Science.gov

Sample records for bioaugmented water-filtering artificial

  1. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  2. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  3. Bioaugmentation: Put microbes to work

    SciTech Connect

    Huban, C.M.; Plowman, R.D.

    1997-03-01

    The murky ponds of wastewater treatment plants are a natural habitat for microbiological growth. The indigenous biomass is an asset to the treatment process because it breaks down organic wastes. But as the amount of organic loading increases and discharge limits decrease, reinforcements are needed to gird the biomass and boost its degradation efficiency. Bioaugmentation provides that kind of support by altering the composition of the biomass. Like biostimulation, which supplements biomass with organic and inorganic nutrients and inducers, bioaugmentation fortifies biomass, but with microorganisms, or bugs, that have been isolated and selectively adapted to degrade specific compounds. Added to a wastewater treatment system, the microbes enhance the biomass` ability to respond to certain situations or to tackle contaminants not broken down by their indigenous counterparts. This results in improved treatment. The paper discusses the selection of microbes, applications, performance expectations, maintenance dosing, and promising research.

  4. Microbiological safety of household membrane water filter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Wang, Qing; Lou, Wei; Wang, Yuxin; Zhu, Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Waterborne pathogens outbreaks are major reasons of diarrhea disease worldwide. Detecting and monitoring emerging waterborne pathogens (EWPs) is important for drinking water microbiological safety. The microbiological safety of household water hollow fiber membrane filter which is the end of drinking water treatment process was studied with heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and real-time PCR method. The effect of the flow rate, idle time and washing fashion were investigated. Among the selected filters from three manufacturers, only the PVDF membrane water filter (Brand B) could achieve a good water purification criteria. Brand A was found a certain degree of EWPs in its effluent. The lowest bacteria-removing efficiency of the PVC membrane water filter was found Brand C. Our study showed that the microorganisms could reach up to 10(6) CFU ml(-1) and the 16s rDNA could reach up to 10(6) copies ml(-1) in the initial filtrate of Brand C. More species and amounts of EWPs were detected in the washing water. These results suggested that the popular household membrane filters might cause microbiological risks at certain circumstances such as the shock load of EWPs and leakage of the membranes in the case of abnormal source water or poor membrane filter quality.

  5. Modeling bioaugmentation with nitrifiers in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Alberto; Munz, Giulio; Mori, Gualtiero; Makinia, Jacek; Lubello, Claudio; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    Bioaugmentation with nitrifiers was studied using two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors, with the purpose of assessing the suitability of state-of-the-art activated sludge models (ASMs) in predicting the efficiency of bioaugmentation as a function of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that the temperature difference between seeding and seeded reactors (ΔT) affects bioaugmentation efficiency. Experimental data were accurately predicted when ΔT was within a range of up to 10 °C at the higher range, and when the temperature was significantly lower in the seeded reactor compared to the seeding one, standard ASMs overestimated the efficiency of bioaugmentation. A modified ASM, capable of accurately representing the behavior of seeded nitrifying biomass in the presence of high ΔT, would require the inclusion of the effect of temperature time gradients on nitrifiers. A simple linear correlation between ΔT and the Arrhenius coefficient was proposed as a preliminary step.

  6. 121. View of water filters, water from which is used ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. View of water filters, water from which is used to cool bearings of turbine-generator units in Generator Room above; looking north. This water filter is for turbine-generator unit no. 1, and is located in the subway. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  7. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF WATER FILTERING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF WATER FILTERING EQUIPMENT AND BROCK HOUSES ALONG THE EAST SIDE OF THE COMPOUND. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. Bioaugmentation of overloaded anaerobic digesters restores function and archaeal community.

    PubMed

    Tale, V P; Maki, J S; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Adding beneficial microorganisms to anaerobic digesters for improved performance (i.e. bioaugmentation) has been shown to decrease recovery time after organic overload or toxicity upset. Compared to strictly anaerobic cultures, adding aerotolerant methanogenic cultures may be more practical since they exhibit higher methanogenic activity and can be easily dried and stored in ambient air for future shipping and use. In this study, anaerobic digesters were bioaugmented with both anaerobic and aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures after a transient organic overload. Digesters bioaugmented with anaerobic and moderately aerated cultures recovered 25 and 100 days before non-bioaugmented digesters, respectively. Increased methane production due to bioaugmentation continued a long time, with 50-120% increases 6 to 12 SRTs (60-120 days) after overload. In contrast to the anaerobic enrichment, the aerated enrichments were more effective as bioaugmentation cultures, resulting in faster recovery of upset digester methane and COD removal rates. Sixty days after overload, the bioaugmented digester archaeal community was not shifted, but was restored to one similar to the pre-overload community. In contrast, non-bioaugmented digester archaeal communities before and after overload were significantly different. Organisms most similar to Methanospirillum hungatei had higher relative abundance in well-operating, undisturbed and bioaugmented digesters, whereas organisms similar to Methanolinea tarda were more abundant in upset, non-bioaugmented digesters. Bioaugmentation is a beneficial approach to increase digester recovery rate after transient organic overload events. Moderately aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures were more beneficial augments than a strictly anaerobic enrichment. PMID:25528544

  9. Bioaugmentation of overloaded anaerobic digesters restores function and archaeal community.

    PubMed

    Tale, V P; Maki, J S; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Adding beneficial microorganisms to anaerobic digesters for improved performance (i.e. bioaugmentation) has been shown to decrease recovery time after organic overload or toxicity upset. Compared to strictly anaerobic cultures, adding aerotolerant methanogenic cultures may be more practical since they exhibit higher methanogenic activity and can be easily dried and stored in ambient air for future shipping and use. In this study, anaerobic digesters were bioaugmented with both anaerobic and aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures after a transient organic overload. Digesters bioaugmented with anaerobic and moderately aerated cultures recovered 25 and 100 days before non-bioaugmented digesters, respectively. Increased methane production due to bioaugmentation continued a long time, with 50-120% increases 6 to 12 SRTs (60-120 days) after overload. In contrast to the anaerobic enrichment, the aerated enrichments were more effective as bioaugmentation cultures, resulting in faster recovery of upset digester methane and COD removal rates. Sixty days after overload, the bioaugmented digester archaeal community was not shifted, but was restored to one similar to the pre-overload community. In contrast, non-bioaugmented digester archaeal communities before and after overload were significantly different. Organisms most similar to Methanospirillum hungatei had higher relative abundance in well-operating, undisturbed and bioaugmented digesters, whereas organisms similar to Methanolinea tarda were more abundant in upset, non-bioaugmented digesters. Bioaugmentation is a beneficial approach to increase digester recovery rate after transient organic overload events. Moderately aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures were more beneficial augments than a strictly anaerobic enrichment.

  10. Bioremediation (bioaugmentation/biostimulation) trials of oil polluted seawater: a mesocosm simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Emtiazi, Giti; Caruso, Gabriella; Cappello, Simone

    2014-04-01

    Bioaugmentation (amendment with selected bacterial strains) and/or biostimulation (nutrients addition and/or air supply) are relatively new fields in environmental microbiology for preventing pollution and cleanup contamination. In this study, the efficiency of application of bioaugmentation/biostimulation treatments, for recovery of crude oil-polluted seawater, was evaluated. Three different series of experiments were performed in a "Mesocosm Facility" (10.000 L). Natural seawater was artificially polluted with crude oil (1000 ppm) and was amended with inorganic nutrients (Mesocosm 1, M1), inorganic nutrient and an inoculum of Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2(T) (Mesocosm 2, M2) and inorganic nutrient and an inoculum of A. borkumensis SK2(T) and Thalassolituus oleivorans MIL-1(T) (Mesocosm 3, M3), respectively. During the experimental period (20 days) bacterial abundance (DAPI count), culturable heterotrophic bacteria (CFU count), MPN, microbial metabolic activity [Biochemical Oxygen Demand and enzymatic activity (leucine aminopeptidase LAP, β-glucosidase BG, alkaline phosphatase AP)] and quali-, quantitative analysis of the composition of total extracted and resolved hydrocarbons and their derivates (TERHCs) were carried out. The microbiological and physiological analysis of marine microbial community found during the three different biostimulation and bioaugmentation assays performed in mesocosms show that the load of crude oil increases total microbial abundance, inhibits the activity of some enzymes such as LAP while stimulates both AP and BG activities. The biodegradation results show that bioaugmentation with A. borkumensis SK2(T) alone is able to produce the highest percentage of degradation (95%) in comparison with the biostimulation treatment (80%) and bioaugmentation using an Alcanivorax-Thalassolituus bacterial consortium (70%). This result highlights the reduced biodegradation capability of the consortium used in this study, suggesting an unfavourable

  11. Comparison the effects of bioaugmentation versus biostimulation on marine microbial community by PCR-DGGE: A mesocosm scale.

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Bayat, Zeynab; Cappello, Simone; Smedile, Francesco; Yakimov, Michail

    2016-05-01

    In order to better understand the effects of biostimulation and bioaugmentation processes on a marine microbial community, three different mesocosm experiments were planned. Natural seawater (10.000L) was artificially polluted with crude oil (1L) and (1) inorganic nutrients (Biostimulating Mesocosm, BM), (2) inorganic nutrients and an inoculum of Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 (Single Bioaugmentation Mesocosm, SBM), (3) inorganic nutrients and inoculums of A. borkumensis SK2 and Thalassolituus oleivorans MIL-1 (Consortium Bioaugmentation Mesocosm, CBM). During the experimental period (20days), samples were taken from each mesocosm and the community structure was analyzed by PCR-DGGE. The 16S rRNA gene DGGE banding patterns and sequence analysis demonstrated that biostimulation had the lowest effect on microbial biodiversity in the mesocosms; however, the biodiversity of the marine microbial community dramatically decreased in the CBM (Shannon index was 0.6 in T3). The community structures among the three mesocosms were also markedly different, and major bacteria derived from DGGE bands were related to uncultured Gamma Proteobacteria. The biodegradation results show that the Single Bioaugmentation Mesocosm (SBM) system had the highest percentage of degradation (95%) in comparison to the BM mesocosm (80%) and CBM (70%).

  12. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters.

    PubMed

    Haig, Sarah-Jane; Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; Collins, Gavin; Quince, Christopher

    2016-03-15

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters.

  13. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters. PMID:26895622

  14. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters.

    PubMed

    Haig, Sarah-Jane; Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; Collins, Gavin; Quince, Christopher

    2016-03-15

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters. PMID:26895622

  15. Environmental restoration using plant-microbe bioaugmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, M.T.; Metting, F.B.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Seidler, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Land farming, for the purpose of bioremediation, refers traditionally to the spreading of contaminated soil, sediments, or other material over land; mechanically mixing it; incorporating various amendments, such as fertilizer or mulch; and sometimes inoculating with degradative microorganisms. Populations of bacteria added to soils often decline rapidly and become metabolically inactive. To efficiently degrade contaminants, microorganisms must be metabolically active. Thus, a significant obstacle to the successful use of microorganisms for environmental applications is their long-term survival and the expression of their degradative genes in situ. Rhizosphere microorganisms are known to be more metabolically active than those in bulk soil, because they obtain carbon and energy from root exudates and decaying root matter. Rhizosphere populations are also more abundant, often containing 10[sup 8] or more culturable bacteria per gram of soil, and bacterial populations on the rhizoplane can exceed 10[sup 9]/g root. Many of the critical parameters that influence the competitive ability of rhizosphere bacteria have not been identified, but microorganisms have frequently been introduced into soil (bioaugmentation) as part of routine or novel agronomic practices. However, the use of rhizosphere bacteria and their in situ stimulation by plant roots for degrading organic contaminants has received little attention. Published studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas putida) for the rapid removal of chlorinated pesticides from contaminated soil, and to promote germination of radish seeds in the presence of otherwise phytotoxic levels of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and phenoxyacetic acid (PAA). The present investigation was undertaken to determine if these strains (Pseudomonas putida PP0301/pRO101 and PP0301/pRO103) could be used to bioremediate 2,4-D-amended soil via plant-microbe bioaugmentation.

  16. Environmental restoration using plant-microbe bioaugmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, M.T.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Metting, F.B.; Seidler, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Land farming, for the purpose of bioremediation, refers traditionally to the spreading of contaminated soil, sediments, or other material over land; mechanically mixing it; incorporating various amendments, such as fertilizer or mulch; and sometimes inoculating with degradative microorganisms. Populations of bacteria added to soils often decline rapidly and become metabolically inactive. To efficiently degrade contaminants, microorganisms must be metabolically active. Thus, a significant obstacle to the successful use of microorganisms for environmental applications is their long-term survival and the expression of their degradative genes in situ. Rhizosphere microorganisms are known to be more metabolically active than those in bulk soil, because they obtain carbon and energy from root exudates and decaying root matter. Rhizosphere populations are also more abundant, often containing 10{sup 8} or more culturable bacteria per gram of soil, and bacterial populations on the rhizoplane can exceed 10{sup 9}/g root. Many of the critical parameters that influence the competitive ability of rhizosphere bacteria have not been identified, but microorganisms have frequently been introduced into soil (bioaugmentation) as part of routine or novel agronomic practices. However, the use of rhizosphere bacteria and their in situ stimulation by plant roots for degrading organic contaminants has received little attention. Published studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas putida) for the rapid removal of chlorinated pesticides from contaminated soil, and to promote germination of radish seeds in the presence of otherwise phytotoxic levels of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and phenoxyacetic acid (PAA). The present investigation was undertaken to determine if these strains (Pseudomonas putida PPO301/pRO101 and PPO301/pRO103) could be used to bioremediate 2,4-D-amended soil via plant-microbe bioaugmentation.

  17. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate. PMID:26751253

  18. Effects of water-filtered infrared A irradiation on human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tobias; Höhn, Annika; Piazena, Helmut; Grune, Tilman

    2010-01-01

    Infrared radiation is a substantial part of the solar energy output reaching the earth surface. Therefore, exposure of humans to infrared radiation is common. However, whether and how infrared (IR) or infrared A acts on human skin cells is still under debate. Recently the generation of reactive oxygen species by water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation was postulated. wIRA shows a spectral distribution similar to that of solar irradiation at the earth's surface. Thus, the need for protection of human skin from both solar- and artificially generated infrared A irradiation was concluded. Here we demonstrate that in human dermal fibroblasts this reactive oxygen species generation is dependent on heat formation by infrared A and can be reproduced by thermal exposure. On the other hand wIRA irradiation had no detectable effect if the temperature in the cells was kept constant, even if irradiance exceeded the extraterrestrial solar irradiance in the IR range by a factor of about 4 and the maximum at noontime in the tropics by a factor up to about 6. This could be demonstrated by the measurement of oxidant formation using H(2)DCFDA and the determination of protein carbonyls. In additional experiments we could show that during thermal exposure the mitochondria contribute significantly to oxidant production. Further experiments revealed that the major absorbance of infrared is due to absorption of the energy by cellular water.

  19. Silver Dissolution and Release from Ceramic Water Filters.

    PubMed

    Mittelman, Anjuliee M; Lantagne, Daniele S; Rayner, Justine; Pennell, Kurt D

    2015-07-21

    Application of silver nanoparticles (nAg) or silver nitrate (AgNO3) has been shown to improve the microbiological efficacy of ceramic water filters used for household water treatment. Silver release, however, can lead to undesirable health effects and reduced filter effectiveness over time. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contribution of nanoparticle detachment, dissolution, and cation exchange to silver elution, and to estimate silver retention under different influent water chemistries. Dissolved silver (Ag(+)) and nAg release from filter disks painted with 0.03 mg/g casein-coated nAg or AgNO3 were measured as a function of pH (5-9), ionic strength (1-50 mM), and cation species (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). Silver elution was controlled by dissolution as Ag(+) and subsequent cation exchange reactions regardless of the applied silver form. Effluent silver levels fell below the drinking water standard (0.1 mg/L) after flushing with 30-42 pore volumes of pH 7, 10 mM NaNO3 at pH 7. When the influent water was at pH 5, contained divalent cations or 50 mM NaNO3, silver concentrations were 5-10 times above the standard. Our findings support regular filter replacement and indicate that saline, hard, or acidic waters should be avoided to minimize effluent silver concentrations and preserve silver treatment integrity. PMID:26068303

  20. Silver Dissolution and Release from Ceramic Water Filters.

    PubMed

    Mittelman, Anjuliee M; Lantagne, Daniele S; Rayner, Justine; Pennell, Kurt D

    2015-07-21

    Application of silver nanoparticles (nAg) or silver nitrate (AgNO3) has been shown to improve the microbiological efficacy of ceramic water filters used for household water treatment. Silver release, however, can lead to undesirable health effects and reduced filter effectiveness over time. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contribution of nanoparticle detachment, dissolution, and cation exchange to silver elution, and to estimate silver retention under different influent water chemistries. Dissolved silver (Ag(+)) and nAg release from filter disks painted with 0.03 mg/g casein-coated nAg or AgNO3 were measured as a function of pH (5-9), ionic strength (1-50 mM), and cation species (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). Silver elution was controlled by dissolution as Ag(+) and subsequent cation exchange reactions regardless of the applied silver form. Effluent silver levels fell below the drinking water standard (0.1 mg/L) after flushing with 30-42 pore volumes of pH 7, 10 mM NaNO3 at pH 7. When the influent water was at pH 5, contained divalent cations or 50 mM NaNO3, silver concentrations were 5-10 times above the standard. Our findings support regular filter replacement and indicate that saline, hard, or acidic waters should be avoided to minimize effluent silver concentrations and preserve silver treatment integrity.

  1. [Bioaugmentation of hydrogen producing bacteria on operation of bio-hydrogen producing reactor].

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhi; Ren, Nan-qi; Li, Jian-zheng

    2007-12-01

    Hydrogen producing strain Ethanoligenens sp. B49 was inoculated into activated sludge of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)to bioaugment hydrogen production. Hydrogen production capacities, compositions of fermentation products and pH value before and after bioaugmentation were investigated. When organic loading rate was 12 kg/(m3 x d), bioaugmentation of hydrogen producing strain enhanced hydrogen production rate and improved the composition of fermentation products significantly. After bioaugmentation, hydrogen production rate increased from 3.6 mmol/(kg x d) to 5.7 mmol/(kg x d), which was 1.5 times as that before bioaugmentation. Before bioaugmentation, average concentration of ethanol, acetic acid and propionic acid were 6.8 mmol/L, 5.3 mmol/L, 4.8 mmol/L respectively, while after bioaugmentation, those were 10.5 mmol/L, 7.5 mmol/L and 1.7 mmol/L respectively. Ethanol and acetic acid accounted for 86.8% in total fermentative products after bioaugmentation, while only 72% before bioaugmentation. pH value of effluent dropped from 4.5-4.7 to 4.3. Bioaugmentation of hydrogen producing strain is helpful to promote the formation of ethanol-type fermentation in low organic loading rate.

  2. Modeling the Sustainability of a Ceramic Water Filter Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, Jonathan; Abebe, Lydia; Ehdaie, Beeta; Dillingham, Rebecca; Smith, James

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic water filters (CWFs) are a point-of-use water treatment technology that has shown promise in preventing early childhood diarrhea (ECD) in resource-limited settings. Despite this promise, some researchers have questioned their ability to reduce ECD incidences over the long term since most effectiveness trials conducted to date are less than one year in duration limiting their ability to assess long-term sustainability factors. Most trials also suffer from lack of blinding making them potentially biased. This study uses an agent-based model (ABM) to explore factors related to the long-term sustainability of CWFs in preventing ECD and was based on a three year longitudinal field study. Factors such as filter user compliance, microbial removal effectiveness, filter cleaning and compliance declines were explored. Modeled results indicate that broadly defined human behaviors like compliance and declining microbial effectiveness due to improper maintenance are primary drivers of the outcome metrics of household drinking water quality and ECD rates. The model predicts that a ceramic filter intervention can reduce ECD incidence amongst under two year old children by 41.3%. However, after three years, the average filter is almost entirely ineffective at reducing ECD incidence due to declining filter microbial removal effectiveness resulting from improper maintenance. The model predicts very low ECD rates are possible if compliance rates are 80-90%, filter log reduction efficiency is 3 or greater and there are minimal long-term compliance declines. Cleaning filters at least once every 4 months makes it more likely to achieve very low ECD rates as does the availability of replacement filters for purchase. These results help to understand the heterogeneity seen in previous intervention-control trials and reemphasize the need for researchers to accurately measure confounding variables and ensure that field trials are at least 2-3 years in duration. In summary, the CWF

  3. Modeling the sustainability of a ceramic water filter intervention.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Jonathan; Abebe, Lydia; Ehdaie, Beeta; Dillingham, Rebecca; Smith, James

    2014-02-01

    Ceramic water filters (CWFs) are a point-of-use water treatment technology that has shown promise in preventing early childhood diarrhea (ECD) in resource-limited settings. Despite this promise, some researchers have questioned their ability to reduce ECD incidences over the long term since most effectiveness trials conducted to date are less than one year in duration limiting their ability to assess long-term sustainability factors. Most trials also suffer from lack of blinding making them potentially biased. This study uses an agent-based model (ABM) to explore factors related to the long-term sustainability of CWFs in preventing ECD and was based on a three year longitudinal field study. Factors such as filter user compliance, microbial removal effectiveness, filter cleaning and compliance declines were explored. Modeled results indicate that broadly defined human behaviors like compliance and declining microbial effectiveness due to improper maintenance are primary drivers of the outcome metrics of household drinking water quality and ECD rates. The model predicts that a ceramic filter intervention can reduce ECD incidence amongst under two year old children by 41.3%. However, after three years, the average filter is almost entirely ineffective at reducing ECD incidence due to declining filter microbial removal effectiveness resulting from improper maintenance. The model predicts very low ECD rates are possible if compliance rates are 80-90%, filter log reduction efficiency is 3 or greater and there are minimal long-term compliance declines. Cleaning filters at least once every 4 months makes it more likely to achieve very low ECD rates as does the availability of replacement filters for purchase. These results help to understand the heterogeneity seen in previous intervention-control trials and reemphasize the need for researchers to accurately measure confounding variables and ensure that field trials are at least 2-3 years in duration. In summary, the CWF

  4. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    PubMed

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  5. Shifts in microbial communities in bioaugmented grease interceptors removing fat, oil, and grease (FOG).

    PubMed

    He, Xia; So, Mark Jason; de Los Reyes, Francis L

    2016-08-01

    To understand the effect of daily bioaugmentation in full-scale grease interceptors (GIs), we compared the microbial communities occurring in two full-scale GIs during bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented cycles. The changes in microbial communities were determined using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene clone library construction. Differences in the microbial community structure between control and bioaugmented cycles were observed in all cases, although the dominant terminal restriction fragments in the biological product were not detected. The addition of bioaugmentation products and changes in the GI microbial ecology were related to differences in GI performance. Understanding the shifts due to bioaugmentation will result in more informed assessments of the benefits of bioadditives on FOG removal in GIs as well as the effects on downstream sewer lines.

  6. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production.

  7. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production. PMID:27262722

  8. A bacteria injection scheme for in situ bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, C S; Kuo, M C Tom; Su, C Y; Chen, Y C; Cheng, W C; Chou, C Y; Liang, K F; Han, Y L; Lin, C H

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an innovative design for inoculating the desired organisms to stratified geological layers at desired rates during in-situ bioaugmentation. The new delivery system consists of intermittent porous tubes connected in series with impermeable polyethylene tubes that run horizontally in each stratified layer of a contaminated aquifer. A bioaugmentation test using the new delivery system was conducted to inject an enriched culture of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Results of the test indicated that the distribution of E. coli through each porous tube was fairly uniform. A mathematical model previously developed to calculate the distribution of water flow through each porous tube was modified to calculate the distribution of E. coli. Geological layers often have different hydraulic conductivities. By controlling the permeability and the length of porous tubes placed in stratified layers, the new design provides a means to selectively deliver aqueous bacteria to various layers at desired rates according to aquifer heterogeneity.

  9. Microcosm evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation to combat marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Eickenbusch, P; Pasadakis, Nikos; Venieri, Danae; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2013-09-25

    Oil spills can be disastrous to any ecosystem. Bioremediation through bioaugmentation (addition of oil-degrading bacteria) and biostimulation (addition of nutrients N&P) options can be a promising strategy for combating oil spills following first response actions. However, bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation since nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products that are highly dependent on environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that the best way to overcome the above barriers is to use microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as the bioaugmentation technology that uses exclusively microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) to be decontaminated. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of an ABA strategy for the successful remediation of polluted marine environments. A consortium was enriched from seawater samples taken from Elefsina Gulf near the Hellenic Petroleum Refinery, a site exposed to chronic crude oil pollution. Pre-adapted consortium was tested alone or in combination with inorganic nutrients in the presence (or not) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) in 30-day experiments. Treatment with fertilizers in the presence of biosurfactants exhibited the highest alkane and PAH degradation and showed highest growth over a period of almost 15 days. Considering the above, the use of biostimulation additives in combination with naturally pre-adapted hydrocarbon degrading consortia has proved to be a very effective treatment and it is a promising strategy in the future especially when combined with lipophilic fertilizers instead of inorganic nutrients. Such an approach becomes more pertinent when the oil spill approaches near the shoreline and immediate hydrocarbon degradation is needed.

  10. Bioremediation assessment of diesel-biodiesel-contaminated soil using an alternative bioaugmentation strategy.

    PubMed

    Colla, Tatiana Simonetto; Andreazza, Robson; Bücker, Francielle; de Souza, Marcela Moreira; Tramontini, Letícia; Prado, Gerônimo Rodrigues; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira; Bento, Fátima Menezes

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of successive bioaugmentation, conventional bioaugmentation, and biostimulation of biodegradation of B10 in soil. In addition, the structure of the soil microbial community was assessed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The consortium was inoculated on the initial and the 11th day of incubation for successive bioaugmentation and only on the initial day for bioaugmentation and conventional bioaugmentation. The experiment was conducted for 32 days. The microbial consortium was identified based on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and consisted as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Ochrobactrum intermedium. Nutrient introduction (biostimulation) promoted a positive effect on microbial populations. The results indicate that the edaphic community structure and dynamics were different according to the treatments employed. CO2 evolution demonstrated no significant difference in soil microbial activity between biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis indicated a biodegradation level of 35.7 and 32.2 % for the biostimulation and successive bioaugmentation treatments, respectively. Successive bioaugmentation displayed positive effects on biodegradation, with a substantial reduction in TPH levels.

  11. Comparative bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil by natural attenuation, phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Agnello, A C; Bagard, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G; Huguenot, D

    2016-09-01

    Biological remediation technologies are an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated through a pot experiment four bioremediation strategies: a) natural attenuation, b) phytoremediation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), c) bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and d) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation, for the treatment of a co-contaminated soil presenting moderate levels of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn at 87, 100 and 110mgkg(-1) DW, respectively) and petroleum hydrocarbons (3800mgkg(-1) DW). As demonstrated by plant biomass and selected physiological parameters alfalfa plants were able to tolerate and grow in the co-contaminated soil, especially when soil was inoculated with P. aeruginosa, which promoted plant growth (56% and 105% increase for shoots and roots, respectively) and appeared to alleviate plant stress. The content of heavy metals in alfalfa plants was limited and followed the order: Zn>Cu>Pb. Heavy metals were mainly concentrated in plant roots and were poorly translocated, favouring their stabilization in the root zone. Bioaugmentation of planted soil with P. aeruginosa generally led to a decrease of plant metal concentration and translocation. The highest degree of total petroleum hydrocarbon removal was obtained for bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation treatment (68%), followed by bioaugmentation (59%), phytoremediation (47%) and natural attenuation (37%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of plant and bacteria was the most advantageous option for the treatment of the present co-contaminated soil, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or phytoremediation applied alone.

  12. Bacterial stimulation of copper phytoaccumulation by bioaugmentation with rhizosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Lambais, Márcio Rodrigues; Bortolon, Leandro; de Melo, George Wellington Bastos; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Copper contaminated areas pose environmental health risk to living organisms. Remediation processes are thus required for both crop production and industrial activities. This study employed bioaugmentation with copper resistant bacteria to improve phytoremediation of vineyard soils and copper mining waste contaminated with high copper concentrations. Oatmeal plant (Avena sativa L.) was used for copper phytoextraction. Three copper resistant bacterial isolates from oatmeal rhizosphere (Pseudomonas putida A1; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia A2 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus A6) were used for the stimulation of copper phytoextraction. Two long-term copper contaminated vineyard soils (Mollisol and Inceptisol) and copper mining waste from Southern Brazil were evaluated. Oatmeal plants substantially extracted copper from vineyard soils and copper mining waste. As much as 1549 mg of Cu kg⁻¹ dry mass was extracted from plants grown in Inceptisol soil. The vineyard Mollisol copper uptake (55 mg Cu kg⁻¹ of dry mass) in the shoots was significantly improved upon inoculation of oatmeal plants with isolate A2 (128 mg of Cu kg⁻¹ of shoot dry mass). Overall oatmeal plant biomass displayed higher potential of copper phytoextraction with inoculation of rhizosphere bacteria in vineyard soil to the extent that 404 and 327 g ha⁻¹ of copper removal were respectively observed in vineyard Mollisol bioaugmented with isolate A2 (S. maltophilia) and isolate A6 (A. calcoaceticus). Results suggest potential application of bacterial stimulation of phytoaccumulation of copper for biological removal of copper from contaminated areas.

  13. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  14. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  15. Slow-sand water filter: design, implementation, accessibility and sustainability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Fadus, Matthew; Capuzzi, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    The need for clean water has risen exponentially over the globe. Millions of people are affected daily by a lack of clean water, especially women and children, as much of their day is dedicated to collecting water. The global water crisis not only has severe medical implications, but social, political, and economic consequences as well. The Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph's University has recognized this, and has designed a slow-sand water filter that is accessible, cost-effective, and sustainable. Through the implementation of the Institute's slow-sand water filter and the utilization of microfinancing services, developing countries will not only have access to clean, drinkable water, but will also have the opportunity to break out of a devastating cycle of poverty.

  16. Microbiological contamination of drinking water in a commercial household water filter system.

    PubMed

    Daschner, F D; Rüden, H; Simon, R; Clotten, J

    1996-03-01

    The microbiological quality of filtered water in a commercial water filter system (Brita) was tested in households and in two laboratories. In 24 of 34 filters used in households, bacterial counts increased in the filtered water up to 6,000 cfu/ml. In 4 of 6 filters tested in the laboratory, bacterial counts in the fresh filtrate were higher than in tap water after approximately one week of use both at room temperature and at 4 degrees C, suggesting growth or biofilm formation in the filter material. In some cases colony counts in the filtered water were 10,000 times those in tap water. The filter material of 5 of 13 new commercial filters was contaminated with bacteria or moulds. National or international regulatory agencies should ensure that water filters marketed for domestic use do not allow deterioration in the microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:8740859

  17. Slow-sand water filter: Design, implementation, accessibility and sustainability in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Fadus, Matthew; Capuzzi, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Summary The need for clean water has risen exponentially over the globe. Millions of people are affected daily by a lack of clean water, especially women and children, as much of their day is dedicated to collecting water. The global water crisis not only has severe medical implications, but social, political, and economic consequences as well. The Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph’s University has recognized this, and has designed a slow-sand water filter that is accessible, cost-effective, and sustainable. Through the implementation of the Institute’s slow-sand water filter and the utilization of microfinancing services, developing countries will not only have access to clean, drinkable water, but will also have the opportunity to break out of a devastating cycle of poverty. PMID:22739748

  18. BIOAUGMENTATION WITH BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA PR1301 FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot field study was conducted at the Moffett Federal Airfield, Mountain View, California, to determine whether effective in-situ aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of TCE could be accomplished through bioaugmentation with a genetically modified strain of Burkholderia cepacia ...

  19. Microcosm evaluation of bioaugmentation after field-scale thermal treatment of a TCE-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Anne Kirketerp; Kofoed, Julie L L; Heron, Gorm; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates effects of combining thermal and biological remediation, based on laboratory studies of trichloroethene (TCE) degradation. Aquifer material was collected 6 months after terminating a full-scale Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH), when the site had cooled from approximately 100 degrees C to 40 degrees C. The aquifer material was used to construct bioaugmented microcosms amended with the mixed anaerobic dechlorinating culture, KB-1(TM), and an electron donor (5 mM lactate). Microcosms were bioaugmented during cooling at 40, 30, 20, and 10 degrees C, as temperatures continually decreased during laboratory incubation. Redox conditions were generally methanogenic, and electron donors were present to support dechlorination. For microcosms bioaugmented at 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C, dechlorination stalled at cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) 150 days after bioaugmentation. However, within 300 days of incubation ethene was produced in the majority of these microcosms. In contrast, dechlorination was rapid and complete in microcosms bioaugmented at 30 degrees C. Microcosms bioaugmented at 40 degrees C also showed rapid dechlorination, but stalled at cDCE with partial VC and ethene production, even after 150 days of incubation when the temperature had decreased to 10 degrees C. These results suggest that sequential bioremediation of TCE is possible in field-scale thermal treatments after donor addition and bioaugmentation and that the optimal bioaugmentation temperature is approximately 30 degrees C. When biological and thermal remediations are to be applied at the same location, three bioremediation approaches could be considered: (a) treating TCE in perimeter areas outside the source zone at temperatures of approximately 30 degrees C; (b) polishing TCE concentrations in the original source zone during cooling from approximately 30 degrees C to ambient groundwater temperatures; and (c) using bioremediation in downgradient areas

  20. The need for bioaugmentation after thermal treatment of a TCE-contaminated aquifer: Laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Friis, A K; Albrechtsen, H-J; Cox, E; Bjerg, P L

    2006-12-15

    A microcosm study was conducted to evaluate the need for bioaugmentation after a thermal treatment to anaerobically dechlorinate trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene. The microcosms were either: heated to 100 degrees C and slowly cooled to simulate thermal remediation while bioaugmenting when the declining temperature reached 10 degrees C; or kept at ambient groundwater temperatures (10 degrees C) and bioaugmented for comparison. Aquifer samples from three sediment locations within a TCE-polluted source zone were investigated in duplicate microcosms. In biostimulated (5 mM lactate) and heated microcosms, no conversion of TCE was observed in 4 out of 6 microcosms, and in the remaining microcosms the dechlorination of TCE was incomplete to cDCE (cis-dichloroethene). By comparison, complete TCE dechlorination to ethene was observed in 4 out of 6 heated microcosms that were bioaugmented with a highly enriched dechlorinating mixed culture, KB-1, but no electron donor, and also in 4 of 6 microcosms that were augmented with KB-1 and an electron donor (5 mM lactate). These data suggest that electron donor released during heating, was capable of promoting complete dechlorination coincident with bioaugmentation. Heated microcosms demonstrated less methanogenesis than unheated microcosms, even with elevated H2 concentrations and addition of KB-1, which contains methanogens. This suggests that the heating process suppressed the native microbial community, which can decrease competition with the bioaugmented culture and increase the effectiveness of dechlorination following a thermal treatment. Specifically, cDCE removal rates were four to six times higher in heated than unheated bioaugmented microcosms. This study confirms the need for bioaugmentation following a laboratory thermal treatment to obtain complete dechlorination of TCE.

  1. Bioaugmentation as a solution to increase methane production from an ammonia-rich substrate.

    PubMed

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Wang, Han; Fiedel, Nicolai R; Luo, Gang; Karakashev, Dimitar B; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates inhibit the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and constitute the main reason for low energy recovery in full-scale reactors. It is estimated that many full-scale AD reactors are operating in ammonia induced "inhibited steady-state" with significant losses of the potential biogas production yield. To date there are not any reliable methods to alleviate the ammonia toxicity effect or to efficiently digest ammonia-rich waste. In the current study, bioaugmentation as a possible method to alleviate ammonia toxicity effect in a mesophilic continuously stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) operating under "inhibited steady state" was tested. A fast growing hydrogenotrophic methanogen (i.e., Methanoculleus bourgensis MS2(T)) was bioaugmented in the CSTR reactor at high ammonia levels (5 g NH4(+)-N L(-1)). A second CSTR reactor was used as control with no bioaugmentation. The results derived from this study clearly demonstrated a 31.3% increase in methane production yield in the CSTR reactor, at steady-state, after bioaugmentation. Additionally, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed a 5-fold increase in relative abundance of Methanoculleus spp. after bioaugmentation. On the contrary to all methods used today to alleviate ammonia toxicity effect, the tested bioaugmentation process performed without interrupting the continuous operation of the reactor and without replacing the ammonia-rich feedstock.

  2. Bioaugmentation of biogas production by a hydrogen-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ács, Norbert; Bagi, Zoltán; Rákhely, Gábor; Minárovics, János; Nagy, Katalin; Kovács, Kornél L

    2015-06-01

    The rate-limiting nature of the hydrogen concentration prevailing in the anaerobic digester has been recognized, but the associated alterations in the microbial community are unknown. In response to the addition of Enterobacter cloacae cells in laboratory anaerobic digesters, the level of biogas production was augmented. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR) were used to study the survival of mesophilic hydrogen-producing bacteria and the effects of their presence on the composition of the other members of the bacterial community. E. cloacae proved to maintain a stable cell number and to influence the microbial composition of the system. Bioaugmentation by a single strain added to the natural biogas-producing microbial community was demonstrated. The community underwent pronounced changes as a result of the relatively slight initial shift in the microbiological system, responding sensitively to the alterations in local hydrogen concentration.

  3. Bioaugmentation with a pyridine-degrading bacterium in a membrane bioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wen, Donghui; Zhang, Jing; Xiong, Ruilin; Liu, Rui; Chen, Lujun

    2013-11-01

    The bacterial strain Paracoccus denitrificans W12, which could utilize pyridine as its sole source of carbon and nitrogen, was added into a membrane bioreactor (MBR) to enhance the treatment of a pharmaceutical wastewater. The treatment efficiencies investigated showed that the removal of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were similar between bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented MBRs, however, significant removal of pyridine was obtained in the bioaugmented reactor. When the hydraulic retention time was 60 hr and the influent concentration of pyridine was 250-500 mg/L, the mean effluent concentration of pyridine without adding W12 was 57.2 mg/L, while the pyridine was degraded to an average of 10.2 mg/L with addition of W12. The bacterial community structure of activated sludge during the bioaugmented treatment was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction -denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results showed that the W12 inoculum reversed the decline of microbial community diversity, however, the similarity between bacterial community structure of the original sludge and that of the sludge after bioaugmentation decreased steadily during the wastewater treatment. Sequencing of the DNA recovered from DGGE gel indicated that Flavobacteriaceae sp., Sphingobium sp., Comamonas sp., and Hyphomicrobium sp. were the dominant organisms in time sequence in the bacterial community in the bioaugmented MBR. This implied that the bioaugmentation was affected by the adjustment of whole bacterial community structure in the inhospitable environment, rather than being due solely to the degradation performance of the bacterium added. PMID:24552055

  4. Bioaugmentation with a pyridine-degrading bacterium in a membrane bioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wen, Donghui; Zhang, Jing; Xiong, Ruilin; Liu, Rui; Chen, Lujun

    2013-11-01

    The bacterial strain Paracoccus denitrificans W12, which could utilize pyridine as its sole source of carbon and nitrogen, was added into a membrane bioreactor (MBR) to enhance the treatment of a pharmaceutical wastewater. The treatment efficiencies investigated showed that the removal of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were similar between bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented MBRs, however, significant removal of pyridine was obtained in the bioaugmented reactor. When the hydraulic retention time was 60 hr and the influent concentration of pyridine was 250-500 mg/L, the mean effluent concentration of pyridine without adding W12 was 57.2 mg/L, while the pyridine was degraded to an average of 10.2 mg/L with addition of W12. The bacterial community structure of activated sludge during the bioaugmented treatment was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction -denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results showed that the W12 inoculum reversed the decline of microbial community diversity, however, the similarity between bacterial community structure of the original sludge and that of the sludge after bioaugmentation decreased steadily during the wastewater treatment. Sequencing of the DNA recovered from DGGE gel indicated that Flavobacteriaceae sp., Sphingobium sp., Comamonas sp., and Hyphomicrobium sp. were the dominant organisms in time sequence in the bacterial community in the bioaugmented MBR. This implied that the bioaugmentation was affected by the adjustment of whole bacterial community structure in the inhospitable environment, rather than being due solely to the degradation performance of the bacterium added.

  5. [Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) promotes wound healing].

    PubMed

    Winkel, R; Hoffmann, G; Hoffmann, R

    2014-11-01

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with high tissue penetration and low thermal load to the skin surface which promotes the healing of acute and chronic wounds both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. Water-filtered infrared-A increases tissue temperature (+ 2.7 °C at a tissue depth of 2 cm), tissue oxygen partial pressure (+ 32 % at a tissue depth of 2 cm) and tissue perfusion. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient supply of tissue with energy and oxygen and consequently also for wound healing and infection defense. Water-filtered infrared-A promotes normal as well as disturbed wound healing by diminishing inflammation and exudation, by promotion of infection defense and regeneration, and by alleviation of pain. These effects have been proven in a total of seven prospective studies (of these six randomized controlled studies) with most of the effects having an evidence level of Ia or Ib. The additional cases of complicated courses of wound healing presented in this article illustrate the proven effects of wIRA. Not only in the 6 presented cases wIRA turned the complicated courses of wound healing for the better and facilitated the healing of the wounds after varying total times of irradiation (in the 6 cases 51-550 h) and after variable times of wound care and mostly after transplantation of split skin grafts. In complicated courses of wound healing wIRA does not replace consultation and, when indicated, treatment by an experienced plastic surgeon and by a surgeon specialized in septic surgery. With these limitations wIRA can be recommended as a valuable complement for the treatment of acute as well as of chronic wounds.

  6. Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Bastable, Andy; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-06-01

    The performance and acceptability of the Nerox(TM) membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households were visited and filter performance and use were assessed. Only 6% of the visited households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%. High turbidity in source water (irrigation canals), together with high temperatures and large family size were likely to have contributed to poor performance and uptake of the filters.

  7. Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Bastable, Andy; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-06-01

    The performance and acceptability of the Nerox(TM) membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households were visited and filter performance and use were assessed. Only 6% of the visited households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%. High turbidity in source water (irrigation canals), together with high temperatures and large family size were likely to have contributed to poor performance and uptake of the filters. PMID:26042969

  8. Enhanced reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by bioaugmentation with a dehalorespiring bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rayford B; May, Harold D; Sowers, Kevin R

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of commercial PCBs such as Aroclor 1260 has a critical role of transforming highly chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are then susceptible to aerobic degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with the dehalorespiring bacterium “Dehalobium chlorocoercia” DF1 was tested in 2-liter laboratory mesocosms containing sediment contaminated with weathered Aroclor 1260 (1.3 ppm) from Baltimore Harbor, MD. Total penta- and higher chlorinated PCBs decreased by approximately 56% (by mass) in bioaugmented mesocosms after 120 days compared with no activity observed in unamended controls. Bioaugmentation with DF-1 enhanced the dechlorination of doubly flanked chlorines and stimulated the dechlorination of single flanked chlorines as a result of an apparent synergistic effect on the indigenous population. Addition of granulated activated carbon had a slight stimulatory effect indicating that anaerobic reductive dechlorination of PCBs at low concentrations was not inhibited by a high background of inorganic carbon that could affect bioavailability. The total number of dehalorespiring bacteria was reduced by approximately half after 60 days. However, a steady state level was maintained that was greater than the indigenous population of putative dehalorespiring bacteria in untreated sediments and DF1 was maintained within the indigenous population after 120 days. The results of this study demonstrate that bioaugmentation with dehalorespiring bacteria has a stimulatory effect on the dechlorination of weathered PCBs and supports the feasibility of using in situ bioaugmentation as an environmentally less invasive and lower cost alternate to dredging for treatment of PCB impacted sediments. PMID:21902247

  9. Performance and microbial community dynamics in bioaugmented aerated filter reactor treating with coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shengnan; Qu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Qiao; Zhang, XuWang; Zhou, Jiti; Ma, Fang

    2015-08-01

    In this study, zeolite-biological aerated filters (Z-BAFs) bioaugmented by free and magnetically immobilized cells of Arthrobacter sp. W1 were designed to treat coking wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and naphthalene along with carbazole (CA), dibenzofuran (DBF), and dibenzothiophene (DBT). All treatments were carried out for a period of 100days and the data indicated that bioaugmented Z-BAFs with magnetically immobilized cells was most efficient for treating coking wastewaters. Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to reveal the microbial community structures of Z-BAFs. Both bioaugmentation treatments could accelerate the shift of the bacterial community structures. The introduced strain W1 remained dominant in the bioaugmented Z-BAFs with magnetically immobilized cells, indicating both strain W1 and the indigenous degrading bacteria played the most significant role in the treatment. Overall, bioaugmented Z-BAF with magnetically immobilized cells can be used to efficiently degrade phenol, naphthalene, CA, DBF, and DBT in coking wastewater. PMID:25935396

  10. Performance and microbial community dynamics in bioaugmented aerated filter reactor treating with coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shengnan; Qu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Qiao; Zhang, XuWang; Zhou, Jiti; Ma, Fang

    2015-08-01

    In this study, zeolite-biological aerated filters (Z-BAFs) bioaugmented by free and magnetically immobilized cells of Arthrobacter sp. W1 were designed to treat coking wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and naphthalene along with carbazole (CA), dibenzofuran (DBF), and dibenzothiophene (DBT). All treatments were carried out for a period of 100days and the data indicated that bioaugmented Z-BAFs with magnetically immobilized cells was most efficient for treating coking wastewaters. Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to reveal the microbial community structures of Z-BAFs. Both bioaugmentation treatments could accelerate the shift of the bacterial community structures. The introduced strain W1 remained dominant in the bioaugmented Z-BAFs with magnetically immobilized cells, indicating both strain W1 and the indigenous degrading bacteria played the most significant role in the treatment. Overall, bioaugmented Z-BAF with magnetically immobilized cells can be used to efficiently degrade phenol, naphthalene, CA, DBF, and DBT in coking wastewater.

  11. Bioaugmentation for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid in fractured sandstone blocks.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Charles E; Towne, Rachael M; Vainberg, Simon; McCray, John E; Steffan, Robert J

    2010-07-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed in discretely fractured sandstone blocks to evaluate the use of bioaugmentation to treat residual dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) tetrachloroethene (PCE). Significant dechlorination of PCE and growth of Dehalococcoides spp. (DHC) occurred within the fractures. DNAPL dissolution was enhanced during bioaugmentation by up to a factor of approximately 3.5, with dissolved PCE concentrations at or near aqueous solubility. The extent of dechlorination and DNAPL dissolution enhancement were dependent upon the fracture characteristics, residence time in the fractures, and dissolved concentration of PCE. No relationship was observed between planktonic DHC concentrations exiting the fracture and the observed extents of PCE dechlorination and DNAPL dissolution. Measured planktonic DHC concentrations exiting the fracture increased with increasing flow rate and bioaugmentation dosage, suggesting that these parameters may be important for distribution of DHC to treat dissolved chlorinated ethenes migrating downgradient of the DNAPL source. Bioaugmentation dosage, for the DHC dosages and conditions studied, did not have a measurable impact on DNAPL dissolution or dechlorination within the fractures themselves. Overall, these results indicate that bioaugmentation may be a viable remedial option for treating DNAPL sources in bedrock.

