Science.gov

Sample records for bioaugmented water-filtering artificial

  1. Selenite resistant rhizobacteria stimulate SeO(3) (2-) phytoextraction by Brassica juncea in bioaugmented water-filtering artificial beds.

    PubMed

    Lampis, Silvia; Ferrari, Anita; Cunha-Queda, A Cristina F; Alvarenga, Paula; Di Gregorio, Simona; Vallini, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    Selenium is a trace metalloid of global environmental concern. The boundary among its essentiality, deficiency, and toxicity is narrow and mainly depends on the chemical forms and concentrations in which this element occurs. Different plant species-including Brassica juncea-have been shown to play a significant role in Se removal from soil as well as water bodies. Furthermore, the interactions between such plants, showing natural capabilities of metal uptake and their rhizospheric microbial communities, might be exploited to increase both Se scavenging and vegetable biomass production in order to improve the whole phytoextraction efficiency. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of selenite removal of B. juncea grown in hydroponic conditions on artificially spiked effluents. To optimize phytoextraction efficiency, interactions between B. juncea and rhizobacteria were designedly elicited. Firstly, B. juncea was grown on water-filtering agriperlite beds in the presence of three different selenite concentrations, namely, 0.2, 1.0, and 2.0 mM. Plant growth was measured after 3 and 6 weeks of incubation in order to establish the selenite concentration at which the best plant biomass production could be obtained. Afterwards, water-filtering agriperlite beds were inoculated either with a selenium-acclimated microbial community deriving from the rhizosphere of B. juncea grown, erstwhile, in a selenite-amended soil or with axenic cultures of two bacterial strains, vicelike Bacillus mycoides SeITE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02, previously isolated and described for their high resistance to selenite. These latter were seeded separately or as a dual consortium. Selenite was amended at a final concentration of 1.0 mM. Total Se content in plant tissues (both shoots and roots), plant biomass production, and persistence of bioaugmented microbial inocula during the experimental time were monitored. Moreover, parameters such as bioconcentration

  2. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  3. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  4. Bioaugmentation: Put microbes to work

    SciTech Connect

    Huban, C.M.; Plowman, R.D.

    1997-03-01

    The murky ponds of wastewater treatment plants are a natural habitat for microbiological growth. The indigenous biomass is an asset to the treatment process because it breaks down organic wastes. But as the amount of organic loading increases and discharge limits decrease, reinforcements are needed to gird the biomass and boost its degradation efficiency. Bioaugmentation provides that kind of support by altering the composition of the biomass. Like biostimulation, which supplements biomass with organic and inorganic nutrients and inducers, bioaugmentation fortifies biomass, but with microorganisms, or bugs, that have been isolated and selectively adapted to degrade specific compounds. Added to a wastewater treatment system, the microbes enhance the biomass` ability to respond to certain situations or to tackle contaminants not broken down by their indigenous counterparts. This results in improved treatment. The paper discusses the selection of microbes, applications, performance expectations, maintenance dosing, and promising research.

  5. Survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation strains.

    PubMed

    Dueholm, Morten S; Marques, Irina G; Karst, Søren M; D'Imperio, Seth; Tale, Vaibhav P; Lewis, Derrick; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2015-06-01

    Successful application of bioaugmentation for enhanced degradation of environmental pollutants is often limited by the lack of methods to monitor the survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation strains. However, recent advancements in sequencing technologies and molecular techniques now allow us to address these limitations. Here a complementing set of general applicable molecular methods are presented that provides detailed information on the performance of individual bioaugmentation strains under in situ conditions. The approach involves genome sequencing to establish highly specific qPCR and RT-qPCR tools for cell enumerations and expression of involved genes, stable isotope probing to follow growth on the target compounds and GFP-tagging to visualize the bioaugmentation strains directly in samples, all in combination with removal studies of the target compounds. The concept of the approach is demonstrated through a case study involving degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in activated sludge augmented with the bioaugmentation strain Pseudomonas monteilii SB3078.

  6. Microbiological safety of household membrane water filter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Wang, Qing; Lou, Wei; Wang, Yuxin; Zhu, Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Waterborne pathogens outbreaks are major reasons of diarrhea disease worldwide. Detecting and monitoring emerging waterborne pathogens (EWPs) is important for drinking water microbiological safety. The microbiological safety of household water hollow fiber membrane filter which is the end of drinking water treatment process was studied with heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and real-time PCR method. The effect of the flow rate, idle time and washing fashion were investigated. Among the selected filters from three manufacturers, only the PVDF membrane water filter (Brand B) could achieve a good water purification criteria. Brand A was found a certain degree of EWPs in its effluent. The lowest bacteria-removing efficiency of the PVC membrane water filter was found Brand C. Our study showed that the microorganisms could reach up to 10(6) CFU ml(-1) and the 16s rDNA could reach up to 10(6) copies ml(-1) in the initial filtrate of Brand C. More species and amounts of EWPs were detected in the washing water. These results suggested that the popular household membrane filters might cause microbiological risks at certain circumstances such as the shock load of EWPs and leakage of the membranes in the case of abnormal source water or poor membrane filter quality.

  7. 121. View of water filters, water from which is used ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. View of water filters, water from which is used to cool bearings of turbine-generator units in Generator Room above; looking north. This water filter is for turbine-generator unit no. 1, and is located in the subway. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  8. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF WATER FILTERING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF WATER FILTERING EQUIPMENT AND BROCK HOUSES ALONG THE EAST SIDE OF THE COMPOUND. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. The role of cell bioaugmentation and gene bioaugmentation in the remediation of co-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Ian L; Gentry, Terry J; Newby, Deborah T; Roane, Timberley M; Josephson, Karen L

    2002-12-01

    Soils co-contaminated with metals and organics present special problems for remediation. Metal contamination can delay or inhibit microbial degradation of organic pollutants such that for effective in situ biodegradation, bioaugmentation is necessary. We monitored the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CB) in two different soils with and without cadmium (Cd) contamination. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of bioaugmentation to enhance organic degradation in these co-contaminated soils. Finally, we determined whether enhanced degradation was due to survival of the introduced organism (cell bioaugmentation) or plasmid transfer to indigenous microbial populations (gene bioaugmentation). In Brazito soil, dual inoculation with a Cd-resistant bacterium plus a known 2,4-D-degrading bacterium, Ralstonia eutropha JMP134, enhanced 2,4-D degradation. Escherichia coli D11, which lacks chromosomal genes necessary for complete 2,4-D mineralization, was used for gene bioaugmentation in Madera soil. Significant gene transfer of the plasmid to the indigenous populations was observed, and the rate of 2,4-D degradation was enhanced relative to that of controls. Cell bioaugmentation was further demonstrated when (Comamonas testosteroni was used to enhance biodegradation of 3-CB in Madera soil. In this case no transfer of plasmid pBRC60 to indigenous soil recipients was observed. For the Madera soil, nonbioaugmented samples ultimately showed complete 2,4-D degradation. In contrast, nonbioaugmented Brazito soils showed incomplete 2,4-D degradation. These studies are unique in showing that both cell bioaugmentation and gene bioaugmentation can be effective in enhancing organic degradation in co-contaminated soils. Ultimately, the bioaugmentation strategy may depend on the degree of contamination and the time frame available for remediation.

  10. Bioaugmentation strategy employing a microbial consortium immobilized in chitosan beads for oil degradation in mesocosm scale.

    PubMed

    Dellagnezze, B M; Vasconcellos, S P; Angelim, A L; Melo, V M M; Santisi, S; Cappello, S; Oliveira, V M

    2016-06-15

    A bacterial consortium composed by four metagenomic clones and Bacillus subtilis strain CBMAI 707, all derived from petroleum reservoirs, was entrapped in chitosan beads and evaluated regarding hydrocarbon degradation capability. Experiments were carried out in mesocosm scale (3000L) with seawater artificially polluted with crude oil. At different time intervals, mesocosms were sampled and subjected to GC-FID and microbiological analyses, as total and heterotrophic culturable bacterial abundance (DAPI and CFU count), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and taxonomic diversity (massive sequencing of 16S rRNA genes). The results obtained showed that degradation of n-alkane hydrocarbons was similar between both treatments. However, aromatic compound degradation was more efficient in bioaugmentation treatment, with biodegradation percentages reaching up to 99% in 30days. Community dynamics was different between treatments and the consortium used in the bioaugmentation treatment contributed to a significant increase in aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Fungal Inocula for Bioaugmentation of Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lestan, D.; Lamar, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes novel fungal inocula for bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. The inocula are in the form of pelleted solid substrates coated with a sodium alginate suspension of fungal spores or mycelial fragments and incubated until overgrown with the mycelium of selected lignin-degrading fungi. The organisms evaluated were Phanerochaete chrysosporium (BKM F-1767, ATCC 42725), P. sordida (HHB-8922-Sp), Irpex lacteus (Mad-517, ATCC 11245), Bjerkandera adusta (FP-135160-Sp, ATCC 62023), and Trametes versicolor (MD-277). The pelleted fungal inocula resisted competition and proliferation from indigenous soil microbes, were lower in moisture content than current fungal inocula, and had sufficient mechanical strength to allow handling and introduction into the soil without a change in the mechanical consistency of the pellets. Inoculated at a rate of 3% in artificially contaminated nonsterile soil, I. lacteus, B. adusta, and T. versicolor removed 86, 82, and 90%, respectively, of the pentachlorophenol in 4 weeks. A mathematical model was developed to explain moisture distribution in a hydrogel-coated pelleted substrate. PMID:16535337

  12. Applying Bioaugmentation to Treat DNAPL Sources in Fractured Rock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-27

    GUIDANCE DOCUMENT Applying Bioaugmentation to Treat DNAPL Sources in Fractured Rock ESTCP Project ER-201210 MARCH 2017 Charles Schaefer, Ph.D...12-C-0062 Applying Bioaugmentation to Treat DNAPL Sources in Fractured Rock 5b. GRANT NUMBER NA 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER NA 6. AUTHOR(S...Approved for Public Release, Distribution is Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT Management of fractured rock sites impacted by

  13. Bioaugmentation to improve nitrification in activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Leu, Shao-Yuan; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    Bioaugmentation is a proposed technique to improve nutrient removal in municipal wastewater treatment. Compared with commonly used nitrification/denitrification (NDN) processes, bioaugmentation may be able to reduce tankage or land requirements. Many approaches for bioaugmentation have been developed, but few studies have compared the benefits among different approaches. This paper quantifies the effectiveness of bioaugmentation processes and investigates three major "onsite" bioaugmentation alternatives: 1) the parallel-plants approach, which uses acclimated biomass grown in a nitrifying "long-SRT" (sludge retention time) plant to augment a low-SRT treatment plant; 2) the enricher-reactor approach, which uses an offline reactor to produce the augmentation cultures; and 3) the enricher-reactor/return activated sludge (ER-RAS) approach, which grows enrichment culture in a reaeration reactor that receives a portion of the recycle activated sludge. Kinetic models were developed to simulate each approach, and the benefits of various approaches are presented on the same basis with controllable parameters, such as bioaugmentation levels, aeration tank volume, and temperatures. Examples were given to illustrate the potential benefits of bioaugmentation by upgrading a "carbon-only" wastewater treatment plant to nitrification. Simulation results suggested that all bioaugmentation approaches can decrease the minimum SRT for nitrification. The parallel-plants approach creates the highest concentration of biomass but may fail at too low temperature. The ER-RAS approach likely would be more useful at lower temperature and required less reactor volume; enricher-reactor approach would likely be more advantageous in the presence of inhibitory compound(s).

  14. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters.

    PubMed

    Haig, Sarah-Jane; Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; Collins, Gavin; Quince, Christopher

    2016-03-15

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters.

  15. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters. PMID:26895622

  16. Environmental restoration using plant-microbe bioaugmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, M.T.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Metting, F.B.; Seidler, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Land farming, for the purpose of bioremediation, refers traditionally to the spreading of contaminated soil, sediments, or other material over land; mechanically mixing it; incorporating various amendments, such as fertilizer or mulch; and sometimes inoculating with degradative microorganisms. Populations of bacteria added to soils often decline rapidly and become metabolically inactive. To efficiently degrade contaminants, microorganisms must be metabolically active. Thus, a significant obstacle to the successful use of microorganisms for environmental applications is their long-term survival and the expression of their degradative genes in situ. Rhizosphere microorganisms are known to be more metabolically active than those in bulk soil, because they obtain carbon and energy from root exudates and decaying root matter. Rhizosphere populations are also more abundant, often containing 10{sup 8} or more culturable bacteria per gram of soil, and bacterial populations on the rhizoplane can exceed 10{sup 9}/g root. Many of the critical parameters that influence the competitive ability of rhizosphere bacteria have not been identified, but microorganisms have frequently been introduced into soil (bioaugmentation) as part of routine or novel agronomic practices. However, the use of rhizosphere bacteria and their in situ stimulation by plant roots for degrading organic contaminants has received little attention. Published studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas putida) for the rapid removal of chlorinated pesticides from contaminated soil, and to promote germination of radish seeds in the presence of otherwise phytotoxic levels of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and phenoxyacetic acid (PAA). The present investigation was undertaken to determine if these strains (Pseudomonas putida PPO301/pRO101 and PPO301/pRO103) could be used to bioremediate 2,4-D-amended soil via plant-microbe bioaugmentation.

  17. Environmental restoration using plant-microbe bioaugmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, M.T.; Metting, F.B.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Seidler, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Land farming, for the purpose of bioremediation, refers traditionally to the spreading of contaminated soil, sediments, or other material over land; mechanically mixing it; incorporating various amendments, such as fertilizer or mulch; and sometimes inoculating with degradative microorganisms. Populations of bacteria added to soils often decline rapidly and become metabolically inactive. To efficiently degrade contaminants, microorganisms must be metabolically active. Thus, a significant obstacle to the successful use of microorganisms for environmental applications is their long-term survival and the expression of their degradative genes in situ. Rhizosphere microorganisms are known to be more metabolically active than those in bulk soil, because they obtain carbon and energy from root exudates and decaying root matter. Rhizosphere populations are also more abundant, often containing 10[sup 8] or more culturable bacteria per gram of soil, and bacterial populations on the rhizoplane can exceed 10[sup 9]/g root. Many of the critical parameters that influence the competitive ability of rhizosphere bacteria have not been identified, but microorganisms have frequently been introduced into soil (bioaugmentation) as part of routine or novel agronomic practices. However, the use of rhizosphere bacteria and their in situ stimulation by plant roots for degrading organic contaminants has received little attention. Published studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas putida) for the rapid removal of chlorinated pesticides from contaminated soil, and to promote germination of radish seeds in the presence of otherwise phytotoxic levels of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and phenoxyacetic acid (PAA). The present investigation was undertaken to determine if these strains (Pseudomonas putida PP0301/pRO101 and PP0301/pRO103) could be used to bioremediate 2,4-D-amended soil via plant-microbe bioaugmentation.

  18. [Bioaugmented removal of pyridine and the microbial community dynamic analysis].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lin; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Jian-Long

    2012-06-01

    The bioaugmented removal of pyridine was investigated through introducing immobilized Paracoccus sp. strain KT-5 capable of degrading pyridine into the lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with activated sludge. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) was used to analyzed the microbial community dynamics of two reactors during the whole operation process. The experimental results indicated that the introduction of immobilized strain KT-5 into the SBR could speed up the start-up of reactor, compared to the non-bioaugmented SBR. When the initial concentration of pyridine varied from 195.6 mg x L(-1) to 586.8 mg x L(-1), the bioaugmented effect was not significant; however, when the initial concentration of pyridine was 782.4-2934 mg x L(-1), the bioaugmentation role in pyridine degradation was obvious. The analysis of T-RFLP indicated that the introduced immobilized strain KT-5, as a dominant strain, always existed in both free and immobilized biomass of the bioaugmented SBR.

  19. Effects of water-filtered infrared A irradiation on human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tobias; Höhn, Annika; Piazena, Helmut; Grune, Tilman

    2010-01-01

    Infrared radiation is a substantial part of the solar energy output reaching the earth surface. Therefore, exposure of humans to infrared radiation is common. However, whether and how infrared (IR) or infrared A acts on human skin cells is still under debate. Recently the generation of reactive oxygen species by water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation was postulated. wIRA shows a spectral distribution similar to that of solar irradiation at the earth's surface. Thus, the need for protection of human skin from both solar- and artificially generated infrared A irradiation was concluded. Here we demonstrate that in human dermal fibroblasts this reactive oxygen species generation is dependent on heat formation by infrared A and can be reproduced by thermal exposure. On the other hand wIRA irradiation had no detectable effect if the temperature in the cells was kept constant, even if irradiance exceeded the extraterrestrial solar irradiance in the IR range by a factor of about 4 and the maximum at noontime in the tropics by a factor up to about 6. This could be demonstrated by the measurement of oxidant formation using H(2)DCFDA and the determination of protein carbonyls. In additional experiments we could show that during thermal exposure the mitochondria contribute significantly to oxidant production. Further experiments revealed that the major absorbance of infrared is due to absorption of the energy by cellular water. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Silver Dissolution and Release from Ceramic Water Filters.

    PubMed

    Mittelman, Anjuliee M; Lantagne, Daniele S; Rayner, Justine; Pennell, Kurt D

    2015-07-21

    Application of silver nanoparticles (nAg) or silver nitrate (AgNO3) has been shown to improve the microbiological efficacy of ceramic water filters used for household water treatment. Silver release, however, can lead to undesirable health effects and reduced filter effectiveness over time. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contribution of nanoparticle detachment, dissolution, and cation exchange to silver elution, and to estimate silver retention under different influent water chemistries. Dissolved silver (Ag(+)) and nAg release from filter disks painted with 0.03 mg/g casein-coated nAg or AgNO3 were measured as a function of pH (5-9), ionic strength (1-50 mM), and cation species (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). Silver elution was controlled by dissolution as Ag(+) and subsequent cation exchange reactions regardless of the applied silver form. Effluent silver levels fell below the drinking water standard (0.1 mg/L) after flushing with 30-42 pore volumes of pH 7, 10 mM NaNO3 at pH 7. When the influent water was at pH 5, contained divalent cations or 50 mM NaNO3, silver concentrations were 5-10 times above the standard. Our findings support regular filter replacement and indicate that saline, hard, or acidic waters should be avoided to minimize effluent silver concentrations and preserve silver treatment integrity.

  1. Modeling the Sustainability of a Ceramic Water Filter Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, Jonathan; Abebe, Lydia; Ehdaie, Beeta; Dillingham, Rebecca; Smith, James

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic water filters (CWFs) are a point-of-use water treatment technology that has shown promise in preventing early childhood diarrhea (ECD) in resource-limited settings. Despite this promise, some researchers have questioned their ability to reduce ECD incidences over the long term since most effectiveness trials conducted to date are less than one year in duration limiting their ability to assess long-term sustainability factors. Most trials also suffer from lack of blinding making them potentially biased. This study uses an agent-based model (ABM) to explore factors related to the long-term sustainability of CWFs in preventing ECD and was based on a three year longitudinal field study. Factors such as filter user compliance, microbial removal effectiveness, filter cleaning and compliance declines were explored. Modeled results indicate that broadly defined human behaviors like compliance and declining microbial effectiveness due to improper maintenance are primary drivers of the outcome metrics of household drinking water quality and ECD rates. The model predicts that a ceramic filter intervention can reduce ECD incidence amongst under two year old children by 41.3%. However, after three years, the average filter is almost entirely ineffective at reducing ECD incidence due to declining filter microbial removal effectiveness resulting from improper maintenance. The model predicts very low ECD rates are possible if compliance rates are 80-90%, filter log reduction efficiency is 3 or greater and there are minimal long-term compliance declines. Cleaning filters at least once every 4 months makes it more likely to achieve very low ECD rates as does the availability of replacement filters for purchase. These results help to understand the heterogeneity seen in previous intervention-control trials and reemphasize the need for researchers to accurately measure confounding variables and ensure that field trials are at least 2-3 years in duration. In summary, the CWF

  2. Modeling the sustainability of a ceramic water filter intervention.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Jonathan; Abebe, Lydia; Ehdaie, Beeta; Dillingham, Rebecca; Smith, James

    2014-02-01

    Ceramic water filters (CWFs) are a point-of-use water treatment technology that has shown promise in preventing early childhood diarrhea (ECD) in resource-limited settings. Despite this promise, some researchers have questioned their ability to reduce ECD incidences over the long term since most effectiveness trials conducted to date are less than one year in duration limiting their ability to assess long-term sustainability factors. Most trials also suffer from lack of blinding making them potentially biased. This study uses an agent-based model (ABM) to explore factors related to the long-term sustainability of CWFs in preventing ECD and was based on a three year longitudinal field study. Factors such as filter user compliance, microbial removal effectiveness, filter cleaning and compliance declines were explored. Modeled results indicate that broadly defined human behaviors like compliance and declining microbial effectiveness due to improper maintenance are primary drivers of the outcome metrics of household drinking water quality and ECD rates. The model predicts that a ceramic filter intervention can reduce ECD incidence amongst under two year old children by 41.3%. However, after three years, the average filter is almost entirely ineffective at reducing ECD incidence due to declining filter microbial removal effectiveness resulting from improper maintenance. The model predicts very low ECD rates are possible if compliance rates are 80-90%, filter log reduction efficiency is 3 or greater and there are minimal long-term compliance declines. Cleaning filters at least once every 4 months makes it more likely to achieve very low ECD rates as does the availability of replacement filters for purchase. These results help to understand the heterogeneity seen in previous intervention-control trials and reemphasize the need for researchers to accurately measure confounding variables and ensure that field trials are at least 2-3 years in duration. In summary, the CWF

  3. Atrazine degradation by bioaugmented sediment from constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Runes, H B; Jenkins, J J; Bottomley, P J

    2001-10-01

    The potential to establish pesticide biodegradation in constructed wetland sediment was investigated. Under microcosm conditions, bioaugmentation of sediment with small quantities of an atrazine spill-site soil (1:100 w/w) resulted in the mineralization of 25-30% of 14C ethyl atrazine (1-10 microg g(-1) sediment) as 14CO2 under both unsaturated and water-saturated conditions; atrazine and its common metabolites were almost undetectable after 30 days incubation. By comparison, unbioaugmented sediment supplemented with organic amendments (cellulose or cattail leaves) mineralized only 2-3% of 14C ethyl atrazine, and extractable atrazine and its common metabolites comprised approximately 70% of the original application. The population density of atrazine-degrading microorganisms in unbioaugmented sediment was increased from approximately 10(2)/g to 10(4)/g by bioaugmentation (1:100 w/w), and increased by another 60-fold (6.0x10(5) g(-1)) after incubation with 10 microg g(-1) of atrazine. A high population of atrazine degraders (approximately 10(6) g(-1)) and enhanced rates of atrazine mineralization also developed in bioaugmented sediment after incubation in flooded mesocosms planted with cattails (Typha latifolia) and supplemented with atrazine (3.2 mg l(-1), 1 microg g(-1) sediment). In the absence of atrazine, neither the population of atrazine degraders, nor the atrazine mineralizing potential of bioaugmented sediment increased, regardless of the presence or absence of cattails. Bioaugmentation might be a simple method to promote pesticide degradation in nursery run-off channeled through constructed wetlands, if persistence of degraders in the absence of pesticide is not a serious constraint.

  4. Shifts in microbial communities in bioaugmented grease interceptors removing fat, oil, and grease (FOG).

    PubMed

    He, Xia; So, Mark Jason; de Los Reyes, Francis L

    2016-08-01

    To understand the effect of daily bioaugmentation in full-scale grease interceptors (GIs), we compared the microbial communities occurring in two full-scale GIs during bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented cycles. The changes in microbial communities were determined using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene clone library construction. Differences in the microbial community structure between control and bioaugmented cycles were observed in all cases, although the dominant terminal restriction fragments in the biological product were not detected. The addition of bioaugmentation products and changes in the GI microbial ecology were related to differences in GI performance. Understanding the shifts due to bioaugmentation will result in more informed assessments of the benefits of bioadditives on FOG removal in GIs as well as the effects on downstream sewer lines.

  5. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production.

  6. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    PubMed

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecological engineering of bioaugmentation from side-stream nitrification.

    PubMed

    Smith, R C; Saikaly, P E; Zhang, K; Thomatos, S; Oerther, D B

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater treatment relies on careful integration of environmental engineering with microbial ecology. This would seem to be particularly the case when attempting to enhance survivability of organisms introduced from outside the main-stream reactor, i.e. bioaugmentation. Molecular biology tools were utilised in this study to assist in understanding the mechanisms of successful bioaugmentation. Molecular fingerprinting showed that side-stream reactor configuration strongly influenced ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) community structure. In both lab-scale and full-scale systems, AOB communities in the side-stream and main-stream were very similar. The experimental systems revealed that a PFR side-stream produced greater diversity of AOB than a CSTR side-stream in a PFR main-stream system, whereas the full-scale side-stream resulted in essentially an AOB monoculture. Phylogenetic analysis revealed less diversity than molecular fingerprinting perhaps due to biases in the cloning/transformation procedure.

  8. Microcosm evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation to combat marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Eickenbusch, P; Pasadakis, Nikos; Venieri, Danae; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2013-09-25

    Oil spills can be disastrous to any ecosystem. Bioremediation through bioaugmentation (addition of oil-degrading bacteria) and biostimulation (addition of nutrients N&P) options can be a promising strategy for combating oil spills following first response actions. However, bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation since nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products that are highly dependent on environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that the best way to overcome the above barriers is to use microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as the bioaugmentation technology that uses exclusively microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) to be decontaminated. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of an ABA strategy for the successful remediation of polluted marine environments. A consortium was enriched from seawater samples taken from Elefsina Gulf near the Hellenic Petroleum Refinery, a site exposed to chronic crude oil pollution. Pre-adapted consortium was tested alone or in combination with inorganic nutrients in the presence (or not) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) in 30-day experiments. Treatment with fertilizers in the presence of biosurfactants exhibited the highest alkane and PAH degradation and showed highest growth over a period of almost 15 days. Considering the above, the use of biostimulation additives in combination with naturally pre-adapted hydrocarbon degrading consortia has proved to be a very effective treatment and it is a promising strategy in the future especially when combined with lipophilic fertilizers instead of inorganic nutrients. Such an approach becomes more pertinent when the oil spill approaches near the shoreline and immediate hydrocarbon degradation is needed.

  9. Removal of carbamates and detoxification potential in a biomixture: Fungal bioaugmentation versus traditional use.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Madrigal-León, Karina; Masís-Mora, Mario; Pérez-Villanueva, Marta; Chin-Pampillo, Juan Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The use of fungal bioaugmentation represents a promising way to improve the performance of biomixtures for the elimination of pesticides. The ligninolyitc fungus Trametes versicolor was employed for the removal of three carbamates (aldicarb, ALD; methomyl, MTM; and methiocarb, MTC) in defined liquid medium; in this matrix ALD and MTM showed similar half-lives (14d), nonetheless MTC exhibited a faster removal, with a half-life of 6.5d. Then the fungus was employed in the bioaugmentation of an optimized biomixture to remove the aforementioned carbamates plus carbofuran (CFN). Bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented systems removed over 99% ALD and MTM after 8d of treatment, nonetheless a slight initial delay in the removal was observed in the bioaugmented biomixtures (removal after 3d: ALD 87%/97%; MTM 86%/99%, in bioaugmented/non-bioaugmented systems). The elimination of the other carbamates was slower, but independent of the presence of the fungus: >98% for MTM after 35d and >99.5% for CFN after 22d. Though the bioaugmentation did not improve the removal capacity of the biomixture, it favored a lower production of transformation products at the first stages of the treatment, and in both cases, a marked decrease in the toxicity of the matrix was swiftly achieved along the process (from 435 to 448 TU to values <1TU in 16d).

  10. Bioremediation assessment of diesel-biodiesel-contaminated soil using an alternative bioaugmentation strategy.

    PubMed

    Colla, Tatiana Simonetto; Andreazza, Robson; Bücker, Francielle; de Souza, Marcela Moreira; Tramontini, Letícia; Prado, Gerônimo Rodrigues; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira; Bento, Fátima Menezes

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of successive bioaugmentation, conventional bioaugmentation, and biostimulation of biodegradation of B10 in soil. In addition, the structure of the soil microbial community was assessed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The consortium was inoculated on the initial and the 11th day of incubation for successive bioaugmentation and only on the initial day for bioaugmentation and conventional bioaugmentation. The experiment was conducted for 32 days. The microbial consortium was identified based on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and consisted as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Ochrobactrum intermedium. Nutrient introduction (biostimulation) promoted a positive effect on microbial populations. The results indicate that the edaphic community structure and dynamics were different according to the treatments employed. CO2 evolution demonstrated no significant difference in soil microbial activity between biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis indicated a biodegradation level of 35.7 and 32.2 % for the biostimulation and successive bioaugmentation treatments, respectively. Successive bioaugmentation displayed positive effects on biodegradation, with a substantial reduction in TPH levels.

  11. Improving anaerobic digestion of a cellulosic waste via routine bioaugmentation with cellulolytic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Martin-Ryals, Ana; Schideman, Lance; Li, Peng; Wilkinson, Henry; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated routine bioaugmentation in the acid-phase of a two-phase anaerobic digestion (AD) process treating a largely cellulosic waste material generated from sweet corn processing. A proprietary cellulolytic bioculture was used for bioaugmentation with the aim of increasing substrate hydrolysis to improve overall methanogenic efficiency. In a sequencing batch experiment routine bioaugmentation achieved significantly greater soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) generation (+25%) and methane production (+15%) compared to one-time bioaugmentation. In a continuous bench-scale system, routine bioaugmentation increased acid-phase sCOD by 29-68% and acetic acid concentrations by 31-34%. This benefit to hydrolysis and acetogenesis subsequently led to sustained increase in methane production (+56%) compared to non-bioaugmentation. A cursory economic analysis indicated that routine bioaugmentation could improve the economics of corn waste AD by $27-$34/dry tonne of waste. Overall, routine bioaugmentation showed significant promise for improving AD of corn waste by achieving sustained increases in substrate hydrolysis and methane production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The performance efficiency of bioaugmentation to prevent anaerobic digestion failure from ammonia and propionate inhibition.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Sun, Yongming; Wu, Shubiao; Kong, Xiaoying; Yuan, Zhenhong; Dong, Renjie

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of bioaugmentation with enriched methanogenic propionate degrading microbial consortia on propionate fermentation under ammonia stress from total ammonia nitrogen concentration (TAN) of 3.0gNL(-1). Results demonstrated that bioaugmentation could prevent unstable digestion against further deterioration. After 45days of 1dosage (0.3g dry cell weight L(-1)d(-1), DCW L(-1)d(-1)) of bioaugmentation, the average volumetric methane production (VMP), methane recovery rate and propionic acid (HPr) degradation rate was enhanced by 70mLL(-1)d(-1), 21% and 51%, respectively. In contrast, the non-bioaugmentation reactor almost failed. Routine addition of a double dosage (0.6g DCW L(-1)d(-1)) of bioaugmentation culture was able to effectively recover the failing digester. The results of FISH suggested that the populations of Methanosaetaceae increased significantly, which could be a main contributor for the positive effect on methane production.

