequencing method afforded by Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). The results indicate that no-tillage had positive effects on the relative abundance of Zygomycota and of some taxa that may prefer a moist environment over conventional tillage, whereas bagasse mulching decreased the richness of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and had positive effect on the relative abundance of slow-growing taxa, which may prefer poor nutrient substrates. Furthermore, a combination of no-tillage and bagasse mulching increased the abundance of unique OTUs. We suggest that the alteration of fungal communities through the changes in soil management practices produces an effect on litter decomposition.

  20. Dipolar-dephasing 13C NMR studies of decomposed wood and coalified xylem tissue: Evidence for chemical structural changes associated with defunctionalization of lignin structural units during coalification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    A series of decomposed and coalified gymnosperm woods was examined by conventional solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and by dipolar-dephasing NMR techniques. The results of these NMR studies for a histologically related series of samples provide clues as to the nature of codification reactions that lead to the defunctionalization of lignin-derived aromatic structures. These reactions sequentially involve the following: (1) loss of methoxyl carbons from guaiacyl structural units with replacement by hydroxyls and increased condensation; (2) loss of hydroxyls or aryl ethers with replacement by hydrogen as rank increases from lignin to high-volatile bituminous coal; (3) loss of alkyl groups with continued replacement by hydrogen. The dipolar-dephasing data show that the early stages of coalification in samples examined (lignin to lignite) involve a decreasing degree of protonation on aromatic rings and suggest that condensation is significant during coalification at this early stage. An increasing degree of protonation on aromatic rings is observed as the rank of the sample increases from lignite to anthracite.

  1. Dipterans Associated with a Decomposing Animal Carcass in a Rainforest Fragment in Brazil: Notes on the Early Arrival and Colonization by Necrophagous Species

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Simao D.; Cruz, Tadeu M.; Salgado, Roberta L.; Thyssen, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first checklist of forensically-important dipteran species in a rainforest environment in Northeastern Brazil, a region exposed to high rates of homicides. Using a decomposing pig, Sus scrofa L. (Artiodactyla: Suidae), carcass as a model, adult flies were collected immediately after death and in the early stages of carcass decomposition. To confirm actual colonization of the carcass, insects that completed their larval development on the resource were also collected and reared until adult stage. A diverse assemblage of dipterans composed of at least 28 species from seven families with necrophagous habits was observed within minutes after death. Besides Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, species from forensically-important families such as Phoridae, Anthomyiidae, and Fanniidae were also registered. Eleven species were shown to complete their development on the carcass. The majority of individuals emerged from larvae collected at the dry stage of decomposition. Hemilucilia segmentaria Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae), H. semidiaphana (Rondani), and Ophyra chalcogaster (Wiedemann) (Muscidae) were the dominant species among the colonizers, which supports their importance as forensic evidence in Brazil. PMID:24787899

  2. Non-target effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees.

    PubMed

    Kreutzweiser, David; Good, Kevin; Chartrand, Derek; Scarr, Taylor; Thompson, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an intentionally-high concentration were added to aquatic microcosms. Leaves from trees treated at the two field rates contained imidacloprid concentrations of 0.8-1.3 ppm, and did not significantly affect leaf-shredding insect survival, microbial respiration or microbial decomposition rates. Insect feeding rates were significantly inhibited at foliar concentrations of 1.3 ppm but not at 0.8 ppm. Leaves from intentionally high-dose trees contained concentrations of about 80 ppm, and resulted in 89-91% mortality of leaf-shredding insects, but no adverse effects on microbial respiration and decomposition rates. Imidacloprid applied directly to aquatic microcosms to simulate leaching from soils was at least 10 times more toxic to aquatic insects than the foliar concentrations, with high mortality at 0.13 ppm and significant feeding inhibition at 0.012 ppm.

  3. Characterization of Microbulbifer strain CMC-5, a new biochemical variant of Microbulbifer elongatus type strain DSM6810T isolated from decomposing seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Jonnadula, RaviChand; Verma, Pankaj; Shouche, Yogesh S; Ghadi, Sanjeev C

    2009-12-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, non-motile and moderate halophilic bacteria designated as strain CMC-5 was isolated from decomposing seaweeds by enrichment culture. The growth of strain CMC-5 was assessed in synthetic seawater-based medium containing polysaccharide. The bacterium degraded and utilized agar, alginate, carrageenan, xylan, carboxymethyl cellulose and chitin. The strain was characterized using a polyphasic approach for taxonomic identification. Cellular fatty acid analysis showed the presence of iso-C(15:0) as major fatty acid and significant amounts of iso-C(17:1x9c) and C(18:1x7c). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence indicated that strain CMC-5 is phylogenetically related to Microbulbifer genus and 99% similar to type strain Microbulbifer elongatus DSM6810T. However in contrast to Microbulbifer elongatus DSM6810T, strain CMC-5 is non-motile, utilizes glucose, galactose, inositol and xylan, does not utilize fructose and succinate nor does it produce H2S. Further growth of bacterial strain CMC-5 was observed when inoculated in seawater-based medium containing sterile pieces of Gracilaria corticata thalli. The bacterial growth was associated with release of reducing sugar in the broth suggesting its role in carbon recycling of polysaccharides from seaweeds in marine ecosystem.

  4. Dipterans associated with a decomposing animal carcass in a rainforest fragment in Brazil: notes on the early arrival and colonization by necrophagous species.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Simao D; Cruz, Tadeu M; Salgado, Roberta L; Thyssen, Patricia J

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first checklist of forensically-important dipteran species in a rainforest environment in Northeastern Brazil, a region exposed to high rates of homicides. Using a decomposing pig, Sus scrofa L. (Artiodactyla: Suidae), carcass as a model, adult flies were collected immediately after death and in the early stages of carcass decomposition. To confirm actual colonization of the carcass, insects that completed their larval development on the resource were also collected and reared until adult stage. A diverse assemblage of dipterans composed of at least 28 species from seven families with necrophagous habits was observed within minutes after death. Besides Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, species from forensically-important families such as Phoridae, Anthomyiidae, and Fanniidae were also registered. Eleven species were shown to complete their development on the carcass. The majority of individuals emerged from larvae collected at the dry stage of decomposition. Hemilucilia segmentaria Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae), H. semidiaphana (Rondani), and Ophyra chalcogaster (Wiedemann) (Muscidae) were the dominant species among the colonizers, which supports their importance as forensic evidence in Brazil.

  5. A novel method to decompose two potent greenhouse gases: photoreduction of SF6 and SF5CF3 in the presence of propene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Shen, Yan; Dong, Wenbo; Zhang, Renxi; Zhang, Jianliang; Hou, Huiqi

    2008-03-01

    SF5CF3 and SF6 are the most effective greenhouse gases on a per molecule basis in the atmosphere. Original laboratory trial for photoreduction of them by use of propene as a reactant was performed to develop a novel technique to destroy them. The highly reductive radicals produced during the photolysis of propene at 184.9 nm, such as .CH3, .C2H3, and .C3H5, could efficiently decompose SF6 and SF5CF3 to CH4, elemental sulfur and trace amounts of fluorinated organic compounds. It was further demonstrated that the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of SF5X (X represented F or CF3) was highly dependent on the initial propene-to-SF5X ratio. The addition of certain amounts of oxygen and water vapor not only enhanced the DRE but avoided the generation of deposits. In both systems, employment nitrogen as dilution gas lessened the DRE slightly. Given the advantage of less toxic products, the technique might contribute to SF5X remediation.

  6. Enhanced dewatering of excess activated sludge through decomposing its extracellular polymeric substances by a Fe@Fe2O3-based composite conditioner.

    PubMed

    He, Dong-Qin; Luo, Hong-Wei; Huang, Bao-Cheng; Qian, Chen; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Efficient sludge dewatering methods are highly desired by municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study, Fe@Fe2O3 nanomaterial, combined with polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) and H2SO4, was used for sludge dewatering. This composite conditioner exhibited an excellent dewatering capability. By using uniform design, the optimized dosages of Fe@Fe2O3, H2SO4 and PDMDAAC were determined to be 40, 136 and 4.8mg/gDS (dry solids), respectively. The moisture content of sludge cake decreased from 78.1% to 64.8%, and the capillary suction time from 56 to 21s. The sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were decomposed, resulting in greater conversion of the bound water into free water and the release of free water. The electron spin resonance results show that the molecular oxygen activation process induced by Fe@Fe2O3 produced hydroxyl radicals, which were mainly responsible for the EPS decomposition. In this way, an efficient composite conditioner for enhancing sludge dewatering was developed.

  7. SR-135, a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst, enhances β-cell function and survival in B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Fyalka, Robert; Shea, Jennifer A; Neumann, William L; Rausaria, Smita; Msengi, Eliwaza Naomi; Imani-Nejad, Maryam; Zollars, Harry; McPherson, Timothy; Schober, Joseph; Wooten, Joshua; Kwon, Guim

    2015-07-01

    Peroxynitrite has been implicated in β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity. Chemical catalysts that destroy peroxynitrite, therefore, may have therapeutic value for treating type 2 diabetes. To this end, we have recently demonstrated that Mn(III) bis(hydroxyphenyl)-dipyrromethene complexes, SR-135 and its analogs, can effectively catalyze the decomposition of peroxynitrite in vitro and in vivo through a 2-electron mechanism (Rausaria et al., 2011). To study the effects of SR-135 on glucose homeostasis in obesity, B6D2F1 mice were fed with a high fat-diet (HFD) for 12 weeks and treated with vehicle, SR-135 (5mg/kg), or a control drug SRB for 2 weeks. SR-135 significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and enhanced glucose tolerance as compared to HFD control, vehicle or SRB. SR-135 also enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion based on ex vivo studies. Moreover, SR-135 increased insulin content, restored islet architecture, decreased islet size, and reduced tyrosine nitration and apoptosis. These results suggest that a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst enhances β-cell function and survival under nutrient overload.

  8. Decomposing Black-White Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the United States, 1973-2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Michael R; Valderrama, Amy L; Casper, Michele L

    2015-08-15

    Against the backdrop of late 20th century declines in heart disease mortality in the United States, race-specific rates diverged because of slower declines among blacks compared with whites. To characterize the temporal dynamics of emerging black-white racial disparities in heart disease mortality, we decomposed race-sex-specific trends in an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of US mortality data for all diseases of the heart among adults aged ≥35 years from 1973 to 2010. The black-white gap was largest among adults aged 35-59 years (rate ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 for men and from 2.3 to 4.0 for women) and widened with successive birth cohorts, particularly for men. APC model estimates suggested strong independent trends across generations ("cohort effects") but only modest period changes. Among men, cohort-specific black-white racial differences emerged in the 1920-1960 birth cohorts. The apparent strength of the cohort trends raises questions about life-course inequalities in the social and health environments experienced by blacks and whites which could have affected their biomedical and behavioral risk factors for heart disease. The APC results suggest that the genesis of racial disparities is neither static nor restricted to a single time scale such as age or period, and they support the importance of equity in life-course exposures for reducing racial disparities in heart disease.

  9. Decomposing transverse momentum balance contributions for quenched jets in PbPb collisions at √{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Forthomme, L.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Susa, T.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulte, J. 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M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Bahinipati, S.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. 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M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Cipriani, M.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Shchelina, K.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Traczyk, P.; Belforte, S.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Lee, A.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Oh, S. B.; Seo, S. h.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Carpinteyro, S.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Korenkov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Yuldashev, B. S.; Zarubin, A.; Chtchipounov, L.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Sulimov, V.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Rusakov, S. V.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Demiyanov, A.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Kodolova, O.; Korotkikh, V.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Vardanyan, I.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Barrio Luna, M.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Suárez Andrés, I.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krammer, M.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Topakli, H.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Barducci, D.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Penning, B.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Jesus, O.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Spencer, E.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Cremonesi, M.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Diamond, B.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Trauger, H.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bowen, J.; Bruner, C.; Castle, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Malta Rodrigues, A.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Hortiangtham, A.; Knapp, B.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Kumar, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mei, K.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2016-11-01

    Interactions between jets and the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions are studied via the angular distributions of summed charged-particle transverse momenta ( p T) with respect to both the leading and subleading jet axes in high- p T dijet events. The contributions of charged particles in different momentum ranges to the overall event p T balance are decomposed into short-range jet peaks and a long-range azimuthal asymmetry in charged-particle p T. The results for PbPb collisions are compared to those in pp collisions using data collected in 2011 and 2013, at collision energy √{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV with integrated luminosities of 166 μb-1 and 5.3 pb-1, respectively, by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Measurements are presented as functions of PbPb collision centrality, charged-particle p T, relative azimuth, and radial distance from the jet axis for balanced and unbalanced dijets. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Decomposing transverse momentum balance contributions for quenched jets in PbPb collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{N}\\;\\mathrm{N}}}=2.76 $$ TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; ...