  12. Potential of silver nanoparticle-coated polyurethane foam as an antibacterial water filter.

    PubMed

    Jain, Prashant; Pradeep, T

    2005-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles can be coated on common polyurethane (PU) foams by overnight exposure of the foams to nanoparticle solutions. Repeated washing and air-drying yields uniformly coated PU foam, which can be used as a drinking water filter where bacterial contamination of the surface water is a health risk. Nanoparticles are stable on the foam and are not washed away by water. Morphology of the foam was retained after coating. The nanoparticle binding is due to its interaction with the nitrogen atom of the PU. Online tests were conducted with a prototypical water filter. At a flow rate of 0.5 L/min, in which contact time was of the order of a second, the output count of Escherichia coli was nil when the input water had a bacterial load of 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) per mL. Combined with the low cost and effectiveness in its applications, the technology may have large implications to developing countries.

  13. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process.

  14. Use of bioaugmentation to stimulate complete reductive dechlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, M.R.; Bracco, A.A.; Brennan, M.J. Jr.; Deweerd, K.A.; Spivack, J.L.

    1999-04-01

    Soil columns were constructed in support of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum accelerated biodegradation study at Dover Air Force Base to evaluate the impact of amendments on the anaerobic reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in Dover soil. Dechlorination of TCE to cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) was observed in the columns using lactate, lactate and methanol, butyrate, glutamate and 1,2-propanediol, or toluene as electron donors, in combination with vitamins and other supplemental nutrients. However, the c-DCE formed was not further dechlorinated using any of these amendments. Subsequent inoculation of two columns with a competent, non-native TCE-dechlorinating culture resulted in the dechlorination of TCE to ethene after 30 days. Once the culture was established, dechlorination of TCE to ethene was complete in the first several centimeters of the columns at TCE influent concentrations of 4 mg/L. The culture was also able to dechlorinate TCE to ethene when TCE influent concentrations were increased to 170 mg/L. These results suggest that a critical bacterial population was missing in these soils and that bioaugmentation is an appropriate remedial strategy under such circumstances.

  15. BTE-OX biodegradation kinetics with MTBE through bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Askar, K; Villarreal-Chiu, J F; Gracia-Lozano, M V; Garza-Gonzalez, M T; Chavez-Gomez, B; Rodriguez-Sanchez, I P; Barrera-Saldana, H A

    2004-01-01

    The biodegradation kinetics of BTE-oX and MTBE, mixed all together, in the presence of bioaugmented bacterial populations as high as 880 mg/L VSS was evaluated. The effect of soil in aqueous samples and the effect of Tergitol NP-10 on substrate biodegradation rates were also evaluated. Biodegradation kinetics was evaluated for 36 hours, every 6 hours. Benzene and o-xylene biodegradation followed a first-order one-phase kinetic model, whereas toluene and ethylbenzene biodegradation was well described by a first-order two-phase kinetic model in all samples. MTBE followed a zero-order removal kinetic model in all samples. The presence of soil in aqueous samples retarded BTE-oX removal rates, with the highest negative effect on o-xylene. The presence of soil enhanced MTBE removal rate. The addition of Tergitol NP-10 to aqueous samples containing soil had a positive effect on substrate removal rate in all samples. Substrate percent removals ranged from 95.4-99.7% for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene. O-xylene and MTBE percent removals ranged from 55.9-90.1% and 15.6-30.1%, respectively. PMID:15497834

  16. Pseudomonas putida CSV86: A Candidate Genome for Genetic Bioaugmentation

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Vasundhara; Raju, Sajan C.; Modak, Arnab; Phale, Prashant S.; Purohit, Hemant J.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86, a plasmid-free strain possessing capability to transfer the naphthalene degradation property, has been explored for its metabolic diversity through genome sequencing. The analysis of draft genome sequence of CSV86 (6.4 Mb) revealed the presence of genes involved in the degradation of naphthalene, salicylate, benzoate, benzylalcohol, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate on the chromosome thus ensuring the stability of the catabolic potential. Moreover, genes involved in the metabolism of phenylpropanoid and homogentisate, as well as heavy metal resistance, were additionally identified. Ability to grow on vanillin, veratraldehyde and ferulic acid, detection of inducible homogentisate dioxygenase and growth on aromatic compounds in the presence of heavy metals like copper, cadmium, cobalt and arsenic confirm in silico observations reflecting the metabolic versatility. In silico analysis revealed the arrangement of genes in the order: tRNAGly, integrase followed by nah operon, supporting earlier hypothesis of existence of a genomic island (GI) for naphthalene degradation. Deciphering the genomic architecture of CSV86 for aromatic degradation pathways and identification of elements responsible for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) suggests that genetic bioaugmentation strategies could be planned using CSV86 for effective bioremediation. PMID:24475028

  17. BTE-OX biodegradation kinetics with MTBE through bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Askar, K; Villarreal-Chiu, J F; Gracia-Lozano, M V; Garza-Gonzalez, M T; Chavez-Gomez, B; Rodriguez-Sanchez, I P; Barrera-Saldana, H A

    2004-01-01

    The biodegradation kinetics of BTE-oX and MTBE, mixed all together, in the presence of bioaugmented bacterial populations as high as 880 mg/L VSS was evaluated. The effect of soil in aqueous samples and the effect of Tergitol NP-10 on substrate biodegradation rates were also evaluated. Biodegradation kinetics was evaluated for 36 hours, every 6 hours. Benzene and o-xylene biodegradation followed a first-order one-phase kinetic model, whereas toluene and ethylbenzene biodegradation was well described by a first-order two-phase kinetic model in all samples. MTBE followed a zero-order removal kinetic model in all samples. The presence of soil in aqueous samples retarded BTE-oX removal rates, with the highest negative effect on o-xylene. The presence of soil enhanced MTBE removal rate. The addition of Tergitol NP-10 to aqueous samples containing soil had a positive effect on substrate removal rate in all samples. Substrate percent removals ranged from 95.4-99.7% for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene. O-xylene and MTBE percent removals ranged from 55.9-90.1% and 15.6-30.1%, respectively.

  18. Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Artois, T.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-12-01

    Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in plant degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

  19. Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Weyens, Nele; van der Lelie, Daniel; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen; Taghavi, Safiyh; Newman, Lee; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2009-12-15

    Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in planta degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

  20. Nitrification at full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants: Evaluation of inhibition and bioaugmentation of nitrifiers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao L; Chen, Hongping

    2015-08-01

    Batch nitrification tests were conducted with sludge and wastewater streams obtained from field implementations to evaluate nitrification inhibition and efficiency of a nitrifiers bioaugmentation technology at full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The results showed that the substrate organic carbon and pH of wastewater streams were inhibitory factors to nitrification and the low pH was the cause of the WWTP experiencing poor nitrification. An ammonia-nitrogen removal rate of 0.21mg-N/gMLVSS-h was observed at pH 6.5, while the rate increased to 0.54mg-N/gMLVSS-h with an introduction of 6% bioaugmented nitrifiers, indicating that the integrated side-stream nitrifiers bioaugmentation process was beneficial in improving nitrification efficiency, even under low pH conditions not conducive to nitrification. The study provides new insights into effective upgrading of municipal WWTPs exposed to poor nitrification.

  1. Copper phytoremediation by a salt marsh plant (Phragmites australis) enhanced by autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T; Mucha, A P; Reis, I; Rodrigues, P; Gomes, C R; Almeida, C M R

    2014-11-15

    Here we evaluated whether the potential of Phragmites australis to phytoremediate Cu contaminated sediments could be enhanced by bioaugmentation with an autochthonous microorganism consortium (AMC) that is resistant to Cu. Saltmarsh plants with sediment attached to their roots were collected, placed in vessels and kept in greenhouses, under tidal simulation. Sediments were contaminated with Cu and the AMC was added to half of the vessels. After two months, plants accumulated significant amounts of Cu (2-10 times more) in all tissues although in higher amounts (7-10 times more) in belowground structures. AMC addition increased Cu bioavailability (5-10%) in sediments leading to a decrease in belowground structures biomass. However, bioaugmentation increased Cu translocation, with higher amounts (2 times more) of Cu in the plant stems, without significant visual toxicity signs. Therefore, autochthonous bioaugmentation can increase Cu phytoextraction potential of P. australis, which can be a valuable strategy for the recovery and management of moderately impacted estuaries.

  2. Biotreatment of p-nitrophenol and nitrobenzene in mixed wastewater through selective bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuewei; Li, Aimin; Fan, Jun; Deng, Conglin; Zhang, Quanxing

    2008-07-01

    This work combined selective adsorption and bioaugmentation to treat mixed wastewater of nitrobenzene and p-nitrophenol. The mixed wastewater of nitrobenzene (217 mg/L) and p-nitrophenol (500 mg/L) was adjusted its pH to 8 and then passed through the adsorption column at 100 mL/h. In effluent the nitrobenzene concentration was less than 4 mg/L. Without the toxic inhibition of nitrobenzene, p-nitrophenol in effluent could be degraded within 60 h through bioaugmentation. About 23 mg/g of nitrobenzene adsorbed the dry resin HU-05 could be desorbed and degraded through bioaugmentation. During this process the adsorption capacity of the resin HU-05 was recovered partly. The recovered extent was limited by nitrobenzene bioavailability. The performance of the resin HU-05 kept stably in the recycle experiments of 60 days.

  3. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic materials in excess sludge by bioaugmentation and pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuansheng; Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Jimin; Cao, Yali

    2016-03-01

    This study attempted to enhance anaerobic conversion of lignocellulosic materials in excess sludge by bioaugmentation and pretreatment. The results reveal that highly active lignocellulolytic microorganisms (Clostridium stercorarium and Bacteroides cellulosolvens) could be enriched from anaerobic sludge in ordinarily operated anaerobic digester (AD). Inoculating these microorganisms into AD could substantially enhance the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. However, this effect of bioaugmentation was shielded for raw excess sludge due to lignin incrustation in native biosolids. For this problem, pretreatments including acid, alkali, thermal and ultrasonic methods were effectively used to deconstruct the lignin incrustation, in which thermal pretreatment was demonstrated to be the most effective one. Then, pretreatment associated with bioaugmentation was successfully used to enhance the energy conversion of lignocellulosic materials, which resulted in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin to 68.8-78.2%, 77.4-89% and 15.4-33.7% respectively and thus increased the CH4 production by 210-246%, compared with ordinary AD.

  4. Treatment of petroleum drill cuttings using bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Ogar, Innocent; Okparanma, Reuben N; Ayotamuno, Josiah M

    2016-07-28

    This study sought to compare the effectiveness of bioaugmentation and biostimulation, as well as the combination of both techniques, supplemented with phytoremediation, in the decontamination of petroleum drill cuttings. Drill cuttings with relatively low concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals were mixed with soil in the ratio 5:1 and treated with three different combinations of the bioremediation options. Option A entailed bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. Option B had the combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. While biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation was deployed in option C. Option O containing the drill cuttings-soil mixture without treatment served as untreated control. Fertilizer application, tillage and watering were used for biostimulation treatment, while spent mushroom substrate (Pleurotus ostreatus) and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were employed for bioaugmentation and phytoremediation treatment, respectively. The drill cuttings-soil mixtures were monitored for TPH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, metal concentrations, and fungal counts, over time. After 56 days of treatment, there was a decline in the initial TPH concentration of 4,114 mg kg(-1) by 5.5%, 68.3%, 75.6% and 48% in options O, A, B and C, respectively. Generally, higher TPH loss resulted from the phytoremediation treatment stage. The treated options also showed slight reductions in metal concentrations ranging from 0% to 16% of the initial low concentrations. The results highlight the effectiveness of bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. The combination of bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation, however, may prove better in decontaminating petroleum drill cuttings to environmentally benign levels.

  5. Effect of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on Degradation of Polyurethane Buried in Soil▿

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, L.; McGeechan, P. L.; Handley, P. S.; Robson, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated biostimulation and bioaugmentation as strategies for removing polyurethane (PU) waste in soil. Soil microcosms were biostimulated with the PU dispersion agent “Impranil” and/or yeast extract or were bioaugmented with PU-degrading fungi, and the degradation of subsequently buried PU was determined. Fungal communities in the soil and colonizing buried PU were enumerated on solid media and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Biostimulation with yeast extract alone or in conjunction with Impranil increased PU degradation 62% compared to the degradation in untreated control soil and was associated with a 45% increase in putative PU degraders colonizing PU. Specific fungi were enriched in soil following biostimulation; however, few of these fungi colonized the surface of buried PU. Fungi used for soil bioaugmentation were cultivated on the surface of sterile wheat to form a mycelium-rich inoculum. Wheat, when added alone to soil, increased PU degradation by 28%, suggesting that wheat biomass had a biostimulating effect. Addition of wheat colonized with Nectria haematococca, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium ochrochloron, or an unidentified Mucormycotina sp. increased PU degradation a further 30 to 70%, suggesting that biostimulation and bioaugmentation were operating in concert to enhance PU degradation. Interestingly, few of the inoculated fungi could be detected by DGGE in the soil or on the surface of the PU 4 weeks after inoculation. Bioaugmentation did, however, increase the numbers of indigenous PU-degrading fungi and caused an inoculum-dependent change in the composition of the native fungal populations, which may explain the increased degradation observed. These results demonstrate that both biostimulation and bioaugmentation may be viable tools for the remediation of environments contaminated with polyurethane waste. PMID:19948849

  6. Treatment of petroleum drill cuttings using bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Ogar, Innocent; Okparanma, Reuben N; Ayotamuno, Josiah M

    2016-07-28

    This study sought to compare the effectiveness of bioaugmentation and biostimulation, as well as the combination of both techniques, supplemented with phytoremediation, in the decontamination of petroleum drill cuttings. Drill cuttings with relatively low concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals were mixed with soil in the ratio 5:1 and treated with three different combinations of the bioremediation options. Option A entailed bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. Option B had the combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. While biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation was deployed in option C. Option O containing the drill cuttings-soil mixture without treatment served as untreated control. Fertilizer application, tillage and watering were used for biostimulation treatment, while spent mushroom substrate (Pleurotus ostreatus) and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were employed for bioaugmentation and phytoremediation treatment, respectively. The drill cuttings-soil mixtures were monitored for TPH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, metal concentrations, and fungal counts, over time. After 56 days of treatment, there was a decline in the initial TPH concentration of 4,114 mg kg(-1) by 5.5%, 68.3%, 75.6% and 48% in options O, A, B and C, respectively. Generally, higher TPH loss resulted from the phytoremediation treatment stage. The treated options also showed slight reductions in metal concentrations ranging from 0% to 16% of the initial low concentrations. The results highlight the effectiveness of bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. The combination of bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation, however, may prove better in decontaminating petroleum drill cuttings to environmentally benign levels. PMID:27128694

  7. The segregation of silver nanoparticles in low-cost ceramic water filters

    SciTech Connect

    Larimer, Curtis; Ostrowski, Nicole; Speakman, Jacquelyn; Nettleship, Ian

    2010-04-15

    As an impregnated constituent in low-cost ceramic water filters, silver nanoparticles have a demonstrated antibacterial effect. The bactericidal mechanism is believed to be based on direct contact between silver and the cell wall of a contaminant organism. In this study microstructural analysis was used to examine the effect of the processing method on the distribution of silver nanoparticles in the filter material. Silver nanofluid was impregnated into fired clay ceramic samples by a low-cost soak-and-dry method. Analyses of filter samples by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and digital optical topological mapping showed that silver was concentrated in near surface pores, a condition that is not optimal for highest probability of silver contact. A simple experiment showed that segregation of silver occurs during the drying phase of impregnation. Drying curves showed that 90% of contained liquid evaporates from the external surface.

  8. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA).

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, A; Tennert, C; Karygianni, L; Wrbas, K T; Hellwig, E; Altenburger, M J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) using visible light together with water-filtered infrared-A (VIS+wIRA) to eradicate single species of planktonic bacteria and micro-organisms during initial oral bacterial colonization in situ. A broadband VIS+wIRA radiator with a water-filtered spectrum in the range 580-1400 nm was used for irradiation. Toluidine blue (TB) was utilized as a photosensitizer at concentrations of 5, 10, 25 and 50 µg ml(-1). The unweighted (absolute) irradiance was 200 mW cm(-2) and it was applied for 1 min. Planktonic cultures of Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis were treated with APDT. Salivary bacteria harvested by centrifugation of native human saliva were also tested. In addition, initial bacterial colonization of bovine enamel slabs carried in the mouths of six healthy volunteers was treated in the same way. Up to 2 log(10) of S. mutans and E. faecalis were killed by APDT. Salivary bacteria were eliminated to a higher extent of 3.7-5 log(10). All TB concentrations tested proved to be highly effective. The killing rate of bacteria in the initial oral bacterial colonization was significant (P=0.004) at all tested TB concentrations, despite the interindividual variations found among study participants. This study has shown that APDT in combination with TB and VIS+wIRA is a promising method for killing bacteria during initial oral colonization. Taking the healing effects of wIRA on human tissue into consideration, this technique could be helpful in the treatment of peri-implantitis and periodontitis.

  9. Designing and Piloting a Program to Provide Water Filters and Improved Cookstoves in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Barstow, Christina K.; Ngabo, Fidele; Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Thomas, Evan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In environmental health interventions addressing water and indoor air quality, multiple determinants contribute to adoption. These may include technology selection, technology distribution and education methods, community engagement with behavior change, and duration and magnitude of implementer engagement. In Rwanda, while the country has the fastest annual reduction in child mortality in the world, the population is still exposed to a disease burden associated with environmental health challenges. Rwanda relies both on direct donor funding and coordination of programs managed by international non-profits and health sector businesses working on these challenges. Methods and Findings This paper describes the design, implementation and outcomes of a pilot program in 1,943 households across 15 villages in the western province of Rwanda to distribute and monitor the use of household water filters and improved cookstoves. Three key program design criteria include a.) an investment in behavior change messaging and monitoring through community health workers, b.) free distributions to encourage community-wide engagement, and c.) a private-public partnership incentivized by a business model designed to encourage “pay for performance”. Over a 5-month period of rigorous monitoring, reported uptake was maintained at greater than 90% for both technologies, although exclusive use of the stove was reported in only 28.5% of households and reported water volume was 1.27 liters per person per day. On-going qualitative monitoring suggest maintenance of comparable adoption rates through at least 16 months after the intervention. Conclusion High uptake and sustained adoption of a water filter and improved cookstove was measured over a five-month period with indications of continued comparable adoption 16 months after the intervention. The design attributes applied by the implementers may be sufficient in a longer term. In particular, sustained and comprehensive

  10. Bio-augmentation for mitigating the impact of transient oxytetracycline shock on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) performance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Liu, Jia-Hong; Yang, Bi-E; Guo, Li-Xin; Wang, Hui-Zhong

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of applying bio-augmentation tactics to remit the influence of transient oxytetracycline (OTC) shock on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process was evaluated. The bio-augmentation was applied together with shock test, with OTC shock concentration of 518 mg L(-1) and 1-h duration. 0.655-2.62 g volatile suspended solid (VSS) sludges were varied to optimize bio-augmentation dosage (BAD), and appropriate bio-augmentation time (BAT) was determined. The validity of the bio-augmentation was indicated by recovery performance and sludge characteristics. The restoring time of 38 h for bio-augmented reactor was shorter than that of non-bio-augmented reactor (45 h), and heme c content was increased respectively from 0.195 ± 0.001, 0.267 ± 0.047, 0.301 ± 0.049, to 0.340 ± 0.053 μmol g(-1) VSS with the BAD of 0.655, 1.31, 1.97, 2.62 g-VSS. The results suggest that bio-augmentation enhances the recovery of ANAMMOX performance following OTC shock and BAT and BAD are key operational factors.

  11. Bioaugmentation and adsorption treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline using zeolite-biological aerated filters.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Qinghua; Sun, Renhua; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2011-03-01

    Bioaugmented zeolite-biological aerated filters (Z-BAFs), i.e. adding isolated degrading bacteria into the BAFs with zeolite as fillings, were designed to treat coking wastewater containing high concentrations of pyridine and quinoline and to explore the bacterial community of biofilm on the zeolite surface. The investigation was carried out for 91 days of column operation and the treatment of pyridine, quinoline, total organic carbon (TOC), and ammonium was shown to be highly efficient by bioaugmentation and adsorption. Biomass determination and bacterial diversity detection based on 16S rDNA and rRNA techniques supported the treatment data and indicated that bioaugmentation could recover the bacterial richness and diversity from pyridine and quinoline loading shocks. However, bioaugmentation accelerated the shift of the bacterial community structure resulting in a more distinct difference from the starting community. Clone library analysis revealed that pyridine and quinoline were more harmful to Bacterodietes among all ingenious bacteria, and bioaugmentation promoted the growth of Planctomycetes in the biofilm. Moreover, the introduced bacteria did not remain dominant in the bioaugmented biofilm, indicating the indigenous degrading bacteria played the most significant role in the treatment. This bioaugmented Z-BAF method was shown to be an alternative technology for the treatment of wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline or other N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds.

  12. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge.

    PubMed

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation. PMID:27571089

  13. Enhanced Polychlorinated Biphenyl Removal in a Switchgrass Rhizosphere by Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation makes use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up soils and sediments contaminated with inorganic and organic pollutants. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was used to test for its efficiency in improving the removal of three specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77 and 153) in soil microcosms. The congeners were chosen for their ubiquity, toxicity, and recalcitrance. After 24 weeks of incubation, loss of 39.9 ± 0.41% of total PCB molar mass was observed in switchgrass treated soil, significantly higher than in unplanted soil (29.5 ± 3.4%) (p<0.05). The improved PCB removal in switchgrass treated soils could be explained by phytoextraction processes and enhanced microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was performed to further enhance aerobic PCB degradation. The presence of LB400 was associated with improved degradation of PCB 52, but not PCB 77 or PCB 153. Increased abundances of bphA (a functional gene that codes for a subunit of PCB-degrading biphenyl dioxygenase in bacteria) and its transcript were observed after bioaugmentation. The highest total PCB removal was observed in switchgrass treated soil with LB400 bioaugmentation (47.3 ± 1.22 %), and the presence of switchgrass facilitated LB400 survival in the soil. Overall, our results suggest the combined use of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation could be an efficient and sustainable strategy to eliminate recalcitrant PCB congeners and remediate PCB-contaminated soil. PMID:25246731

  14. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis with bioaugmentation: characteristics of effective probiotics and strategies for their selection and use.

    PubMed

    Bletz, Molly C; Loudon, Andrew H; Becker, Matthew H; Bell, Sara C; Woodhams, Douglas C; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N

    2013-06-01

    Probiotic therapy through bioaugmentation is a feasible disease mitigation strategy based on growing evidence that microbes contribute to host defences of plants and animals. Amphibians are currently threatened by the rapid global spread of the pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis. Bioaugmentation of locally occurring protective bacteria on amphibians has mitigated this disease effectively in laboratory trials and one recent field trial. Areas still naïve to Bd provide an opportunity for conservationists to proactively implement probiotic strategies to prevent further amphibian declines. In areas where Bd is endemic, bioaugmentation can facilitate repatriation of susceptible amphibians currently maintained in assurance colonies. Here, we synthesise the current research in amphibian microbial ecology and bioaugmentation to identify characteristics of effective probiotics in relation to their interactions with Bd, their host, other resident microbes and the environment. To target at-risk species and amphibian communities, we develop sampling strategies and filtering protocols that result in probiotics that inhibit Bd under ecologically relevant conditions and persist on susceptible amphibians. This filtering tool can be used proactively to guide amphibian disease mitigation and can be extended to other taxa threatened by emerging infectious diseases.

  15. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation. PMID:27571089

  16. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge.

    PubMed

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-08-25

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation.

  17. Evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation and biostimulation during microcosm-simulated oil spills.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-07-15

    Oil spills are treated as a widespread problem that poses a great threat to any ecosystem. Following first response actions, bioremediation has emerged as the best strategy for combating oil spills and can be enhanced by the following two complementary approaches: bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation. Studies that compare the relative performance of bioaugmentation and biostimulation suggest that nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products because the survival and degradation ability of microbes introduced to a contaminated site are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Microbial populations grown in rich media under laboratory conditions become stressed when exposed to field conditions in which nutrient concentrations are substantially lower. There is increasing evidence that the best approach to overcoming these barriers is the use of microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as a bioaugmentation technology that exclusively uses microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) slated for decontamination. In this work, we examined the effectiveness of strategies combining autochthonous bioaugmentation with biostimulation for successful remediation of polluted marine environments. Seawater was collected from a pristine area (Agios Onoufrios Beach, Chania) and was placed in a bioreactor with 1% v/v crude oil to facilitate the adaptation of the indigenous microorganism population. The pre-adapted consortium and the indigenous population were tested in combination with inorganic or lipophilic nutrients in the presence (or absence) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) during 90-day long experiments. Chemical analysis (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of petroleum hydrocarbons confirmed the results of previous work demonstrating that the

  18. Effects of bioaugmentation strategies in UASB reactors with a methanogenic consortium for removal of phenolic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hajji, K.T.; Lepine, F.; Bisaillon, J.G.; Beaudet, R.; Hawari, J.; Guiot, S.R.

    2000-02-20

    The removal of phenol, ortho- (op) and para- (p-) cresol was studied with two series of UASB reactors using unacclimatized granular sludges bioaugmented with a consortium enriched against these substances. The parameters studied were the amount of inoculum added to the sludges and the method of immobilization of the inoculum. Two methods were used, adsorption to the biomass or encapsulation with calcium alginate beads. In the bioaugmentation by adsorption experiment, and with a 10% inoculum, complete phenol removal was obtained after 36 d, while 178 d were required in the control reactor. For p-cresol, 95% removal was obtained in the bioaugmented reactor on day 48 while 60 d were required to achieve 90% removal in the control reactor. For o-cresol, the removals were only marginally better with the bioaugmented reactors. Tests performed with the reactors biomass under non-limiting substrate concentrations showed that the specific activities of the bioaugmented biomasses were larger than the original biomass for phenol, and p-cresol even after 276 of operations, showing that the inoculum bacteria successfully colonized the sludge granules. Immobilization of the inoculum by encapsulation in calcium alginate beads, was performed with 10% of the inoculum. Results showed that the best activities were obtained when the consortium was encapsulated alone and the beads added to the sludges. This reactor presented excellent activity and the highest removal of the various phenolic compounds a few days after start-up. After 90 d, a high-phenolic compounds removal was still observed, demonstrating the effectiveness of the encapsulation technique for the start-up and maintenance of high-removal activities.

  19. Enhanced Anaerobic Biodegradation of Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene-Ethanol Mixtures in Bioaugmented Aquifer Columns

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Marcio L. B.; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Methanogenic flowthrough aquifer columns were used to investigate the potential of bioaugmentation to enhance anaerobic benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene (BTEX) degradation in groundwater contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline. Two different methanogenic consortia (enriched with benzene or toluene and o-xylene) were used as inocula. Toluene was the only hydrocarbon degraded within 3 years in columns that were not bioaugmented, although anaerobic toluene degradation was observed after only 2 years of acclimation. Significant benzene biodegradation (up to 88%) was observed only in a column bioaugmented with the benzene-enriched methanogenic consortium, and this removal efficiency was sustained for 1 year with no significant decrease in permeability due to bioaugmentation. Benzene removal was hindered by the presence of toluene, which is a more labile substrate under anaerobic conditions. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the highest numbers of bssA gene copies (coding for benzylsuccinate synthase) occurred in aquifer samples exhibiting the highest rate of toluene degradation, which suggests that this gene could be a useful biomarker for environmental forensic analysis of anaerobic toluene bioremediation potential. bssA continued to be detected in the columns 1 year after column feeding ceased, indicating the robustness of the added catabolic potential. Overall, these results suggest that anaerobic bioaugmentation might enhance the natural attenuation of BTEX in groundwater contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline, although field trials would be needed to demonstrate its feasibility. This approach may be especially attractive for removing benzene, which is the most toxic and commonly the most persistent BTEX compound under anaerobic conditions. PMID:15294807

  20. Impact of a silver layer on the membrane of tap water filters on the microbiological quality of filtered water

    PubMed Central

    Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Sohr, Dorit; Bruderek, Juliane; Gastmeier, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Background Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We present data from water samples using an improved kind of tap water filters. Methods In a blinded study on an intermediate care unit of the thoracic surgery department, a modified type of the Germlyser water filter (Aqua-Free Membrane Technology) with a newly-introduced silver layer on the filtration membrane was compared to its preceding type without such a layer on 15 water outlets. We determined growth of Legionella, other pathogenic bacteria, and the total heterotrophic plate count in unfiltered water and filtered water samples after filter usage intervals of 1 through 4 weeks. Results A total of 299 water samples were tested. Twenty-nine of the 60 unfiltered water samples contained Legionella of various serogroups (baseline value). In contrast, all samples filtered by the original water filter and all but one of the water samples filtered by the modified filter type remained Legionella-free. No other pathogenic bacteria were detected in any filtered sample. The total plate count in water samples increased during use of both kinds of filters over time. However, for the first 7 days of use, there were significantly fewer water samples containing >100 CFU per mL when using the new filter device compared with the older filters or taps with no filter. No advantage was seen thereafter. Conclusion The use of this type of terminal water filter is an appropriate method to protect immunocompromised patients from water-borne pathogens such as Legionella. PMID:18842119

  1. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems.

    PubMed

    Benyahia, Farid; Embaby, Ahmed Shams

    2016-02-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation. PMID:26891314

  2. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems.

    PubMed

    Benyahia, Farid; Embaby, Ahmed Shams

    2016-02-15

    This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation.

  3. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Benyahia, Farid; Embaby, Ahmed Shams

    2016-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation. PMID:26891314

  4. Kinetics of physiological skin flora in a suction blister wound model on healthy subjects after treatment with water-filtered infrared-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Daeschlein, G; Alborova, J; Patzelt, A; Kramer, A; Lademann, J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of water-filtered infrared-A radiation (wIRA) on normal skin flora was investigated by generating experimental wounds on the forearms of volunteers utilizing the suction blister technique. Over 7 days, recolonization was monitored parallel to wound healing. Four groups of treatment were compared: no therapy (A), dexpanthenol cream once daily (B), 20 min wIRA irradiation at 30 cm distance (C), and wIRA irradiation for 30 min once daily together with dexpanthenol cream once daily (D). All treatments strongly inhibited the recolonization of the wounds. Whereas dexpanthenol completely suppressed recolonization over the test period, recolonization after wIRA without (C) and in combination with dexpanthenol (D) was suppressed, but started on day 5 with considerably higher amounts after the combination treatment (D). Whereas the consequence without treatment (A) was an increasing amount of physiological skin flora including coagulase-negative staphylococci, all treatments (B-D) led to a reduction in physiological skin flora, including coagulase-negative staphylococci. In healthy volunteers, wIRA alone and in combination with dexpanthenol strongly inhibited bacterial recolonization with physiological skin flora after artificial wound setting using a suction-blister wound model. This could support the beneficial effects of wIRA in the promotion of wound healing.

  5. Kinetics of physiological skin flora in a suction blister wound model on healthy subjects after treatment with water-filtered infrared-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Daeschlein, G; Alborova, J; Patzelt, A; Kramer, A; Lademann, J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of water-filtered infrared-A radiation (wIRA) on normal skin flora was investigated by generating experimental wounds on the forearms of volunteers utilizing the suction blister technique. Over 7 days, recolonization was monitored parallel to wound healing. Four groups of treatment were compared: no therapy (A), dexpanthenol cream once daily (B), 20 min wIRA irradiation at 30 cm distance (C), and wIRA irradiation for 30 min once daily together with dexpanthenol cream once daily (D). All treatments strongly inhibited the recolonization of the wounds. Whereas dexpanthenol completely suppressed recolonization over the test period, recolonization after wIRA without (C) and in combination with dexpanthenol (D) was suppressed, but started on day 5 with considerably higher amounts after the combination treatment (D). Whereas the consequence without treatment (A) was an increasing amount of physiological skin flora including coagulase-negative staphylococci, all treatments (B-D) led to a reduction in physiological skin flora, including coagulase-negative staphylococci. In healthy volunteers, wIRA alone and in combination with dexpanthenol strongly inhibited bacterial recolonization with physiological skin flora after artificial wound setting using a suction-blister wound model. This could support the beneficial effects of wIRA in the promotion of wound healing. PMID:22123525

  6. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources. PMID:26270219

  7. Multilevel modeling of retention and disinfection efficacy of silver nanoparticles on ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Mikelonis, Anne M; Lawler, Desmond F; Passalacqua, Paola

    2016-10-01

    This research examined how variations in synthesis methods of silver nanoparticles affect both the release of silver from ceramic water filters (CWFs) and disinfection efficacy. The silver nanoparticles used were stabilized by four different molecules: citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, branched polyethylenimine, and casein. A multilevel statistical model was built to quantify if there was a significant difference in: a) extent of silver lost, b) initial amount of silver lost, c) silver lost for water of different quality, and d) total coliform removal. Experiments were performed on location at Pure Home Water, a CWF factory in Tamale, Ghana using stored rainwater and dugout water (a local surface water). The results indicated that using dugout vs. rainwater significantly affects the initial (p-value 0.0015) and sustained (p-value 0.0124) loss of silver, but that silver type does not have a significant effect. On average, dugout water removed 37.5μg/L more initial silver and had 1.1μg/L more silver in the filtrate than rainwater. Initially, filters achieved 1.9 log reduction values (LRVs) on average, but among different silver and water types this varied by as much as 2.5 LRV units. Overall, bacterial removal effectiveness was more challenging to evaluate, but some data suggest that the branched polyethylenimine silver nanoparticles provided improved initial bacterial removal over filters which were not painted with silver nanoparticles (p-value 0.038). PMID:27232964

  8. Multilevel modeling of retention and disinfection efficacy of silver nanoparticles on ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Mikelonis, Anne M; Lawler, Desmond F; Passalacqua, Paola

    2016-10-01

    This research examined how variations in synthesis methods of silver nanoparticles affect both the release of silver from ceramic water filters (CWFs) and disinfection efficacy. The silver nanoparticles used were stabilized by four different molecules: citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, branched polyethylenimine, and casein. A multilevel statistical model was built to quantify if there was a significant difference in: a) extent of silver lost, b) initial amount of silver lost, c) silver lost for water of different quality, and d) total coliform removal. Experiments were performed on location at Pure Home Water, a CWF factory in Tamale, Ghana using stored rainwater and dugout water (a local surface water). The results indicated that using dugout vs. rainwater significantly affects the initial (p-value 0.0015) and sustained (p-value 0.0124) loss of silver, but that silver type does not have a significant effect. On average, dugout water removed 37.5μg/L more initial silver and had 1.1μg/L more silver in the filtrate than rainwater. Initially, filters achieved 1.9 log reduction values (LRVs) on average, but among different silver and water types this varied by as much as 2.5 LRV units. Overall, bacterial removal effectiveness was more challenging to evaluate, but some data suggest that the branched polyethylenimine silver nanoparticles provided improved initial bacterial removal over filters which were not painted with silver nanoparticles (p-value 0.038).

  9. Bacterial treatment effectiveness of point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Kowalski, Kate; Summers, R Scott

    2009-08-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted on six point-of-use (POU) ceramic water filters that were manufactured in Nicaragua; two filters were used by families for ca. 4 years and the other filters had limited prior use in our lab. Water spiked with ca. 10(6)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli was dosed to the filters. Initial disinfection efficiencies ranged from 3 - 4.5 log, but the treatment efficiency decreased with subsequent batches of spiked water. Silver concentrations in the effluent water ranged from 0.04 - 1.75 ppb. Subsequent experiments that utilized feed water without a bacterial spike yielded 10(3)-10(5)CFU/mL bacteria in the effluent. Immediately after recoating four of the filters with a colloidal silver solution, the effluent silver concentrations increased to 36 - 45 ppb and bacterial disinfection efficiencies were 3.8-4.5 log. The treatment effectiveness decreased to 0.2 - 2.5 log after loading multiple batches of highly contaminated water. In subsequent loading of clean water, the effluent water contained <20-41 CFU/mL in two of the filters. This indicates that the silver had some benefit to reducing bacterial contamination by the filter. In general these POU filters were found to be effective, but showed loss of effectiveness with time and indicated a release of microbes into subsequent volumes of water passed through the system. PMID:19500815

  10. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  11. Bioaugmentation with isolated strains for the removal of toxic and refractory organics from coking wastewater in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Liu, Rui; Liu, Cong; Chen, Lujun

    2015-11-01

    The bioaugmentation strains for phenol, pyridine, quinoline, carbazole, and naphthalene degradation were employed to treat coking wastewater in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The results showed that the bioaugmented MBR was much better in pollutant removal than that of the control MBR with conventional activated sludge. Compared to the control MBR, the bioaugmented MBR displayed an additional 3.2 mg/L of phenol, pyridine, quinoline, naphthalene and carbazole in total by the addition of the degrading strains. Also, about 10 % of the chemical oxygen demand in the effluent was further removed by the bioaugmentation. The pyrosequencing analysis of the sludge in the MBRs revealed that the microbial community shifted in response to the addition of the degrading strains. The diversity of the microbial community increased during the bioaugmentation, and some bacterial taxa favorable to the removal of toxic and refractory pollutants appeared in the bioaugmented MBR. The results indicated that the use of high-efficiency bacteria was a feasible method for industrial coking wastewater treatment. PMID:26510738

  12. Bioaugmentation of potent acidogenic isolates: a strategy for enhancing biohydrogen production at elevated organic load.

    PubMed

    Goud, R Kannaiah; Sarkar, Omprakash; Chiranjeevi, P; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of bioaugmentation strategy for enhancing biohydrogenesis at elevated organic load was successfully evaluated by augmenting native acidogenic microflora with three acidogenic bacterial isolates viz., Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Lysinibacillus fusiformis related to phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria separately. Hydrogen production ceased at 50g COD/l operation due to feed-back inhibition. B. subtilis augmented system showed higher H2 production followed by L. fusiformis, P. stutzeri and control operations, indicating the efficacy of Firmicutes as bioaugmentation biocatalyst. Higher VFA production with acetic acid as a major fraction was specifically observed with B. subtilis augmented system. Shift in metabolic pathway towards acidogenesis favoured higher H2 production. FISH analysis confirmed survivability and persistence of augmented strains apart from improvement in process performance. Bio-electrochemical analysis depicted specific changes in the metabolic activity after augmentation which also facilitated enhanced electron transfer. P. stutzeri augmented system documented relatively higher COD removal.

  13. Bioaugmentation of DDT-contaminated soil by dissemination of the catabolic plasmid pDOD.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunming; Jin, Xiangxiang; Ren, Jingbei; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    A plasmid transfer-mediated bioaugmentation method for the enhancement of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) degradation in soil was developed using the catabolic plasmid pDOD from Sphingobacterium sp. D-6. The pDOD plasmid could be transferred to soil bacteria, such as members of Cellulomonas, to form DDT degraders and thus accelerate DDT degradation. The transfer efficiency of pDOD was affected by the donor, temperature, moisture, and soil type. Approximately 50.7% of the DDT in the contaminated field was removed 210 days after the application of Escherichia coli TG I (pDOD-gfp). The results suggested that seeding pDOD into soil is an effective bioaugmentation method for enhancing the degradation of DDT.

  14. Newly isolated alkalophilic Advenella species bioaugmented in activated sludge for high p-cresol removal.

    PubMed

    Xenofontos, Eleni; Tanase, Ana-Maria; Stoica, Ileana; Vyrides, Ioannis

    2016-03-25

    In this work, an alkalophilic bacterium (LVX-4) capable of using p-cresol as sole source of carbon and energy was screened and isolated from soil polluted by used oil. Phylogenetic (16S rRNA) and phenotypic characterization using Biolog GN microplates and API 20NE strips indicated that LVX-4 strain is a new Advenella species. It showed both the capability to degrade of p-cresol at high concentrations (750 mg/L) and to use p-cresol for growth in a pH from 7 to 10, although the optimum pH was 9. Moreover bioaugmentation of activated sludge with this strain lead to the complete removal of p-cresol in less than 100 h. This is the first study that shows the potential of Advenella sp. to be bioaugmented in activated sludge system for p-cresol biodegradation. PMID:26596887

  15. Bioaugmentation for treating transient 4-fluorocinnamic acid shock loads in a rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Catarina L; Duque, Anouk F; Afonso, Carlos M M; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-09-01

    A rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used to treat shock loadings of 4-fluorocinnamic acid (4-FCA). Intermittent 4-FCA shocks of 35 mg L(-1) were applied (ca. 3 months) with only limited mineralization occurring and accumulation of 4-fluorobenzoate (4-FBA) as an intermediate. After bioaugmentation with a degrading bacterium the RBC was able to deal with 4-FCA intermittent loading of 80 mg L(-1) however, a gradual decline in RBC performance occurred, leading to 4-FBA accumulation. The degrading strain was recovered from the biofilm during 2 months but intermittent feeding may have led to diminishing strain numbers. Distinct bacterial communities in the 1st and the 5th and 10th stages of the RBC were revealed by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis. Several isolates retrieved from the RBC transformed 4-FCA into 4-FBA but only two strains mineralized the compound. Bioaugmentation allowed removal of the fluorinated compound however intermittent feeding may have compromised the bioreactor efficiency.

  16. Bench-scale evaluation of aerosol delivery for biostimulation and bioaugmentation in the vadose zone.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J; Murdoch, Lawrence C; Freedman, David L; Looney, Brian B; Riha, Brian D

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol delivery was evaluated for distributing biostimulation and bioaugmentation amendments in vadose zones. This technique involves transporting amendments as micron-scale aerosol droplets in injected gas. Microcosm experiments were designed to characterize reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) under unsaturated conditions when delivering components as aerosols. Delivering amendments and/or microbes as aqueous aerosols resulted in complete dechlorination of TCE, similar to controls operated under saturated conditions. Reductive dechlorination was achieved with manual injection of a bioaugmentation culture suspended in soybean oil into microcosms. However, aerosol delivery of the culture in soybean oil induced little reductive dechlorination activity. Overall, the results indicate that delivery as aqueous aerosols may be a viable option for delivery of amendments to enhance vadose zone bioremediation at the field-scale.

  17. Treatment of high-salinity chemical wastewater by indigenous bacteria--bioaugmented contact oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Mengdi; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gu, Yanyan; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2013-09-01

    A 90 m(3) biological contact oxidation system in chemical factory was bioaugmented with three strains of indigenous salt-tolerant bacteria. These three strains were screened from contaminative soil in situ. Their activity of growth and degradation was investigated with lab-scale experiments. Their salt-tolerant mechanism was confirmed to be compatible-solutes strategy for moderately halophilic bacteria, with amino acid and betaine playing important roles. The running conditions of the system were recorded for 150 days. The indigenous bacteria had such high suitability that the reactor got steady rapidly and the removal of COD maintained above 90%. It was introduced that biofilm fragments in sedimentation tank were inversely flowed to each reaction tank, and quantitative PCR demonstrated that this process could successfully maintain the bacterial abundance in the reaction tanks. In addition, the T-RFLP revealed that bioaugmented strains dominated over others in the biofilm.

  18. Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by concurrent bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring and aerobic degrading bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rayford B.; Fagervold, Sonja K.; May, Harold D.; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation of sediments contaminated with commercial PCBs is potentially achievable by the sequential activity of anaerobic halorespiration to convert higher chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are susceptible to aerobic respiratory degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring “Dehalobium chlorocoercia” DF1 and aerobic Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 added concurrently with GAC as a delivery system was determined in 2-liter laboratory mesocosms containing weathered Aroclor-contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The greatest effect was seen in the mesocosm bioaugmented with both DF1 and LB400 together, which resulted in an 80% decrease by mass of PCBs, from 8 mg/kg to less than 2 mg/kg after 120 days. There was no significant increase in lesser-chlorinated congeners, indicating that both anaerobic dechlorination by DF1 and aerobic degradation by LB400 occurred. In contrast, non-bioaugmented controls containing filtered culture supernatant showed only 25% decrease in total levels of PCBs after 365 days, which was likely due to biostimulation of the indigenous population by the medium. Direct colony counts and molecular analysis targeting a putative reductive dehalogenase gene of D. chlorocoercia, or the bphA gene of LB400 showed the presence of viable DF1 and LB400 in bioaugmented mesocosms after 365 days, indicating that both non-indigenous strains were sustainable within the indigenous microbial community. These results suggest that an in situ treatment employing the simultaneous application of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms could be an effective, environmentally sustainable strategy to reduce PCBs levels in contaminated sediment. PMID:23463900

  19. Biodegradation of Spilled Diesel Fuel in Agricultural Soil: Effect of Humates, Zeolite, and Bioaugmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kuráň, Pavel; Nováková, Jana; Pilařová, Věra; Dáňová, Petra; Pavlorková, Jana; Kozler, Josef; Novák, František

    2014-01-01

    Possible enhancement of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in agricultural soil after tank truck accident (~5000 mg/kg dry soil initial concentration) by bioaugmentation of diesel degrading Pseudomonas fluorescens strain and addition of abiotic additives (humates, zeolite) was studied in a 9-month pot experiment. The biodegradation process was followed by means of analytical parameters (hydrocarbon index expressed as content of C10–C40 aliphatic hydrocarbons, ratio pristane/C17, and total organic carbon content) and characterization of soil microbial community (content of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) as an indicator of living microbial biomass, respiration, and dehydrogenase activity). The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons (C10–C40) was successfully reduced by ~60% in all 15 experiment variants. The bioaugmentation resulted in faster hydrocarbon elimination. On the contrary, the addition of humates and zeolite caused only a negligible increase in the degradation rate. These factors, however, affected significantly the amount of PLFA. The humates caused significantly faster increase of the total PLFA suggesting improvement of the soil microenvironment. Zeolite caused significantly slower increase of the total PLFA; nevertheless it aided in homogenization of the soil. Comparison of microbial activities and total PLFA revealed that only a small fraction of autochthonous microbes took part in the biodegradation which confirms that bioaugmentation was the most important treatment. PMID:24672346

  20. Evaluation of microbial transport during aerobic bioaugmentation of an RDX-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Hancock, Dawn E; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Vainberg, Simon; Istok, Jonathan D; Wilson, Edward; Michalsen, Mandy M

    2015-11-01

    In situ bioaugmentation with aerobic hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-degrading bacteria is being considered for treatment of explosives-contaminated groundwater at Umatilla Chemical Depot, Oregon (UMCD). Two forced-gradient bacterial transport tests of site groundwater containing chloride or bromide tracer and either a mixed culture of Gordonia sp. KTR9 (xplA (+)Km(R)), Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (pGKT2 transconjugant; xplA (+)Km(R)) and Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C (xenB (+)), or a single culture of Gordonia sp. KTR9 (xplA (+); i.e. wild-type) were conducted at UMCD. Groundwater monitoring evaluated cell viability and migration in the injection well and downgradient monitoring wells. Enhanced degradation of RDX was not evaluated in these demonstrations. Quantitative PCR analysis of xplA, the kanamycin resistance gene (aph), and xenB indicated that the mixed culture was transported at least 3 m within 2 h of injection. During a subsequent field injection of bioaugmented groundwater, strain KTR9 (wild-type) migrated up to 23-m downgradient of the injection well within 3 days. Thus, the three RDX-degrading strains were effectively introduced and transported within the UMCD aquifer. This demonstration represents an innovative application of bioaugmentation to potentially enhance RDX biodegradation in aerobic aquifers. PMID:26438043

  1. Evaluation of microbial transport during aerobic bioaugmentation of an RDX-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Hancock, Dawn E; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Vainberg, Simon; Istok, Jonathan D; Wilson, Edward; Michalsen, Mandy M

    2015-11-01

    In situ bioaugmentation with aerobic hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-degrading bacteria is being considered for treatment of explosives-contaminated groundwater at Umatilla Chemical Depot, Oregon (UMCD). Two forced-gradient bacterial transport tests of site groundwater containing chloride or bromide tracer and either a mixed culture of Gordonia sp. KTR9 (xplA (+)Km(R)), Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (pGKT2 transconjugant; xplA (+)Km(R)) and Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C (xenB (+)), or a single culture of Gordonia sp. KTR9 (xplA (+); i.e. wild-type) were conducted at UMCD. Groundwater monitoring evaluated cell viability and migration in the injection well and downgradient monitoring wells. Enhanced degradation of RDX was not evaluated in these demonstrations. Quantitative PCR analysis of xplA, the kanamycin resistance gene (aph), and xenB indicated that the mixed culture was transported at least 3 m within 2 h of injection. During a subsequent field injection of bioaugmented groundwater, strain KTR9 (wild-type) migrated up to 23-m downgradient of the injection well within 3 days. Thus, the three RDX-degrading strains were effectively introduced and transported within the UMCD aquifer. This demonstration represents an innovative application of bioaugmentation to potentially enhance RDX biodegradation in aerobic aquifers.