  13. Evaluation of bioaugmentation using multiple life cycle assessment approaches: A case study of constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyue; Yang, Jixian; Zhang, Xuedong; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang

    2017-07-29

    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology to enhance the removal of specific pollutants; however, environmental impacts of implementing bioaugmentation have not been considered in most studies. Appropriate methodology is required for the evaluation from both in-depth and comprehensive perspectives, which leads to this study initiating the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioaugmentation. Two LCA methods (CML and e-Balance) were applied to a bioaugmentation case with the aim of illustrating how to evaluate the environmental impacts of bioaugmentation from different perspectives based on the selection of different LCA methods. The results of the case study demonstrated that the LCA methods with different methodology emphasis produced different outcomes, which could lead to differentiated optimization strategies depending on the associated perspectives. Furthermore, three important aspects are discussed, including coverage of impact categories, the selection of characterization modeling for specific pollutants, and the requirement of including economic indicators for future investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. RDX degradation in bioaugmented model aquifer columns under aerobic and low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Andaya, Christina; Rezes, Rachel; Michalsen, Mandy M; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Alon Blakeney, G; Istok, Jonathan D; Hammett, Steven A

    2017-07-01

    Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in laboratory columns following biostimulation and bioaugmentation was investigated using sediment and groundwater from a contaminated aquifer at a US Navy facility. No RDX degradation was observed following aerobic biostimulation with either fructose or lactate (both 0.1 mM) prior to bioaugmentation. Replicate columns were then bioaugmented with either Gordonia sp. KTR9, Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C (Ps I-C), or both strains. Under aerobic conditions (influent dissolved oxygen (DO) >6 mg/L), RDX was degraded following the addition of fructose, and to a lesser extent with lactate, in columns bioaugmented with KTR9. No degradation was observed in columns bioaugmented with only Ps I-C under aerobic conditions, consistent with the known anaerobic RDX degradation pathway for this strain. When influent DO was reduced to <2 mg/L, good RDX degradation was observed in the KTR9-bioaugmented column, and some degradation was also observed in the Ps I-C-bioaugmented column. After DO levels were kept below 1 mg/L for more than a month, columns bioaugmented with KTR9 became unresponsive to fructose addition, while RDX degradation was still observed in the Ps I-C-bioaugmented columns. These results indicate that bioaugmentation with the aerobic RDX degrader KTR9 could be effective at sites where site geology or geochemistry allow higher DO levels to be maintained. Further, inclusion of strains capable of anoxic RDX degradation such as Ps I-C may facilitate bimodal RDX removal when DO levels decrease.

  15. Decontamination of a polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil by phytoremediation-assisted bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Secher, C; Lollier, M; Jézéquel, K; Cornu, J Y; Amalric, L; Lebeau, T

    2013-07-01

    A 70 day pot experiment was conducted for the cleaning-up of a PCBs-contaminated soil (104 mg kg(-1) soil DW) using bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (LB400) assisted or not by the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). The total cultivable bacteria of the soil were higher with the presence of plants. Real-time PCR showed that LB400 (targeting 16S-23S rRNA ITS) survived with abundance related to total bacteria (targeting 16S rRNA) being higher with fescue (up to a factor of three). Bioaugmentation had a positive effect on fescue biomass and more specifically on roots (by a factor of three). PCB dissipation (sum of congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 180) averaged 13 % (bioaugmented-planted) up to 32 % (non bioaugmented-planted), without any significant difference between treatments. Basically our results demonstrated that indigenous bacteria were able to dissipate PCBs (26.2 % dissipation). PCB dissipation was not related to the abundance of LB400 or to the total bacterial counts. Bioaugmentation or fescue altered the structure of the bacterial community of the soil, not the combination of both. Principal component analysis showed that bioaugmentation tended to improve the control of the process (lower variability in PCB dissipation). Opposite to that bioaugmentation increased the variability of the structure of the bacterial community.

  16. Bioaugmentation for polyacrylamide degradation in a sequencing batch reactor and contact oxidation reactor.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qin X; Zhang, Hui C; Chen, Zhi Q; Zhao, Ye; Feng, Yu J

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, one PAM degrading bacterial strain, originally named HWBI, was isolated from an activated sludge sample and used as an exogenous bacteria for bioaugmentation. The strain was primarily identified as Bacillus cereus. One contact oxidation reactor (COR) and one sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were bioaugmented with the HWBI, respectively, and the performance of the bioaugmented systems for PAM removal were investigated under long term operation. Results showed that for the COR augmented with HWBI, 70% of PAM was removed at the end of the 7th day after a single inoculation, and the removal efficiency remained at approximately 70% in the following 45 days after a single inoculation. For the SBR augmented with HWBI, 70% of PAM was removed at the end of the first operation cycle, and the removal remained at approximately 70% in the following eight cycles after a single inoculation. The results indicate that HWBI is an efficient exogenous bacteria for bioaugmentation for PAM removal. Although the COR and SBR were both appropriate reactors that may be used for treatment of PAM using bioaugmentation, the COR was found to be a more time-efficient method compared to the SBR. A molecular screening technique, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), was applied to track the supplemented bacterial strain and to evaluate the effects of bioaugmentation on the microbial communities and to investigate the optimal bioaugmentation strategy.

  17. Bacterial stimulation of copper phytoaccumulation by bioaugmentation with rhizosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Lambais, Márcio Rodrigues; Bortolon, Leandro; de Melo, George Wellington Bastos; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Copper contaminated areas pose environmental health risk to living organisms. Remediation processes are thus required for both crop production and industrial activities. This study employed bioaugmentation with copper resistant bacteria to improve phytoremediation of vineyard soils and copper mining waste contaminated with high copper concentrations. Oatmeal plant (Avena sativa L.) was used for copper phytoextraction. Three copper resistant bacterial isolates from oatmeal rhizosphere (Pseudomonas putida A1; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia A2 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus A6) were used for the stimulation of copper phytoextraction. Two long-term copper contaminated vineyard soils (Mollisol and Inceptisol) and copper mining waste from Southern Brazil were evaluated. Oatmeal plants substantially extracted copper from vineyard soils and copper mining waste. As much as 1549 mg of Cu kg⁻¹ dry mass was extracted from plants grown in Inceptisol soil. The vineyard Mollisol copper uptake (55 mg Cu kg⁻¹ of dry mass) in the shoots was significantly improved upon inoculation of oatmeal plants with isolate A2 (128 mg of Cu kg⁻¹ of shoot dry mass). Overall oatmeal plant biomass displayed higher potential of copper phytoextraction with inoculation of rhizosphere bacteria in vineyard soil to the extent that 404 and 327 g ha⁻¹ of copper removal were respectively observed in vineyard Mollisol bioaugmented with isolate A2 (S. maltophilia) and isolate A6 (A. calcoaceticus). Results suggest potential application of bacterial stimulation of phytoaccumulation of copper for biological removal of copper from contaminated areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial bioaugmentation for improving methane and hydrogen production from microalgae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The recalcitrant cell walls of microalgae may limit their digestibility for bioenergy production. Considering that cellulose contributes to the cell wall recalcitrance of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, this study investigated bioaugmentation with a cellulolytic and hydrogenogenic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, at different inoculum ratios as a possible method to improve CH4 and H2 production of microalgae. Results Methane production was found to increase by 17?~?24% with the addition of C. thermocellum, as a result of enhanced cell disruption and excess hydrogen production. Furthermore, addition of C. thermocellum enhanced the bacterial diversity and quantities, leading to higher fermentation efficiency. A two-step process of addition of C. thermocellum first and methanogenic sludge subsequently could recover both hydrogen and methane, with a 9.4% increase in bioenergy yield, when compared with the one-step process of simultaneous addition of C. thermocellum and methanogenic sludge. The fluorescence peaks of excitation-emission matrix spectra associated with chlorophyll can serve as biomarkers for algal cell degradation. Conclusions Bioaugmentation with C. thermocellum improved the degradation of C. vulgaris biomass, producing higher levels of methane and hydrogen. The two-step process, with methanogenic inoculum added after the hydrogen production reached saturation, was found to be an energy-efficiency method for hydrogen and methane production. PMID:23815806

  19. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  20. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  1. Slow-sand water filter: design, implementation, accessibility and sustainability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Fadus, Matthew; Capuzzi, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    The need for clean water has risen exponentially over the globe. Millions of people are affected daily by a lack of clean water, especially women and children, as much of their day is dedicated to collecting water. The global water crisis not only has severe medical implications, but social, political, and economic consequences as well. The Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph's University has recognized this, and has designed a slow-sand water filter that is accessible, cost-effective, and sustainable. Through the implementation of the Institute's slow-sand water filter and the utilization of microfinancing services, developing countries will not only have access to clean, drinkable water, but will also have the opportunity to break out of a devastating cycle of poverty.

  2. Slow-sand water filter: Design, implementation, accessibility and sustainability in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Fadus, Matthew; Capuzzi, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Summary The need for clean water has risen exponentially over the globe. Millions of people are affected daily by a lack of clean water, especially women and children, as much of their day is dedicated to collecting water. The global water crisis not only has severe medical implications, but social, political, and economic consequences as well. The Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph’s University has recognized this, and has designed a slow-sand water filter that is accessible, cost-effective, and sustainable. Through the implementation of the Institute’s slow-sand water filter and the utilization of microfinancing services, developing countries will not only have access to clean, drinkable water, but will also have the opportunity to break out of a devastating cycle of poverty. PMID:22739748

  3. Microbiological contamination of drinking water in a commercial household water filter system.

    PubMed

    Daschner, F D; Rüden, H; Simon, R; Clotten, J

    1996-03-01

    The microbiological quality of filtered water in a commercial water filter system (Brita) was tested in households and in two laboratories. In 24 of 34 filters used in households, bacterial counts increased in the filtered water up to 6,000 cfu/ml. In 4 of 6 filters tested in the laboratory, bacterial counts in the fresh filtrate were higher than in tap water after approximately one week of use both at room temperature and at 4 degrees C, suggesting growth or biofilm formation in the filter material. In some cases colony counts in the filtered water were 10,000 times those in tap water. The filter material of 5 of 13 new commercial filters was contaminated with bacteria or moulds. National or international regulatory agencies should ensure that water filters marketed for domestic use do not allow deterioration in the microbiological quality of drinking water.

  4. BIOAUGMENTATION WITH BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA PR1301 FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot field study was conducted at the Moffett Federal Airfield, Mountain View, California, to determine whether effective in-situ aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of TCE could be accomplished through bioaugmentation with a genetically modified strain of Burkholderia cepacia ...

  5. BIOAUGMENTATION WITH BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA PR1301 FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot field study was conducted at the Moffett Federal Airfield, Mountain View, California, to determine whether effective in-situ aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of TCE could be accomplished through bioaugmentation with a genetically modified strain of Burkholderia cepacia ...

  6. Impact of bioaugmentation on biochemical methane potential for wheat straw with addition of Clostridium cellulolyticum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaowei; Börner, Rosa Aragão; Nges, Ivo Achu; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Hydrolysis is usually the rate-limited step for methane production from lignocellulosic substrate. Two bioaugmentation strategies, using the cellulolytic anaerobic bacteria Clostridium cellulolyticum, were adopted to enhance the hydrolysis of wheat straw with the purpose of improving the biochemical methane potential (BMP). Namely, the 24-h-incubated seed (C24S) with cellobiose as carbon source and the 60-h-incubated seed (WS60S) with wheat straw as carbon source were respectively used as the bioaugmentation agents. As a result, the BMPs were respectively 342.5 and 326.3 ml g(-1) VS of wheat straw, with an increase of 13.0% and 7.6% comparing to the no-bioaugmentation BMP of 303.3 ml g(-1) VS. The result indicates that the anaerobic digestion efficiency can be improved by bioaugmentation, which therefore may be a promising method for improving methane production from lignocellulosic substrate.

  7. Bioaugmentation with hydrolytic microbes to improve the anaerobic biodegradability of lignocellulosic agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, P G; Vasileiou, S A; Treu, L; Campanaro, S; Lyberatos, G; Angelidaki, I

    2017-03-12

    Bioaugmentation with hydrolytic microbes was applied to improve the methane yield of bioreactors fed with agricultural wastes. The efficiency of Clostridium thermocellum and Melioribacter roseus to degrade lignocellulosic matter was evaluated in batch and continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Results from batch assays showed that C. thermocellum enhanced the methane yield by 34%. A similar increase was recorded in CSTR during the bioaugmentation period; however, at steady-state the effect was noticeably lower (7.5%). In contrast, the bioaugmentation with M. roseus did not promote markedly the anaerobic biodegradability, as the methane yield was increased up to 10% in batch and no effect was shown in CSTR. High-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to assess the effect of bioaugmentation strategies on bacterial and archaeal populations. The microbial analysis revealed that both strains were not markedly resided into biogas microbiome. Additionally, the applied strategies did not alter significantly the microbial communities.

  8. Bioaugmentation and rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation as strategies for optimization of the dissipation capacity of biobeds.

    PubMed

    Campos, M; Perruchon, C; Karas, P A; Karavasilis, D; Diez, M C; Karpouzas, D G

    2017-02-01

    Biobeds are on-farm biodepuration systems whose efficiency rely on their high pesticide biodegradation capacity. We evaluated two optimization strategies, bioaugmentation and/or rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation, to maximize the dissipation capacity of biobeds. Iprodione was used as a model pesticide. Its dissipation and metabolism was determined in a biobed packing material inoculated with an iprodione-degrading Arthrobacter strain C1 (bioaugmentation, treatments B+C1) and/or seeded with ryegrass (rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation, treatments B+P). The impact of those strategies on the activity and composition of the microbial community was determined. Bioaugmentation accelerated the dissipation of iprodione which was further enhanced in the bioaugmented, rhizosphere-assisted treatment (treatment B+P+C1, Half-life (DT50) = 3.4 d), compared to the non-bioaugmented, non rhizosphere-assisted control (DT50 = 9.5 d, treatment B). Bioaugmentation resulted in the earlier formation of intermediate formation of metabolites I (3,5-dichlorophenyl-carboxamide), II (3,5-dichlorophenylurea acetate) and 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA). The latter was further dissipated by the indigenous microbial community. Acid phosphatase (AP) and β-glucosidase (GLU) were temporarily stimulated in rhizosphere-assisted treatments, whereas a stimulation of the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity in the bioaugmented treatments coincided with the hydrolysis of iprodione. q-PCR showed that changes in the abundance of alpha-proteobacteria and firmicutes was driven by the presence of rhizosphere while bioaugmentation had no significant effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance.

  10. Bioaugmentation as a solution to increase methane production from an ammonia-rich substrate.

    PubMed

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Wang, Han; Fiedel, Nicolai R; Luo, Gang; Karakashev, Dimitar B; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates inhibit the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and constitute the main reason for low energy recovery in full-scale reactors. It is estimated that many full-scale AD reactors are operating in ammonia induced "inhibited steady-state" with significant losses of the potential biogas production yield. To date there are not any reliable methods to alleviate the ammonia toxicity effect or to efficiently digest ammonia-rich waste. In the current study, bioaugmentation as a possible method to alleviate ammonia toxicity effect in a mesophilic continuously stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) operating under "inhibited steady state" was tested. A fast growing hydrogenotrophic methanogen (i.e., Methanoculleus bourgensis MS2(T)) was bioaugmented in the CSTR reactor at high ammonia levels (5 g NH4(+)-N L(-1)). A second CSTR reactor was used as control with no bioaugmentation. The results derived from this study clearly demonstrated a 31.3% increase in methane production yield in the CSTR reactor, at steady-state, after bioaugmentation. Additionally, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed a 5-fold increase in relative abundance of Methanoculleus spp. after bioaugmentation. On the contrary to all methods used today to alleviate ammonia toxicity effect, the tested bioaugmentation process performed without interrupting the continuous operation of the reactor and without replacing the ammonia-rich feedstock.

  11. Impact of bio-augmentation with Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3 in membrane bioreactors degrading nonylphenol.

    PubMed

    Cirja, Magdalena; Hommes, Gregor; Ivashechkin, Pavel; Prell, Jürgen; Schäffer, Andreas; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the potential of bio-augmentation to improve the degradation of recalcitrant nonylphenol during the wastewater treatment in membrane bioreactors (MBR). One MBR containing activated sludge was bio-augmented using multistep inoculation with freeze dried Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3, whereas a second control reactor contained activated sludge solely. The (14)C-labeled-nonylphenol isomer (4-[1-ethyl-1,3-dimethylpentyl]phenol) was applied as a single pulse. Bio-augmentation resulted in an immediate increase of dissolved radioactivity in the effluent in comparison to the control reactor (13% and 2% of initially applied radioactivity after 1 day, respectively). After 5 days of operation, the retentate of the bio-augmented reactor contained only 7% of the initial radioactivity in contrast to 50% in the control reactor. The radioactivity associated to the mixed liquor suspended solids, i.e., the suspension of biomass and other solids on the retentate side of the membrane, was mainly found as non-extractable residues that were increasingly formed during prolonged reactor operation, especially for the control MBR. HPLC-LSC and GC-MS(n) analyses revealed that the bio-augmented reactor produced more polar hydroquinone as main degradation intermediate, whereas the control reactor effluent contained a complex mixture of apolar compounds with shortened oxidized alkyl chains. Thus, the apparent differences in the behavior of nonylphenol between the reactors were due to the catabolism of nonylphenol conferred by bio-augmentation with Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3.

  12. The Role of Enriched Microbial Consortium on Iron-Reducing Bioaugmentation in Sediments.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xunan; Xu, Meiying; Sun, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    Microbial iron reduction is an important biogeochemical process and involved in various engineered processes, including the traditional clay dyeing processes. Bioaugmentation with iron reducing bacteria (IRB) is generally considered as an effective method to enhance the activity of iron reduction. However, limited information is available about the role of IRB on bioaugmentation. To reveal the roles of introduced IRB on bioaugmentation, an IRB consortium enriched with ferric citrate was inoculated into three Fe(II)-poor sediments which served as the pigments for Gambiered Guangdong silk dyeing. After bioaugmentation, the dyeabilities of all sediments met the demands of Gambiered Guangdong silk through increasing the concentration of key agent [precipitated Fe(II)] by 35, 27, and 61%, respectively. The microbial community analysis revealed that it was the minor species but not the dominant ones in the IRB consortium that promoted the activity of iron reduction. Meanwhile, some indigenous bacteria with the potential of iron reduction, such as Clostridium, Anaeromyxobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Geothrix, and Acinetobacter, were also stimulated to form mutualistic interaction with introduced consortium. Interestingly, the same initial IRB consortium led to the different community successions among the three sediments and there was even no common genus increasing or decreasing synchronously among the potential IRB of all bioaugmented sediments. The Mantel and canonical correspondence analysis showed that different physiochemical properties of sediments influenced the microbial community structures. This study not only provides a novel bioremediation method for obtaining usable sediments for dyeing Gambiered Guangdong silk, but also contributes to understanding the microbial response to IRB bioaugmentation.

  13. Comparative bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil by natural attenuation, phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Agnello, A C; Bagard, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G; Huguenot, D

    2016-09-01

    Biological remediation technologies are an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated through a pot experiment four bioremediation strategies: a) natural attenuation, b) phytoremediation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), c) bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and d) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation, for the treatment of a co-contaminated soil presenting moderate levels of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn at 87, 100 and 110mgkg(-1) DW, respectively) and petroleum hydrocarbons (3800mgkg(-1) DW). As demonstrated by plant biomass and selected physiological parameters alfalfa plants were able to tolerate and grow in the co-contaminated soil, especially when soil was inoculated with P. aeruginosa, which promoted plant growth (56% and 105% increase for shoots and roots, respectively) and appeared to alleviate plant stress. The content of heavy metals in alfalfa plants was limited and followed the order: Zn>Cu>Pb. Heavy metals were mainly concentrated in plant roots and were poorly translocated, favouring their stabilization in the root zone. Bioaugmentation of planted soil with P. aeruginosa generally led to a decrease of plant metal concentration and translocation. The highest degree of total petroleum hydrocarbon removal was obtained for bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation treatment (68%), followed by bioaugmentation (59%), phytoremediation (47%) and natural attenuation (37%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of plant and bacteria was the most advantageous option for the treatment of the present co-contaminated soil, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or phytoremediation applied alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioaugmentation finds market in Latin America -- Two case histories

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H. )

    1994-04-01

    An Argentine auto manufacturer with 6,000 employees and annual revenues of $1 billion has two wastewater treatment plants at its Buenos Aires facility. One of the plant's treatment systems had been in constant violation of Argentine environmental law and suffered high grease loadings, requiring personnel routinely to remove the grease and resulting sludge. In July, OBRELMEC S.A., a Buenos Aires-based engineering company and exclusive Argentine distributor for Sybron Chemicals Inc. (Birmingham, NJ), proposed implementing a bioaugmentation program that would use selectively adapted microbial cultures to degrade the grease and bring the plant into compliance. The program would use liquid and dry sources of selectively adapted bacteria designed to degrade fats, oils and grease, and control noxious odors.

  15. Bioaugmentation with distinct Dehalobacter strains achieves chloroform detoxification in microcosms.

    PubMed

    Justicia-Leon, Shandra D; Higgins, Steven; Mack, E Erin; Griffiths, Daniel R; Tang, Shuiquan; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Löffler, Frank E

    2014-01-01

    Chloroform (CF) is a widespread groundwater contaminant not susceptible to aerobic degradation. Under anoxic conditions, CF can undergo abiotic and cometabolic transformation but detoxification is generally not achieved. The recent discovery of distinct Dehalobacter strains that respire CF to dichloromethane (DCM) and ferment DCM to nonchlorinated products promises that bioremediation of CF plumes is feasible. To track both strains, 16S rRNA gene-based qPCR assays specific for either Dehalobacter strain were designed and validated. A laboratory treatability study explored the value of bioaugmentation and biostimulation to achieve CF detoxification using anoxic microcosms established with aquifer material from a CF-contaminated site. Microcosms that received 6% (v/v) of the CF-to-DCM-dechlorinating culture Dhb-CF to achieve an initial Dehalobacter cell titer of 1.6 ± 0.9 × 10(4) mL(-1) dechlorinated CF to stoichiometric amounts of DCM. Subsequent augmentation with 3% (v/v) of the DCM-degrading consortium RM to an initial Dehalobacter cell abundance of 1.2 ± 0.2 × 10(2) mL(-1) achieved complete DCM degradation in microcosms amended with 10 mM bicarbonate. Growth of the CF-respiring and the DCM-degrading Dehalobacter populations and detoxification were also observed in microcosms that received both inocula simultaneously. These findings suggest that anaerobic bioremediation (e.g., bioaugmentation) is a possible remedy at CF- and DCM-contaminated sites without CT, which strongly inhibited CF organohalide respiration and DCM organohalide fermentation.

  16. Assessing Subsurface Bioaugmentation of a Mixed Culture Capable of Chlorinated Solvent Cometabolism via Molecular Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, M. E.; Lim, H. K.; Semprini, L.; Giovanonni, S.; Vergin, K.; McCarty, P. L.; Hopkins, G. D.

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this project is the successful bioaugmentation of a mixed culture capable of aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvent mixtures into an aquifer test zone at Moffett Federal Airfield, CA (Moffett). The test zone consists of two parallel well legs both fed butane and oxygen. One leg will be bioaugmented and the other will serve as an indigenous control. Injection and extraction wells and six (3 per leg) intermediately placed groundwater monitoring points will be frequently monitored for chlorinated solvents, butane, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Groundwater will also be periodically analyzed for microbial content using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. In each well leg, two fully-penetrating wells containing solid media will be periodically analyzed for microbial colonization (T-RFLP). The mixed bioaugmentation culture originated from environmental samples taken from Hanford, WA. The culture was enriched on butane and tested for viability in Moffett groundwater and aquifer solids. A clone library was created from the 16S rDNA in the mixed culture and 86 clones were sorted based on RFLP patterns. Complete sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene from the three most prevalent clones revealed 45 clones similar to Acidovorax or Hydrogenophaga, gram negative proteobacterium, and 12 clones similar to Rhodococcus, a gram positive filamentous organism. Fluorescently-labeled rRNA probes were designed for FISH analyses and appropriate restriction enzymes were chosen for T-RFLP analyses based upon the sequence information. Microcosm tests were conducted prior to the initiation of the field study to evaluate butane, 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) degradation kinetics and microbial community composition. Bioaugmented microcosms began butane utilization sooner than non-bioaugmented ones in the presence and absence of 1,1-DCE, and were able to degrade more 1,1-DCE (up

  17. [Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) promotes wound healing].

    PubMed

    Winkel, R; Hoffmann, G; Hoffmann, R

    2014-11-01

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with high tissue penetration and low thermal load to the skin surface which promotes the healing of acute and chronic wounds both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. Water-filtered infrared-A increases tissue temperature (+ 2.7 °C at a tissue depth of 2 cm), tissue oxygen partial pressure (+ 32 % at a tissue depth of 2 cm) and tissue perfusion. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient supply of tissue with energy and oxygen and consequently also for wound healing and infection defense. Water-filtered infrared-A promotes normal as well as disturbed wound healing by diminishing inflammation and exudation, by promotion of infection defense and regeneration, and by alleviation of pain. These effects have been proven in a total of seven prospective studies (of these six randomized controlled studies) with most of the effects having an evidence level of Ia or Ib. The additional cases of complicated courses of wound healing presented in this article illustrate the proven effects of wIRA. Not only in the 6 presented cases wIRA turned the complicated courses of wound healing for the better and facilitated the healing of the wounds after varying total times of irradiation (in the 6 cases 51-550 h) and after variable times of wound care and mostly after transplantation of split skin grafts. In complicated courses of wound healing wIRA does not replace consultation and, when indicated, treatment by an experienced plastic surgeon and by a surgeon specialized in septic surgery. With these limitations wIRA can be recommended as a valuable complement for the treatment of acute as well as of chronic wounds.

  18. Effects of bioaugmentation on indigenous PCB dechlorinating activity in sediment microcosms.

    PubMed

    Fagervold, Sonja K; Watts, Joy E M; May, Harold D; Sowers, Kevin R

    2011-07-01

    Bioaugmentation is an attractive mechanism for reducing recalcitrant pollutants in sediments, especially if this technology could be applied in situ. To examine the potential effectiveness of a bioaugmentation strategy for PCB contamination, PCB dehalorespiring populations were inoculated into Baltimore Harbor sediment microcosms. A culture containing the two most predominant indigenous PCB dehalorespiring microorganisms and a culture containing a strain with a rare ortho dechlorination activity and a non-indigenous strain that attacks double-flanked chlorines, were inoculated into sediment microcosms amended with 2,2',3,5,5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 151) and Aroclor 1260. Although we observed a similar reduction in the concentration of PCB 151 in all microcosms at day 300, a reduced lag time for dechlorination activity was observed only in the bioaugmented microcosms and the pattern of dechlorination was altered depending on the initial combination of microorganisms added. Dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 was most extensive when dehalorespiring microorganisms were added to sediment. Overall numbers of dehalorespiring microorganisms in both bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented microcosms increased 100- and 1000-fold with PCB 151 and Aroclor 1260, respectively, and they were sustained for the full 300 days of the experiments. The ability of bioaugmentation to redirect dechlorination reactions in the sediment microcosms indicates that the inoculated PCB dehalorespiring microorganisms effectively competed with the indigenous microbial populations and cooperatively enhanced or altered the specific pathways of PCB dechlorination. These observations indicate that bioaugmentation with PCB dehalorespiring microorganisms is a potentially tractable approach for in situ treatment of PCB impacted sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Bastable, Andy; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-06-01

    The performance and acceptability of the Nerox(TM) membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households were visited and filter performance and use were assessed. Only 6% of the visited households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%. High turbidity in source water (irrigation canals), together with high temperatures and large family size were likely to have contributed to poor performance and uptake of the filters.

  20. Complete Genome of Rhodococcus pyridinivorans SB3094, a Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone-Degrading Bacterium Used for Bioaugmentation

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, Mads; D’Imperio, Seth; Tale, Vaibhav P.; Lewis, Derrick; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genome of Rhodococcus pyridinivorans SB3094, a methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK)-degrading strain used for bioaugmentation relating to the treatment of wastewater contamination with petrochemical hydrocarbons. The genome highlights important features for bioaugmentation, including the genes involved in the degradation of MEK. PMID:24874690

  1. Complete Genome of Rhodococcus pyridinivorans SB3094, a Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone-Degrading Bacterium Used for Bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Dueholm, Morten S; Albertsen, Mads; D'Imperio, Seth; Tale, Vaibhav P; Lewis, Derrick; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2014-05-29

    Here, we present the complete genome of Rhodococcus pyridinivorans SB3094, a methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK)-degrading strain used for bioaugmentation relating to the treatment of wastewater contamination with petrochemical hydrocarbons. The genome highlights important features for bioaugmentation, including the genes involved in the degradation of MEK.

  2. Bioaugmenting anaerobic digestion of biosolids with selected strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Actinomycetes species for increased methanogenesis and odor control.