    2016-11-09

    Interactions between jets and the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions are studied via the angular distributions of summed charged-particle transverse momenta (pT) with respect to both the leading and subleading jet axes in high-pt dijet events. The contributions of charged particles in different momentum ranges to the overall event pt balance are decomposed into short-range jet peaks and a long-range azimuthal asymmetry in charged-particle pT. The results for PbPb collisions are compared to those in pp collisions using data collected in 2011 and 2013, at collision energymore » $$ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{N}\\;\\mathrm{N}}}=2.76 $$ TeV with integrated luminosities of 166 μb–1 and 5.3 pb–1, respectively, by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Furthermore, measurements are presented as functions of PbPb collision centrality, charged-particle pt, relative azimuth, and radial distance from the jet axis for balanced and unbalanced dijets.« less

  11. ERK Signals: Scaffolding Scaffolds?

    PubMed Central

    Casar, Berta; Crespo, Piero

    2016-01-01

    ERK1/2 MAP Kinases become activated in response to multiple intra- and extra-cellular stimuli through a signaling module composed of sequential tiers of cytoplasmic kinases. Scaffold proteins regulate ERK signals by connecting the different components of the module into a multi-enzymatic complex by which signal amplitude and duration are fine-tuned, and also provide signal fidelity by isolating this complex from external interferences. In addition, scaffold proteins play a central role as spatial regulators of ERKs signals. In this respect, depending on the subcellular localization from which the activating signals emanate, defined scaffolds specify which substrates are amenable to be phosphorylated. Recent evidence has unveiled direct interactions among different scaffold protein species. These scaffold-scaffold macro-complexes could constitute an additional level of regulation for ERK signals and may serve as nodes for the integration of incoming signals and the subsequent diversification of the outgoing signals with respect to substrate engagement. PMID:27303664

  12. Anomalous Signal Detection in ELF Band Electromagnetic Wave using Multi-layer Neural Network with Wavelet Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itai, Akitoshi; Yasukawa, Hiroshi; Takumi, Ichi; Hata, Masayasu

    It is well known that electromagnetic waves radiated from the earth's crust are useful for predicting earthquakes. We analyze the electromagnetic waves received at the extremely low frequency band of 223Hz. These observed signals contain the seismic radiation from the earth's crust, but also include several undesired signals. Our research focuses on the signal detection technique to identify an anomalous signal corresponding to the seismic radiation in the observed signal. Conventional anomalous signal detections lack a wide applicability due to their assumptions, e.g. the digital data have to be observed at the same time or the same sensor. In order to overcome the limitation related to the observed signal, we proposed the anomalous signals detection based on a multi-layer neural network which is trained by digital data observed during a span of a day. In the neural network approach, training data do not need to be recorded at the same place or the same time. However, some noises, which have a large amplitude, are detected as the anomalous signal. This paper develops a multi-layer neural network to decrease the false detection of the anomalous signal from the electromagnetic wave. The training data for the proposed network is the decomposed signal of the observed signal during several days, since the seismic radiations are often recorded from several days to a couple of weeks. Results show that the proposed neural network is useful to achieve the accurate detection of the anomalous signal that indicates seismic activity.

  13. Neural signals encoding shifts in beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Dolan, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is implicated in a diverse range of cognitive functions including cognitive flexibility, task switching, signalling novel or unexpected stimuli as well as advance information. There is also longstanding line of thought that links dopamine with belief formation and, crucially, aberrant belief formation in psychosis. Integrating these strands of evidence would suggest that dopamine plays a central role in belief updating and more specifically in encoding of meaningful information content in observations. The precise nature of this relationship has remained unclear. To directly address this question we developed a paradigm that allowed us to decompose two distinct types of information content, information-theoretic surprise that reflects the unexpectedness of an observation, and epistemic value that induces shifts in beliefs or, more formally, Bayesian surprise. Using functional magnetic-resonance imaging in humans we show that dopamine-rich midbrain regions encode shifts in beliefs whereas surprise is encoded in prefrontal regions, including the pre-supplementary motor area and dorsal cingulate cortex. By linking putative dopaminergic activity to belief updating these data provide a link to false belief formation that characterises hyperdopaminergic states associated with idiopathic and drug induced psychosis. PMID:26520774

  14. Surface roughness monitoring by singular spectrum analysis of vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Plaza, E.; Núñez López, P. J.

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed two methods for enhanced surface roughness (Ra) monitoring based on the application of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to vibrations signals generated in workpiece-cutting tool interaction in CNC finish turning operations i.e., the individual analysis of principal components (I-SSA), and the grouping analysis of correlated principal components (G-SSA). Singular spectrum analysis is a non-parametric technique of time series analysis that decomposes a signal into a set of independent additive time series referred to as principal components. A number of experiments with different cutting conditions were performed to assess surface roughness monitoring using both of these methods. The results show that singular spectrum analysis of vibration signal processing discriminated the frequency ranges effective for predicting surface roughness. Grouping analysis of correlated principal components (G-SSA) proved to be the most efficient method for monitoring surface roughness, with optimum prediction and reliability results at a lower analytical-computational cost. Finally, the results show that singular spectrum analysis is an ideal method for analyzing vibration signals applied to the on-line monitoring of surface roughness.

  15. Weak signal detection using multiscale morphology in microseismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huijian; Wang, Runqiu; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Yangkang; Tian, Nan; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2016-10-01

    Microseismic events caused by hydraulic fracturing are usually very weak. The magnitude range of microseismic signals is usually from - 3 to 1 Mw. Processing techniques such as band-pass filtering, are widely adopted to improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of microseismic data, while with a degradation of signal quality. We propose a multi-scale morphological method to detect weak micro-seismic signals. This approach decomposes data set into multi-scale components based on the mathematical morphology theory using structuring element that is similar to the wavelet basis in the well-known wavelet decomposition. The method can help us obtain more information by detecting more waves, like P-wave, S-wave and their reflections, which can be much more valuable in processing and interpretation of microseismic data during microseismic monitoring. The proposed approach is not amplitude preserving and not mathematically reversible. It can offer enhancement of arrivals for picking (and thus can subsequently offer benefits for event detection and location) but at the expense of estimates of magnitude or moment-tensor inversion.

  16. Signaling in myxobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Dale

    2004-01-01

    Myxobacteria use soluble and cell-contact signals during their starvation-induced formation of fruiting bodies. These signals coordinate developmental gene expression with the cell movements that build fruiting bodies. Early in development, the quorum-sensing A-signal in Myxococcus xanthus helps to assess starvation and induce the first stage of aggregation. Later, the morphogenetic C-signal helps to pattern cell movement and shape the fruiting body. C-signal is a 17-kDa cell surface protein that signals by contact between the ends of two cells. The number of C-signal molecules per cell rises 100-fold from the beginning of fruiting body development to the end, when spores are formed. Traveling waves, streams, and sporulation have increasing thresholds for C-signal activity, and this progression ensures that spores form inside fruiting bodies.

  17. Signal sciences workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-01

    This meeting is aimed primarily at signal processing and controls. The technical program for the 1997 Workshop includes a variety of efforts in the Signal Sciences with applications in the Microtechnology Area a new program at LLNL and a future area of application for both Signal/Image Sciences. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Seismic and Optical Signal Processing as well as Micro-Impulse Radar Processing highlight the program, while the speakers at the Signal Processing Applications session discuss various applications of signal processing/control to real world problems. For the more theoretical, a session on Signal Processing Algorithms was organized as well as for the more pragmatic, featuring a session on Real-Time Signal Processing.

  18. Danger signals in stroke.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Sobey, Christopher G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Magnus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Danger molecules are the first signals released from dying tissue after stroke. These danger signals bind to receptors on immune cells that will result in their activation and the release of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators, resulting in amplification of the immune response and subsequent enlargement of the damaged brain volume. The release of danger signals is a central event that leads to a multitude of signals and cascades in the affected and neighbouring tissue, therefore providing a potential target for therapy.

  19. Staggered Costas signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Avraham; Levanon, Nadav

    1986-11-01

    A radar signal, based on coherent processing of a train of staggered Costas (1984) bursts is based on a minimum number of collocation of their individual ambiguity function sidelobe peaks. The resulting ambiguity function combines qualities of both 'thumbtack' and 'bed of nails' signals. Comparison with linear-FM, V-FM, and complementary phase coded signals is given, as well as comparison with hybrid signals consisting of both phase and frequency coding.

  20. Empirical Mode Decomposition of simulated and real ultrasonic Doppler signals of periodic fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Kaluzynski, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    Simulated signals comprising components (trains of Gaussian packets) resulting from cardiac movements and from pseudorespiratory movements with added white noise were submitted to Empirical Mode Decomposition. The increase of sampling frequency fs (from 0.5 kHz to 5 kHz) for given signal to noise ratio SNR moves signal components toward higher order intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and increases their number. The increase of the SNR (from -5 dB to 10 dB, fixed fs) moves the signal components to lower order IMFs. The separation of components is most efficient for SNR≥5 dB and fs not exceeding 1 kHz, for lower SNRs fs should be at least 2 kHz. SNR=∞ results in erroneous decomposition and therefore limited noise level is beneficial. Recommended number of sifting iterations is 10. Fetal data obtained using 2 MHz emission frequency and sampled at 2 kHz were decomposed. The cardiac signal always appears in IMF3, frequently also in IMF1 and IMF2. The pseudobreathing signal, appearing mainly in IMF4-6, is easy to separate. Signals resulting from fetal displacements due to maternal respiration appear in IMF7 or IMF8. The EMD performs better than the classic linear filtering as a tool for separation of the pseudorespiration signals and provides inferior results in terms of separation of the cardiac signals.

  1. Analysis of ideal observer signal detectability in phase-contrast imaging employing linear shift-invariant optical systems

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Mark A.; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Zysk, Adam M.; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2010-01-01

    Phase-contrast imaging methods exploit variations in an object’s refractive index distribution to permit the visualization of subtle features that may have very similar optical absorption properties. Although phase-contrast is often viewed as being desirable in many biomedical applications, its relative influence on signal detectability when both absorption- and phase-contrast are present remains relatively unexplored. In this work, we investigate the ideal Bayesian observer signal to noise ratio (SNR) in phase-contrast imaging for a signal-known-exactly/background-known exactly detection task involving a weak signal. We demonstrate that this signal detectability measure can be decomposed into three contributions that have distinct interpretations associated with the imaging physics. PMID:21119750

  2. Tetrapyrrole Signaling in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles make critical contributions to a number of important processes in diverse organisms. In plants, tetrapyrroles are essential for light signaling, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the assimilation of nitrate and sulfate, respiration, photosynthesis, and programed cell death. The misregulation of tetrapyrrole metabolism can produce toxic reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is not surprising that tetrapyrrole metabolism is strictly regulated and that tetrapyrrole metabolism affects signaling mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In plants and algae, tetrapyrroles are synthesized in plastids and were some of the first plastid signals demonstrated to regulate nuclear gene expression. In plants, the mechanism of tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling remains poorly understood. Additionally, some of experiments that tested ideas for possible signaling mechanisms appeared to produce conflicting data. In some instances, these conflicts are potentially explained by different experimental conditions. Although the biological function of tetrapyrrole signaling is poorly understood, there is compelling evidence that this signaling is significant. Specifically, this signaling appears to affect the accumulation of starch and may promote abiotic stress tolerance. Tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling interacts with a distinct plastid-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that depends on GENOMES UNCUOPLED1 (GUN1). GUN1 contributes to a variety of processes, such as chloroplast biogenesis, the circadian rhythm, abiotic stress tolerance, and development. Thus, the contribution of tetrapyrrole signaling to plant function is potentially broader than we currently appreciate. In this review, I discuss these aspects of tetrapyrrole signaling. PMID:27807442

  3. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    SciTech Connect

    Lager, Darrell; Azevado, Stephen

    1986-06-01

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time- and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG - a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible and are indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time- and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments,commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a repeat sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.