  2. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic materials in excess sludge by bioaugmentation and pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuansheng; Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Jimin; Cao, Yali

    2016-03-01

    This study attempted to enhance anaerobic conversion of lignocellulosic materials in excess sludge by bioaugmentation and pretreatment. The results reveal that highly active lignocellulolytic microorganisms (Clostridium stercorarium and Bacteroides cellulosolvens) could be enriched from anaerobic sludge in ordinarily operated anaerobic digester (AD). Inoculating these microorganisms into AD could substantially enhance the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. However, this effect of bioaugmentation was shielded for raw excess sludge due to lignin incrustation in native biosolids. For this problem, pretreatments including acid, alkali, thermal and ultrasonic methods were effectively used to deconstruct the lignin incrustation, in which thermal pretreatment was demonstrated to be the most effective one. Then, pretreatment associated with bioaugmentation was successfully used to enhance the energy conversion of lignocellulosic materials, which resulted in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin to 68.8-78.2%, 77.4-89% and 15.4-33.7% respectively and thus increased the CH4 production by 210-246%, compared with ordinary AD. PMID:26712660

  3. Laboratory and field scale bioremediation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils by means of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Garg, Nidhi; Lata, Pushp; Jit, Simran; Sangwan, Naseer; Singh, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Vatsala; Niharika, Neha; Kaur, Jasvinder; Saxena, Anjali; Dua, Ankita; Nayyar, Namita; Kohli, Puneet; Geueke, Birgit; Kunz, Petra; Rentsch, Daniel; Holliger, Christof; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils were treated for a period of up to 64 days in situ (HCH dumpsite, Lucknow) and ex situ (University of Delhi) in line with three bioremediation approaches. The first approach, biostimulation, involved addition of ammonium phosphate and molasses, while the second approach, bioaugmentation, involved addition of a microbial consortium consisting of a group of HCH-degrading sphingomonads that were isolated from HCH contaminated sites. The third approach involved a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. The efficiency of the consortium was investigated in laboratory scale experiments, in a pot scale study, and in a full-scale field trial. It turned out that the approach of combining biostimulation and bioaugmentation was most effective in achieving reduction in the levels of α- and β-HCH and that the application of a bacterial consortium as compared to the action of a single HCH-degrading bacterial strain was more successful. Although further degradation of β- and δ-tetrachlorocyclohexane-1,4-diol, the terminal metabolites of β- and δ-HCH, respectively, did not occur by the strains comprising the consortium, these metabolites turned out to be less toxic than the parental HCH isomers.

  4. Biodegradation of nitroglycerin in porous media and potential for bioaugmentation with Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1.

    PubMed

    Husserl, Johana; Hughes, Joseph B

    2013-07-01

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is a toxic explosive found as a contaminant of soil and groundwater. Several microbial strains are capable of partially reducing the NG molecule to dinitro or mononitroesters. Recently, a strain capable of growing on NG as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen (Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1) was isolated from contaminated soil. Despite the widespread presence of microbial strains capable of transforming NG in contaminated soils and sediments, the extent of NG biodegradation at contaminated sites is still unknown. In this study column experiments were conducted to investigate the extent of microbial degradation of NG in saturated porous media, specifically after bioaugmentation with JBH1. Initial experiments using sterile, low sorptivity sand, showed mineralization of NG after bioaugmentation with JBH1 in the absence of sources of carbon and nitrogen other than NG. Results could be modeled using a first order degradation rate of 0.14d(-1). Further experiments conducted using contaminated soil with high organic carbon content (highly sorptive) resulted in column effluents that did not contain NG although high dinitroester concentrations were observed. Bioaugmentation with JBH1 in sediments containing strains capable of partial transformation of NG resulted in complete mineralization of NG and faster degradation rates.

  5. Bioaugmented remediation of high concentration BTEX-contaminated groundwater by permeable reactive barrier with immobilized bead.

    PubMed

    Xin, Bao-Ping; Wu, Chih-Hung; Wu, Cheng-Han; Lin, Chi-Wen

    2013-01-15

    Ineffective biostimulation requires immediate development of new technologies for remediation of high concentration BTEX-contaminated (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) groundwater. In this study, bioaugmentation with Mycobacterium sp. CHXY119 and Pseudomonas sp. YATO411 immobilized bead was used to remediate BTEX-contaminated groundwater with about 100 mg l(-1) in total concentration. The batch test results showed that the CHXY119 and YATO411 immobilized bead completely biodegraded each BTEX compound, and the maximum biodegradation rates were 0.790 mg l(-1) h(-1) for benzene, 1.113 mg l(-1) h(-1) for toluene, 0.992 mg l(-1) h(-1) for ethylbenzene and 0.231 mg l(-1) h(-1) for p-xylene. The actual mineralization rates were 10.8% for benzene, 10.5% for toluene, 5.8% for ethylbenzene and 11.4% for p-xylene, which indicated that the bioremediation of BTEX by the immobilized bead requires a rather small oxygen supply. Degradation rates achieved by the bioaugmented permeable reactive barrier (Bio-PRB) system of the immobilized bead were 97.8% for benzene, 94.2% for toluene, 84.7% for ethylbenzene and 87.4% for p-xylene; and the toxicity of the groundwater fell by 91.2% after bioremediation by the bioaugmented PRB, which confirmed its great potential for remediating groundwater with high concentrations of contaminants.

  6. [Bioaugmentation for shortcut nitrification in SBR treating for sewage containing sea water by nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Zhang, Pei-Yu; Yu, De-Shuang; Guo, Sha-Sha; Yang, Rui-Xia

    2010-10-01

    The feasibility of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria applied in shortcut nitrification system was studied. Four heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification strains mixed with halotolerant activated sludge was added into SBR in order to test their bioaugmentation ability for shortcut nitrification system, which was treating for sewage containing sea water, and the difference between bioaugmentation system and original system was compared. The results showed that the maximum accumulation of NO2(-) -N in bioaugmentation system was 34.92% lower than that in original system, and the time of maximum accumulation of NO2(-) -N was 2 hours earlier than that in original system. The TN and COD was continuously decreasing in the later phase of nitrification in bioaugmentation system, and finally the removal rate of TN and COD were 15.24% and 5.39% higher than that in original system respectively, as well as the removal rate of NH4(+) -N and the nitrosation rate were 6.85% and 14.47% higher than that in original system. And the pH was 0.46 higher than that in original system, whereas the ORP was 25.84 mV lower. It was considered that the function of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria should strengthen the performance of bioaugmentation system. When the seawater content raised to 70%, the stability of bioaugmentation system was better than that in original system, and the current that transforming shortcut nitrification to complete nitrification was restrained by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria effectively. The number of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria was changed when bioaugmentation system and original system ran in different phase and the bacteria had a great loss with the discharge of activated sludge. These results may provide a theoretical reference about the feasibility that the heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria applied in

  7. Simazine degradation in bioaugmented soil: urea impact and response of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and other soil bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingwei; Wan, Rui; Xie, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of exogenous urea nitrogen on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and other soil bacterial communities in soil bioaugmented for simazine remediation. The previously isolated simazine-degrading Arthrobacter sp. strain SD1 was used to degrade the herbicide. The effect of urea on the simazine degradation capacity of the soil bioaugmented with Arthrobacter strain SD1 was assessed using quantitative PCR targeting the s-triazine-degrading trzN and atzC genes. Structures of bacterial and AOB communities were characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Urea fertilizer could affect simazine biodegradation and decreased the proportion of its trzN and atzC genes in soil augmented with Arthrobacter strain SD1. Bioaugmentation process could significantly alter the structures of both bacterial and AOB communities, which were strongly affected by urea amendment, depending on the dosage. This study could provide some new insights towards s-triazine bioremediation and microbial ecology in a bioaugmented system. However, further studies are necessary in order to elucidate the impact of different types and levels of nitrogen sources on s-triazine-degraders and bacterial and AOB communities in bioaugmented soil.

  8. The development of point-of-use water filters as sampling devices in bioforensics: extent of microbial sorption and elution.

    PubMed

    Sedillo, Jennifer L; Quintana, Ayshea; Souza, Kathryn; Oshima, Kevin H; Smith, Geoffrey B

    2008-06-01

    The foundational idea for this project is that household faucet-mounted water filters may be used as bioforensic sampling devices to detect the extent of a potential bioagent release in domestic water supplies. An optimized eluent solution was determined experimentally by quantifying recoveries of microorganisms from point-of-use (POU) drinking water filters. The optimized extraction protocol was then used in mock bioagent release experiments to determine the feasibility of POU filters as bioforensic sampling devices. Bacillus atrophaeus spores, Escherichia coli and PP7 virus were exposed to filters and the number of attached organisms was determined by enumerating the unattached organisms on selective agar media. Subsequently, the filters were eluted and the percent of extracted organisms was determined based on the number of attached organisms. Two popular brands of carbon block filters retained 92%-99% of representative virus, spore and vegetative bacteria. In back-flush elutions of single filters, the most efficient eluent was identified as a combination of 1% peptone and 1% Tween-80, and extraction recovered 25.4% (+/-17.5%) of attached E. coli, 20.4% (+/-3.6%) of B. atrophaeus spores, and 9.4% (+/-5.2%) of PP7 virions (+/- standard deviations). In bioagent release studies in which filters were challenged with 100 agents mL(-1), greater than 99% of the spores were retained by the filters, and the percent of attached spores that were recovered ranged from 10.4% at day 0 to 4.3% five days after the release event (averaged from five separate experiments). In contrast, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and PP7 virus were rapidly inactivated in the chlorinated tap water, indicating their improbable survival in chlorinated water supplies. It is therefore concluded that household water filters can be used as microbial sampling devices for bioforensic applications in the event of a bioagent release in domestic drinking water supplies.

  9. Manufacturing a low-cost ceramic water filter and filter system for the elimination of common pathogenic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, J. J.; Basson, A. K.

    Africa is one of the most water-scarce continents in the world but it is the lack of potable water which results in diarrhoea being the leading cause of death amongst children under the age of five in Africa (696 million children under 5 years old in Africa contract diarrhoea resulting in 2000 deaths per day: WHO and UNICEF, 2009). Most potable water treatment methods use bulk water treatment not suitable or available to the majority of rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. One simple but effective way of making sure that water is of good quality is by purifying it by means of a household ceramic water filter. The making and supply of water filters suitable for the removal of suspended solids, pathogenic bacteria and other toxins from drinking water is therefore critical. A micro-porous ceramic water filter with micron-sized pores was developed using the traditional slip casting process. This locally produced filter has the advantage of making use of less raw materials, cost, labour, energy and expertise and being more effective and efficient than other low cost produced filters. The filter is fitted with a silicone tube inserted into a collapsible bag that acts as container and protection for the filter. Enhanced flow is obtained through this filter system. The product was tested using water inoculated with high concentrations of different bacterial cultures as well as with locally polluted stream water. The filter is highly effective (log10 > 4 with 99.99% reduction efficiency) in providing protection from bacteria and suspended solids found in natural water. With correct cleaning and basic maintenance this filter technology can effectively provide drinking water to rural families affected by polluted surface water sources. This is an African solution for the more than 340 million people in Africa without access to clean drinking water (WHO and UNICEF, 2008).

  10. The development of point-of-use water filters as sampling devices in bioforensics: extent of microbial sorption and elution.

    PubMed

    Sedillo, Jennifer L; Quintana, Ayshea; Souza, Kathryn; Oshima, Kevin H; Smith, Geoffrey B

    2008-06-01

    The foundational idea for this project is that household faucet-mounted water filters may be used as bioforensic sampling devices to detect the extent of a potential bioagent release in domestic water supplies. An optimized eluent solution was determined experimentally by quantifying recoveries of microorganisms from point-of-use (POU) drinking water filters. The optimized extraction protocol was then used in mock bioagent release experiments to determine the feasibility of POU filters as bioforensic sampling devices. Bacillus atrophaeus spores, Escherichia coli and PP7 virus were exposed to filters and the number of attached organisms was determined by enumerating the unattached organisms on selective agar media. Subsequently, the filters were eluted and the percent of extracted organisms was determined based on the number of attached organisms. Two popular brands of carbon block filters retained 92%-99% of representative virus, spore and vegetative bacteria. In back-flush elutions of single filters, the most efficient eluent was identified as a combination of 1% peptone and 1% Tween-80, and extraction recovered 25.4% (+/-17.5%) of attached E. coli, 20.4% (+/-3.6%) of B. atrophaeus spores, and 9.4% (+/-5.2%) of PP7 virions (+/- standard deviations). In bioagent release studies in which filters were challenged with 100 agents mL(-1), greater than 99% of the spores were retained by the filters, and the percent of attached spores that were recovered ranged from 10.4% at day 0 to 4.3% five days after the release event (averaged from five separate experiments). In contrast, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and PP7 virus were rapidly inactivated in the chlorinated tap water, indicating their improbable survival in chlorinated water supplies. It is therefore concluded that household water filters can be used as microbial sampling devices for bioforensic applications in the event of a bioagent release in domestic drinking water supplies. PMID:18528538

  11. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  12. Artificial Limbs

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as before.

  13. Autochthonous bioaugmentation with environmental samples rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria for bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nedaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Sorkhoh, Naser; Radwan, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Oil-contaminated seawater and desert soil batches were bioaugmented with suspensions of pea (Pisum sativum) rhizosphere and soil with long history of oil pollution. Oil consumption was measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria in the bioremediation batches were counted using a mineral medium with oil vapor as a sole carbon source and characterized by their 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-gene sequences. Most of the oil was consumed during the first 2-4 months, and the oil-removal rate decreased or ceased thereafter due to nutrient and oxygen depletion. Supplying the batches with NaNO3 (nitrogen fertilization) at a late phase of bioremediation resulted in reenhanced oil consumption and bacterial growth. In the seawater batches bioaugmented with rhizospheric suspension, the autochthonous rhizospheric bacterial species Microbacterium oxidans and Rhodococcus spp. were established and contributed to oil-removal. The rhizosphere-bioaugmented soil batches selectively favored Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, Caulobacter segnis, and Ensifer adherens. In seawater batches bioaugmented with long-contaminated soil, the predominant oil-removing bacterium was the marine species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. In soil batches on the other hand, the autochthonous inhabitants of the long-contaminated soil, Pseudomonas and Massilia species were established and contributed to oil removal. It was concluded that the use of rhizospheric bacteria for inoculating seawater and desert soil and of bacteria in long-contaminated soil for inoculating desert soil follows the concept of "autochthonous bioaugmentation." Inoculating seawater with bacteria in long-contaminated soil, on the other hand, merits the designation "allochthonous bioaugmentation."

  14. Bioaugmentation of aerobic sludge granules with a plasmid donor strain for enhanced degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiang-chun; Tang, Hua; Xiong, Wei-cong; Yang, Zhi-feng

    2010-07-15

    Aerobic sludge granules pre-grown on glucose were bioaugmented with a plasmid pJP4 carrying strain Pseudomonas putida SM1443 in a fed-batch microcosm system and a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to enhance their degradation capacity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The fed-batch test results showed that the bioaugmented aerobic granule system gained 2,4-D degradation ability faster and maintained a more stable microbial community than the control in the presence of 2,4-D. 2,4-D at the initial concentration of about 160 mg/L was nearly completely removed by the bioaugmented granule system within 62 h, while the control system only removed 26% within 66 h. In the bioaugmented SBR which had been operated for 90 days, the seeded aerobic granules pre-grown on glucose successfully turned into 2,4-D degrading granules through bioaugmentation and stepwise increase of 2,4-D concentration from 8 to 385 mg/L. The granules showed a compact structure and good settling ability with the mean diameter of about 450 microm. The degradation kinetics of 2,4-D by the aerobic granules can be described with the Haldane kinetics model with V(max)=31.1 mg 2,4-D/gVSS h, K(i)=597.9 mg/L and K(s)=257.3 mg/L, respectively. This study shows that plasmid mediated bioaugmentation is a feasible strategy to cultivate aerobic granules degrading recalcitrant pollutants.

  15. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  16. Bioaugmentation of activated sludge with elemental sulfur producing strain Thiopseudomonas denitrificans X2 against nitrate shock load.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenbo; Huang, Cong; Chen, Chuan; Liang, Bin; Wang, Aijie

    2016-11-01

    The sulfide and nitrogen compounds in wastewaters are toxic and cause a serious environmental problem. Thiopseudomonas denitrificans X2, which is the type species of a novel genus Thiopseudomonas was used for bioaugmentation. It oxidized sulfide and acetate with nitrate, and generated elemental sulfur that could be recovered as resource. The generation rate of elemental sulfur was enhanced significantly by the bioaugmentation under the condition of excessive nitrate feeding. The inoculums survived and worked actively in the activated sludge system as the dominant population. Thiopseudomonas denitrificans X2 could be applied to wastewater treatment and resource recovery simultaneously. PMID:27590576

  17. Bioaugmentation of Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidizing Culture in Biogas Reactors Exposed to Increasing Levels of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, Maria; Levén, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    The importance of syntrophic acetate oxidation for process stability in methanogenic systems operating at high ammonia concentrations has previously been emphasized. In this study we investigated bioaugmentation of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing (SAO) cultures as a possible method for decreasing the adaptation period of biogas reactors operating at gradually increased ammonia concentrations (1.5 to 11 g NH4+-N/liter). Whole stillage and cattle manure were codigested semicontinuously for about 460 days in four mesophilic anaerobic laboratory-scale reactors, and a fixed volume of SAO culture was added daily to two of the reactors. Reactor performance was evaluated in terms of biogas productivity, methane content, pH, alkalinity, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The decomposition pathway of acetate was analyzed by isotopic tracer experiments, and population dynamics were monitored by quantitative PCR analyses. A shift in dominance from aceticlastic methanogenesis to SAO occurred simultaneously in all reactors, indicating no influence by bioaugmentation on the prevailing pathway. Higher abundances of Clostridium ultunense and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans were associated with bioaugmentation, but no influence on Syntrophaceticus schinkii or the methanogenic population was distinguished. Overloading or accumulation of VFA did not cause notable dynamic effects on the population. Instead, the ammonia concentration had a substantial impact on the abundance level of the microorganisms surveyed. The addition of SAO culture did not affect process performance or stability against ammonia inhibition, and all four reactors deteriorated at high ammonia concentrations. Consequently, these findings further demonstrate the strong influence of ammonia on the methane-producing consortia and on the representative methanization pathway in mesophilic biogas reactors. PMID:22923397

  18. [Bioaugmented treatment of atrazine by genetically engineered microorganism in different bioreactors].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Chun; Guo, Ya-Nan; Yang, Jing-Liang; Li, Liang; Ma, Jun-Ke

    2011-02-01

    Removal of atrazine was investigated when genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) was inoculated into membrane bioreactor (MBR) and hybrid bioreactor for bioaugmentation. The performances of atrazine removal in two bioreactors were explored. The variations of GEM density and atzA gene abundance in two bioreactors were also determined. The results indicated that removal activities of COD and ammonia nitrogen were inhibited a little by atrazine and recovered after bioaugmentation by inoculated GEM. The better removal performance of COD and ammonia nitrogen was obtained in MBR. The biological removal efficiency of atrazine was improved significantly when bioaugmented treatment by GEM was applied. The atrazine removal increased gradually and the average removal rates reached up to 38.94% in MBR and 29.36% in hybrid bioreactor in the later running period. After inoculated, GEM densities in two bioreactors decreased rapidly and then tended to be constant. The stable GEM densities in MBR, suspended sludge and adherent biofilm of hybrid bioreactor were 5 x 10(3) CFU/mL, 1.1 x 10(3) CFU/mL and 0.4 x 10(3) CFU/mL, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect azA gene in two bioreactors and the result indicated that the average relative abundances of atzA gene decreased initially and increased subsequently. The largest average relative abundance of atzA gene was obtained in MBR. The average relative abundance of atzA gene in adherent biofilm is larger than that in suspended sludge in the hybrid bioreactor. The horizontal transfer of atzA gene was the possible important reason responsible for high gene abundance.

  19. Behavioral Reactivity Associated With Electronic Monitoring of Environmental Health Interventions--A Cluster Randomized Trial with Water Filters and Cookstoves.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Evan A; Tellez-Sanchez, Sarita; Wick, Carson; Kirby, Miles; Zambrano, Laura; Abadie Rosa, Ghislaine; Clasen, Thomas F; Nagel, Corey

    2016-04-01

    Subject reactivity--when research participants change their behavior in response to being observed--has been documented showing the effect of human observers. Electronics sensors are increasingly used to monitor environmental health interventions, but the effect of sensors on behavior has not been assessed. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Rwanda among 170 households (70 blinded to the presence of the sensor, 100 open) testing whether awareness of an electronic monitor would result in a difference in weekly use of household water filters and improved cookstoves over a four-week surveillance period. A 63% increase in number of uses of the water filter per week between the groups was observed in week 1, an average of 4.4 times in the open group and 2.83 times in the blind group, declining in week 4 to an insignificant 55% difference of 2.82 uses in the open, and 1.93 in the blind. There were no significant differences in the number of stove uses per week between the two groups. For both filters and stoves, use decreased in both groups over four-week installation periods. This study suggests behavioral monitoring should attempt to account for reactivity to awareness of electronic monitors that persists for weeks or more. PMID:26986617

  20. Impact of Raw and Bioaugmented Olive-Mill Wastewater and Olive-Mill Solid Waste on the Content of Photosynthetic Molecules in Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Parrotta, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Casini, Silvia; Romi, Marco; Cai, Giampiero

    2016-08-01

    Disposal and reuse of olive-mill wastes are both an economic and environmental problem, especially in countries where the cultivation of olive trees is extensive. Microorganism-based bioaugmentation can be used to reduce the pollutant capacity of wastes. In this work, bioaugmentation was used to reduce the polyphenolic content of both liquid and solid wastes. After processing, bioaugmented wastes were tested on the root development of maize seeds and on photosynthesis-related molecules of tobacco plants. In maize, we found that bioaugmentation made olive-mill wastes harmless for seed germination. In tobacco, we analyzed the content of RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and of the photosynthetic pigments lutein, chlorophylls, and β-carotene. Levels of RuBisCO were negatively affected by untreated wastewater but increased if plants were treated with bioaugmented wastewater. On the contrary, levels of RuBisCO increased in the case of plants treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Pigment levels showed dissimilar behavior because their concentration increased if plants were irrigated with raw wastewater or treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Treatment with bioaugmented wastes restored pigment content. Findings show that untreated wastes are potentially toxic at the commencement of treatment, but plants can eventually adapt after an initial stress period. Bioaugmented wastes do not induce immediate damages, and plants rapidly recover optimal levels of photosynthetic molecules.

  1. Impact of Raw and Bioaugmented Olive-Mill Wastewater and Olive-Mill Solid Waste on the Content of Photosynthetic Molecules in Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Parrotta, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Casini, Silvia; Romi, Marco; Cai, Giampiero

    2016-08-01

    Disposal and reuse of olive-mill wastes are both an economic and environmental problem, especially in countries where the cultivation of olive trees is extensive. Microorganism-based bioaugmentation can be used to reduce the pollutant capacity of wastes. In this work, bioaugmentation was used to reduce the polyphenolic content of both liquid and solid wastes. After processing, bioaugmented wastes were tested on the root development of maize seeds and on photosynthesis-related molecules of tobacco plants. In maize, we found that bioaugmentation made olive-mill wastes harmless for seed germination. In tobacco, we analyzed the content of RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and of the photosynthetic pigments lutein, chlorophylls, and β-carotene. Levels of RuBisCO were negatively affected by untreated wastewater but increased if plants were treated with bioaugmented wastewater. On the contrary, levels of RuBisCO increased in the case of plants treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Pigment levels showed dissimilar behavior because their concentration increased if plants were irrigated with raw wastewater or treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Treatment with bioaugmented wastes restored pigment content. Findings show that untreated wastes are potentially toxic at the commencement of treatment, but plants can eventually adapt after an initial stress period. Bioaugmented wastes do not induce immediate damages, and plants rapidly recover optimal levels of photosynthetic molecules. PMID:27399282

  2. Flow cytometry community fingerprinting and amplicon sequencing for the assessment of landfill leachate cellulolytic bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Kinet, R; Dzaomuho, P; Baert, J; Taminiau, B; Daube, G; Nezer, C; Brostaux, Y; Nguyen, F; Dumont, G; Thonart, P; Delvigne, F

    2016-08-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a high throughput single cell technology that is actually becoming widely used for studying phenotypic and genotypic diversity among microbial communities. This technology is considered in this work for the assessment of a bioaugmentation treatment in order to enhance cellulolytic potential of landfill leachate. The experimental results reveal the relevant increase of leachate cellulolytic potential due to bioaugmentation. Cytometric monitoring of microbial dynamics along these assays is then realized. The flow FP package is used to establish microbial samples fingerprint from initial 2D cytometry histograms. This procedure allows highlighting microbial communities' variation along the assays. Cytometric and 16S rRNA gene sequencing fingerprinting methods are then compared. The two approaches give same evidence about microbial dynamics throughout digestion assay. There are however a lack of significant correlation between cytometric and amplicon sequencing fingerprint at genus or species level. Same phenotypical profiles of microbiota during assays matched to several 16S rRNA gene sequencing ones. Flow cytometry fingerprinting can thus be considered as a promising routine on-site method suitable for the detection of stability/variation/disturbance of complex microbial communities involved in bioprocesses. PMID:27160955

  3. Bio-augmentation as a tool for improving the modified sequencing batch biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Ji, Bin; Wang, Hongyu; Zhang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Qian

    2014-06-01

    Biological treatment of domestic sewage was accomplished in a pilot-scale modified sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) bio-augmented with consortium of 5 strains of indigenous bacteria (genus Pseudomonas and Bacillus). The reactor consisted of fibrous filler in the upper and ceramsite filter media in the bottom. It demonstrated to have a short hydraulic residence time (HRT) for 10 h and good quality effluent to cope with low C/N ratio domestic wastewater. The biofilm attached fibrous fillers mainly contributed to contaminants removal. Bio-augmentation dramatically enhanced the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP), and especially total nitrogen (TN), which increased respectively from 80.3%, 58.1% and 41.3% to 83.7%, 67.8% and 58.7%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique indicated the 5 strains' survival in the reactor and that Bacillus cereus strain ZQN2 was the most dominant bacteria.

  4. Insights into the biodegradation of weathered hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by bioaugmentation and nutrient stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Brassington, Kirsty J; Prpich, George; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Pollard, Simon J T; Coulon, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, respectively. This is likely due to the disruption to the indigenous microbial community in the soil caused by grinding. Further, ecotoxicological responses (mustard seed germination and Microtox assays) showed that a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was not directly correlable to reduction in toxicity; thus monitoring TPH alone is not sufficient for assessing the environmental risk of a contaminated site after remediation. PMID:27441989

  5. Enhanced dichloroethene biodegradation in fractured rock under biostimulated and bioaugmented conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Voytek, Mary A.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Tiedeman, Claire J.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Significant microbial reductive dechlorination of [1,2 14C] cis-dichloroethene (DCE) was observed in anoxic microcosms prepared with unamended, fractured rock aquifer materials, which were colonized in situ at multiple depths in two boreholes at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton, New Jersey. The lack of significant reductive dechlorination in corresponding water-only treatments indicated that chlororespiration activity in unamended, fractured rock treatments was primarily associated with colonized core material. In these unamended fractured rock microcosms, activity was highest in the shallow zones and generally decreased with increasing depth. Electron-donor amendment (biostimulation) enhanced chlororespiration in some but not all treatments. In contrast, combining electron-donor amendment with KB1 amendment (bioaugmentation) enhanced chlororespiration in all treatments and substantially reduced the variability in chlororespiration activity both within and between treatments. These results indicate (1) that a potential for chlororespiration-based bioremediation exists at NAWC Trenton but is limited under nonengineered conditions, (2) that the limitation on chlororespiration activity is not entirely due to electron-donor availability, and (3) that a bioaugmentation approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation if the requisite amendments can be adequately distributed throughout the fractured rock matrix.

  6. Efficiency of bioaugmentation in the removal of organic matter in aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R B; Olinda, R A; Souza, B A I; Cyrino, J E P; Dias, C T S; Queiroz, J F; Tavares, L H S

    2011-05-01

    Several techniques are currently used to treat effluents. Bioaugmentation is a new bioremediation strategy and has been employed to improve effluent quality by treating the water during the production process. This technology consists basically of the addition of microorganisms able to degrade or remove polluting compounds, especially organic matter and nutrients. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bioaugmentation on some parameters of organic matter and on the performance of juvenile tilapias in an intensive aquaculture production system. The combination of two bacterial consortiums in a complete randomized design was employed in a factorial analysis with two factors. Statistical differences between treatments were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test at the 5% level. One of the treatments, heterotrophic bacterial supplementation, was able to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by 23%, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 83.7% and phytoplanktonic biomass by 43%. On the other hand, no damage was done to either the physical-chemical indicators of water quality or to the growth performance of juvenile tilapias assessed in this study. PMID:21755158

  7. Bio-augmentation to rapid realize partial nitrification of real sewage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Shujun; Gan, Yiping; Peng, Yongzhen

    2012-08-01

    The feasibility of bio-augmentation processes in promoting start-up of partial nitrification of sewage was investigated in this study. Initially, partial nitrification was well-established in an anoxic/oxic reactor treating high-strength ammonia wastewater. Then the influent was replaced by real sewage instantly or gradually. In both cases, nitrite pathway could be maintained for 5-7d. However, it was eventually destroyed due to the inevitable over-aeration. In another strategy, sewage was treated in the adsorption/biodegradation reactor. The nitrite pathway was obviously promoted by addition of the previous activated sludge from high ammonia wastewater treatment. Nitrite accumulation efficiency of sewage was quickly increased from 26% to 86% and maintained at a high level for 2 months. Moreover, the effluent has a favorable ratio of NH(4)(+)/NO(2)(-) for feeding anammox process. The experimental results indicated that appropriate bio-augmentation strategies could significantly improve the build-up partial nitrification of sewage in the pretreatment of anammox.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of bioaugmentation for aerobic treatment of RDX in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Andaya, Christina; Vainberg, Simon; Michalsen, Mandy M; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Eaton, Hillary; Istok, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    The potential for bioaugmentation with aerobic explosive degrading bacteria to remediate hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated aquifers was demonstrated. Repacked aquifer sediment columns were used to examine the transport and RDX degradation capacity of the known RDX degrading bacterial strains Gordonia sp. KTR9 (modified with a kanamycin resistance gene) Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C, and a kanamycin resistant transconjugate Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 pGKT2:Km+. All three strains were transported through the columns and eluted ahead of the conservative bromide tracer, although the total breakthrough varied by strain. The introduced cells responded to biostimulation with fructose (18 mg L(-1), 0.1 mM) by degrading dissolved RDX (0.5 mg L(-1), 2.3 µM). The strains retained RDX-degrading activity for at least 6 months following periods of starvation when no fructose was supplied to the column. Post-experiment analysis of the soil indicated that the residual cells were distributed along the length of the column. When the strains were grown to densities relevant for field-scale application, the cells remained viable and able to degrade RDX for at least 3 months when stored at 4 °C. These results indicate that bioaugmentation may be a viable option for treating RDX in large dilute aerobic plumes. PMID:25503243

  9. Bioremediation of endosulfan in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Mu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Jingtao; Wang, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Bioremediation is widely used in organic pollutants disposal. However, very little has been known on its application in constructed wetlands contaminated with organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan in particular. To evaluate the effect of bioremediation on endosulfan removal and clarify the fate, bioaugmentation and biostimulation were studied in laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands. After 20 days' experiment, endosulfan isomers removal efficiencies were increased to 89.24-97.62 % through bioremediation. In bacteria bioaugmentation (E-in) and sucrose biostimulation (E-C), peak concentrations of endosulfan in sediment were reduced by 31.02-76.77 %, and plant absorption were 347.45-576.65 μg kg(-1). By contrast, plant absorption in KH2PO4 biostimulation (E-P) was increased to 811.64 and 1,067.68 μg kg(-1). Degradation process was probably promoted in E-in and E-C, while plant absorption was enhanced in E-P. Consequently, E-in and E-C were effective for endosulfan removal in constructed wetlands, while adding KH2PO4 had potential to cause air pollution. Additionally, combined bioremediation was not recommended. PMID:24969425

  10. [Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae) growth in soil with diesel and application of biostimulation and bioaugmentation].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martínez, Maria Esther; Alarcón, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Almaraz-Suarez, Juan José; Garcia-Barradas, Oscar

    2013-09-01

    Phytoremediation is an ecologically sound biotechnology directed to cleaning up contaminated soils. The study of tree species to treat petroleum contaminated soils is scarce; moreover, the combination of phytoremediation with bioaugmentation and biostimulation processes is also limited. Thus, this work evaluated the effects of the inoculation of Glomus intraradices, a bacterial consortium (M2BOS1-R2 and M2BOSI-F4) and Trichoderma viride, on the growth of Casuarina equisetifolia, fertilized with Floranid or Triple 17, when sown in a diesel-contaminated soil (7 500mg/kg). The factorial experiment 2x5x3 included 30 treatments with 10 replicates in a completely randomized design under greenhouse conditions for 120 days. Diesel significantly diminished plant height, total biomass, and plant index quality (PIQ). Glomus or bacterial consortium significantly increased plant height, total biomass and PIQ when compared to the inoculation of the three microorganisms or to the control. Floranid had negative effects on plant growth and PIQ at diesel contamination. Fertilization with Triple 17 combined with the three microorganisms stimulated plant growth in the absence of diesel, whereas in the presence of this contaminant the treatments combining Triple 17 with the bacterial consortium or with Trichoderma had better plant growth and PIQ. Mycorrhizal colonization was inhibited due to diesel contamination, and especially when Floranid was applied. The fertilizer Triple 17 (biostimulation) combined with the beneficial microorganisms (bioaugmentation) improved growth responses of C. equisetifolia in diesel-contaminated soil. PMID:24027906

  11. Removal of triclosan in nitrifying activated sludge: effects of ammonia amendment and bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Gyun; Cho, Kun-Ching; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated two possible strategies, increasing ammonia oxidation activity and bioaugmenting with triclosan-degrader Sphingopyxis strain KCY1, to enhance triclosan removal in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS). Triclosan (2 mg L(-1)) was removed within 96-h in NAS bioreactors amended with 5, 25 and 75 mg L(-1) of ammonium (NH4-N). The fastest triclosan removal was observed in 25 mg NH4-NL(-1) amended-bioreactors where high ammonia oxidation occurred. Inhibition of ammonia oxidation and slower triclosan removal were observed in 75 mg NH4-NL(-1) amended-bioreactors. Triclosan removal was correlated to the molar ratio of the amount of nitrate produced to the amount of ammonium removed. Bioaugmentation with strain KCY1 did not enhance triclosan removal in the bioreactors with active ammonia oxidation. Approximately 36-42% and 59% of triclosan added were removed within 24-h by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and unknown triclosan-degrading heterotrophs, respectively. The results suggested that increasing ammonia oxidation activity can be an effective strategy to enhance triclosan removal in NAS. PMID:25655440

  12. Flow cytometry community fingerprinting and amplicon sequencing for the assessment of landfill leachate cellulolytic bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Kinet, R; Dzaomuho, P; Baert, J; Taminiau, B; Daube, G; Nezer, C; Brostaux, Y; Nguyen, F; Dumont, G; Thonart, P; Delvigne, F

    2016-08-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a high throughput single cell technology that is actually becoming widely used for studying phenotypic and genotypic diversity among microbial communities. This technology is considered in this work for the assessment of a bioaugmentation treatment in order to enhance cellulolytic potential of landfill leachate. The experimental results reveal the relevant increase of leachate cellulolytic potential due to bioaugmentation. Cytometric monitoring of microbial dynamics along these assays is then realized. The flow FP package is used to establish microbial samples fingerprint from initial 2D cytometry histograms. This procedure allows highlighting microbial communities' variation along the assays. Cytometric and 16S rRNA gene sequencing fingerprinting methods are then compared. The two approaches give same evidence about microbial dynamics throughout digestion assay. There are however a lack of significant correlation between cytometric and amplicon sequencing fingerprint at genus or species level. Same phenotypical profiles of microbiota during assays matched to several 16S rRNA gene sequencing ones. Flow cytometry fingerprinting can thus be considered as a promising routine on-site method suitable for the detection of stability/variation/disturbance of complex microbial communities involved in bioprocesses.

  13. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents contaminated clay

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuhui; Wang, James; Ciblak, Ali; Cox, Evan E.; Riis, Charlotte; Terkelsen, Mads; Gent, David B.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2012-01-01

    Successful bioremediation of contaminated soils is controlled by the ability to deliver bioremediation additives, such as bacteria and/or nutrients, to the contaminated zone. Because hydraulic advection is not practical for delivery in clays, electrokinetic (EK) injection is an alternative for efficient and uniform delivery of bioremediation additive into low-permeability soil and heterogeneous deposits. EK–enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of clays contaminated with chlorinated solvents is evaluated. Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacterial strain and lactate ions are uniformly injected in contaminated clay and complete dechlorination of chlorinated ethene is observed in laboratory experiments. The injected bacteria can survive, grow, and promote effective dechlorination under EK conditions and after EK application. The distribution of Dhc within the clay suggests that electrokinetic transport of Dhc is primarily driven by electroosmosis. In addition to biodegradation due to bioaugmentation of Dhc, an EK-driven transport of chlorinated ethenes is observed in the clay, which accelerates cleanup of chlorinated ethenes from the anode side. Compared with conventional advection-based delivery, EK injection is significantly more effective forestablis hingmicrobial reductive dechlorination capacity in low-permeability soils. PMID:22365139

  14. [Decoloration and bioaugmentation on azo dye by immobilized genetically engineered strain].

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruo-Fei; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Wang, Jing; Cao, Tong-Chuan

    2007-11-01

    Decoloration and bioaugmentation on azo dye are investigated by using immobilized genetically engineered strain Escherichia coli JM109 (pGEX-AZR) on marcroporous foam carriers. The kinetics of the acid red GR decolorization by the immobilized E. coli JM109 (pGEX-AZR) accords with Andrews model proved by our experiments, and the kinetic parameters, mu(max,c), K(c) and K(ic), are found to be 49.2 mg x (g x h)(-1), 710.43 mg x L(-1) and 681.62 mg x L(-1) respectively. For continuous operating in the anaerobic SBRs with 10% inoculation of Escherichia coli JM109 (pGEX-AZR) on marcroporous foam carriers for 32 d, both the tolerance to red GR concentration shock and the colorific removal in the bioaugmented anaerobic SBRs are higher than the control system, and the acid red GR decoloration rate reached 90%. Changes in microbial community have been detected by the RISA, in which the introduced immobilized GEM and preponderant mixed culture were subsisted steadily in sludge systems.

  15. Removal of triclosan in nitrifying activated sludge: effects of ammonia amendment and bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Gyun; Cho, Kun-Ching; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated two possible strategies, increasing ammonia oxidation activity and bioaugmenting with triclosan-degrader Sphingopyxis strain KCY1, to enhance triclosan removal in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS). Triclosan (2 mg L(-1)) was removed within 96-h in NAS bioreactors amended with 5, 25 and 75 mg L(-1) of ammonium (NH4-N). The fastest triclosan removal was observed in 25 mg NH4-NL(-1) amended-bioreactors where high ammonia oxidation occurred. Inhibition of ammonia oxidation and slower triclosan removal were observed in 75 mg NH4-NL(-1) amended-bioreactors. Triclosan removal was correlated to the molar ratio of the amount of nitrate produced to the amount of ammonium removed. Bioaugmentation with strain KCY1 did not enhance triclosan removal in the bioreactors with active ammonia oxidation. Approximately 36-42% and 59% of triclosan added were removed within 24-h by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and unknown triclosan-degrading heterotrophs, respectively. The results suggested that increasing ammonia oxidation activity can be an effective strategy to enhance triclosan removal in NAS.

  16. Insights into the biodegradation of weathered hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by bioaugmentation and nutrient stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Brassington, Kirsty J; Prpich, George; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Pollard, Simon J T; Coulon, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, respectively. This is likely due to the disruption to the indigenous microbial community in the soil caused by grinding. Further, ecotoxicological responses (mustard seed germination and Microtox assays) showed that a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was not directly correlable to reduction in toxicity; thus monitoring TPH alone is not sufficient for assessing the environmental risk of a contaminated site after remediation.

  17. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents contaminated clay.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xuhui; Wang, James; Ciblak, Ali; Cox, Evan E; Riis, Charlotte; Terkelsen, Mads; Gent, David B; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2012-04-30

    Successful bioremediation of contaminated soils is controlled by the ability to deliver bioremediation additives, such as bacteria and/or nutrients, to the contaminated zone. Because hydraulic advection is not practical for delivery in clays, electrokinetic (EK) injection is an alternative for efficient and uniform delivery of bioremediation additive into low-permeability soil and heterogeneous deposits. EK-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of clays contaminated with chlorinated solvents is evaluated. Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacterial strain and lactate ions are uniformly injected in contaminated clay and complete dechlorination of chlorinated ethene is observed in laboratory experiments. The injected bacteria can survive, grow, and promote effective dechlorination under EK conditions and after EK application. The distribution of Dhc within the clay suggests that electrokinetic transport of Dhc is primarily driven by electroosmosis. In addition to biodegradation due to bioaugmentation of Dhc, an EK-driven transport of chlorinated ethenes is observed in the clay, which accelerates cleanup of chlorinated ethenes from the anode side. Compared with conventional advection-based delivery, EK injection is significantly more effective for establishing microbial reductive dechlorination capacity in low-permeability soils. PMID:22365139

  18. Bioaugmentation for electricity generation from corn stover biomass using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Yujie; Wang, Heming; Qu, Youpeng; Yu, Yanling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Nan; Wang, Elle; Lee, He; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-08-01

    Corn stover is usually treated by an energy-intensive or expensive process to extract sugars for bioenergy production. However, it is possible to directly generate electricity from corn stover in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) through the addition of microbial consortia specifically acclimated for biomass breakdown. A mixed culture that was developed to have a high saccharification rate with corn stover was added to single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs acclimated for power production using glucose. The MFC produced a maximum power of 331 mW/m2 with the bioaugmented mixed culture and corn stover, compared to 510 mW/m2 using glucose. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed the communities continued to evolve on both the anode and corn stover biomass over 60 days, with several bacteria identified including Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The use of residual solids from the steam exploded corn stover produced 8% more power (406 mW/m2) than the raw corn stover. These results show that it is possible to directly generate electricity from waste corn stover in MFCs through bioaugmentation using naturally occurring bacteria.

  19. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vera P.; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate) instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days) bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:26662024

  20. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vera P; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate) instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days) bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:26662024

  1. Shifts in Nitrification Kinetics and Microbial Community during Bioaugmentation of Activated Sludge with Nitrifiers Enriched on Sludge Reject Water

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lifang; Peng, Dangcong; Pan, Ruiling

    2012-01-01

    This study used two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) to evaluate the shifts in nitrification kinetics and microbial communities of an activated sludge sewage treatment system (main stream) during bioaugmentation with nitrifiers cultivated on real sludge reject water (side stream). Although bioaugmentation exerted a strong influence on the microbial community and the nitrification kinetics in the main stream, there was 58% of maximum ammonia uptake rate (AUR) and 80% of maximum nitrite uptake rate (NUR) loss of the seed source after bioaugmentation. In addition, nitrite accumulation occurred during bioaugmentation due to the unequal and asynchronous increase of the AUR (from 2.88 to 13.36 mg N/L·h) and NUR (from 0.76 to 4.34 mg N/L·h). FISH results showed that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was inclined to be washed out with effluent in contrast to nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and Nitrosococcus mobilis lineage was the dominant AOB, while the dominant NOB in the main stream gradually transferred from Nitrospira to Nitrobacter. Nitrospina and Nitrococcus which existed in the seed source could not be detected in the main stream. It can be inferred that nitrite accumulation occurred due to the mismatch of NOB structure but washed out with effluent. PMID:23091354

  2. Enhanced 1,2-dichloroethane degradation in heavy metal co-contaminated wastewater undergoing biostimulation and bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Arjoon, Ashmita; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2013-11-01

    Biostimulation, bioaugmentation and dual-bioaugmentation strategies were investigated in this study for efficient bioremediation of water co-contaminated with 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) and heavy metals, in a microcosm set-up. 1,2-DCA concentration was periodically measured in the microcosms by gas chromatographic analysis of the headspace samples, while bacterial population and diversity were determined by standard plate count technique and Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, respectively. Dual-bioaugmentation, proved to be most effective exhibiting 22.43%, 26.54%, 19.58% and 30.49% increase in 1,2-DCA degradation in microcosms co-contaminated with As(3+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively, followed by bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Dual-bioaugmented microcosms also exhibited the highest increase in the biodegradation rate constant (k1) resulting in 1.76-, 2-, 1.7- and 2.1-fold increase in As(3+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) co-contaminated microcosms respectively, compared to the untreated microcosms. Dominant bacterial strains obtained from the co-contaminated microcosms were found to belong to the genera Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Bradyrhizobium, previously reported for 1,2-DCA and other chlorinated compounds degradation. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed variation in microbial diversity over time in the different co-contaminated microcosms. Results obtained in this study have significant implications for developing innovative bioremediation strategies for treating water co-contaminated with chlorinated organics and heavy metals.