    PubMed

    Duran, Metin; Tepe, Nalan; Yurtsever, Deniz; Punzi, Vito L; Bruno, Charles; Mehta, Raj J

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of bioaugmenting anaerobic biosolids digestion with a commercial product containing selected strains of bacteria from genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Actinomycetes, along with ancillary organic compounds containing various micronutrients. Specifically, the effects of the bioaugment in terms of volatile solids destruction and generation and fate of odor-causing compounds during anaerobic digestion and during storage of the digested biosolids were studied. Two bench-scale anaerobic digesters receiving primary and secondary clarifier biosolids from various full-scale biological wastewater treatment plants were operated. One of the digesters received the bioaugment developed by Organica Biotech, while the other was operated as control. The bioaugmented digester generated 29% more net CH(4) during the 8 weeks of operation. In addition, the average residual propionic acid concentration in the bioaugmented digester was 54% of that in the control. The monitoring of two organic sulfide compounds, methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH) and dimethyl sulfide (CH(3)SCH(3)), clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of the bioaugmentation in terms of odor control. The biosolids digested in the bioaugmented digester generated a negligible amount of CH(3)SH during 10 days of post-digestion storage, while CH(3)SH concentration in the control reached nearly 300 ppm(v) during the same period. Similarly, peak CH(3)SCH(3) generated by stored biosolids from the bioaugmented digester was only 37% of that from the control.

  3. Influence of 3-Chloroaniline on the Biofilm Lifestyle of Comamonas testosteroni and Its Implications on Bioaugmentation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yichao; Mohanty, Anee; Chia, Wu Siang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bioaugmentation has been frequently proposed in wastewater and soil treatment to remove toxic aromatic compounds. The performance of bioaugmentation is affected by a number of biological and environmental factors, including the interaction between the target pollutant and the augmented bacterial cells. In this study, using Comamonas testosteroni and 3-chloroaniline (3-CA) as the model organism and target pollutant, we explored the influence of toxic aromatic pollutants on the biofilm lifestyle of bacteria capable of degrading aromatic compounds toward a better understanding of cell-pollutant interaction in bioaugmentation. Our results showed that the exposure to 3-CA greatly reduced the retention of C. testosteroni cells in packed-bed bioreactors (from 22% to 15% after three pore volumes), which could be attributed to the altered bacterial motility and cell surface hydrophobicity. To further understand the molecular mechanisms, we employed an integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis to examine the influence of 3-CA on the expression of genes important to the biofilm lifestyle of C. testosteroni. We found that exposure to 3-CA reduced the intracellular c-di-GMP level by downregulating the expression of genes encoding c-di-GMP synthases and induced massive cell dispersal from the biofilms. Our findings provide novel environmental implications on bioaugmentation, particularly in biofilm reactors, for the treatment of wastewater containing recalcitrant industrial pollutants. IMPORTANCE Bioaugmentation is a bioremediation approach that often has been described in the literature but has almost never been successfully applied in practice. Many biological and environmental factors influence the overall performance of bioaugmentation. Among these, the interaction between the target pollutant and the augmented bacterial cells is one of the most important factors. In this study, we revealed the influence of toxic aromatic pollutants on the biofilm lifestyle of

  4. Use of remotely reporting electronic sensors for assessing use of water filters and cookstoves in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Evan A; Barstow, Christina K; Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Remotely reporting electronic sensors offer the potential to reduce bias in monitoring use of environmental health interventions. In the context of a five-month randomized controlled trial of household water filters and improved cookstoves in rural Rwanda, we collected data from intervention households on product compliance using (i) monthly surveys and direct observations by community health workers and environmental health officers, and (ii) sensor-equipped filters and cookstoves deployed for about two weeks in each household. The adoption rate interpreted by the sensors varied from the household reporting: 90.5% of households reported primarily using the intervention stove, while the sensors interpreted 73.2% use, and 96.5% of households reported using the intervention filter regularly, while the sensors interpreted no more than 90.2%. The sensor-collected data estimated use to be lower than conventionally collected data both for water filters (approximately 36% less water volume per day) and cookstoves (approximately 40% fewer uses per week). An evaluation of intrahousehold consistency in use suggests that households are not using their filters or stoves on an exclusive basis, and may be both drinking untreated water at times and using other stoves ("stove-stacking"). These results provide additional evidence that surveys and direct observation may exaggerate compliance with household-based environmental interventions.

  5. Preventing diarrhoea with household ceramic water filters: assessment of a pilot project in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon M

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to prevent diarrhoea in a rural community in central Bolivia, an international non-governmental organization implemented a pilot project to improve drinking water quality using gravity-fed, household-based, ceramic water filters. We assessed the performance of the filters by conducting a five-month randomized controlled trial among all 60 households in the pilot community. Water filters eliminated thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms from almost all intervention households and significantly reduced turbidity, thereby improving water aesthetics. Most importantly, the filters were associated with a 45.3% reduction in prevalence of diarrhoea among the study population (p = 0.02). After adjustment for household clustering and repeated episodes in individuals and controlling for age and baseline diarrhoea, prevalence of diarrhoea among the intervention group was 51% lower than controls, though the protective effect was only borderline significant (OR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.01; p = 0.05). A follow-up survey conducted approximately 9 months after deployment of the filters found 67% being used regularly, 13% being used intermittently, and 21% not in use. Water samples from all regularly used filters were free of thermotolerant coliforms.

  6. Bioaugmentation for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid in fractured sandstone blocks.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Charles E; Towne, Rachael M; Vainberg, Simon; McCray, John E; Steffan, Robert J

    2010-07-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed in discretely fractured sandstone blocks to evaluate the use of bioaugmentation to treat residual dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) tetrachloroethene (PCE). Significant dechlorination of PCE and growth of Dehalococcoides spp. (DHC) occurred within the fractures. DNAPL dissolution was enhanced during bioaugmentation by up to a factor of approximately 3.5, with dissolved PCE concentrations at or near aqueous solubility. The extent of dechlorination and DNAPL dissolution enhancement were dependent upon the fracture characteristics, residence time in the fractures, and dissolved concentration of PCE. No relationship was observed between planktonic DHC concentrations exiting the fracture and the observed extents of PCE dechlorination and DNAPL dissolution. Measured planktonic DHC concentrations exiting the fracture increased with increasing flow rate and bioaugmentation dosage, suggesting that these parameters may be important for distribution of DHC to treat dissolved chlorinated ethenes migrating downgradient of the DNAPL source. Bioaugmentation dosage, for the DHC dosages and conditions studied, did not have a measurable impact on DNAPL dissolution or dechlorination within the fractures themselves. Overall, these results indicate that bioaugmentation may be a viable remedial option for treating DNAPL sources in bedrock.

  7. Performance and microbial community dynamics in bioaugmented aerated filter reactor treating with coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shengnan; Qu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Qiao; Zhang, XuWang; Zhou, Jiti; Ma, Fang

    2015-08-01

    In this study, zeolite-biological aerated filters (Z-BAFs) bioaugmented by free and magnetically immobilized cells of Arthrobacter sp. W1 were designed to treat coking wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and naphthalene along with carbazole (CA), dibenzofuran (DBF), and dibenzothiophene (DBT). All treatments were carried out for a period of 100days and the data indicated that bioaugmented Z-BAFs with magnetically immobilized cells was most efficient for treating coking wastewaters. Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to reveal the microbial community structures of Z-BAFs. Both bioaugmentation treatments could accelerate the shift of the bacterial community structures. The introduced strain W1 remained dominant in the bioaugmented Z-BAFs with magnetically immobilized cells, indicating both strain W1 and the indigenous degrading bacteria played the most significant role in the treatment. Overall, bioaugmented Z-BAF with magnetically immobilized cells can be used to efficiently degrade phenol, naphthalene, CA, DBF, and DBT in coking wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of bioaugmentation on metal cyanide degradation and soil bacteria community structure.

    PubMed

    Baxter, J; Cummings, S P

    2006-06-01

    Metal cyanides are significant contaminants of many soils found at the site of former industrial activity. In this study we isolated bacteria capable of degrading ferric ferrocyanide and K2Ni(CN)4. One of these bacteria a Rhodococcus spp. was subsequently used to bioaugment a minimal medium broth, spiked with K2Ni(CN)4, containing 1 g of either an uncontaminated topsoil or a former coke works site soil. Degradation of the K2Ni(CN)4 was observed in both soils, however, bioaugmentation did not significantly impact the rate or degree of K2Ni(CN)4 removal. Statistical analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles showed that the topsoil bacterial community had a higher biodiversity, and its structure was not significantly affected by either K2Ni(CN)4 or bioaugmentation. In contrast, profiles from the coke works site indicated significant changes in the bacterial community in response to these additions. Moreover, in both soils although bioaugmentation did not affect rates of biodegradation the Rhodococcus spp. did become established in the communities in broths containing both top and coke works soil. We conclude that bacterial communities from contaminated soils with low biodiversity are much more readily perturbed through interventions such as contamination events or bioaugmentation treatments and discuss the implications of these findings for bioremediation studies.

  9. Enhanced reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by bioaugmentation with a dehalorespiring bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rayford B; May, Harold D; Sowers, Kevin R

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of commercial PCBs such as Aroclor 1260 has a critical role of transforming highly chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are then susceptible to aerobic degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with the dehalorespiring bacterium “Dehalobium chlorocoercia” DF1 was tested in 2-liter laboratory mesocosms containing sediment contaminated with weathered Aroclor 1260 (1.3 ppm) from Baltimore Harbor, MD. Total penta- and higher chlorinated PCBs decreased by approximately 56% (by mass) in bioaugmented mesocosms after 120 days compared with no activity observed in unamended controls. Bioaugmentation with DF-1 enhanced the dechlorination of doubly flanked chlorines and stimulated the dechlorination of single flanked chlorines as a result of an apparent synergistic effect on the indigenous population. Addition of granulated activated carbon had a slight stimulatory effect indicating that anaerobic reductive dechlorination of PCBs at low concentrations was not inhibited by a high background of inorganic carbon that could affect bioavailability. The total number of dehalorespiring bacteria was reduced by approximately half after 60 days. However, a steady state level was maintained that was greater than the indigenous population of putative dehalorespiring bacteria in untreated sediments and DF1 was maintained within the indigenous population after 120 days. The results of this study demonstrate that bioaugmentation with dehalorespiring bacteria has a stimulatory effect on the dechlorination of weathered PCBs and supports the feasibility of using in situ bioaugmentation as an environmentally less invasive and lower cost alternate to dredging for treatment of PCB impacted sediments. PMID:21902247

  10. Bioaugmentation with an acetate-type fermentation bacterium Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes improves methane production from corn straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Rong-Bo; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Qiao, Jiang-Tao; Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Chuan-Shui

    2015-03-01

    The effect of bioaugmentation with an acetate-type fermentation bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes on the anaerobic digestion of corn straw was evaluated by batch experiments. Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes is a promising strain for bioaugmentation with relatively high growth rate, hydrogen yields and acetate tolerance, which ferments a broad spectrum of pentoses, hexoses and polyoses mainly into acetate and hydrogen. During corn straw digestion, bioaugmentation with A. hydrogenigenes led to 19-23% increase of the methane yield, with maximum of 258.1 mL/g-corn straw achieved by 10% inoculation (control, 209.3 mL/g-corn straw). Analysis of lignocellulosic composition indicated that A. hydrogenigenes could increase removal rates of cellulose and hemicelluloses in corn straw residue by 12% and 5%, respectively. Further experiment verified that the addition of A. hydrogenigenes could improve the methane yields of methyl cellulose and xylan (models for cellulose and hemicelluloses, respectively) by 16.8% and 7.0%.

  11. Bioaugmentation of an Aerobic Culture Capable of Chlorinated Solvent Cometabolism to a Subsurface Test Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, M. E.; Semprini, L.; McCarty, P. L.; Hopkins, G.

    2002-12-01

    A butane-utilizing culture able to cometabolize chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) was bioaugmented into an aquifer test zone at Moffett Federal Airfield, CA. Microcosm bioaugmentation tests conducted with groundwater and aquifer solids collected from the test site indicated a strong potential for viability of the bioaugmented culture in the site subsurface. Microcosms bioaugmented with the butane-utilizing culture were able to degrade aqueous concentrations of 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) up to 1 mg/L and could successfully transform mixtures of 1,1-DCE, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and 1,1-dichloroethane (DCA) when fed butane. T-RFLP analyses showed the presence of bioaugmented organisms within the microcosms throughout the 10-month test period. An isolate from the butane-utilizing culture was grown in batch bottles containing mineral media and a butane-in-air headspace. Approximately 4 g dry weight of culture was harvested and bioaugmented to the field site. The site consisted of two parallel well legs, each with an injection well, two fully penetrating monitoring wells containing solid support media, three groundwater monitoring wells and an extraction well. One well leg was bioaugmented with the isolate and the other was used as an indigenous control leg. A mixture of 1,1-DCE, TCA and DCA (~50 ug/L, 135 ug/L and 150 ug/L respectively) was continuously pumped through both well legs with alternate pulses of dissolved oxygen and butane. Fifty percent removal of 1,1-DCE occurred within one day in the bioaugmented leg; however, it took about 6 days to achieve complete butane utilization and 1,1-DCE removal to below 2 ug/L. During this period DCA and TCA were reduced by 70- 90 percent and 30-50 percent respectively. When the butane/oxygen pulses were changed from a 1-hr cycle to a 24-hr cycle 1,1-DCE removal fell to 50 percent and DCA and TCA concentrations increased to influent levels. Upon returning to short pulse cycles, 1,1-DCE removal efficiency

  12. Bioaugmentation with bacteria selected from the microbiome enhances Arthrocnemum macrostachyum metal accumulation and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Torre, Salvadora; Barcia-Piedras, José M; Caviedes, Miguel A; Pajuelo, Eloísa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2017-04-15

    A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the role of bacterial consortia isolated from the endosphere (CE) and rhizosphere (CR) of Arthrocnemum macrostachyum on its metal uptake capacity and tolerance in plants grown in metal polluted sediments. A. macrostachyum plants were randomly assigned to three bioaugmentation treatments (CE, CR and without inoculation) during 120days. Bioaugmentation with both bacterial consortia enhanced A. macrostachyum capacity to accumulate ions in its roots, while shoot ions concentration only increased with CE treatment. Furthermore bioaugmentation ameliorated the phytotoxicity levels, which was reflected in an increment of plant growth of 59 and 113% for shoots and 52 and 98% for roots with CE and CR treatments, respectively. This effect was supported by bacteria beneficial effect on photochemical apparatus and the modulation of its oxidative stress machinery. These findings indicated that bacteria selected from the microbiome can be claimed to improve A. macrostachyum metal remediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction applied to metal contaminated soils: a review.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Thierry; Braud, Armelle; Jézéquel, Karine

    2008-06-01

    Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction is a promising method for the cleaning-up of soils contaminated by metals. Bacteria mainly Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and fungi mainly Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) associated with hyperaccumulating or non-hyperaccumulating plants were analyzed on the basis of a bioprocess engineering approach (concentration and amount of metals extracted by plants, translocation and bioconcentration factor, and plant biomass). In average bioaugmentation increased metals accumulated by shoots by a factor of about 2 (metal concentration) and 5 (amount) without any obvious differences between bacteria and fungi. To optimize this process, new relevant microorganism-plant associations and field scale experiments are needed along with a common methodology for the comparison of all experiments on the same basis. Recommendations were suggested concerning both the microbial-plant selection and the implementation of bioaugmentation to enhance the microbial survival. The use of microbial consortia associated with plant was discussed notably for multi-contaminated soils.

  14. Impact of bioaugmentation with a consortium of bacteria on the remediation of wastewater-containing hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Domde, Pravin; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2007-01-01

    It has been observed that hydrocarbon treated wastewaters still contain high COD and a number of intermediates. This suggests that the required catabolic gene pool for further degradation might be absent in the system or, that its titer value is not significant enough. By providing the desired catabolic potential, the overall efficiency of the treatment system can be improved. This study aims to demonstrate this concept by bioaugmentation of a lab-scale reactor treating refinery wastewater with a consortium having the capacity to complement the alkB genotype to the available microbial population. Two reactors were set up using activated biomass collected from a refinery treatment plant and operated at a continuous mode for a period of 8 weeks. The feed to both reactors was kept constant. Crude oil was spiked regularly. One reactor was bioaugmented with a consortium previously described for crude oil spill remediation. The efficiency of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by reduced COD. The changes in the microbial population over a period of time were analyzed by RAPD. Catabolic activity of the biomass in both reactors was monitored by PCR. The presence of the catabolic loci was confirmed by Southern Hybridization. 52.2% removal of COD was observed in the bioaugmented reactor while only 15.1% reduction of COD was observed in the reactor without bioaugmentation. The change in microbial population can be seen from the 4th week, which also corresponds to improved catabolic activity. The presence of the bedA locus was seen in all samples, which indicates the presence of aromatic degraders, but the appearance of the alkB locus, from the 6th week onwards, which was observed only in the samples from the bioaugmented reactor. The results suggest that the gene pool of the bioaugmented reactor has catabolic loci that can degrade accumulated intermediates, thus improving the efficiency of the system. In this study, improvement of efficiency of bioremediation was

  15. Bioaugmentation treatment of PV wafer manufacturing wastewater by microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Chen, Maoxia; He, Xin; Xiao, Zili; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang

    2015-01-01

    The wastewater of silicon photovoltaic (PV) battery manufacturing contained polyethylene glycol (PEG) and detergents, which possessed the characteristics of high content of organics and low bioavailability, and then resulted in high treatment costs. To address the difficulties of existing treatment facilities in stably meeting discharge standards, eight tons of microbial culture (consisting of Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp.) were added into the aerobic treatment unit. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the microbial culture in small-scale biological wastewater treatment was evaluated, and the operating conditions for engineering applications were optimized. The application study showed that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 95.0% when the pH value was 7, the gas-water ratio was 28:1, the reflux ratio was 50%, which indicated an increase of 51.2% contrasting with the situation without bioaugmentation. The volume load of the treatment facilities after augmentation increased by 127.9% and could tolerate the COD shock load reached 2,340 mg·L(-1). At last, the effluence met the class I standard of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996).

  16. Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Artois, T.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-12-01

    Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in plant degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

  17. BTE-OX biodegradation kinetics with MTBE through bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Askar, K; Villarreal-Chiu, J F; Gracia-Lozano, M V; Garza-Gonzalez, M T; Chavez-Gomez, B; Rodriguez-Sanchez, I P; Barrera-Saldana, H A

    2004-01-01

    The biodegradation kinetics of BTE-oX and MTBE, mixed all together, in the presence of bioaugmented bacterial populations as high as 880 mg/L VSS was evaluated. The effect of soil in aqueous samples and the effect of Tergitol NP-10 on substrate biodegradation rates were also evaluated. Biodegradation kinetics was evaluated for 36 hours, every 6 hours. Benzene and o-xylene biodegradation followed a first-order one-phase kinetic model, whereas toluene and ethylbenzene biodegradation was well described by a first-order two-phase kinetic model in all samples. MTBE followed a zero-order removal kinetic model in all samples. The presence of soil in aqueous samples retarded BTE-oX removal rates, with the highest negative effect on o-xylene. The presence of soil enhanced MTBE removal rate. The addition of Tergitol NP-10 to aqueous samples containing soil had a positive effect on substrate removal rate in all samples. Substrate percent removals ranged from 95.4-99.7% for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene. O-xylene and MTBE percent removals ranged from 55.9-90.1% and 15.6-30.1%, respectively.

  18. Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Weyens, Nele; van der Lelie, Daniel; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen; Taghavi, Safiyh; Newman, Lee; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2009-12-15

    Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in planta degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

  19. Feasibility of fungi bioaugmentation in composting a flare pit soil.

    PubMed

    Baheri, H; Meysami, P

    2002-01-28

    The feasibility of fungi bioaugmentation in composting of a flare pit soil was studied in lab-scale composters. The preliminary screening tests, using a range of bulking agents and white rot fungi strains, were conducted to determine, best strain and bulking agent for the main experiments. The initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of the flare pit soil was found to be 16%. The effect of moisture and bulking agent content and the fungi application on biodegradation of hydrocarbons were then evaluated based on a fractional factorial design over a 3-months period. Analysis of the TPH content of the soil after 98 days (using gravimetric method) showed an average of 29% reduction in most jars. Furthermore, gas chromatograph (GC) analysis of the oil extract from the samples showed 70-99% reduction in the peak area of the selected hydrocarbons. However, statistical analysis of the results did not show any significant effect due to the fungi application or the change in the moisture content (30-50% range). The results showed that the change in the bulking agent content was marginally significant for the hydrocarbon loss.

  20. Use of bioaugmentation to stimulate complete reductive dechlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, M.R.; Bracco, A.A.; Brennan, M.J. Jr.; Deweerd, K.A.; Spivack, J.L.

    1999-04-01

    Soil columns were constructed in support of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum accelerated biodegradation study at Dover Air Force Base to evaluate the impact of amendments on the anaerobic reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in Dover soil. Dechlorination of TCE to cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) was observed in the columns using lactate, lactate and methanol, butyrate, glutamate and 1,2-propanediol, or toluene as electron donors, in combination with vitamins and other supplemental nutrients. However, the c-DCE formed was not further dechlorinated using any of these amendments. Subsequent inoculation of two columns with a competent, non-native TCE-dechlorinating culture resulted in the dechlorination of TCE to ethene after 30 days. Once the culture was established, dechlorination of TCE to ethene was complete in the first several centimeters of the columns at TCE influent concentrations of 4 mg/L. The culture was also able to dechlorinate TCE to ethene when TCE influent concentrations were increased to 170 mg/L. These results suggest that a critical bacterial population was missing in these soils and that bioaugmentation is an appropriate remedial strategy under such circumstances.

  1. Treatment of petroleum drill cuttings using bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Ogar, Innocent; Okparanma, Reuben N; Ayotamuno, Josiah M

    2016-07-28

    This study sought to compare the effectiveness of bioaugmentation and biostimulation, as well as the combination of both techniques, supplemented with phytoremediation, in the decontamination of petroleum drill cuttings. Drill cuttings with relatively low concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals were mixed with soil in the ratio 5:1 and treated with three different combinations of the bioremediation options. Option A entailed bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. Option B had the combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. While biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation was deployed in option C. Option O containing the drill cuttings-soil mixture without treatment served as untreated control. Fertilizer application, tillage and watering were used for biostimulation treatment, while spent mushroom substrate (Pleurotus ostreatus) and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were employed for bioaugmentation and phytoremediation treatment, respectively. The drill cuttings-soil mixtures were monitored for TPH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, metal concentrations, and fungal counts, over time. After 56 days of treatment, there was a decline in the initial TPH concentration of 4,114 mg kg(-1) by 5.5%, 68.3%, 75.6% and 48% in options O, A, B and C, respectively. Generally, higher TPH loss resulted from the phytoremediation treatment stage. The treated options also showed slight reductions in metal concentrations ranging from 0% to 16% of the initial low concentrations. The results highlight the effectiveness of bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. The combination of bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation, however, may prove better in decontaminating petroleum drill cuttings to environmentally benign levels.

  2. The Role of Enriched Microbial Consortium on Iron-Reducing Bioaugmentation in Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xunan; Xu, Meiying; Sun, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    Microbial iron reduction is an important biogeochemical process and involved in various engineered processes, including the traditional clay dyeing processes. Bioaugmentation with iron reducing bacteria (IRB) is generally considered as an effective method to enhance the activity of iron reduction. However, limited information is available about the role of IRB on bioaugmentation. To reveal the roles of introduced IRB on bioaugmentation, an IRB consortium enriched with ferric citrate was inoculated into three Fe(II)-poor sediments which served as the pigments for Gambiered Guangdong silk dyeing. After bioaugmentation, the dyeabilities of all sediments met the demands of Gambiered Guangdong silk through increasing the concentration of key agent [precipitated Fe(II)] by 35, 27, and 61%, respectively. The microbial community analysis revealed that it was the minor species but not the dominant ones in the IRB consortium that promoted the activity of iron reduction. Meanwhile, some indigenous bacteria with the potential of iron reduction, such as Clostridium, Anaeromyxobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Geothrix, and Acinetobacter, were also stimulated to form mutualistic interaction with introduced consortium. Interestingly, the same initial IRB consortium led to the different community successions among the three sediments and there was even no common genus increasing or decreasing synchronously among the potential IRB of all bioaugmented sediments. The Mantel and canonical correspondence analysis showed that different physiochemical properties of sediments influenced the microbial community structures. This study not only provides a novel bioremediation method for obtaining usable sediments for dyeing Gambiered Guangdong silk, but also contributes to understanding the microbial response to IRB bioaugmentation. PMID:28373869

  3. Effect of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on Degradation of Polyurethane Buried in Soil▿

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, L.; McGeechan, P. L.; Handley, P. S.; Robson, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated biostimulation and bioaugmentation as strategies for removing polyurethane (PU) waste in soil. Soil microcosms were biostimulated with the PU dispersion agent “Impranil” and/or yeast extract or were bioaugmented with PU-degrading fungi, and the degradation of subsequently buried PU was determined. Fungal communities in the soil and colonizing buried PU were enumerated on solid media and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Biostimulation with yeast extract alone or in conjunction with Impranil increased PU degradation 62% compared to the degradation in untreated control soil and was associated with a 45% increase in putative PU degraders colonizing PU. Specific fungi were enriched in soil following biostimulation; however, few of these fungi colonized the surface of buried PU. Fungi used for soil bioaugmentation were cultivated on the surface of sterile wheat to form a mycelium-rich inoculum. Wheat, when added alone to soil, increased PU degradation by 28%, suggesting that wheat biomass had a biostimulating effect. Addition of wheat colonized with Nectria haematococca, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium ochrochloron, or an unidentified Mucormycotina sp. increased PU degradation a further 30 to 70%, suggesting that biostimulation and bioaugmentation were operating in concert to enhance PU degradation. Interestingly, few of the inoculated fungi could be detected by DGGE in the soil or on the surface of the PU 4 weeks after inoculation. Bioaugmentation did, however, increase the numbers of indigenous PU-degrading fungi and caused an inoculum-dependent change in the composition of the native fungal populations, which may explain the increased degradation observed. These results demonstrate that both biostimulation and bioaugmentation may be viable tools for the remediation of environments contaminated with polyurethane waste. PMID:19948849

  4. Effect of biostimulation and bioaugmentation on degradation of polyurethane buried in soil.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, L; McGeechan, P L; Handley, P S; Robson, G D

    2010-02-01

    This work investigated biostimulation and bioaugmentation as strategies for removing polyurethane (PU) waste in soil. Soil microcosms were biostimulated with the PU dispersion agent "Impranil" and/or yeast extract or were bioaugmented with PU-degrading fungi, and the degradation of subsequently buried PU was determined. Fungal communities in the soil and colonizing buried PU were enumerated on solid media and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Biostimulation with yeast extract alone or in conjunction with Impranil increased PU degradation 62% compared to the degradation in untreated control soil and was associated with a 45% increase in putative PU degraders colonizing PU. Specific fungi were enriched in soil following biostimulation; however, few of these fungi colonized the surface of buried PU. Fungi used for soil bioaugmentation were cultivated on the surface of sterile wheat to form a mycelium-rich inoculum. Wheat, when added alone to soil, increased PU degradation by 28%, suggesting that wheat biomass had a biostimulating effect. Addition of wheat colonized with Nectria haematococca, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium ochrochloron, or an unidentified Mucormycotina sp. increased PU degradation a further 30 to 70%, suggesting that biostimulation and bioaugmentation were operating in concert to enhance PU degradation. Interestingly, few of the inoculated fungi could be detected by DGGE in the soil or on the surface of the PU 4 weeks after inoculation. Bioaugmentation did, however, increase the numbers of indigenous PU-degrading fungi and caused an inoculum-dependent change in the composition of the native fungal populations, which may explain the increased degradation observed. These results demonstrate that both biostimulation and bioaugmentation may be viable tools for the remediation of environments contaminated with polyurethane waste.

  5. Stability of partial nitrification and microbial population dynamics in a bioaugmented membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunxia; Xu, Yanli; Jia, Ming; Zhou, Jiti; Yuan, Shouzhi; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Zhen-Peng

    2009-12-01

    Bioaugmentation of bioreactors focuses on the removal of numerous organics, with little attention typically paid to the maintenance of high and stable nitrite accumulation in partial nitrification. In this study, a bioaugmented membrane bioreactor (MBR) inoculated with enriched ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was developed, and the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature on stability of partial nitrification and microbial community structure, in particular on nitrifying community were evaluated. The results showed that DO and temperature played the most important roles in the stability of partial nitrification in the bioaugmented MBR. The optimal operation conditions were found at 2-3 mgDO/L and 30 degrees C, achieving 95% ammonia oxidization efficiency and 0.95 of nitrite ratio (NO2-/NOx-). High-DO (5-6 mg/L) and low-temperature (20 degrees C) had negative impacts on nitrite accumulation, leading to its drop to 0.6. However, the nitrite ratio achieved in the bioaugmented MBR was higher than that in most previous literatures. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to provide an insight into the microbial community. It showed that Nitrosomonas-like species as the only detected AOB remained predominant in the bioaugmented MBR all the time, which coexisted with numerous heterotrophic bacteria. The heterotrophic bacteria responsible for mineralizing soluble microbial products (SMP) produced by nitrifiers belonged to Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group, alpha-, beta-, and gamma- Proteobacteria. The fraction of AOB ranging from 77% to 54% was much higher than that of NOB (0.4-0.9%), which might be the primary cause for the high and stable nitrite accumulation in the bioaugmented MBR.

  6. The segregation of silver nanoparticles in low-cost ceramic water filters

    SciTech Connect

    Larimer, Curtis; Ostrowski, Nicole; Speakman, Jacquelyn; Nettleship, Ian

    2010-04-15

    As an impregnated constituent in low-cost ceramic water filters, silver nanoparticles have a demonstrated antibacterial effect. The bactericidal mechanism is believed to be based on direct contact between silver and the cell wall of a contaminant organism. In this study microstructural analysis was used to examine the effect of the processing method on the distribution of silver nanoparticles in the filter material. Silver nanofluid was impregnated into fired clay ceramic samples by a low-cost soak-and-dry method. Analyses of filter samples by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and digital optical topological mapping showed that silver was concentrated in near surface pores, a condition that is not optimal for highest probability of silver contact. A simple experiment showed that segregation of silver occurs during the drying phase of impregnation. Drying curves showed that 90% of contained liquid evaporates from the external surface.