  4. Systematic Characterization of Dynamic Parameters of Intracellular Calcium Signals

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Laurent; Mikolajewicz, Nicholas; Komarova, Svetlana V.; Khadra, Anmar

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic processes, such as intracellular calcium signaling, are hallmark of cellular biology. As real-time imaging modalities become widespread, a need for analytical tools to reliably characterize time-series data without prior knowledge of the nature of the recordings becomes more pressing. The goal of this study is to develop a signal-processing algorithm for MATLAB that autonomously computes the parameters characterizing prominent single transient responses (TR) and/or multi-peaks responses (MPR). The algorithm corrects for signal contamination and decomposes experimental recordings into contributions from drift, TRs, and MPRs. It subsequently provides numerical estimates for the following parameters: time of onset after stimulus application, activation time (time for signal to increase from 10 to 90% of peak), and amplitude of response. It also provides characterization of the (i) TRs by quantifying their area under the curve (AUC), response duration (time between 1/2 amplitude on ascent and descent of the transient), and decay constant of the exponential decay region of the deactivation phase of the response, and (ii) MPRs by quantifying the number of peaks, mean peak magnitude, mean periodicity, standard deviation of periodicity, oscillatory persistence (time between first and last discernable peak), and duty cycle (fraction of period during which system is active) for all the peaks in the signal, as well as coherent oscillations (i.e., deterministic spikes). We demonstrate that the signal detection performance of this algorithm is in agreement with user-mediated detection and that parameter estimates obtained manually and algorithmically are correlated. We then apply this algorithm to study how metabolic acidosis affects purinergic (P2) receptor-mediated calcium signaling in osteoclast precursor cells. Our results reveal that acidosis significantly attenuates the amplitude and AUC calcium responses at high ATP concentrations. Collectively, our data

  5. High quality draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium rivuli type strain WB 3.3-2T (DSM 21788T), a valuable source of polysaccharide decomposing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Hahnke, Richard L.; Stackebrandt, Erko; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Tindall, Brian J.; Huang, Sixing; Rohde, Manfred; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Trong, Stephan; Haynes, Matthew; Reddy, T. B. K.; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Göker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2015-07-30

    Flavobacterium rivuli Ali et al. 2009 emend. Dong et al. 2013 is one of about 100 species in the genus Flavobacterium (family Flavobacteriacae, phylum Bacteroidetes) with a validly published name, and has been isolated from the spring of a hard water rivulet in Northern Germany. Including all type strains of the genus Myroides and Flavobacterium into the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny revealed a clustering of members of the genus Myroides as a monophyletic group within the genus Flavobacterium. Furthermore, F. rivuli WB 3.3-2T and its next relatives seem more closely related to the genus Myroides than to the type species of the genus Flavobacterium, F. aquatile. The 4,489,248 bp long genome with its 3,391 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project. The genome of F. rivuli has almost as many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes (151 CAZymes) as genes encoding peptidases (177). Peptidases comprised mostly metallo (M) and serine (S) peptidases. Among CAZymes, 30 glycoside hydrolase families, 10 glycosyl transferase families, 7 carbohydrate binding module families and 7 carbohydrate esterase families were identified. Furthermore, we found four polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL) and one large CAZy rich gene cluster that might enable strain WB 3.3-2T to decompose plant and algae derived polysaccharides. In conclusion, based on these results we propose F. rivuli as an interesting candidate for further physiological studies and the role of Bacteroidetes in the decomposition of complex polymers in the environment.

  6. High quality draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium rivuli type strain WB 3.3-2T (DSM 21788T), a valuable source of polysaccharide decomposing enzymes

    DOE PAGES

    Hahnke, Richard L.; Stackebrandt, Erko; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; ...

    2015-07-30

    Flavobacterium rivuli Ali et al. 2009 emend. Dong et al. 2013 is one of about 100 species in the genus Flavobacterium (family Flavobacteriacae, phylum Bacteroidetes) with a validly published name, and has been isolated from the spring of a hard water rivulet in Northern Germany. Including all type strains of the genus Myroides and Flavobacterium into the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny revealed a clustering of members of the genus Myroides as a monophyletic group within the genus Flavobacterium. Furthermore, F. rivuli WB 3.3-2T and its next relatives seem more closely related to the genus Myroides than to the typemore » species of the genus Flavobacterium, F. aquatile. The 4,489,248 bp long genome with its 3,391 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project. The genome of F. rivuli has almost as many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes (151 CAZymes) as genes encoding peptidases (177). Peptidases comprised mostly metallo (M) and serine (S) peptidases. Among CAZymes, 30 glycoside hydrolase families, 10 glycosyl transferase families, 7 carbohydrate binding module families and 7 carbohydrate esterase families were identified. Furthermore, we found four polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL) and one large CAZy rich gene cluster that might enable strain WB 3.3-2T to decompose plant and algae derived polysaccharides. In conclusion, based on these results we propose F. rivuli as an interesting candidate for further physiological studies and the role of Bacteroidetes in the decomposition of complex polymers in the environment.« less

  7. High quality draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium rivuli type strain WB 3.3-2(T) (DSM 21788(T)), a valuable source of polysaccharide decomposing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hahnke, Richard L; Stackebrandt, Erko; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Tindall, Brian J; Huang, Sixing; Rohde, Manfred; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Trong, Stephan; Haynes, Matthew; Reddy, T B K; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Göker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium rivuli Ali et al. 2009 emend. Dong et al. 2013 is one of about 100 species in the genus Flavobacterium (family Flavobacteriacae, phylum Bacteroidetes) with a validly published name, and has been isolated from the spring of a hard water rivulet in Northern Germany. Including all type strains of the genus Myroides and Flavobacterium into the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny revealed a clustering of members of the genus Myroides as a monophyletic group within the genus Flavobacterium. Furthermore, F. rivuli WB 3.3-2(T) and its next relatives seem more closely related to the genus Myroides than to the type species of the genus Flavobacterium, F. aquatile. The 4,489,248 bp long genome with its 3,391 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project. The genome of F. rivuli has almost as many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes (151 CAZymes) as genes encoding peptidases (177). Peptidases comprised mostly metallo (M) and serine (S) peptidases. Among CAZymes, 30 glycoside hydrolase families, 10 glycosyl transferase families, 7 carbohydrate binding module families and 7 carbohydrate esterase families were identified. Furthermore, we found four polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL) and one large CAZy rich gene cluster that might enable strain WB 3.3-2(T) to decompose plant and algae derived polysaccharides. Based on these results we propose F. rivuli as an interesting candidate for further physiological studies and the role of Bacteroidetes in the decomposition of complex polymers in the environment.

  8. Decomposing Large Inverse Problems with an Augmented Lagrangian Approach: Application to Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Travel Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, D. T.; Rodi, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Constructing 3D Earth models through the joint inversion of large geophysical data sets presents numerous theoretical and practical challenges, especially when diverse types of data and model parameters are involved. Among the challenges are the computational complexity associated with large data and model vectors and the need to unify differing model parameterizations, forward modeling methods and regularization schemes within a common inversion framework. The challenges can be addressed in part by decomposing the inverse problem into smaller, simpler inverse problems that can be solved separately, providing one knows how to merge the separate inversion results into an optimal solution of the full problem. We have formulated an approach to the decomposition of large inverse problems based on the augmented Lagrangian technique from optimization theory. As commonly done, we define a solution to the full inverse problem as the Earth model minimizing an objective function motivated, for example, by a Bayesian inference formulation. Our decomposition approach recasts the minimization problem equivalently as the minimization of component objective functions, corresponding to specified data subsets, subject to the constraints that the minimizing models be equal. A standard optimization algorithm solves the resulting constrained minimization problems by alternating between the separate solution of the component problems and the updating of Lagrange multipliers that serve to steer the individual solution models toward a common model solving the full problem. We are applying our inversion method to the reconstruction of the·crust and upper-mantle seismic velocity structure across Eurasia.· Data for the inversion comprise a large set of P and S body-wave travel times·and fundamental and first-higher mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities.

  9. [Inhibition of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth of Capsicum annu- um and the alleviation effect of nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Ting-xing; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hong-ling; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Guang-liang; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth, physiological and phenological traits of Capsicum annuum, and modification of these effects by nitrogen application were investigated using a pot experiment. C. camphora leaf litter was applied at rate of 0, 25, 50 100 g per pot, resulting into four treatments, i.e., CK (the control), L25, L50, and L100. Nitrogen application was firstly performed on the 39th d of decomposition (3.0 g urea was added to each pot six times). Leaf area, plant height, basal diameter and biomass production of C. annuum were all inhibited sharply by exposure to the leaf litter, and the inhibition effect increased with the increasing leaf litter in terms of both the intensity and the stability. Treated with L25, budding number reduced by 88.7% averagely during 55th-75th d, and the rate of fructification plant decreased by 40% on the 96th d of decomposition, while neither buds nor fruits were observed when exposed to L50 and L100 at that time. Pigment contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were impacted due to leaf litter addition, and malonaldehyde (MDA) was only markedly promoted by L100. Inhibition on growth and development of C. annuum caused by leaf litter decomposition could be alleviated by nitrogen application. Leaf area treated with leaf litter recovered to the control level on the 52nd d after nitrogen application, and similar results appeared on the 83rd d after nitrogen application for other growth traits. Budding and fructification status were also visibly improved.

  10. Satellite signaling at synapses

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor-Giles, Kate M.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Neural function requires effective communication between neurons and their targets at synapses. Thus, proper formation, growth and plasticity of synapses are critical to behavior. A retrograde (muscle to neuron) BMP signal is required to promote synaptic growth, homeostasis and stability at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions (NMJs).1-4 We recently demonstrated that this signal constitutes an instructive signal that sculpts synaptic growth in a graded manner and uncovered a presynaptic endocytic mechanism that modulates BMP signaling levels. In the absence of this regulation, excessive BMP signaling results in overgrown NMJs with a proliferation of ectopic boutons.5 PMID:20798607

  11. Robust decomposition of single-channel intramuscular EMG signals at low force levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marateb, Hamid R.; Muceli, Silvia; McGill, Kevin C.; Merletti, Roberto; Farina, Dario

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a density-based method to automatically decompose single-channel intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) signals into their component motor unit action potential (MUAP) trains. In contrast to most previous decomposition methods, which require pre-setting and (or) tuning of multiple parameters, the proposed method takes advantage of the data-dependent strategies in the pattern recognition procedures. In this method, outliers (superpositions) are excluded prior to classification and MUAP templates are identified by an adaptive density-based clustering procedure. MUAP trains are then identified by a novel density-based classifier that incorporates MUAP shape and discharge time information. MUAP trains are merged by a fuzzy system that incorporates expert human knowledge. Finally, superimpositions are resolved to fill the gaps in the MUAP trains. The proposed decomposition algorithm has been experimentally tested on signals from low-force (<=30% maximal) isometric contractions of the vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris long-head and tibialis anterior muscles. Comparison with expert manual decomposition that had been verified using a rigorous statistical analysis showed that the algorithm identified 80% of the total 229 motor unit trains with an accuracy greater than 90%. The algorithm is robust and accurate, and therefore it is a promising new tool for decomposing single-channel multi-unit signals.

  12. LMD based features for the automatic seizure detection of EEG signals using SVM.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Wanzhong

    2016-09-20

    Achieving the goal of detecting seizure activity automatically using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is of great importance and significance for the treatment of epileptic seizures. To realize this aim, a newly-developed time-frequency analytical algorithm, namely local mean decomposition (LMD), is employed in the presented study. LMD is able to decompose an arbitrary signal into a series of product functions (PFs). Primarily, the raw EEG signal is decomposed into several PFs, and then the temporal statistical and non-linear features of the first five PFs are calculated. The features of each PF are fed into five classifiers, including back propagation neural network (BPNN), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), un-optimized support vector machine (SVM) and SVM optimized by genetic algorithm (GA-SVM), for five classification cases, respectively. Confluent features of all PFs are further passed into the high-performance GA-SVM for the same classification tasks. Experimental results on the international public Bonn epilepsy EEG dataset show that the average classification accuracy of the presented approach are equal to or higher than 98.10% in all the five cases, and this indicates the effectiveness of the proposed approach for automated seizure detection.