  3. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

  4. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also briefly…

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF BIODEGRADATION OF DENSE, NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL)THROUGH BIOSTIMULATION AND BIOAUGMENTATION AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biostimulation involves stimulating indigenous microbial cultures by adding nutrients whereas bioaugmentation involves introducing microbial cultures that are particularly adept at degrading these contaminants into the target aquifer. This demonstration involved biostimulation fo...

  6. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Čater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Logar, Romana Marinšek

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques.

  7. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Čater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Logar, Romana Marinšek

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques. PMID:25836034

  8. CYANOBACTERIA PASSAGE THROUGH DRINKING WATER FILTERS DURING PERTURBATION EPISODES AS A FUNCTION OF CELL MORPHOLOGY, COAGULANT AND INITIAL FILTER LOADING RATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight pilot-scale in-line filtration trials were performed to evaluate the passage of cyanobacterial cells through drinking water filters after sudden increases in hydraulic loading rates. Trials were performed at 30 degrees C using two coagulant combinations (aluminum sulfate a...

  9. Laboratory-scale bioaugmentation relieves acetate accumulation and stimulates methane production in stalled anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Town, Jennifer R; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    An imbalance between acidogenic and methanogenic organisms during anaerobic digestion can result in increased accumulation of volatile fatty acids, decreased reactor pH, and inhibition of methane-producing Archaea. Most commonly the result of organic input overload or poor inoculum selection, these microbiological and biochemical changes severely hamper reactor performance, and there are a few tools available to facilitate reactor recovery. A small, stable consortium capable of catabolizing acetate and producing methane was propagated in vitro and evaluated as a potential bioaugmentation tool for stimulating methanogenesis in acidified reactors. Replicate laboratory-scale batch digesters were seeded with a combination of bioethanol stillage waste and a dairy manure inoculum previously observed to result in high volatile fatty acid accumulation and reactor failure. Experimental reactors were then amended with the acetoclastic consortium, and control reactors were amended with sterile culture media. Within 7 days, bioaugmented reactors had significantly reduced acetate accumulation and the proportion of methane in the biogas increased from 0.2 ± 0 to 74.4 ± 9.9 % while control reactors showed no significant reduction in acetate accumulation or increase in methane production. Organisms from the consortium were enumerated using specific quantitative PCR assays to evaluate their growth in the experimental reactors. While the abundance of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms remained stable during the recovery period, an acetoclastic methanogen phylogenetically similar to Methanosarcina sp. increased more than 100-fold and is hypothesized to be the primary contributor to reactor recovery. Genomic sequencing of this organism revealed genes related to the production of methane from acetate, hydrogen, and methanol.

  10. Is Bioaugmentation in Combination with Biostimulation Effective for in Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaPat-Polasko, L.; Conlan, L.; Baffert, S.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the field-scale study was to evaluate the effectiveness of biostimulation and bioaugmentation for in situ biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Elevated levels of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene, were detected in groundwater. The natural attenuation evaluation showed that reductive dechlorination was occurring in several of the on-site monitor wells where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were less than 1 mg/L. However, the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) significantly varied in on-site and off-site wells. The results of bench-scale testing indicated that a variety of carbon substrates were effective at reducing the DO to levels that were favorable for reductive dechlorination. The lactate amended bioaugmented microcosms showed the highest level of reductive dechlorination, followed by EOS® amended. However, the indigenous microbial population was not able to successfully degrade PCE to ethene. When a microbial consortium including Dehalococcoides was added to the microcosms, complete reductive dechlorination was observed. A pair of recirculation wells was installed to inject the carbon source and microbial population into the groundwater. After a push-pull test was performed to evaluate the mobility of the microbial amendment, lactate was injected to promote highly reduced conditions in the groundwater. Once the ORP was less -150 mV, the Dehalococcoides consortium was injected into the groundwater and recirculated using the paired recirculation wells. Within 3 months after carbon substrate injection, more than a 70% reduction in PCE and TCE was observed in the downgradient monitor well. Likewise, there was a significant decrease in ORP in the impacted wells. This presentation will discuss how the amendments impacted the chlorinated solvent concentrations, microbial community and chemistry of the groundwater in the area around the recirculation wells compared to non

  11. Ecotoxicological analysis during the removal of carbofuran in fungal bioaugmented matrices.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Hidalgo, Karla; Masís-Mora, Mario; Barbieri, Edison; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2016-02-01

    Biomixtures are used for the removal of pesticides from agricultural wastewater. As biomixtures employ high content of lignocellulosic substrates, their bioaugmentation with ligninolytic fungi represents a novel approach for their enhancement. Nonetheless, the decrease in the concentration of the pesticide may result in sublethal concentrations that still affect ecosystems. Two matrices, a microcosm of rice husk (lignocellulosic substrate) bioaugmented with the fungus Trametes versicolor and a biomixture that contained fungally colonized rice husk were used in the degradation of the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CFN). Elutriates simulating lixiviates from these matrices were used to assay the ecotoxicological effects at sublethal level over Daphnia magna (Straus) and the fish Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Elutriates obtained after 30 d of treatment in the rice husk microcosms at dilutions over 2.5% increased the offspring of D. magna as a trade-off stress response, and produced mortality of neonates at dilutions over 5%. Elutriates (dilution 1:200) obtained during a 30 d period did not produce alterations on the oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion of O. mykiss, however these physiological parameters were affected in O. aureus at every time point of treatment, irrespective of the decrease in CFN concentration. When the fungally colonized rice husk was used to prepare a biomixture, where more accelerated degradation is expected, similar alterations on the responses by O. aureus were achieved. Results suggest that despite the good removal of the pesticide, it is necessary to optimize biomixtures to minimize their residual toxicity and potential chronic effects on aquatic life.

  12. Laboratory-scale bioaugmentation relieves acetate accumulation and stimulates methane production in stalled anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Town, Jennifer R; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    An imbalance between acidogenic and methanogenic organisms during anaerobic digestion can result in increased accumulation of volatile fatty acids, decreased reactor pH, and inhibition of methane-producing Archaea. Most commonly the result of organic input overload or poor inoculum selection, these microbiological and biochemical changes severely hamper reactor performance, and there are a few tools available to facilitate reactor recovery. A small, stable consortium capable of catabolizing acetate and producing methane was propagated in vitro and evaluated as a potential bioaugmentation tool for stimulating methanogenesis in acidified reactors. Replicate laboratory-scale batch digesters were seeded with a combination of bioethanol stillage waste and a dairy manure inoculum previously observed to result in high volatile fatty acid accumulation and reactor failure. Experimental reactors were then amended with the acetoclastic consortium, and control reactors were amended with sterile culture media. Within 7 days, bioaugmented reactors had significantly reduced acetate accumulation and the proportion of methane in the biogas increased from 0.2 ± 0 to 74.4 ± 9.9 % while control reactors showed no significant reduction in acetate accumulation or increase in methane production. Organisms from the consortium were enumerated using specific quantitative PCR assays to evaluate their growth in the experimental reactors. While the abundance of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms remained stable during the recovery period, an acetoclastic methanogen phylogenetically similar to Methanosarcina sp. increased more than 100-fold and is hypothesized to be the primary contributor to reactor recovery. Genomic sequencing of this organism revealed genes related to the production of methane from acetate, hydrogen, and methanol. PMID:26481626

  13. Ecotoxicological analysis during the removal of carbofuran in fungal bioaugmented matrices.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Hidalgo, Karla; Masís-Mora, Mario; Barbieri, Edison; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2016-02-01

    Biomixtures are used for the removal of pesticides from agricultural wastewater. As biomixtures employ high content of lignocellulosic substrates, their bioaugmentation with ligninolytic fungi represents a novel approach for their enhancement. Nonetheless, the decrease in the concentration of the pesticide may result in sublethal concentrations that still affect ecosystems. Two matrices, a microcosm of rice husk (lignocellulosic substrate) bioaugmented with the fungus Trametes versicolor and a biomixture that contained fungally colonized rice husk were used in the degradation of the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CFN). Elutriates simulating lixiviates from these matrices were used to assay the ecotoxicological effects at sublethal level over Daphnia magna (Straus) and the fish Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Elutriates obtained after 30 d of treatment in the rice husk microcosms at dilutions over 2.5% increased the offspring of D. magna as a trade-off stress response, and produced mortality of neonates at dilutions over 5%. Elutriates (dilution 1:200) obtained during a 30 d period did not produce alterations on the oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion of O. mykiss, however these physiological parameters were affected in O. aureus at every time point of treatment, irrespective of the decrease in CFN concentration. When the fungally colonized rice husk was used to prepare a biomixture, where more accelerated degradation is expected, similar alterations on the responses by O. aureus were achieved. Results suggest that despite the good removal of the pesticide, it is necessary to optimize biomixtures to minimize their residual toxicity and potential chronic effects on aquatic life. PMID:26421626

  14. Comparison of the bacterial removal performance of silver nanoparticles and a polymer based quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane coated point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyin; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka

    2013-09-15

    This study compares the disinfection performance of ceramic water filters impregnated with two antibacterial compounds: silver nanoparticles and a polymer based quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane (poly(trihydroxysilyl) propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (TPA)). This study evaluated these compounds using ceramic disks manufactures with clay obtained from a ceramic filter factory located in San Mateo Ixtatan, Guatemala. Instead of using full size ceramic water filters, manufactured 6.5 cm diameter ceramic water filter disks were used. Results showed that TPA can achieve a log bacterial reduction value of 10 while silver nanoparticles reached up to 2 log reduction using a initial concentration of bacteria of 10(10)-10(11)CFU/ml. Similarly, bacterial transport demonstrated that ceramic filter disks painted with TPA achieved a bacterial log reduction value of 6.24, which is about 2 log higher than the values obtained for disks painted with silver nanoparticles (bacterial log reduction value: 4.42). The release of both disinfectants from the ceramic materials to the treated water was determined measuring the effluent concentrations in each test performed. Regarding TPA, about 3% of the total mass applied to the ceramic disks was released in the effluent over 300 min, which is slightly lower than the release percentage for silver nanoparticles (4%). This study showed that TPA provides a comparable disinfection performance than silver nanoparticles in ceramic water filter. Another advantage of using TPA is the cost as the price of TPA is considerable lower than silver nanoparticles. In spite of the use of TPA in several medical related products, there is only partial information regarding the health risk associated with the ingestion of this compound. Additional long-term toxicological information for TPA should be evaluated before its future application in ceramic water filters. PMID:23770490

  15. Comparison of the bacterial removal performance of silver nanoparticles and a polymer based quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane coated point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyin; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka

    2013-09-15

    This study compares the disinfection performance of ceramic water filters impregnated with two antibacterial compounds: silver nanoparticles and a polymer based quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane (poly(trihydroxysilyl) propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (TPA)). This study evaluated these compounds using ceramic disks manufactures with clay obtained from a ceramic filter factory located in San Mateo Ixtatan, Guatemala. Instead of using full size ceramic water filters, manufactured 6.5 cm diameter ceramic water filter disks were used. Results showed that TPA can achieve a log bacterial reduction value of 10 while silver nanoparticles reached up to 2 log reduction using a initial concentration of bacteria of 10(10)-10(11)CFU/ml. Similarly, bacterial transport demonstrated that ceramic filter disks painted with TPA achieved a bacterial log reduction value of 6.24, which is about 2 log higher than the values obtained for disks painted with silver nanoparticles (bacterial log reduction value: 4.42). The release of both disinfectants from the ceramic materials to the treated water was determined measuring the effluent concentrations in each test performed. Regarding TPA, about 3% of the total mass applied to the ceramic disks was released in the effluent over 300 min, which is slightly lower than the release percentage for silver nanoparticles (4%). This study showed that TPA provides a comparable disinfection performance than silver nanoparticles in ceramic water filter. Another advantage of using TPA is the cost as the price of TPA is considerable lower than silver nanoparticles. In spite of the use of TPA in several medical related products, there is only partial information regarding the health risk associated with the ingestion of this compound. Additional long-term toxicological information for TPA should be evaluated before its future application in ceramic water filters.

  16. Impacts of organic carbon availability and recipient bacteria characteristics on the potential for TOL plasmid genetic bioaugmentation in soil slurries.

    PubMed

    Ikuma, Kaoru; Holzem, Ryan M; Gunsch, Claudia K

    2012-09-01

    The effectiveness of genetic bioaugmentation relies on efficient plasmid transfer between donor and recipient cells as well as the plasmid's phenotype in the recipient cell. In the present study, the effects of varying organic carbon substrates, initial recipient-to-donor cell density ratios, and mixtures of known recipient bacterial strains on the conjugation and function of a TOL plasmid were tested in sterile soil slurry batch reactors. The presence of soil organic carbon was sufficient in ensuring TOL plasmid transconjugant occurrence (up to 2.1±0.5%) for most recipient strains in soil slurry batch mating experiments. The addition of glucose had limited effects on transconjugant occurrence; however, glucose amendment increased the specific toluene degradation rates of some Enterobacteriaceae transconjugants in soil slurry. Initial cell density ratios and mixtures of recipient strains had smaller impacts on plasmid conjugation and resulting phenotype functionality. These observations suggest that genetic bioaugmentation may be improved by minimal altering of environmental conditions.

  17. Local drinking water filters reduce diarrheal disease in Cambodia: a randomized, controlled trial of the ceramic water purifier.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D; Loomis, Dana

    2008-09-01

    A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier (CWP), those receiving a second filter employing an iron-rich ceramic (CWP-Fe), and a control group receiving no intervention. Households were followed for 18 weeks post-baseline with biweekly follow-up. Households using either filter reported significantly less diarrheal disease during the study compared with a control group of households without filters as indicated by longitudinal prevalence ratios CWP: 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.63); CWP-Fe: 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), an effect that was observed in all age groups and both sexes after controlling for clustering within households and within individuals over time. PMID:18784232

  18. A post-implementation evaluation of ceramic water filters distributed to tsunami-affected communities in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Walters, Adam; Naghawatte, Ajith; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-06-01

    Sri Lanka was devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. During recovery, the Red Cross distributed approximately 12,000 free ceramic water filters. This cross-sectional study was an independent post-implementation assessment of 452 households that received filters, to determine the proportion still using filters, household characteristics associated with use, and quality of household drinking water. The proportion of continued users was high (76%). The most common household water sources were taps or shallow wells. The majority (82%) of users used filtered water for drinking only. Mean filter flow rate was 1.12 L/hr (0.80 L/hr for households with taps and 0.71 for those with wells). Water quality varied by source; households using tap water had source water of high microbial quality. Filters improved water quality, reducing Escherichia coli for households (largely well users) with high levels in their source water. Households were satisfied with filters and are potentially long-term users. To promote sustained use, recovery filter distribution efforts should try to identify households at greatest long-term risk, particularly those who have not moved to safer water sources during recovery. They should be joined with long-term commitment to building supply chains and local production capacity to ensure safe water access.

  19. Effects of Narrow-band IR-A and of Water-Filtered Infrared A on Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Knels, Lilla; Valtink, Monika; Piazena, Helmut; de la Vega Marin, Jamlec; Gommel, Kerstin; Lupp, Amelie; Roehlecke, Cora; Mehner, Mirko; Funk, Richard H W

    2016-05-01

    Exposures of the skin with electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths between 670 nm and 1400 nm are often used as a general treatment to improve wound healing and reduce pain, for example, in chronic diabetic skin lesions. We investigated the effects of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) and of narrow-band IR-A provided by a light-emitting diode LED (LED-IR-A) irradiation in vitro on 3T3 fibroblast cultures under defined conditions with and without glyoxal administration. Glyoxal triggers the formation of advanced glycation end products, thereby mimicking a diabetic metabolic state. Cell viability and apoptotic changes were determined by flow cytometry after vital staining with Annexin V, YO-PRO-1 and propidium iodide (PI), and by SubG1 assay. Mitochondrial function and oxidative stress were examined by vital staining for radical production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the ratio of reduced-to-oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG). The metabolic state was monitored by a resazurin conversion assay. The numbers of apoptotic cells were reduced in cultures irradiated with wIRA or LED-IR-A. More mitochondria showed a well-polarized MMP after wIRA irradiation in glyoxal damaged cells. LED-IR-A treatment specifically restored the GSH/GSSG ratio. The immediate positive effects of wIRA and LED-IR-A observed in living cells, particularly on mitochondria, reflect the therapeutic benefits of wIRA and LED-IR-A.

  20. Bioaugmentation with an acetate-oxidising consortium as a tool to tackle ammonia inhibition of anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-10-01

    Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process in biogas plants. In the current study, the bioaugmentation of the ammonia tolerant SAO co-culture (i.e. Clostridium ultunense spp. nov. in association with Methanoculleus spp. strain MAB1) in a mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor subjected to high ammonia loads was tested. The co-cultivation in fed-batch reactors of a fast-growing hydrogenotrophic methanogen (i.e. Methanoculleus bourgensis MS2(T)) with the SAO co-culture was also investigated. Results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of SAO co-culture in a UASB reactor was not possible most likely due to the slow maximum growth rate (μmax=0.007 h(-1)) of the culture caused by the methanogenic partner. The addition of M. bourgensis to SAO led to 42% higher growth rate (μmax=0.01 h(-1)) in fed-batch reactors. This indicates that methanogens were the slowest partners of the SAO co-culture and therefore were the limiting factor during bioaugmentation in the UASB reactor.

  1. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in bioaugmented microcosm by consortium ASP developed from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Janki; Madamwar, Datta

    2013-09-15

    A phenanthrene-degrading bacterial consortium (ASP) was developed using sediment from the Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard at Gujarat, India. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analyses revealed that the bacterial consortium consisted of six bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. ASP1, Pseudomonas sp. ASP2, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain ASP3, Staphylococcus sp. ASP4, Geobacillus sp. ASP5 and Alcaligenes sp. ASP6. The consortium was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene and 1000 ppm of naphthalene within 120 h and 48 h, respectively. Tween 80 showed a positive effect on phenanthrene degradation. The consortium was able to consume maximum phenanthrene at the rate of 46 mg/h/l and degrade phenanthrene in the presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. A microcosm study was conducted to test the consortium's bioremediation potential. Phenanthrene degradation increased from 61% to 94% in sediment bioaugmented with the consortium. Simultaneously, bacterial counts and dehydrogenase activities also increased in the bioaugmented sediment. These results suggest that microbial consortium bioaugmentation may be a promising technology for bioremediation.

  2. Immobilization of cadmium in soils by UV-mutated Bacillus subtilis 38 bioaugmentation and NovoGro amendment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunxiao; Sun, Hongwen; Sun, Tieheng; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2009-08-15

    Immobilization of cadmium (10 mg Cd per kilogram soil) in soil by bioaugmentation of a UV-mutated microorganism, Bacillus subtilis 38 accompanied with amendment of a bio-fertilizer, NovoGro was investigated using extractable cadmium (E-Cd) by DTPA. B. subtilis 38, the mutant with the strongest resistance against Cd, could bioaccumulate Cd four times greater than the original wild type. Single bioaugmentation of B. subtilis 38 (SB treatment) to soil however did not reduce E-Cd significantly, while the amendment of NovoGro (SN treatment) reduced E-Cd remarkably. Simultaneous application of B. subtilis 38 and NovoGro (SNB treatment) exhibited a synergetic effect compared to the single SB and SN treatment. The immobilization effect was significantly affected by temperature, soil moisture, and pH. It seems that the immobilization on Cd reached the maximum when environmental conditions favored the activity of microorganisms. Under the optimum conditions, after 90 days incubation, E-Cd was 3.34, 3.39, 2.25 and 0.87 mg kg(-1) in the control soil, SB, SN and SNB soils, respectively. NovoGro not only showed a great capacity for Cd adsorption, but also promoted the growth of B. subtilis 38. This study provides a potential cost-effective technique for in situ remediation of Cd contaminated soils with bioaugmentation. PMID:19272704

  3. Enhanced phytoextraction of an agricultural Cr- and Pb-contaminated soil by bioaugmentation with siderophore-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Braud, Armelle; Jézéquel, Karine; Bazot, Stéphane; Lebeau, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction may enhance the phytoextraction efficiency thanks to larger metal mobilization by microbial metabolites. Green fluorescent protein-tagged cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens or Ralstonia metallidurans, able to produce siderophores, were inoculated in an agricultural soil containing Cr (488 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (382 mg kg(-1)) and maize was cultivated. Bacteria were inoculated as free or immobilized cells in Ca-alginate beads, with skim milk in the aim at improving both the bacterial survival and the in situ siderophore production. Skim milk addition increased inoculated Pseudomonads concentration in soil. Soil inoculation with free cells of R. metallidurans supplied with skim milk increased Cr accumulation in maize shoots by a factor of 5.2 and inoculation with immobilized P. aeruginosa cells supplied with skim milk increased Cr and Pb uptake by maize shoots by a factor of 5.4 and 3.8, respectively. However total metal taken up by the whole plant decreases almost always with bioaugmentation. Translocation factor also increased with P. aeruginosa or R. metallidurans by a factor of 6 up to 7. Inoculated bacteria concentration in soil was correlated with metals in the exchangeable fraction. Cr and Pb concentrations in the exchangeable fraction were correlated with metal contents in shoots or roots. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction is a relevant method in the aim at increasing the phytoextraction rate which usually limits the use of phytoremediation technologies.

  4. Simazine biodegradation and community structures of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in bioaugmented soil: impact of ammonia and nitrate nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Wan, Rui; Yang, Yuyin; Sun, Weimin; Wang, Zhao; Xie, Shuguang

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of ammonia and nitrate nitrogen sources on simazine biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain SD1 and the community structures of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in non-agricultural soil. Soil microcosms with different treatments were constructed for herbicide biodegradation test. The relative abundance of the strain SD1 and the structures of AOA and AOB communities were assessed using quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), respectively. The co-existence of two inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonia and nitrate) had certain impact on simazine dissipation by the strain SD1. Bioaugmentation could induce a shift in the community structures of both AOA and AOB, but AOA were more responsive. Nitrogen application had significant impacts on AOA and AOB communities in bioaugmented soils. Moreover, in non-bioaugmented soil, the community structure of AOA, instead of AOB, could be quickly recovered after herbicide application. This study could add some new insights towards the impacts of nitrogen sources on s-triazine bioremediation and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil ecosystem.

  5. Enhanced phytoextraction of an agricultural Cr- and Pb-contaminated soil by bioaugmentation with siderophore-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Braud, Armelle; Jézéquel, Karine; Bazot, Stéphane; Lebeau, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction may enhance the phytoextraction efficiency thanks to larger metal mobilization by microbial metabolites. Green fluorescent protein-tagged cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens or Ralstonia metallidurans, able to produce siderophores, were inoculated in an agricultural soil containing Cr (488 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (382 mg kg(-1)) and maize was cultivated. Bacteria were inoculated as free or immobilized cells in Ca-alginate beads, with skim milk in the aim at improving both the bacterial survival and the in situ siderophore production. Skim milk addition increased inoculated Pseudomonads concentration in soil. Soil inoculation with free cells of R. metallidurans supplied with skim milk increased Cr accumulation in maize shoots by a factor of 5.2 and inoculation with immobilized P. aeruginosa cells supplied with skim milk increased Cr and Pb uptake by maize shoots by a factor of 5.4 and 3.8, respectively. However total metal taken up by the whole plant decreases almost always with bioaugmentation. Translocation factor also increased with P. aeruginosa or R. metallidurans by a factor of 6 up to 7. Inoculated bacteria concentration in soil was correlated with metals in the exchangeable fraction. Cr and Pb concentrations in the exchangeable fraction were correlated with metal contents in shoots or roots. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction is a relevant method in the aim at increasing the phytoextraction rate which usually limits the use of phytoremediation technologies. PMID:18945474

  6. Principles and working mechanisms of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in relation to wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    The experience of the pleasant heat of the sun in moderate climatic zones arises from the filtering of the heat radiation of the sun by water vapor in the atmosphere of the earth. The filter effect of water decreases those parts of infrared radiation (most parts of infrared-B and -C and the absorption bands of water within infrared-A), which would cause – by reacting with water molecules in the skin – only an undesired thermal load to the surface of the skin. Technically water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is produced in special radiators, whose full spectrum of radiation of a halogen bulb is passed through a cuvette, containing water, which absorbs or decreases the described undesired wavelengths of the infrared radiation. Within infrared the remaining wIRA (within 780-1400 nm) mainly consists of radiation with good penetration properties into tissue and therefore allows – compared to unfiltered heat radiation – a multiple energy transfer into tissue without irritating the skin, similar to the sun’s heat radiation in moderate climatic zones. Typical wIRA radiators emit no ultraviolet (UV) radiation and nearly no infrared-B and -C radiation and the amount of infrared-A radiation in relation to the amount of visible light (380-780 nm) is emphasized. Water-filtered infrared-A as a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and with a low thermal load to the skin surface acts both by thermal (related to heat energy transfer) and thermic (temperature depending, with a relevant change of temperature) as well as by non-thermal (without a relevant transfer of heat energy) and non-thermic (not depending on temperature, without a relevant change of temperature) effects. wIRA produces a therapeutically usable field of heat in the tissue and increases tissue temperature, tissue oxygen partial pressure, and tissue perfusion. These three factors are vital for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen. As wound healing and infection defense (e

  7. Artificial rearing.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Hector D; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts development, leading to a range of effects referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASDs include physical, central nervous system, and behavioral alterations. Animal model systems are used to study the relationship between alcohol-related central nervous system damage and behavioral alterations, risk factors for FASD, mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage, as well as treatments and interventions. When using a rodent model, it is important to recognize that the timing of brain development relative to birth differs between humans and rodents. Thus, to model alcohol exposure during the third trimester equivalent, rats must be exposed during early postnatal development (postnatal days 4-9). Artificial rearing is one experimental paradigm that is used to expose neonatal rats to alcohol during this period of brain development. Neonatal rat pups are housed in an artificial rearing environment and automatically fed a milk diet substitute via an intragastric cannula to ensure adequate growth during the treatment period. Alcohol is delivered in the milk diet. This chapter provides a description of the methods needed for this administrative technique, including preparation of the artificial rearing environment, gastrostomy surgery, and care of artificially reared rat pups.

  8. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  9. Novel Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Photoinactivation of In Situ Oral Biofilms by Visible Light plus Water-Filtered Infrared A.

    PubMed

    Karygianni, L; Ruf, S; Follo, M; Hellwig, E; Bucher, M; Anderson, A C; Vach, K; Al-Ahmad, A

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has gained increased attention as an alternative treatment approach in various medical fields. However, the effect of APDT using visible light plus water-filtered infrared A (VIS + wIRA) on oral biofilms remains unexplored. For this purpose, initial and mature oral biofilms were obtained in situ; six healthy subjects wore individual upper jaw acrylic devices with bovine enamel slabs attached to their proximal sites for 2 h or 3 days. The biofilms were incubated with 100 μg ml(-1) toluidine blue O (TB) or chlorin e6 (Ce6) and irradiated with VIS + wIRA with an energy density of 200 mW cm(-2) for 5 min. After cultivation, the CFU of half of the treated biofilm samples were quantified, whereas following live/dead staining, the other half of the samples were monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). TB- and Ce6-mediated APDT yielded a significant decrease of up to 3.8 and 5.7 log10 CFU for initial and mature oral biofilms, respectively. Quantification of the stained photoinactivated microorganisms confirmed these results. Overall, CLSM revealed the diffusion of the tested photosensitizers into the deepest biofilm layers after exposure to APDT. In particular, Ce6-aided APDT presented elevated permeability and higher effectiveness in eradicating 89.62% of biofilm bacteria compared to TB-aided APDT (82.25%) after 3 days. In conclusion, antimicrobial photoinactivation using VIS + wIRA proved highly potent in eradicating oral biofilms. Since APDT excludes the development of microbial resistance, it could supplement the pharmaceutical treatment of periodontitis or peri-implantitis.

  10. Novel Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Photoinactivation of In Situ Oral Biofilms by Visible Light plus Water-Filtered Infrared A

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, S.; Follo, M.; Hellwig, E.; Bucher, M.; Anderson, A. C.; Vach, K.; Al-Ahmad, A.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has gained increased attention as an alternative treatment approach in various medical fields. However, the effect of APDT using visible light plus water-filtered infrared A (VIS + wIRA) on oral biofilms remains unexplored. For this purpose, initial and mature oral biofilms were obtained in situ; six healthy subjects wore individual upper jaw acrylic devices with bovine enamel slabs attached to their proximal sites for 2 h or 3 days. The biofilms were incubated with 100 μg ml−1 toluidine blue O (TB) or chlorin e6 (Ce6) and irradiated with VIS + wIRA with an energy density of 200 mW cm−2 for 5 min. After cultivation, the CFU of half of the treated biofilm samples were quantified, whereas following live/dead staining, the other half of the samples were monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). TB- and Ce6-mediated APDT yielded a significant decrease of up to 3.8 and 5.7 log10 CFU for initial and mature oral biofilms, respectively. Quantification of the stained photoinactivated microorganisms confirmed these results. Overall, CLSM revealed the diffusion of the tested photosensitizers into the deepest biofilm layers after exposure to APDT. In particular, Ce6-aided APDT presented elevated permeability and higher effectiveness in eradicating 89.62% of biofilm bacteria compared to TB-aided APDT (82.25%) after 3 days. In conclusion, antimicrobial photoinactivation using VIS + wIRA proved highly potent in eradicating oral biofilms. Since APDT excludes the development of microbial resistance, it could supplement the pharmaceutical treatment of periodontitis or peri-implantitis. PMID:25239897

  11. Bioaugmentation with an anaerobic fungus in a two-stage process for biohydrogen and biogas production using corn silage and cattail.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Gilroyed, Brandon; Yanke, Jay; Gruninger, Robert; Vedres, Darrell; McAllister, Tim; Hao, Xiying

    2015-06-01

    Bioaugmentation with an anaerobic fungus, Piromyces rhizinflata YM600, was evaluated in an anaerobic two-stage system digesting corn silage and cattail. Comparable methane yields of 328.8±16.8mLg(-1)VS and 295.4±14.5mLg(-1)VS and hydrogen yields of 59.4±4.1mLg(-1)VS and 55.6±6.7mLg(-1)VS were obtained for unaugmented and bioaugmented corn silage, respectively. Similar CH4 yields of 101.0±4.8mLg(-1)VS and 104±19.1mLg(-1)VS and a low H2 yield (<1mLg(-1)VS) were obtained for unaugmented and bioaugmented cattail, respectively. However, bioaugmentation resulted in an initial increase in CH4 and H2 production rates and also increased volatile fatty acid degradation rate for both substrates. Our study demonstrates the potential of bioaugmentation with anaerobic fungus for improving the digestibility of lignocellulose substrates for biogas and biohydrogen production.

  12. Heat for wounds – water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) for wound healing – a review

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Gerd; Hartel, Mark; Mercer, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with high tissue penetration and a low thermal load to the skin surface. wIRA corresponds to the major part of the sun’s heat radiation, which reaches the surface of the Earth in moderate climatic zones filtered by water and water vapour of the atmosphere. wIRA promotes healing of acute and chronic wounds both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic cellular effects. Methods: This publication includes a literature review with search in PubMed/Medline for “water-filtered infrared-A” and “wound”/”ulcus” or “wassergefiltertes Infrarot A” and “Wunde”/”Ulkus”, respectively (publications in English and German), and additional analysis of study data. Seven prospective clinical studies (of these six randomized controlled trials (RCT), the largest study with n=400 patients) were identified and included. All randomized controlled clinical trials compare a combination of high standard care plus wIRA treatment vs. high standard care alone. The results below marked with “vs.” present these comparisons. Results: wIRA increases tissue temperature (+2.7°C at a tissue depth of 2 cm), tissue oxygen partial pressure (+32% at a tissue depth of 2 cm) and tissue perfusion (effect sizes within the wIRA group). wIRA promotes normal as well as disturbed wound healing by diminishing inflammation and exudation, by promotion of infection defense and regeneration, and by alleviation of pain (with respect to alleviation of pain, without any exception during 230 irradiations, 13.4 vs. 0.0 on a visual analogue scale (VAS 0–100), median difference between groups 13.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.3/16.7, p<0.000001) with a substantially reduced need for analgesics (52–69% less in the three groups with wIRA compared to the three control groups in visceral surgery, p=0.000020 and 0.00037 and 0.0045, respectively; total of 6 vs. 14.5 analgesic tablets on 6

  13. Water-filtered infrared-A radiation (wIRA) is not implicated in cellular degeneration of human skin

    PubMed Central

    Gebbers, Narcisa; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Scaletta, Corinne; Hoffmann, Gerd; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is involved in the complex biologic process of cutaneous aging. Wavelengths in the ultraviolet-A and -B range (UV-A and UV-B) have been shown to be responsible for the induction of proteases, e. g. the collagenase matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), which are related to cell aging. As devices emitting longer wavelengths are widely used in therapeutic and cosmetic interventions and as the induction of MMP-1 by water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) had been discussed, it was of interest to assess effects of wIRA on the cellular and molecular level known to be possibly involved in cutaneous degeneration. Objectives: Investigation of the biological implications of widely used water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) radiators for clinical use on human skin fibroblasts assessed by MMP-1 gene expression (MMP-1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression). Methods: Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with approximately 88% wIRA (780-1400 nm) and 12% red light (RL, 665-780 nm) with 380 mW/cm² wIRA(+RL) (333 mW/cm² wIRA) on the one hand and for comparison with UV-A (330-400 nm, mainly UV-A1) and a small amount of blue light (BL, 400-450 nm) with 28 mW/cm² UV-A(+BL) on the other hand. Survival curves were established by colony forming ability after single exposures between 15 minutes and 8 hours to wIRA(+RL) (340-10880 J/cm² wIRA(+RL), 300-9600 J/cm² wIRA) or 15-45 minutes to UV-A(+BL) (25-75 J/cm² UV-A(+BL)). Both conventional Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR techniques were used to determine the induction of MMP-1 mRNA at two physiologic temperatures for skin fibroblasts (30°C and 37°C) in single exposure regimens (15-60 minutes wIRA(+RL), 340-1360 J/cm² wIRA(+RL), 300-1200 J/cm² wIRA; 30 minutes UV-A(+BL), 50 J/cm² UV-A(+BL)) and in addition at 30°C in a repeated exposure protocol (up to 10 times 15 minutes wIRA(+RL) with 340 J/cm² wIRA(+RL), 300 J

  14. The impact of bioaugmentation on dechlorination kinetics and on microbial dechlorinating communities in subsurface clay till.

    PubMed

    Bælum, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte; Chambon, Julie C; Jensen, Christine Mosegaard; Brochmann, Rikke P; Dennis, Philip; Laier, Troels; Broholm, Mette M; Bjerg, Poul L; Binning, Philip J; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2014-03-01

    A molecular study on how the abundance of the dechlorinating culture KB-1 affects dechlorination rates in clay till is presented. DNA extracts showed changes in abundance of specific dechlorinators as well as their functional genes. Independently of the KB-1 added, the microbial dechlorinator abundance increased to the same level in all treatments. In the non-bioaugmented microcosms the reductive dehalogenase gene bvcA increased in abundance, but when KB-1 was added the related vcrA gene increased while bvcA genes did not increase. Modeling showed higher vinyl-chloride dechlorination rates and shorter time for complete dechlorination to ethene with higher initial concentration of KB-1 culture, while cis-dichloroethene dechlorination rates were not affected by KB-1 concentrations. This study provides high resolution abundance profiles of Dehalococcoides spp. (DHC) and functional genes, highlights the ecological behavior of KB-1 in clay till, and reinforces the importance of using multiple functional genes as biomarkers for reductive dechlorination.

  15. The impact of bioaugmentation on dechlorination kinetics and on microbial dechlorinating communities in subsurface clay till.

    PubMed

    Bælum, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte; Chambon, Julie C; Jensen, Christine Mosegaard; Brochmann, Rikke P; Dennis, Philip; Laier, Troels; Broholm, Mette M; Bjerg, Poul L; Binning, Philip J; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2014-03-01

    A molecular study on how the abundance of the dechlorinating culture KB-1 affects dechlorination rates in clay till is presented. DNA extracts showed changes in abundance of specific dechlorinators as well as their functional genes. Independently of the KB-1 added, the microbial dechlorinator abundance increased to the same level in all treatments. In the non-bioaugmented microcosms the reductive dehalogenase gene bvcA increased in abundance, but when KB-1 was added the related vcrA gene increased while bvcA genes did not increase. Modeling showed higher vinyl-chloride dechlorination rates and shorter time for complete dechlorination to ethene with higher initial concentration of KB-1 culture, while cis-dichloroethene dechlorination rates were not affected by KB-1 concentrations. This study provides high resolution abundance profiles of Dehalococcoides spp. (DHC) and functional genes, highlights the ecological behavior of KB-1 in clay till, and reinforces the importance of using multiple functional genes as biomarkers for reductive dechlorination. PMID:24374375

  16. Mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from tea field soil using bioaugmentation with a Trichoderma viride biofertilizer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengjun; Fu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Shuanglong; Bai, Zhihui; Xiao, Runlin; Li, Yong; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Land-use conversion from woodlands to tea fields in subtropical areas of central China leads to increased nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, partly due to increased nitrogen fertilizer use. A field investigation of N2O using a static closed chamber-gas chromatography revealed that the average N2O fluxes in tea fields with 225 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) fertilizer application were 9.4 ± 6.2 times higher than those of woodlands. Accordingly, it is urgent to develop practices for mitigating N2O emissions from tea fields. By liquid-state fermentation of sweet potato starch wastewater and solid-state fermentation of paddy straw with application of Trichoderma viride, we provided the tea plantation with biofertilizer containing 2.4 t C ha(-1) and 58.7 kg N ha(-1). Compared to use of synthetic N fertilizer, use of biofertilizer at 225 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) significantly reduced N2O emissions by 33.3%-71.8% and increased the tea yield by 16.2%-62.2%. Therefore, the process of bioconversion/bioaugmentation tested in this study was found to be a cost-effective and feasible approach to reducing N2O emissions and can be considered the best management practice for tea fields. PMID:24955418

  17. Bioaugmented membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a GAC-packed zone for high rate textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hai, Faisal Ibney; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2011-03-01

    The long-term performance of a bioaugmented membrane bioreactor (MBR) containing a GAC-packed anaerobic zone for treatment of textile wastewater containing structurally different azo dyes was observed. A unique feeding strategy, consistent with the mode of evolution of separate waste streams in textile plants, was adopted to make the best use of the GAC-zone for dye removal. Dye was introduced through the GAC-zone while the rest of the colorless media was simultaneously fed through the aerobic zone. Preliminary experiments confirmed the importance of coupling the GAC-amended anaerobic zone to the aerobic MBR and also evidenced the efficacy of the adopted feeding strategy. Following this, the robustness of the process under gradually increasing dye-loading was tested. The respective average dye concentrations (mg/L) in the sample from GAC-zone and the membrane-permeate under dye-loadings of 0.1 and 1 g/L.d were as follows: GAC-zone (3, 105), permeate (0, 5). TOC concentration in membrane-permeate for the aforementioned loadings were 3 and 54 mg/L, respectively. Stable decoloration along with significant TOC removal during a period of over 7 months under extremely high dye-loadings demonstrated the superiority of the proposed hybrid process.

  18. Degradative capacities and bioaugmentation potential of an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium strain DN11

    SciTech Connect

    Yuki Kasai; Yumiko Kodama; Yoh Takahata; Toshihiro Hoaki; Kazuya Watanabe

    2007-09-15

    Azoarcus sp. strain DN11 is a denitrifying bacterium capable of benzene degradation under anaerobic conditions. The present study evaluated strain DN11 for its application to bioaugmentation of benzene-contaminated underground aquifers. Strain DN11 could grow on benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and benzoate as the sole carbon and energy sources under nitrate-reducing conditions, although o- and p-xylenes were transformed in the presence of toluene. Phenol was not utilized under anaerobic conditions. Kinetic analysis of anaerobic benzene degradation estimated its apparent affinity and inhibition constants to be 0.82 and 11 {mu}M, respectively. Benzene-contaminated groundwater taken from a former coal-distillation plant site in Aichi, Japan was anaerobically incubated in laboratory bottles and supplemented with either inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrate) alone, or the nutrients plus strain DN11, showing that benzene was significantly degraded only when DN11 was introduced. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, and quantitative PCR revealed that DN11 decreased after benzene was degraded. Following the decrease in DN11 16S rRNA gene fragments corresponding to bacteria related to Owenweeksia hongkongensis and Pelotomaculum isophthalicum, appeared as strong bands, suggesting possible metabolic interactions in anaerobic benzene degradation. Results suggest that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations. 50 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425

  20. Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge.

  1. Nonylphenol biodegradation, functional gene abundance and bacterial community in bioaugmented sediment: effect of external carbon source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Dai, Yu; Zhao, Qun; Li, Ningning; Zhou, Qiheng; Xie, Shuguang

    2015-08-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) biodegradation in river sediment using Stenotrophomonas strain Y1 and Sphingobium strain Y2 were proved to be an effective strategy to remediate NP pollution in our earlier study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of glucose addition on their ability to degrade NP in both liquid cultures and sediment microcosms. The shift in bacterial community structure and relative abundance of NP degraders in sediment microcosms were characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The proportion of NP-degrading alkB and sMO genes was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The growth of Stenotrophomonas strain Y1 and its NP biodegradation efficiency were inhibited by glucose supplementation, while the relative abundance of alkB gene increased. However, NP degradation, as well as the growth of added degraders and proportion of sMO gene, was enhanced in the glucose-amended sediment microcosms inoculated with Sphingobium strain Y2. Moreover, external glucose addition altered bacterial community structures in bioaugmented sediment microcosms, depending on the level of glucose dosage.