  7. Experimental basis for discriminating between thermal and athermal effects of water-filtered infrared A irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tobias; Grune, Tilman

    2012-07-01

    Considering the widespread application of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation in medicine, cosmetics, and wellness, we have conluded that the biological effects of this electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from 780 nm to 1400 nm, have become an important focus of experimental research. Two main effects of wIRA on single cells are discussed: thermal effects, caused by absorption of energy by cellular water and the aqueous medium surrounding the irradiated sample that result in warming, and supposed athermal effects that result from a direct interaction of wIRA with cellular molecules/structures excluding water. In the following, we discuss different experimental setups and highlight some cellular responses to thermal and athermal wIRA effects, as well as the experimental problems in differentiating between them. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Designing and Piloting a Program to Provide Water Filters and Improved Cookstoves in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Barstow, Christina K.; Ngabo, Fidele; Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Thomas, Evan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In environmental health interventions addressing water and indoor air quality, multiple determinants contribute to adoption. These may include technology selection, technology distribution and education methods, community engagement with behavior change, and duration and magnitude of implementer engagement. In Rwanda, while the country has the fastest annual reduction in child mortality in the world, the population is still exposed to a disease burden associated with environmental health challenges. Rwanda relies both on direct donor funding and coordination of programs managed by international non-profits and health sector businesses working on these challenges. Methods and Findings This paper describes the design, implementation and outcomes of a pilot program in 1,943 households across 15 villages in the western province of Rwanda to distribute and monitor the use of household water filters and improved cookstoves. Three key program design criteria include a.) an investment in behavior change messaging and monitoring through community health workers, b.) free distributions to encourage community-wide engagement, and c.) a private-public partnership incentivized by a business model designed to encourage “pay for performance”. Over a 5-month period of rigorous monitoring, reported uptake was maintained at greater than 90% for both technologies, although exclusive use of the stove was reported in only 28.5% of households and reported water volume was 1.27 liters per person per day. On-going qualitative monitoring suggest maintenance of comparable adoption rates through at least 16 months after the intervention. Conclusion High uptake and sustained adoption of a water filter and improved cookstove was measured over a five-month period with indications of continued comparable adoption 16 months after the intervention. The design attributes applied by the implementers may be sufficient in a longer term. In particular, sustained and comprehensive

  9. Bio-augmentation for mitigating the impact of transient oxytetracycline shock on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) performance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Liu, Jia-Hong; Yang, Bi-E; Guo, Li-Xin; Wang, Hui-Zhong

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of applying bio-augmentation tactics to remit the influence of transient oxytetracycline (OTC) shock on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process was evaluated. The bio-augmentation was applied together with shock test, with OTC shock concentration of 518 mg L(-1) and 1-h duration. 0.655-2.62 g volatile suspended solid (VSS) sludges were varied to optimize bio-augmentation dosage (BAD), and appropriate bio-augmentation time (BAT) was determined. The validity of the bio-augmentation was indicated by recovery performance and sludge characteristics. The restoring time of 38 h for bio-augmented reactor was shorter than that of non-bio-augmented reactor (45 h), and heme c content was increased respectively from 0.195 ± 0.001, 0.267 ± 0.047, 0.301 ± 0.049, to 0.340 ± 0.053 μmol g(-1) VSS with the BAD of 0.655, 1.31, 1.97, 2.62 g-VSS. The results suggest that bio-augmentation enhances the recovery of ANAMMOX performance following OTC shock and BAT and BAD are key operational factors.

  10. Bioaugmentation of bromoamine acid degradation with Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY and DNA fingerprint analysis of augmented systems.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Song, Zhiyong; Xing, Linlin; Fu, Xiang

    2006-02-01

    One high-effective bromoamine acid (1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid, BAA) degrading strain was isolated previously with the ability to use BAA as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. It was identified as Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and physio-biochemical tests. In this study, bioaugmentation of BAA degradation with suspended and immobilized cells of strain QYY was investigated. The optimal degradation conditions were as follows: temperature 30 degrees C, pH 6.0-7.0, 150 rev min(-1) and the immobilized cells maintained degradation activity to BAA after 60 days storage at 4 degrees C. The structure of BAA was evidently changed according to the analysis of total organic carbon removal of BAA (about 50%) and the UV-VIS spectra changes during the biodegradation. Bioaugmented systems exhibited stronger abilities degrading BAA than the non-bioaugmented control ones. And microbial community dynamics of augmented systems was revealed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), a modern DNA fingerprint technique. The results indicated that the microbial community dynamics was substantially changed throughout the augmentation process. This study suggests that it is feasible and potentially useful to enhance BAA degradation using bioaugmentation with the immobilized cells of BAA-degrading bacterium.

  11. Enhanced remediation of black liquor by activated sludge bioaugmented with a novel exogenous microorganism culture.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Chai, Li-Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Tang, Chong-Jian; Chen, Yue-Hui; Shi, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Black liquor (BL) is a notoriously difficult wastewater to treat due to the economic and efficiency limitations of physiochemical methods and intrinsic difficulties with bioremediation strategies caused by the high pH (10-13) and lignin content. This study investigated the feasibility of a novel bioaugmentation strategy for BL treatment, which uses a mixed microorganism culture of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms isolated from degraded bamboo slips. Black liquor treatment was assessed in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal with a sequencing batch reactor organic loading rate of 9 kg COD/L·day under highly alkaline conditions (pH 10). Results revealed that bioaugmented activated sludge treatment of BL with special mixed microorganisms significantly enhanced the removal efficiency of COD, color, and lignin from the wastewater up to 64.8, 50.5, and 53.2 %, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography profiles showed that the bioaugmentation system could successfully degrade high molecular lignin fragments in black liquor. This work confirms bioaugmentation as a feasible alternative strategy for enhanced biological treatment of wastewater with high lignin content and high organic load rate under strongly alkaline conditions.

  12. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation. PMID:27571089

  13. Enhanced Polychlorinated Biphenyl Removal in a Switchgrass Rhizosphere by Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation makes use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up soils and sediments contaminated with inorganic and organic pollutants. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was used to test for its efficiency in improving the removal of three specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77 and 153) in soil microcosms. The congeners were chosen for their ubiquity, toxicity, and recalcitrance. After 24 weeks of incubation, loss of 39.9 ± 0.41% of total PCB molar mass was observed in switchgrass treated soil, significantly higher than in unplanted soil (29.5 ± 3.4%) (p<0.05). The improved PCB removal in switchgrass treated soils could be explained by phytoextraction processes and enhanced microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was performed to further enhance aerobic PCB degradation. The presence of LB400 was associated with improved degradation of PCB 52, but not PCB 77 or PCB 153. Increased abundances of bphA (a functional gene that codes for a subunit of PCB-degrading biphenyl dioxygenase in bacteria) and its transcript were observed after bioaugmentation. The highest total PCB removal was observed in switchgrass treated soil with LB400 bioaugmentation (47.3 ± 1.22 %), and the presence of switchgrass facilitated LB400 survival in the soil. Overall, our results suggest the combined use of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation could be an efficient and sustainable strategy to eliminate recalcitrant PCB congeners and remediate PCB-contaminated soil. PMID:25246731

  14. Bioaugmentation with Vaults: Novel In Situ Remediation Strategy for Transformation of Perfluoroalkyl Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    degradation of poly- and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs), and potentially other water contaminants, without the need for repeated bioaugmentation with...and laccases into vaults. Vault packaged enzymes were stable across a broader range of temperatures and pH , and in PFC-contaminated groundwater. Since

  15. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis with bioaugmentation: characteristics of effective probiotics and strategies for their selection and use.

    PubMed

    Bletz, Molly C; Loudon, Andrew H; Becker, Matthew H; Bell, Sara C; Woodhams, Douglas C; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N

    2013-06-01

    Probiotic therapy through bioaugmentation is a feasible disease mitigation strategy based on growing evidence that microbes contribute to host defences of plants and animals. Amphibians are currently threatened by the rapid global spread of the pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis. Bioaugmentation of locally occurring protective bacteria on amphibians has mitigated this disease effectively in laboratory trials and one recent field trial. Areas still naïve to Bd provide an opportunity for conservationists to proactively implement probiotic strategies to prevent further amphibian declines. In areas where Bd is endemic, bioaugmentation can facilitate repatriation of susceptible amphibians currently maintained in assurance colonies. Here, we synthesise the current research in amphibian microbial ecology and bioaugmentation to identify characteristics of effective probiotics in relation to their interactions with Bd, their host, other resident microbes and the environment. To target at-risk species and amphibian communities, we develop sampling strategies and filtering protocols that result in probiotics that inhibit Bd under ecologically relevant conditions and persist on susceptible amphibians. This filtering tool can be used proactively to guide amphibian disease mitigation and can be extended to other taxa threatened by emerging infectious diseases.

  16. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge.

    PubMed

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-08-25

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation.

  17. Evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation and biostimulation during microcosm-simulated oil spills.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-07-15

    Oil spills are treated as a widespread problem that poses a great threat to any ecosystem. Following first response actions, bioremediation has emerged as the best strategy for combating oil spills and can be enhanced by the following two complementary approaches: bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation. Studies that compare the relative performance of bioaugmentation and biostimulation suggest that nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products because the survival and degradation ability of microbes introduced to a contaminated site are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Microbial populations grown in rich media under laboratory conditions become stressed when exposed to field conditions in which nutrient concentrations are substantially lower. There is increasing evidence that the best approach to overcoming these barriers is the use of microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as a bioaugmentation technology that exclusively uses microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) slated for decontamination. In this work, we examined the effectiveness of strategies combining autochthonous bioaugmentation with biostimulation for successful remediation of polluted marine environments. Seawater was collected from a pristine area (Agios Onoufrios Beach, Chania) and was placed in a bioreactor with 1% v/v crude oil to facilitate the adaptation of the indigenous microorganism population. The pre-adapted consortium and the indigenous population were tested in combination with inorganic or lipophilic nutrients in the presence (or absence) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) during 90-day long experiments. Chemical analysis (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of petroleum hydrocarbons confirmed the results of previous work demonstrating that the

  18. Impact of a silver layer on the membrane of tap water filters on the microbiological quality of filtered water.

    PubMed

    Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Sohr, Dorit; Bruderek, Juliane; Gastmeier, Petra

    2008-10-08

    Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We present data from water samples using an improved kind of tap water filters. In a blinded study on an intermediate care unit of the thoracic surgery department, a modified type of the Germlyser water filter (Aqua-Free Membrane Technology) with a newly-introduced silver layer on the filtration membrane was compared to its preceding type without such a layer on 15 water outlets. We determined growth of Legionella, other pathogenic bacteria, and the total heterotrophic plate count in unfiltered water and filtered water samples after filter usage intervals of 1 through 4 weeks. A total of 299 water samples were tested. Twenty-nine of the 60 unfiltered water samples contained Legionella of various serogroups (baseline value). In contrast, all samples filtered by the original water filter and all but one of the water samples filtered by the modified filter type remained Legionella-free. No other pathogenic bacteria were detected in any filtered sample. The total plate count in water samples increased during use of both kinds of filters over time. However, for the first 7 days of use, there were significantly fewer water samples containing >100 CFU per mL when using the new filter device compared with the older filters or taps with no filter. No advantage was seen thereafter. The use of this type of terminal water filter is an appropriate method to protect immunocompromised patients from water-borne pathogens such as Legionella.

  19. Water-Filtered Infrared A Irradiation in Combination with Visible Light Inhibits Acute Chlamydial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Hanna; Koschwanez, Maria; Pesch, Theresa; Blenn, Christian; Borel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS) has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS) diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs) of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C.) in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa) regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E) as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi) led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi) during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero) neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8) and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β) from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination of water-filtered

  20. Water-filtered infrared a irradiation in combination with visible light inhibits acute chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    Marti, Hanna; Koschwanez, Maria; Pesch, Theresa; Blenn, Christian; Borel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS) has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS) diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs) of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C.) in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa) regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E) as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi) led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi) during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero) neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8) and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β) from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination of water-filtered

  1. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems.

    PubMed

    Benyahia, Farid; Embaby, Ahmed Shams

    2016-02-15

    This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation.

  2. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Benyahia, Farid; Embaby, Ahmed Shams

    2016-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation. PMID:26891314

  3. Kinetics of physiological skin flora in a suction blister wound model on healthy subjects after treatment with water-filtered infrared-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Daeschlein, G; Alborova, J; Patzelt, A; Kramer, A; Lademann, J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of water-filtered infrared-A radiation (wIRA) on normal skin flora was investigated by generating experimental wounds on the forearms of volunteers utilizing the suction blister technique. Over 7 days, recolonization was monitored parallel to wound healing. Four groups of treatment were compared: no therapy (A), dexpanthenol cream once daily (B), 20 min wIRA irradiation at 30 cm distance (C), and wIRA irradiation for 30 min once daily together with dexpanthenol cream once daily (D). All treatments strongly inhibited the recolonization of the wounds. Whereas dexpanthenol completely suppressed recolonization over the test period, recolonization after wIRA without (C) and in combination with dexpanthenol (D) was suppressed, but started on day 5 with considerably higher amounts after the combination treatment (D). Whereas the consequence without treatment (A) was an increasing amount of physiological skin flora including coagulase-negative staphylococci, all treatments (B-D) led to a reduction in physiological skin flora, including coagulase-negative staphylococci. In healthy volunteers, wIRA alone and in combination with dexpanthenol strongly inhibited bacterial recolonization with physiological skin flora after artificial wound setting using a suction-blister wound model. This could support the beneficial effects of wIRA in the promotion of wound healing.

  4. Multilevel modeling of retention and disinfection efficacy of silver nanoparticles on ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Mikelonis, Anne M; Lawler, Desmond F; Passalacqua, Paola

    2016-10-01

    This research examined how variations in synthesis methods of silver nanoparticles affect both the release of silver from ceramic water filters (CWFs) and disinfection efficacy. The silver nanoparticles used were stabilized by four different molecules: citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, branched polyethylenimine, and casein. A multilevel statistical model was built to quantify if there was a significant difference in: a) extent of silver lost, b) initial amount of silver lost, c) silver lost for water of different quality, and d) total coliform removal. Experiments were performed on location at Pure Home Water, a CWF factory in Tamale, Ghana using stored rainwater and dugout water (a local surface water). The results indicated that using dugout vs. rainwater significantly affects the initial (p-value 0.0015) and sustained (p-value 0.0124) loss of silver, but that silver type does not have a significant effect. On average, dugout water removed 37.5μg/L more initial silver and had 1.1μg/L more silver in the filtrate than rainwater. Initially, filters achieved 1.9 log reduction values (LRVs) on average, but among different silver and water types this varied by as much as 2.5 LRV units. Overall, bacterial removal effectiveness was more challenging to evaluate, but some data suggest that the branched polyethylenimine silver nanoparticles provided improved initial bacterial removal over filters which were not painted with silver nanoparticles (p-value 0.038).

  5. Bacterial treatment effectiveness of point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Kowalski, Kate; Summers, R Scott

    2009-08-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted on six point-of-use (POU) ceramic water filters that were manufactured in Nicaragua; two filters were used by families for ca. 4 years and the other filters had limited prior use in our lab. Water spiked with ca. 10(6)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli was dosed to the filters. Initial disinfection efficiencies ranged from 3 - 4.5 log, but the treatment efficiency decreased with subsequent batches of spiked water. Silver concentrations in the effluent water ranged from 0.04 - 1.75 ppb. Subsequent experiments that utilized feed water without a bacterial spike yielded 10(3)-10(5)CFU/mL bacteria in the effluent. Immediately after recoating four of the filters with a colloidal silver solution, the effluent silver concentrations increased to 36 - 45 ppb and bacterial disinfection efficiencies were 3.8-4.5 log. The treatment effectiveness decreased to 0.2 - 2.5 log after loading multiple batches of highly contaminated water. In subsequent loading of clean water, the effluent water contained <20-41 CFU/mL in two of the filters. This indicates that the silver had some benefit to reducing bacterial contamination by the filter. In general these POU filters were found to be effective, but showed loss of effectiveness with time and indicated a release of microbes into subsequent volumes of water passed through the system.

  6. Removal of virus to protozoan sized particles in point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Kowalski, Kate; Schilling, Cherylynn; Schreier, Simon; Kohler, Amanda; Scott Summers, R

    2010-03-01

    The particle removal performance of point-of-use ceramic water filters (CWFs) was characterized in the size range of 0.02-100 microm using carboxylate-coated polystyrene fluorescent microspheres, natural particles and clay. Particles were spiked into dechlorinated tap water, and three successive water batches treated in each of six different CWFs. Particle removal generally increased with increasing size. The removal of virus-sized 0.02 and 0.1 microm spheres were highly variable between the six filters, ranging from 63 to 99.6%. For the 0.5 microm spheres removal was less variable and in the range of 95.1-99.6%, while for the 1, 2, 4.5, and 10 microm spheres removal was >99.6%. Recoating four of the CWFs with colloidal silver solution improved removal of the 0.02 microm spheres, but had no significant effects on the other particle sizes. Log removals of 1.8-3.2 were found for natural turbidity and spiked kaolin clay particles; however, particles as large as 95 microm were detected in filtered water.

  7. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  8. Hydraulic modeling of clay ceramic water filters for point-of-use water treatment.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Ryan W; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-01-02

    The acceptability of ceramic filters for point-of-use water treatment depends not only on the quality of the filtered water, but also on the quantity of water the filters can produce. This paper presents two mathematical models for the hydraulic performance of ceramic water filters under typical usage. A model is developed for two common filter geometries: paraboloid- and frustum-shaped. Both models are calibrated and evaluated by comparison to experimental data. The hydraulic models are able to predict the following parameters as functions of time: water level in the filter (h), instantaneous volumetric flow rate of filtrate (Q), and cumulative volume of water produced (V). The models' utility is demonstrated by applying them to estimate how the volume of water produced depends on factors such as the filter shape and the frequency of filling. Both models predict that the volume of water produced can be increased by about 45% if users refill the filter three times per day versus only once per day. Also, the models predict that filter geometry affects the volume of water produced: for two filters with equal volume, equal wall thickness, and equal hydraulic conductivity, a filter that is tall and thin will produce as much as 25% more water than one which is shallow and wide. We suggest that the models can be used as tools to help optimize filter performance.

  9. Cluster randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand Water filter in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Stauber, C E; Printy, E R; McCarty, F A; Liang, K R; Sobsey, M D

    2012-01-17

    About half of the rural population of Cambodia lacks access to improved water; an even higher percentage lacks access to latrines. More than 35,000 concrete BioSand Water filters (BSF) have been installed in the country. However, the concrete BSF takes time to produce and weighs hundreds of pounds. A plastic BSF has been developed but may not perform to the same benchmarks established by its predecessor. To evaluate plastic BSF performance and health impact, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 13 communities including 189 households and 1147 participants in the Angk Snoul district of Kandal Province from May to December 2008. The results suggest that villages with plastic BSFs had significantly lower concentrations of E. coli in drinking water and lower diarrheal disease (incidence rate ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.24-0.69) compared to control villages. As one of the first studies on the plastic BSF in Cambodia, these are important findings, especially in a setting where the concrete BSF has seen high rates of continued use years after installation. The study suggests the plastic BSF may play an important role in scaling up the distribution/implementation of the BSF, potentially improving water quality and health in the region.

  10. Fabrication of antibacterial water filter by coating silver nanoparticles on flexible polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Phuong Phong, Nguyen; Thanh, Ngo Vo Ke; Hue Phuong, Phan

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we fabricated silver-coated polyurethane foams and used it as a bacterial filter for contaminated drinking water. Flexible PU foams were soaked in silver colloidal solutions for 10 h, then washed and air-dried at room temperature. The prepared silver colloidal solutions and silver-coated PU materials were characterized by several techniques including TEM, FESEM/EDS, UV-VIS, ICP-AAS, and Raman spectroscopy. The TEM images showed that the size of silver nanoparticles in colloidal solutions varies from 6 to 12nm. The Raman, FE-SEM/EDS and ICP-AAS data illustrated that silver nanoparticles were stable on the PU foam and were not washed away by water. Furthermore, the microbiological tests (tube tests and flow test) were carried out on silver-coated PU materials with the Coliforms, E. coli, and B. subtilis. The obtained results showed that the bacteria was killed completely with antibacterial efficiency of 100% being observed. Our research suggests that silver-coated polyurethane foams can be used as excellent antibacterial water filters and would have several applications in other sectors.

  11. Predicting water filter and bottled water use in Appalachia: a community-scale case study.

    PubMed

    Levêque, Jonas G; Burns, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in order to assess residents' perceptions of water quality for drinking and recreational purposes in a mid-sized city in northcentral West Virginia. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted in order to investigate the factors that influence bottle use and filter use. Results show that 37% of respondents primarily use bottled water and that 58% use a household filter when drinking from the tap. Respondents with lower levels of environmental concern, education levels, and lower organoleptic perceptions were most likely to perceive health risks from tap water consumption, and were most likely to use bottled water. Income, age, and organoleptic perceptions were predictors of water filter use among respondents. Clean water for recreational purposes was not found to be significant with either of these models. Our results demonstrate that bottle use and filter use are explained differently. We argue that more education and better communication about local tap water quality would decrease the use of bottled water. We demonstrate that household filters could be used as an alternative to bottled water.

  12. A Low-Cost, Passive Approach for Bacterial Growth and Distribution for Large-Scale Implementation of Bioaugmentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    January 2009. Following bioaugmentation and during injection of 1% sodium lactate, considerable increases in numbers of DHC bacteria (ranging from... bacteria capable of complete dechlorination of chloroethenes to ethene are not always present at these sites, which can cause dechlorination to “stall...at cis-DCE. When this occurs, one mitigation strategy is to perform bioaugmentation, which is the introduction of bacteria capable of complete

  13. Methane emission potential and increased efficiency of a phytoremediation system bioaugmented with Bacillus firmus XJSL 1-10.

    PubMed

    Nimkar, Prachi A; Kolekar, Niranjan; Tandon, Shalini A; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-10-01

    Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland mesocosms (HSSCW) designed to treat municipal waste water were bioaugmented with Bacillus firmus XJSL 1-10. The efficiencies of the three HSSCW mesocosms (non-vegetated HSSCW, Schoenoplectus validus HSSCW and Bambusa vulgaris HSSCW) were assessed. Bioaugmentation not only enhanced the efficiency of the phytoremediation system but also reduced methane emission from an average of 51.3 mg/m2/d to 21.6 mg/m2/d in Schoenoplectus validus HSSCW and from an average of 1708 mg/m2/d to 1473 mg/m2/d in Bambusa vulgaris HSSCW. Each of the three types of bioaugmented HSSCWs showed higher purification efficiency with respect to the removal of BOD and NH4-N than the non-bioaugmented HSSCWs. The performance enhancement was most significant in bioaugmented Schoenoplectus validus HSSCW mesocosm with 48.8 and 44.8% lower BOD, and NH4-N, respectively than the non-bioaugmented HSSCW.

  14. Actual Isothermal Effects of Water-Filtered Infrared A-Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Annika; Hartmann, Petra; Gebhart, Veronika; Sonntag, Johanna; Grune, Tilman; Jung, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the athermal effects of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA)-irradiation (780-1400 nm) on human dermal fibroblasts were investigated. For this purpose, cells were exposed to wIRA-irradiation (178 mW cm(-2) for 1 h), while a sophisticated experimental setup prevented warming of the samples exceeding 0.1°C. The investigated parameters were the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide release, protein oxidation, proliferation rate, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) -release in single cells, most of them quantified via fluorescence microscopy and fluorimetric techniques. The existence of actual athermal wIRA-effects is still intensively discussed, since their detection requires a careful experimental setup and both efficient and powerful temperature regulation of the exposed samples. Here, we can definitively show that some of the supposed athermal wIRA-effects may be rather artifacts, since wIRA did not reveal any impact on the above mentioned parameters-as long as the temperature of the exposed cells was carefully maintained. Though, we were able to identify an athermal DNA-protective wIRA-effect, since the induced DNA damage (quantified via 8-Oxo-G-formation) was significantly decreased after a subsequent UVB-exposure. These results suggest that many of the supposed athermal wIRA-effects can be induced by pure warming of the samples, independent from any wIRA-irradiation. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Reducing diarrhea through the use of household-based ceramic water filters: a randomized, controlled trial in rural Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon; Suntura, Oscar; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-06-01

    Ceramic water filters have been identified as one of the most promising and accessible technologies for treating water at the household level. In a six-month trial, water filters were distributed randomly to half of the 50 participating households in a rural community in Bolivia; the remaining households continued to use customary water handling practices and served as controls. In four rounds of sampling following distribution of the filters, 100% of the 96 water samples from the filter households were free of thermotolerant coliforms compared with 15.5% of the control household samples. Diarrheal disease risk for individuals in intervention households was 70% lower than for controls (95% confidence interval [CI] = 53-80%; P < 0.001). For children less than five years old, the reduction in risk was 83% (95% CI = 51-94%; P < 0.001). These results show that affordable ceramic water filters enable low-income households to treat and maintain the microbiologic quality of their drinking water.

  16. Bioaugmentation for treating transient 4-fluorocinnamic acid shock loads in a rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Catarina L; Duque, Anouk F; Afonso, Carlos M M; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-09-01

    A rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used to treat shock loadings of 4-fluorocinnamic acid (4-FCA). Intermittent 4-FCA shocks of 35 mg L(-1) were applied (ca. 3 months) with only limited mineralization occurring and accumulation of 4-fluorobenzoate (4-FBA) as an intermediate. After bioaugmentation with a degrading bacterium the RBC was able to deal with 4-FCA intermittent loading of 80 mg L(-1) however, a gradual decline in RBC performance occurred, leading to 4-FBA accumulation. The degrading strain was recovered from the biofilm during 2 months but intermittent feeding may have led to diminishing strain numbers. Distinct bacterial communities in the 1st and the 5th and 10th stages of the RBC were revealed by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis. Several isolates retrieved from the RBC transformed 4-FCA into 4-FBA but only two strains mineralized the compound. Bioaugmentation allowed removal of the fluorinated compound however intermittent feeding may have compromised the bioreactor efficiency.

  17. Bioaugmentation of DDT-contaminated soil by dissemination of the catabolic plasmid pDOD.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunming; Jin, Xiangxiang; Ren, Jingbei; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    A plasmid transfer-mediated bioaugmentation method for the enhancement of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) degradation in soil was developed using the catabolic plasmid pDOD from Sphingobacterium sp. D-6. The pDOD plasmid could be transferred to soil bacteria, such as members of Cellulomonas, to form DDT degraders and thus accelerate DDT degradation. The transfer efficiency of pDOD was affected by the donor, temperature, moisture, and soil type. Approximately 50.7% of the DDT in the contaminated field was removed 210 days after the application of Escherichia coli TG I (pDOD-gfp). The results suggested that seeding pDOD into soil is an effective bioaugmentation method for enhancing the degradation of DDT.

  18. Quantitative and qualitative effects of bioaugmentation on ammonia oxidisers at a two-step WWTP.

    PubMed

    Podmirseg, S M; Schoen, M A; Murthy, S; Insam, H; Wett, B

    2010-01-01

    Large waste water treatment plants (WWTP) often operate nitrification in two different process environments: the cold-dilute sewage is treated in the mainstream nitrification/denitrification system, while the high strength ammonia liquors from sludge dewatering are treated in a separate high temperature reactor (SBR). This study investigates transfer from nitrifier biomass into a two-stage WWTP, commonly referred to as bioaugmentation. Besides the quantitation of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB), community differences were analysed with two techniques, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR melt curve analysis. It was shown that, without bioaugmentation, two distinct AOB communities establish in the mainstream and in the SBR, respectively. A gradual shift of the two AOB communities with increasing pump rates between the systems could be demonstrated. These molecular findings support process engineering experience, that cycling of waste activated sludge improves the ability of AOB to adapt to different process environments.

  19. Bench-scale evaluation of aerosol delivery for biostimulation and bioaugmentation in the vadose zone.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J; Murdoch, Lawrence C; Freedman, David L; Looney, Brian B; Riha, Brian D

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol delivery was evaluated for distributing biostimulation and bioaugmentation amendments in vadose zones. This technique involves transporting amendments as micron-scale aerosol droplets in injected gas. Microcosm experiments were designed to characterize reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) under unsaturated conditions when delivering components as aerosols. Delivering amendments and/or microbes as aqueous aerosols resulted in complete dechlorination of TCE, similar to controls operated under saturated conditions. Reductive dechlorination was achieved with manual injection of a bioaugmentation culture suspended in soybean oil into microcosms. However, aerosol delivery of the culture in soybean oil induced little reductive dechlorination activity. Overall, the results indicate that delivery as aqueous aerosols may be a viable option for delivery of amendments to enhance vadose zone bioremediation at the field-scale.