  13. An adaptive ultrasonic backscattered signal processing technique for instantaneous characteristic frequency detection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Vai, Mang I

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic diagnosis that is convenient and nondestructive to the human body is widely used in medicine. In clinical, ultrasonic backscattered signals characteristics are utilized to acquire information of the human body tissues to perform diagnosis. In this paper, an adaptive ultrasonic backscattered signal processing technique for instantaneous characteristic frequency detection based on the marginal spectrum is presented. In the beginning, the ultrasonic backscattered signal is decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) algorithm. Then the Hilbert spectrum is gained by the Hilbert transform on the IMFs decomposed and screened. Finally, the time-frequency information in the Hilbert spectrum is utilized to extract the instantaneous characteristic frequency based on the marginal spectrum features to detect the objective. With this technique, the spacing between tissues can be estimated for tissue characterization by processing multiple echoes even in the complicated environment. In the simulation study, comparing with the FFT, the technique presented shows its strong noise immunity and indicates its validity in instantaneous characteristic frequency detection.

  14. Acoustic Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  15. Neuronal signaling through endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cosker, Katharina E; Segal, Rosalind A

    2014-02-01

    The distinctive morphology of neurons, with complex dendritic arbors and extensive axons, presents spatial challenges for intracellular signal transduction. The endosomal system provides mechanisms that enable signaling molecules initiated by extracellular cues to be trafficked throughout the expanse of the neuron, allowing intracellular signals to be sustained over long distances. Therefore endosomes are critical for many aspects of neuronal signaling that regulate cell survival, axonal growth and guidance, dendritic branching, and cell migration. An intriguing characteristic of neuronal signal transduction is that endosomal trafficking enables physiological responses that vary based on the subcellular location of signal initiation. In this review, we will discuss the specialized mechanisms and the functional significance of endosomal signaling in neurons, both during normal development and in disease.

  16. Neuronal Signaling through Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cosker, Katharina E.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    The distinctive morphology of neurons, with complex dendritic arbors and extensive axons, presents spatial challenges for intracellular signal transduction. The endosomal system provides mechanisms that enable signaling molecules initiated by extracellular cues to be trafficked throughout the expanse of the neuron, allowing intracellular signals to be sustained over long distances. Therefore endosomes are critical for many aspects of neuronal signaling that regulate cell survival, axonal growth and guidance, dendritic branching, and cell migration. An intriguing characteristic of neuronal signal transduction is that endosomal trafficking enables physiological responses that vary based on the subcellular location of signal initiation. In this review, we will discuss the specialized mechanisms and the functional significance of endosomal signaling in neurons, both during normal development and in disease. PMID:24492712

  17. The processing of rotor startup signals based on empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Guanghong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we applied empirical mode decomposition method to analyse rotor startup signals, which are non-stationary and contain a lot of additional information other than that from its stationary running signals. The methodology developed in this paper decomposes the original startup signals into intrinsic oscillation modes or intrinsic modes function (IMFs). Then, we obtained rotating frequency components for Bode diagrams plot by corresponding IMFs, according to the characteristics of rotor system. The method can obtain precise critical speed without complex hardware support. The low-frequency components were extracted from these IMFs in vertical and horizontal directions. Utilising these components, we constructed a drift locus of rotor revolution centre, which provides some significant information to fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Also, we proved that empirical mode decomposition method is more precise than Fourier filter for the extraction of low-frequency component.

  18. Multimodal signalling in the North American barn swallow: a phenotype network approach.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Matthew R; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Joseph, Maxwell B; Hubbard, Joanna K; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-10-07

    Complex signals, involving multiple components within and across modalities, are common in animal communication. However, decomposing complex signals into traits and their interactions remains a fundamental challenge for studies of phenotype evolution. We apply a novel phenotype network approach for studying complex signal evolution in the North American barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). We integrate model testing with correlation-based phenotype networks to infer the contributions of female mate choice and male-male competition to the evolution of barn swallow communication. Overall, the best predictors of mate choice were distinct from those for competition, while moderate functional overlap suggests males and females use some of the same traits to assess potential mates and rivals. We interpret model results in the context of a network of traits, and suggest this approach allows researchers a more nuanced view of trait clustering patterns that informs new hypotheses about the evolution of communication systems.

  19. Implemented Wavelet Packet Tree based Denoising Algorithm in Bus Signals of a Wearable Sensorarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmack, M.; Nguyen, S.; Mercorelli, P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a thermosensing embedded system with a sensor bus that uses wavelets for the purposes of noise location and denoising. From the principle of the filter bank the measured signal is separated in two bands, low and high frequency. The proposed algorithm identifies the defined noise in these two bands. With the Wavelet Packet Transform as a method of Discrete Wavelet Transform, it is able to decompose and reconstruct bus input signals of a sensor network. Using a seminorm, the noise of a sequence can be detected and located, so that the wavelet basis can be rearranged. This particularly allows for elimination of any incoherent parts that make up unavoidable measuring noise of bus signals. The proposed method was built based on wavelet algorithms from the WaveLab 850 library of the Stanford University (USA). This work gives an insight to the workings of Wavelet Transformation.

  20. Multimodal signalling in the North American barn swallow: a phenotype network approach

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Matthew R.; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Hubbard, Joanna K.; Safran, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex signals, involving multiple components within and across modalities, are common in animal communication. However, decomposing complex signals into traits and their interactions remains a fundamental challenge for studies of phenotype evolution. We apply a novel phenotype network approach for studying complex signal evolution in the North American barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). We integrate model testing with correlation-based phenotype networks to infer the contributions of female mate choice and male–male competition to the evolution of barn swallow communication. Overall, the best predictors of mate choice were distinct from those for competition, while moderate functional overlap suggests males and females use some of the same traits to assess potential mates and rivals. We interpret model results in the context of a network of traits, and suggest this approach allows researchers a more nuanced view of trait clustering patterns that informs new hypotheses about the evolution of communication systems. PMID:26423842

  1. Highly Scalable Matching Pursuit Signal Decomposition Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Daniel; Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2009-01-01

    Matching Pursuit Decomposition (MPD) is a powerful iterative algorithm for signal decomposition and feature extraction. MPD decomposes any signal into linear combinations of its dictionary elements or atoms . A best fit atom from an arbitrarily defined dictionary is determined through cross-correlation. The selected atom is subtracted from the signal and this procedure is repeated on the residual in the subsequent iterations until a stopping criterion is met. The reconstructed signal reveals the waveform structure of the original signal. However, a sufficiently large dictionary is required for an accurate reconstruction; this in return increases the computational burden of the algorithm, thus limiting its applicability and level of adoption. The purpose of this research is to improve the scalability and performance of the classical MPD algorithm. Correlation thresholds were defined to prune insignificant atoms from the dictionary. The Coarse-Fine Grids and Multiple Atom Extraction techniques were proposed to decrease the computational burden of the algorithm. The Coarse-Fine Grids method enabled the approximation and refinement of the parameters for the best fit atom. The ability to extract multiple atoms within a single iteration enhanced the effectiveness and efficiency of each iteration. These improvements were implemented to produce an improved Matching Pursuit Decomposition algorithm entitled MPD++. Disparate signal decomposition applications may require a particular emphasis of accuracy or computational efficiency. The prominence of the key signal features required for the proper signal classification dictates the level of accuracy necessary in the decomposition. The MPD++ algorithm may be easily adapted to accommodate the imposed requirements. Certain feature extraction applications may require rapid signal decomposition. The full potential of MPD++ may be utilized to produce incredible performance gains while extracting only slightly less energy than the

  2. Multi-frequency weak signal detection based on wavelet transform and parameter compensation band-pass multi-stable stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongying; li, Pei; An, Shujun; Shi, Peiming

    2016-03-01

    In actual fault diagnosis, useful information is often submerged in heavy noise, and the feature information is difficult to extract. A novel weak signal detection method aimed at the problem of detecting multi-frequency signals buried under heavy background noise is proposed based on wavelet transform and parameter compensation band-pass multi-stable stochastic resonance (SR). First, the noisy signal is processed by parameter compensation, with the noise and system parameters expanded 10 times to counteract the effect of the damping term. The processed signal is decomposed into multiple signals of different scale frequencies by wavelet transform. Following this, we adjust the size of the scaled signals' amplitudes and reconstruct the signals; the weak signal frequency components are then enhanced by multi-stable stochastic resonance. The enhanced components of the signal are processed through a band-pass filter, leaving the enhanced sections of the signal. The processed signal is analyzed by FFT to achieve detection of the multi-frequency weak signals. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can enhance the signal amplitude, can effectively detect multi-frequency weak signals buried under heavy noise and is valuable and usable for bearing fault signal analysis.

  3. Telephone multiline signaling using common signal pair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, R. R.; Toole, P. C.; Belt, J. L.; Leininger, D. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An operator can rapidly and automatically produce coded electrical signals by manipulating mechanical thumb wheel switches so as to instruct a service center to connect any number of telephone lines to the console thus enabling the operator to listen and/or talk over several lines simultaneously. The system includes an on-site console having several mechanically operated thumb wheel switches to which the desired lines to be connected can be dialed in. Electrical coded signals are fed to a number of banks of line AND gates representing units, tens and hundreds, a group of channel gates, and a command gate. These signals are gated out in a controlled manner to an encoder which generates tones that are transmitted over a single line to a communication service center.

  4. Quantitation of signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Krauss, S; Brand, M D

    2000-12-01

    Conventional qualitative approaches to signal transduction provide powerful ways to explore the architecture and function of signaling pathways. However, at the level of the complete system, they do not fully depict the interactions between signaling and metabolic pathways and fail to give a manageable overview of the complexity that is often a feature of cellular signal transduction. Here, we introduce a quantitative experimental approach to signal transduction that helps to overcome these difficulties. We present a quantitative analysis of signal transduction during early mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes, with steady-state respiration rate as a convenient marker of metabolic stimulation. First, by inhibiting various key signaling pathways, we measure their relative importance in regulating respiration. About 80% of the input signal is conveyed via identifiable routes: 50% through pathways sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase C and MAP kinase and 30% through pathways sensitive to an inhibitor of calcineurin. Second, we quantify how each of these pathways differentially stimulates functional units of reactions that produce and consume a key intermediate in respiration: the mitochondrial membrane potential. Both the PKC and calcineurin routes stimulate consumption more strongly than production, whereas the unidentified signaling routes stimulate production more than consumption, leading to no change in membrane potential despite increased respiration rate. The approach allows a quantitative description of the relative importance of signal transduction pathways and the routes by which they activate a specific cellular process. It should be widely applicable.

  5. Optical signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses several optical configurations used for signal processing. Electronic-to-optical transducers are outlined, noting fixed window transducers and moving window acousto-optic transducers. Folded spectrum techniques are considered, with reference to wideband RF signal analysis, fetal electroencephalogram analysis, engine vibration analysis, signal buried in noise, and spatial filtering. Various methods for radar signal processing are described, such as phased-array antennas, the optical processing of phased-array data, pulsed Doppler and FM radar systems, a multichannel one-dimensional optical correlator, correlations with long coded waveforms, and Doppler signal processing. Means for noncoherent optical signal processing are noted, including an optical correlator for speech recognition and a noncoherent optical correlator.

  6. [Growth hormone signaling pathways].

    PubMed

    Zych, Sławomir; Szatkowska, Iwona; Czerniawska-Piatkowska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The substantial improvement in the studies on a very complicated mechanism-- growth hormone signaling in a cell, has been noted in last decade. GH-induced signaling is characterized by activation of several pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the signal transducer and activator of transcription and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3) pathways. This review shows a current model of the growth hormone receptor dimerization, rotation of subunits and JAK2 kinase activation as the initial steps in the cascade of events. In the next stages of the signaling process, the GH-(GHR)2-(JAK2)2 complex may activate signaling molecules such as Stat, IRS-1 and IRS-2, and particularly all cascade proteins that activate MAP kinase. These pathways regulate basal cellular functions including target gene transcription, enzymatic activity and metabolite transport. Therefore growth hormone is considered as a major regulator of postnatal growth and metabolism, probably for mammary gland growth and development too.