  2. Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Tea Field Soil Using Bioaugmentation with a Trichoderma viride Biofertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengjun; Fu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Shuanglong; Xiao, Runlin; Li, Yong; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Land-use conversion from woodlands to tea fields in subtropical areas of central China leads to increased nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, partly due to increased nitrogen fertilizer use. A field investigation of N2O using a static closed chamber-gas chromatography revealed that the average N2O fluxes in tea fields with 225 kg N ha−1 yr−1 fertilizer application were 9.4 ± 6.2 times higher than those of woodlands. Accordingly, it is urgent to develop practices for mitigating N2O emissions from tea fields. By liquid-state fermentation of sweet potato starch wastewater and solid-state fermentation of paddy straw with application of Trichoderma viride, we provided the tea plantation with biofertilizer containing 2.4 t C ha−1 and 58.7 kg N ha−1. Compared to use of synthetic N fertilizer, use of biofertilizer at 225 kg N ha−1 yr−1 significantly reduced N2O emissions by 33.3%–71.8% and increased the tea yield by 16.2%–62.2%. Therefore, the process of bioconversion/bioaugmentation tested in this study was found to be a cost-effective and feasible approach to reducing N2O emissions and can be considered the best management practice for tea fields. PMID:24955418

  3. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  4. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450

  5. Artificial vision.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  6. Use & Misuse of Water-filtered Tobacco Smoking Pipes in the World. Consequences for Public Health, Research & Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional definition of an “epidemic” has been revisited by antismoking researchers. After 400 years, Doctors would have realized that one aspect of an ancient cultural daily practice of Asian and African societies was in fact a “global “epidemic””. This needed further investigation particularly if one keeps in his mind the health aspects surrounding barbecues. Method: Here, up-to-date biomedical results are dialectically confronted with anthropological findings, hence in real life, in order to highlight the extent of the global confusion: from the new definition of an “epidemic” and “prevalence” to the myth of “nicotine “addiction”” and other themes in relation to water filtered tobacco smoking pipes (WFTSPs). Results: We found that over the last decade, many publications, -particularly reviews, “meta-analyses” and “systematic reviews”- on (WFTSPs), have actually contributed to fuelling the greatest mix-up ever witnessed in biomedical research. One main reason for such a situation has been the absolute lack of critical analysis of the available literature and the uncritical use of citations (one seriously flawed review has been cited up to 200 times). Another main reason has been to take as granted a biased smoking robot designed at the US American of Beirut whose measured yields of toxic chemicals may differ dozens of times from others' based on the same “protocol”. We also found that, for more than one decade, two other main methodological problems are: 1) the long-lived unwillingness to distinguish between use and misuse; 2) the consistent unethical rejection of biomedical negative results which, interestingly, are quantitatively and qualitatively much more instructive than the positive ones. Conclusion: the great majority of WFTSP toxicity studies have actually measured, voluntarily or not, their misuse aspects, not the use in itself. This is in contradiction with both the harm reduction and public

  7. Water-filtered near-infrared influences collagen synthesis of keloid-fibroblasts in contrast to normal foreskin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zöller, Nadja; König, Anke; Butting, Manuel; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August; Valesky, Eva; Kippenberger, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Hypertrophic scar development is associated to impaired wound healing, imbalanced fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. Stigmatization, physical restrictions and high recurrence rates are only some aspects that illustrate the severe influence impaired wound healing can have on patients' life. The treatment of hypertrophic scars especially keloids is still a challenge. In recent years water-filtered near-infrared irradiation (wIRA) composed of near-infrared (NIR) and a thermal component is applied for an increasing penal of clinical purposes. It is described to beneficially influence e.g. wound healing. But discrimination between the thermal and the NIR dependent components of these effects has not been conclusively elucidated. Aim of our study was therefore to investigate the influence of the light fraction on the thermal impact of wIRA irradiation in dermal cells. We concentrated our analysis on morphological properties and collagen synthesis. Foreskin fibroblasts and the keloid fibroblast cell line KF111 were exposed to temperatures between 37°C and 46°C with or without additional irradiation with 360J/cm(2) NIR. Our results show that viability was not influenced by irradiation. Independent of the analysed fibroblast species temperature dependent occurrence of spheric cells could be observed. These morphological changes were clearly counteracted by additional light exposure. Convective heat reduced collagen type I synthesis in both cell species depending on the applied temperature. Co-treatment with NIR significantly reversed this effect in keloid fibroblast cultures treated at 46°C whereas no difference could be observed in the foreskin fibroblasts. The observed influence on collagen type I synthesis was associated to a temperature dependent TGF-β1 secretion reduction. Co-stimulation of keloid cultures with NIR at 46°C completely abolished the temperature dependent TGF-β1 secretion reduction. In foreskin fibroblast cultures co

  8. Water-filtered near-infrared influences collagen synthesis of keloid-fibroblasts in contrast to normal foreskin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zöller, Nadja; König, Anke; Butting, Manuel; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August; Valesky, Eva; Kippenberger, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Hypertrophic scar development is associated to impaired wound healing, imbalanced fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. Stigmatization, physical restrictions and high recurrence rates are only some aspects that illustrate the severe influence impaired wound healing can have on patients' life. The treatment of hypertrophic scars especially keloids is still a challenge. In recent years water-filtered near-infrared irradiation (wIRA) composed of near-infrared (NIR) and a thermal component is applied for an increasing penal of clinical purposes. It is described to beneficially influence e.g. wound healing. But discrimination between the thermal and the NIR dependent components of these effects has not been conclusively elucidated. Aim of our study was therefore to investigate the influence of the light fraction on the thermal impact of wIRA irradiation in dermal cells. We concentrated our analysis on morphological properties and collagen synthesis. Foreskin fibroblasts and the keloid fibroblast cell line KF111 were exposed to temperatures between 37°C and 46°C with or without additional irradiation with 360J/cm(2) NIR. Our results show that viability was not influenced by irradiation. Independent of the analysed fibroblast species temperature dependent occurrence of spheric cells could be observed. These morphological changes were clearly counteracted by additional light exposure. Convective heat reduced collagen type I synthesis in both cell species depending on the applied temperature. Co-treatment with NIR significantly reversed this effect in keloid fibroblast cultures treated at 46°C whereas no difference could be observed in the foreskin fibroblasts. The observed influence on collagen type I synthesis was associated to a temperature dependent TGF-β1 secretion reduction. Co-stimulation of keloid cultures with NIR at 46°C completely abolished the temperature dependent TGF-β1 secretion reduction. In foreskin fibroblast cultures co

  9. Effect of bioaugmentation to enhance phytoremediation for removal of phenanthrene and pyrene from soil with Sorghum and Onobrychis sativa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of plants to remove Poly-aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil (phytoremediation) is emerging as a cost-effective method. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils can be promoted by the use of adding microorganisms with the potential of pollution biodegradation (bioaugmentation). In the present work, the effect of bacterial consortium was studied on the capability of Sorghum and Onobrychis sativa for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with phenanthrene and pyrene. 1.5 kg of the contaminated soil in the ratio of 100 and 300 mg phenanthrene and/or pyrene per kg of dry soil was then transferred into each pot (nine modes). The removal efficiency of natural, phytoremediation and bioaugmentation, separately and combined, were evaluated. The samples were kept under field conditions, and the remaining concentrations of pyrene and phenanthrene were determined after 120 days. The rhizosphere as well as the microbial population of the soil was also determined. Results indicated that both plants were able to significantly remove pyrene and phenanthrene from the contaminated soil samples. Phytoremediation alone had the removal efficiency of about 63% and 74.5% for pyrene and phenanthrene respectively. In the combined mode, the removal efficiency dramatically increased, leading to pyrene and phenanthrene removal efficiencies of 74.1% and 85.02% for Onobrychis sativa and 73.84% and 85.2% for sorghum, respectively. According to the results from the present work, it can be concluded that Onobrychis sativa and sorghum are both efficient in removing pyrene and phenanthrene from contamination and bioaugmentation can significantly enhance the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with pyrene and phenanthrene by 22% and 16% respectively. PMID:24406158

  10. Artificial Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Y.; Tsujii, Jun-ichi

    1985-01-01

    Based on the Japanese 5th Generation Computer Program, this volume provides coverage of the fundamental concepts and various techniques in the different applications of Artificial Intelligence. Also presented are the methods which can be used to put these concepts and techniques into practice. Explanations are presented of all the basic topics in the field, including the representation of problems; searching techniques; the control of problem solving; programming languages for Al, such as LISP, PLANNER, CONNIVER, and PROLOG; the representation and utilization of knowledge; and the approach to human intelligence.

  11. Development, operation, and long-term performance of a full-scale biocurtain utilizing bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Dybas, Michael J; Hyndman, David W; Heine, Robert; Tiedje, James; Linning, Katrina; Wiggert, David; Voice, Thomas; Zhao, Xianda; Dybas, Leslie; Criddle, Craig S

    2002-08-15

    A full-scale field evaluation of bioaugmentation was conducted in a carbon tetrachloride (CT)- and nitrate-impacted aquifer at Schoolcraft, MI. The added organism was Pseudomonas stutzeri KC (strain KC), a denitrifying bacterium that cometabolically degrades CT without producing chloroform (CF). To introduce and maintain strain KC in the aquifer, a row of closely spaced (1-m) injection/extraction wells were installed normal to the direction of groundwater flow near the leading edge of the CT plume. The resulting system of wells was used to establish and maintain a "biocurtain" for CT degradation through the intermittent addition of base to create favorable pH conditions; inoculation; and weekly addition of acetate (electron donor), alkali, and phosphorus. Although half of the test zone was inoculated twice, the long-term performance of both sections was indistinguishable: both had high CT removal efficiencies (median of 98-99.9%) and similar levels of strain KC colonization (>10(5) strain KC/g). Sustained and efficient (98%) removal of CT has now been observed over 4 yr. Transient low levels of CF (<20 ppb) and H2S (<2 ppm) were observed, but both disappeared when the concentration of acetate in the weekly feed was reduced. Nitrate removal efficiencies ranged from 60% at low acetate concentrations to nearly 100% at high acetate concentrations. We conclude that closely spaced wells and intermittent substrate addition are effective means of delivering organisms and substrates to subsurface environments. At the Schoolcraft site, we achieved uniform removal efficiencies over a significant vertical depth (15 m), despite significant variability in hydraulic conductivity. This was accomplished by pumping 65% (v/v) of the natural gradient flow passing through the biocurtain during a given week in a single 6-h pumping event. Approximately 18,600 m3 of contaminated groundwater was treated during the project. PMID:12214659

  12. Bioaugmentation of copper polluted soil microcosms with Amycolatopsis tucumanensis to diminish phytoavailable copper for Zea mays plants.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Amoroso, María Julia; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2010-03-01

    Amycolatopsis tucumanensis DSM 45259, the strain of a recently recognized novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis with remarkable copper resistance, was used to bioaugment soil microcosms experimentally polluted with copper and for studying the ability of this strain to effectively diminish phytoavailable copper from soils. Our results demonstrated that A. tucumanensis was capable of profusely colonizing both, copper polluted and non-polluted soil. Copper bioimmobilization ability of A. tucumanensis on soil was assessed measuring the bioavailable copper in the soil solution extracted from polluted soil by using chemical and physical methods and, in this way, 31% lower amounts of the metal were found in soil solution as compared to non-bioaugmented soil. The results obtained when using Zea mays as bioindicator correlated well with the values obtained by the chemical and physical procedures: 20% and 17% lower tissue contents of copper were measured in roots and leaves, respectively. These data confirmed the efficiency of the bioremediation process using A. tucumanensis and at the same time proved that chemical, physical and biological methods for assessing copper bioavailability in soils were correlated. These results suggest a potential use of this strain at large scale in copper soil bioremediation strategies. To our knowledge, this work is the first to apply and to probe the colonization ability of an Amycolatopsis strain in soil microcosms and constitutes the first application of an Amycolatopsis strain on bioremediation of polluted soils. PMID:20163821

  13. Moving closer towards restoration of contaminated estuaries: Bioaugmentation with autochthonous rhizobacteria improves metal rhizoaccumulation in native Spartina maritima.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Jennifer; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio David; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Piedras, José María Barcia; Caviedes, Miguel Angel; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    Spartina maritima is an ecosystem engineer that has shown to be useful for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment using soil from a metal-contaminated estuary was designed to investigate the effect of a native bacterial consortium, isolated from S. maritima rizhosphere and selected owing to their plant growth promoting properties and multiresistance to heavy metals, on plant growth and metal accumulation. Plants of S. maritima were randomly assigned to three soil bioaugmentation treatments (without inoculation, one inoculation and repeated inoculations) for 30 days. Growth parameters and photosynthetic traits, together with total concentrations of several metals were determined in roots and/or leaves. Bacterial inoculation improved root growth, through a beneficial effect on photosynthetic rate (AN) due to its positive impact on functionality of PSII and chlorophyll concentration. Also, favoured intrinsic water use efficiency of S. maritima, through the increment in AN, stomatal conductance and in root-to-shoot ratio. Moreover, this consortium was able to stimulate plant metal uptake specifically in roots, with increases of up to 19% for As, 65% for Cu, 40% for Pb and 29% for Zn. Thus, bioaugmentation of S. maritima with the selected bacterial consortium can be claimed to enhance plant adaptation and metal rhizoaccumulation during marsh restoration programs. PMID:26188869

  14. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons in copper phytoremediation by a salt marsh plant (Juncus maritimus) and the role of autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, I P F M; Mucha, A P; Reis, I; Rodrigues, P; Almeida, C M R

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed to investigate, under controlled but environmental relevant conditions, the effects of the presence of both inorganic and organic contaminants (copper and petroleum hydrocarbons) on phytoremediation potential of the salt marsh plant Juncus maritimus. Moreover, bioaugmentation, with an autochthonous microbial consortium (AMC) resistant to Cu, was tested, aiming an increase in the remediation potential of this plant in the presence of a co-contamination. Salt marsh plants with sediment attached to their roots were collected, placed in vessels, and kept in greenhouses, under tidal simulation. Sediments were contaminated with Cu and petroleum, and the AMC was added to half of the vessels. After 5 months, plants accumulated significant amounts of Cu but only in belowground structures. The amount of Cu was even higher in the presence of petroleum. AMC addition increased Cu accumulation in belowground tissues, despite decreasing Cu bioavailability, promoting J. maritimus phytostabilization potential. Therefore, J. maritimus has potential to phytoremediate co-contaminated sediments, and autochthonous bioaugmentation can be a valuable strategy for the recovery and management of moderately impacted estuaries. This approach can contribute for a sustainable use of the environmental resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:27381357

  15. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation as strategies for the bioremediation of a burned woodland soil contaminated by toxic hydrocarbons: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    In this work, the natural attenuation strategy (no soil amendments done) was compared with two different bioremediation approaches, namely bioaugmentation through soil inoculation with a suspension of Trichoderma sp. mycelium and biostimulation by soil addition with a microbial growth promoting formulation, in order to verify the effectiveness of these methods in terms of degradation efficiency towards toxic hydrocarbons, with particular attention to the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction, in a forest area impacted by recent wildfire in Northern Italy. The area under investigation, divided into three parcels, was monitored to figure out the dynamics of decay in soil concentration of C₁₂₋₄₀ hydrocarbons (including isoalkanes, cycloalkanes, alkyl-benzenes and alkyl-naphthalenes besides PAHs) and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, following the adoption of the foregoing different remediation strategies. Soil hydrocarbonoclastic potential was even checked by characterizing the autochthonous microbial cenoses. Field experiments proved that the best performance in the abatement of HMW hydrocarbons was reached 60 days after soil treatment through the biostimulation protocol, when about 70% of the initial concentration of HMW hydrocarbons was depleted. Within the same time, about 55% degradation was obtained with the bioaugmentation protocol, whilst natural attenuation allowed only a 45% removal of the starting C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction. Therefore, biostimulation seems to significantly reduce the time required for the remediation, most likely because of the enhancement of microbial degradation through the improvement of nutrient balance in the burned soil.

  16. Moving closer towards restoration of contaminated estuaries: Bioaugmentation with autochthonous rhizobacteria improves metal rhizoaccumulation in native Spartina maritima.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Jennifer; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio David; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Piedras, José María Barcia; Caviedes, Miguel Angel; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    Spartina maritima is an ecosystem engineer that has shown to be useful for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment using soil from a metal-contaminated estuary was designed to investigate the effect of a native bacterial consortium, isolated from S. maritima rizhosphere and selected owing to their plant growth promoting properties and multiresistance to heavy metals, on plant growth and metal accumulation. Plants of S. maritima were randomly assigned to three soil bioaugmentation treatments (without inoculation, one inoculation and repeated inoculations) for 30 days. Growth parameters and photosynthetic traits, together with total concentrations of several metals were determined in roots and/or leaves. Bacterial inoculation improved root growth, through a beneficial effect on photosynthetic rate (AN) due to its positive impact on functionality of PSII and chlorophyll concentration. Also, favoured intrinsic water use efficiency of S. maritima, through the increment in AN, stomatal conductance and in root-to-shoot ratio. Moreover, this consortium was able to stimulate plant metal uptake specifically in roots, with increases of up to 19% for As, 65% for Cu, 40% for Pb and 29% for Zn. Thus, bioaugmentation of S. maritima with the selected bacterial consortium can be claimed to enhance plant adaptation and metal rhizoaccumulation during marsh restoration programs.

  17. Continuous-flow column study of reductive dehalogenation of PCE upon bioaugmentation with the Evanite enrichment culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Mohammad F.; Behrens, Sebastian; Sabalowsky, Andrew; Dolan, Mark E.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Semprini, Lewis

    2008-08-01

    A continuous-flow anaerobic column experiment was conducted to evaluate the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE) in Hanford aquifer material after bioaugmentation with the Evanite (EV) culture. An influent PCE concentration of 0.09 mM was transformed to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene (ETH) within a hydraulic residence time of 1.3 days. The experimental breakthrough curves were described by the one-dimensional two-site-nonequilibrium transport model. PCE dechlorination was observed after bioaugmentation and after the lactate concentration was increased from 0.35 to 0.67 mM. At the onset of reductive dehalogenation, cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) concentrations in the column effluent exceeded the influent PCE concentration indicating enhanced PCE desorption and transformation. When the lactate concentration was increased to 1.34 mM, c-DCE reduction to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene (ETH) occurred. Spatial rates of PCE and VC transformation were determined in batch-incubated microcosms constructed with aquifer samples obtained from the column. PCE transformation rates were highest in the first 5 cm from the column inlet and decreased towards the column effluent. Dehalococcoides cell numbers dropped from ˜ 73.5% of the total Bacterial population in the original inocula, to about 0.5% to 4% throughout the column. The results were consistent with estimates of electron donor utilization, with 4% going towards dehalogenation reactions.

  18. Metagenomic insight of nitrogen metabolism in a tannery wastewater treatment plant bioaugmented with the microbial consortium BM-S-1.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo-Jun; Kim, In-Soo; Ekpeghere, Kalu I; Song, Bongkeun; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Hong-Gi; Kim, Jong-Tae; Koh, Sung-Cheol

    2016-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) removal in a tannery wastewater treatment plant was significantly enhanced by the bioaugmentation of the novel consortium BM-S-1. In order to identify dominant taxa responsible for N metabolisms in the different stages of the treatment process, Illumina MiSeq Sequencer was used to conduct metagenome sequencing of the microbial communities in the different stages of treatment system, including influent (I), buffering (B), primary aeration (PA), secondary aeration (SA) and sludge digestion (SD). Based on MG-RAST analysis, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in B, PA, SA and SD, whereas Firmicutes was the most dominant in I before augmentation. The augmentation increased the abundance of the denitrification genes found in the genera such as Ralstonia (nirS, norB and nosZ), Pseudomonas (narG, nirS and norB) and Escherichia (narG) in B and PA. In addition, Bacteroides, Geobacter, Porphyromonasand Wolinella carrying nrfA gene encoding dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium were abundantly present in B and PA. This was corroborated with the higher total N removal in these two stages. Thus, metagenomic analysis was able to identify the dominant taxa responsible for dissimilatory N metabolisms in the tannery wastewater treatment system undergoing bioaugmentation. This metagenomic insight into the nitrogen metabolism will contribute to a successful monitoring and operation of the eco-friendly tannery wastewater treatment system. PMID:27471001

  19. Evaluation of bioaugmentation and biostimulation effects on the treatment of refinery oily sludge using 2(n) full factorial design.

    PubMed

    Jasmine, Jublee; Mukherji, Suparna

    2014-08-01

    Bioremediation approaches for the treatment of oily sludge from a refinery were evaluated using a 2(3) factorial design. The three strategies tested were bioaugmentation with indigenous microbial consortia (MO) isolated from oily sludge, biostimulation with nutrients (NP) and biostimulation with the surfactant Triton X-100 (TX). Eight experimental runs were conducted in triplicate with factor settings ± (high/low) as per the 2(3) design. The main effects and the effects of various interactions of the factors on oil degradation and microbial growth in suspension were evaluated during a 30 day study. Multifactor ANOVA could reveal the significant effects while the normal order score approach failed in this scenario. The main effect of biostimulation with nutrients in the form of nitrate and phosphate, as well as biostimulation with Triton X-100, was positive and significant when both oil degradation and microbial growth in suspension were chosen as the response variables. However, the main effect of bioaugmentation was only significant for oil degradation but was insignificant for microbial growth at a 90% confidence level. The MO-NP binary interaction and the MO-NP-TX ternary interactions were positive and significant, indicating the synergistic effect of these strategies on oil degradation and microbial growth. All other binary interactions were found to be insignificant.

  20. Bioaugmentation for treatment of full-scale diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE) wastewater by Serratia sp. BDG-2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maoxia; Fan, Rong; Zou, Wenhui; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang; Li, Xudong

    2016-05-15

    A novel bacterial strain BDG-2 was isolated and used to augment the treatment of silicon plate manufacturing wastewater that primarily contains diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE). BDG-2 was identified as a Serratia sp. Under the optimal conditions of 30 °C, pH 9 and DGBE concentration of 2000 mg L(-1), the bioaugmented system achieved 96.92% COD removal after 39.9h. Laboratory-scale technological matching results indicated that, in a biofilm process with the addition of 100 mg L(-1) ammonia and 5 mg L(-1) total phosphorus (TP), 70.61% COD removal efficiency could be obtained in 46 h. Addition of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) to the reactors during the suspension process enhanced the settleability of the BDG-2 culture. Subsequently, successful start-up and stable operation of a full-scale bioaugmented treatment facilities were accomplished, and the volumetric organic load in the plug-flow aeration tank was 2.17 ± 0.81 kg m(-3) d(-1). The effluent COD of the facilities was stable and always below 100 mg L(-1). PMID:26874308

  1. Metagenomic insight of nitrogen metabolism in a tannery wastewater treatment plant bioaugmented with the microbial consortium BM-S-1.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo-Jun; Kim, In-Soo; Ekpeghere, Kalu I; Song, Bongkeun; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Hong-Gi; Kim, Jong-Tae; Koh, Sung-Cheol

    2016-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) removal in a tannery wastewater treatment plant was significantly enhanced by the bioaugmentation of the novel consortium BM-S-1. In order to identify dominant taxa responsible for N metabolisms in the different stages of the treatment process, Illumina MiSeq Sequencer was used to conduct metagenome sequencing of the microbial communities in the different stages of treatment system, including influent (I), buffering (B), primary aeration (PA), secondary aeration (SA) and sludge digestion (SD). Based on MG-RAST analysis, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in B, PA, SA and SD, whereas Firmicutes was the most dominant in I before augmentation. The augmentation increased the abundance of the denitrification genes found in the genera such as Ralstonia (nirS, norB and nosZ), Pseudomonas (narG, nirS and norB) and Escherichia (narG) in B and PA. In addition, Bacteroides, Geobacter, Porphyromonasand Wolinella carrying nrfA gene encoding dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium were abundantly present in B and PA. This was corroborated with the higher total N removal in these two stages. Thus, metagenomic analysis was able to identify the dominant taxa responsible for dissimilatory N metabolisms in the tannery wastewater treatment system undergoing bioaugmentation. This metagenomic insight into the nitrogen metabolism will contribute to a successful monitoring and operation of the eco-friendly tannery wastewater treatment system.

  2. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons in copper phytoremediation by a salt marsh plant (Juncus maritimus) and the role of autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, I P F M; Mucha, A P; Reis, I; Rodrigues, P; Almeida, C M R

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed to investigate, under controlled but environmental relevant conditions, the effects of the presence of both inorganic and organic contaminants (copper and petroleum hydrocarbons) on phytoremediation potential of the salt marsh plant Juncus maritimus. Moreover, bioaugmentation, with an autochthonous microbial consortium (AMC) resistant to Cu, was tested, aiming an increase in the remediation potential of this plant in the presence of a co-contamination. Salt marsh plants with sediment attached to their roots were collected, placed in vessels, and kept in greenhouses, under tidal simulation. Sediments were contaminated with Cu and petroleum, and the AMC was added to half of the vessels. After 5 months, plants accumulated significant amounts of Cu but only in belowground structures. The amount of Cu was even higher in the presence of petroleum. AMC addition increased Cu accumulation in belowground tissues, despite decreasing Cu bioavailability, promoting J. maritimus phytostabilization potential. Therefore, J. maritimus has potential to phytoremediate co-contaminated sediments, and autochthonous bioaugmentation can be a valuable strategy for the recovery and management of moderately impacted estuaries. This approach can contribute for a sustainable use of the environmental resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  3. Bioaugmentation of soil contaminated with high-level crude oil through inoculation with mixed cultures including Acremonium sp.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Ding, Ning; Peterson, Eric Charles

    2015-06-01

    Heavy contamination of soil with crude oil has caused significant negative environmental impacts and presents substantial hazards to human health. To explore a highly efficient bioaugmentation strategy for these contaminations, experiments were conducted over 180 days in soil heavily contaminated with crude oil (50,000 mg kg(-1)), with four treatments comprised of Bacillus subtilis inoculation with no further inoculation (I), or reinoculation after 100 days with either B. subtilis (II), Acremonium sp.(III), or a mixture of both organisms (IV). The removal values of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 60.1 ± 2.0, 60.05 ± 3.0, 71.3 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 2.7 % for treatment (I-IV), respectively. Treatments (III-IV) significantly enhanced the soil bioremediation compared with treatments (I-II) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, significantly (p < 0.05) greater rates of degradation for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions were observed in treatments (III-IV) compared to treatments (I-II), and this was especially the case with the degradative rates for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil heavy fractions. Dehydrogenase activity in treatment (III-IV) containing Acremonium sp. showed a constant increase until the end of experiments. Therefore reinoculation with pure fungus or fungal-bacterial consortium should be considered as an effective strategy in bioaugmentation for soil heavily contaminated with crude oil.

  4. Bioaugmentation with GFP-Tagged Pseudomonas migulae AN-1 in Aniline-Contaminated Aquifer Microcosms: Cellular Responses, Survival and Effect on Indigenous Bacterial Community.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongsheng; Qu, Dan; Zhou, Rui; Ma, Yunge; Wang, Hao; Ren, Hejun

    2016-05-28

    The recently isolated aniline-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas migulae AN-1 was tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to investigate its bioaugmentation potential against anilinecontaminated groundwater through microcosm experiments. The survival and cellular response of GFP-tagged AN-1 introduced in a lab-scale aquifer corresponded directly with aniline consumption. During the process, the GFP-tagged AN-1 biomass increased from 7.52 × 10⁵ cells/ml to 128 × 10⁵ cells/ml and the degradation rate of aniline was 6.04 mg/l/h. GFP-tagged AN-1 was moderately hydrophobic (41.74%-47.69%) when treated with 20- 100 mg/l aniline and exhibited relatively strong hydrophobicity (55.25%-65.78%) when the concentration of aniline was ≥100 mg/l. The membrane permeability of AN-1 increased followed by a rise in aniline below 100 mg/l and was invariable with aniline above 100 mg/l. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (accounted for 99.22% in the non-bioaugmentation samples) changed to 89.23% after bioaugmentation with GFP-tagged AN-1. Actinobacteria increased from 0.29% to 2.01%, whereas the abundance of Firmicutes barely changed. These combined findings demonstrate the feasibility of removing aniline in aquifers by introducing the strain AN-1 and provide valuable information on the changes in the diversity of dominant populations during bioaugmentation.

  5. [Enhancing resistance of a conventional activated sludge system against shock loading of 2,4-DCP through bioaugmentation with special culture].

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiang-chun; Shi, Han-chang; Lü, Ping-ping; Wang, Jian-long; Qian, Yi

    2004-07-01

    In this study, conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems, which were generally used to treat municipal wastewater, were modeled to receive intermittent 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) shock loadings. The response and stability of the CAS system augmented with special culture and the non-bioaugmented control CAS system under shock loading conditions were compared. The capability of the bioaugmented CAS systems to degrade 2,4-DCP under long-term continuous operation was investigated. Results showed that for the CAS systems with 5% and 15% special culture addition, their degradation of the target pollutants and resistance against shock loadings was enhanced significantly. When 2,4-DCP shock loading occurred within the first 30 days after single inoculation, the bioaugmented CAS systems maintained high degradation ability to the target pollutants. After 70 days continuous operation without 2,4-DCP in feed, when the CAS systems challenged 2,4-DCP again, the effect of bioaugmentation was greatly reduced and the CAS system failed to remove the pollutants and maintain the system stability effectively. Therefore, re-supplementation was needed for further treatment of 2,4-DCP.

  6. Artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Scott, William B

    2005-04-25

    NASA's Artificial Gravity program consists of a team of researchers from Wyle Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). The short-radius centrifuge (SRC), built by Wyle Laboratories, will be integrated with UTMB's conducted bedrest studies, which mimic the detrimental effects of weightlessness (or microgravity). Bedrest subjects will be spun on the SRC at various accelerations and for various time periods, while being monitored medically. Parameters such as bone loss, muscle atrophy, balance control, and oxygen consumption will then be compared in order to research ways of mitigating the impact on astronauts' physiology. Other potential benefits from these studies extend to population groups on Earth, such as bedridden patients. PMID:15852559

  7. Artificial rheotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anaïs; Barral, Jérémie; Hanson, Kasey; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Pine, David J.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Motility is a basic feature of living microorganisms, and how it works is often determined by environmental cues. Recent efforts have focused on developing artificial systems that can mimic microorganisms, in particular their self-propulsion. We report on the design and characterization of synthetic self-propelled particles that migrate upstream, known as positive rheotaxis. This phenomenon results from a purely physical mechanism involving the interplay between the polarity of the particles and their alignment by a viscous torque. We show quantitative agreement between experimental data and a simple model of an overdamped Brownian pendulum. The model notably predicts the existence of a stagnation point in a diverging flow. We take advantage of this property to demonstrate that our active particles can sense and predictably organize in an imposed flow. Our colloidal system represents an important step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes. PMID:26601175

  8. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation.

  9. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation. PMID:27301804

  10. Heat for wounds - water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) for wound healing - a review.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Gerd; Hartel, Mark; Mercer, James B

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Wassergefiltertes Infrarot A (wIRA) ist eine spezielle Form der Wärmestrahlung mit hohem Eindringvermögen in das Gewebe und geringer thermischer Belastung der Hautoberfläche. wIRA entspricht dem Großteil der die Erdoberfläche in gemäßigten Klimazonen durch Wasser und Wasserdampf der Atmosphäre gefiltert erreichenden Sonnenwärmestrahlung. wIRA fördert die Heilung akuter und chronischer Wunden sowohl über thermische und temperaturabhängige als auch über nicht-thermische und temperaturunabhängige zelluläre Effekte.Methoden: Diese Publikation schließt eine Literaturübersicht mit Suche in PubMed/Medline nach “water-filtered infrared-A” und “wound”/”ulcus” oder “wassergefiltertes Infrarot A” und “Wunde”/”Ulkus” (Publikationen in Englisch und Deutsch) und zusätzliche Analysen von Studiendaten ein. 7 prospektive klinische Studien (davon 6 randomisierte kontrollierte Studien (RCT), die größte Studie mit n=400 Patienten) wurden gefunden und eingeschlossen. Alle randomisierten kontrollierten klinischen Studien vergleichen eine Kombination aus Therapie auf hohem Niveau plus wIRA-Therapie vs. Therapie auf hohem Niveau allein. Die mit „vs.“ gekennzeichneten Ergebnisse unten zeigen diese Vergleiche. Ergebnisse: wIRA steigert die Temperatur (+2,7°C in 2 cm Gewebetiefe) und den Sauerstoffpartialdruck im Gewebe (+32% in 2 cm Gewebetiefe) und die Gewebedurchblutung (Größe der Effekte innerhalb der wIRA-Gruppe). wIRA fördert sowohl die normale als auch die gestörte Wundheilung, indem es Entzündung und Sekretion mindert, Infektionsabwehr und Regeneration fördert und Schmerzen lindert (bezüglich Schmerzlinderung ausnahmslos während 230 Bestrahlungen, 13.4 vs. 0,0 auf einer visuellen Analogskala (VAS 0–100), mediane Differenz zwischen den Gruppen 13.8, 95%-Konfidenzinterval (KI) 12.3/16.7, p<0,000001) mit relevant weniger Analgetikabedarf (52–69% weniger in den drei Gruppen mit wIRA verglichen mit den drei

  11. Bacterial community dynamics during biostimulation and bioaugmentation experiments aiming at chlorobenzene degradation in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Wenderoth, D F; Rosenbrock, P; Abraham, W R; Pieper, D H; Höfle, M G

    2003-08-01

    A set of microcosm experiments was performed to assess different bioremediation strategies, i.e., biostimulation and bioaugmentation, for groundwater contaminated with chlorobenzenes. The biodegradative potential was stimulated either by the supply of electron acceptors (air, (NO3-), to increase the activity of the indigenous bacterial community, or by the addition of aerobic chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria (Pseudomonas putida GJ31, Pseudomonas aeruginosa RHO1, Pseudomonas putida F1deltaCC). Experiments were performed with natural groundwater of the aquifer of Bitterfeld, which had been contaminated with 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB), and chlorobenzene (CB). The microcosms consisted of airtight glass bottles with 800 mL of natural groundwater and were incubated under in situ temperature (13 degrees C). Behavior of the introduced strains within the indigenous bacterial community was monitored by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with species-specific oligonucleotides. Dynamics of the indigenous community and the introduced strains within the microcosms were followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons obtained from total DNA of the microbial community. An indigenous biodegradation potential under aerobic as well as anaerobic denitrifying conditions was observed accompanied by fast and specific changes in the natural bacterial community composition. Augmentation with P. aeruginosa RHO1 did not enhance bio-degradation. In contrast, both P. putida GJ31 as well as P. putida F1deltaCC were capable of growing in groundwater, even in the presence of the natural microbial community, and thereby stimulating chlorobenzene depletion. P. putida GJ31 disappeared when the xenobiotics were depleted and P. putida F1deltaCC persisted even in the absence of CB. Detailed statistical analyses revealed that community dynamics of the groundwater microbiota were highly reproducible but specific to the

  12. Bioaugmentation of a historically contaminated soil by polychlorinated biphenyls with Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several species belonging to the ecological group of white-rot basidiomycetes are able to bring about the remediation of matrices contaminated by a large variety of anthropic organic pollutants. Among them, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are characterized by a high recalcitrance due to both their low bioavailability and the inability of natural microbial communities to degrade them at significant rates and extents. Objective of this study was to assess the impact of a maize stalk-immobilized Lentinus tigrinus CBS 577.79 inoculant combined with soybean oil (SO), as a possible PCB-mobilizing agent, on the bioremediation and resident microbiota of an actual Aroclor 1260 historically contaminated soil under unsaturated solid-phase conditions. Results Best overall PCB depletions (33.6 ± 0.3%) and dechlorination (23.2 ± 1.3%) were found after 60 d incubation in the absence of SO where, however, the fungus appeared to exert adverse effects on both the growth of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria and the abundance of genes coding for both biphenyl dioxygenase (bph) and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. A significant (P < 0.001) linear inverse relationship between depletion yields and degree of chlorination was observed in both augmented and control microcosms in the absence of SO; conversely, this negative correlation was not evident in SO-amended microcosms where the additive inhibited the biodegradation of low chlorinated congeners. The presence of SO, in fact, resulted in lower abundances of both biphenyl-degrading bacteria and bph. Conclusions The PCB depletion extents obtained in the presence of L. tigrinus are by far higher than those reported in other remediation studies conducted under unsaturated solid phase conditions on actual site soils historically contaminated by Aroclor 1260. These results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy with the maize stalk-immobilized mycelium of this species might be promising in the reclamation of PCB

  13. Bioaugmentation of biological contact oxidation reactor (BCOR) with phenol-degrading bacteria for coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treatment.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Han, Hongjun; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Chunyan; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the biological contact oxidation reactor (BCOR) treating coal gasification wastewater (CGW) after augmented with phenol degrading bacteria (PDB). The PDB were isolated with phenol, 4-methyl phenol, 3,5-dimethyl phenol and resorcinol as carbon resources. Much of the refractory phenolic compounds were converted into easily-biodegradable compounds in spite of low TOC removal. The bioaugmentation with PDB significantly enhanced the removal of COD, total phenols (TP) and NH3-N, with efficiencies from 58% to 78%, 66% to 80%, and 5% to 25%, respectively. In addition, the augmented BCOR exhibited strong recovery capability in TP and COD removal while recovery of NH3-N removal needed longer time. Microbial community analysis revealed that the PDB presented as dominant populations in the bacteria consortia, which in turn determined the overall performance of the system.

  14. Evaluating a bioremediation tool for atrazine contaminated soils in open soil microcosms: the effectiveness of bioaugmentation and biostimulation approaches.

    PubMed

    Lima, D; Viana, P; André, S; Chelinho, S; Costa, C; Ribeiro, R; Sousa, J P; Fialho, A M; Viegas, C A

    2009-01-01

    A previously developed potential cleanup tool for atrazine contaminated soils was evaluated in larger open soil microcosms for optimization under more realistic conditions, using a natural crop soil spiked with an atrazine commercial formulation (Atrazerba FL). The doses used were 20x or 200x higher than the recommended dose (RD) for an agricultural application, mimicking over-use or spill situations. Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP was used for bioaugmentation (around 10(7) or 10(8) viable cells g(-1) of soil) and citrate for biostimulation (up to 4.8 mg g(-1) of soil). Bioremediation treatments providing fastest and higher atrazine biodegradation proved to differ according to the initial level of soil contamination. For 20x RD of Atrazerba FL, a unique inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. ADP (9 +/- 1 x 10(7) CFU g(-1)) resulted in rapid atrazine removal (99% of the initial 7.2 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1) after 8d), independent of citrate. For 200x RD, an inoculation with the atrazine-degrading bacteria (8.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1)) supplemented with citrate amendment (2.4 mg g(-1)) resulted in improved biodegradation (87%) compared with bioaugmentation alone (79%), even though 7.8 +/- 2.1 microg of atrazine g(-1) still remained in the soil after 1 wk. However, the same amount of inoculum, distributed over three successive inoculations and combined with citrate, increased Pseudomonas sp. ADP survival and atrazine biodegradation (to 98%, in 1 wk). We suggest that this bioremediation tool may be valuable for efficient removal of atrazine from contaminated field soils thus minimizing atrazine and its chlorinated derivatives from reaching water compartments.

  15. Degradation of trace concentrations of the persistent groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in bioaugmented rapid sand filters.

    PubMed

    Albers, Christian Nyrop; Feld, Louise; Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens

    2015-10-15

    Groundwater is an important drinking water resource. Yet, this resource is threatened by pollution from chemicals, such as pesticides and their degradation products. To investigate the potential for remediation of groundwater polluted by trace concentrations of the pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM), we established a pilot waterworks including two sand filters. The waterworks treated groundwater polluted with 0.2 μg/L BAM at flow conditions typical for rapid sand filters. Bioaugmentation of the sand filter with a specific BAM-degrading bacterium (Aminobacter sp. MSH1) resulted in significant BAM degradation to concentrations below the legal threshold level (0.1 μg/L), and this without adverse effects on other sand filter processes such as ammonium and iron oxidation. However, efficient degradation for more than 2-3 weeks was difficult to maintain due to loss of MSH1-bacteria, especially during backwashing. By limiting backwash procedures, the period of degradation was prolonged, but bacteria (and hence degradation activity) were still lost with time. Protozoa were observed to grow in the filters to a density that contributed significantly to the general loss of bacteria from the filters. Additionally, the concentration of easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in the remediated water may have been too low to sustain a sufficient population of degrader bacteria in the filter. This study shows that scaling up is not trivial and shortcomings in transferring degradation rates obtained in batch experiments to a rapid sand filter system are discussed. Further optimization is necessary to obtain and control more temporally stable systems for water purification. However, for the first time outside the laboratory and at realistic conditions a potential for the biodegradation of recalcitrant micropollutants in bioaugmented rapid sand filters is shown.

  16. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used option to manage waste activated sludge (WAS), there are some drawbacks related to its slow reaction rate and low energy productivity. This study examined an anaerobic WAS digester, augmented with an iron-reducing microbial consortium, relative to changes in microbial community structure and process performance at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 to 10 days. The enhanced methanation performance (approximately 40 % increase in methane yield) by the bioaugmentation was sustained until the HRT was decreased to 12.5 days, under Fe(3+)-rich conditions (ferric oxyhydroxide, 20 mM Fe). Enhanced iron-reducing activity was evidenced by the increased Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio maintained above 50 % during the stable operational phases. A further decrease in HRT to 10 days resulted in a significant performance deterioration, along with a drop in the Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio to <35 %, after four turnovers of operation. Prevailing existence of putative iron-reducing bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to decrease in HRT were observed. Lowering HRT led to evident shifts in bacterial community structure likely associated with washout of IRBs, leading to decreases in iron respiration activity and AD performance at a lower HRT. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically over phases, and the community transitions correlated well with the changes in process performance. Overall, the combined biostimulation and bioaugmentation investigated in this study proved effective for enhanced methane recovery from anaerobic WAS digestion, which suggests an interesting potential for high-rate AD.

  17. Degradation of trace concentrations of the persistent groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in bioaugmented rapid sand filters.

    PubMed

    Albers, Christian Nyrop; Feld, Louise; Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens

    2015-10-15

    Groundwater is an important drinking water resource. Yet, this resource is threatened by pollution from chemicals, such as pesticides and their degradation products. To investigate the potential for remediation of groundwater polluted by trace concentrations of the pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM), we established a pilot waterworks including two sand filters. The waterworks treated groundwater polluted with 0.2 μg/L BAM at flow conditions typical for rapid sand filters. Bioaugmentation of the sand filter with a specific BAM-degrading bacterium (Aminobacter sp. MSH1) resulted in significant BAM degradation to concentrations below the legal threshold level (0.1 μg/L), and this without adverse effects on other sand filter processes such as ammonium and iron oxidation. However, efficient degradation for more than 2-3 weeks was difficult to maintain due to loss of MSH1-bacteria, especially during backwashing. By limiting backwash procedures, the period of degradation was prolonged, but bacteria (and hence degradation activity) were still lost with time. Protozoa were observed to grow in the filters to a density that contributed significantly to the general loss of bacteria from the filters. Additionally, the concentration of easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in the remediated water may have been too low to sustain a sufficient population of degrader bacteria in the filter. This study shows that scaling up is not trivial and shortcomings in transferring degradation rates obtained in batch experiments to a rapid sand filter system are discussed. Further optimization is necessary to obtain and control more temporally stable systems for water purification. However, for the first time outside the laboratory and at realistic conditions a potential for the biodegradation of recalcitrant micropollutants in bioaugmented rapid sand filters is shown. PMID:26125500

  18. Bioenhanced DNAPL Dissolution: Understanding how Microbial Competition, Biostimulation, and Bioaugmentation Affect Source Zone Longevity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. G.; Seagren, E. A.

    2006-12-01

    simulates a contaminant-source zone consisting of DNAPL ganglia trapped in a subsurface porous medium that slowly releases organic pollutants into the groundwater flowing past it. The model used in the simulations was based on a biokinetic model recently developed by Becker [Environ. Sci. Technol. 40(14):4473-4480] to describe competition among PCE-respiring populations in a homogenous continuously-stirred tank reactor. Becker's model was expanded by adding terms for chlorinated ethene partitioning between the DNAPL and aqueous phases, as well as advection and dispersion of aqueous chlorinated ethenes. The results of these preliminary simulations demonstrate that the outcome of competition between populations for growth substrates can have a significant impact on bioenhancement and, thus, on DNAPL source zone longevity. Although these proof-of- concept simulations do not incorporate all of the complexity of actual field systems, the modeling results are useful for identifying which parameters are important in determining the outcome of competition in the different scenarios and its impact on DNAPL dissolution. This information is needed to understand how biostimulation and bioaugmentation affect bioenhancement by stimulating different populations and develop bioremediation strategies that incorporate these treatment technologies while balancing the twin clean-up goals of reduced source longevity and complete detoxification.

  19. Kinetics modeling predicts bioaugmentation with Sphingomonad cultures as a viable technology for enhanced pharmaceutical and personal care products removal during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nicolette A; Lutovsky, April C; Andaker, Greta L; Ferguson, John F; Gough, Heidi L

    2014-08-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) discharged with wastewater treatment effluents are a surface water quality concern. PPCPs are partially removed during wastewater treatment and biological transformation is an important removal mechanism. To investigate the potential for enhanced PPCP removal using bioaugmentation, bacteria were previously isolated from activated sludge capable of degrading PPCPs to ng/L concentrations. This study examined the degradation kinetics of triclosan and bisphenol A by five of these bacteria, both in pure culture and when augmented to activated sludge. Sorption coefficients were determined to account for the influence of partitioning during bioremoval. When the bacteria were added to activated sludge, degradation increased. Experimentally determined kinetic parameters were used to model a full-scale continuous treatment process, showing that low biomass could achieve reduced effluent PPCP concentrations. These results demonstrated that bioaugmentation may improve PPCP removal using established wastewater infrastructure under conditions of high solids partitioning.

  20. Effects of bioaugmentation in para-nitrophenol-contaminated soil on the abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiang-Qun; Liu, Kun; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2015-07-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 mineralizes the priority pollutant para-nitrophenol (PNP) and releases nitrite (NO2 (-)), which is probably involved in the nitrification. In this study, the rate of PNP removal in soil bioaugmented with strain WBC-3 was more accelerated with more NO2 (-) accumulation than in uninoculated soils. Strain WBC-3 survived well and remained stable throughout the entire period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) indicated a higher abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) than ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), suggesting that AOB played a greater role in nitrification in the original sampled soil. Real-time PCR and multivariate analysis based on the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that PNP contamination did not significantly alter the abundance and community structure of ammonia oxidizers except for inhibiting the AOB abundance. Bioaugmentation of PNP-contaminated soil showed a significant effect on AOB populations and community structure as well as AOA populations. In addition, ammonium (NH4 (+)) variation was found to be the primary factor affecting the AOB community structure, as determined by the correlation between the community structures of ammonia oxidizers and environmental factors. It is here proposed that the balance between archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidation could be influenced significantly by the variation in NH4 (+) levels as caused by bioaugmentation of contaminated soil by a pollutant containing nitrogen.

  1. Allochthonous bioaugmentation in ex situ treatment of crude oil-polluted sediments in the presence of an effective degrading indigenous microbiome.

    PubMed

    Fodelianakis, S; Antoniou, E; Mapelli, F; Magagnini, M; Nikolopoulou, M; Marasco, R; Barbato, M; Tsiola, A; Tsikopoulou, I; Giaccaglia, L; Mahjoubi, M; Jaouani, A; Amer, R; Hussein, E; Al-Horani, F A; Benzha, F; Blaghen, M; Malkawi, H I; Abdel-Fattah, Y; Cherif, A; Daffonchio, D; Kalogerakis, N

    2015-04-28

    Oil-polluted sediment bioremediation depends on both physicochemical and biological parameters, but the effect of the latter cannot be evaluated without the optimization of the former. We aimed in optimizing the physicochemical parameters related to biodegradation by applying an ex-situ landfarming set-up combined with biostimulation to oil-polluted sediment, in order to determine the added effect of bioaugmentation by four allochthonous oil-degrading bacterial consortia in relation to the degradation efficiency of the indigenous community. We monitored hydrocarbon degradation, sediment ecotoxicity and hydrolytic activity, bacterial population sizes and bacterial community dynamics, characterizing the dominant taxa through time and at each treatment. We observed no significant differences in total degradation, but increased ecotoxicity between the different treatments receiving both biostimulation and bioaugmentation and the biostimulated-only control. Moreover, the added allochthonous bacteria quickly perished and were rarely detected, their addition inducing minimal shifts in community structure although it altered the distribution of the residual hydrocarbons in two treatments. Therefore, we concluded that biodegradation was mostly performed by the autochthonous populations while bioaugmentation, in contrast to biostimulation, did not enhance the remediation process. Our results indicate that when environmental conditions are optimized, the indigenous microbiome at a polluted site will likely outperform any allochthonous consortium.

  2. Bioaugmentation of nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation by heterotrophic denitrifying sludge addition: A promising way for promotion of chemoautotrophic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, He-Ping; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Xin; Li, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation (NAFO) is a new and valuable bio-process for the treatment of wastewaters with low C/N ratio, and the NAFO process is in state of the art. The heterotrophic denitrifying sludge (HDS), possessing NAFO activity, was used as bioaugmentation to enhance NAFO efficiency. At a dosage of 6% (V/V), the removal of nitrate and ferrous was 2.4 times and 2.3 times of as primary, and the volumetric removal rate (VRR) of nitrate and ferrous was 2.4 times and 2.2 times of as primary. Tracing experiments of HDS indicated that the bioaugmentation on NAFO reactor was resulted from the NAFO activity by HDS itself. The predominant bacteria in HDS were identified as Thauera (52.5%) and Hyphomicrobium (20.0%) which were typical denitrifying bacteria and had potential ability to oxidize ferrous. In conclusion, HDS could serve as bioaugmentation or a new seeding sludge for operating high-efficiency NAFO reactors. PMID:26348287

  3. Isolation of a naphthalene-degrading strain from activated sludge and bioaugmentation with it in a MBR treating coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin

    2015-03-01

    A highly effective naphthalene-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from acclimated activated sludge from a coal gasification wastewater plant, and identified as a Streptomyces sp., designated as strain QWE-35. The optimal pH and temperature for naphthalene degradation were 7.0 and 35°C. The presence of additional glucose and methanol significantly increased the degradation efficiency of naphthalene. The strain showed tolerance to the toxicity of naphthalene at a concentration as great as 200 mg/L. The Andrews mode could be fitted to the degradation kinetics data well over a wide range of initial naphthalene concentrations (10-200 mg/L), with kinetic values q max = 0.84 h(-1), K s = 40.39 mg/L, and K i = 193.76 mg/L. Metabolic intermediates were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, allowing a new degradation pathway for naphthalene to be proposed for the first time. Strain QWE-35 was added into a membrane bioreactor (MBR) to enhance the treatment of real coal gasification wastewater. The results showed that the removal of chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen were similar between bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented MBRs, however, significant removal of naphthalene was obtained in the bioaugmented reactor. The findings suggest a potential bioremediation role of Streptomyces sp. QWE-35 in the removal of naphthalene from wastewaters.