  20. Cost and Performance Report: Bioaugmentation for Aerobic Bioremediation of RDX-Contaminated Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    water standards (Maximum Contaminant Level) for RDX; however, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has listed RDX on the Drinking Water ...diazabutanal O&M Operation and maintenance O2 dissolved oxygen OD Optical density ORP Oxidation reduction potential OSU Oregon State University P&T...anaerobic biostimulation, and aerobic biostimulation without bioaugmentation. 2 1.3 REGULATORY DRIVERS There are currently no Federal drinking

  1. Use of Nucleic Acid-Based Tools for Monitoring Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    JANUARY 2011 Carmen Lebrόn NAVFAC ESC Erik Petrovskis Geosyntec Consultants Frank Löffler University of Tennessee Keith Henn Tetra Tech...ATTENUATION (MNA), BIOSTIMULATION AND BIOAUGMENTATION AT CHLORINATED SOLVENT SITES ESTCP Project ER0518 NAVFAC ESC By Carmen A. Lebrón (NAVFAC...R-08/148. Fletcher, K. E., C. Cruz- Garcia , N. S. Ramaswamy, J. Costanza, K. D. Pennell, and F. E. Löffler. 2010. Effects of elevated temperatures

  2. Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by concurrent bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring and aerobic degrading bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rayford B.; Fagervold, Sonja K.; May, Harold D.; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation of sediments contaminated with commercial PCBs is potentially achievable by the sequential activity of anaerobic halorespiration to convert higher chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are susceptible to aerobic respiratory degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring “Dehalobium chlorocoercia” DF1 and aerobic Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 added concurrently with GAC as a delivery system was determined in 2-liter laboratory mesocosms containing weathered Aroclor-contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The greatest effect was seen in the mesocosm bioaugmented with both DF1 and LB400 together, which resulted in an 80% decrease by mass of PCBs, from 8 mg/kg to less than 2 mg/kg after 120 days. There was no significant increase in lesser-chlorinated congeners, indicating that both anaerobic dechlorination by DF1 and aerobic degradation by LB400 occurred. In contrast, non-bioaugmented controls containing filtered culture supernatant showed only 25% decrease in total levels of PCBs after 365 days, which was likely due to biostimulation of the indigenous population by the medium. Direct colony counts and molecular analysis targeting a putative reductive dehalogenase gene of D. chlorocoercia, or the bphA gene of LB400 showed the presence of viable DF1 and LB400 in bioaugmented mesocosms after 365 days, indicating that both non-indigenous strains were sustainable within the indigenous microbial community. These results suggest that an in situ treatment employing the simultaneous application of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms could be an effective, environmentally sustainable strategy to reduce PCBs levels in contaminated sediment. PMID:23463900

  3. Biodegradation of Spilled Diesel Fuel in Agricultural Soil: Effect of Humates, Zeolite, and Bioaugmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kuráň, Pavel; Nováková, Jana; Pilařová, Věra; Dáňová, Petra; Pavlorková, Jana; Kozler, Josef; Novák, František

    2014-01-01

    Possible enhancement of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in agricultural soil after tank truck accident (~5000 mg/kg dry soil initial concentration) by bioaugmentation of diesel degrading Pseudomonas fluorescens strain and addition of abiotic additives (humates, zeolite) was studied in a 9-month pot experiment. The biodegradation process was followed by means of analytical parameters (hydrocarbon index expressed as content of C10–C40 aliphatic hydrocarbons, ratio pristane/C17, and total organic carbon content) and characterization of soil microbial community (content of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) as an indicator of living microbial biomass, respiration, and dehydrogenase activity). The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons (C10–C40) was successfully reduced by ~60% in all 15 experiment variants. The bioaugmentation resulted in faster hydrocarbon elimination. On the contrary, the addition of humates and zeolite caused only a negligible increase in the degradation rate. These factors, however, affected significantly the amount of PLFA. The humates caused significantly faster increase of the total PLFA suggesting improvement of the soil microenvironment. Zeolite caused significantly slower increase of the total PLFA; nevertheless it aided in homogenization of the soil. Comparison of microbial activities and total PLFA revealed that only a small fraction of autochthonous microbes took part in the biodegradation which confirms that bioaugmentation was the most important treatment. PMID:24672346

  4. Bioaugmentation of cyanide-degrading microorganisms in a full-scale cokes wastewater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghee; Lee, Dae Sung; Kim, Young Mo; Park, Jong Moon

    2008-04-01

    To enhance biological removal efficiency of total cyanides, bioaugmentation was applied to a full-scale cokes wastewaters treatment process. After a laboratorial-scale cultivation (up to 1.2 m(3)) of a cyanide-degrading yeast (Cryptococcus humicolus) and unidentified cyanide-degrading microorganisms, the microbial consortium was inoculated into a fluidized-bed type process (1280 m(3)), and then enriched for two months with a huge supply of glucose, KCN and other nutrients. Target wastewater was effluent of a biological pre-denitrification process for treating cokes wastewater, and contained about 14 mg/L of total cyanides in the form of ferric cyanide. This may be a first or rare report on the full-scale bioaugmentation of specialized-microorganisms. However, continuous operation of the full-scale cyanides-degrading bioprocess showed poor removal efficiency than expected owing to poor settling performance of microbial flocs, slow biodegradation rate of ferric cyanide and lack of organic carbon sources within the wastewater. Therefore, there is a need for further studies on how to solve these operating problems in full-scale bioaugmentation approach.

  5. The biodegradation of cable oil components: impact of oil concentration, nutrient addition and bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Towell, Marcie G; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T

    2011-12-01

    The effect of cable oil concentration, nutrient amendment and bioaugmentation on cable oil component biodegradation in a pristine agricultural soil was investigated. Biodegradation potential was evaluated over 21 d by measuring cumulative CO(2) respiration on a Micro-Oxymax respirometer and (14)C-phenyldodecane mineralisation using a (14)C-respirometric assay. Cable oil concentration had a significant effect upon oil biodegradation. Microbial respiratory activity increased with increasing cable oil concentration, whereas (14)C-phenydodecane mineralisation decreased. Bioaugmentation achieved the best cable oil biodegradation performance, resulting in increases in cumulative CO(2) respiration, and maximum rates and extents of (14)C-phenyldodecane mineralisation. Generally, nutrient amendment also enhanced cable oil biodegradation, but not to the extent that degrader amendment did. Cable oil biodegradation was a function of (i) cable oil concentration and (ii) catabolic ability of microbial populations. Bioaugmentation may enhance cable oil biodegradation, and is dependent upon composition, cell number and application of catabolic inocula to soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and Bioaugmentation of an Estradiol-Degrading Bacterium and Its Integration into a Mature Biofilm▿

    PubMed Central

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2011-01-01

    Bioaugmentation can alter the potential activity as well as the composition of the naturally occurring microbial biota during bioremediation of a contaminated site. The focus of the current study is the pollutant 17β-estradiol (E2), which can cause endocrine effects and is potentially harmful to aquatic biota and to public health. The community composition and function of biofilms, originating from a wetland system, as affected by augmentation of an estradiol-degrading bacterium (EDB-LI1) under different conditions, were investigated. EDB-LI1 inoculation into biofilm from two wetland ponds representing early and advanced water treatment stages, respectively, yielded three significant observations, as follows: (i) EDB-LI1, enriched from a biofilm of a constructed wetland wastewater treatment system, was detected (by quantitative PCR [qPCR] analysis) in this environment in the augmented biofilm only; (ii) the augmented biofilm acquired the ability to remove estradiol; and (iii) the bacterial community composition (analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) of the augmented biofilm differed from that of the control biofilm. Furthermore, EDB-LI1 bioaugmentation showed a higher level of removal of estradiol with biofilms that originated from the advanced-treatment-stage wetland pond than those from the early-treatment-stage pond. Hence, the bioaugmentation efficiency of EDB-LI1 depends on both the quality of the feed water and the microbial community composition in the pond. PMID:21478310

  7. Laboratory and field scale bioremediation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils by means of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Garg, Nidhi; Lata, Pushp; Jit, Simran; Sangwan, Naseer; Singh, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Vatsala; Niharika, Neha; Kaur, Jasvinder; Saxena, Anjali; Dua, Ankita; Nayyar, Namita; Kohli, Puneet; Geueke, Birgit; Kunz, Petra; Rentsch, Daniel; Holliger, Christof; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils were treated for a period of up to 64 days in situ (HCH dumpsite, Lucknow) and ex situ (University of Delhi) in line with three bioremediation approaches. The first approach, biostimulation, involved addition of ammonium phosphate and molasses, while the second approach, bioaugmentation, involved addition of a microbial consortium consisting of a group of HCH-degrading sphingomonads that were isolated from HCH contaminated sites. The third approach involved a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. The efficiency of the consortium was investigated in laboratory scale experiments, in a pot scale study, and in a full-scale field trial. It turned out that the approach of combining biostimulation and bioaugmentation was most effective in achieving reduction in the levels of α- and β-HCH and that the application of a bacterial consortium as compared to the action of a single HCH-degrading bacterial strain was more successful. Although further degradation of β- and δ-tetrachlorocyclohexane-1,4-diol, the terminal metabolites of β- and δ-HCH, respectively, did not occur by the strains comprising the consortium, these metabolites turned out to be less toxic than the parental HCH isomers.

  8. Study on EDTA-degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia YL-6 for bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chin; Chen, Szu-Lin; Fang, Hung-Yuan

    2005-11-01

    Bioaugmentation production of EDTA-degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia YL-6 was carried out in an aerobic fermentor. Three different carbon sources (ferric-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe-EDTA), potassium acetate, and ethylamine) were used. The bacterium cultivated with Fe-EDTA and maintained in the growth phase could reach the maximum cell concentration on the 38th day. Whereas, the bacterium cultivated with potassium acetate and ethylamine reach the maximum cell concentration at the 76th and 100th hour. The viable-cell counts of the augmentation agents made by feeding Fe-EDTA, potassium acetate, and ethylamine were 8.2x10(10), 6.8x10(11), and 4.3x10(11) CFU/g agent, respectively. The EDTA-degradation time required for the afore-mentioned bioaugmentation agents made by feeding various carbon sources lay in the following order: ethylaminebioaugmentation agent (made by feeding ethylamine) only required 10 and 13 days for complete degradation of EDTA from the Fe-EDTA and Cu-EDTA complexes, respectively. It shows that ethylamine was the best substrate for augmentation production of EDTA-degrading bacterium B. cepacia YL-6.

  9. Evaluation of microbial transport during aerobic bioaugmentation of an RDX-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Hancock, Dawn E; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Vainberg, Simon; Istok, Jonathan D; Wilson, Edward; Michalsen, Mandy M

    2015-11-01

    In situ bioaugmentation with aerobic hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-degrading bacteria is being considered for treatment of explosives-contaminated groundwater at Umatilla Chemical Depot, Oregon (UMCD). Two forced-gradient bacterial transport tests of site groundwater containing chloride or bromide tracer and either a mixed culture of Gordonia sp. KTR9 (xplA (+)Km(R)), Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (pGKT2 transconjugant; xplA (+)Km(R)) and Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C (xenB (+)), or a single culture of Gordonia sp. KTR9 (xplA (+); i.e. wild-type) were conducted at UMCD. Groundwater monitoring evaluated cell viability and migration in the injection well and downgradient monitoring wells. Enhanced degradation of RDX was not evaluated in these demonstrations. Quantitative PCR analysis of xplA, the kanamycin resistance gene (aph), and xenB indicated that the mixed culture was transported at least 3 m within 2 h of injection. During a subsequent field injection of bioaugmented groundwater, strain KTR9 (wild-type) migrated up to 23-m downgradient of the injection well within 3 days. Thus, the three RDX-degrading strains were effectively introduced and transported within the UMCD aquifer. This demonstration represents an innovative application of bioaugmentation to potentially enhance RDX biodegradation in aerobic aquifers.

  10. Biodegradation of nitroglycerin in porous media and potential for bioaugmentation with Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1.

    PubMed

    Husserl, Johana; Hughes, Joseph B

    2013-07-01

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is a toxic explosive found as a contaminant of soil and groundwater. Several microbial strains are capable of partially reducing the NG molecule to dinitro or mononitroesters. Recently, a strain capable of growing on NG as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen (Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1) was isolated from contaminated soil. Despite the widespread presence of microbial strains capable of transforming NG in contaminated soils and sediments, the extent of NG biodegradation at contaminated sites is still unknown. In this study column experiments were conducted to investigate the extent of microbial degradation of NG in saturated porous media, specifically after bioaugmentation with JBH1. Initial experiments using sterile, low sorptivity sand, showed mineralization of NG after bioaugmentation with JBH1 in the absence of sources of carbon and nitrogen other than NG. Results could be modeled using a first order degradation rate of 0.14d(-1). Further experiments conducted using contaminated soil with high organic carbon content (highly sorptive) resulted in column effluents that did not contain NG although high dinitroester concentrations were observed. Bioaugmentation with JBH1 in sediments containing strains capable of partial transformation of NG resulted in complete mineralization of NG and faster degradation rates.

  11. Copper phytoremediation by a salt marsh plant (Phragmites australis) enhanced by autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T; Mucha, A P; Reis, I; Rodrigues, P; Gomes, C R; Almeida, C M R

    2014-11-15

    Here we evaluated whether the potential of Phragmites australis to phytoremediate Cu contaminated sediments could be enhanced by bioaugmentation with an autochthonous microorganism consortium (AMC) that is resistant to Cu. Saltmarsh plants with sediment attached to their roots were collected, placed in vessels and kept in greenhouses, under tidal simulation. Sediments were contaminated with Cu and the AMC was added to half of the vessels. After two months, plants accumulated significant amounts of Cu (2-10 times more) in all tissues although in higher amounts (7-10 times more) in belowground structures. AMC addition increased Cu bioavailability (5-10%) in sediments leading to a decrease in belowground structures biomass. However, bioaugmentation increased Cu translocation, with higher amounts (2 times more) of Cu in the plant stems, without significant visual toxicity signs. Therefore, autochthonous bioaugmentation can increase Cu phytoextraction potential of P. australis, which can be a valuable strategy for the recovery and management of moderately impacted estuaries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioaugmentation as a strategy for the remediation of pesticide-polluted soil: A review.

    PubMed

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Mrozik, Agnieszka; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2017-04-01

    Bioaugmentation, a green technology, is defined as the improvement of the degradative capacity of contaminated areas by introducing specific microorganisms, has emerged as the most advantageous method for cleaning-up soil contaminated with pesticides. The present review discusses the selection of pesticide-utilising microorganisms from various sources, their potential for the degradation of pesticides from different chemical classes in liquid media as well as soil-related case studies in a laboratory, a greenhouse and field conditions. The paper is focused on the microbial degradation of the most common pesticides that have been used for many years such as organochlorinated and organophosphorus pesticides, triazines, pyrethroids, carbamate, chloroacetamide, benzimidazole and derivatives of phenoxyacetic acid. Special attention is paid to bacterial strains from the genera Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brucella, Burkholderia, Catellibacterium, Pichia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Serratia, Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Streptomyces and Verticillum, which have potential applications in the bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated soils using bioaugmentation technology. Since many factors strongly influence the success of bioaugmentation, selected abiotic and biotic factors such as pH, temperature, type of soil, pesticide concentration, content of water and organic matter, additional carbon and nitrogen sources, inoculum size, interactions between the introduced strains and autochthonous microorganisms as well as the survival of inoculants were presented.

  13. Partial bioaugmentation to remove 3-chloroaniline slows bacterial species turnover rate in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael W; Seshan, Hari; Dosoretz, Carlos; Wuertz, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Bioaugmentation is a potentially powerful tool to direct community structure and metabolic capacities in bioreactors. Yet the outcome of bioaugmentation studies is usually unpredictable and effects on microbial community dynamics are poorly understood. We asked the question whether bioaugmentation could prevent a diversity shift induced by a model toxin, 3-chloroaniline (3-CA), regardless of whether 3-CA was degraded. Four replicate membrane bioreactors (MBRs) operating in parallel were amended with Pseudomonas putida UWC3 (pWDL7::rfp), a strain that carries the upper pathway genes necessary for partial degradation of 3-CA on its plasmid. Two MBRs served as controls and two MBRs were exposed to 3-CA for 71 days. Despite the selective pressure imposed by 3-CA, there was little or no 3-CA removal and neither the 16S rRNA gene of the augmented strain UWC3 nor the plasmid pWDL7::rfp proliferated in any of the reactors. Yet both host strain and plasmid were maintained at reduced levels (~10(4) host strain cells ml(-1)) in all reactors compared to the initial inoculum (~10(7) cells ml(-1); 1% of active cells). Additionally, the microbial community dynamics were evaluated for each MBR via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis (n = 15 per reactor) that targeted a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Analysis comprised of a suite of multivariate statistics coupled with a theoretical microbial ecological approach, 'Island Biogeography', using a bacterial species time relationship (STR), within each MBR. Control MBRs had a wider range in w values than the treatment MBRs, which is attributed to the lack of a toxin selecting for biota that can withstand its toxic nature. Bioaugmentation alone strongly slowed the bacterial species turnover rate (as revealed by very low w scaling components), compared to non-bioaugmented reactors from a previous study, but did not protect the microbial community from a diversity shift caused by the toxin. Nonmetric

  14. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elimination of fungicides in biopurification systems: Effect of fungal bioaugmentation on removal performance and microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Zamora, Sergio; Castro-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Masís-Mora, Mario; Lizano-Fallas, Verónica; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2017-11-01

    Bioaugmentation with ligninolytic fungi represents a potential way to improve the performance of biomixtures used in biopurification systems for the treatment of pesticide-containing agricultural wastewater. The fungus Trametes versicolor was employed in the bioaugmentation of a biomixture to be used in the simultaneous removal of seven fungicides. Liquid cultures of the fungus were able to remove tebuconazole, while no evidence of carbendazim, metalaxyl and triadimenol depletion was found. When applied in the biomixture, the bioaugmented matrix failed to remove all the triazole fungicides (including tebuconazole) under the assayed conditions, but was efficient to eliminate carbendazim, edifenphos and metalaxyl (the latter only after a second pesticide application). The re-addition of pesticides markedly increased the elimination of carbendazim and metalaxyl; nonetheless, no clear enhancement of the biomixture performance could be ascribed to fungal bioaugmentation, not even after the re-inoculation of fungal biomass. Detoxification efficiently took place in the biomixture (9 d after pesticide applications) according to acute tests on Daphnia magna. DGGE-analysis revealed only moderate time-divergence in bacterial and fungal communities, and a weak establishment of T. versicolor in the matrix. Data suggest that the non-bioaugmented biomixture is useful for the treatment of fungicides other than triazoles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simazine degradation in bioaugmented soil: urea impact and response of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and other soil bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingwei; Wan, Rui; Xie, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of exogenous urea nitrogen on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and other soil bacterial communities in soil bioaugmented for simazine remediation. The previously isolated simazine-degrading Arthrobacter sp. strain SD1 was used to degrade the herbicide. The effect of urea on the simazine degradation capacity of the soil bioaugmented with Arthrobacter strain SD1 was assessed using quantitative PCR targeting the s-triazine-degrading trzN and atzC genes. Structures of bacterial and AOB communities were characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Urea fertilizer could affect simazine biodegradation and decreased the proportion of its trzN and atzC genes in soil augmented with Arthrobacter strain SD1. Bioaugmentation process could significantly alter the structures of both bacterial and AOB communities, which were strongly affected by urea amendment, depending on the dosage. This study could provide some new insights towards s-triazine bioremediation and microbial ecology in a bioaugmented system. However, further studies are necessary in order to elucidate the impact of different types and levels of nitrogen sources on s-triazine-degraders and bacterial and AOB communities in bioaugmented soil.

  17. Bioaugmentation of polyethylene succinate-contaminated soil with Pseudomonas sp. AKS2 results in increased microbial activity and better polymer degradation.

    PubMed

    Tribedi, Prosun; Sil, Alok K

    2013-03-01

    Pseudomonas sp. AKS2 isolated from soil degrades polyethylene succinate (PES) efficiently in the laboratory. However, this organism may not be able to degrade PES with similar efficiency in a natural habitat. Since in situ remediation is preferred for the effective removal of recalcitrant materials like plastic, in the current study, bioaugmentation potential of this organism was investigated. To investigate the potential of the AKS2 strain to bioaugment the PES-contaminated soil, a microcosm-based study was carried out wherein naturally attenuated, biostimulated, and AKS2-inoculated (bioaugmented) soil samples were examined for their ability to degrade PES. The results showed better degradation of PES by bioaugmented soil than other microcosms. Consistent with it, a higher number of PES-degrading organisms were found in the bioaugmented microcosm. The bioaugmented microcosm also exhibited a higher level of average well color development in BiOLOG ECO plate assay than the other two. The corresponding Shannon-Weaver index and Gini coefficient revealed a higher soil microbial diversity of bioaugmented microcosm than the others. This was further supported by community-level physiological profile of three different microcosms wherein we have observed better utilization of different carbon sources by bioaugmented microcosms. Collectively, these results demonstrate that bioaugmentation of PES-contaminated soil with AKS2 not only enhances polymer degradation but also increases microbial diversity. Bioaugmentation of soil with AKS2 enhances PES degradation without causing damage to soil ecology. Thus, Pseudomonas sp. AKS2 has the potential to be implemented as a useful tool for in situ bioremediation of PES.

  18. The development of point-of-use water filters as sampling devices in bioforensics: extent of microbial sorption and elution.

    PubMed

    Sedillo, Jennifer L; Quintana, Ayshea; Souza, Kathryn; Oshima, Kevin H; Smith, Geoffrey B

    2008-06-01

    The foundational idea for this project is that household faucet-mounted water filters may be used as bioforensic sampling devices to detect the extent of a potential bioagent release in domestic water supplies. An optimized eluent solution was determined experimentally by quantifying recoveries of microorganisms from point-of-use (POU) drinking water filters. The optimized extraction protocol was then used in mock bioagent release experiments to determine the feasibility of POU filters as bioforensic sampling devices. Bacillus atrophaeus spores, Escherichia coli and PP7 virus were exposed to filters and the number of attached organisms was determined by enumerating the unattached organisms on selective agar media. Subsequently, the filters were eluted and the percent of extracted organisms was determined based on the number of attached organisms. Two popular brands of carbon block filters retained 92%-99% of representative virus, spore and vegetative bacteria. In back-flush elutions of single filters, the most efficient eluent was identified as a combination of 1% peptone and 1% Tween-80, and extraction recovered 25.4% (+/-17.5%) of attached E. coli, 20.4% (+/-3.6%) of B. atrophaeus spores, and 9.4% (+/-5.2%) of PP7 virions (+/- standard deviations). In bioagent release studies in which filters were challenged with 100 agents mL(-1), greater than 99% of the spores were retained by the filters, and the percent of attached spores that were recovered ranged from 10.4% at day 0 to 4.3% five days after the release event (averaged from five separate experiments). In contrast, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and PP7 virus were rapidly inactivated in the chlorinated tap water, indicating their improbable survival in chlorinated water supplies. It is therefore concluded that household water filters can be used as microbial sampling devices for bioforensic applications in the event of a bioagent release in domestic drinking water supplies.

  19. Manufacturing a low-cost ceramic water filter and filter system for the elimination of common pathogenic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, J. J.; Basson, A. K.

    Africa is one of the most water-scarce continents in the world but it is the lack of potable water which results in diarrhoea being the leading cause of death amongst children under the age of five in Africa (696 million children under 5 years old in Africa contract diarrhoea resulting in 2000 deaths per day: WHO and UNICEF, 2009). Most potable water treatment methods use bulk water treatment not suitable or available to the majority of rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. One simple but effective way of making sure that water is of good quality is by purifying it by means of a household ceramic water filter. The making and supply of water filters suitable for the removal of suspended solids, pathogenic bacteria and other toxins from drinking water is therefore critical. A micro-porous ceramic water filter with micron-sized pores was developed using the traditional slip casting process. This locally produced filter has the advantage of making use of less raw materials, cost, labour, energy and expertise and being more effective and efficient than other low cost produced filters. The filter is fitted with a silicone tube inserted into a collapsible bag that acts as container and protection for the filter. Enhanced flow is obtained through this filter system. The product was tested using water inoculated with high concentrations of different bacterial cultures as well as with locally polluted stream water. The filter is highly effective (log10 > 4 with 99.99% reduction efficiency) in providing protection from bacteria and suspended solids found in natural water. With correct cleaning and basic maintenance this filter technology can effectively provide drinking water to rural families affected by polluted surface water sources. This is an African solution for the more than 340 million people in Africa without access to clean drinking water (WHO and UNICEF, 2008).

  20. Therapy of chronic wounds with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA)

    PubMed Central

    von Felbert, Verena; Schumann, Hauke; Mercer, James B.; Strasser, Wolfgang; Daeschlein, Georg; Hoffmann, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The central portion of chronic wounds is often hypoxic and relatively hypothermic, representing a deficient energy supply of the tissue, which impedes wound healing or even makes it impossible. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and a low thermal load to the skin surface. wIRA produces a therapeutically usable field of heat and increases temperature, oxygen partial pressure and perfusion of the tissue. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen and consequently as well for wound healing, especially in chronic wounds, and infection defense. wIRA acts both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. wIRA can advance wound healing or improve an impaired wound healing process and can especially enable wound healing in non-healing chronic wounds. wIRA can considerably alleviate the pain and diminish wound exudation and inflammation and can show positive immunomodulatory effects. In a prospective, randomized, controlled study of 40 patients with chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs irradiation with wIRA and visible light (VIS) accelerated the wound healing process (on average 18 vs. 42 days until complete wound closure, residual ulcer area after 42 days 0.4 cm² vs. 2.8 cm²) and led to a reduction of the required dose of pain medication in comparison to the control group of patients treated with the same standard care (wound cleansing, wound dressing with antibacterial gauze, and compression garment therapy) without the concomitant irradiation. Another prospective study of 10 patients with non-healing chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs included extensive thermographic investigation. Therapy with wIRA(+VIS) resulted in a complete or almost complete wound healing in 7 patients and a marked reduction of the ulcer size in another 2 of the 10 patients, a clear reduction of pain and required dose of pain medication

  1. Bioaugmentation of aerobic sludge granules with a plasmid donor strain for enhanced degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiang-chun; Tang, Hua; Xiong, Wei-cong; Yang, Zhi-feng

    2010-07-15

    Aerobic sludge granules pre-grown on glucose were bioaugmented with a plasmid pJP4 carrying strain Pseudomonas putida SM1443 in a fed-batch microcosm system and a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to enhance their degradation capacity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The fed-batch test results showed that the bioaugmented aerobic granule system gained 2,4-D degradation ability faster and maintained a more stable microbial community than the control in the presence of 2,4-D. 2,4-D at the initial concentration of about 160 mg/L was nearly completely removed by the bioaugmented granule system within 62 h, while the control system only removed 26% within 66 h. In the bioaugmented SBR which had been operated for 90 days, the seeded aerobic granules pre-grown on glucose successfully turned into 2,4-D degrading granules through bioaugmentation and stepwise increase of 2,4-D concentration from 8 to 385 mg/L. The granules showed a compact structure and good settling ability with the mean diameter of about 450 microm. The degradation kinetics of 2,4-D by the aerobic granules can be described with the Haldane kinetics model with V(max)=31.1 mg 2,4-D/gVSS h, K(i)=597.9 mg/L and K(s)=257.3 mg/L, respectively. This study shows that plasmid mediated bioaugmentation is a feasible strategy to cultivate aerobic granules degrading recalcitrant pollutants. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Autochthonous bioaugmentation with environmental samples rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria for bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nedaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Sorkhoh, Naser; Radwan, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Oil-contaminated seawater and desert soil batches were bioaugmented with suspensions of pea (Pisum sativum) rhizosphere and soil with long history of oil pollution. Oil consumption was measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria in the bioremediation batches were counted using a mineral medium with oil vapor as a sole carbon source and characterized by their 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-gene sequences. Most of the oil was consumed during the first 2-4 months, and the oil-removal rate decreased or ceased thereafter due to nutrient and oxygen depletion. Supplying the batches with NaNO3 (nitrogen fertilization) at a late phase of bioremediation resulted in reenhanced oil consumption and bacterial growth. In the seawater batches bioaugmented with rhizospheric suspension, the autochthonous rhizospheric bacterial species Microbacterium oxidans and Rhodococcus spp. were established and contributed to oil-removal. The rhizosphere-bioaugmented soil batches selectively favored Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, Caulobacter segnis, and Ensifer adherens. In seawater batches bioaugmented with long-contaminated soil, the predominant oil-removing bacterium was the marine species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. In soil batches on the other hand, the autochthonous inhabitants of the long-contaminated soil, Pseudomonas and Massilia species were established and contributed to oil removal. It was concluded that the use of rhizospheric bacteria for inoculating seawater and desert soil and of bacteria in long-contaminated soil for inoculating desert soil follows the concept of "autochthonous bioaugmentation." Inoculating seawater with bacteria in long-contaminated soil, on the other hand, merits the designation "allochthonous bioaugmentation."

  3. Behavioral Reactivity Associated With Electronic Monitoring of Environmental Health Interventions--A Cluster Randomized Trial with Water Filters and Cookstoves.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Evan A; Tellez-Sanchez, Sarita; Wick, Carson; Kirby, Miles; Zambrano, Laura; Abadie Rosa, Ghislaine; Clasen, Thomas F; Nagel, Corey

    2016-04-05

    Subject reactivity--when research participants change their behavior in response to being observed--has been documented showing the effect of human observers. Electronics sensors are increasingly used to monitor environmental health interventions, but the effect of sensors on behavior has not been assessed. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Rwanda among 170 households (70 blinded to the presence of the sensor, 100 open) testing whether awareness of an electronic monitor would result in a difference in weekly use of household water filters and improved cookstoves over a four-week surveillance period. A 63% increase in number of uses of the water filter per week between the groups was observed in week 1, an average of 4.4 times in the open group and 2.83 times in the blind group, declining in week 4 to an insignificant 55% difference of 2.82 uses in the open, and 1.93 in the blind. There were no significant differences in the number of stove uses per week between the two groups. For both filters and stoves, use decreased in both groups over four-week installation periods. This study suggests behavioral monitoring should attempt to account for reactivity to awareness of electronic monitors that persists for weeks or more.