  7. Wnt signaling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, T; Rindtorff, N; Boutros, M

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signaling is one of the key cascades regulating development and stemness, and has also been tightly associated with cancer. The role of Wnt signaling in carcinogenesis has most prominently been described for colorectal cancer, but aberrant Wnt signaling is observed in many more cancer entities. Here, we review current insights into novel components of Wnt pathways and describe their impact on cancer development. Furthermore, we highlight expanding functions of Wnt signaling for both solid and liquid tumors. We also describe current findings how Wnt signaling affects maintenance of cancer stem cells, metastasis and immune control. Finally, we provide an overview of current strategies to antagonize Wnt signaling in cancer and challenges that are associated with such approaches. PMID:27617575

  8. Signaling Mechanisms for Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Chun-Lin; Iijima, Miho

    2011-01-01

    Cells recognize external chemical gradients and translate these environmental cues into amplified intracellular signaling that results in elongated cell shape, actin polymerization toward the leading edge, and movement along the gradient. Mechanisms underlying chemotaxis are conserved evolutionarily from Dictyostelium amoeba to mammalian neutrophils. Recent studies have uncovered several parallel intracellular signaling pathways that crosstalk in chemotaxing cells. Here, we review these signaling mechanisms in Dictyostelium discoideum. PMID:21585354

  9. Optical Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-28

    compatible with the laser cation in the on-line inspection of products such as source. Thus, if the laser wavelength is z850 nm, hypodermic needles ...content for cw signals, short pulse signals, and evolving pulse signals - - the most difficult ones to analyze. We performed an extensive analysis on a...agreer.nt with the theory , and support our claims concerning the high performance level of our acousto-optir. architecture. We recognized the opportunity to

  10. Civil Navigation Signal Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    2015 04 29 _GPS Civil Navigation Signal Status UNCLASSIFIED/APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED/APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE Space and Missile...Systems Center Maj Michael Zollars 29 Apr 15 Civil Navigation Signal Status Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Civil Navigation Signal Status 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  11. Coherence specific signal detection via chiral pump-probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdaway, David I. H.; Collini, Elisabetta; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    We examine transient circular dichroism (TRCD) spectroscopy as a technique to investigate signatures of exciton coherence dynamics under the influence of structured vibrational environments. We consider a pump-probe configuration with a linearly polarized pump and a circularly polarized probe, with a variable angle θ between the two directions of propagation. In our theoretical formalism the signal is decomposed in chiral and achiral doorway and window functions. Using this formalism, we show that the chiral doorway component, which beats during the population time, can be isolated by comparing signals with different values of θ. As in the majority of time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, the overall TRCD response shows signatures of both excited and ground state dynamics. However, we demonstrate that the chiral doorway function has only a weak ground state contribution, which can generally be neglected if an impulsive pump pulse is used. These findings suggest that the pump-probe configuration of optical TRCD in the impulsive limit has the potential to unambiguously probe quantum coherence beating in the excited state. We present numerical results for theoretical signals in an example dimer system.

  12. The influence of pH on concentrations of protein and phenolics and resource quality of decomposing floating leaf material of Nymphaea alba L. (Nymphaeaceae) for the detritivore Asellus aquaticus (L.).

    PubMed

    Kok, C J; Hof, C H J; Lenssen, J P M; van der Velde, G

    1992-08-01

    Senescent floating leaf material of Nymphaea alba L., collected in an acidified moorland pool, was used in decomposition studies in two aquatic systems that differed greatly in pH, alkalinity and nutrient concentration. Concentrations of extractable protein and phenolics in the decomposing leaf material were measured during the incubation period. Protein levels were not significantly different in the leaf material from the two study sites, whereas the concentrations of phenolics in the degrading leaf blades from the acid site remained higher than in the material from the alkaline site. The resource quality of the decomposing leaf material was estimated by feeding tests using Asellus aquaticus (L.) in the laboratory. The effect of an artificially increased level of tannin on the feeding activity of A. aquaticus was also studied. Material from the acid system was consumed at a lower rate than material from the other system. The phenolic content of the material was found to be the most important feeding cue. The protein level of the leaf blade detritus seems to be of less importance. The structure of the decomposing leaf blades may have influenced the resource quality in the later stages of the experiment.

  13. Slit-Robo signaling.

    PubMed

    Blockus, Heike; Chédotal, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Slits are secreted proteins that bind to Roundabout (Robo) receptors. Slit-Robo signaling is best known for mediating axon repulsion in the developing nervous system. However, in recent years the functional repertoire of Slits and Robo has expanded tremendously and Slit-Robo signaling has been linked to roles in neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression among other processes. Likewise, our mechanistic understanding of Slit-Robo signaling has progressed enormously. Here, we summarize new insights into Slit-Robo evolutionary and system-dependent diversity, receptor-ligand interactions, signaling crosstalk and receptor activation.

  14. Identification of Buried Objects in GPR Using Amplitude Modulated Signals Extracted from Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Lihong; Qin, Yao; Ren, Xiaozhen; Wang, Qifu

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to detect the target reflections in ground penetrating radar (GPR) images, so that surface metal targets can be identified successfully. In order to accurately locate buried metal objects, a novel method called the Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis (MMSA) system is applied in ground penetrating radar (GPR) images. This process includes four steps. First the image is decomposed by the MMSA to extract the amplitude component of the B-scan image. The amplitude component enhances the target reflection and suppresses the direct wave and reflective wave to a large extent. Then we use the region of interest extraction method to locate the genuine target reflections from spurious reflections by calculating the normalized variance of the amplitude component. To find the apexes of the targets, a Hough transform is used in the restricted area. Finally, we estimate the horizontal and vertical position of the target. In terms of buried object detection, the proposed system exhibits promising performance, as shown in the experimental results. PMID:26690146

  15. RTG1- and RTG2-dependent retrograde signaling controls mitochondrial activity and stress resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Torelli, Nicole Quesada; Ferreira-Júnior, José Ribamar; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; da Cunha, Fernanda Marques

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial retrograde signaling is a communication pathway between the mitochondrion and the nucleus that regulates the expression of a subset of nuclear genes that codify mitochondrial proteins, mediating cell response to mitochondrial dysfunction. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the pathway depends on Rtg1p and Rtg3p, which together form the transcription factor that regulates gene expression, and Rtg2p, an activator of the pathway. Here, we provide novel studies aimed at assessing the functional impact of the lack of RTG-dependent signaling on mitochondrial activity. We show that mutants defective in RTG-dependent retrograde signaling present higher oxygen consumption and reduced hydrogen peroxide release in the stationary phase compared to wild-type cells. Interestingly, RTG mutants are less able to decompose hydrogen peroxide or maintain viability when challenged with hydrogen peroxide. Overall, our results indicate that RTG signaling is involved in the hormetic induction of antioxidant defenses and stress resistance.

  16. Signal Unification Block,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A multichannel device is described for unifying the signals of thermocouples, tachometer generators and tensometers used in conducting tests on...various machines and mechanisms. The device is built on semiconductor instruments and has a block construction, permitting the easy alteration of the number of varieties of the signals being unified.

  17. MBA Quality Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Randall S.

    1998-01-01

    A study identified quality signals for master's programs in business administration (MBAs). Traditional scholarly oriented academic signals are apparently not valued as such by external customer groups. MBA academic quality appears to be a multidimensional construct, with subdimensions of real-worldness; placement; student satisfaction; and…

  18. Respiratory rate detection by empirical mode decomposition method applied to diaphragm mechanomyographic signals.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Luis; Torres, Abel; Sarlabous, Leonardo; Fiz, José A; Jané, Raimon

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive evaluation of respiratory activity is an area of increasing research interest, resulting in the appearance of new monitoring techniques, ones of these being based on the analysis of the diaphragm mechanomyographic (MMGdi) signal. The MMGdi signal can be decomposed into two parts: (1) a high frequency activity corresponding to lateral vibration of respiratory muscles, and (2) a low frequency activity related to excursion of the thoracic cage. The purpose of this study was to apply the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method to obtain the low frequency of MMGdi signal and selecting the intrinsic mode functions related to the respiratory movement. With this intention, MMGdi signals were acquired from a healthy subject, during an incremental load respiratory test, by means of two capacitive accelerometers located at left and right sides of rib cage. Subsequently, both signals were combined to obtain a new signal which contains the contribution of both sides of thoracic cage. Respiratory rate (RR) measured from the mechanical activity (RR(MMG)) was compared with that measured from inspiratory pressure signal (RR(P)). Results showed a Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.87) and a good agreement (mean bias = -0.21 with lower and upper limits of -2.33 and 1.89 breaths per minute, respectively) between RR(MMG) and RR(P) measurements. In conclusion, this study suggests that RR can be estimated using EMD for extracting respiratory movement from low mechanical activity, during an inspiratory test protocol.

  19. The removal of wall components in Doppler ultrasound signals by using the empirical mode decomposition algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Gao, Yali; Wang, Le; Chen, Jianhua; Shi, Xinling

    2007-09-01

    Doppler ultrasound systems, used for the noninvasive detection of the vascular diseases, normally employ a high-pass filter (HPF) to remove the large, low-frequency components from the vessel wall from the blood flow signal. Unfortunately, the filter also removes the low-frequency Doppler signals arising from slow-moving blood. In this paper, we propose to use a novel technique, called the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), to remove the wall components from the mixed signals. The EMD is firstly to decompose a signal into a finite and usually small number of individual components named intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then a strategy based on the ratios between two adjacent values of the wall-to-blood signal ratio (WBSR) has been developed to automatically identify and remove the relevant IMFs that contribute to the wall components. This method is applied to process the simulated and clinical Doppler ultrasound signals. Compared with the results based on the traditional high-pass filter, the new approach obtains improved performance for wall components removal from the mixed signals effectively and objectively, and provides us with more accurate low blood flow.

  20. Powerline noise elimination in biomedical signals via blind source separation and wavelet analysis.

    PubMed

    Akwei-Sekyere, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The distortion of biomedical signals by powerline noise from recording biomedical devices has the potential to reduce the quality and convolute the interpretations of the data. Usually, powerline noise in biomedical recordings are extinguished via band-stop filters. However, due to the instability of biomedical signals, the distribution of signals filtered out may not be centered at 50/60 Hz. As a result, self-correction methods are needed to optimize the performance of these filters. Since powerline noise is additive in nature, it is intuitive to model powerline noise in a raw recording and subtract it from the raw data in order to obtain a relatively clean signal. This paper proposes a method that utilizes this approach by decomposing the recorded signal and extracting powerline noise via blind source separation and wavelet analysis. The performance of this algorithm was compared with that of a 4th order band-stop Butterworth filter, empirical mode decomposition, independent component analysis and, a combination of empirical mode decomposition with independent component analysis. The proposed method was able to expel sinusoidal signals within powerline noise frequency range with higher fidelity in comparison with the mentioned techniques, especially at low signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Extracting Independent Local Oscillatory Geophysical Signals by Geodetic Tropospheric Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botai, O. J.; Combrinck, L.; Sivakumar, V.; Schuh, H.; Bohm, J.

    2010-01-01

    Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) due to water vapor derived from space geodetic techniques and numerical weather prediction simulated-reanalysis data exhibits non-linear and non-stationary properties akin to those in the crucial geophysical signals of interest to the research community. These time series, once decomposed into additive (and stochastic) components, have information about the long term global change (the trend) and other interpretable (quasi-) periodic components such as seasonal cycles and noise. Such stochastic component(s) could be a function that exhibits at most one extremum within a data span or a monotonic function within a certain temporal span. In this contribution, we examine the use of the combined Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA): the EEMD-ICA algorithm to extract the independent local oscillatory stochastic components in the tropospheric delay derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) over six geodetic sites (HartRAO, Hobart26, Wettzell, Gilcreek, Westford, and Tsukub32). The proposed methodology allows independent geophysical processes to be extracted and assessed. Analysis of the quality index of the Independent Components (ICs) derived for each cluster of local oscillatory components (also called the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs)) for all the geodetic stations considered in the study demonstrate that they are strongly site dependent. Such strong dependency seems to suggest that the localized geophysical signals embedded in the ZTD over the geodetic sites are not correlated. Further, from the viewpoint of non-linear dynamical systems, four geophysical signals the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) index derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) anomaly from NCEP, the SIDC monthly Sun Spot Number (SSN), and the Length of Day (LoD) are linked to the extracted signal components from ZTD. Results from the synchronization

  2. Jasmonate signalling: a copycat of auxin signalling?

    PubMed

    Pérez, A Cuéllar; Goossens, A

    2013-12-01

    Plant hormones regulate almost all aspects of plant growth and development. The past decade has provided breakthrough discoveries in phytohormone sensing and signal transduction, and highlighted the striking mechanistic similarities between the auxin and jasmonate (JA) signalling pathways. Perception of auxin and JA involves the formation of co-receptor complexes in which hormone-specific E3-ubiquitin ligases of the SKP1-Cullin-F-box protein (SCF) type interact with specific repressor proteins. Across the plant kingdom, the Aux/IAA and the JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins correspond to the auxin- and JA-specific repressors, respectively. In the absence of the hormones, these repressors form a complex with transcription factors (TFs) specific for both pathways. They also recruit several proteins, among which the general co-repressor TOPLESS, and thereby prevent the TFs from activating gene expression. The hormone-mediated interaction between the SCF and the repressors targets the latter for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation, which, in turn, releases the TFs to allow modulating hormone-dependent gene expression. In this review, we describe the similarities and differences in the auxin and JA signalling cascades with respect to the protein families and the protein domains involved in the formation of the pathway-specific complexes.