  4. Pilot scale ex-situ bioremediation of heavily PAHs-contaminated soil by indigenous microorganisms and bioaugmentation by a PAHs-degrading and bioemulsifier-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guang-Dong; Xu, Yang; Jin, Jing-Hua; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Luo, Mu; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-09-30

    This study aims at the remediation of heavily PAH-contaminated soil containing 375 mg of total PAHs per kilogram dry soil. Pilot scale bioremediation experiments were carried out by three approaches with contaminated soil from abandoned sites of Beijing Coking Plant using outdoor pot trials. The first approach was bioaugmentation with a bacterial strain which degrades PAH and produces bioemulsifier, the second approach comprised of biostimulation of indigenous microorganisms with supplementing nutrients and the last approach involved the combination of both biostimulation and bioaugmentation. An on-site land farming group was set as a control in which the total PAHs and 4-6 ring-PAHs were reduced by 23.4% and 10.1%, respectively after 175 days. Meanwhile, in the first approach group, the total PAHs and 4-6 ring-PAHs were reduced by 26.82% and 35.36%, respectively; in the second approach group both percentages were 33.9% and 11.0%, respectively; while in the third approach group, these pollutants were reduced by 43.9% and 55.0%, respectively. The results obtained suggested that biostimulation and bioaugmentation combined could significantly enhance the removal of PAHs in the contaminated soil.

  5. Bioaugmentation of half-matured granular sludge with special microbial culture promoted establishment of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degrading aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiangchun; Ma, Jingyun; Xiong, Weicong; Wang, Xinrui

    2015-06-01

    Aerobic granular sludge degrading recalcitrant compounds are generally hard to be cultivated. This study investigated the feasibility of cultivating 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrading aerobic granules using half-matured sludge granules pre-grown on glucose as the seeds and bioaugmentation with a 2,4-D degrading strain Achromobacter sp. QXH. Results showed that bioaugmentation promoted the steady transformation of glucose-grown granules to 2,4-D degrading sludge granules and fast establishment of 2,4-D degradation ability. The 2,4-D degradation rate of the bioaugmented granules was enhanced by 36-62 % compared to the control at 2,4-D concentrations of 144-565 mg/L on Day 18. The inoculated strain was incorporated into the half-matured granules successfully and survived till the end of operation (220 days). Sludge granules at a mean size of 420 µm and capable of utilizing 500 mg/L 2,4-D as the sole carbon source were finally obtained. Sludge microbial community shifted slightly during the whole operation and the dominant bacteria species belonged to Proteobacteria.

  6. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  7. Artificial life and Piaget.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Water Filters and Improved Cook Stoves on Drinking Water Quality and Household Air Pollution: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Barstow, Christina; Johnson, Michael; Kirby, Miles; Ngabo, Fidele; Thomas, Evan; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001) and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search PMID:24614750

  9. An experimental setup for the measurement of nonthermal effects during water-filtered infrared A-irradiation of mammalian cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tobias; Höhn, Annika; Lau, Anne-Marie; Piazena, Helmut; Grune, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    In many recent publications, supposed athermal effects of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation are discussed. Those effects are mainly attributed to wavelengths in the range from 780 to 1440 nm, and should not result from warming of cellular water or any aqueous medium surrounding the irradiated sample caused by wIRA absorption. Athermal effects are considered to be induced directly by absorption of different wavelengths of the wIRA spectrum by cellular molecules or structures except water. To distinguish between thermal and athermal effects, irradiated samples have to be subjected to a very effective and precise temperature homeostasis. Any experimental effects can only be attributed to pure athermal effects, if the temperature of the irradiated samples is verifiably constant and does not result in hyperthermia. Here, data of temperature distribution in Petri dishes of different types filled with aqueous medium are presented which were estimated by model calculation for different setups of cooling. Additionally, the real temperature development was directly measured. Such a cooling unit enables long-term application of high wIRA irradiances and large doses without any detectable warming of the irradiated samples, in single cell layers. Using such a setup, thermal and athermal effects can be compared and in addition to that quantified. PMID:22211706

  10. Effects of water-filtered infrared-A and of heat on cell death, inflammation, antioxidative potential and of free radical formation in viable skin--first results.

    PubMed

    Piazena, Helmut; Pittermann, Wolfgang; Müller, Werner; Jung, Katinka; Kelleher, Debra K; Herrling, Thomas; Meffert, Peter; Uebelhack, Ralf; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2014-09-01

    The effects of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) and of convective heat on viability, inflammation, inducible free radicals and antioxidative power were investigated in natural and viable skin using the ex vivo Bovine Udder System (BUS) model. Therefore, skin samples from differently treated parts of the udder of a healthy cow were analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) measurement and by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Neither cell viability, the inflammation status, the radical status or the antioxidative defence systems of the skin were significantly affected by wIRA applied within 30 min by using an irradiance of 1900 W m(-2) which is of relevance for clinical use, but which exceeded the maximum solar IR-A irradiance at the Earth's surface more than 5 times and which resulted in a skin surface temperature of about 45 °C without cooling and of about 37 °C with convective cooling by air ventilation. No significant effects on viability and on inflammation were detected when convective heat was applied alone under equivalent conditions in terms of the resulting skin surface temperatures and exposure time. As compared with untreated skin, free radical formation was almost doubled, whereas the antioxidative power was reduced to about 50% after convective heating to about 45 °C. PMID:25038541

  11. The acceptability and effectiveness of a polyester drinking-water filter in a dracunculiasis-endemic village in northern region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Olsen, A; Magnussen, P; Anemana, S

    1997-01-01

    In the global effort to eradicate dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) one of the main tools is the use of filters for filtering unsafe drinking-water. The expensive and high-quality monofilament nylon filters, which for many years were donated to all dracunculiasis-endemic countries, are now mainly reserved for highly endemic countries. Polyester cloth is less expensive, and we investigated the user acceptability and effectiveness of this material as a drinking-water filter in a dracunculiasis-endemic village in Northern Region, Ghana, over a 3-month period. The polyester cloth completely retained the stages of copepods that are responsible for transmitting dracunculiasis. Over the 3-month study period a majority of respondents found that the new cloth was superior to the nylon filter with regard to strength (83%), filtering time (80%), and the ease with which the filter could be cleaned (87%). Inspection revealed that the filters were used intensively and that the new cloth was damaged after 2-3 months of use, which is also the case for the monofilament nylon filters.

  12. Effects of water-filtered infrared-A and of heat on cell death, inflammation, antioxidative potential and of free radical formation in viable skin--first results.

    PubMed

    Piazena, Helmut; Pittermann, Wolfgang; Müller, Werner; Jung, Katinka; Kelleher, Debra K; Herrling, Thomas; Meffert, Peter; Uebelhack, Ralf; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2014-09-01

    The effects of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) and of convective heat on viability, inflammation, inducible free radicals and antioxidative power were investigated in natural and viable skin using the ex vivo Bovine Udder System (BUS) model. Therefore, skin samples from differently treated parts of the udder of a healthy cow were analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) measurement and by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Neither cell viability, the inflammation status, the radical status or the antioxidative defence systems of the skin were significantly affected by wIRA applied within 30 min by using an irradiance of 1900 W m(-2) which is of relevance for clinical use, but which exceeded the maximum solar IR-A irradiance at the Earth's surface more than 5 times and which resulted in a skin surface temperature of about 45 °C without cooling and of about 37 °C with convective cooling by air ventilation. No significant effects on viability and on inflammation were detected when convective heat was applied alone under equivalent conditions in terms of the resulting skin surface temperatures and exposure time. As compared with untreated skin, free radical formation was almost doubled, whereas the antioxidative power was reduced to about 50% after convective heating to about 45 °C.

  13. An experimental setup for the measurement of nonthermal effects during water-filtered infrared A-irradiation of mammalian cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tobias; Höhn, Annika; Lau, Anne-Marie; Piazena, Helmut; Grune, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    In many recent publications, supposed athermal effects of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation are discussed. Those effects are mainly attributed to wavelengths in the range from 780 to 1440 nm, and should not result from warming of cellular water or any aqueous medium surrounding the irradiated sample caused by wIRA absorption. Athermal effects are considered to be induced directly by absorption of different wavelengths of the wIRA spectrum by cellular molecules or structures except water. To distinguish between thermal and athermal effects, irradiated samples have to be subjected to a very effective and precise temperature homeostasis. Any experimental effects can only be attributed to pure athermal effects, if the temperature of the irradiated samples is verifiably constant and does not result in hyperthermia. Here, data of temperature distribution in Petri dishes of different types filled with aqueous medium are presented which were estimated by model calculation for different setups of cooling. Additionally, the real temperature development was directly measured. Such a cooling unit enables long-term application of high wIRA irradiances and large doses without any detectable warming of the irradiated samples, in single cell layers. Using such a setup, thermal and athermal effects can be compared and in addition to that quantified.

  14. Water Filter Provision and Home-Based Filter Reinforcement Reduce Diarrhea in Kenyan HIV-Infected Adults and Their Household Members

    PubMed Central

    Pavlinac, Patricia B.; Naulikha, Jaqueline M.; Chaba, Linda; Kimani, Naomi; Sangaré, Laura R.; Yuhas, Krista; Singa, Benson O.; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L.

    2014-01-01

    Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected adults and children in Africa, diarrheal disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the effectiveness of provision and home-based reinforcement of a point-of-use water filtration device to reduce diarrhea among 361 HIV-infected adults in western Kenya by comparing prevalence of self-reported diarrhea before and after these interventions. After provision of the filter, 8.7% of participants reported diarrhea compared with 17.2% in the 3 months before filter provision (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.23–0.66, P < 0.001). The association was similar among 231 participants who were already taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before being given a filter (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.25–0.88, P = 0.019). Educational reinforcement was also associated with a modest reduction in self-reported diarrhea (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.20–0.99, P = 0.047). Provision and reinforcement of water filters may confer significant benefit in reducing diarrhea among HIV-infected persons, even when cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is already being used. PMID:24842881

  15. Monitoring the impact of bioaugmentation with a PAH-degrading strain on different soil microbiomes using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Festa, Sabrina; Macchi, Marianela; Cortés, Federico; Morelli, Irma S; Coppotelli, Bibiana M

    2016-08-01

    The effect of bioaugmentation with Sphingobium sp. AM strain on different soils microbiomes, pristine soil (PS), chronically contaminated soil (IPK) and recently contaminated soil (Phe) and their implications in bioremediation efficiency was studied by focusing on the ecology that drives bacterial communities in response to inoculation. AM strain draft genome codifies genes for metabolism of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. In Phe, the inoculation improved the elimination of phenanthrene during the whole treatment, whereas in IPK no improvement of degradation of any PAH was observed. Through the pyrosequencing analysis, we observed that inoculation managed to increase the richness and diversity in both contaminated microbiomes, therefore, independently of PAH degradation improvement, we observed clues of inoculant establishment, suggesting it may use other resources to survive. On the other hand, the inoculation did not influence the bacterial community of PS. On both contaminated microbiomes, incubation conditions produced a sharp increase on Actinomycetales and Sphingomonadales orders, while inoculation caused a relative decline of Actinomycetales. Inoculation of most diverse microbiomes, PS and Phe, produced a coupled increase of Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales and Rhizobiales orders, although it may exist a synergy between those genera; our results suggest that this would not be directly related to PAH degradation. PMID:27279417

  16. Enhanced biohydrogen production from beverage industrial wastewater using external nitrogen sources and bioaugmentation with facultative anaerobic strains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Bakonyi, Péter; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-08-01

    In this work biohydrogen generation and its improvement possibilities from beverage industrial wastewater were sought. Firstly, mesophilic hydrogen fermentations were conducted in batch vials by applying heat-treated (80°C, 30 min) sludge and liquid (LB-grown) cultures of Escherichia coli XL1-Blue/Enterobacter cloacae DSM 16657 strains for bioaugmentation purposes. The results showed that there was a remarkable increase in hydrogen production capacities when facultative anaerobes were added in the form of inoculum. Furthermore, experiments were carried out in order to reveal whether the increment occurred either due to the efficient contribution of the facultative anaerobic microorganisms or the culture ingredients (in particular yeast extract and tryptone) supplied when the bacterial suspensions (LB media-based inocula) were mixed with the sludge. The outcome of these tests was that both the applied nitrogen sources and the bacteria (E. coli) could individually enhance hydrogen formation. Nevertheless, the highest increase took place when they were used together. Finally, the optimal initial wastewater concentration was determined as 5 g/L. PMID:25661265

  17. Bioaugmented composting of Jatropha de-oiled cake and vegetable waste under aerobic and partial anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Shivani; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Balraj; Nain, Lata; Joshi, Monica; Satya, Santosh

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of microbial inoculation in Jatropha cake composting with different vegetable waste. The microbial inoculums composed of fungal strains (Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and bacterial inoculums (Pseudomonas striata as phosphorus solublizer and Azotobacter chroococcum as nitrogen fixer) were added to the compost mixture after the thermophilic phase was over for bioaugmenting of Jatropha cake under aerobic and partial anaerobic conditions. Addition of both fungal and bacterial inoculum with mixed substrate (Jatropha cake + vegetable waste) during composting (aerobic and partial anaerobic) showed, better results as compared to compost with only fungal inoculants. Increased enzymatic activity initially, during composting (like dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase activity and FDA) proved role of inoculated microbes in rapid decomposition. Analysis of compost (with both bacterial and fungal inoculum) showed presence of high humus (12.7%), humic acid (0.5%), fulvic acid (5.68%), soluble protein content and low C/N ratio. Decreased in concentration of extractable metals (Cu, Fe and Mn) were recorded at maturity in all the substrate composts. The C/N ratio was significantly correlated to parameters like humic acid, humus, fulvic acid, protein and also microbial activity parameters. We conclude that the composting of de-oiled Jatropha cake with different vegetables waste could be feasible and sustainable approach in recycling of agricultural and industrial residues in huge quantities.

  18. Bioaugmentation of sewage sludge with Trametes versicolor in solid-phase biopiles produces degradation of pharmaceuticals and affects microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Jelić, Aleksandra; Pereira, M Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z; Petrović, Mira; Alves, M Madalena; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2012-11-01

    The use of sludge (biosolids) in land application may contribute to the spread of organic micropollutants as wastewater treatments do not completely remove these compounds. Therefore, the development of alternative strategies for sludge treatment is a matter of recent concern. The elimination of pharmaceuticals at pre-existent concentrations from sewage sludge was assessed, for the first time, in nonsterile biopiles by means of fungal bioaugmentation with Trametes versicolor (BTV-systems) and compared with the effect of autochthonous microbiota (NB-systems). The competition between the autochthonous fungal/bacterial communities and T. versicolor was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the cloning/sequencing approach. An inhibitory effect exerted by T. versicolor over bacterial populations was suggested. However, after 21 days, T. versicolor was no longer the main taxon in the fungal communities. The elimination profiles revealed an enhanced removal of atorvastatin-diclofenac-hydrochlorothiazide (during the whole treatment) and ranitidine-fenofibrate (at short periods) in the BTV biopiles in respect to NB biopiles, coincident with the presence of the fungus. For ibuprofen-clarithromycin-furosemide, the elimination profiles were similar irrespective of the system, and with carbamazepine no significant degradation was obtained. The results suggest that a fungal treatment with T. versicolor could be a promising process for the remediation of some pharmaceuticals in complex matrices such as biosolids. PMID:23030544

  19. Transport and activity of Desulfitobacterium dichloroeliminans strain DCA1 during bioaugmentation of 1,2-DCA-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Maes, Ann; Van Raemdonck, Hilde; Smith, Katherine; Ossieur, Wendy; Lebbe, Luc; Verstraete, Willy

    2006-09-01

    The transport and activity of Desulfitobacterium dichloroeliminans strain DCA1 in 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA)-contaminated groundwater have been evaluated through an in situ bioaugmentation test at an industrial site (Belgium). The migration of strain DCA1 was monitored from an injection well toward a monitoring well, and the effect of the imposed groundwater flow on its distribution was assessed by means of transport model MOCDENS3D. The results of the real-time PCR (16S rRNA gene) quantification downstream from the injection point were used to evaluate the bacterial distribution pattern simulated by MOCDENS3D. In the injection well, the 1,2-DCA concentration in the groundwater decreased from 939.8 to 0.9 microM in a 35 day time interval and in the presence of a sodium lactate solution. Moreover, analyses from the monitoring well showed that the cells were still active after transport through the aquifer, although biodegradation occurred to a lesser extent. This study showed that strain DCA1 can be successfully applied for the removal of 1,2-DCA under field conditions and that its limited retardation offers perspectives for large-scale cleanup processes of industrial sites. PMID:16999138

  20. Enhanced biohydrogen production from beverage industrial wastewater using external nitrogen sources and bioaugmentation with facultative anaerobic strains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Bakonyi, Péter; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-08-01

    In this work biohydrogen generation and its improvement possibilities from beverage industrial wastewater were sought. Firstly, mesophilic hydrogen fermentations were conducted in batch vials by applying heat-treated (80°C, 30 min) sludge and liquid (LB-grown) cultures of Escherichia coli XL1-Blue/Enterobacter cloacae DSM 16657 strains for bioaugmentation purposes. The results showed that there was a remarkable increase in hydrogen production capacities when facultative anaerobes were added in the form of inoculum. Furthermore, experiments were carried out in order to reveal whether the increment occurred either due to the efficient contribution of the facultative anaerobic microorganisms or the culture ingredients (in particular yeast extract and tryptone) supplied when the bacterial suspensions (LB media-based inocula) were mixed with the sludge. The outcome of these tests was that both the applied nitrogen sources and the bacteria (E. coli) could individually enhance hydrogen formation. Nevertheless, the highest increase took place when they were used together. Finally, the optimal initial wastewater concentration was determined as 5 g/L.

  1. Transport and activity of Desulfitobacterium dichloroeliminans strain DCA1 during bioaugmentation of 1,2-DCA-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Maes, Ann; Van Raemdonck, Hilde; Smith, Katherine; Ossieur, Wendy; Lebbe, Luc; Verstraete, Willy

    2006-09-01

    The transport and activity of Desulfitobacterium dichloroeliminans strain DCA1 in 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA)-contaminated groundwater have been evaluated through an in situ bioaugmentation test at an industrial site (Belgium). The migration of strain DCA1 was monitored from an injection well toward a monitoring well, and the effect of the imposed groundwater flow on its distribution was assessed by means of transport model MOCDENS3D. The results of the real-time PCR (16S rRNA gene) quantification downstream from the injection point were used to evaluate the bacterial distribution pattern simulated by MOCDENS3D. In the injection well, the 1,2-DCA concentration in the groundwater decreased from 939.8 to 0.9 microM in a 35 day time interval and in the presence of a sodium lactate solution. Moreover, analyses from the monitoring well showed that the cells were still active after transport through the aquifer, although biodegradation occurred to a lesser extent. This study showed that strain DCA1 can be successfully applied for the removal of 1,2-DCA under field conditions and that its limited retardation offers perspectives for large-scale cleanup processes of industrial sites.

  2. Bioaugmentation potential of a vinyl chloride-assimilating Mycobacterium sp., isolated from a chloroethene-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Fathepure, Babu Z; Elango, Vijai K; Singh, Harvinder; Bruner, Monty A

    2005-07-15

    An aerobic bacterium, Mycobacterium sp. strain TRW-2 that assimilated vinyl chloride (VC) or ethene (ETH) as the sole carbon source was isolated from a chloroethene-degrading enrichment culture. The strain TRW-2 also degraded cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) in mineral salts medium, but only when VC was present as the primary carbon source. However, no degradation of trans-dichloroethene or trichloroethene occurred in either the presence or absence of added VC. The measured growth yield values were 6.53 and 14.1g protein/mol of VC and ETH utilized, respectively. Inoculation by strain TRW-2 in microcosms prepared with aquifer samples resulted in rapid degradation of VC, whereas native bacteria degraded negligible amounts of VC within the same time period, thus suggesting bioaugmentation potential of the isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate revealed 98% sequence similarity to the members of the genus Mycobacterium. In summary, the isolate's ability to degrade VC, cis-DCE, and ETH and also its ability to survive and degrade VC in the presence of other microorganisms is relevant to the remediation of VC-impacted aquifers.

  3. An artificial muscle computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc O'Brien, Benjamin; Alexander Anderson, Iain

    2013-03-01

    We have built an artificial muscle computer based on Wolfram's "2, 3" Turing machine architecture, the simplest known universal Turing machine. Our computer uses artificial muscles for its instruction set, output buffers, and memory write and addressing mechanisms. The computer is very slow and large (0.15 Hz, ˜1 m3); however by using only 13 artificial muscle relays, it is capable of solving any computable problem given sufficient memory, time, and reliability. The development of this computer shows that artificial muscles can think—paving the way for soft robots with reflexes like those seen in nature.

  4. Use of Fixed-Film Bioreactors, in Situ Microcosms, and Molecular Biological Analyses to Evaluate Bioremediation of Chlorinated Benzenes By Indigenous Bacteria and a Bioaugmented Dechlorinating Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorah, M. M.; Teunis, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of bioremediation is complicated by contaminant mixtures, high concentrations, variable site conditions, and multiple possible degradation pathways. In this study, fixed-film bioreactor experiments, in situ microcosms, and microbial analyses were utilized to evaluate both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation processes for tri- and dichlorobenzene isomers, monochlorobenzene, and benzene in a wetland. Biofilm-based bioreactors provide a robust assessment tool because of their typically high degree of stability, even with major and repeated perturbations. Two bioreactor units seeded with an anaerobic dechlorinating consortium (WBC-2) and one unit seeded only with bacteria indigenous to the site were operated under flow-through conditions to compare biougmentation and natural attenuation. Electron donor levels were varied to fluctuate between anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and inflow concentrations of total chlorobenzenes were transitioned from 1-10 mg/L to 50-100 mg/L. Biodegradation resulted in removal efficiencies of 80 to 99 percent for the different compounds and inflow concentrations. Degradation efficiency in the native bioreactor was not impacted by cycling between anaerobic and aerobic conditions, although removal rates for monochlorobenzene and benzene increased under aerobic conditions. In situ microcosms were incubated below the wetland surface in sets of 3 treatments—unamended, biostimulated (lactate addition), and bioaugmented (WBC-2 and lactate). Additional treatment sets contained 13C-labeled contaminants to monitor for production of 13C-containing carbon dioxide and cellular material. Microcosm results verified that WBC-2 bioaugmentation can enhance biodegradation, with complete mineralization of chlorobenzene and benzene in bioaugmented and native treatments. Microbial analyses using QuantArrayTM for functional and taxonomic genes indicated potential for co-occurrence of anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Compared to the unamended

  5. Effects of solids retention time on the performance of bioreactors bioaugmented with a 17β-estradiol-utilizing bacterium, Sphingomonas strain KC8.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyungkeun; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the performance of lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) that were inoculated with nitrifying activated sludge and bioaugmented with a Sphingomonas strain KC8 (a 17β-estradiol-degrading bacterium). The bioaugmented SBRs were supplied with synthetic wastewater (average initial total organic carbon (TOC)=175 mgL(-1) and average initial ammonia-N=25 mgL(-1)) and daily dose of 17β-estradiol (1mgL(-1)) and operated under three solid retention times (SRTs) of 5, 10, and 20 d. After three times periods of the operating SRTs, the overall removal of TOC (>87%) and ammonia (>91%) was similar in all the SBRs. Higher 17β-estradiol removals (>99%) were observed for the SBRs. Neither estrogens nor estrogenic activity was detected in the treated water, except some samples from the SBR operating under 5d of SRT. The ratios of known estrogen degraders (Sphingomonas strain KC8 and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and amoA gene to the total bacterial population decreased as SRT increased, suggesting the presence of unknown estrogen-degraders in SBRs operating at SRT=10 and 20 d. Real-time-terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the evenness of microbial community structures was not affected by the SRT; while, the diversity indices suggest that longer SRTs might lead to more diverse microbial community structure. Overall, the results suggested that bioaugmented bioreactors operating at long SRTs (10 and 20 d) were effective in removing 17β-estradiol to the non-estrogenic treatment endpoint.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings. PMID:26769476

  8. Antimicrobial Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (VIS + wIRA) Alters In Situ Oral Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, A; Bucher, M; Anderson, A C; Tennert, C; Hellwig, E; Wittmer, A; Vach, K; Karygianni, L

    2015-01-01

    Recently, growing attention has been paid to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in dentistry. Changing the microbial composition of initial and mature oral biofilm by aPDT using visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A wavelengths (VIS + wIRA) has not yet been investigated. Moreover, most aPDT studies have been conducted on planktonic bacterial cultures. Therefore, in the present clinical study we cultivated initial and mature oral biofilms in six healthy volunteers for 2 hours or 3 days, respectively. The biofilms were treated with aPDT using VIS+wIRA (200 mW cm(-2)), toluidine blue (TB) and chlorine e6 (Ce6) for 5 minutes. Chlorhexidine treated biofilm samples served as positive controls, while untreated biofilms served as negative controls. After aPDT treatment the colony forming units (CFU) of the biofilm samples were quantified, and the surviving bacteria were isolated in pure cultures and identified using MALDI-TOF, biochemical tests and 16S rDNA-sequencing. aPDT killed more than 99.9% of the initial viable bacterial count and 95% of the mature oral biofilm in situ, independent of the photosensitizer. The number of surviving bacterial species was highly reduced to 6 (TB) and 4 (Ce6) in the treated initial oral biofilm compared to the 20 different species of the untreated biofilm. The proportions of surviving bacterial species were also changed after TB- and Ce6-mediated aPDT of the mature oral biofilm, resulting in a shift in the microbial composition of the treated biofilm compared to that of the control biofilm. In conclusion, aPDT using VIS + wIRA showed a remarkable potential to eradicate both initial and mature oral biofilms, and also to markedly alter the remaining biofilm. This encourages the clinical use of aPDT with VIS + wIRA for the treatment of periimplantitis and periodontitis.

  9. Antimicrobial Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (VIS + wIRA) Alters In Situ Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ahmad, A.; Bucher, M.; Anderson, A. C.; Tennert, C.; Hellwig, E.; Wittmer, A.; Vach, K.; Karygianni, L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, growing attention has been paid to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in dentistry. Changing the microbial composition of initial and mature oral biofilm by aPDT using visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A wavelengths (VIS + wIRA) has not yet been investigated. Moreover, most aPDT studies have been conducted on planktonic bacterial cultures. Therefore, in the present clinical study we cultivated initial and mature oral biofilms in six healthy volunteers for 2 hours or 3 days, respectively. The biofilms were treated with aPDT using VIS+wIRA (200 mW cm-2), toluidine blue (TB) and chlorine e6 (Ce6) for 5 minutes. Chlorhexidine treated biofilm samples served as positive controls, while untreated biofilms served as negative controls. After aPDT treatment the colony forming units (CFU) of the biofilm samples were quantified, and the surviving bacteria were isolated in pure cultures and identified using MALDI-TOF, biochemical tests and 16S rDNA-sequencing. aPDT killed more than 99.9% of the initial viable bacterial count and 95% of the mature oral biofilm in situ, independent of the photosensitizer. The number of surviving bacterial species was highly reduced to 6 (TB) and 4 (Ce6) in the treated initial oral biofilm compared to the 20 different species of the untreated biofilm. The proportions of surviving bacterial species were also changed after TB- and Ce6-mediated aPDT of the mature oral biofilm, resulting in a shift in the microbial composition of the treated biofilm compared to that of the control biofilm. In conclusion, aPDT using VIS + wIRA showed a remarkable potential to eradicate both initial and mature oral biofilms, and also to markedly alter the remaining biofilm. This encourages the clinical use of aPDT with VIS + wIRA for the treatment of periimplantitis and periodontitis. PMID:26162100

  10. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  11. Artificial intelligence: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

  12. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  13. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = −0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = −0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  14. Evaluation of system performance and microbial communities of a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Ng, How Yong

    2015-09-15

    In this study, a control anaerobic membrane bioreactor (C-AnMBR) and a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor (B-AnMBR) were operated for 210 d to treat pharmaceutical wastewater. Both the bioreactors were fed with the pharmaceutical wastewater containing TCOD of 16,249 ± 714 mg/L and total dissolved solids (TDS) of 29,450 ± 2209 mg/L with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 13.0 ± 0.6 kgCOD/m(3)d. Under steady-state condition, an average total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency of 46.1 ± 2.9% and 60.3 ± 2.8% was achieved by the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The conventional anaerobes in the C-AnMBR cannot tolerate the hypersaline conditions well, resulting in lower TCOD removal efficiency, biogas production and methane yield than the B-AnMBR seeded from the coastal shore. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that marine bacterial species (Oliephilus sp.) and halophilic bacterial species (Thermohalobacter sp.) were only present in the B-AnMBR; these species could possibly degrade complex and recalcitrant organic matter and withstand hypersaline environments. Two different dominant archaeal communities, genus Methanosaeta (43.4%) and Methanolobus (61.7%), were identified as the dominant methanogens in the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The species of genus Methanolobus was reported resistant to penicillin and required sodium and magnesium for growth, which could enable it to thrive in the hypersaline environment.

  15. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  16. Does S-metolachlor affect the performance of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP as bioaugmentation bacterium for atrazine-contaminated soils?

    PubMed

    Viegas, Cristina A; Costa, Catarina; André, Sandra; Viana, Paula; Ribeiro, Rui; Moreira-Santos, Matilde

    2012-01-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) and S-metolachlor (S-MET) are two herbicides widely used, often as mixtures. The present work examined whether the presence of S-MET affects the ATZ-biodegradation activity of the bioaugmentation bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP in a crop soil. S-MET concentrations were selected for their relevance in worst-case scenarios of soil contamination by a commercial formulation containing both herbicides. At concentrations representative of application of high doses of the formulation (up to 50 µg g(-1) of soil, corresponding to a dose approximately 50× higher than the recommended field dose (RD)), the presence of pure S-MET significantly affected neither bacteria survival (~10(7) initial viable cells g(-1) of soil) nor its ATZ-mineralization activity. Consistently, biodegradation experiments, in larger soil microcosms spiked with 20× or 50 × RD of the double formulation and inoculated with the bacterium, revealed ATZ to be rapidly (in up to 5 days) and extensively (>96%) removed from the soil. During the 5 days, concentration of S-MET decreased moderately to about 60% of the initial, both in inoculated and non-inoculated microcosms. Concomitantly, an accumulation of the two metabolites S-MET ethanesulfonic acid and S-MET oxanilic acid was found. Despite the dissipation of almost all the ATZ from the treated soils, the respective eluates were still highly toxic to an aquatic microalgae species, being as toxic as those from the untreated soil. We suggest that this high toxicity may be due to the S-MET and/or its metabolites remaining in the soil.

  17. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  18. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  19. Reduction of start-up time through bioaugmentation process in microbial fuel cells using an isolate from dark fermentative spent media fed anode.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Soumya; Khilari, Santimoy; Roy, Shantonu; Ghangrekar, M M; Pradhan, Debabrata; Das, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemically active bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa IIT BT SS1 was isolated from a dark fermentative spent media fed anode, and a bioaugmentation technique using the isolated strain was used to improve the start-up time of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Higher volumetric current density and lower start-up time were observed with the augmented system MFC-PM (13.7 A/m(3)) when compared with mixed culture MFC-M (8.72 A/m(3)) during the initial phase. This enhanced performance in MFC-PM was possibly due to the improvement in electron transfer ability by the augmented strain. However, pure culture MFC-P showed maximum volumetric current density (17 A/m(3)) due to the inherent electrogenic properties of Pseudomonas sp. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) study, along with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis, supported the influence of isolated species in improving the MFC performance. The present study indicates that the bioaugmentation strategy using the isolated Pseudomonas sp. can be effectively utilized to decrease the start-up time of MFC.

  20. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in PMID:24520735

  1. Reduction of oxidative stress by bioaugmented strain Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 and selection of potential biomarkers in sequencing batch reactor treating tobacco wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shao, Tiejuan; Yang, Guiqin; Wang, Meizhen; Lu, Zhenmei; Min, Hang; Zhao, Long

    2010-08-01

    Oxidative stress induced by toxic pollutants is generally responsible for the poor performance of many sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating organic wastewater. In this study, the oxidative stress in two SBR systems that dealt with tobacco wastewater was monitored by measuring four popular biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione, GSH; and malondialdehyde, MDA). In the non-BA (non-bio-augmented) system, more intense oxidative stress was induced by a higher concentration of nicotine in tobacco wastewater, and excessive oxidative stress was induced by 250 mg/l of nicotine at the final stage. However, when a nicotine-degrading bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 was added to the BA (bio-augmented) system, the oxidative stress was significantly reduced compared to the non-BA system (p < 0.01).These results suggested that the oxidative stress was mainly induced by nicotine in the SBR treatment of tobacco wastewater, and that bioaugmentation with strain HF-1 would be a potential strategy to reduce the oxidative stress and thereby improve the performance in SBRs. Additionally, the positive correlation between the nicotine content and CAT, GSH and MDA activity in both systems implied that these parameters can be used as biomarkers for reflecting the performance of SBR treatment of tobacco wastewater, and in monitoring nicotine environmental pollution. PMID:20396945

  2. Core Flood study for enhanced oil recovery through ex-situ bioaugmentation with thermo- and halo-tolerant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J; Upasani, Vivek N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) employing core field model ex-situ bioaugmenting a thermo- and halo-tolerant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) revealed that the biosurfactant produced was rhamnolipid type. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis showed that the purified rhamnolipids comprised two principal rhamnolipid homologues, i.e., Rha-Rha-C10-C14:1 and Rha-C8-C10. The rhamnolipid was stable under wide range of temperature (4°C, 30-100°C), pH (2.0-10.0) and NaCl concentration (0-18%, w/v). Core Flood model was designed for oil recovery operations using rhamnolipid. The oil recovery enhancement over Residual Oil Saturation was 8.82% through ex-situ bioaugmentation with rhamnolipid. The thermal stability of rhamnolipid shows promising scope for its application at conditions where high temperatures prevail in oil recovery processes, whereas its halo-tolerant nature increases its application in marine environment.

  3. Core Flood study for enhanced oil recovery through ex-situ bioaugmentation with thermo- and halo-tolerant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J; Upasani, Vivek N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) employing core field model ex-situ bioaugmenting a thermo- and halo-tolerant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) revealed that the biosurfactant produced was rhamnolipid type. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis showed that the purified rhamnolipids comprised two principal rhamnolipid homologues, i.e., Rha-Rha-C10-C14:1 and Rha-C8-C10. The rhamnolipid was stable under wide range of temperature (4°C, 30-100°C), pH (2.0-10.0) and NaCl concentration (0-18%, w/v). Core Flood model was designed for oil recovery operations using rhamnolipid. The oil recovery enhancement over Residual Oil Saturation was 8.82% through ex-situ bioaugmentation with rhamnolipid. The thermal stability of rhamnolipid shows promising scope for its application at conditions where high temperatures prevail in oil recovery processes, whereas its halo-tolerant nature increases its application in marine environment. PMID:27567478

  4. The efficiency of removal of lead and other elements from domestic drinking waters using a bench-top water filter system.

    PubMed

    Gulson, B L; Sheehan, A; Giblin, A M; Chiaradia, M; Conradt, B

    1997-04-01

    The efficiency of removal of lead (Pb) and other elements from natural drinking waters using a bench-top water filter system was evaluated in three recently-built houses in Sydney, Australia, and two from rural centres. In addition, one filter system was tested for copper (Cu), Pb and cadmium (Cd) under rigorously-controlled laboratory conditions using Sydney water. For two Sydney houses, the efficiency was evaluated using special filter cartridges concomitant with the ordinary filters. Waters after passing through the filter, was sampled when the filter had been exposed to '0', 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 l respectively and were analysed for lead isotopes and lead concentrations by high precision isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Samples that passed through the filter after '0', 50, 150 and 250 l collections were analysed for four anions and 39 cations by various methods. Sydney water was fairly uniform in its anion and cation composition, whereas water from the two rural areas contained higher concentrations of Ca, Mg and HCO3. Effects of the filter on the water compositions can be summarised into three groups: (1) elements removed during filtration--Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni. With 'age' of the filter, the efficiency of removal for Pb was maintained in the two houses with Pb concentrations greater than 10 micrograms/l in the first flush water and was maintained for Cu through all concentrations. Ca, Mg, Sr and Ba were largely removed in the first 50 1 of usage. (2) Elements added during filtration--K, Rb, Ag and P. Except for Ag, which was present throughout the testing period, these elements were added only in the first filtration. (3) Elements unaffected by filtration--Al, Si, Na, Fe, Cl and F. Efficiency of Pb removal from tap water by this system depends generally on the initial Pb content in the water. However, it also seems to depend, to some extent, on Pb speciation and water composition, as found in earlier studies of natural waters. The control

  5. Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... artificial sweeteners and cancer? Saccharin Studies in laboratory rats during the early 1970s linked saccharin with the ... cause cancer in laboratory animals .” Subsequent studies in rats showed an increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer ...

  6. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

  7. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.; McDermott, D.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on artificial intelligence. Topics include reasoning under uncertainty, robot plans, language understanding, and learning. The history of the field as well as intellectual ties to related disciplines are presented.

  8. 30526 artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on the four major methods of artificial lift: sucker-rod pumping, gas lift, electrical submersible pumping (ESP) and hydraulic pumping. Though more than 80% of artificially lifted wells worldwide are rod-pumped, the large majority of these wells are low-volume, stripper-type producers. For this reason, sucker-rod pumping papers comprise less than 40% of the 26 SPE papers selected.

  9. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  10. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  11. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  12. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  13. Artificial gravity experiment satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tadashi

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual study of an artificial gravity experiment satellite based on the assumption of a launch by the H-2 launch vehicle with a target launch date in the Year 2000 is presented. While many satellites provided with artificial gravity have been reported in relation to a manned Mars exploration spacecraft mission, the review has been conducted on missions and test subjects only for experimental purposes. Mission requirements were determined based on the results of reviews on the mission, test subjects, and model missions. The system baseline and development plan were based on the results of a study on conceptual structure and scale of the system, including measures to generate artificial gravity. Approximate scale of the system and arm length, mission orbit, visibility of the operation orbit from ground stations in Japan, and satellite attitude on the mission orbit are outlined.

  14. Artificial vision workbench.

    PubMed

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  15. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  16. Artificial human vision.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  17. Bioaugmentation with Petroleum-Degrading Consortia Has a Selective Growth-Promoting Impact on Crop Plants Germinated in Diesel Oil-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Graj, Weronika; Lisiecki, Piotr; Szulc, Alicja; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoremediation is a complex type of green clean-up technology that involves both plants and the rhizosphere-associated microorganisms to decompose hazardous compounds. The success of the strategy strongly depends on plant tolerance towards the pollutant, as well as plant's interactions with the rhizospheric microbes. The microorganisms may be stimulated by the secreted root exudates, which results in an increased breakdown of contaminants in the rhizosphere. The main goal of this study was to establish a potential rhizoremediation combination for a diesel-polluted site. Inoculation of plant roots or seeds with indigenous rhizospheric populations is a common approach in the rhizoremediation. However, we introduced hydrocarbon-degrading consortia (M10, R3, and K52) that were previously isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil instead of indigenous microbes. Bioaugmentation with these petroleum degraders was applied to screen four high biomass crop species (Indian mustard, alfalfa, high erucic acid rapeseed, HEAR, and low erucic acid rapeseed, LEAR) for their tolerance towards diesel oil. At no pollution, a promoting effect of M10 bacteria could be observed on germination and root elongation of all plant species. Moreover, M10 consortiums increased the germination index at 6,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil in the case of Indian mustard, alfalfa, and HEAR. The latter species was found to increment its dry weight upon bioaugmentation with M10 bacteria and all diesel oil treatments (6,000 and 24,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil). The initial results indicate HEAR and the M10 bacterial consortium as a promising plant-microbe tandem for a long-term rhizoremediation process. PMID:24078757

  18. Bioaugmentation with Petroleum-Degrading Consortia Has a Selective Growth-Promoting Impact on Crop Plants Germinated in Diesel Oil-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Graj, Weronika; Lisiecki, Piotr; Szulc, Alicja; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoremediation is a complex type of green clean-up technology that involves both plants and the rhizosphere-associated microorganisms to decompose hazardous compounds. The success of the strategy strongly depends on plant tolerance towards the pollutant, as well as plant's interactions with the rhizospheric microbes. The microorganisms may be stimulated by the secreted root exudates, which results in an increased breakdown of contaminants in the rhizosphere. The main goal of this study was to establish a potential rhizoremediation combination for a diesel-polluted site. Inoculation of plant roots or seeds with indigenous rhizospheric populations is a common approach in the rhizoremediation. However, we introduced hydrocarbon-degrading consortia (M10, R3, and K52) that were previously isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil instead of indigenous microbes. Bioaugmentation with these petroleum degraders was applied to screen four high biomass crop species (Indian mustard, alfalfa, high erucic acid rapeseed, HEAR, and low erucic acid rapeseed, LEAR) for their tolerance towards diesel oil. At no pollution, a promoting effect of M10 bacteria could be observed on germination and root elongation of all plant species. Moreover, M10 consortiums increased the germination index at 6,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil in the case of Indian mustard, alfalfa, and HEAR. The latter species was found to increment its dry weight upon bioaugmentation with M10 bacteria and all diesel oil treatments (6,000 and 24,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil). The initial results indicate HEAR and the M10 bacterial consortium as a promising plant-microbe tandem for a long-term rhizoremediation process.

  19. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  20. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  1. Artificial limb connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

  2. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  3. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  4. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices. PMID:26973294

  5. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2016-03-14

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  6. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  7. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  8. The Artificial Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, D. R.

    An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

  9. Artificial intelligence. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of the field of artificial intelligence. It contains material covering the latest advances in control, representation, language, vision, and problem solving. Problem solving in design and analysis systems is addressed. Mitcell's version-space learning procedure, Morevec's reduced-images stereo procedure, and the Strips problem solver are covered.

  10. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices. PMID:26973294

  11. High-rate artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    This paper summarizes the major considerations in the selection, design, installation, operation, or repair of high-rate artificial-lift systems. The major types of artificial lift - sucker-rod pumps, gas-lift systems, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps and jets, and hydraulic turbine-driven pumps - will be discussed. An extensive bibliography of artificial-lift papers is included.

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorescu, Ioana

    1987-01-01

    Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)

  13. Artificial intelligence at CSM

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.E.

    1985-08-01

    The recent developments in artificial intelligence have been cited as being the most significant technological advancement in computer science in the twentieth century. Machines that can mimic human reasoning will have a great impact upon our civilization. The way we think, learn, and work will be changed in a profound way. It is for these reasons that the Colorado School of Mines, in order to maintain its reputation of quality engineering education, has entered the AI field. CSM presently is evaluating artificial intelligence for applications in the mineral industries; decision support systems, process control, machine vision, data acquisition and analysis, etc. Future plans are to move AI out of the research laboratories and into the curriculum. An understanding of the concepts and unlimited power of the application of AI will enhance the engineering methods of Mines graduates. 6 references.

  14. Natural and artificial tanning.

    PubMed

    Clore, E R

    1995-01-01

    Although sunlight is beneficial to provide light and warmth and aids the body in the formation of vitamin D, tanning is potentially damaging to an individual's health. The incidence of skin cancer and retinal damage from both natural and artificial light is on the rise. This article explores the concept of tanning, types of ultraviolet rays and related health hazards. Health care provider interventions for prevention and client education are also emphasized.

  15. Whither Artificial Reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Percival-Smith, Robin

    1985-01-01

    Artificial reproduction now offers sub fertile couples a number of options which raise scientific and ethical questions. This article discusses the Canadian and British experiences in formulating regulations and legislation in this important field. Current work on mammalian embryo research foretells the direction which human research will take. This article stresses the need for family physicians' participation in the ethical decisions that accompany these new developments. PMID:21274181

  16. Artificial intelligence in parallel

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1984-08-10

    The current rage in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) community is parallelism: the idea is to build machines with many independent processors doing many things at once. The upshot is that about a dozen parallel machines are now under development for AI alone. As might be expected, the approaches are diverse yet there are a number of fundamental issues in common: granularity, topology, control, and algorithms.

  17. Introducing artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the field of artificial intelligence. The volume sets Al in a broad context of historical attitudes, imaginative insights, and ideas about intelligence in general. The author offers a wide-ranging survey of Al concerns, including cognition, knowledge engineering, problem inference, speech understanding, and perception. He also discusses expert systems, LISP, smart robots, and other Al products, and provides a listing of all major Al systems.

  18. Artificial vision workbench.

    PubMed

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks. PMID:9731383

  19. [Liver and artificial liver].