  4. Bioaugmentation of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing culture in biogas reactors exposed to increasing levels of ammonia.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, Maria; Levén, Lotta; Schnürer, Anna

    2012-11-01

    The importance of syntrophic acetate oxidation for process stability in methanogenic systems operating at high ammonia concentrations has previously been emphasized. In this study we investigated bioaugmentation of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing (SAO) cultures as a possible method for decreasing the adaptation period of biogas reactors operating at gradually increased ammonia concentrations (1.5 to 11 g NH(4)(+)-N/liter). Whole stillage and cattle manure were codigested semicontinuously for about 460 days in four mesophilic anaerobic laboratory-scale reactors, and a fixed volume of SAO culture was added daily to two of the reactors. Reactor performance was evaluated in terms of biogas productivity, methane content, pH, alkalinity, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The decomposition pathway of acetate was analyzed by isotopic tracer experiments, and population dynamics were monitored by quantitative PCR analyses. A shift in dominance from aceticlastic methanogenesis to SAO occurred simultaneously in all reactors, indicating no influence by bioaugmentation on the prevailing pathway. Higher abundances of Clostridium ultunense and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans were associated with bioaugmentation, but no influence on Syntrophaceticus schinkii or the methanogenic population was distinguished. Overloading or accumulation of VFA did not cause notable dynamic effects on the population. Instead, the ammonia concentration had a substantial impact on the abundance level of the microorganisms surveyed. The addition of SAO culture did not affect process performance or stability against ammonia inhibition, and all four reactors deteriorated at high ammonia concentrations. Consequently, these findings further demonstrate the strong influence of ammonia on the methane-producing consortia and on the representative methanization pathway in mesophilic biogas reactors.

  5. Bioaugmentation of Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidizing Culture in Biogas Reactors Exposed to Increasing Levels of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, Maria; Levén, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    The importance of syntrophic acetate oxidation for process stability in methanogenic systems operating at high ammonia concentrations has previously been emphasized. In this study we investigated bioaugmentation of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing (SAO) cultures as a possible method for decreasing the adaptation period of biogas reactors operating at gradually increased ammonia concentrations (1.5 to 11 g NH4+-N/liter). Whole stillage and cattle manure were codigested semicontinuously for about 460 days in four mesophilic anaerobic laboratory-scale reactors, and a fixed volume of SAO culture was added daily to two of the reactors. Reactor performance was evaluated in terms of biogas productivity, methane content, pH, alkalinity, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The decomposition pathway of acetate was analyzed by isotopic tracer experiments, and population dynamics were monitored by quantitative PCR analyses. A shift in dominance from aceticlastic methanogenesis to SAO occurred simultaneously in all reactors, indicating no influence by bioaugmentation on the prevailing pathway. Higher abundances of Clostridium ultunense and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans were associated with bioaugmentation, but no influence on Syntrophaceticus schinkii or the methanogenic population was distinguished. Overloading or accumulation of VFA did not cause notable dynamic effects on the population. Instead, the ammonia concentration had a substantial impact on the abundance level of the microorganisms surveyed. The addition of SAO culture did not affect process performance or stability against ammonia inhibition, and all four reactors deteriorated at high ammonia concentrations. Consequently, these findings further demonstrate the strong influence of ammonia on the methane-producing consortia and on the representative methanization pathway in mesophilic biogas reactors. PMID:22923397

  6. [Bioaugmented treatment of atrazine by genetically engineered microorganism in different bioreactors].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Chun; Guo, Ya-Nan; Yang, Jing-Liang; Li, Liang; Ma, Jun-Ke

    2011-02-01

    Removal of atrazine was investigated when genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) was inoculated into membrane bioreactor (MBR) and hybrid bioreactor for bioaugmentation. The performances of atrazine removal in two bioreactors were explored. The variations of GEM density and atzA gene abundance in two bioreactors were also determined. The results indicated that removal activities of COD and ammonia nitrogen were inhibited a little by atrazine and recovered after bioaugmentation by inoculated GEM. The better removal performance of COD and ammonia nitrogen was obtained in MBR. The biological removal efficiency of atrazine was improved significantly when bioaugmented treatment by GEM was applied. The atrazine removal increased gradually and the average removal rates reached up to 38.94% in MBR and 29.36% in hybrid bioreactor in the later running period. After inoculated, GEM densities in two bioreactors decreased rapidly and then tended to be constant. The stable GEM densities in MBR, suspended sludge and adherent biofilm of hybrid bioreactor were 5 x 10(3) CFU/mL, 1.1 x 10(3) CFU/mL and 0.4 x 10(3) CFU/mL, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect azA gene in two bioreactors and the result indicated that the average relative abundances of atzA gene decreased initially and increased subsequently. The largest average relative abundance of atzA gene was obtained in MBR. The average relative abundance of atzA gene in adherent biofilm is larger than that in suspended sludge in the hybrid bioreactor. The horizontal transfer of atzA gene was the possible important reason responsible for high gene abundance.

  7. Impact of Raw and Bioaugmented Olive-Mill Wastewater and Olive-Mill Solid Waste on the Content of Photosynthetic Molecules in Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Parrotta, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Casini, Silvia; Romi, Marco; Cai, Giampiero

    2016-08-03

    Disposal and reuse of olive-mill wastes are both an economic and environmental problem, especially in countries where the cultivation of olive trees is extensive. Microorganism-based bioaugmentation can be used to reduce the pollutant capacity of wastes. In this work, bioaugmentation was used to reduce the polyphenolic content of both liquid and solid wastes. After processing, bioaugmented wastes were tested on the root development of maize seeds and on photosynthesis-related molecules of tobacco plants. In maize, we found that bioaugmentation made olive-mill wastes harmless for seed germination. In tobacco, we analyzed the content of RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and of the photosynthetic pigments lutein, chlorophylls, and β-carotene. Levels of RuBisCO were negatively affected by untreated wastewater but increased if plants were treated with bioaugmented wastewater. On the contrary, levels of RuBisCO increased in the case of plants treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Pigment levels showed dissimilar behavior because their concentration increased if plants were irrigated with raw wastewater or treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Treatment with bioaugmented wastes restored pigment content. Findings show that untreated wastes are potentially toxic at the commencement of treatment, but plants can eventually adapt after an initial stress period. Bioaugmented wastes do not induce immediate damages, and plants rapidly recover optimal levels of photosynthetic molecules.

  8. Artificial Limbs

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as before.

  9. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  11. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  12. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration (microaerobic and aerobic) on selective enrichment culture for bioaugmentation of acidic industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Quan, Ying; Han, Hui; Zheng, Shaokui

    2012-09-01

    The successful application of bioaugmentation is largely dependent on the selective enrichment of culture with regards to pH, temperature, salt, or specific toxic organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (aerobic, >2 mg L(-1); microaerobic, <1 mg L(-1)) on yeast enrichment culture for bioaugmentation of acidic industrial wastewater (pH 3.9-4.7). Clone library analyses revealed that the yeast community shifted in response to different DO levels, and that Candida humilis and Candida pseudolambica were individually dominant in the aerobic and microaerobic enrichment cultures. This would significantly influence the isolation results, and further hinder bioaugmentation due to differences in DO environments during the enrichment and application periods. However, differences in the selective enrichment culture cannot be predicted based on differences in pollutant removal performance. Thus, DO concentrations (aerobic/microaerobic) should be considered a secondary selective pressure to achieve successful bioaugmentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vera P.; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate) instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days) bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:26662024

  14. A novel bioaugmentation treatment approach using a confined microbial environment: a case study in a Membrane Bioreactor wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Menashe, Ofir; Kurzbaum, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    A novel bioaugmentation treatment approach, the Small-Bioreactor Platform (SBP) technology, was developed to increase the biological stabilization process in the treatment of wastewater in order to improve wastewater processing effectiveness. The SBP microfiltration membrane provides protection against the natural selection forces that target exogenous bacterial cultures within wastewater. As a result, the exogenous microorganisms culture adapt and proliferate, thus providing a successful bioaugmentation process in wastewater treatment. The new bioaugmentation treatment approach was studied in a full configuration Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) plant treating domestic wastewater. Our results present the potential of this innovative technology to eliminate, or reduce, the intensity of stress events, as well as shortening the recovery time after stress events, consequently elevating the treatment effectiveness. The effective dose of SBP capsules per cubic metre per day of wastewater was achieved during the addition of 3000 SBP capsules (1.25 SBP capsules per cubic metre per day), which provided approximately 4.5 L of high concentration exogenous biomass culture within the SBP capsules internal medium. This study demonstrates an innovative treatment capability which provides an effective bioaugmentation treatment in an MBR domestic wastewater treatment plant.

  15. Shifts in Nitrification Kinetics and Microbial Community during Bioaugmentation of Activated Sludge with Nitrifiers Enriched on Sludge Reject Water

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lifang; Peng, Dangcong; Pan, Ruiling

    2012-01-01

    This study used two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) to evaluate the shifts in nitrification kinetics and microbial communities of an activated sludge sewage treatment system (main stream) during bioaugmentation with nitrifiers cultivated on real sludge reject water (side stream). Although bioaugmentation exerted a strong influence on the microbial community and the nitrification kinetics in the main stream, there was 58% of maximum ammonia uptake rate (AUR) and 80% of maximum nitrite uptake rate (NUR) loss of the seed source after bioaugmentation. In addition, nitrite accumulation occurred during bioaugmentation due to the unequal and asynchronous increase of the AUR (from 2.88 to 13.36 mg N/L·h) and NUR (from 0.76 to 4.34 mg N/L·h). FISH results showed that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was inclined to be washed out with effluent in contrast to nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and Nitrosococcus mobilis lineage was the dominant AOB, while the dominant NOB in the main stream gradually transferred from Nitrospira to Nitrobacter. Nitrospina and Nitrococcus which existed in the seed source could not be detected in the main stream. It can be inferred that nitrite accumulation occurred due to the mismatch of NOB structure but washed out with effluent. PMID:23091354

  16. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vera P; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate) instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days) bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed.

  17. Bioaugmentation process of secondary effluents for reduction of pathogens, heavy metals and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Al-Gheethi, A A; Mohamed, R M S R; Efaq, A N; Norli, I; Abd Halid, Abdullah; Amir, H K; Ab Kadir, M O

    2016-10-01

    The study probed into reducing faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria, heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics, from four types of secondary effluents by bioaugmentation process, which was conducted with Bacillus subtilis strain at 45 °C. As a result, faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria were reduced due to the effect of thermal treatment process (45 °C), while the removal of heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics was performed through the functions of bioaccumulation and biodegradation processes of B. subtilis. Faecal coliform met the guidelines outlined by WHO and US EPA standards after 4 and 16 days, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were reduced to below the detection limits without renewed growth in the final effluents determined by using a culture-based method. Furthermore, 13.5% and 56.1% of cephalexin had been removed, respectively, from secondary effluents containing 1 g of cephalexin L(-1) (secondary effluent 3), as well as 1 g of cephalexin L(-1) and 10 mg of Ni(2+) L(-1) (secondary effluent 4) after 16 days. The treatment process, eventually, successfully removed 96.6% and 66.3% of Ni(2+) ions from the secondary effluents containing 10 mg of Ni(2+) L(-1) (secondary effluent 2) and E4, respectively. The bioaugmentation process improved the quality of secondary effluents.

  18. Removal of triclosan in nitrifying activated sludge: effects of ammonia amendment and bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Gyun; Cho, Kun-Ching; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated two possible strategies, increasing ammonia oxidation activity and bioaugmenting with triclosan-degrader Sphingopyxis strain KCY1, to enhance triclosan removal in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS). Triclosan (2 mg L(-1)) was removed within 96-h in NAS bioreactors amended with 5, 25 and 75 mg L(-1) of ammonium (NH4-N). The fastest triclosan removal was observed in 25 mg NH4-NL(-1) amended-bioreactors where high ammonia oxidation occurred. Inhibition of ammonia oxidation and slower triclosan removal were observed in 75 mg NH4-NL(-1) amended-bioreactors. Triclosan removal was correlated to the molar ratio of the amount of nitrate produced to the amount of ammonium removed. Bioaugmentation with strain KCY1 did not enhance triclosan removal in the bioreactors with active ammonia oxidation. Approximately 36-42% and 59% of triclosan added were removed within 24-h by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and unknown triclosan-degrading heterotrophs, respectively. The results suggested that increasing ammonia oxidation activity can be an effective strategy to enhance triclosan removal in NAS.

  19. A strategy to potentiate Cd phytoremediation by saltmarsh plants - autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Nunes da Silva, Marta; Mucha, Ana P; Rocha, A Cristina; Teixeira, Catarina; Gomes, Carlos R; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2014-02-15

    The recovery of estuarine environments is in need. Phytoremediation could be a valid option to reduce pollution while preserving natural biodiversity. In this work, estuarine sediments colonized by Juncus maritimus or Phragmites australis were spiked with cadmium in the absence and in the presence of an autochthonous microbial consortium resistant to the metal. The aim of this study was to increase the potential for cadmium phytoremediation that these two halophyte plants have shown. Experiments were carried out in greenhouses with an automatic irrigation system that simulated estuarine tidal cycles. After 2 months, Cd concentration in P. australis stems increased up to 7 times when the rhizosphere was inoculated with the microbial consortium. So, P. australis phytoextraction potential was increased through autochthonous bioaugmentation. As for J. maritimus, up to 48% more Cd (total amount) was observed in its belowground tissues after being subjected to autochthonous bioaugmentation. Therefore, the phytostabilization potential of this plant was promoted. For both plants this increase in cadmium uptake did not cause significant signs of toxicity. Therefore, the addition of autochthonous microorganisms resistant to cadmium seems to be a valuable strategy to potentiate phytoremediation of this metal in saltmarshes, being useful for the recovery of moderately impacted estuaries. This will contribute for an effective management of these areas. Research on this topic regarding estuarine ecosystems, especially saltmarshes, is, to our knowledge, inexistent.

  20. Bioremediation of endosulfan in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Mu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Jingtao; Wang, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Bioremediation is widely used in organic pollutants disposal. However, very little has been known on its application in constructed wetlands contaminated with organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan in particular. To evaluate the effect of bioremediation on endosulfan removal and clarify the fate, bioaugmentation and biostimulation were studied in laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands. After 20 days' experiment, endosulfan isomers removal efficiencies were increased to 89.24-97.62 % through bioremediation. In bacteria bioaugmentation (E-in) and sucrose biostimulation (E-C), peak concentrations of endosulfan in sediment were reduced by 31.02-76.77 %, and plant absorption were 347.45-576.65 μg kg(-1). By contrast, plant absorption in KH2PO4 biostimulation (E-P) was increased to 811.64 and 1,067.68 μg kg(-1). Degradation process was probably promoted in E-in and E-C, while plant absorption was enhanced in E-P. Consequently, E-in and E-C were effective for endosulfan removal in constructed wetlands, while adding KH2PO4 had potential to cause air pollution. Additionally, combined bioremediation was not recommended.

  1. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents contaminated clay

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuhui; Wang, James; Ciblak, Ali; Cox, Evan E.; Riis, Charlotte; Terkelsen, Mads; Gent, David B.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2012-01-01

    Successful bioremediation of contaminated soils is controlled by the ability to deliver bioremediation additives, such as bacteria and/or nutrients, to the contaminated zone. Because hydraulic advection is not practical for delivery in clays, electrokinetic (EK) injection is an alternative for efficient and uniform delivery of bioremediation additive into low-permeability soil and heterogeneous deposits. EK–enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of clays contaminated with chlorinated solvents is evaluated. Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacterial strain and lactate ions are uniformly injected in contaminated clay and complete dechlorination of chlorinated ethene is observed in laboratory experiments. The injected bacteria can survive, grow, and promote effective dechlorination under EK conditions and after EK application. The distribution of Dhc within the clay suggests that electrokinetic transport of Dhc is primarily driven by electroosmosis. In addition to biodegradation due to bioaugmentation of Dhc, an EK-driven transport of chlorinated ethenes is observed in the clay, which accelerates cleanup of chlorinated ethenes from the anode side. Compared with conventional advection-based delivery, EK injection is significantly more effective forestablis hingmicrobial reductive dechlorination capacity in low-permeability soils. PMID:22365139

  2. Reduced leaching of the herbicide MCPA after bioaugmentation with a formulated and stored Sphingobium sp.

    PubMed

    Önneby, Karin; Håkansson, Sebastian; Pizzul, Leticia; Stenström, John

    2014-04-01

    The use of pesticides on sandy soils and on many non-agricultural areas entails a potentially high risk of water contamination. This study examined leaching of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) after bioaugmentation in sand with differently formulated and stored Sphingobium sp. T51 and at different soil moisture contents. Dry formulations of Sphingobium sp. T51 were achieved by either freeze drying or fluidised bed drying, with high initial cell viability of 67-85 %. Storage stability of T51 cells was related to formulation excipient/carrier and storage conditions. Bacterial viability in the fluidised bed-dried formulations stored at 25 °C under non-vacuum conditions was poor, with losses of at least 97 % within a month. The freeze-dried formulations could be stored substantially longer, with cell survival rates of 50 %, after 6 months of storage at the same temperature under partial vacuum. Formulated and long-term stored Sphingobium cells maintained their MCPA degradation efficacy and reduced MCPA leaching as efficiently as freshly cultivated cells, by at least 73 % when equal amounts of viable cells were used. The importance of soil moisture for practical field bioaugmentation techniques is discussed.

  3. Bio-augmentation as a tool for improving the modified sequencing batch biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Ji, Bin; Wang, Hongyu; Zhang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Qian

    2014-06-01

    Biological treatment of domestic sewage was accomplished in a pilot-scale modified sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) bio-augmented with consortium of 5 strains of indigenous bacteria (genus Pseudomonas and Bacillus). The reactor consisted of fibrous filler in the upper and ceramsite filter media in the bottom. It demonstrated to have a short hydraulic residence time (HRT) for 10 h and good quality effluent to cope with low C/N ratio domestic wastewater. The biofilm attached fibrous fillers mainly contributed to contaminants removal. Bio-augmentation dramatically enhanced the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP), and especially total nitrogen (TN), which increased respectively from 80.3%, 58.1% and 41.3% to 83.7%, 67.8% and 58.7%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique indicated the 5 strains' survival in the reactor and that Bacillus cereus strain ZQN2 was the most dominant bacteria. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil by a combined system of biostimulation-bioaugmentation with yeast.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mei-Ying; Xie, Rui-Jie; Qin, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of a combined biostimulation-bioaugmentation treatment applied to a clay-loam soil contaminated with 16,300 mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), which comprised 51% saturated hydrocarbons and 31% aromatic hydrocarbons. The bioaugmentation was performed with yeast Candida tropicalis SK21 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil. The strain was able to grow in a pH range of 3-9 in liquid culture, and the optimum pH was found to be 6 for both growth and biosurfactant production. At pH 6, 96% and 42% of TPH were degraded by the strain at the initial diesel oil concentrations of 0.5% and 5% (v/v), respectively. The remediation via inoculating the yeast removed 83% of TPH in 180 days while the experiment with the indigenous microorganisms alone removed 61%. Microbial enumeration showed that the yeast SK21 could grow good in the soil. It was also found that dehydrogenase and polyphenoloxidase activities in soil were remarkably enhanced by the inoculation of the yeast.

  5. Efficiency of bioaugmentation in the removal of organic matter in aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R B; Olinda, R A; Souza, B A I; Cyrino, J E P; Dias, C T S; Queiroz, J F; Tavares, L H S

    2011-05-01

    Several techniques are currently used to treat effluents. Bioaugmentation is a new bioremediation strategy and has been employed to improve effluent quality by treating the water during the production process. This technology consists basically of the addition of microorganisms able to degrade or remove polluting compounds, especially organic matter and nutrients. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bioaugmentation on some parameters of organic matter and on the performance of juvenile tilapias in an intensive aquaculture production system. The combination of two bacterial consortiums in a complete randomized design was employed in a factorial analysis with two factors. Statistical differences between treatments were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test at the 5% level. One of the treatments, heterotrophic bacterial supplementation, was able to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by 23%, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 83.7% and phytoplanktonic biomass by 43%. On the other hand, no damage was done to either the physical-chemical indicators of water quality or to the growth performance of juvenile tilapias assessed in this study.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of bioaugmentation for aerobic treatment of RDX in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Andaya, Christina; Vainberg, Simon; Michalsen, Mandy M; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Eaton, Hillary; Istok, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    The potential for bioaugmentation with aerobic explosive degrading bacteria to remediate hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated aquifers was demonstrated. Repacked aquifer sediment columns were used to examine the transport and RDX degradation capacity of the known RDX degrading bacterial strains Gordonia sp. KTR9 (modified with a kanamycin resistance gene) Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C, and a kanamycin resistant transconjugate Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 pGKT2:Km+. All three strains were transported through the columns and eluted ahead of the conservative bromide tracer, although the total breakthrough varied by strain. The introduced cells responded to biostimulation with fructose (18 mg L(-1), 0.1 mM) by degrading dissolved RDX (0.5 mg L(-1), 2.3 µM). The strains retained RDX-degrading activity for at least 6 months following periods of starvation when no fructose was supplied to the column. Post-experiment analysis of the soil indicated that the residual cells were distributed along the length of the column. When the strains were grown to densities relevant for field-scale application, the cells remained viable and able to degrade RDX for at least 3 months when stored at 4 °C. These results indicate that bioaugmentation may be a viable option for treating RDX in large dilute aerobic plumes.

  7. Enhanced dichloroethene biodegradation in fractured rock under biostimulated and bioaugmented conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Voytek, Mary A.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Tiedeman, Claire J.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Significant microbial reductive dechlorination of [1,2 14C] cis-dichloroethene (DCE) was observed in anoxic microcosms prepared with unamended, fractured rock aquifer materials, which were colonized in situ at multiple depths in two boreholes at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton, New Jersey. The lack of significant reductive dechlorination in corresponding water-only treatments indicated that chlororespiration activity in unamended, fractured rock treatments was primarily associated with colonized core material. In these unamended fractured rock microcosms, activity was highest in the shallow zones and generally decreased with increasing depth. Electron-donor amendment (biostimulation) enhanced chlororespiration in some but not all treatments. In contrast, combining electron-donor amendment with KB1 amendment (bioaugmentation) enhanced chlororespiration in all treatments and substantially reduced the variability in chlororespiration activity both within and between treatments. These results indicate (1) that a potential for chlororespiration-based bioremediation exists at NAWC Trenton but is limited under nonengineered conditions, (2) that the limitation on chlororespiration activity is not entirely due to electron-donor availability, and (3) that a bioaugmentation approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation if the requisite amendments can be adequately distributed throughout the fractured rock matrix.

  8. Bioaugmentation treatment of mature landfill leachate by new isolated ammonia nitrogen and humic acid resistant microorganism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dahai; Yang, Jiyu; Teng, Fei; Feng, Lili; Fang, Xuexun; Ren, Hejun

    2014-07-01

    The mature landfill leachate, which is characterized by a high concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and humic acid (HA), poses a challenge to biotreatment methods, due to the constituent toxicity and low biodegradable fraction of the organics. In this study, we applied bioaugmentation technology in landfill leachate degradation by introducing a domesticated NH3-N and HA resistant bacteria strain, which was identified as Bacillus cereus (abbreviated as B. cereus Jlu) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (abbreviated as E. casseliflavus Jlu), respectively. The isolated strains exhibited excellent tolerant ability for NH3-N and HA and they could also greatly improved the COD (chemical oxygen demand), NH3-N and HA removal rate, and efficiency of bioaugmentation degradation of landfill leachate. Only 3 days was required for the domesticated bacteria to remove about 70.0% COD, compared with 9 days' degradation for the undomesticated (autochthonous) bacteria to obtain a similar removal rate. An orthogonal array was then used to further improve the COD and NH3-N removal rate. Under the optimum condition, the COD removal rate in leachate by using E. casseliflavus Jlu and B. cereus Jlu increased to 86.0% and 90.0%, respectively after, 2 days of degradation. The simultaneous removal of NH3-N and HA with more than 50% and 40% removal rate in leachate by employing the sole screened strain was first observed.

  9. Flow cytometry community fingerprinting and amplicon sequencing for the assessment of landfill leachate cellulolytic bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Kinet, R; Dzaomuho, P; Baert, J; Taminiau, B; Daube, G; Nezer, C; Brostaux, Y; Nguyen, F; Dumont, G; Thonart, P; Delvigne, F

    2016-08-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a high throughput single cell technology that is actually becoming widely used for studying phenotypic and genotypic diversity among microbial communities. This technology is considered in this work for the assessment of a bioaugmentation treatment in order to enhance cellulolytic potential of landfill leachate. The experimental results reveal the relevant increase of leachate cellulolytic potential due to bioaugmentation. Cytometric monitoring of microbial dynamics along these assays is then realized. The flow FP package is used to establish microbial samples fingerprint from initial 2D cytometry histograms. This procedure allows highlighting microbial communities' variation along the assays. Cytometric and 16S rRNA gene sequencing fingerprinting methods are then compared. The two approaches give same evidence about microbial dynamics throughout digestion assay. There are however a lack of significant correlation between cytometric and amplicon sequencing fingerprint at genus or species level. Same phenotypical profiles of microbiota during assays matched to several 16S rRNA gene sequencing ones. Flow cytometry fingerprinting can thus be considered as a promising routine on-site method suitable for the detection of stability/variation/disturbance of complex microbial communities involved in bioprocesses.

  10. Survival and catabolic performance of introduced Pseudomonas strains during phytoremediation and bioaugmentation field experiment.

    PubMed

    Juhanson, Jaanis; Truu, Jaak; Heinaru, Eeva; Heinaru, Ain

    2009-12-01

    A long-term field experiment was carried out to estimate the efficiency of bioaugmentation in combination with phytoremediation for oil shale chemical industry solid waste dump area remediation. Soil samples for microbiological and chemical analysis were collected during 3 years after bacterial biomass application. Microbial communities in soil samples were analysed using both culture-based and molecular methods. The survival of the introduced bacterial strains was confirmed by cultivation-based Box-PCR genomic fingerprints and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting of the 16S rRNA and lmPH genes. The introduced bacterial strains as well as corresponding catabolic genes were recovered several years after biomass application, predominantly from the rhizosphere of birches. Soil samples from bioaugmented plots showed an elevated potential for degradation of phenolic compounds even 40 months after treatment. Based on our results we can conclude that the introduced Pseudomonas strains both survived, and their metabolic traits have persisted at the contaminated site over a long period of time.

  11. Bioaugmentation for electricity generation from corn stover biomass using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Yujie; Wang, Heming; Qu, Youpeng; Yu, Yanling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Nan; Wang, Elle; Lee, He; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-08-01

    Corn stover is usually treated by an energy-intensive or expensive process to extract sugars for bioenergy production. However, it is possible to directly generate electricity from corn stover in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) through the addition of microbial consortia specifically acclimated for biomass breakdown. A mixed culture that was developed to have a high saccharification rate with corn stover was added to single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs acclimated for power production using glucose. The MFC produced a maximum power of 331 mW/m2 with the bioaugmented mixed culture and corn stover, compared to 510 mW/m2 using glucose. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed the communities continued to evolve on both the anode and corn stover biomass over 60 days, with several bacteria identified including Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The use of residual solids from the steam exploded corn stover produced 8% more power (406 mW/m2) than the raw corn stover. These results show that it is possible to directly generate electricity from waste corn stover in MFCs through bioaugmentation using naturally occurring bacteria.

  12. Insights into the biodegradation of weathered hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by bioaugmentation and nutrient stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Brassington, Kirsty J; Prpich, George; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Pollard, Simon J T; Coulon, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, respectively. This is likely due to the disruption to the indigenous microbial community in the soil caused by grinding. Further, ecotoxicological responses (mustard seed germination and Microtox assays) showed that a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was not directly correlable to reduction in toxicity; thus monitoring TPH alone is not sufficient for assessing the environmental risk of a contaminated site after remediation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of bioaugmentation and intrinsic in situ bioremediation of a PAH contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, T.; Mortier, N.; Chaparian, M.

    1995-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most common environmental hazards, naturally occurring in petroleum and its by-products. They are encountered at nearly all UST sites, and present an impediment to the use of cost effective intrinsic in situ bioremediation due to their recalcitrant nature. Even bacteria isolated specifically for their ability to degrade PAHs in the laboratory have shown no significant degradative capabilities in the field. This is due to the unique balance that exists at every contaminated site between the microbial ecology, chemical, physical, and environmental factors. Therefore, bacteria indigenous to the site and acclimated to these environmental parameters should be well suited for use in bioaugmentation. Based on this assumption, a new and innovative approach to bioaugmentation has been developed which consists of a series of scientifically-sound, rational steps in the use of this technology. Initially, careful chemical and biological analyses of site samples are conducted using conventional analytical instrumentation and state-of-the-art microbiological, biochemical, and molecular biological techniques. Bacteria from site samples that demonstrate potential PAH degradative capability are isolated. The bacteria are then enriched in culture and re-introduced to the site with appropriate nutrients. Further, this approach encompasses the proposed guidelines for proving the efficacy of in situ bioremediation as set forth by the National Science Foundation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, data are presented here of a laboratory-scale trial of a PAH contaminated site.