  3. Plant Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Atienza, Juliana; Van Ingelgem, Carl; Roef, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the cyclic nucleotides 3′,5′-cyclic adenyl monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) in plants is now generally accepted. In addition, cAMP and cGMP have been implicated in the regulation of important plant processes such as stomatal functioning, monovalent and divalent cation fluxes, chloroplast development, gibberellic acid signalling, pathogen response and gene transcription. However, very little is known regarding the components of cyclic nucleotide signalling in plants. In this addendum, the evidence for specific mechanisms of plant cyclic nucleotide signalling is evaluated and discussed. PMID:19704553

  4. Aestivation: signaling and hypometabolism.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kenneth B; Storey, Janet M

    2012-05-01

    Aestivation is a survival strategy used by many vertebrates and invertebrates to endure arid environmental conditions. Key features of aestivation include strong metabolic rate suppression, strategies to retain body water, conservation of energy and body fuel reserves, altered nitrogen metabolism, and mechanisms to preserve and stabilize organs, cells and macromolecules over many weeks or months of dormancy. Cell signaling is crucial to achieving both a hypometabolic state and reorganizing multiple metabolic pathways to optimize long-term viability during aestivation. This commentary examines the current knowledge about cell signaling pathways that participate in regulating aestivation, including signaling cascades mediated by the AMP-activated kinase, Akt, ERK, and FoxO1.

  5. Quantifying Ubiquitin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ordureau, Alban; Münch, Christian; Harper, J. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin (UB)-driven signaling systems permeate biology, and are often integrated with other types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), most notably phosphorylation. Flux through such pathways is typically dictated by the fractional stoichiometry of distinct regulatory modifications and protein assemblies as well as the spatial organization of pathway components. Yet, we rarely understand the dynamics and stoichiometry of rate-limiting intermediates along a reaction trajectory. Here, we review how quantitative proteomic tools and enrichment strategies are being used to quantify UB-dependent signaling systems, and to integrate UB signaling with regulatory phosphorylation events. A key regulatory feature of ubiquitylation is that the identity of UB chain linkage types can control downstream processes. We also describe how proteomic and enzymological tools can be used to identify and quantify UB chain synthesis and linkage preferences. The emergence of sophisticated quantitative proteomic approaches will set a new standard for elucidating biochemical mechanisms of UB-driven signaling systems. PMID:26000850

  6. Signal processing in SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullers, D. K.; Linscott, I. R.; Oliver, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    It is believed that the Galaxy might contain ten billion potential life sites. In view of the physical inaccessibility of extraterrestrial life on account of the vast distances involved, a logical first step in a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) appears to be an attempt to detect signals already being radiated. The characteristics of the signals to be expected are discussed together with the search strategy of a NASA program. It is pointed out that all presently planned searches will use existing radio-astronomy antennas. If no extraterrestrial intelligence signals are discovered, society will have to decide whether SETI justifies a dedicated facility of much greater collecting area. Attention is given to a multichannel spectrum analyzer, CW signal detection, pulse detection, the pattern detector, and details of SETI system operation.

  7. Signals from the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the basics of radio astronomy and describes how to assemble several simple systems for receiving radio signals from the cosmos. Includes schematics, parts lists, working drawings, and contact information for radio astronomy suppliers. (11 references) (Author/JJK)

  8. Nucleotide signalling during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Idzko, Marco; Ferrari, Davide; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions are associated with the extracellular release of nucleotides, particularly ATP. In the extracellular compartment, ATP predominantly functions as a signalling molecule through the activation of purinergic P2 receptors. Metabotropic P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled, whereas ionotropic P2X receptors are ATP-gated ion channels. Here we discuss how signalling events through P2 receptors alter the outcomes of inflammatory or infectious diseases. Recent studies implicate a role for P2X/P2Ysignalling in mounting appropriate inflammatory responses critical for host defence against invading pathogens or tumours. Conversely, P2X/P2Y signalling can promote chronic inflammation during ischaemia and reperfusion injury, inflammatory bowel disease or acute and chronic diseases of the lungs. Although nucleotide signalling has been used clinically in patients before, research indicates an expanding field of opportunities for specifically targeting individual P2 receptors for the treatment of inflammatory or infectious diseases. PMID:24828189

  9. Digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, A. V.; Baggeroer, A. B.; Lim, J. S.; Musicus, B. R.; Mook, D. R.; Duckworth, G. L.; Bordley, T. E.; Curtis, S. R.; Deadrick, D. S.; Dove, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Signal and image processing research projects are described. Topics include: (1) modeling underwater acoustic propagation; (2) image restoration; (3) signal reconstruction; (4) speech enhancement; (5) pitch detection; (6) spectral analysis; (7) speech synthesis; (8) speech enhancement; (9) autoregressive spectral estimation; (10) knowledge based array processing; (11) speech analysis; (12) estimating the degree of coronary stenosis with image processing; (13) automatic target detection; and (14) video conferencing.

  10. Workshop on Cyclostationary Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-30

    Time Compression, Terry M. Turpin and Leslie H. Gesell 73 iv New Cyclic Spectral Analysis Algorithms for Reducing Storage and Search, Grace Yeung and...phases of the signal, and the power of the signal and the noise), the log-likelihood ratio test yields a sufficient statistic (W)f=WHLW with linear...modeled as a random variable uniformly distributed over the period of cyclostationarity, and the resulting likelihood ratio test does not exploit the

  11. Preservation of quadrature Doppler signals from bidirectional slow blood flow close to the vessel wall using an adaptive decomposition algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Shi, Xinling; Zhang, Kexin; Chen, Jianhua

    2009-03-01

    A novel approach based on the phasing-filter (PF) technique and the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm is proposed to preserve quadrature Doppler signal components from bidirectional slow blood flow close to the vessel wall. Bidirectional mixed Doppler ultrasound signals, which were echoed from the forward and reverse moving blood and vessel wall, were initially separated to avoid the phase distortion of quadrature Doppler signals (which is induced from direct decomposition by the nonlinear EMD processing). Separated unidirectional mixed Doppler signals were decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the EMD algorithm and the relevant IMFs that contribute to blood flow components were identified and summed to give the blood flow signals, whereby only the components from the bidirectional slow blood flow close to the vessel wall were retained independently. The complex quadrature Doppler blood flow signal was reconstructed from a combination of the extracted unidirectional Doppler blood flow signals. The proposed approach was applied to simulated and clinical Doppler signals. It is concluded from the experimental results that this approach is practical for the preservation of quadrature Doppler signal components from the bidirectional slow blood flow close to the vessel wall, and may provide more diagnostic information for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

  12. Sparsity-enabled signal decomposition using tunable Q-factor wavelet transform for fault feature extraction of gearbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; He, Zhengjia

    2013-12-01

    Localized faults in gearboxes tend to result in periodic shocks and thus arouse periodic responses in vibration signals. Feature extraction has always been a key problem for localized fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new fault feature extraction technique for gearboxes by using sparsity-enabled signal decomposition method. The sparsity-enabled signal decomposition method separates signals based on the oscillatory behavior of the signal rather than the frequency or scale. Thus, the fault feature can be nonlinearly extracted from vibration signals. During the implementation of the proposed method, tunable Q-factor wavelet transform, for which the Q-factor can be easily specified, is adopted to represent vibration signals in a sparse way, and then morphological component analysis (MCA) is employed to estimate and separate the distinct components. The corresponding optimization problem of MCA is solved by the split augmented Lagrangian shrinkage algorithm (SALSA). With the proposed method, vibration signals of the faulty gearbox can be nonlinearly decomposed into high-oscillatory component and low-oscillatory component which is the fault feature of gearboxes. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, this paper investigates the effect of two parameters pertinent to MCA and SALSA: the Lagrange multiplier and the penalty parameter. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by both the simulated and practical gearbox vibration signals. Results show the proposed method outperforms empirical mode decomposition and spectral kurtosis in extracting fault features of gearboxes.

  13. Removal of Nuisance Signals from Limited and Sparse 1H MRSI Data Using a Union-of-Subspaces Model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chao; Lam, Fan; Johnson, Curtis L.; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To remove nuisance signals (e.g., water and lipid signals) for 1H MRSI data collected from the brain with limited and/or sparse (k, t)-space coverage. Methods A union-of-subspace model is proposed for removing nuisance signals. The model exploits the partial separability of both the nuisance signals and the metabolite signal, and decomposes an MRSI dataset into several sets of generalized voxels that share the same spectral distributions. This model enables the estimation of the nuisance signals from an MRSI dataset that has limited and/or sparse (k, t)-space coverage. Results The proposed method has been evaluated using in vivo MRSI data. For conventional CSI data with limited k-space coverage, the proposed method produced “lipid-free” spectra without lipid suppression during data acquisition at 130 ms echo time. For sparse (k, t)-space data acquired with conventional pulses for water and lipid suppression, the proposed method was also able to remove the remaining water and lipid signals with negligible residuals. Conclusions Nuisance signals in 1H MRSI data reside in low-dimensional subspaces. This property can be utilized for estimation and removal of nuisance signals from 1H MRSI data even when they have limited and/or sparse coverage of (k, t)-space. The proposed method should prove useful especially for accelerated high-resolution 1H MRSI of the brain. PMID:25762370

  14. Wavelet-based texture analysis of EEG signal for prediction of epileptic seizure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosian, Arthur A.; Homan, Richard; Pemmaraju, Suryalakshmi; Mitra, Sunanda

    1995-09-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal texture content analysis has been proposed for early warning of an epileptic seizure. This approach was evaluated by investigating the interrelationship between texture features and basic signal informational characteristics, such as Kolmogorov complexity and fractal dimension. The comparison of several traditional techniques, including higher-order FIR digital filtering, chaos, autoregressive and FFT time- frequency analysis was also carried out on the same epileptic EEG recording. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether wavelet transform can be used to further enhance the developed methods for prediction of epileptic seizures. The combined consideration of texture and entropy characteristics extracted from subsignals decomposed by wavelet transform are explored for that purpose. Yet, the novel neuro-fuzzy clustering algorithm is performed on wavelet coefficients to segment given EEG recording into different stages prior to an actual seizure onset.

  15. Sucrose signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Jorge A.; Pontis, Horacio G.; Martínez-Noël, Giselle M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sucrose as a signaling molecule in plants was originally proposed several decades ago. However, recognition of sucrose as a true signal has been largely debated and only recently this role has been fully accepted. The best-studied cases of sucrose signaling involve metabolic processes, such as the induction of fructan or anthocyanin synthesis, but a large volume of scattered information suggests that sucrose signals may control a vast array of developmental processes along the whole life cycle of the plant. Also, wide gaps exist in our current understanding of the intracellular steps that mediate sucrose action. Sucrose concentration in plant tissues tends to be directly related to light intensity, and inversely related to temperature, and accordingly, exogenous sucrose supply often mimics the effect of high light and cold. However, many exceptions to this rule seem to occur due to interactions with other signaling pathways. In conclusion, the sucrose role as a signal molecule in plants is starting to be unveiled and much research is still needed to have a complete map of its significance in plant function. PMID:23333971

  16. Denoising of chaotic signal using independent component analysis and empirical mode decomposition with circulate translating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-Bo, Wang; Xiao-Dong, Zhang; Yuchan, Chang; Xiang-Li, Wang; Zhao, Wang; Xi, Chen; Lei, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new method to reduce noises within chaotic signals based on ICA (independent component analysis) and EMD (empirical mode decomposition) is proposed. The basic idea is decomposing chaotic signals and constructing multidimensional input vectors, firstly, on the base of EMD and its translation invariance. Secondly, it makes the independent component analysis on the input vectors, which means that a self adapting denoising is carried out for the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of chaotic signals. Finally, all IMFs compose the new denoised chaotic signal. Experiments on the Lorenz chaotic signal composed of different Gaussian noises and the monthly observed chaotic sequence on sunspots were put into practice. The results proved that the method proposed in this paper is effective in denoising of chaotic signals. Moreover, it can correct the center point in the phase space effectively, which makes it approach the real track of the chaotic attractor. Project supported by the National Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012BAJ15B04), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41071270 and 61473213), the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2015CFB424), the State Key Laboratory Foundation of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, China (Grant No. SOED1405), the Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory Foundation of Metallurgical Industry Process System Science, China (Grant No. Z201303), and the Hubei Key Laboratory Foundation of Transportation Internet of Things, Wuhan University of Technology, China (Grant No.2015III015-B02).