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, R A

    1998-06-01

    Despite good results of orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure the need still exists for an effective and safe artificial liver, able to temporarily take over the complex liver function so as to bridge the gap with transplantation or regeneration. Attempts to develop non-biological artificial livers have failed, mostly when controlled clinical trials were performed. In the last decade several different types of bioartificial livers have been devised, in which the biocomponent consists of freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes or a human hepatoblastoma cell line. The majority use semipermeable hollow fibers known from artificial kidney devices. The liver cells may lie either inside or outside the lumen of these fibers. In vitro analysis of liver function and animal experimental work showing that the bioartificial liver increases survival justify clinical application. Bioartificial livers are connected to patients extracorporeally by means of plasmapheresis circuit for periods of about 6 hours. In different trials about 40 patients with severe liver failure have been treated. No important adverse effects have not been reported in these phase I trials. Results of controlled studies are urgently needed. As long as no satisfactory immortalised human liver cell line with good function is available, porcine hepatocytes will remain the first choice, provided transmission of porcine pathogens to man is prevented. PMID:9752034

  20. Plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation of sequencing batch reactors for enhancement of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid removal in wastewater using plasmid pJP4.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Hirofumi; Anami, Yasutaka; Matsuda, Masami; Hashimoto, Kurumi; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2013-06-01

    Plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation was demonstrated using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for enhancing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) removal by introducing Cupriavidus necator JMP134 and Escherichia coli HB101 harboring 2,4-D-degrading plasmid pJP4. C. necator JMP134(pJP4) can mineralize and grow on 2,4-D, while E. coli HB101(pJP4) cannot assimilate 2,4-D because it lacks the chromosomal genes to degrade the intermediates. The SBR with C. necator JMP134(pJP4) showed 100 % removal against 200 mg/l of 2,4-D just after its introduction, after which 2,4-D removal dropped to 0 % on day 7 with the decline in viability of the introduced strain. The SBR with E. coli HB101(pJP4) showed low 2,4-D removal, i.e., below 10 %, until day 7. Transconjugant strains of Pseudomonas and Achromobacter isolated on day 7 could not grow on 2,4-D. Both SBRs started removing 2,4-D at 100 % after day 16 with the appearance of 2,4-D-degrading transconjugants belonging to Achromobacter, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Pandoraea. After the influent 2,4-D concentration was increased to 500 mg/l on day 65, the SBR with E. coli HB101(pJP4) maintained stable 2,4-D removal of more than 95 %. Although the SBR with C. necator JMP134(pJP4) showed a temporal depression of 2,4-D removal of 65 % on day 76, almost 100 % removal was achieved thereafter. During this period, transconjugants isolated from both SBRs were mainly Achromobacter with high 2,4-D-degrading capability. In conclusion, plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation can enhance the degradation capability of activated sludge regardless of the survival of introduced strains and their 2,4-D degradation capacity.

  1. Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Brandl, Daniel W; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2007-01-01

    This Account describes a new paradigm for the relationship between the geometry of metallic nanostructures and their optical properties. While the interaction of light with metallic nanoparticles is determined by their collective electronic or plasmon response, a compelling analogy exists between plasmon resonances of metallic nanoparticles and wave functions of simple atoms and molecules. Based on this insight, an entire family of plasmonic nanostructures, artificial molecules, has been developed whose optical properties can be understood within this picture: nanoparticles (nanoshells, nanoeggs, nanomatryushkas, nanorice), multi-nanoparticle assemblies (dimers, trimers, quadrumers), and a nanoparticle-over-metallic film, an electromagnetic analog of the spinless Anderson model. PMID:17226945

  2. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  3. How to teach artificial organs.

    PubMed

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  4. Microscopic artificial swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A; Bibette, Jérôme

    2005-10-01

    Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion. PMID:16208366

  5. Microscopic artificial swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A; Bibette, Jérôme

    2005-10-01

    Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.

  6. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  7. Microscopic artificial swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L.; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A.; Bibette, Jérôme

    2005-10-01

    Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.

  8. Development of artificial empathy.

    PubMed

    Asada, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed. PMID:25498950

  9. Development of artificial empathy.

    PubMed

    Asada, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  10. [Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María

    2011-11-01

    This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.

  11. Typogenetics: an artificial genetic system.

    PubMed

    Varetto, L

    1993-01-21

    Cellular automata are now used to model various natural phenomena. In particular, they provide a logical universe in which artificial cells can be embedded in the form of propagating virtual automata. In this paper, we propose a molecular automaton which is an attempt to implement the "molecular logic of the living state" in an artificial biochemistry. This automaton is an artificial genetic system composed of two classes of interacting artificial molecules. It was shown to be self-replicating and to possess features that are analogous to those of the postulated prebiotic molecular systems. PMID:8474250

  12. Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, Carlos; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Pesciaroli, Lorena; Yunta, Felipe; Crognale, Silvia; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    Different applications of spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS), a widespread agro-industrial waste, were investigated with respect to the remediation of a historically polluted soil with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). In one treatment, the waste was sterilized (SSAS) prior to its application in order to assess its ability to biostimulate, as an organic amendment, the resident soil microbiota and ensuing contaminant degradation. For the other treatments, two bioaugmentation approaches were investigated; the first involved the use of the waste itself and thus implied the application of A. bisporus and the inherent microbiota of the waste. In the second treatment, SAS was sterilized and inoculated again with the fungus to assess its ability to act as a fungal carrier. All these treatments were compared with natural attenuation in terms of their impact on soil heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacteria, fungal growth, biodiversity of soil microbiota and ability to affect PAH bioavailability and ensuing degradation and detoxification. Results clearly showed that historically PAH contaminated soil was not amenable to natural attenuation. Conversely, the addition of sterilized spent A. bisporus substrate to the soil stimulated resident soil bacteria with ensuing high removals of 3-ring PAH. Both augmentation treatments were more effective in removing highly condensed PAH, some of which known to possess a significant carcinogenic activity. Regardless of the mode of application, the present results strongly support the adequacy of SAS for environmental remediation purposes and open the way to an attractive recycling option of this waste.

  13. Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, Carlos; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Pesciaroli, Lorena; Yunta, Felipe; Crognale, Silvia; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    Different applications of spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS), a widespread agro-industrial waste, were investigated with respect to the remediation of a historically polluted soil with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). In one treatment, the waste was sterilized (SSAS) prior to its application in order to assess its ability to biostimulate, as an organic amendment, the resident soil microbiota and ensuing contaminant degradation. For the other treatments, two bioaugmentation approaches were investigated; the first involved the use of the waste itself and thus implied the application of A. bisporus and the inherent microbiota of the waste. In the second treatment, SAS was sterilized and inoculated again with the fungus to assess its ability to act as a fungal carrier. All these treatments were compared with natural attenuation in terms of their impact on soil heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacteria, fungal growth, biodiversity of soil microbiota and ability to affect PAH bioavailability and ensuing degradation and detoxification. Results clearly showed that historically PAH contaminated soil was not amenable to natural attenuation. Conversely, the addition of sterilized spent A. bisporus substrate to the soil stimulated resident soil bacteria with ensuing high removals of 3-ring PAH. Both augmentation treatments were more effective in removing highly condensed PAH, some of which known to possess a significant carcinogenic activity. Regardless of the mode of application, the present results strongly support the adequacy of SAS for environmental remediation purposes and open the way to an attractive recycling option of this waste. PMID:25437949

  14. Evaluation of bioaugmentation efficiency for the treatment of run-off water under tropical conditions: applications to the Derby-Tacaruna canal (Recife/Brazil).

    PubMed

    da Silva, M C L; Nascimento, A M; da Silva, V L; Pons, M N; da Motta, M

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the efficiency of bacterial biomass augmentation was performed at lab-scale for the pollution treatment of the Derby-Tacaruna canal. The canal is located at the central area of Great Recife, alongside an important urban corridor. The characterization of the canal water in different tidal conditions showed that the actual pollution is organic and inorganic (heavy metals). Degradation experiments of water from the canal and rain-off system polluted by synthetic wastewater were performed, using activated sludge and an industrial bioadditive. Continuous reactors under two different conditions were evaluated: with diffuse aeration and without aeration. The channel reactor was operated under steady state conditions at a flow rate of 2.5 L h(-1) and with an average residence time of 22 h without aeration and 17 h with aeration. The organic matter removal was in the range of 60% for the system inoculated with the bioadditive and 85% with activated sludge. It was concluded that the water of the Derby-Tacaruna canal may be treated by activated sludge without being affected by its salt content, while the bioaugmentation technique was not satisfactory due to inhibition by inorganics.

  15. Biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial community and bioaugmentation of selected bacterial strains for the depletion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a historically contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGregorio, Simona; Ruffini Castglione, Monica; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic contaminants causing hazards to organisms including humans. The objective of the study was (1) to validate the biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial population by the amendment of lignocellulosic matrices inoculated with white rot fungi, to be exploited for the depletion of PAHs (5687 ppm) in a historical contaminated soil. (2) to validate the isolation of autochthonous bacterial strains capable to use PAHs as sole carbon source and their massive bioaugmentation for PAH depletion in a historical contaminated soil. The validation has been performed at mesocosm and pilot scale (7 tons of soil in a biopile). The two approaches end up with the complete depletion of the PAHs. A genotoxicological assessment of the process and of the soil at the end of the process of decontamination has been performed. The process of soil decontamination showed an increase in the genotoxicity of either the soil and the deriving elutriates. The bioaugmetation of selected bacterial strains determined the complete detoxification of the decontaminated soil after 21 weeks. The microbial ecology of the system during the process of decontamination has been monitored.

  16. Wet Artificial Life: The Construction of Artificial Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellermann, Harold

    The creation of artificial cell-like entities - chemical systems that are able to self-replicate and evolve - requires the integration of containers, metabolism, and information. In this chapter, we present possible candidates for these subsystems and the experimental achievements made toward their replication. The discussion focuses on several suggested designs to create artificial cells from nonliving material that are currently being pursued both experimentally and theoretically in several laboratories around the world. One particular approach toward wet artificial life is presented in detail. Finally, the evolutionary advantage of cellular aggregates over naked replicator systems and the evolutionary potential of the various approaches are discussed. The enormous progress toward man-made artificial cells nourishes the hope that wet artificial life might be achieved within the next several years.

  17. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

  18. Artificial Quantum Thermal Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Alireza; Neven, Hartmut

    In this talk, we present a theory for engineering the temperature of a quantum system different from its ambient temperature, that is basically an analog version of the quantum metropolis algorithm. We define criteria for an engineered quantum bath that, when couples to a quantum system with Hamiltonian H, drives the system to the equilibrium state e/- H / T Tr (e - H / T) with a tunable parameter T. For a system of superconducting qubits, we propose a circuit-QED approximate realization of such an engineered thermal bath consisting of driven lossy resonators. We consider an artificial thermal bath as a simulator for many-body physics or a controllable temperature knob for a hybrid quantum-thermal annealer.

  19. A programmable artificial retina

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, T.M. ); Zavidovique, B.Y. . Electrical Engineering Dept. Perception System Lab., Arcueil ); Devos, F.J. . Dept. of Integrated Circuits and Systems)

    1993-07-01

    An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm[sup 2] CMOS 2-[mu]m circuit are presented.

  20. Artificial Stem Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-intrinsic regulatory networks, control their function and balance their numbers in response to physiologic demands. This progress report provides a perspective on how advanced materials technologies could be used (i) to engineer and systematically analyze specific aspects of functional stem cells niches in a controlled fashion in vitro and (ii) to target stem cell niches in vivo. Such “artificial niches” constitute potent tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms with the capacity to directly impact the development of novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. PMID:20882496

  1. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities.

  2. Compact artificial hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

  3. Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

    The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

  4. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  5. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  6. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  7. In Pursuit of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watstein, Sarah; Kesselman, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence and reviews current research in natural language processing, expert systems, and robotics and sensory systems. Discussion covers current commercial applications of artificial intelligence and projections of uses and limitations in library technical and public services, e.g., in cataloging and online information and…

  8. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  9. The language of artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    This is a guide to LISP. It clarifies data structures and recursion via examples and practical explanations, uses BASIC as a reference point throughout (enabling comparisons with LISP), and stresses artificial intelligence applications. Contents: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. The Fundamentals of LISP. Functions. Conditionals and Loops. Further LISP Processing. Recursion. More Advanced Uses of Functions. LISP Programming and AI. Standard LISP Functions.

  10. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  11. [Research and development of artificial retina material].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin

    2008-04-01

    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  12. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  13. Nanostructured artificial nacre.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiyong; Kotov, Nicholas A; Magonov, Sergei; Ozturk, Birol

    2003-06-01

    Finding a synthetic pathway to artificial analogs of nacre and bones represents a fundamental milestone in the development of composite materials. The ordered brick-and-mortar arrangement of organic and inorganic layers is believed to be the most essential strength- and toughness-determining structural feature of nacre. It has also been found that the ionic crosslinking of tightly folded macromolecules is equally important. Here, we demonstrate that both structural features can be reproduced by sequential deposition of polyelectrolytes and clays. This simple process results in a nanoscale version of nacre with alternating organic and inorganic layers. The macromolecular folding effect reveals itself in the unique saw-tooth pattern of differential stretching curves attributed to the gradual breakage of ionic crosslinks in polyelectrolyte chains. The tensile strength of the prepared multilayers approached that of nacre, whereas their ultimate Young modulus was similar to that of lamellar bones. Structural and functional resemblance makes clay- polyelectrolyte multilayers a close replica of natural biocomposites. Their nanoscale nature enables elucidation of molecular processes occurring under stress.

  14. Artificial frustrated spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Y.; Chioar, I. A.; Nguyen, V. D.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Rougemaille, N.

    2015-09-01

    Complex architectures of nanostructures are routinely elaborated using bottom-up or nanofabrication processes. This technological capability allows scientists to engineer materials with properties that do not exist in nature, but also to manufacture model systems to explore fundamental issues in condensed matter physics. Two-dimensional frustrated arrays of magnetic nanostructures are one class of systems for which theoretical predictions can be tested experimentally. These systems have been the subject of intense research in the last few years and allowed the investigation of a rich physics and fascinating phenomena, such as the exploration of the extensively degenerate ground-state manifolds of spin ice systems, the evidence of new magnetic phases in purely two-dimensional lattices, and the observation of pseudoexcitations involving classical analogues of magnetic monopoles. We show here, experimentally and theoretically, that simple magnetic geometries can lead to unconventional, non-collinear spin textures. For example, kagome arrays of inplane magnetized nano-islands do not show magnetic order. Instead, these systems are characterized by spin textures with intriguing properties, such as chirality, coexistence of magnetic order and disorder, and charge crystallization. Magnetic frustration effects in lithographically patterned kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization also lead to an unusal, and still unknown, magnetic ground state manifold. Besides the influence of the lattice geometry, the micromagnetic nature of the elements constituting the arrays introduce the concept of chiral magnetic monopoles, bringing additional complexity into the physics of artificial frustrated spin systems.

  15. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  16. Artificial polarization components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescato, L.; Gluch, Ekkehard; Stork, Wilhelm; Streibl, Norbert

    1990-07-01

    High frequency surface relief structures are optically anisotropic and show interesting polarisation properties 1 . These properties can be used to produce polarizations components such as wave plates polarizers. polarizing beamsplitters etc. Our experimental results show that even gratings with relatively low spatial frequency ( periods A ) exhibit a strong phase retardation and can be used as quarter-wave plates. k INTRODUC11ON The artificial birefringence exhibited by ultrahigh frequency gratings of dielectric materials can be used to produce various polarization components2 . Such components have applications in integrated optics as well as in free space optics. In order to produce the high spatial frequencies complex processes such as electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching are needed. We show in this paper that sinusoidal holographic gratings in photoresist exhibit also a strong phase ret even at relatively long periods. L EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS To obtain the phase retardation of a lower frequency ( period A ) grating a simple setup as used by Enger and 2 can be applied. In our case however there are three measurements necessary to obtain the phase retardation because transmission of the two perpendicularly polarized beams is different from each other. I GRATING PRODUCTION grating 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 period (pmj 0. 74 0. 74 0. 61 0. 54 0. 46 0. 32 0. 54 0. 54 0. 54 ne (sec) 60

  17. Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Lydia Shawel; Smith, James A; Narkiewicz, Sophia; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka; Conaway, Mark; Singo, Alukhethi; Amidou, Samie; Mojapelo, Paul; Brant, Julia; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Waterborne pathogens present a significant threat to people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). This study presents a randomized, controlled trial that evaluates whether a household-level ceramic water filter (CWF) intervention can improve drinking water quality and decrease days of diarrhea in PLWH in rural South Africa. Seventy-four participants were randomized in an intervention group with CWFs and a control group without filters. Participants in the CWF arm received CWFs impregnated with silver nanoparticles and associated safe-storage containers. Water and stool samples were collected at baseline and 12 months. Diarrhea incidence was self-reported weekly for 12 months. The average diarrhea rate in the control group was 0.064 days/week compared to 0.015 days/week in the intervention group (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). Median reduction of total coliform bacteria was 100% at enrollment and final collection. CWFs are an acceptable technology that can significantly improve the quality of household water and decrease days of diarrhea for PLWH in rural South Africa.

  18. Effects of bioaugmentation on sorption and desorption of benzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene in freshly-spiked and historically-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, YueHua; Chen, Liang; Liu, YuLong; Liu, Fei; Fallgren, Paul H; Jin, Song

    2016-11-01

    This work investigated the frequently observed "rebounds" of contaminants of concern in groundwater systems. Specifically, influences of bioaugmented microorganisms on the sorption and desorption of representative petroleum constituents [benzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene (BTN)] were studied in freshly-spiked and historically-contaminated sediments. Capable microorganisms were enriched and supplemented to contaminated sediments to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. In freshly-spiked sediments, when petroleum-degrading microorganisms were added, concentrations of dissolved petroleum constituents appeared to increase initially, and 12.4, 14.0 and 20.0 mg/kg of benzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene, respectively desorbed from the sediments into the water phase. In the historically-contaminated sediments, the augmentation of petroleum-degrading microorganisms led to the desorption of 0.023-0.059, 0009-0.016, and 1.731-2.763 mg/L of previously sequestrated BTN into the water phase, and also triggered the desorption of 0.051-0.223, -0.133-2.630, and 2.324-1.200 mg/kg of previously sequestrated BTN as the methanol extraction quantity. The mechanisms of the enhanced desorption at the presence of microbes remain to be determined; however, we presumed that microbially produced constituents such as biosurfactants and cell mass could have attributed to the partition of petroleum compounds from the sediments. Findings from this study may partially explain "rebounds" of certain petroleum constituents into the groundwater during in situ bioremediation practice, although such immediate rebounds sometimes are weak, and the desorbed constituents can be eventually biodegraded under proper biogeochemical conditions. PMID:27474910

  19. Effects of bioaugmentation on sorption and desorption of benzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene in freshly-spiked and historically-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, YueHua; Chen, Liang; Liu, YuLong; Liu, Fei; Fallgren, Paul H; Jin, Song

    2016-11-01

    This work investigated the frequently observed "rebounds" of contaminants of concern in groundwater systems. Specifically, influences of bioaugmented microorganisms on the sorption and desorption of representative petroleum constituents [benzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene (BTN)] were studied in freshly-spiked and historically-contaminated sediments. Capable microorganisms were enriched and supplemented to contaminated sediments to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. In freshly-spiked sediments, when petroleum-degrading microorganisms were added, concentrations of dissolved petroleum constituents appeared to increase initially, and 12.4, 14.0 and 20.0 mg/kg of benzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene, respectively desorbed from the sediments into the water phase. In the historically-contaminated sediments, the augmentation of petroleum-degrading microorganisms led to the desorption of 0.023-0.059, 0009-0.016, and 1.731-2.763 mg/L of previously sequestrated BTN into the water phase, and also triggered the desorption of 0.051-0.223, -0.133-2.630, and 2.324-1.200 mg/kg of previously sequestrated BTN as the methanol extraction quantity. The mechanisms of the enhanced desorption at the presence of microbes remain to be determined; however, we presumed that microbially produced constituents such as biosurfactants and cell mass could have attributed to the partition of petroleum compounds from the sediments. Findings from this study may partially explain "rebounds" of certain petroleum constituents into the groundwater during in situ bioremediation practice, although such immediate rebounds sometimes are weak, and the desorbed constituents can be eventually biodegraded under proper biogeochemical conditions.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment from total petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sediments: potential candidates for bioaugmentation in bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Simona; Siracusa, Giovanna; Becarelli, Simone; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Seven hydrocarbonoclastic new bacterial isolates were isolated from dredged sediments of a river estuary in Italy. The sediments were contaminated by shipyard activities since decades, mainly ascribable to the exploitation of diesel oil as the fuel for recreational and commercial navigation of watercrafts. The bacterial isolates were able to utilize diesel oil as sole carbon source. Their metabolic capacities were evaluated by GC-MS analysis, with reference to the depletion of both the normal and branched alkanes, the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester and the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. They were taxonomically identified as different species of Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas spp. by the combination of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis. The metabolic activities of interest were analyzed both in relation to the single bacterial strains and to the combination of the latter as a multibacterial species system. After 6 days of incubation in mineral medium with diesel oil as sole carbon source, the Stenotrophomonas sp. M1 strain depleted 43-46 % of Cn-alkane from C28 up to C30, 70 % of the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester and the 46 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. On the other hand, the Pseudomonas sp. NM1 strain depleted the 76 % of the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester, the 50 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. The bacterial multispecies system was able to completely deplete Cn-alkane from C28 up to C30 and to deplete the 95 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. The isolates, either as single strains and as a bacterial multispecies system, were proposed as candidates for bioaugmentation in bio-based processes for the decontamination of dredged sediments. PMID:26755178

  1. Bio-Augmentation of Cupriavidus sp. CY-1 into 2,4-D Contaminated Soil: Microbial Community Analysis by Culture Dependent and Independent Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Reddy, M. Venkateswar; Umemoto, Honoka; Sato, Yuki; Kang, Mi-Hye; Yajima, Yuka; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrading bacterial strain CY-1 was isolated from the forest soil. Based on physiological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis it was identified as Cupriavidus sp. CY-1. Further 2,4-D degradation experiments at different concentrations (200 to 800 mg l-1) were carried out using CY-1. Effect of NaCl and KNO3 on 2,4-D degradation was also evaluated. Degradation of 2,4-D and the metabolites produced during degradation process were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS respectively. The amount of chloride ions produced during the 2,4-D degradation were analyzed by Ion chromatography (IC) and it is stoichiometric with 2,4-D dechlorination. Furthermore two different types of soils collected from two different sources were used for 2,4-D degradation studies. The isolated strain CY-1 was bio-augmented into 2,4-D contaminated soils to analyze its degradation ability. Culture independent methods like denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and culture dependent methods like colony forming units (CFU) and most probable number (MPN) were used to analyze the survivability of strain CY-1 in contaminated soil. Results of T-RFLP were coincident with the DGGE analysis. From the DGGE, T-RFLP, MPN and HPLC results it was concluded that strain CY-1 effectively degraded 2,4-D without disturbing the ecosystem of soil indigenous microorganisms. PMID:26710231

  2. Comparison of biostimulation versus bioaugmentation with bacterial strain PM1 for treatment of groundwater contaminated with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE).

    PubMed

    Smith, Amanda E; Hristova, Krassimira; Wood, Isaac; Mackay, Doug M; Lory, Ernie; Lorenzana, Dale; Scow, Kate M

    2005-03-01

    Widespread contamination of groundwater by methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has triggered the exploration of different technologies for in situ removal of the pollutant, including biostimulation of naturally occurring microbial communities or bioaugmentation with specific microbial strains known to biodegrade the oxygenate. After laboratory studies revealed that bacterial strain PM1 rapidly and completely biodegraded MTBE in groundwater sediments, the organism was tested in an in situ field study at Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center in Oxnard, California. Two pilot test plots (A and B) in groundwater located down-gradient from an MTBE source were intermittently sparged with pure oxygen. Plot B was also inoculated with strain PM1. MTBE concentrations up-gradient from plots A and B initially varied temporally from 1.5 to 6 mg MTBE/L. Six months after treatment began, MTBE concentrations in monitoring wells down-gradient from the injection bed decreased substantially in the shallow zone of the groundwater in plots A and B, thus even in the absence of the inoculated strain PM1. In the deeper zone, downstream MTBE concentrations also decreased in plot A and to a lesser extent in plot B. Difficulties in delivery of oxygen to the deeper zone of plot B, evidenced by low dissolved oxygen concentrations, were likely responsible for low rates of MTBE removal at that location. We measured the survival and movement of strain PM1 in groundwater samples using two methods for detection of DNA sequences specific to strain PM1: TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and internal transcribed spacer region analysis. A naturally occurring bacterial strain with > 99% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to strain PM1 was detected in groundwater collected at various locations at Port Hueneme, including outside the plots where the organism was inoculated. Addition of oxygen to naturally occurring microbial populations was sufficient to stimulate MTBE removal at this site

  3. Bio-Augmentation of Cupriavidus sp. CY-1 into 2,4-D Contaminated Soil: Microbial Community Analysis by Culture Dependent and Independent Techniques.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Reddy, M Venkateswar; Umemoto, Honoka; Sato, Yuki; Kang, Mi-Hye; Yajima, Yuka; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrading bacterial strain CY-1 was isolated from the forest soil. Based on physiological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis it was identified as Cupriavidus sp. CY-1. Further 2,4-D degradation experiments at different concentrations (200 to 800 mg l(-1)) were carried out using CY-1. Effect of NaCl and KNO3 on 2,4-D degradation was also evaluated. Degradation of 2,4-D and the metabolites produced during degradation process were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS respectively. The amount of chloride ions produced during the 2,4-D degradation were analyzed by Ion chromatography (IC) and it is stoichiometric with 2,4-D dechlorination. Furthermore two different types of soils collected from two different sources were used for 2,4-D degradation studies. The isolated strain CY-1 was bio-augmented into 2,4-D contaminated soils to analyze its degradation ability. Culture independent methods like denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and culture dependent methods like colony forming units (CFU) and most probable number (MPN) were used to analyze the survivability of strain CY-1 in contaminated soil. Results of T-RFLP were coincident with the DGGE analysis. From the DGGE, T-RFLP, MPN and HPLC results it was concluded that strain CY-1 effectively degraded 2,4-D without disturbing the ecosystem of soil indigenous microorganisms. PMID:26710231

  4. Artificial atoms on semiconductor surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Tisdale, W. A.; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are called artificial atoms because of their atom-like discrete electronic structure resulting from quantum confinement. Artificial atoms can also be assembled into artificial molecules or solids, thus, extending the toolbox for material design. We address the interaction of artificial atoms with bulk semiconductor surfaces. These interfaces are model systems for understanding the coupling between localized and delocalized electronic structures. In many perceived applications, such as nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and solar energy conversion, interfacing semiconductor nanocrystals to bulk materials is a key ingredient. Here, we apply the well established theories of chemisorption and interfacial electron transfer as conceptual frameworks for understanding the adsorption of semiconductor nanocrystals on surfaces, paying particular attention to instances when the nonadiabatic Marcus picture breaks down. We illustrate these issues using recent examples from our laboratory. PMID:21097704

  5. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

  6. Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.

    PubMed

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail.

  7. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  8. Food analysis using artificial senses.

    PubMed

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-02-19

    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  9. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  10. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2004-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

  11. Actuator device for artificial leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An actuator device is described for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes a first articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly carried by the prosthesis whereby energy from the movement of the natural leg is transferred by a compressible fluid from the first hip joint assembly to the second hip joint assembly for moving the artificial leg.

  12. Towards an artificial brain.

    PubMed

    Conrad, M; Kampfner, R R; Kirby, K G; Rizki, E N; Schleis, G; Smalz, R; Trenary, R

    1989-01-01

    Three components of a brain model operating on neuromolecular computing principles are described. The first component comprises neurons whose input-output behavior is controlled by significant internal dynamics. Models of discrete enzymatic neurons, reaction-diffusion neurons operating on the basis of the cyclic nucleotide cascade, and neurons controlled by cytoskeletal dynamics are described. The second component of the model is an evolutionary learning algorithm which is used to mold the behavior of enzyme-driven neurons or small networks of these neurons for specific function, usually pattern recognition or target seeking tasks. The evolutionary learning algorithm may be interpreted either as representing the mechanism of variation and natural selection acting on a phylogenetic time scale, or as a conceivable ontogenetic adaptation mechanism. The third component of the model is a memory manipulation scheme, called the reference neuron scheme. In principle it is capable of orchestrating a repertoire of enzyme-driven neurons for coherent function. The existing implementations, however, utilize simple neurons without internal dynamics. Spatial navigation and simple game playing (using tic-tac-toe) provide the task environments that have been used to study the properties of the reference neuron model. A memory-based evolutionary learning algorithm has been developed that can assign credit to the individual neurons in a network. It has been run on standard benchmark tasks, and appears to be quite effective both for conventional neural nets and for networks of discrete enzymatic neurons. The models have the character of artificial worlds in that they map the hierarchy of processes in the brain (at the molecular, neuronal, and network levels), provide a task environment, and use this relatively self-contained setup to develop and evaluate learning and adaptation algorithms.

  13. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Other Uses of Water Water-related ... Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Other Uses of Water Water-related ...

  14. Artificial gametes from stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn. PMID:26161331

  15. Environmental and Genetic Influences of Archaeal Lipid Distribution in Natural and Artificial Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, C.; Pagani, M.

    2012-12-01

    TEX86 is a proxy of sea surface temperature based on refractory glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT) in the cell membranes of low-temperature dwelling (non-hyperthermophilic) Archaea. The degree to which environmental signals other than temperature influence the distribution of GDGT compounds is poorly understood. Few representatives of the Thaumarchaeota — the clade to which the dominant GDGT production has been attributed — have been described or isolated in pure culture, and the role of genetic lineage in the synthesis and distribution of GDGTs is unknown. For this project we collected water, filter and substrate samples from tank systems in non-profit and commercial aquariums around the United States. This analysis compares GDGT core lipids and intact polar lipid distributions with Archaeal genetic sequence data processed using rRNA and 454 Pyrosequencing. Environmental attributes (such as dissolved oxygen concentration, salinity, organic density, etc.) specific to each tank are also compared to lipid analyses and the presence of specific lineages within select tank systems. Our preliminary results demonstrate that archaeal GDGTs are present and abundant within a range of environmental conditions, including artificial saline and brackish waters derived from municipal sources. Comparisons of existing TEX86 calibration values with known temperatures suggest that residuals vary based on non-temperature parameters. Branched compounds are absent in most aquarium systems, but dominate in systems prepared with municipal water.

  16. Artificial evolution: a new path for artificial intelligence?

    PubMed

    Husbands, P; Harvey, I; Cliff, D; Miller, G

    1997-06-01

    Recently there have been a number of proposals for the use of artificial evolution as a radically new approach to the development of control systems for autonomous robots. This paper explains the artificial evolution approach, using work at Sussex to illustrate it. The paper revolves around a case study on the concurrent evolution of control networks and visual sensor morphologies for a mobile robot. Wider intellectual issues surrounding the work are discussed, as is the use of more abstract evolutionary simulations as a new potentially useful tool in theoretical biology. PMID:9209759

  17. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  18. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  19. Chemometric brains for artificial tongues.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Paolo; Casolino, M Chiara; Forina, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The last years showed a significant trend toward the exploitation of rapid and economic analytical devices able to provide multiple information about samples. Among these, the so-called artificial tongues represent effective tools which allow a global sample characterization comparable to a fingerprint. Born as taste sensors for food evaluation, such devices proved to be useful for a wider number of purposes. In this review, a critical overview of artificial tongue applications over the last decade is outlined. In particular, the focus is centered on the chemometric techniques, which allow the extraction of valuable information from nonspecific data. The basic steps of signal processing and pattern recognition are discussed and the principal chemometric techniques are described in detail, highlighting benefits and drawbacks of each one. Furthermore, some novel methods recently introduced and particularly suitable for artificial tongue data are presented.

  20. [Implantation of the artificial retina].

    PubMed

    Yagi, T; Hayashida, Y

    1999-05-01

    In some degenerative retinal diseases, e.g., retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, the photoreceptors are destroyed to cause serious visual defects. Recent studies on blind human subjects revealed that a large number of ganglion cells remains intact and is capable of transmitting signals to the brain to evoke partial visual perception. This provided hope to compensate for the visual defects with retinal prostheses. The recent progress of microfabrication technique made it possible to implement the Vary Large Scale Integrated circuit, the artificial retina, which emulates a part of retinal function. The idea of implanting the artificial retina to the patients was proposed recently and experiments using animals have been put into practice. This article surveys the front line of the artificial retina implantation.

  1. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  2. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  3. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed. PMID:27437136

  4. Artificial and Bioartificial Liver Support

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The fact that liver failure constitutes a life-threatening condition and can, in most cases, only be overcome by orthotopic liver transplantation, lead to the development of various artificial and bioartificial liver support devices. While artificial systems are based on the principles of adsorption and filtration, the more complex concept of bioartificial devices includes the provision of liver cells. Instead of solely focussing on detoxification, these concepts also support the failing organ concerning synthetic and regulative functions. The systems were evaluated in a variety of clinical studies, demonstrating their safety and investigating the impact on the patient's clinical condition. This review gives an overview over the most common artificial and bioartificial liver support devices and summarizes the results of the clinical studies. PMID:19279696

  5. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    PubMed

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives.

  6. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Nosenko, M. A.; Drutskaya, M. S.; Moisenovich, M. M.; Nedospasov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed. PMID:27437136

  7. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    PubMed

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives. PMID:25842566

  8. Intensification of the aerobic bioremediation of an actual site soil historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through bioaugmentation with a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Di Toro, Sara; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    /or exogenous nutrients able to sustain microorganisms in charge for PCB mineralization. Conclusion Enzyveba appears a promising agent for bioaugmenting actual-site PCB-polluted soils with a native low content of indigenous specialized microflora. This not only for its positive effects on the soil biotreatability but also for its availability on the market at a relatively low cost. PMID:16549016

  9. Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and 2HH2O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Révész, Kinga M.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Goode, Daniel J.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Lancombe, Pierre J.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2014-01-01

    An in situ bioaugmentation (BA) experiment was conducted to understand processes controlling microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. In the BA experiment, an electron donor (emulsified vegetable oil and sodium lactate) and a chloro-respiring microbial consortium were injected into a well in fractured mudstone of Triassic age. Water enriched in 2H was also injected as a tracer of the BA solution, to monitor advective transport processes. The changes in concentration and the δ13C of TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC); the δ2H of water; changes in the abundance of the microbial communities; and the concentration of dissolved H2 gas compared to pre- test conditions, provided multiple lines of evidence that enhanced biodegradation occurred in the injection well and in two downgradient wells. For those wells where the biodegradation was stimulated intensively, the sum of the molar chlorinated ethene (CE) concentrations in post-BA water was higher than that of the sum of the pre-BA background molar CE concentrations. The concentration ratios of TCE/(cis-DCE + VC) indicated that the increase in molar CE concentration may result from additional TCE mobilized from the rock matrix in response to the oil injection or due to desorption/diffusion. The stable carbon isotope mass-balance calculations show that the weighted average 13C isotope of the CEs was enriched for around a year compared to the background value in a two year monitoring period, an effective indication that dechlorination of VC was occurring. Insights gained from this study can be applied to efforts to use BA in other fractured rock systems. The study demonstrates that a BA approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation not only in fractures connected to the injection well, but also in the rock matrix around the well due to processes such as diffusion and desorption. Because the effect of the

  10. Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and ²HH₂O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks.

    PubMed

    Révész, Kinga M; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Kirshtein, Julie D; Tiedeman, Claire R; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Goode, Daniel J; Shapiro, Allen M; Voytek, Mary A; Lacombe, Pierre J; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2014-01-01

    An in situ bioaugmentation (BA) experiment was conducted to understand processes controlling microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. In the BA experiment, an electron donor (emulsified vegetable oil and sodium lactate) and a chloro-respiring microbial consortium were injected into a well in fractured mudstone of Triassic age. Water enriched in ²H was also injected as a tracer of the BA solution, to monitor advective transport processes. The changes in concentration and the δ¹³C of TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC); the δ²H of water; changes in the abundance of the microbial communities; and the concentration of dissolved H₂ gas compared to pre- test conditions, provided multiple lines of evidence that enhanced biodegradation occurred in the injection well and in two downgradient wells. For those wells where the biodegradation was stimulated intensively, the sum of the molar chlorinated ethene (CE) concentrations in post-BA water was higher than that of the sum of the pre-BA background molar CE concentrations. The concentration ratios of TCE/(cis-DCE+VC) indicated that the increase in molar CE concentration may result from additional TCE mobilized from the rock matrix in response to the oil injection or due to desorption/diffusion. The stable carbon isotope mass-balance calculations show that the weighted average ¹³C isotope of the CEs was enriched for around a year compared to the background value in a two year monitoring period, an effective indication that dechlorination of VC was occurring. Insights gained from this study can be applied to efforts to use BA in other fractured rock systems. The study demonstrates that a BA approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation not only in fractures connected to the injection well, but also in the rock matrix around the well due to processes such as diffusion and desorption. Because the effect

  11. Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and ²HH₂O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks.

    PubMed

    Révész, Kinga M; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Kirshtein, Julie D; Tiedeman, Claire R; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Goode, Daniel J; Shapiro, Allen M; Voytek, Mary A; Lacombe, Pierre J; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2014-01-01

    An in situ bioaugmentation (BA) experiment was conducted to understand processes controlling microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. In the BA experiment, an electron donor (emulsified vegetable oil and sodium lactate) and a chloro-respiring microbial consortium were injected into a well in fractured mudstone of Triassic age. Water enriched in ²H was also injected as a tracer of the BA solution, to monitor advective transport processes. The changes in concentration and the δ¹³C of TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC); the δ²H of water; changes in the abundance of the microbial communities; and the concentration of dissolved H₂ gas compared to pre- test conditions, provided multiple lines of evidence that enhanced biodegradation occurred in the injection well and in two downgradient wells. For those wells where the biodegradation was stimulated intensively, the sum of the molar chlorinated ethene (CE) concentrations in post-BA water was higher than that of the sum of the pre-BA background molar CE concentrations. The concentration ratios of TCE/(cis-DCE+VC) indicated that the increase in molar CE concentration may result from additional TCE mobilized from the rock matrix in response to the oil injection or due to desorption/diffusion. The stable carbon isotope mass-balance calculations show that the weighted average ¹³C isotope of the CEs was enriched for around a year compared to the background value in a two year monitoring period, an effective indication that dechlorination of VC was occurring. Insights gained from this study can be applied to efforts to use BA in other fractured rock systems. The study demonstrates that a BA approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation not only in fractures connected to the injection well, but also in the rock matrix around the well due to processes such as diffusion and desorption. Because the effect

  12. Selection of artificial lift method

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, B.; Gipson, F.; Clegg, J.; Capps, B.; Wilson, P.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the opening remarks of the panel members on a panel discussion of 'Selection of Artificial Lift Method' held at the 56th annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME in San Antonio, Texas, October 5-7, 1981. The topics discussed include: (1) reservoir and well considerations involved in artificial lift design; (2) sucker rod pumping; (3) gas lift; (4) submersible pumping; and, (5) hydraulic pumping. Advantages and limitations of each lift method are considered.

  13. Artificial cells: prospects for biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David

    2002-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nanoscale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  14. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  15. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies. PMID:26853918

  16. Artificial Cells: Prospects for Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they also have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nano-scale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  17. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-01

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  18. Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

    2013-12-10

    The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

  19. Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis

    ScienceCinema

    Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

    2016-07-12

    The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

  20. Children's rights and artificial procreation.

    PubMed

    Vercellone, P

    1995-01-01

    Techniques of artificial human reproduction should be assessed in the light of the interests of the children to be born from them. The problems of the child without a father and of the child with two mothers are discussed. The author concludes that the law should dissuade arrangements that are not in the best interests of the children.

  1. Artificial Intelligence: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C., Comp.

    1984-01-01

    This 19-item annotated bibliography introducing the literature of artificial intelligence (AI) is arranged by type of material--handbook, books (general interest, textbooks, collected readings), journals and newsletters, and conferences and workshops. The availability of technical reports from AI laboratories at universities and private companies…

  2. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Joseph

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

  3. Artificial Video for Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallis, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of video analysis software and computer-generated animations for student activities. The use of artificial video affords the opportunity for students to study phenomena for which a real video may not be easy or even possible to procure, using analysis software with which the students are already familiar. We will…

  4. Thinking, Creativity, and Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSiano, Michael; DeSiano, Salvatore

    This document provides an introduction to the relationship between the current knowledge of focused and creative thinking and artificial intelligence. A model for stages of focused and creative thinking gives: problem encounter/setting, preparation, concentration/incubation, clarification/generation and evaluation/judgment. While a computer can…

  5. Artificial-Satellite-Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Johnny H.

    1989-01-01

    Artificial Satellite Analysis Program (ASAP) is general orbit-predicting computer program incorporating sufficient orbit-modeling accuracy for design and planning of missions and analysis of maneuvers. Suitable for study of planetary-orbit missions with spacecraft trajectories of reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) nature. Not written for specific mission and intended use for almost any planetary orbiting mission. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Artificial neural networks in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    This Technology Brief provides an overview of artificial neural networks (ANN). A definition and explanation of an ANN is given and situations in which an ANN is used are described. ANN applications to medicine specifically are then explored and the areas in which it is currently being used are discussed. Included are medical diagnostic aides, biochemical analysis, medical image analysis and drug development.

  7. Artificial Intelligence and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Ron

    1987-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence (AI) in relation to intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) and science education. Provides a brief background of AI work, examples of expert systems, examples of ICAI work, and addresses problems facing AI workers that have implications for science education. Proposes a revised model of the Karplus/Renner…

  8. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  9. [Current state and development of artificial lungs].

    PubMed

    Mei, Zaoxian; Sun, Xin; Wu, Qi

    2010-12-01

    The artificial lung is a technical device for providing life support; it will be put in use when the natural lungs are failing and are not able to maintain sufficient oxygenation of the body's organ systems. From the viewpoint of long-term development, the artificial lung should be permanently implanted in the body, so that it will substitute for the human pulmonary function partially or completely. In this paper, four artificial lung technologies were expounded with reference to the development and research process of artificial lung. They were extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, intravascular artificial lung, implantable artificial lung, and pumpless extracorporeal lung assist. In this paper were described the structure of the four kinds of artificial lung, the working principle, and their advantages, disadvantages and indications. The prospect of artificial lung was evaluated in the light of the data from the existing animal experiments and from the clinical experience of the centers.

  10. Artificial Intelligence Databases: A Survey and Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David

    1990-01-01

    Identifies and describes online databases containing references to materials on artificial intelligence, robotics, and expert systems, and compares them in terms of scope and usage. Recommendations for conducting online searches on artificial intelligence and related fields are offered. (CLB)

  11. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, Dagmar

    1995-01-01

    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  12. Bioremediation technologies for polluted seawater sampled after an oil-spill in Taranto Gulf (Italy): A comparison of biostimulation, bioaugmentation and use of a washing agent in microcosm studies.

    PubMed

    Crisafi, F; Genovese, M; Smedile, F; Russo, D; Catalfamo, M; Yakimov, M; Giuliano, L; Denaro, R

    2016-05-15

    One of the main challenges of bioremediation is to define efficient protocols having a low environmental impact. We have investigated the effect of three treatments in oily-seawater after a real oil-spill occurred in the Gulf of Taranto (Italy). Biostimulation with inorganic nutrients allowed the biodegradation of the 73±2.4% of hydrocarbons, bioaugmentation with a selected hydrocarbonoclastic consortium consisting of Alcanivorax borkumensis, Alcanivorax dieselolei, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME and Thalassolituus oleivorans degraded 79±3.2%, while the addition of nutrients and a washing agent has allowed the degradation of the 69±2.6%. On the other hand, microbial community was severely affected by the addition of the washing agent and the same product seemed to inhibit the growth of the majority of strains composing the selected consortium at the tested concentration. The use of dispersant should be accurately evaluated also considering its effect on the principal actors of biodegradation. PMID:26992747

  13. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  14. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  16. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  18. Artificial Intelligence and Its Importance in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilmann, Martha J.

    Artificial intelligence, or the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent, is discussed in terms of what it is, what it has done, what it can do, and how it may affect the teaching of tomorrow. An extensive overview of artificial intelligence examines its goals and applications and types of artificial intelligence including (1) expert…

  19. Artificial Graphene with Tunable Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehlinger, Thomas; Jotzu, Gregor; Messer, Michael; Greif, Daniel; Hofstetter, Walter; Bissbort, Ulf; Esslinger, Tilman

    2013-11-01

    We create an artificial graphene system with tunable interactions and study the crossover from metallic to Mott insulating regimes, both in isolated and coupled two-dimensional honeycomb layers. The artificial graphene consists of a two-component spin mixture of an ultracold atomic Fermi gas loaded into a hexagonal optical lattice. For strong repulsive interactions, we observe a suppression of double occupancy and measure a gapped excitation spectrum. We present a quantitative comparison between our measurements and theory, making use of a novel numerical method to obtain Wannier functions for complex lattice structures. Extending our studies to time-resolved measurements, we investigate the equilibration of the double occupancy as a function of lattice loading time.

  20. Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-10-01

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  1. Fuel-Powered Artificial Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebron, Von Howard; Yang, Zhiwei; Seyer, Daniel J.; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Oh, Jiyoung; Xie, Hui; Razal, Joselito; Hall, Lee J.; Ferraris, John P.; MacDiarmid, Alan G.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2006-03-01

    Artificial muscles and electric motors found in autonomous robots and prosthetic limbs are typically battery-powered, which severely restricts the duration of their performance and can necessitate long inactivity during battery recharge. To help solve these problems, we demonstrated two types of artificial muscles that convert the chemical energy of high-energy-density fuels to mechanical energy. The first type stores electrical charge and uses changes in stored charge for mechanical actuation. In contrast with electrically powered electrochemical muscles, only half of the actuator cycle is electrochemical. The second type of fuel-powered muscle provides a demonstrated actuator stroke and power density comparable to those of natural skeletal muscle and generated stresses that are over a hundred times higher.

  2. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people.

  3. Tadpole-like artificial micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Limei; Liu, Mei; Su, Yajun; Dong, Yonggang; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Chi, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe a polymer-based artificial tadpole-like micromotor, which is fabricated through the electrospinning technique. By incorporating functional materials onto its surface or within its body, the resulting tadpole-like micromotor can not only move autonomously in an aqueous solution with a flexible tail, but also exhibit thermo- and magnetic responsive properties.We describe a polymer-based artificial tadpole-like micromotor, which is fabricated through the electrospinning technique. By incorporating functional materials onto its surface or within its body, the resulting tadpole-like micromotor can not only move autonomously in an aqueous solution with a flexible tail, but also exhibit thermo- and magnetic responsive properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, Fig. S1-S3 and Video S1-S4. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06621a

  4. Reconstitution of Heme Enzymes with Artificial Metalloporphyrinoids.

    PubMed

    Oohora, K; Hayashi, T

    2016-01-01

    An important strategy used in engineering of hemoproteins to generate artificial enzymes involves replacement of heme with an artificial cofactor after removal of the native heme cofactor under acidic conditions. Replacement of heme in an enzyme with a nonnatural metalloporphyrinoid can significantly alter the reactivity of the enzyme. This chapter describes the design and synthesis of three types of artificial metalloporphyrinoid cofactors consisting of mono-, di-, and tri-anionic ligands (tetradehydrocorrin, porphycene, and corrole, respectively). In addition, practical procedures for the preparation of apo-hemoproteins, incorporation of artificial cofactors, and characterization techniques are presented. Furthermore, the representative catalytic activities of artificial enzymes generated by reconstitution of hemoproteins are summarized. PMID:27586344

  5. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  6. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2003-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, laminar and turbulent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared in this work. Each method is described in detail along with appropriate physical and numerical boundary conditions. Analysis of well-posedness and numerical solutions to test problems for each method are provided. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, stability and robustness is used to establish the relative positive and negative characteristics of each method.