  14. Therapy of acute wounds with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA).

    PubMed

    Hartel, Mark; Illing, Peter; Mercer, James B; Lademann, Jürgen; Daeschlein, Georg; Hoffmann, Gerd

    2007-12-28

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) as a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and with a low thermal load to the skin surface acts both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. wIRA produces a therapeutically usable field of heat in the tissue and increases tissue temperature, tissue oxygen partial pressure, and tissue perfusion. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen and consequently as well for wound healing and infection defense. wIRA can considerably alleviate the pain (with remarkably less need for analgesics) and diminish an elevated wound exudation and inflammation and can show positive immunomodulatory effects. wIRA can advance wound healing or improve an impaired wound healing both in acute and in chronic wounds including infected wounds. Even the normal wound healing process can be improved.A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study with 111 patients after major abdominal surgery at the University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany, showed with 20 minutes irradiation twice a day (starting on the second postoperative day) in the group with wIRA and visible light VIS (wIRA(+VIS), approximately 75% wIRA, 25% VIS) compared to a control group with only VIS a significant and relevant pain reduction combined with a markedly decreased required dose of analgesics: during 230 single irradiations with wIRA(+VIS) the pain decreased without any exception (median of decrease of pain on postoperative days 2-6 was 13.4 on a 100 mm visual analog scale VAS 0-100), while pain remained unchanged in the control group (p<0.001). The required dose of analgesics was 57-70% lower in the subgroups with wIRA(+VIS) compared to the control subgroups with only VIS (median 598 versus 1398 ml ropivacaine, p<0.001, for peridural catheter analgesia; 31 versus 102 mg piritramide, p=0.001, for patient-controlled analgesia; 3.4 versus 10.2 g metamizole, p=0.005, for intravenous and

  15. Therapy of acute wounds with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA)

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Mark; Illing, Peter; Mercer, James B.; Lademann, Jürgen; Daeschlein, Georg; Hoffmann, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) as a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and with a low thermal load to the skin surface acts both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. wIRA produces a therapeutically usable field of heat in the tissue and increases tissue temperature, tissue oxygen partial pressure, and tissue perfusion. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen and consequently as well for wound healing and infection defense. wIRA can considerably alleviate the pain (with remarkably less need for analgesics) and diminish an elevated wound exudation and inflammation and can show positive immunomodulatory effects. wIRA can advance wound healing or improve an impaired wound healing both in acute and in chronic wounds including infected wounds. Even the normal wound healing process can be improved. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study with 111 patients after major abdominal surgery at the University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany, showed with 20 minutes irradiation twice a day (starting on the second postoperative day) in the group with wIRA and visible light VIS (wIRA(+VIS), approximately 75% wIRA, 25% VIS) compared to a control group with only VIS a significant and relevant pain reduction combined with a markedly decreased required dose of analgesics: during 230 single irradiations with wIRA(+VIS) the pain decreased without any exception (median of decrease of pain on postoperative days 2-6 was 13.4 on a 100 mm visual analog scale VAS 0-100), while pain remained unchanged in the control group (p<0.001). The required dose of analgesics was 57-70% lower in the subgroups with wIRA(+VIS) compared to the control subgroups with only VIS (median 598 versus 1398 ml ropivacaine, p<0.001, for peridural catheter analgesia; 31 versus 102 mg piritramide, p=0.001, for patient-controlled analgesia; 3.4 versus 10.2 g metamizole, p=0.005, for intravenous

  16. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances

    PubMed Central

    Otberg, Nina; Grone, Diego; Meyer, Lars; Schanzer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Gerd; Ackermann, Hanns; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation has been shown to enhance penetration of clinically used topically applied substances in humans through investigation of functional effects of penetrated substances like vasoconstriction by cortisone. Aim of the study: Investigation of the influence of wIRA irradiation on the dermatopharmacokinetics of topically applied substances by use of optical methods, especially to localize penetrating substances, in a prospective randomised controlled study in humans. Methods: The penetration profiles of the hydrophilic dye fluorescein and the lipophilic dye curcumin in separate standard water-in-oil emulsions were determined on the inner forearm of test persons by tape stripping in combination with spectroscopic measurements. Additionally, the penetration was investigated in vivo by laser scanning microscopy. Transepidermal water loss, hydration of the epidermis, and surface temperature were determined. Three different procedures (modes A, B, C) were used in a randomised order on three separate days of investigation in each of 12 test persons. In mode A, the two dyes were applied on different skin areas without water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation. In mode B, the skin surface was irradiated with wIRA over 30 min before application of the two dyes (Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, orange filter OG590, water-filtered spectrum: 590–1400 nm with dominant amount of wIRA). In mode C, the two dyes were applied and immediately afterwards the skin was irradiated with wIRA over 30 min. In all modes, tape stripping started 30 min after application of the formulations. Main variable of interest was the ratio of the amount of the dye in the deeper (second) 10% of the stratum corneum to the amount of the dye in the upper 10% of the stratum corneum. Results: The penetration profiles of the hydrophilic fluorescein showed in case of pretreatment or treatment with wIRA (modes B and C) an increased

  17. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances.

    PubMed

    Otberg, Nina; Grone, Diego; Meyer, Lars; Schanzer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Gerd; Ackermann, Hanns; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2008-07-21

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation has been shown to enhance penetration of clinically used topically applied substances in humans through investigation of functional effects of penetrated substances like vasoconstriction by cortisone. Investigation of the influence of wIRA irradiation on the dermatopharmacokinetics of topically applied substances by use of optical methods, especially to localize penetrating substances, in a prospective randomised controlled study in humans. The penetration profiles of the hydrophilic dye fluorescein and the lipophilic dye curcumin in separate standard water-in-oil emulsions were determined on the inner forearm of test persons by tape stripping in combination with spectroscopic measurements. Additionally, the penetration was investigated in vivo by laser scanning microscopy. Transepidermal water loss, hydration of the epidermis, and surface temperature were determined. Three different procedures (modes A, B, C) were used in a randomised order on three separate days of investigation in each of 12 test persons. In mode A, the two dyes were applied on different skin areas without water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation. In mode B, the skin surface was irradiated with wIRA over 30 min before application of the two dyes (Hydrosun radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, orange filter OG590, water-filtered spectrum: 590-1400 nm with dominant amount of wIRA). In mode C, the two dyes were applied and immediately afterwards the skin was irradiated with wIRA over 30 min. In all modes, tape stripping started 30 min after application of the formulations. Main variable of interest was the ratio of the amount of the dye in the deeper (second) 10% of the stratum corneum to the amount of the dye in the upper 10% of the stratum corneum. The penetration profiles of the hydrophilic fluorescein showed in case of pretreatment or treatment with wIRA (modes B and C) an increased penetration depth compared to the non-irradiated skin (mode A

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF BIODEGRADATION OF DENSE, NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL)THROUGH BIOSTIMULATION AND BIOAUGMENTATION AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biostimulation involves stimulating indigenous microbial cultures by adding nutrients whereas bioaugmentation involves introducing microbial cultures that are particularly adept at degrading these contaminants into the target aquifer. This demonstration involved biostimulation fo...

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF BIODEGRADATION OF DENSE, NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL)THROUGH BIOSTIMULATION AND BIOAUGMENTATION AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biostimulation involves stimulating indigenous microbial cultures by adding nutrients whereas bioaugmentation involves introducing microbial cultures that are particularly adept at degrading these contaminants into the target aquifer. This demonstration involved biostimulation fo...

  20. Treatment of groundwater containing Mn(II), Fe(II), As(III) and Sb(III) by bioaugmented quartz-sand filters.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Chang, Yangyang; Liang, Jinsong; Chen, Chen; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-12-01

    High concentrations of iron (Fe(II)) and manganese (Mn(II)) often occur simultaneously in groundwater. Previously, we demonstrated that Fe(II) and Mn(II) could be oxidized to biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO) via aeration and microbial oxidation, and the formed BFMO could further oxidize and adsorb other pollutants (e.g., arsenic (As(III)) and antimony (Sb(III))). To apply this finding to groundwater remediation, we established four quartz-sand columns for treating groundwater containing Fe(II), Mn(II), As(III), and Sb(III). A Mn-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) was inoculated into two parallel bioaugmented columns. Long-term treatment (120 d) showed that bioaugmentation accelerated the formation of Fe-Mn oxides, resulting in an increase in As and Sb removal. The bioaugmented columns also exhibited higher overall treatment effect and anti-shock load capacity than that of the non-bioaugmented columns. To clarify the causal relationship between the microbial community and treatment effect, we compared the biomass of active bacteria (reverse-transcribed real-time PCR), bacterial community composition (Miseq 16S rRNA sequencing) and community function (metagenomic sequencing) between the bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented columns. Results indicated that the QJX1 strain grew steadily and attached onto the filter material surface in the bioaugmented columns. In general, the inoculated strain did not significantly alter the composition of the indigenous bacterial community, but did improve the relative abundances of xenobiotic metabolism genes and Mn oxidation gene. Thus, bioaugmentation intensified microbial degradation/utilization for the direct removal of pollutants and increased the formation of Fe-Mn oxides for the indirect removal of pollutants. Our study provides an alternative method for the treatment of groundwater containing high Fe(II), Mn(II) and As/Sb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas monteilii SB3078 and SB3101, Two Benzene-, Toluene-, and Ethylbenzene-Degrading Bacteria Used for Bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Dueholm, Morten S; Albertsen, Mads; D'Imperio, Seth; Tale, Vaibhav P; Lewis, Derrick; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2014-05-29

    Pseudomonas monteilii SB3078 and SB3101 are benzene-, toluene-, and ethylbenzene-degrading strains used for bioaugmentation in relation to treatment of wastewater contaminated with petrochemical hydrocarbons. Complete genome sequencing of the bioaugmentation strains confirms that they are very closely related (100.0% average nucleotide identity). Both strains contain extensive integration of phage elements, with the main difference being insertion of additional phage elements in the SB3078 genome.

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas monteilii SB3078 and SB3101, Two Benzene-, Toluene-, and Ethylbenzene-Degrading Bacteria Used for Bioaugmentation

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, Mads; D’Imperio, Seth; Tale, Vaibhav P.; Lewis, Derrick; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas monteilii SB3078 and SB3101 are benzene-, toluene-, and ethylbenzene-degrading strains used for bioaugmentation in relation to treatment of wastewater contaminated with petrochemical hydrocarbons. Complete genome sequencing of the bioaugmentation strains confirms that they are very closely related (100.0% average nucleotide identity). Both strains contain extensive integration of phage elements, with the main difference being insertion of additional phage elements in the SB3078 genome. PMID:24874689

  3. Artificial Intelligence,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PATTERN RECOGNITION, * ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , *TEXTBOOKS, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, ROBOTS, PROBLEM SOLVING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, GAME THEORY, NATURAL LANGUAGE, SELF ORGANIZING SYSTEMS.

  4. Application of temperature gradient gel electrophoresis to the characterization of a nitrifying bioaugmentation product.

    PubMed

    Fouratt, Melissa A; Rhodes, Jeremy S; Smithers, Charles M; Love, Nancy G; Stevens, Ann M

    2003-03-01

    The microbial population of a nitrifying bioaugmentation product (NBP) has been examined using a combination of conventional bacteriological methods and modern molecular techniques. Variable region 3 (V3) of the 16S rRNA genes of the bacteria in NBP was amplified via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal eubacterial primers and analyzed via temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). Two of the predominant PCR products in NBP were purified from the TGGE gel matrix, reamplified via PCR and sequenced. Two nitrifying strains (NS500-9 and MPN2) that had been isolated from the NBP mixed consortium and grown in pure culture were found, via TGGE, to have identical 16S rRNA sequences to the PCR products under investigation. Nearly the full-length 16S rRNA genes from these two organisms were PCR-amplified, cloned, and sequenced in order to provide a basis for more accurate phylogenetic analysis. The two dominant organisms in the NBP, NS500-9 and MPN2, were thereby found to be most closely related to Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter species, respectively, in the database. Samples from a laboratory-scale bioreactor, bioaugmented with NBP, were used in an attempt to correlate an increase in activity with a detectable shift in the population of NS500-9 and MPN2 via TGGE. No detectable shift in population was observed in these samples even though the system exhibited increased levels of nitrification. Therefore, the sensitivity of the TGGE system was also examined by determining the limits of detection when NBP was present in activated sludge. In biomass spiking experiments as well as in genomic DNA spiking experiments, it was found that NBP must be present at a level of at least 5% of the total population in order to be detected, whereas bioaugmentation at 1% of the total population was enough to yield significant improvements in nitrification efficiency. This study demonstrates how community profiling of an undefined microbial population via TGGE can be used to

  5. Performance of the biological aerated filter bioaugmented by a yeast Magnusiomyces ingens LH-F1 for treatment of Acid Red B and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    He, Muyang; Tan, Liang; Ning, Shuxiang; Song, Li; Shi, Shengnan

    2017-02-01

    Biological aerated filters (BAFs) were constructed and operated for assessing the effectiveness of bacterial community bioaugmented by a yeast Magnusiomyces ingens LH-F1 for treatment of azo dye Acid Red B (ARB). Dynamics of both bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed through MiSeq sequencing method. The results showed that the bioaugmented BAF displayed obviously better performance for decolorization, COD removal and detoxification of ARB wastewater than the other two which were inoculated with activated sludge (AS) and single M. ingens LH-F1, respectively. Moreover, the bioaugmented BAF also exhibited higher tolerance and stability to shock loading. MiSeq sequencing results demonstrated that both of bacterial and fungal communities remarkably shifted with operation conditions, and the increasing fungal diversity in the bioaugmented BAF was probably related to the relatively high biodegradation and detoxification efficiency. Furthermore, M. ingens LH-F1 survived in the bioaugmented BAF and became one of the dominant fungal species. Therefore, bioaugmentation with yeast M. ingens LH-F1 was successful for improving traditional biological processes aiming at treatment of azo compounds. This method was also potentially useful and meaningful for treating other recalcitrant organic pollutants in practical applications.

  6. CYANOBACTERIA PASSAGE THROUGH DRINKING WATER FILTERS DURING PERTURBATION EPISODES AS A FUNCTION OF CELL MORPHOLOGY, COAGULANT AND INITIAL FILTER LOADING RATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight pilot-scale in-line filtration trials were performed to evaluate the passage of cyanobacterial cells through drinking water filters after sudden increases in hydraulic loading rates. Trials were performed at 30 degrees C using two coagulant combinations (aluminum sulfate a...

  7. CYANOBACTERIA PASSAGE THROUGH DRINKING WATER FILTERS DURING PERTURBATION EPISODES AS A FUNCTION OF CELL MORPHOLOGY, COAGULANT AND INITIAL FILTER LOADING RATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight pilot-scale in-line filtration trials were performed to evaluate the passage of cyanobacterial cells through drinking water filters after sudden increases in hydraulic loading rates. Trials were performed at 30 degrees C using two coagulant combinations (aluminum sulfate a...

  8. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…

  9. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A series of articles focuses on artificial intelligence research and development to enhance information systems and services. Topics discussed include knowledge base designs, expert system development tools, natural language processing, expert systems for reference services, and the role that artificial intelligence concepts should have in…

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…

  11. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Čater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Logar, Romana Marinšek

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterial strains isolated from PCB-contaminated sediments and their use for bioaugmentation strategy in microcosms.

    PubMed

    Dudášová, Hana; Lukáčová, Lucia; Murínová, Slavomíra; Puškárová, Andrea; Pangallo, Domenico; Dercová, Katarína

    2014-04-01

    This study was focused on the characterization of 15 bacterial strains isolated from long-term PCB-contaminated sediment located at the Strážsky canal in eastern part of Slovakia, in the surroundings of a former PCB producer. PCB-degrading strains were isolated and identified as Microbacterium oleivorans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Brevibacterium sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas mandelii, Rhodococcus sp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Stenotrophomonas sp., Ochrobactrum sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Starkeya novella by the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. This study presents a newly isolated bacterial strain S. novella with PCB-degrading ability in liquid medium as well as in sediment. For A. xylosoxidans, the bphA gene was identified. The best growth ability in the presence of all sole carbon sources (biphenyl and PCBs vapor) was obtained for Ochrobactrum sp. and Rhodococcus sp. Uncultured Achromobacter sp. showed the highest potential for bioaugmentation of PCB-contaminated sediment.

  13. Stable carbon isotope monitoring of in situ bioaugmentation for enhanced reductive dechlorination of halogenated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Sorenson, K.; Wymore, R.; Lamar, M.; Chamberlain, S.; Trotsky, J.

    2009-12-01

    Injection of electron donor to stimulate reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy for remediation of contaminated groundwater. At a number of sites, however, complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene is not attained because the appropriate microbial community is not present. Addition of Dehalococcoides spp. to groundwater to achieve complete reductive dechlorination of TCE is being tested at Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, CA. To help assess the effectiveness of this process, the stable carbon isotope compositions of TCE and its byproducts, cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene are being measured during the experiment. Two different methods of bioremediation are being tested. In the “active” cell groundwater is continuously pumped from downgradient wells and re-injected into two upgradient wells. Electron donor (1-3% Na-lactate) has been added to the injection line either weekly or monthly. In the “passive” cell, no circulation of groundwater is done, but electron donor is added to three injection wells monthly. When reducing conditions were reached in the groundwater (late 2008), the bioaugmentation culture was added to both experimental cells with the electron donor. In the active cell, addition of electron donor prior to introduction of the bioaugmentation culture stimulated significant increases in the concentrations of cDCE, but only trace VC and ethene. In the passive cell, production of cDCE was observed, but at lower levels. The δ13C values of TCE ranged from -20‰ to 28‰ (averaging -24‰). The δ13C values of cDCE were generally 1-2‰ per mil lower than those of the TCE, representing fractionation during the biological conversion from TCE to cDCE. Following bioaugmentation, significant production of VC has been observed in the active cell, with corresponding increases in δ13C values of TCE and cDCE. In several wells, the δ13C values of the cDCE have

  14. Transport of bacteria in porous media and its enhancement by surfactants for bioaugmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Liu, Guansheng; Jiang, Yongbing; Yang, Jinzhong; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xin; Liu, Zhifeng; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-07-01

    The success of bioaugmentation processes for groundwater bioremediation requires efficient transport of bacteria in the subsurface environment. In this paper, the factors that influence transport of bacterial cells in porous media are reviewed and the effects of surfactants on the transport are discussed. Movement of bacterial cells in porous media is a process driven by advection and hydrodynamic dispersion forces of fluids. Immobilization of bacterial cells takes place due to processes such as adsorption and straining. Blocking and ripening along with bacterial migration process decrease and increase the retention of cells in porous media, respectively. Physicochemical properties of the porous media, groundwater chemistry, and properties of the bacterial cells affect the transport behavior. Surfactants have the potential to modify bacterial surface properties for both bacterial cells and medium solids, and thus enhance bacterial transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioaugmentation-Assisted Phytostabilisation of Abandoned Mine Sites in South West Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, E; Sergi, S; Serreli, L; Bacchetta, G; Milia, S; Cappai, G; Carucci, A

    2017-03-01

    Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation implies the administration of selected plant growth promoting bacteria, which significantly improve plant growth and sequestration of heavy metals. In this work, 184 bacterial strains associated with roots of Pistacia lentiscus were isolated from plants spontaneously growing in the abandoned Sardinian mining areas (SW Sardinia, Italy) and phylogenetically characterised. Twenty-one bacterial isolates were assayed for properties relevant for plant growth promotion and metal tolerance. Five different strains, belonging to the genera Novosphingobium, Variovorax, Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Pseudomonas, were selected based on their properties for the greenhouse phytoremediation tests. Among the tested inocula, the strain Variovorax sp. RA128A, able to produce ACC deaminase and siderophore, was able to significantly enhance germination and increase length and weight of shoots and roots. Irrespective of the applied treatment, mastic shrub was able to accumulate Cd, Pb and Zn especially in roots.

  16. Plasmid-Mediated Bioaugmentation of Wastewater Microbial Communities in a Laboratory-Scale Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathe, Stephan; Hausner, Martina

    Xenobiotic degradation during biological wastewater treatment can be established or enhanced by bioaugmentation - the addition of biological agents carrying biodegradation genes required to perform the task. Whereas the addition of microbial cells carrying chromosomally encoded catabolic genes can be impaired by limited survival of the added microorganisms, the addition of donor organisms carrying a transmissible catabolic plasmid is a promising alternative. This plasmid can spread within the indigenous microbial community of the system, circumventing the need for extended survival of the introduced bacterial strain. Here we discuss how the catabolic plasmid pNB2 can be evaluated towards its potential to facilitate the degradation of a xenobiotic compound, 3-chloroaniline, and demonstrate the applicability of this plasmid to accomplish 3-chloroaniline degradation in a bioreactor setting after in situ transfer to suitable recipient strains.

  17. Comparison of the bacterial removal performance of silver nanoparticles and a polymer based quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane coated point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyin; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka

    2013-09-15

    This study compares the disinfection performance of ceramic water filters impregnated with two antibacterial compounds: silver nanoparticles and a polymer based quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane (poly(trihydroxysilyl) propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (TPA)). This study evaluated these compounds using ceramic disks manufactures with clay obtained from a ceramic filter factory located in San Mateo Ixtatan, Guatemala. Instead of using full size ceramic water filters, manufactured 6.5 cm diameter ceramic water filter disks were used. Results showed that TPA can achieve a log bacterial reduction value of 10 while silver nanoparticles reached up to 2 log reduction using a initial concentration of bacteria of 10(10)-10(11)CFU/ml. Similarly, bacterial transport demonstrated that ceramic filter disks painted with TPA achieved a bacterial log reduction value of 6.24, which is about 2 log higher than the values obtained for disks painted with silver nanoparticles (bacterial log reduction value: 4.42). The release of both disinfectants from the ceramic materials to the treated water was determined measuring the effluent concentrations in each test performed. Regarding TPA, about 3% of the total mass applied to the ceramic disks was released in the effluent over 300 min, which is slightly lower than the release percentage for silver nanoparticles (4%). This study showed that TPA provides a comparable disinfection performance than silver nanoparticles in ceramic water filter. Another advantage of using TPA is the cost as the price of TPA is considerable lower than silver nanoparticles. In spite of the use of TPA in several medical related products, there is only partial information regarding the health risk associated with the ingestion of this compound. Additional long-term toxicological information for TPA should be evaluated before its future application in ceramic water filters.

  18. [Artificial organs].

    PubMed

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  19. Artificial blood.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  20. Increasing the fertilizer value of palm oil mill sludge: bioaugmentation in nitrification.

    PubMed

    Onyia, C O; Uyu, A M; Akunna, J C; Norulaini, N A; Omar, A K

    2001-01-01

    Malaysia is essentially an agricultural country and her major polluting effluents have been from agro-based industries of which palm oil and rubber industries together contribute about 80% of the industrial pollution. Palm oil sludge, commonly referred to, as palm oil mill effluent (POME) is brown slurry composed of 4-5% solids, mainly organic, 0.5-1% residual oil, and about 95% water. The effluent also contains high concentrations of organic nitrogen. The technique for the treatment of POME is basically biological, consisting of pond systems, where the organic nitrogen is converted to ammonia, which is subsequently transformed to nitrate, in a process called nitrification. A 15-month monitoring program of a pond system (combined anaerobic, facultative, and aerobic ponds in series) confirmed studies by other authors and POME operators that nitrification in a pond system demands relatively long hydraulic retention time (HRT), which is not easily achieved, due to high production capacity of most factories. Bioaugmentation of POME with mixed culture of nitrifiers (ammonia and nitrite oxidizers) has been identified as an effective tool not only for enhancing nitrification of POME but also for improving quality of POME as source of liquid nitrogen fertilizer for use in the agricultural sector, especially in oil palm plantations. Nitrate is readily absorbable by most plants, although some plants are able to absorb nitrogen in the form of ammoniun. In this study, up to 60% reduction in HRT (or up to 20% reduction in potential land requirement) was achieved when bioaugmentation of POME was carried out with the aim of achieving full nitrification.

  1. Laboratory-scale bioaugmentation relieves acetate accumulation and stimulates methane production in stalled anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Town, Jennifer R; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    An imbalance between acidogenic and methanogenic organisms during anaerobic digestion can result in increased accumulation of volatile fatty acids, decreased reactor pH, and inhibition of methane-producing Archaea. Most commonly the result of organic input overload or poor inoculum selection, these microbiological and biochemical changes severely hamper reactor performance, and there are a few tools available to facilitate reactor recovery. A small, stable consortium capable of catabolizing acetate and producing methane was propagated in vitro and evaluated as a potential bioaugmentation tool for stimulating methanogenesis in acidified reactors. Replicate laboratory-scale batch digesters were seeded with a combination of bioethanol stillage waste and a dairy manure inoculum previously observed to result in high volatile fatty acid accumulation and reactor failure. Experimental reactors were then amended with the acetoclastic consortium, and control reactors were amended with sterile culture media. Within 7 days, bioaugmented reactors had significantly reduced acetate accumulation and the proportion of methane in the biogas increased from 0.2 ± 0 to 74.4 ± 9.9 % while control reactors showed no significant reduction in acetate accumulation or increase in methane production. Organisms from the consortium were enumerated using specific quantitative PCR assays to evaluate their growth in the experimental reactors. While the abundance of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms remained stable during the recovery period, an acetoclastic methanogen phylogenetically similar to Methanosarcina sp. increased more than 100-fold and is hypothesized to be the primary contributor to reactor recovery. Genomic sequencing of this organism revealed genes related to the production of methane from acetate, hydrogen, and methanol.

  2. Catabolic mobile genetic elements and their potential use in bioaugmentation of polluted soils and waters.

    PubMed

    Top, Eva M; Springael, Dirk; Boon, Nico

    2002-11-01

    Genes that encode the degradation of both naturally occurring and xenobiotic organic compounds are often located on plasmids, transposons or other mobile and/or integrative elements. The list of published reports of such mobile genetic elements (MGEs) keeps growing as researchers continue to isolate and characterize new degrading bacteria and their corresponding degradative genes. There is also growing evidence that horizontal exchange of catabolic (degradative) genes among bacteria in microbial communities plays an important role in the evolution of catabolic pathways. Around 10 years ago the hypothesis was raised that we might be able to accelerate this natural gene exchange and pathway construction by introducing and subsequently spreading degradative genes, located on MGEs, into well established, competitive indigenous microbial populations as a means of bioaugmentation of polluted soils and waters. During the last decade, only a few reports on successful MGE- mediated bioaugmentation have been published. After summarizing the diversity of degradative MGEs, this review presents an overview of studies that have monitored the transfer of degradative genes in soil microcosms and in activated sludge and other wastewater treatment reactors, with emphasis on those that have clearly shown a direct effect of gene transfer on accelerated biodegradation. A few successful cases suggest that the strategy could indeed work under specific conditions, such as when the in situ degradation potential is absent and the pollutant degrading transconjugants can grow and become numerically dominant populations in the bacterial community. Further studies in this area are obviously needed to improve our current knowledge on the efficiency of gene dissemination as a tool in bioremediation.

  3. Development of functional composts using spent coffee grounds, poultry manure and biochar through microbial bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, S Aalfin; Yoo, Jangyeon; Kim, Eok-Jo; Chang, Jae-Soo; Park, Young-In; Koh, Sung-Cheol

    2017-09-21

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), poultry manure, and agricultural waste-derived biochar were used to manufacture functional composts through microbial bioaugmentation. The highest yield of tomato stalk-based biochar (40.7%) was obtained at 450°C with a surface area of 2.35 m(2) g(-1). Four pilot-scale composting reactors were established to perform composting for 45 days. The ratios of NH4(+)-N/NO3(-)-N, which served as an indicator of compost maturity, indicate rapid, and successful composting via microbial bioaugmentation and biochar amendment. Moreover, germination indices for radish also increased by 14-34% through augmentation and biochar amendment. Microbial diversity was also enhanced in the augmented and biochar-amended composts by 7.1-8.9%, where two species of Sphingobacteriaceae were dominant (29-43%). The scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were enhanced by 14.1% and 8.6% in the fruits of pepper plants grown in the presence of the TR-2 (augmentation applied only) and TR-3 (both augmentation and biochar amendment applied) composts, respectively. Total phenolic content was also enhanced by 68% in the fruits of the crops grown in TR-3. Moreover, the other compost, TR-L (augmentation applied only), boosted DPPH scavenging activity by 111% in leeks compared with commercial organic fertilizer, while TR-3 increased the phenolic content by 44.8%. Composting facilitated by microbial augmentation and biochar amendment shortened the composting time and enhanced the quality of the functional compost. These results indicate that functional compost has great potential to compete with commercially available organic fertilizers and that the novel composting technology could significantly contribute to the eco-friendly recycling of organic wastes such as spent coffee grounds, poultry manure, and agricultural wastes.

  4. Coupling Surfactant Flushing and Bioaugmentation for PCE-DNAPL Source Zone Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cápiro, N. L.; Granbery, E. K.; Amos, B. K.; Löffler, F. E.; Pennell, K. D.

    2008-12-01

    Enhanced solubilization flushing using a biodegradable surfactant (Tween 80) was combined with bioaugmentation to initiate microbial reductive dechlorination and detoxify residual tetrachloroethene (PCE)- dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). Dechlorination activity, spatial distribution of Dehalococcoides spp., and down-gradient plume development were monitored in a 2-D aquifer cell equipped with eighteen sampling ports. Saturation distributions of the PCE-DNAPL source zone were quantified using a light transmission system to determine the ganglia-to-pool (GTP) volume ratio, which was approximately 1.5 (i.e., 60% ganglia and 40% pools) prior to surfactant flushing. Flushing with three pore volumes (PVs) of 4% (w/w) Tween 80 solution recovered approximately 55% of the original PCE mass and reduced PCE effluent concentration from saturation (200 mg/L) to less than 50 mg/L. Following the introduction of reduced basal salts medium amended with 10 mM lactate, nine side ports located upstream and within the initial PCE- DNAPL source zone were augmented with Bio-Dechlor INOCULUM (BDI), a PCE-to-ethene dechlorinating consortium. Flux-averaged measurements of aqueous effluent samples revealed the conversion of PCE to cis-dichloroethene (DCE) with minimal lag time (7 days, approx. 1 PV), and vinyl chloride and ethene were detected within 10 PVs after bioaugmentation. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting Dehalococcoides spp. demonstrated growth once aqueous PCE concentrations decreased below inhibitory levels (~540 mM), with significant growth (2 to 4-orders of magnitude) near the remaining source zone. These results demonstrate the successful colonization of a pool-dominated (NAPL saturation >0.13) PCE- DNAPL source zone by a dechlorinating consortium following partial mass removal, and the potential for locally bioenhanced DNAPL dissolution.

  5. Bioaugmentation with butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote in situ cometabolic treatment of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, Lewis; Dolan, Mark E.; Hopkins, Gary D.; McCarty, Perry L.