  17. Signal enhancement in polarized light imaging by means of independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Dammers, Jürgen; Axer, Markus; Grässel, David; Palm, Christoph; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2010-01-15

    Polarized light imaging (PLI) enables the evaluation of fiber orientations in histological sections of human postmortem brains, with ultra-high spatial resolution. PLI is based on the birefringent properties of the myelin sheath of nerve fibers. As a result, the polarization state of light propagating through a rotating polarimeter is changed in such a way that the detected signal at each measurement unit of a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera describes a sinusoidal signal. Vectors of the fiber orientation defined by inclination and direction angles can then directly be derived from the optical signals employing PLI analysis. However, noise, light scatter and filter inhomogeneities interfere with the original sinusoidal PLI signals. We here introduce a novel method using independent component analysis (ICA) to decompose the PLI images into statistically independent component maps. After decomposition, gray and white matter structures can clearly be distinguished from noise and other artifacts. The signal enhancement after artifact rejection is quantitatively evaluated in 134 histological whole brain sections. Thus, the primary sinusoidal signals from polarized light imaging can be effectively restored after noise and artifact rejection utilizing ICA. Our method therefore contributes to the analysis of nerve fiber orientation in the human brain within a micrometer scale.

  18. Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Decomposer Communities on the Stabilization of Wood-Derived Carbon Pools: Catalyst for a New Study

    SciTech Connect

    Resh, Sigrid C.

    2014-11-17

    > m-2 h-1, respectively; p = 0.068). Our first two growing seasons of soil surface CO2 efflux data show that wood chip location (i.e., surface vs. buried chip application) is very important, with surface chips loosing twice the wood-derived CO2. The DOC data support this trend for greater loss of ecosystem C from surface chips. This has strong implications for the importance of root and buried wood for ecosystem C retention. This strong chip location effect on wood-derived C loss was significantly modified by soil texture, soil temperature, decomposer communities, and wood quality as effected by potential future CO2 and O3 levels.

  19. Feature Extraction from Subband Brain Signals and Its Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukul, Manoj Kumar; Matsuno, Fumitoshi

    This paper considers both the non-stationarity as well as independence/uncorrelated criteria along with the asymmetry ratio over the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and proposes a hybrid approach of the signal preprocessing methods before the feature extraction. A filter bank approach of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to exploit the non-stationary characteristics of the EEG signals and it decomposes the raw EEG signals into the subbands of different center frequencies called as rhythm. A post processing of the selected subband by the AMUSE algorithm (a second order statistics based ICA/BSS algorithm) provides the separating matrix for each class of the movement imagery. In the subband domain the orthogonality as well as orthonormality criteria over the whitening matrix and separating matrix do not come respectively. The human brain has an asymmetrical structure. It has been observed that the ratio between the norms of the left and right class separating matrices should be different for better discrimination between these two classes. The alpha/beta band asymmetry ratio between the separating matrices of the left and right classes will provide the condition to select an appropriate multiplier. So we modify the estimated separating matrix by an appropriate multiplier in order to get the required asymmetry and extend the AMUSE algorithm in the subband domain. The desired subband is further subjected to the updated separating matrix to extract subband sub-components from each class. The extracted subband sub-components sources are further subjected to the feature extraction (power spectral density) step followed by the linear discriminant analysis (LDA).

  20. Multicomponent Signal Unmixing from Nanoheterostructures: Overcoming the Traditional Challenges of Nanoscale X-ray Analysis via Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of core–shell nanoparticle clusters have been determined through principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) of an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum image (SI) acquired in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The method blindly decomposes the SI into three components, which are found to accurately represent the isolated and unmixed X-ray signals originating from the supporting carbon film, the shell, and the bimetallic core. The composition of the latter is verified by and is in excellent agreement with the separate quantification of bare bimetallic seed nanoparticles. PMID:25760234

  1. Calcium signaling and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Kass, G E; Orrenius, S

    1999-01-01

    The divalent calcium cation Ca(2+) is used as a major signaling molecule during cell signal transduction to regulate energy output, cellular metabolism, and phenotype. The basis to the signaling role of Ca(2+) is an intricate network of cellular channels and transporters that allow a low resting concentration of Ca(2+) in the cytosol of the cell ([Ca(2+)]i) but that are also coupled to major dynamic and rapidly exchanging stores. This enables extracellular signals from hormones and growth factors to be transduced as [Ca(2+)]i spikes that are amplitude and frequency encoded. There is considerable evidence that a number of toxic environmental chemicals target these Ca(2+) signaling processes, alter them, and induce cell death by apoptosis. Two major pathways for apoptosis will be considered. The first one involves Ca(2+)-mediated expression of ligands that bind to and activate death receptors such as CD95 (Fas, APO-1). In the second pathway, Ca(2+) has a direct toxic effect and its primary targets include the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mitochondria may respond to an apoptotic Ca(2+) signal by the selective release of cytochrome c or through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and opening of an inner mitochondrial membrane pore. Toxic agents such as the environmental pollutant tributyltin or the natural plant product thapsigargin, which deplete the ER Ca(2+) stores, will induce as a direct result of this effect the opening of plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels and an ER stress response. In contrast, under some conditions, Ca(2+) signals may be cytoprotective and antagonize the apoptotic machinery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10229704

  2. Separation of Climate Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Fodor, I

    2002-11-13

    Understanding changes in global climate is a challenging scientific problem. Simulated and observed data include signals from many sources, and untangling their respective effects is difficult. In order to make meaningful comparisons between different models, and to understand human effects on global climate, we need to isolate the effects of different sources. Recent eruptions of the El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo volcanoes coincided with large El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, which complicates the separation of their contributions on global temperatures. Current approaches for separating volcano and ENSO signals in global mean data involve parametric models and iterative techniques [3]. We investigate alternative methods based on principal component analysis (PCA) [2] and independent component analysis (ICA) [1]. Our goal is to determine if such techniques can automatically identify the signals corresponding to the different sources, without relying on parametric models.

  3. Plant TOR signaling components

    PubMed Central

    John, Florian; Roffler, Stefan; Wicker, Thomas; Ringli, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Cell growth is a process that needs to be tightly regulated. Cells must be able to sense environmental factors like nutrient abundance, the energy level or stress signals and coordinate growth accordingly. The Target Of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway is a major controller of growth-related processes in all eukaryotes. If environmental conditions are favorable, the TOR pathway promotes cell and organ growth and restrains catabolic processes like autophagy. Rapamycin is a specific inhibitor of the TOR kinase and acts as a potent inhibitor of TOR signaling. As a consequence, interfering with TOR signaling has a strong impact on plant development. This review summarizes the progress in the understanding of the biological significance and the functional analysis of the TOR pathway in plants. PMID:22057328

  4. Updating dopamine reward signals

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has advanced our knowledge of phasic dopamine reward prediction error signals. The error signal is bidirectional, reflects well the higher order prediction error described by temporal difference learning models, is compatible with model-free and model-based reinforcement learning, reports the subjective rather than physical reward value during temporal discounting and reflects subjective stimulus perception rather than physical stimulus aspects. Dopamine activations are primarily driven by reward, and to some extent risk, whereas punishment and salience have only limited activating effects when appropriate controls are respected. The signal is homogeneous in terms of time course but heterogeneous in many other aspects. It is essential for synaptic plasticity and a range of behavioural learning situations. PMID:23267662

  5. Endocytosis, Signaling, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; von Zastrow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The endocytic network comprises a vast and intricate system of membrane-delimited cell entry and cargo sorting routes running between biochemically and functionally distinct intracellular compartments. The endocytic network caters to the organization and redistribution of diverse subcellular components, and mediates appropriate shuttling and processing of materials acquired from neighboring cells or the extracellular milieu. Such trafficking logistics, despite their importance, represent only one facet of endocytic function. The endocytic network also plays a key role in organizing, mediating, and regulating cellular signal transduction events. Conversely, cellular signaling processes tightly control the endocytic pathway at different steps. The present article provides a perspective on the intimate relationships that exist between particular endocytic and cellular signaling processes in mammalian cells, within the context of understanding the impact of this nexus on integrated physiology. PMID:25085911

  6. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  7. PKD signaling and pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a serious medical disorder with no current therapies directed to the molecular pathogenesis of the disorder. Inflammation, inappropriate intracellular activation of digestive enzymes, and parenchymal acinar cell death by necrosis are the critical pathophysiologic processes of acute pancreatitis. Thus, it is necessary to elucidate the key molecular signals that mediate these pathobiologic processes and develop new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the appropriate signaling pathways in order to improve outcomes for this disease. A novel serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) family has emerged as key participants in signal transduction, and this family is increasingly being implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions and diseases. Methods This review summarizes recent findings of our group and others regarding the signaling pathway and the biological roles of the PKD family in pancreatic acinar cells. In particular, we highlight our studies of the functions of PKD in several key pathobiologic processes associated with acute pancreatitis in experimental models. Results Our findings reveal that PKD signaling is required for NF-κB activation/inflammation, intracellular zymogen activation, and acinar cell necrosis in rodent experimental pancreatitis. Novel small-molecule PKD inhibitors attenuate the severity of pancreatitis in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Further, this review emphasizes our latest advances in the therapeutic application of PKD inhibitors to experimental pancreatitis after the initiation of pancreatitis. Conclusions These novel findings suggest that PKD signaling is a necessary modulator in key initiating pathobiologic processes of pancreatitis, and that it constitutes a novel therapeutic target for treatments of this disorder. PMID:26879861

  8. Physiological Signal Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedericks, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing a Physiological Signal Conditioner (PSC) for monitoring of astronauts in the ISS Human Research Facility. The PSC is battery powered and worn by the crew. The Engineering Development Unit (PSC EDU) and the form-and-fit PSC Tooling Model will be displayed along with associated graphics and text explanations. Results of a recent advanced PSC-2 feasibility study will be presented. The presentation will stimulate discussion of the functional capabilities of a wireless, crew worn Physiological Signal Conditioner. Application of advanced technology to meet the conflicting demands of size, power, and functional capability will be of interest.

  9. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Hallberg, Carl; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have designed a signal conditioning amplifier which automatically matches itself to almost any kind of transducer. The product, called Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high accuracy measurements. USCA's features which can be either programmable or automated include: voltage, current, or pulsed excitation, unlimited resolution gain, digital filtering and both analog and digital output. USCA will be used at Kennedy Space Center's launch pads for environmental measurements such as vibrations, strains, temperatures and overpressures. USCA is presently being commercialized through a co-funded agreement between NASA, the State of Florida, and Loral Test and Information Systems, Inc.

  10. Array signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Haykin, S.; Justice, J.H.; Owsley, N.L.; Yen, J.L.; Kak, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first book to be devoted completely to array signal processing, a subject that has become increasingly important in recent years. The book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1, which is introductory, reviews some basic concepts in wave propagation. The remaining five chapters deal with the theory and applications of array signal processing in (a) exploration seismology, (b) passive sonar, (c) radar, (d) radio astronomy, and (e) tomographic imaging. The various chapters of the book are self-contained. The book is written by a team of five active researchers, who are specialists in the individual fields covered by the pertinent chapters.

  11. TOR signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants.

  12. Noninvasive vital signal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zenan; Chee, Jonny; Chua, Kok Poo; Chen, ZhouDe

    2010-05-01

    Vital signals of patients, such as heart rate, temperature and movement are crucial to monitor patients in hospital. Current heart rate measurement is obtained by using Electrocardiograph, which normally applies electrodes to the patient's body. As electrodes are extremely uncomfortable to ware and hinder patient's movement, a non-invasive vital signal-monitoring device will be a better solution. Similar to Electrocardiograph, the device detects the voltage difference across the heart by using concept of capacitance, which can be obtained by two conductive fiber sewing on the bed sheet. Simultaneous temperature reading can also be detected by using surface mounted temperature sensor. This paper will mainly focus on the heart rate monitoring.