  7. Bioinspired artificial single ion pump.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huacheng; Hou, Xu; Zeng, Lu; Yang, Fu; Li, Lin; Yan, Dadong; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-10-30

    Bioinspired artificial functional nanochannels for intelligent molecular and ionic transport control at the nanoscale have wide potential applications in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Although various smart passive ion transport properties of ion channels have been artificially realized, it is still hugely challenging to achieve high level intelligent ion transport features in biological ion pumps. Here we show a unique bioinspired single ion pump based on a cooperative pH response double-gate nanochannel, whose gates could be opened and closed alternately/simultaneously under symmetric/asymmetric pH environments. With the stimulation of the double-gate nanochannel by continuous switching of the symmetric/asymmetric pH stimuli, the bioinspired system systematically realized three key ionic transport features of biological ion pumps, including an alternating gates ion pumping process under symmetric pH stimuli, transformation of the ion pump into an ion channel under asymmetric pH stimuli, and a fail-safe ion pumping feature under both symmetric and asymmetric pH stimuli. The ion pumping processes could well be reproduced under a concentration gradient. With the advantages of the extraordinary ionic transport functions of biological ion pumps, the bioinspired ion pump should find widespread applicability in active transportation-controlling smart nanofluidic devices, efficient energy conversions, and seawater desalinization, and open the way to design and develop novel bioinspired intelligent artificial nanochannel materials.

  8. New twist on artificial muscles

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Carter S.; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Aliev, Ali E.; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H.

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy. PMID:27671626

  9. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  10. Periplasmic Screening for Artificial Metalloenzymes.

    PubMed

    Jeschek, M; Panke, S; Ward, T R

    2016-01-01

    Artificial metalloenzymes represent an attractive means of combining state-of-the-art transition metal catalysis with the benefits of natural enzymes. Despite the tremendous recent progress in this field, current efforts toward the directed evolution of these hybrid biocatalysts mainly rely on the laborious, individual purification of protein variants rendering the throughput, and hence the outcome of these campaigns feeble. We have recently developed a screening platform for the directed evolution of artificial metalloenzymes based on the streptavidin-biotin technology in the periplasm of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. This periplasmic compartmentalization strategy comprises a number of compelling advantages, in particular with respect to artificial metalloenzymes, which lead to a drastic increase in the throughput of screening campaigns and additionally are of unique value for future in vivo applications. Therefore, we highlight here the benefits of this strategy and intend to propose a generalized guideline for the development of novel transition metal-based biocatalysts by directed evolution in order to extend the natural enzymatic repertoire. PMID:27586348

  11. Beller Lecture: Artificial Ferroic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyderman, Laura

    In artificial ferroic systems, novel functionality is engineered through the combination of structured ferroic materials and the control of the interactions between the different components. I will present two classes of these systems, beginning with hybrid mesoscopic structures incorporating two different ferromagnetic layers whose static and dynamic behaviour result from the mutual imprint of the magnetic domain configurations. Here we have demonstrated a new vortex core reversal mechanism, which occurs when it is displaced across domain boundaries with a magnetic field. I will then describe our progress on artificial spin ice, consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged in frustrated geometries. We have employed photoemission electron microscopy to observe the behaviour of emergent magnetic monopoles in an array of nanomagnets placed on the kagome lattice. We have also created artificial spin ice with fluctuating magnetic moments and observed the evolution of magnetic configurations with time. This has provided a means to study relaxation processes with a controlled route to the lowest-energy state. Recently, we have demonstrated with muon spin relaxation that these magnetic metamaterials can support thermodynamic phase transitions, and future directions include the incorporation of novel magnetic materials such as ultrathin magnetic films, the investigation of 3D structures, as well as the implementation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering to study magnetic correlations in smaller nanomagnets and at faster timescales

  12. Artificial life: The coming evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D. Santa Fe Inst., NM ); Belin, A.d'A. )

    1990-01-01

    Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Artificial multilayers and nanomagnetic materials

    PubMed Central

    SHINJO, Teruya

    2013-01-01

    The author has been actively engaged in research on nanomagnetic materials for about 50 years. Nanomagnetic materials are comprised of ferromagnetic systems for which the size and shape are controlled on a nanometer scale. Typical examples are ultrafine particles, ultrathin films, multilayered films and nano-patterned films. In this article, the following four areas of the author’s studies are described. (1) Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of nanomagnetic materials and interface magnetism. (2) Preparation and characterization of metallic multilayers with artificial superstructures. (3) Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in magnetic multilayers. (4) Novel properties of nanostructured ferromagnetic thin films (dots and wires). A subject of particular interest in the author’s research was the artificially prepared multilayers consisting of metallic elements. The motivation to initiate the multilayer investigation is described and the physical properties observed in the artificial multilayers are introduced. The author’s research was initially in the field of pure physical science and gradually extended into applied science. His achievements are highly regarded not only from the fundamental point of view but also from the technological viewpoint. PMID:23391605

  14. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  15. Bioinspired artificial single ion pump.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huacheng; Hou, Xu; Zeng, Lu; Yang, Fu; Li, Lin; Yan, Dadong; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-10-30

    Bioinspired artificial functional nanochannels for intelligent molecular and ionic transport control at the nanoscale have wide potential applications in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Although various smart passive ion transport properties of ion channels have been artificially realized, it is still hugely challenging to achieve high level intelligent ion transport features in biological ion pumps. Here we show a unique bioinspired single ion pump based on a cooperative pH response double-gate nanochannel, whose gates could be opened and closed alternately/simultaneously under symmetric/asymmetric pH environments. With the stimulation of the double-gate nanochannel by continuous switching of the symmetric/asymmetric pH stimuli, the bioinspired system systematically realized three key ionic transport features of biological ion pumps, including an alternating gates ion pumping process under symmetric pH stimuli, transformation of the ion pump into an ion channel under asymmetric pH stimuli, and a fail-safe ion pumping feature under both symmetric and asymmetric pH stimuli. The ion pumping processes could well be reproduced under a concentration gradient. With the advantages of the extraordinary ionic transport functions of biological ion pumps, the bioinspired ion pump should find widespread applicability in active transportation-controlling smart nanofluidic devices, efficient energy conversions, and seawater desalinization, and open the way to design and develop novel bioinspired intelligent artificial nanochannel materials. PMID:23773031

  16. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  17. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  18. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.; Van Robays, J.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today’s common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  19. Electrically controllable artificial PAN muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehpoor, Karim; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Mojarrad, Mehran

    1996-02-01

    Artificial muscles made with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers are traditionally activated in electrolytic solution by changing the pH of the solution by the addition of acids and/or bases. This usually consumes a considerable amount of weak acids or bases. Furthermore, the synthetic muscle (PAN) itself has to be impregnated with an acid or a base and must have an appropriate enclosure or provision for waste collection after actuation. This work introduces a method by which the PAN muscle may be elongated or contracted in an electric field. We believe this is the first time that this has been achieved with PAN fibers as artificial muscles. In this new development the PAN muscle is first put in close contact with one of the two platinum wires (electrodes) immersed in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Applying an electric voltage between the two wires changes the local acidity of the solution in the regions close to the platinum wires. This is because of the ionization of sodium chloride molecules and the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions at the negative and positive electrode sites, respectively. This ion accumulation, in turn, is accompanied by a sharp increase and decrease of the local acidity in regions close to either of the platinum wires, respectively. An artificial muscle, in close contact with the platinum wire, because of the change in the local acidity will contract or expand depending on the polarity of the electric field. This scheme allows the experimenter to use a fixed flexible container of an electrolytic solution whose local pH can be modulated by an imposed electric field while the produced ions are basically trapped to stay in the neighborhood of a given electrode. This method of artificial muscle activation has several advantages. First, the need to use a large quantity of acidic or alkaline solutions is eliminated. Second, the use of a compact PAN muscular system is facilitated for applications in active musculoskeletal structures. Third, the

  20. Internet advertising of artificial tanning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica

    2006-08-01

    Artificial tanning, defined as deliberate exposure to ultraviolet rays produced by artificial tanning devices, is a new and emerging public health issue in Australia and globally. Epidemiological research suggests that artificial tanning may contribute to the incidence of melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer as well as other health problems. Given that Australia has a high incidence of skin cancer, we have undertaken a study to explore how artificial tanning has been promoted to its users. The aim was to analyze the completeness and accuracy of information about artificial tanning. A content analysis of web sites of tanning salons and distributors of tanning equipment in Australia was conducted. A total of 22 web sites were analyzed. None of the solarium operators or distributors of equipment provided full information about the risks of artificial tanning. Fifty-nine percent of web advertisements had no information and 41% provided only partial information regarding the risks of artificial tanning. Pictures with the image of bronze-tanned bodies, predominantly women, were used by all web advertisers. In light of the success of sun-safety campaigns in Australia, the findings of future epidemiological research on the prevalence of artificial tanning and sociological and anthropological research on why people utilize artificial tanning should be a basis for developing effective targeted health promotion on the elimination of artificial tanning in the country.

  1. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  2. Research and applications: Artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, B.; Duda, R. O.; Fikes, R. E.; Hart, P. E.; Nilsson, N. J.; Thorndyke, P. W.; Wilber, B. M.

    1971-01-01

    Research in the field of artificial intelligence is discussed. The focus of recent work has been the design, implementation, and integration of a completely new system for the control of a robot that plans, learns, and carries out tasks autonomously in a real laboratory environment. The computer implementation of low-level and intermediate-level actions; routines for automated vision; and the planning, generalization, and execution mechanisms are reported. A scenario that demonstrates the approximate capabilities of the current version of the entire robot system is presented.

  3. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments

    PubMed Central

    O'Keeffe, Derek T.; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  4. Epistasis analysis using artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jason H; Hill, Doug P

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce artificial intelligence (AI) methodology for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. The ultimate goal of our AI strategy is to analyze genome-wide genetics data as a human would using sources of expert knowledge as a guide. The methodology presented here is based on computational evolution, which is a type of genetic programming. The ability to generate interesting solutions while at the same time learning how to solve the problem at hand distinguishes computational evolution from other genetic programming approaches. We provide a general overview of this approach and then present a few examples of its application to real data.

  5. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  6. A Light Driven Artificial Goldfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, J.; Finkelmann, H.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Shelley, M.; Toth-Katona, T.

    2005-03-01

    Liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) undergo large and rapid shape changes when illuminated by light. We have immersed an azo-dye doped LCE in a fluid and alternately illuminate either side of the LCE with light to create an artificial goldfish of sorts. These light induced deformations allow the LCE to interact with a fluid environment in novel ways. We use a fluid flow visualization technique to attempt to understand the dynamics of these interactions. We describe our experimental setup, the LCE drive scheme used, and our observations of induced motion in both the LCE sample and the surrounding fluid.

  7. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  8. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anken, Craig S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  9. Artificial tissues in perfusion culture.

    PubMed

    Sittinger, M; Schultz, O; Keyszer, G; Minuth, W W; Burmester, G R

    1997-01-01

    In the stagnant environment of traditional culture dishes it is difficult to generate long term experiments or artificial tissues from human cells. For this reason a perfusion culture system with a stable supply of nutrients was developed. Human chondrocytes were seeded three-dimensionally in resorbable polymer fleeces. The cell-polymer tissues were then mounted in newly developed containers (W.W. Minuth et al, Biotechniques, 1996) and continuously perfused by fresh medium for 40 days. Samples from the effluate were analyzed daily, and the pH of the medium and glucose concentration remained stable during this period. The lactid acid concentration increased from 0.17 mg/ml to 0.35 mg/ml, which was influenced by the degradation of the resorbable polymer fibers used as three dimensional support material for the cells. This perfusion system proved to be reliable especially in long term cultures. Any components in the culture medium of the cells could be monitored without disturbances as caused by manual medium replacement. These results suggest the described perfusion culture system to be a valuable and convenient tool for many applications in tissue engineering, especially in the generation of artificial connective tissue.

  10. Artificial muscle: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Marcus C

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical devices are sought to support insufficient or paralysed striated muscles including the failing heart. Nickel-titanium alloys (nitinol) present the following two properties: (i) super-elasticity, and (ii) the potential to assume different crystal structures depending on temperature and/or stress. Starting from the martensite state nitinol is able to resume the austenite form (state of low potential energy and high entropy) even against an external resistance. This one-way shape change is deployed in self-expanding vascular stents. Heating induces the force generating transformation from martensite to the austenite state while cooling induces relaxation back to the martensite state. This two-way shape change oscillating between the two states may be used in cyclically contracting support devices of silicon-coated nitinol wires. Such a contractile device sutured to the right atrium has been tested in vitro in a bench model and in vivo in sheep. The contraction properties of natural muscles, specifically of the myocardium, and the tight correlation with ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is briefly outlined. Force development by the nitinol device cannot be smoothly regulated as in natural muscle. Its mechanical impact is forced onto the natural muscle regardless of the actual condition with regard to metabolism and Ca2+-homeostasis. The development of artificial muscle on the basis of nitinol wires is still in its infancy. The nitinol artificial muscle will have to prove its viability in the various clinical settings. PMID:22183715

  11. Artificial muscle: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Marcus C

    2011-12-19

    Mechanical devices are sought to support insufficient or paralysed striated muscles including the failing heart. Nickel-titanium alloys (nitinol) present the following two properties: (i) super-elasticity, and (ii) the potential to assume different crystal structures depending on temperature and/or stress. Starting from the martensite state nitinol is able to resume the austenite form (state of low potential energy and high entropy) even against an external resistance. This one-way shape change is deployed in self-expanding vascular stents. Heating induces the force generating transformation from martensite to the austenite state while cooling induces relaxation back to the martensite state. This two-way shape change oscillating between the two states may be used in cyclically contracting support devices of silicon-coated nitinol wires. Such a contractile device sutured to the right atrium has been tested in vitro in a bench model and in vivo in sheep. The contraction properties of natural muscles, specifically of the myocardium, and the tight correlation with ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is briefly outlined. Force development by the nitinol device cannot be smoothly regulated as in natural muscle. Its mechanical impact is forced onto the natural muscle regardless of the actual condition with regard to metabolism and Ca2+-homeostasis. The development of artificial muscle on the basis of nitinol wires is still in its infancy. The nitinol artificial muscle will have to prove its viability in the various clinical settings.

  12. Artificial neural networks in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Parisa; Mohammadi, Hasan Reza; Benzel, Edward C; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) effectively analyze non-linear data sets. The aimed was A review of the relevant published articles that focused on the application of ANNs as a tool for assisting clinical decision-making in neurosurgery. A literature review of all full publications in English biomedical journals (1993-2013) was undertaken. The strategy included a combination of key words 'artificial neural networks', 'prognostic', 'brain', 'tumor tracking', 'head', 'tumor', 'spine', 'classification' and 'back pain' in the title and abstract of the manuscripts using the PubMed search engine. The major findings are summarized, with a focus on the application of ANNs for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Finally, the future of ANNs in neurosurgery is explored. A total of 1093 citations were identified and screened. In all, 57 citations were found to be relevant. Of these, 50 articles were eligible for inclusion in this review. The synthesis of the data showed several applications of ANN in neurosurgery, including: (1) diagnosis and assessment of disease progression in low back pain, brain tumours and primary epilepsy; (2) enhancing clinically relevant information extraction from radiographic images, intracranial pressure processing, low back pain and real-time tumour tracking; (3) outcome prediction in epilepsy, brain metastases, lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar disc herniation, childhood hydrocephalus, trauma mortality, and the occurrence of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage; (4) the use in the biomechanical assessments of spinal disease. ANNs can be effectively employed for diagnosis, prognosis and outcome prediction in neurosurgery.

  13. Artificial Organisms with Human Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Domenico

    If artificial organisms are constructed with the goal to better understand the behaviour of real organisms, artificial organisms that resemble human beings should possess a communication system with the same properties of human language. This chapter tries to identify nine such properties and for each of them to describe what has been done and what has to be done. Human language: (1) is made up of signals which are arbitrarily connected to their meanings, (2) has syntax and, more generally, its signals are made up of smaller signals, (3) is culturally transmitted and culturally evolved, (4) is used to communicate with oneself and not only with others, (5) is particularly sophisticated for communicating information about the external environment, (6) uses displaced signals, (7) is intentional and requires recognition of intentions in others, (8) is the product of a complex nervous system, (9) influences human cognition. Communication presupposes a shared worldview which depends on the brain, body, and adaptive pattern of the organisms that want to communicate, and this represents a critical challenge also for communication between robots and us.

  14. Artificial pigs in space: using artificial intelligence and artificial life techniques to design animal housing.

    PubMed

    Stricklin, W R; de Bourcier, P; Zhou, J Z; Gonyou, H W

    1998-10-01

    Computer simulations have been used by us since the early 1970s to gain an understanding of the spacing and movement patterns of confined animals. The work has progressed from the early stages, in which we used randomly positioned points, to current investigations of animats (computer-simulated animals), which show low levels of learning via artificial neural networks. We have determined that 1) pens of equal floor area but of different shape result in different spatial and movement patterns for randomly positioned and moving animats; 2) when group size increases under constant density, freedom of movement approaches an asymptote at approximately six animats; 3) matching the number of animats with the number of corners results in optimal freedom of movement for small groups of animats; and 4) perimeter positioning occurs in groups of animats that maximize their distance to first- and second-nearest neighbors. Recently, we developed animats that move, compete for social dominance, and are motivated to obtain resources (food, resting sites, etc.). We are currently developing an animat that learns its behavior from the spatial and movement data collected on live pigs. The animat model is then used to pretest pen designs, followed by new pig spatial data fed into the animat model, resulting in a new pen design to be tested, and the steps are repeated. We believe that methodologies from artificial-life and artificial intelligence can contribute to the understanding of basic animal behavior principles, as well as to the solving of problems in production agriculture in areas such as animal housing design.

  15. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  16. Collective beating of artificial microcilia.

    PubMed

    Coq, Naïs; Bricard, Antoine; Delapierre, Francois-Damien; Malaquin, Laurent; du Roure, Olivia; Fermigier, Marc; Bartolo, Denis

    2011-07-01

    We combine technical, experimental, and theoretical efforts to investigate the collective dynamics of artificial microcilia in a viscous fluid. We take advantage of soft lithography and colloidal self-assembly to devise microcarpets made of hundreds of slender magnetic rods. This novel experimental setup is used to investigate the dynamics of extended cilia arrays driven by a precessing magnetic field. Whereas the dynamics of an isolated cilium is a rigid body rotation, collective beating results in a symmetry breaking of the precession patterns. The trajectories of the cilia are anisotropic and experience a significant structural evolution as the actuation frequency increases. We present a minimal model to account for our experimental findings and demonstrate how the global geometry of the array imposes the shape of the trajectories via long-range hydrodynamic interactions. PMID:21797546

  17. Research and applications: Artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, B.; Fikes, R. E.; Chaitin, L. J.; Hart, P. E.; Duda, R. O.; Nilsson, N. J.

    1971-01-01

    A program of research in the field of artificial intelligence is presented. The research areas discussed include automatic theorem proving, representations of real-world environments, problem-solving methods, the design of a programming system for problem-solving research, techniques for general scene analysis based upon television data, and the problems of assembling an integrated robot system. Major accomplishments include the development of a new problem-solving system that uses both formal logical inference and informal heuristic methods, the development of a method of automatic learning by generalization, and the design of the overall structure of a new complete robot system. Eight appendices to the report contain extensive technical details of the work described.

  18. Quality Control by Artificial Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Edmond Y.; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Niel, Kurt S.

    2010-01-01

    Computational technology has fundamentally changed many aspects of our lives. One clear evidence is the development of artificial-vision systems, which have effectively automated many manual tasks ranging from quality inspection to quantitative assessment. In many cases, these machine-vision systems are even preferred over manual ones due to their repeatability and high precision. Such advantages come from significant research efforts in advancing sensor technology, illumination, computational hardware, and image-processing algorithms. Similar to the Special Section on Quality Control by Artificial Vision published two years ago in Volume 17, Issue 3 of the Journal of Electronic Imaging, the present one invited papers relevant to fundamental technology improvements to foster quality control by artificial vision, and fine-tuned the technology for specific applications. We aim to balance both theoretical and applied work pertinent to this special section theme. Consequently, we have seven high-quality papers resulting from the stringent peer-reviewing process in place at the Journal of Electronic Imaging. Some of the papers contain extended treatment of the authors work presented at the SPIE Image Processing: Machine Vision Applications conference and the International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision. On the broad application side, Liu et al. propose an unsupervised texture image segmentation scheme. Using a multilayer data condensation spectral clustering algorithm together with wavelet transform, they demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach on both texture and synthetic aperture radar images. A problem related to image segmentation is image extraction. For this, O'Leary et al. investigate the theory of polynomial moments and show how these moments can be compared to classical filters. They also show how to use the discrete polynomial-basis functions for the extraction of 3-D embossed digits, demonstrating superiority over Fourier

  19. Artificial intelligence in medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Szolovits, P; Patil, R S; Schwartz, W B

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to overcome limitations inherent in conventional computer-aided diagnosis, investigators have created programs that simulate expert human reasoning. Hopes that such a strategy would lead to clinically useful programs have not been fulfilled, but many of the problems impeding creation of effective artificial intelligence programs have been solved. Strategies have been developed to limit the number of hypotheses that a program must consider and to incorporate pathophysiologic reasoning. The latter innovation permits a program to analyze cases in which one disorder influences the presentation of another. Prototypes embodying such reasoning can explain their conclusions in medical terms that can be reviewed by the user. Despite these advances, further major research and developmental efforts will be necessary before expert performance by the computer becomes a reality.

  20. Introduction to artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Enzo; Buscema, Massimo

    2007-12-01

    The coupling of computer science and theoretical bases such as nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory allows the creation of 'intelligent' agents, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), able to adapt themselves dynamically to problems of high complexity. ANNs are able to reproduce the dynamic interaction of multiple factors simultaneously, allowing the study of complexity; they can also draw conclusions on individual basis and not as average trends. These tools can offer specific advantages with respect to classical statistical techniques. This article is designed to acquaint gastroenterologists with concepts and paradigms related to ANNs. The family of ANNs, when appropriately selected and used, permits the maximization of what can be derived from available data and from complex, dynamic, and multidimensional phenomena, which are often poorly predictable in the traditional 'cause and effect' philosophy. PMID:17998827

  1. Self-assembled artificial cilia

    PubMed Central

    Vilfan, Mojca; Potočnik, Anton; Kavčič, Blaž; Osterman, Natan; Poberaj, Igor; Vilfan, Andrej; Babič, Dušan

    2010-01-01

    Due to their small dimensions, microfluidic devices operate in the low Reynolds number regime. In this case, the hydrodynamics is governed by the viscosity rather than inertia and special elements have to be introduced into the system for mixing and pumping of fluids. Here we report on the realization of an effective pumping device that mimics a ciliated surface and imitates its motion to generate fluid flow. The artificial biomimetic cilia are constructed as long chains of spherical superparamagnetic particles, which self-assemble in an external magnetic field. Magnetic field is also used to actuate the cilia in a simple nonreciprocal manner, resulting in a fluid flow. We prove the concept by measuring the velocity of a cilia-pumped fluid as a function of height above the ciliated surface and investigate the influence of the beating asymmetry on the pumping performance. A numerical simulation was carried out that successfully reproduced the experimentally obtained data. PMID:19934055

  2. Theories of artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2007-03-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) is one of the most commonly used paradigms for the study of implicit learning and the contrast between rules, similarity, and associative learning. Despite five decades of extensive research, however, a satisfactory theoretical consensus has not been forthcoming. Theoretical accounts of AGL are reviewed, together with relevant human experimental and neuroscience data. The author concludes that satisfactory understanding of AGL requires (a) an understanding of implicit knowledge as knowledge that is not consciously activated at the time of a cognitive operation; this could be because the corresponding representations are impoverished or they cannot be concurrently supported in working memory with other representations or operations, and (b) adopting a frequency-independent view of rule knowledge and contrasting rule knowledge with specific similarity and associative learning (co-occurrence) knowledge.

  3. What's happening in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F. ); Winkler, H.W.

    1991-05-01

    New developments reported this year are primarily in the areas of electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), beam pumps, and gas lift. The available information includes new products, techniques for extending run life, controllers, monitors and various other products. Specific topics in this article include: ESP turn key leases for temporary lifting; Horizontal pumps; Gas diffusion coatings for ESP bushings and sleeves; ESP variable rate current-voltage recording monitor; Power tubing ESP status; Low volume, high efficiency ESP stage; ESP improvements for horizontal and abrasive conditions; ESP computer design program effort; Well analyzer; Beam pump controller with variable frequency drive; Hydraulic pumping units; Mobile swab unit for marginal wells; Device for unseating downhole pumps; Gas lift valve test stand; Plunger lift controllers; Resettable ESP packer; Power generation from wellhead gas; and Artificial lift PC design program.

  4. Artificial intelligence and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Ron

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined and related to intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) and science education. Modeling the student, the teacher, and the natural environment are discussed as important parts of ICAI and the concept of microworlds as a powerful tool for science education is presented. Optimistic predictions about ICAI are tempered with the complex, persistent problems of: 1) teaching and learning as a soft or fuzzy knowledge base, 2) natural language processing, and 3) machine learning. The importance of accurate diagnosis of a student's learning state, including misconceptions and naive theories about nature, is stressed and related to the importance of accurate diagnosis by a physician. Based on the cognitive science/AI paradigm, a revised model of the well-known Karplus/Renner learning cycle is proposed.

  5. Innovative applications of artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorr, Herbert; Rappaport, Alain

    Papers concerning applications of artificial intelligence are presented, covering applications in aerospace technology, banking and finance, biotechnology, emergency services, law, media planning, music, the military, operations management, personnel management, retail packaging, and manufacturing assembly and design. Specific topics include Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring, an intelligent training system for Space Shuttle flight controllers, an expert system for the diagnostics of manufacturing equipment, a logistics management system, a cooling systems design assistant, and a knowledge-based integrated circuit design critic. Additional topics include a hydraulic circuit design assistant, the use of a connector assembly specification expert system to harness detailed assembly process knowledge, a mixed initiative approach to airlift planning, naval battle management decision aids, an inventory simulation tool, a peptide synthesis expert system, and a system for planning the discharging and loading of container ships.

  6. Innovative applications of artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, H.; Rappaport, A.

    1989-01-01

    Papers concerning applications of artificial intelligence are presented, covering applications in aerospace technology, banking and finance, biotechnology, emergency services, law, media planning, music, the military, operations management, personnel management, retail packaging, and manufacturing assembly and design. Specific topics include Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring, an intelligent training system for Space Shuttle flight controllers, an expert system for the diagnostics of manufacturing equipment, a logistics management system, a cooling systems design assistant, and a knowledge-based integrated circuit design critic. Additional topics include a hydraulic circuit design assistant, the use of a connector assembly specification expert system to harness detailed assembly process knowledge, a mixed initiative approach to airlift planning, naval battle management decision aids, an inventory simulation tool, a peptide synthesis expert system, and a system for planning the discharging and loading of container ships.

  7. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Alice Mae

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are

  8. Program for Development of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Culbert, Chris; Lopez, Frank

    1987-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) computer program is shell for developing expert systems. Designed to enable research, development, and delivery of artificial intelligence on conventional computers. Primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. Meets or out-performs most microcomputer- and minicomputer-based artificial-intelligence tools. Written in C.

  9. Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

  10. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  11. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  12. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  13. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  14. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  15. The Education Professorate: Teaching an "Artificial" Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, James W.

    This paper argues that conceiving the education professor's role in higher education as that of teaching an "artificial" science is a helpful metaphor for re-contextualizing this mission. How the use of the metaphor of an artificial science bears on the role of the education professorate is examined by applying the purposive-inner…

  16. Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…

  17. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.73 Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of a spotlight or other...

  18. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.73 Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of a spotlight or other...

  19. Generation of artificial helioseismic time-series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schou, J.; Brown, T. M.

    1993-01-01

    We present an outline of an algorithm to generate artificial helioseismic time-series, taking into account as much as possible of the knowledge we have on solar oscillations. The hope is that it will be possible to find the causes of some of the systematic errors in analysis algorithms by testing them with such artificial time-series.

  20. The European artificial organ scene: present status.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, Raymond; del Cañizo, Juan F; Sauer, Igor M; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2005-06-01

    This article summarizes the current evolutions regarding artificial organs in Europe. The review emanates from the activities by four of the work groups of the European Society for Artificial Organs (ESAO) and is essentially based on the reports by these work groups at the latest ESAO meeting in Warsaw, Poland (2004). The topics are: apheresis, heart support, liver support, uremic toxins.

  1. Recommended Research on Artificial Gravity. Chapter 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, Joan; Paloski, William; Fuller, Charles; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    Based on the summaries presented in the above sections of what is still to be learned on the effects of artificial gravity on human functions, this chapter will discuss the short- and long-term steps of research required to understand fundamentals and to validate operational aspects of using artificial gravity as an effective countermeasure for long-duration space travel.

  2. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  3. Developing an Artificial Life Simulation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, D.; Cheek, A.; Paprzycki, M.

    1996-12-31

    Recent publications suggest existence of a gap between computer science curricula and industry needs. We show how a software engineering project for developing an Artificial Life Simulation Package can help bridge this gap. The results of experiments investigating the influence of the artificial life parameters: initial population, food, movement, survival, and birth are presented and briefly discussed.

  4. Creativity in design and artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Neocleous, C.C.; Esat, I.I.; Schizas, C.N.

    1996-12-31

    The creativity phase is identified as an integral part of the design phase. The characteristics of creative persons which are relevant to designing artificial neural networks manifesting aspects of creativity, are identified. Based on these identifications, a general framework of artificial neural network characteristics to implement such a goal are proposed.

  5. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.73 Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of a spotlight or other...

  6. Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.

    PubMed

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157

  7. Artificial Astrocytes Improve Neural Network Performance

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B.; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157

  8. Artificial Intelligence in Education: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    Gives a brief outline of the development of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) which includes psychology, education, cognitive science, computer science, and artificial intelligence. Highlights include learning environments; learner modeling; a situated approach to learning; and current examples of AIED research. (LRW)

  9. Artificial Reefs--A Coastal Classroom Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindo, John J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the construction of artificial reefs for such uses as commercial fishing and recreational boating. Describes a class project in which students construct a small artificial reef and observe the changes over time in terms of temperature, salinity, flora and fauna. (TW)

  10. 7 CFR 51.2542 - U.S. Artificially Opened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2542 U.S. Artificially Opened. “U.S. Artificially Opened” consists of artificially opened pistachio nuts in the shell which...

  11. Cosmesis: The Art of Making Artificial Limbs Look Lifelike

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Cosmesis: The Art of Making Artificial Limbs Look Lifelike Translated into ... Original article by Rick Bowers Cosmesis is the art of making artificial limbs look lifelike. Artificial hands ...

  12. From natural to artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D

    2013-04-01

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO(2) levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an 'artificial leaf' able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  13. From natural to artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO2 levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an ‘artificial leaf’ able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  14. Artificial organs 2011: a year in review.

    PubMed

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2012-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2011 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal would not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely well-received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. PMID:22394474

  15. Artificial Organs 2012: a year in review.

    PubMed

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2013-03-01

    In this editor's review, articles published in 2012 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. As the official journal of the International Federation for Artificial Organs, the International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected, and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. PMID:23458331

  16. Anaerobic threshold in total artificial heart animals.

    PubMed

    Chiang, B Y; Pantalos, G; Burns, G L; Long, J W; Khanwilkar, P S; Everett, S D; Mohammad, S F; Olsen, D B

    1994-01-01

    The anaerobic threshold represents an objective measure of functional capacity and is useful in assessment of pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study determined the anaerobic threshold in total artificial heart animals and evaluated the performance of the total artificial heart system. Five animals with total artificial hearts were put under incremental exercise testing after exercise training. The intensity of exercise ranged from 2.0 to 4.5 km/hr, with an increment of 0.5 km/hr every 3 min. The anaerobic threshold was 6.72 +/- 0.84 ml/kg/min as detected by the lactate method, and 6.48 +/- 0.79 by the CO2 method. The value of the anaerobic threshold in total artificial heart animals implies that the performance capacity of a total artificial heart is not sufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of vigorously exercising skeletal muscle. The protocol does not allow for driving parameter changes during exercise, and this situation, combined with the manual mode of the control system used, was inadequate to allow the total artificial heart animals to exercise more vigorously. Using an automatic control mode might be helpful, as well as considering the relationship between indices of oxygen metabolism, such as oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption, and oxygen extraction rate, in the control algorithms in total artificial heart control systems.

  17. Artificial Organs 2012: a year in review.

    PubMed

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2013-03-01

    In this editor's review, articles published in 2012 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. As the official journal of the International Federation for Artificial Organs, the International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected, and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years.

  18. Artificial organs 2011: a year in review.

    PubMed

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2012-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2011 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal would not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely well-received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years.

  19. Artificial Organs 2015: A Year in Review.

    PubMed

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2015 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for providing their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of their time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years.

  20. Parallel computation and computers for artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalik, J.S. )

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses Parallel Processing in Artificial Intelligence; Parallel Computing using Multilisp; Execution of Common Lisp in a Parallel Environment; Qlisp; Restricted AND-Parallel Execution of Logic Programs; PARLOG: Parallel Programming in Logic; and Data-driven Processing of Semantic Nets. Attention is also given to: Application of the Butterfly Parallel Processor in Artificial Intelligence; On the Range of Applicability of an Artificial Intelligence Machine; Low-level Vision on Warp and the Apply Programming Mode; AHR: A Parallel Computer for Pure Lisp; FAIM-1: An Architecture for Symbolic Multi-processing; and Overview of Al Application Oriented Parallel Processing Research in Japan.

  1. Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stewart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses computations of blood flow through prosthetic tilting disk valve. Computational procedure developed in simulation used to design better artificial hearts and valves by reducing or eliminating following adverse flow characteristics: large pressure losses, which prevent hearts from working efficiently; separated and secondary flows, which causes clotting; and high turbulent shear stresses, which damages red blood cells. Report reiterates and expands upon part of NASA technical memorandum "Computed Flow Through an Artificial Heart and Valve" (ARC-12983). Also based partly on research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478).

  2. Modulation of autoimmunity with artificial peptides

    PubMed Central

    La Cava, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The loss of immune tolerance to self antigens leads to the development of autoimmune responses. Since self antigens are often multiple and/or their sequences may not be known, one approach to restore immune tolerance uses synthetic artificial peptides that interfere or compete with self peptides in the networks of cellular interactions that drive the autoimmune process. This review describes the rationale behind the use of artificial peptides in autoimmunity and their mechanisms of action. Examples of use of artificial peptides in preclinical studies and in the management of human autoimmune diseases are provided. PMID:20807590

  3. Designing Artificial Enzymes by Intuition and Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Vikas; Koder, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    The rational design of artificial enzymes either by applying physio-chemical intuition of protein structure and function or with the aid of computation methods is a promising area of research with the potential to tremendously impact medicine, industrial chemistry and energy production. Designed proteins also provide a powerful platform for dissecting enzyme mechanisms of natural systems. Artificial enzymes have come a long way, from simple α-helical peptide catalysts to proteins that facilitate multi-step chemical reactions designed by state-of-the-art computational methods. Looking forward, we examine strategies employed by natural enzymes which could be used to improve the speed and selectivity of artificial catalysts. PMID:21124375

  4. Natural and Artificial Antifreeze Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Soichi; Hirao, Noriko

    In the blood of winter polar fish an antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) occurs which acts to protect the fish from freezing to death. The AFGP has a unique hydrophilic hydrophobic conformation, involved in non-colligative depression of the freezing temperature of water without altering the melting point of ice. This phenomenon is reportedly a reflection of the ice crystal growth inhibition by the adsorption of the AFGP onto a-axial surfaces of the ice crystal. The authors, on the other hand, have developed an enzymatically modified protein (EMG-12) by covalent attachment of leucine dodecyl ester to the C-terminal position of gelation with the aid of a reverse reaction catalyzed by a protease. EMG-12, having a hydrophilic-hydrophobic structure, is highly surface-active and acts to stabilize a supercooling state of water by antinucleation. Discussions are made on similarities and dissimilarities of structure-function relationships of these natural and artificial antifreeze proteins. The significance of using them as antifreeze agents is also discussed.

  5. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    PubMed

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. PMID:26253434

  6. The Discovery of Artificial Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    We reconstruct Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie's discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 based in part on documents preserved in the Joliot-Curie Archives in Paris, France. We argue that their discovery followed from the convergence of two parallel lines of research, on the neutron and on the positron, that were focused on a well-defined experimental problem, the nuclear transmutation of aluminum and other light elements. We suggest that a key role was played by a suggestion that Francis Perrin made at the seventh Solvay Conference at the end of October 1933, that the alpha-particle bombardment of aluminum produces an intermediate unstable isotope of phosphorus, which then decays by positron emission. We also suggest that a further idea that Perrin published in December 1933, and the pioneering theory of beta decay that Enrico Fermi also first published in December 1933, established a new theoretical framework that stimulated Joliot to resume the researches that he and Curie had interrupted after the Solvay Conference, now for the first time using a Geiger-Müller counter to detect the positrons emitted when he bombarded aluminum with polonium alpha particles.

  7. Learning in Artificial Neural Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.

  8. Cobaloxime-based artificial hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Marine; Berggren, Gustav; Niklas, Jens; Veinberg, Elias; Mara, Michael W; Shelby, Megan L; Poluektov, Oleg G; Chen, Lin X; Tiede, David M; Cavazza, Christine; Field, Martin J; Fontecave, Marc; Artero, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    Cobaloximes are popular H2 evolution molecular catalysts but have so far mainly been studied in nonaqueous conditions. We show here that they are also valuable for the design of artificial hydrogenases for application in neutral aqueous solutions and report on the preparation of two well-defined biohybrid species via the binding of two cobaloxime moieties, {Co(dmgH)2} and {Co(dmgBF2)2} (dmgH2 = dimethylglyoxime), to apo Sperm-whale myoglobin (SwMb). All spectroscopic data confirm that the cobaloxime moieties are inserted within the binding pocket of the SwMb protein and are coordinated to a histidine residue in the axial position of the cobalt complex, resulting in thermodynamically stable complexes. Quantum chemical/molecular mechanical docking calculations indicated a coordination preference for His93 over the other histidine residue (His64) present in the vicinity. Interestingly, the redox activity of the cobalt centers is retained in both biohybrids, which provides them with the catalytic activity for H2 evolution in near-neutral aqueous conditions. PMID:25029381

  9. Cryogenic microwave anisotropic artificial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Frank

    This thesis addresses analysis and design of a cryogenic microwave anisotropic wave guiding structure that isolates an antenna from external incident fields from specific directions. The focus of this research is to design and optimize the radome's constituent material parameters for maximizing the isolation between an interior receiver antenna and an exterior transmitter without significantly disturbing the transmitter antenna far field characteristics. The design, characterization, and optimization of high-temperature superconducting metamaterials constitutive parameters are developed in this work at X-band frequencies. A calibrated characterization method for testing arrays of split-ring resonators at cryogenic temperature inside a TE10 waveguide was developed and used to back-out anisotropic equivalent material parameters. The artificial material elements (YBCO split-ring resonators on MgO substrate) are optimized to improve the narrowband performance of the metamaterial radome with respect to maximizing isolation and minimizing shadowing, defined as a reduction of the transmitted power external to the radome. The optimized radome is fabricated and characterized in a parallel plate waveguide in a cryogenic environment to demonstrate the degree of isolation and shadowing resulting from its presence. At 11.12 GHz, measurements show that the HTS metamaterial radome achieved an isolation of 10.5 dB and the external power at 100 mm behind the radome is reduced by 1.9 dB. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating a structure that provides good isolation between two antennas and low disturbance of the transmitter's fields.

  10. Artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen; Guido-Zárate, Alejandro; Huanosta, Thalía; Padrón-López, Rosa Martha; Rodríguez-Monroy, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Artificial wetlands (AW) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. Nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. Nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an important role in the performance of these systems by promoting the growth of macrophytes such as reeds and cattails (e.g. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia respectively). In this paper, two AW systems were compared, one located in Mexico City, Mexico at an altitude higher than 2,000 m above the sea level, and the second one located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico at an a altitude near the sea level (27 m). Both systems comprised five reactors (147-L plastic boxes) filled with volcanic slag and gravel and intermittently fed with synthetic water. The removal nitrogen efficiency found for the system located in Mexico City was higher than that of the Tabasco system (90 and 80% as TKN respectively). The higher temperatures in the Tabasco system did not enhanced the nitrogen removal as expected.

  11. Exploration of Artificial Frustrated Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter; Crespi, Vincent

    2015-02-17

    This program encompasses experimental and theoretical studies of arrays of nanometer-scale magnets known as “artificial frustrated magnets”. These magnets are small and closely spaced, so that their behavior as a collective group is complex and reveals insights into how such collections of interacting objects behave as a group. In particular, the placement of the magnets is such that the interactions between them are “frustrated”, in that they compete with each other. These systems are analogs to a class of magnetic materials in which the lattice geometry frustrates interactions between individual atomic moments, and in which a wide range of novel physical phenomena have been recently observed. The advantage to studying the arrays is that they are both designable and resolvable: i.e., the experiments can control all aspects of the array geometry, and can also observe how individual elements of the arrays behave. This research program demonstrated a number of phenomena including the role of multiple collective interactions, the feasibility of using systems with their magnetism aligned perpendicular to the plane of the array, the importance of disorder in the arrays, and the possibility of using high temperatures to adjust the magnet orientations. All of these phenomena, and others explored in this program, add to the body of knowledge around collective magnetic behavior and magnetism in general. Aside from building scientific knowledge in an important technological area, with relevance to computing and memory, the program also gave critical support to the education of students working on the experiments.

  12. Cobaloxime-based artificial hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Marine; Berggren, Gustav; Niklas, Jens; Veinberg, Elias; Mara, Michael W; Shelby, Megan L; Poluektov, Oleg G; Chen, Lin X; Tiede, David M; Cavazza, Christine; Field, Martin J; Fontecave, Marc; Artero, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    Cobaloximes are popular H2 evolution molecular catalysts but have so far mainly been studied in nonaqueous conditions. We show here that they are also valuable for the design of artificial hydrogenases for application in neutral aqueous solutions and report on the preparation of two well-defined biohybrid species via the binding of two cobaloxime moieties, {Co(dmgH)2} and {Co(dmgBF2)2} (dmgH2 = dimethylglyoxime), to apo Sperm-whale myoglobin (SwMb). All spectroscopic data confirm that the cobaloxime moieties are inserted within the binding pocket of the SwMb protein and are coordinated to a histidine residue in the axial position of the cobalt complex, resulting in thermodynamically stable complexes. Quantum chemical/molecular mechanical docking calculations indicated a coordination preference for His93 over the other histidine residue (His64) present in the vicinity. Interestingly, the redox activity of the cobalt centers is retained in both biohybrids, which provides them with the catalytic activity for H2 evolution in near-neutral aqueous conditions.

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Information Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Teruo

    After reviewing the recent popularization of the information transmission and processing technologies, which are supported by the progress of electronics, the authors describe that by the introduction of the opto-electronics into the information technology, the possibility of applying the artificial intelligence (AI) technique to the mechanization of the information management has emerged. It is pointed out that althuogh AI deals with problems in the mental world, its basic methodology relies upon the verification by evidence, so the experiment on computers become indispensable for the study of AI. The authors also describe that as computers operate by the program, the basic intelligence which is concerned in AI is that expressed by languages. This results in the fact that the main tool of AI is the logical proof and it involves an intrinsic limitation. To answer a question “Why do you employ AI in your problem solving”, one must have ill-structured problems and intend to conduct deep studies on the thinking and the inference, and the memory and the knowledge-representation. Finally the authors discuss the application of AI technique to the information management. The possibility of the expert-system, processing of the query, and the necessity of document knowledge-base are stated.

  14. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia. The most important feature of this system is that both sides of a strontium titanate single-crystal substrate are used without an electrochemical apparatus. Plasmon-induced water splitting occurred even with a minimum chemical bias of 0.23 V owing to the plasmonic effects based on the efficient oxidation of water and the use of platinum as a co-catalyst for reduction. Photocurrent measurements were performed to determine the electron transfer between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide semiconductor. The efficiency of water oxidation was determined through spectroelectrochemical experiments aimed at elucidating the electron density in the gold nanoparticles. A set-up similar to the water-splitting system was used to synthesize ammonia via nitrogen fixation using ruthenium instead of platinum as a co-catalyst. PMID:26052419

  15. Artificial cells for cell and organ replacements.

    PubMed

    Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2004-03-01

    The artificial cell is a Canadian invention (Chang, Science, 1964). This principle is being actively investigated for use in cell and organ replacements. The earliest routine clinical use of artificial cells is in the form of coated activated charcoal for hemoperfusion for use in the removal of drugs, and toxins and waste in uremia and liver failure. Encapsulated cells are being studied for the treatment of diabetes, liver failure, and kidney failure, and the use of encapsulated genetically-engineered cells is being investigated for gene therapy. Blood substitutes based on modified hemoglobin are already in Phase III clinical trials in patients, with as much as 20 units being infused into each patient during trauma surgery. Artificial cells containing enzymes are being developed for clinical trial in hereditary enzyme deficiency diseases and other diseases. The artificial cell is also being investigated for drug delivery and for other uses in biotechnology, chemical engineering, and medicine.

  16. Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.

  17. Artificially Structured Boundary For Antihydrogen Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ordonez, C. A.

    2011-06-01

    It may be possible to confine antiprotons using an artificially structured boundary, as part of a process for synthesizing antihydrogen. An artificially structured boundary is defined at present as one that produces a spatially periodic static field, such that the spatial period and range of the field is much smaller than the dimensions of a cloud, plasma or beam of charged particles that is confined by the boundary. A modified Kingdon trap could employ an artificially structured boundary at the location of inner electrodes. The artificially structured boundary would produce a multipole magnetic field that keeps confined particles from reaching the inner electrodes. The magnetic field would be sufficiently short in range to affect the particle trajectories only in close proximity to the inner electrodes. The conditions for producing such a magnetic field have been assessed. The results indicate that the magnetic field must be an octupole or higher order field.

  18. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  19. Artificial Intelligence, Robots and Education: Selected Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Pat

    1987-01-01

    This annotated bibliography describes 12 books, 10 ERIC publications, and 7 periodical articles about artificial intelligence and robotics that were selected by the author as resources for educators. (CLB)

  20. Exploration technology surface systems: Artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, Murray

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: technical issues; current, state-of-the-art, and future programs; and Mars direct tether application for artificial gravity.