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1422 - Signals-hand signal chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Signals-hand signal chart. 1926.1422 Section 1926.1422 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction § 1926.1422 Signals—hand signal chart. Hand signal charts must be either posted on the...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1422 - Signals-hand signal chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Signals-hand signal chart. 1926.1422 Section 1926.1422 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction § 1926.1422 Signals—hand signal chart. Hand signal charts must be either posted on the...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1422 - Signals-hand signal chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Signals-hand signal chart. 1926.1422 Section 1926.1422 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction § 1926.1422 Signals—hand signal chart. Hand signal charts must be either posted on the...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1422 - Signals-hand signal chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Signals-hand signal chart. 1926.1422 Section 1926.1422 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction § 1926.1422 Signals—hand signal chart. Hand signal charts must be either posted on the...

  17. Hybrid ECG signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Circuit with high common-mode rejection has ability to filter and amplify accepted analog electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of varying amplitude, shape, and polarity. In addition, low power circuit develops standardized pulses that can be counted and averaged by heart/breath rate processor.

  18. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  19. Contextual signaling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Laura J; Anastasaki, Corina; Chen, Ran; Toonen, Joseph A; Williams, Sidney B; Gutmann, David H

    2016-10-01

    The formation and maintenance of an organism are highly dependent on the orderly control of cell growth, differentiation, death, and migration. These processes are tightly regulated by signaling cascades in which a limited number of molecules dictate these cellular events. While these signaling pathways are highly conserved across species and cell types, the functional outcomes that result from their engagement are specified by the context in which they are activated. Using the Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome as an illustrative platform, we discuss how NF1/RAS signaling can create functional diversity at multiple levels (molecular, cellular, tissue, and genetic/genomic). As such, the ability of related molecules (e.g., K-RAS, H-RAS) to activate distinct effectors, as well as cell type- and tissue-specific differences in molecular composition and effector engagement, generate numerous unique functional effects. These variations, coupled with a multitude of extracellular cues and genomic/genetic changes that each modify the innate signaling properties of the cell, enable precise control of cellular physiology in both health and disease. Understanding these contextual influences is important when trying to dissect the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of cancer relevant to molecularly-targeted therapeutics.

  20. Communication Signals in Lizards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Charles C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses mechanisms and functional intent of visual communication signals in iguanid/agamid lizards. Demonstrated that lizards communicate with each other by using pushups and head nods and that each species does this in its own way, conveying different types of information. (JN)

  1. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  2. Underdetermined Blind Source Separation with Variational Mode Decomposition for Compound Roller Bearing Fault Signals

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Gang; Luo, Ganggang; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Caijin; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    In the condition monitoring of roller bearings, the measured signals are often compounded due to the unknown multi-vibration sources and complex transfer paths. Moreover, the sensors are limited in particular locations and numbers. Thus, this is a problem of underdetermined blind source separation for the vibration sources estimation, which makes it difficult to extract fault features exactly by ordinary methods in running tests. To improve the effectiveness of compound fault diagnosis in roller bearings, the present paper proposes a new method to solve the underdetermined problem and to extract fault features based on variational mode decomposition. In order to surmount the shortcomings of inadequate signals collected through limited sensors, a vibration signal is firstly decomposed into a number of band-limited intrinsic mode functions by variational mode decomposition. Then, the demodulated signal with the Hilbert transform of these multi-channel functions is used as the input matrix for independent component analysis. Finally, the compound faults are separated effectively by carrying out independent component analysis, which enables the fault features to be extracted more easily and identified more clearly. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in compound fault separation, and a comparison experiment shows that the proposed method has higher adaptability and practicability in separating strong noise signals than the commonly-used ensemble empirical mode decomposition method. PMID:27322268

  3. Underdetermined Blind Source Separation with Variational Mode Decomposition for Compound Roller Bearing Fault Signals.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gang; Luo, Ganggang; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Caijin; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-06-16

    In the condition monitoring of roller bearings, the measured signals are often compounded due to the unknown multi-vibration sources and complex transfer paths. Moreover, the sensors are limited in particular locations and numbers. Thus, this is a problem of underdetermined blind source separation for the vibration sources estimation, which makes it difficult to extract fault features exactly by ordinary methods in running tests. To improve the effectiveness of compound fault diagnosis in roller bearings, the present paper proposes a new method to solve the underdetermined problem and to extract fault features based on variational mode decomposition. In order to surmount the shortcomings of inadequate signals collected through limited sensors, a vibration signal is firstly decomposed into a number of band-limited intrinsic mode functions by variational mode decomposition. Then, the demodulated signal with the Hilbert transform of these multi-channel functions is used as the input matrix for independent component analysis. Finally, the compound faults are separated effectively by carrying out independent component analysis, which enables the fault features to be extracted more easily and identified more clearly. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in compound fault separation, and a comparison experiment shows that the proposed method has higher adaptability and practicability in separating strong noise signals than the commonly-used ensemble empirical mode decomposition method.

  4. Classification of EMG signals using PSO optimized SVM for diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Subasi, Abdulhamit

    2013-06-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is an extensively used machine learning method with many biomedical signal classification applications. In this study, a novel PSO-SVM model has been proposed that hybridized the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and SVM to improve the EMG signal classification accuracy. This optimization mechanism involves kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure, which significantly influences the classification accuracy. The experiments were conducted on the basis of EMG signal to classify into normal, neurogenic or myopathic. In the proposed method the EMG signals were decomposed into the frequency sub-bands using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and a set of statistical features were extracted from these sub-bands to represent the distribution of wavelet coefficients. The obtained results obviously validate the superiority of the SVM method compared to conventional machine learning methods, and suggest that further significant enhancements in terms of classification accuracy can be achieved by the proposed PSO-SVM classification system. The PSO-SVM yielded an overall accuracy of 97.41% on 1200 EMG signals selected from 27 subject records against 96.75%, 95.17% and 94.08% for the SVM, the k-NN and the RBF classifiers, respectively. PSO-SVM is developed as an efficient tool so that various SVMs can be used conveniently as the core of PSO-SVM for diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders.

  5. Methodology for fault detection in induction motors via sound and vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Arredondo, Paulo Antonio; Morinigo-Sotelo, Daniel; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Avina-Cervantes, Juan Gabriel; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, timely maintenance of electric motors is vital to keep up the complex processes of industrial production. There are currently a variety of methodologies for fault diagnosis. Usually, the diagnosis is performed by analyzing current signals at a steady-state motor operation or during a start-up transient. This method is known as motor current signature analysis, which identifies frequencies associated with faults in the frequency domain or by the time-frequency decomposition of the current signals. Fault identification may also be possible by analyzing acoustic sound and vibration signals, which is useful because sometimes this information is the only available. The contribution of this work is a methodology for detecting faults in induction motors in steady-state operation based on the analysis of acoustic sound and vibration signals. This proposed approach uses the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition for decomposing the signal into several intrinsic mode functions. Subsequently, the frequency marginal of the Gabor representation is calculated to obtain the spectral content of the IMF in the frequency domain. This proposal provides good fault detectability results compared to other published works in addition to the identification of more frequencies associated with the faults. The faults diagnosed in this work are two broken rotor bars, mechanical unbalance and bearing defects.

  6. A new method for arrival time determination of impact signal based on HHT and AIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingzhou; Yang, Jiangxin; Cao, Yanpeng; Fu, Weinan; Cao, Yanlong

    2017-03-01

    Time-difference method is usually used to locate loose parts in nuclear power plant, the key to which is estimating the arrival time of impact signal caused by the crash of loose parts. However, the dispersion behavior of impact signal and the noise of nuclear power station primary circuit have negative effect on the arrival time determination. In this paper, a method of arrival time determination of impact signal based on Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is proposed. Firstly, the impact signal is decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). Then the instantaneous frequency of the first intrinsic mode function (IMF) is calculated, which characterizes the difference between the background noise and the impact signal. The arrival time is determined finally by AIC function. The proposed method is tested through simulation experiment which takes steel balls as the real loose parts. The deviation between the arrival time determined by proposed method and the real arrival time distributes stably under different SNRs and different sensor-to-drop point distances, mostly within the range ±0.5 ms. The proposed method is also compared with another AIC technique and a RMS approach, both of which have more dispersive distribution of deviation, quite a lot out of the range ±1 ms.

  7. Synergistic signals in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, S F; McLachlan, J A

    1996-01-01

    Numerous endogenous signals (such as hormones and growth factors) or environmental signals (including chemicals or temperature) contribute to determining the overall biological response produced by cells. Some combinations of endogenous or environmental signals produce synergistic activity. This commentary examines the different types of interactions between signals that contribute to synergy at the biological level. Images Figure 1. PMID:8930538

  8. Seasonal signal capturing in time series of up coordinates by means of adaptive filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalvac, S.; Ustun, A.

    2013-12-01

    Digital filters, is a system that performs mathematical operations on a sampled or discrete time signals. Adaptive filters designed for noise canceling are capable tools of decomposing correlated parts of data sets. This kind of filters which optimize itself using Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm is a powerful tool for understand the truth hidden into the complex data sets like time series in Geosciences. The complex data sets such as CGPS (Continuously operating reference station) station's time series can be understood better with adaptive noise canceling by means of decompose coherent (seasonal effect, tectonic plate motion) and incoherent (noise; site-specific effects) parts of data. In this study, it is aimed to model the subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal based on the seasonal correlation between consecutive years of CGPS time series. For this purpose, two stations where located into subsidence area of 3 year time series have analyzed with adaptive noise canceling filter. According to the results, the annual movement of these two stations have strong relationship. Also, subsidence behavior are correlated with annual rainfall data. BELD station one year filtered movement KAMN station one year filtered movements

  9. Aural perception of NDE signals

    SciTech Connect

    Light, G.M.; Holt, A.E.; Polk, K.D.; Godwin, J.G.; Clayton, W.T.

    1994-12-31

    During nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of a material, the inspection signals are received typically by an NDE instrument. These signals usually are displayed electronically for visual interpretation. Work has been done to convert these signals into aural (audible) signals with the intent to enhance the accuracy of evaluation through the use of two senses (ears and eyes) instead of one. This paper describes auralization of ultrasonic NDE testing signals to improve characterization and evaluation of materials.

  10. Decomposition of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Using Oblique Subspace Projections: Applications in Brain Hemodynamic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Alexander; Varon, Carolina; Hunyadi, Borbala; Papademetriou, Maria; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data is comprised by a large number of synchronously collected biomedical signals that are measured at different locations. Deciphering the interrelationships of these signals can yield important information about their dependence providing some useful clinical diagnostic data. For instance, by computing the coupling between Near-Infrared Spectroscopy signals (NIRS) and systemic variables the status of the hemodynamic regulation mechanisms can be assessed. In this paper we introduce an algorithm for the decomposition of NIRS signals into additive components. The algorithm, SIgnal DEcomposition base on Obliques Subspace Projections (SIDE-ObSP), assumes that the measured NIRS signal is a linear combination of the systemic measurements, following the linear regression model y = Ax + ϵ. SIDE-ObSP decomposes the output such that, each component in the decomposition represents the sole linear influence of one corresponding regressor variable. This decomposition scheme aims at providing a better understanding of the relation between NIRS and systemic variables, and to provide a framework for the clinical interpretation of regression algorithms, thereby, facilitating their introduction into clinical practice. SIDE-ObSP combines oblique subspace projections (ObSP) with the structure of a mean average system in order to define adequate signal subspaces. To guarantee smoothness in the estimated regression parameters, as observed in normal physiological processes, we impose a Tikhonov regularization using a matrix differential operator. We evaluate the performance of SIDE-ObSP by using a synthetic dataset, and present two case studies in the field of cerebral hemodynamics monitoring using NIRS. In addition, we compare the performance of this method with other system identification techniques. In the first case study data from 20 neonates during the first 3 days of life was used, here SIDE-ObSP decoupled the influence of changes in arterial oxygen saturation from the

  11. Decomposition of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Using Oblique Subspace Projections: Applications in Brain Hemodynamic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Caicedo, Alexander; Varon, Carolina; Hunya