    2009-01-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate the potential for in-situ aerobic cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) through bioaugmentation with a butane enrichment culture containing predominantly two Rhodococcus sp. strains named 179BP and 183BP that could cometabolize 1,1,1-TCA and 1,1-dicholoroethene (1,1-DCE). Batch tests indicated that 1,1-DCE was more rapidly transformed than 1,1,1-TCA by both strains with 183BP being the most effective organism. This second in a series of bioaugmentation field studies was conducted in the saturated zone at the Moffett Field In Situ Test Facility in California. In the previous test, bioaugmentation with an enrichment culture containing the 183BP strain achieved short term in situ treatment of 1,1-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA). However, transformation activity towards 1,1,1-TCA was lost over the course of the study. The goal of this second study was to determine if more effective and long-term treatment of 1,1,1-TCA could be achieved through bioaugmentation with a highly enriched culture containing 179BP and 183BP strains. Upon bioaugmentation and continuous addition of butane and dissolved oxygen and or hydrogen peroxide as sources of dissolved oxygen, about 70% removal of 1,1,1-TCA was initially achieved. 1,1-DCE that was present as a trace contaminant was also effectively removed (˜ 80%). No removal of 1,1,1-TCA resulted in a control test leg that was not bioaugmented, although butane and oxygen consumption by the indigenous populations was similar to that in the bioaugmented test leg. However, with prolonged treatment, removal of 1,1,1-TCA in the bioaugmented leg decreased to about 50 to 60%. Hydrogen pexoxide (H 2O 2) injection increased dissolved oxygen concentration, thus permitting more butane addition into the test zone, but more effective 1,1,1-TCA treatment did not result. The results showed bioaugmentation with the enrichment cultures was effective in enhancing the cometabolic treatment

  6. Support vector regression model of wastewater bioreactor performance using microbial community diversity indices: effect of stress and bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Seshan, Hari; Goyal, Manish K; Falk, Michael W; Wuertz, Stefan

    2014-04-15

    The relationship between microbial community structure and function has been examined in detail in natural and engineered environments, but little work has been done on using microbial community information to predict function. We processed microbial community and operational data from controlled experiments with bench-scale bioreactor systems to predict reactor process performance. Four membrane-operated sequencing batch reactors treating synthetic wastewater were operated in two experiments to test the effects of (i) the toxic compound 3-chloroaniline (3-CA) and (ii) bioaugmentation targeting 3-CA degradation, on the sludge microbial community in the reactors. In the first experiment, two reactors were treated with 3-CA and two reactors were operated as controls without 3-CA input. In the second experiment, all four reactors were additionally bioaugmented with a Pseudomonas putida strain carrying a plasmid with a portion of the pathway for 3-CA degradation. Molecular data were generated from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and amoA genes from the sludge community. The electropherograms resulting from these T-RFs were used to calculate diversity indices - community richness, dynamics and evenness - for the domain Bacteria as well as for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in each reactor over time. These diversity indices were then used to train and test a support vector regression (SVR) model to predict reactor performance based on input microbial community indices and operational data. Considering the diversity indices over time and across replicate reactors as discrete values, it was found that, although bioaugmentation with a bacterial strain harboring a subset of genes involved in the degradation of 3-CA did not bring about 3-CA degradation, it significantly affected the community as measured through all three diversity indices in both the general bacterial community and the ammonia-oxidizer community (

  7. Enrichment and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from petroleum refinery waste as potent bioaugmentation agent for in situ bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Poulomi; Roy, Ajoy; Pal, Siddhartha; Mohapatra, Balaram; Kazy, Sufia K; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sar, Pinaki

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic biodegradation potential of bacteria from petroleum refinery waste was investigated through isolation of cultivable strains and their characterization. Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. populated the normal cultivable taxa while prolonged enrichment with hydrocarbons and crude oil yielded hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria of genera Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Kocuria, Pandoraea, etc. Strains isolated through enrichment showed assemblages of superior metabolic properties: utilization of aliphatic (C6-C22) and polyaromatic compounds, anaerobic growth with multiple terminal electron acceptors and higher biosurfactant production. Biodegradation of dodecane was studied thoroughly by GC-MS along with detection of gene encoding alkane hydroxylase (alkB). Microcosms bioaugmented with Enterobacter, Pandoraea and Burkholderia strains showed efficient biodegradation (98% TPH removal) well fitted in first order kinetic model with low rate constants and decreased half-life. This study proves that catabolically efficient bacteria resides naturally in complex petroleum refinery wastes and those can be useful for bioaugmentation based bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Water Partitioning at the Base of the Transition Zone: No Need for a Lower Mantle Water Filter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panero, W. R.; Pigott, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent measurements of water in ringwoodite inclusions found in a deep diamond suggests that the diamond formed in a part of the transition zone containing ~1 wt% water. Experimental and computational results consistently show a significantly lower water storage capacity in MgSiO3 perovskite, the dominant mineral of the Earth's lower mantle. This disparity in water solubility predicts widespread melting at the base of the transition zone in mantle downwellings or some other process to create a transition zone "water filter." We present the results of ab-initio calculations on the hydrogen incorporation in ringwoodite, majorite, ilmenite, calcium silicate perovskite, and magnesium silicate perovskite. We demonstrate a multiplicity of OH defect mechanisms at the base of the transition zone, including vacancies on the Mg and Si sites, as well as coupled substitutions with aluminum. We calculate the partitioning of water between each phase. While the partitioning of water between ringwoodite and MgSiO3 is >100, we find that partitioning of water between CaSiO3-perovskite and ringwoodite exceeds unity under the conditions of cold downwellings at the base of the transition zone, suggesting that a significant fraction of the water can be stored in minor phases of the lower mantle instead of requiring a filter at the base of the transition zone. This finding significantly relaxes the constraints on the Earth's total water budget and suggests a mechanism for sequestering deep water through subduction.

  9. Local drinking water filters reduce diarrheal disease in Cambodia: a randomized, controlled trial of the ceramic water purifier.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D; Loomis, Dana

    2008-09-01

    A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier (CWP), those receiving a second filter employing an iron-rich ceramic (CWP-Fe), and a control group receiving no intervention. Households were followed for 18 weeks post-baseline with biweekly follow-up. Households using either filter reported significantly less diarrheal disease during the study compared with a control group of households without filters as indicated by longitudinal prevalence ratios CWP: 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.63); CWP-Fe: 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), an effect that was observed in all age groups and both sexes after controlling for clustering within households and within individuals over time.

  10. A post-implementation evaluation of ceramic water filters distributed to tsunami-affected communities in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Walters, Adam; Naghawatte, Ajith; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-06-01

    Sri Lanka was devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. During recovery, the Red Cross distributed approximately 12,000 free ceramic water filters. This cross-sectional study was an independent post-implementation assessment of 452 households that received filters, to determine the proportion still using filters, household characteristics associated with use, and quality of household drinking water. The proportion of continued users was high (76%). The most common household water sources were taps or shallow wells. The majority (82%) of users used filtered water for drinking only. Mean filter flow rate was 1.12 L/hr (0.80 L/hr for households with taps and 0.71 for those with wells). Water quality varied by source; households using tap water had source water of high microbial quality. Filters improved water quality, reducing Escherichia coli for households (largely well users) with high levels in their source water. Households were satisfied with filters and are potentially long-term users. To promote sustained use, recovery filter distribution efforts should try to identify households at greatest long-term risk, particularly those who have not moved to safer water sources during recovery. They should be joined with long-term commitment to building supply chains and local production capacity to ensure safe water access.

  11. Use, microbiological effectiveness and health impact of a household water filter intervention in rural Rwanda-A matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Miles A; Nagel, Corey L; Rosa, Ghislaine; Umupfasoni, Marie Mediatrice; Iyakaremye, Laurien; Thomas, Evan A; Clasen, Thomas F

    2017-08-01

    Unsafe drinking water is a substantial health risk contributing to child diarrhoea. We investigated impacts of a program that provided a water filter to households in rural Rwandan villages. We assessed drinking water quality and reported diarrhoea 12-24 months after intervention delivery among 269 households in the poorest tertile with a child under 5 from 9 intervention villages and 9 matched control villages. We also documented filter coverage and use. In Round 1 (12-18 months after delivery), 97.4% of intervention households reported receiving the filter, 84.5% were working, and 86.0% of working filters contained water. Sensors confirmed half of households with working filters filled them at least once every other day on average. Coverage and usage was similar in Round 2 (19-24 months after delivery). The odds of detecting faecal indicator bacteria in drinking water were 78% lower in the intervention arm than the control arm (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.10-0.39, p<0.001). The intervention arm also had 50% lower odds of reported diarrhoea among children <5 than the control arm (OR=0.50, 95% CrI 0.23-0.90, p=0.03). The protective effect of the filter is also suggested by reduced odds of reported diarrhoea-related visits to community health workers or clinics, although these did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Community Dynamics During Bioaugmentation Studies in a Soil Column and at a Field Test Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    containing actinomycetes (the mycolata). However, representatives of all genera of the mycolic-acid-containing gram-positive bacteria were not tested in...number AF420413), a acetonitrile-degrading, gram-positive actinomycete . Bacterial strain 183BP was used for bioaugmentation in aqueous media, microcosm...Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization To Examine Relationships between Mycolic Acid-Containing Actinomycetes and Foaming in Activated Sludge Plants. Appl. Environ

  13. Biodegradation of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) Through Bioaugmentation of Source Areas Dover National Test Site, Dover, Delaware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    cepacia PR1301 Bourquin et al. (1997) TCE Industrial Facility, Pennsauken, NJ Silty, fine to medium sand with clay lenses Burkholderia cepacia ENV435...Steffan et al. (1999) TCE Flemington, NJ Moderately permeable weathered bedrock Burkholderia cepacia ENV435 Walsh et al. (2000) TCE Chico Municipal...Demonstration Location Geologic Setting Bioaugmentation Culture Reference/Source 1 TCE, DCE, & VC Gilbert-Mosley Site, Wichita, KS Sand Burkholderia

  14. Remediation of sediment and water contaminated by copper in small-scaled constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Huguenot, D; Bois, P; Cornu, J Y; Jezequel, K; Lollier, M; Lebeau, T

    2015-01-01

    The use of plants and microorganisms to mitigate sediment contaminated by copper was studied in microcosms that mimic the functioning of a stormwater basin (SWB) connected to vineyard watershed. The impact of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation with siderophore-producing bacteria on the fate of Cu was studied in two contrasted (batch vs. semi-continuous) hydraulic regimes. The fate of copper was characterised following its discharge at the outlet of the microcosms, its pore water concentration in the sediment, the assessment of its bioaccessible fraction in the rhizosphere and the measurement of its content in plant tissues. Physico-chemical (pH, redox potential) and biological parameters (total heterotrophic bacteria) were also monitored. As expected, the results showed a clear impact of the hydraulic regime on the redox potential and thus on the pore water concentration of Cu. Copper in pore water was also dependent on the frequency of Cu-polluted water discharges. Repeated bioaugmentation increased the total heterotrophic microflora as well as the Cu bioaccessibility in the rhizosphere and increased the amount of Cu extracted by Phragmites australis by a factor of ~2. Sugar beet pulp, used as a filter to avoid copper flushing, retained 20% of outcoming Cu and led to an overall retention of Cu higher than 94% when arranged at the outlet of microcosms. Bioaugmentation clearly improved the phytoextraction rate of Cu in a small-scaled SWB designed to mimic the functioning of a full-size SWB connected to vineyard watershed. Highlights: Cu phytoextraction in constructed wetlands much depends on the hydraulic regime and on the frequency of Cu-polluted water discharges. Cu phytoextraction increases with time and plant density. Cu bioaccessibility can be increased by bioaugmentation with siderophore-producing bacteria.

  15. Bioaugmentation with a consortium of bacterial nitrophenol-degraders for remediation of soil contaminated with three nitrophenol isomers.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Zhao, Shuo; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A consortium consisting of para-nitrophenol utilizer Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3, meta-nitrophenol utilizer Cupriavidus necator JMP134 and ortho-nitrophenol utilizer Alcaligenes sp. strain NyZ215 was inoculated into soil contaminated with three nitrophenol isomers for bioaugmentation. Accelerated removal of all nitrophenols was achieved in inoculated soils compared to un-inoculated soils, with complete removal of nitrophenols in inoculated soils occurring between 2 and 16 days. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting nitrophenol-degradation functional genes indicated that the three strains survived and were stable over the course of the incubation period. The abundance of total indigenous bacteria (measured by 16S rRNA gene real-time PCR) was slightly negatively impacted by the nitrophenol contamination. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of total and group-specific indigenous community suggested a dynamic change in species richness occurred during the bioaugmentation process. Furthermore, Pareto-Lorenz curves and Community organization parameters indicated that the bioaugmentation process had little impact on species evenness within the microbial community.

  16. Immobilization of cadmium in soils by UV-mutated Bacillus subtilis 38 bioaugmentation and NovoGro amendment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunxiao; Sun, Hongwen; Sun, Tieheng; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2009-08-15

    Immobilization of cadmium (10 mg Cd per kilogram soil) in soil by bioaugmentation of a UV-mutated microorganism, Bacillus subtilis 38 accompanied with amendment of a bio-fertilizer, NovoGro was investigated using extractable cadmium (E-Cd) by DTPA. B. subtilis 38, the mutant with the strongest resistance against Cd, could bioaccumulate Cd four times greater than the original wild type. Single bioaugmentation of B. subtilis 38 (SB treatment) to soil however did not reduce E-Cd significantly, while the amendment of NovoGro (SN treatment) reduced E-Cd remarkably. Simultaneous application of B. subtilis 38 and NovoGro (SNB treatment) exhibited a synergetic effect compared to the single SB and SN treatment. The immobilization effect was significantly affected by temperature, soil moisture, and pH. It seems that the immobilization on Cd reached the maximum when environmental conditions favored the activity of microorganisms. Under the optimum conditions, after 90 days incubation, E-Cd was 3.34, 3.39, 2.25 and 0.87 mg kg(-1) in the control soil, SB, SN and SNB soils, respectively. NovoGro not only showed a great capacity for Cd adsorption, but also promoted the growth of B. subtilis 38. This study provides a potential cost-effective technique for in situ remediation of Cd contaminated soils with bioaugmentation.

  17. Enhanced phytoextraction of an agricultural Cr- and Pb-contaminated soil by bioaugmentation with siderophore-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Braud, Armelle; Jézéquel, Karine; Bazot, Stéphane; Lebeau, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction may enhance the phytoextraction efficiency thanks to larger metal mobilization by microbial metabolites. Green fluorescent protein-tagged cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens or Ralstonia metallidurans, able to produce siderophores, were inoculated in an agricultural soil containing Cr (488 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (382 mg kg(-1)) and maize was cultivated. Bacteria were inoculated as free or immobilized cells in Ca-alginate beads, with skim milk in the aim at improving both the bacterial survival and the in situ siderophore production. Skim milk addition increased inoculated Pseudomonads concentration in soil. Soil inoculation with free cells of R. metallidurans supplied with skim milk increased Cr accumulation in maize shoots by a factor of 5.2 and inoculation with immobilized P. aeruginosa cells supplied with skim milk increased Cr and Pb uptake by maize shoots by a factor of 5.4 and 3.8, respectively. However total metal taken up by the whole plant decreases almost always with bioaugmentation. Translocation factor also increased with P. aeruginosa or R. metallidurans by a factor of 6 up to 7. Inoculated bacteria concentration in soil was correlated with metals in the exchangeable fraction. Cr and Pb concentrations in the exchangeable fraction were correlated with metal contents in shoots or roots. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction is a relevant method in the aim at increasing the phytoextraction rate which usually limits the use of phytoremediation technologies.

  18. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in bioaugmented microcosm by consortium ASP developed from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Janki; Madamwar, Datta

    2013-09-15

    A phenanthrene-degrading bacterial consortium (ASP) was developed using sediment from the Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard at Gujarat, India. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analyses revealed that the bacterial consortium consisted of six bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. ASP1, Pseudomonas sp. ASP2, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain ASP3, Staphylococcus sp. ASP4, Geobacillus sp. ASP5 and Alcaligenes sp. ASP6. The consortium was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene and 1000 ppm of naphthalene within 120 h and 48 h, respectively. Tween 80 showed a positive effect on phenanthrene degradation. The consortium was able to consume maximum phenanthrene at the rate of 46 mg/h/l and degrade phenanthrene in the presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. A microcosm study was conducted to test the consortium's bioremediation potential. Phenanthrene degradation increased from 61% to 94% in sediment bioaugmented with the consortium. Simultaneously, bacterial counts and dehydrogenase activities also increased in the bioaugmented sediment. These results suggest that microbial consortium bioaugmentation may be a promising technology for bioremediation.

  19. Enhancement of microbial diversity and methane yield by bacterial bioaugmentation through the anaerobic digestion of Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-06-01

    Microalgae has recalcitrant cell walls that may limit digestibility and, therefore, reduce bioenergy production. In light of the fact that cellulose can increase the cell wall recalcitrance of the Haematococcus pluvialis species of microalgae, the objective of this research was to examine how bioaugmentation with the Clostridium thermocellum at various inoculum ratios represents a viable method by which the CH4 production of microalgae can be enhanced. The results of the investigation revealed that bioaugmentation with C. thermocellum increased the degradation of H. pluvialis biomass and resulted in a 18-38 % increase in methane production as a result of increased cell disruption. In addition, the use of Illumina Miseq sequencing highlighted that the bacterial and archaeal diversity and quantities in the genus were enhanced as a result of the addition of C. thermocellum and this, in itself, improved the efficiency of the biodegradation. Bioaugmentation with C. thermocellum (%15) was also determined to represent the most energy-efficiency method of producing methane.

  20. Bioremediation of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil by native soil microbiota and bioaugmentation with isolated microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Silva, Isis Serrano; Santos, Eder da Costa dos; Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin de; Faria, Andréia Fonseca de; Franciscon, Elisangela; Grossman, Matthew; Durrant, Lucia Regina

    2009-10-01

    Biodegradation of a mixture of PAHs was assessed in forest soil microcosms performed either without or with bioaugmentation using individual fungi and bacterial and a fungal consortia. Respiratory activity, metabolic intermediates and extent of PAH degradation were determined. In all microcosms the low molecular weight PAH's naphthalene, phenanthrene and anthracene, showed a rapid initial rate of removal. However, bioaugmentation did not significantly affect the biodegradation efficiency for these compounds. Significantly slower degradation rates were demonstrated for the high molecular weight PAH's pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and benz[a]pyrene. Bioaugmentation did not improve the rate or extent of PAH degradation, except in the case of Aspergillus sp. Respiratory activity was determined by CO(2) evolution and correlated roughly with the rate and timing of PAH removal. This indicated that the PAHs were being used as an energy source. The native microbiota responded rapidly to the addition of the PAHs and demonstrated the ability to degrade all of the PAHs added to the soil, indicating their ability to remediate PAH-contaminated soils.

  1. Principles and working mechanisms of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in relation to wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    The experience of the pleasant heat of the sun in moderate climatic zones arises from the filtering of the heat radiation of the sun by water vapor in the atmosphere of the earth. The filter effect of water decreases those parts of infrared radiation (most parts of infrared-B and -C and the absorption bands of water within infrared-A), which would cause – by reacting with water molecules in the skin – only an undesired thermal load to the surface of the skin. Technically water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is produced in special radiators, whose full spectrum of radiation of a halogen bulb is passed through a cuvette, containing water, which absorbs or decreases the described undesired wavelengths of the infrared radiation. Within infrared the remaining wIRA (within 780-1400 nm) mainly consists of radiation with good penetration properties into tissue and therefore allows – compared to unfiltered heat radiation – a multiple energy transfer into tissue without irritating the skin, similar to the sun’s heat radiation in moderate climatic zones. Typical wIRA radiators emit no ultraviolet (UV) radiation and nearly no infrared-B and -C radiation and the amount of infrared-A radiation in relation to the amount of visible light (380-780 nm) is emphasized. Water-filtered infrared-A as a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and with a low thermal load to the skin surface acts both by thermal (related to heat energy transfer) and thermic (temperature depending, with a relevant change of temperature) as well as by non-thermal (without a relevant transfer of heat energy) and non-thermic (not depending on temperature, without a relevant change of temperature) effects. wIRA produces a therapeutically usable field of heat in the tissue and increases tissue temperature, tissue oxygen partial pressure, and tissue perfusion. These three factors are vital for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen. As wound healing and infection defense (e

  2. Principles and working mechanisms of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in relation to wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2007-12-28

    The experience of the pleasant heat of the sun in moderate climatic zones arises from the filtering of the heat radiation of the sun by water vapor in the atmosphere of the earth. The filter effect of water decreases those parts of infrared radiation (most parts of infrared-B and -C and the absorption bands of water within infrared-A), which would cause - by reacting with water molecules in the skin - only an undesired thermal load to the surface of the skin. Technically water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is produced in special radiators, whose full spectrum of radiation of a halogen bulb is passed through a cuvette, containing water, which absorbs or decreases the described undesired wavelengths of the infrared radiation. Within infrared the remaining wIRA (within 780-1400 nm) mainly consists of radiation with good penetration properties into tissue and therefore allows - compared to unfiltered heat radiation - a multiple energy transfer into tissue without irritating the skin, similar to the sun's heat radiation in moderate climatic zones. Typical wIRA radiators emit no ultraviolet (UV) radiation and nearly no infrared-B and -C radiation and the amount of infrared-A radiation in relation to the amount of visible light (380-780 nm) is emphasized. Water-filtered infrared-A as a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and with a low thermal load to the skin surface acts both by thermal (related to heat energy transfer) and thermic (temperature depending, with a relevant change of temperature) as well as by non-thermal (without a relevant transfer of heat energy) and non-thermic (not depending on temperature, without a relevant change of temperature) effects. wIRA produces a therapeutically usable field of heat in the tissue and increases tissue temperature, tissue oxygen partial pressure, and tissue perfusion. These three factors are vital for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen. As wound healing and infection defense (e

  3. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) overcomes swallowing disorders and hypersalivation - a case report.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Case description: A patient with a Barrett oesophageal carcinoma and a resection of the oesophagus with gastric pull-up developed swallowing disorders 6 years and 2 months after the operation. Within 1 year and 7 months two recurrences of the tumor at the anastomosis were found and treated with combined chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy respectively. 7 years and 9 months after the operation local tumor masses and destruction were present with no ability to orally drink or eat (full feeding by jejunal PEG tube): quality of life was poor, as saliva and mucus were very viscous (pulling filaments) and could not be swallowed and had to be spat out throughout the day and night resulting in short periods of sleep (awaking from the necessity to spit out). In total the situation was interpreted more as a problem related to a feeling of choking (with food or fluid) in the sense of a functional dysphagia rather than as a swallowing disorder from a structural stenosis. At that time acetylcysteine (2 times 200 mg per day, given via the PEG tube) and irradiation with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA), a special form of heat radiation, of the ventral part of the neck and the thorax were added to the therapy. Within 1 day with acetylcysteine saliva and mucus became less viscous. Within 2 days with wIRA (one day with 4 to 5 hours with irradiation with wIRA at home) salivation decreased markedly and quality of life clearly improved: For the first time the patient slept without interruption and without the need for sleep-inducing medication. After 5 days with wIRA the patient could eat his first soft dumpling although drinking of fluids was still not possible. After 2½ weeks with wIRA the patient could eat his first minced schnitzel (escalope). Following the commencement of wIRA (with typically approximately 90-150 minutes irradiation with wIRA per day) the patient had 8 months with good quality of life with only small amounts of liquid saliva and mucus and without the necessity to

  4. Novel Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Photoinactivation of In Situ Oral Biofilms by Visible Light plus Water-Filtered Infrared A.

    PubMed

    Karygianni, L; Ruf, S; Follo, M; Hellwig, E; Bucher, M; Anderson, A C; Vach, K; Al-Ahmad, A

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has gained increased attention as an alternative treatment approach in various medical fields. However, the effect of APDT using visible light plus water-filtered infrared A (VIS + wIRA) on oral biofilms remains unexplored. For this purpose, initial and mature oral biofilms were obtained in situ; six healthy subjects wore individual upper jaw acrylic devices with bovine enamel slabs attached to their proximal sites for 2 h or 3 days. The biofilms were incubated with 100 μg ml(-1) toluidine blue O (TB) or chlorin e6 (Ce6) and irradiated with VIS + wIRA with an energy density of 200 mW cm(-2) for 5 min. After cultivation, the CFU of half of the treated biofilm samples were quantified, whereas following live/dead staining, the other half of the samples were monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). TB- and Ce6-mediated APDT yielded a significant decrease of up to 3.8 and 5.7 log10 CFU for initial and mature oral biofilms, respectively. Quantification of the stained photoinactivated microorganisms confirmed these results. Overall, CLSM revealed the diffusion of the tested photosensitizers into the deepest biofilm layers after exposure to APDT. In particular, Ce6-aided APDT presented elevated permeability and higher effectiveness in eradicating 89.62% of biofilm bacteria compared to TB-aided APDT (82.25%) after 3 days. In conclusion, antimicrobial photoinactivation using VIS + wIRA proved highly potent in eradicating oral biofilms. Since APDT excludes the development of microbial resistance, it could supplement the pharmaceutical treatment of periodontitis or peri-implantitis.

  5. Novel Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Photoinactivation of In Situ Oral Biofilms by Visible Light plus Water-Filtered Infrared A

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, S.; Follo, M.; Hellwig, E.; Bucher, M.; Anderson, A. C.; Vach, K.; Al-Ahmad, A.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has gained increased attention as an alternative treatment approach in various medical fields. However, the effect of APDT using visible light plus water-filtered infrared A (VIS + wIRA) on oral biofilms remains unexplored. For this purpose, initial and mature oral biofilms were obtained in situ; six healthy subjects wore individual upper jaw acrylic devices with bovine enamel slabs attached to their proximal sites for 2 h or 3 days. The biofilms were incubated with 100 μg ml−1 toluidine blue O (TB) or chlorin e6 (Ce6) and irradiated with VIS + wIRA with an energy density of 200 mW cm−2 for 5 min. After cultivation, the CFU of half of the treated biofilm samples were quantified, whereas following live/dead staining, the other half of the samples were monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). TB- and Ce6-mediated APDT yielded a significant decrease of up to 3.8 and 5.7 log10 CFU for initial and mature oral biofilms, respectively. Quantification of the stained photoinactivated microorganisms confirmed these results. Overall, CLSM revealed the diffusion of the tested photosensitizers into the deepest biofilm layers after exposure to APDT. In particular, Ce6-aided APDT presented elevated permeability and higher effectiveness in eradicating 89.62% of biofilm bacteria compared to TB-aided APDT (82.25%) after 3 days. In conclusion, antimicrobial photoinactivation using VIS + wIRA proved highly potent in eradicating oral biofilms. Since APDT excludes the development of microbial resistance, it could supplement the pharmaceutical treatment of periodontitis or peri-implantitis. PMID:25239897

  6. Use & Misuse of Water-filtered Tobacco Smoking Pipes in the World. Consequences for Public Health, Research & Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    The traditional definition of an "epidemic" has been revisited by antismoking researchers. After 400 years, Doctors would have realized that one aspect of an ancient cultural daily practice of Asian and African societies was in fact a "global "epidemic". This needed further investigation particularly if one keeps in his mind the health aspects surrounding barbecues. Here, up-to-date biomedical results are dialectically confronted with anthropological findings, hence in real life, in order to highlight the extent of the global confusion: from the new definition of an "epidemic" and "prevalence" to the myth of "nicotine "addiction" and other themes in relation to water filtered tobacco smoking pipes (WFTSPs). We found that over the last decade, many publications, -particularly reviews, "meta-analyses" and "systematic reviews"- on (WFTSPs), have actually contributed to fuelling the greatest mix-up ever witnessed in biomedical research. One main reason for such a situation has been the absolute lack of critical analysis of the available literature and the uncritical use of citations (one seriously flawed review has been cited up to 200 times). Another main reason has been to take as granted a biased smoking robot designed at the US American of Beirut whose measured yields of toxic chemicals may differ dozens of times from others' based on the same "protocol". We also found that, for more than one decade, two other main methodological problems are: 1) the long-lived unwillingness to distinguish between use and misuse; 2) the consistent unethical rejection of biomedical negative results which, interestingly, are quantitatively and qualitatively much more instructive than the positive ones. the great majority of WFTSP toxicity studies have actually measured, voluntarily or not, their misuse aspects, not the use in itself. This is in contradiction with both the harm reduction and public health doctrines. The publication of negative results should be encouraged instead of

  7. Water-filtered infrared-A radiation (wIRA) is not implicated in cellular degeneration of human skin

    PubMed Central

    Gebbers, Narcisa; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Scaletta, Corinne; Hoffmann, Gerd; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is involved in the complex biologic process of cutaneous aging. Wavelengths in the ultraviolet-A and -B range (UV-A and UV-B) have been shown to be responsible for the induction of proteases, e. g. the collagenase matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), which are related to cell aging. As devices emitting longer wavelengths are widely used in therapeutic and cosmetic interventions and as the induction of MMP-1 by water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) had been discussed, it was of interest to assess effects of wIRA on the cellular and molecular level known to be possibly involved in cutaneous degeneration. Objectives: Investigation of the biological implications of widely used water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) radiators for clinical use on human skin fibroblasts assessed by MMP-1 gene expression (MMP-1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression). Methods: Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with approximately 88% wIRA (780-1400 nm) and 12% red light (RL, 665-780 nm) with 380 mW/cm² wIRA(+RL) (333 mW/cm² wIRA) on the one hand and for comparison with UV-A (330-400 nm, mainly UV-A1) and a small amount of blue light (BL, 400-450 nm) with 28 mW/cm² UV-A(+BL) on the other hand. Survival curves were established by colony forming ability after single exposures between 15 minutes and 8 hours to wIRA(+RL) (340-10880 J/cm² wIRA(+RL), 300-9600 J/cm² wIRA) or 15-45 minutes to UV-A(+BL) (25-75 J/cm² UV-A(+BL)). Both conventional Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR techniques were used to determine the induction of MMP-1 mRNA at two physiologic temperatures for skin fibroblasts (30°C and 37°C) in single exposure regimens (15-60 minutes wIRA(+RL), 340-1360 J/cm² wIRA(+RL), 300-1200 J/cm² wIRA; 30 minutes UV-A(+BL), 50 J/cm² UV-A(+BL)) and in addition at 30°C in a repeated exposure protocol (up to 10 times 15 minutes wIRA(+RL) with 340 J/cm² wIRA(+RL), 300 J

  8. Heat for wounds – water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) for wound healing – a review

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Gerd; Hartel, Mark; Mercer, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with high tissue penetration and a low thermal load to the skin surface. wIRA corresponds to the major part of the sun’s heat radiation, which reaches the surface of the Earth in moderate climatic zones filtered by water and water vapour of the atmosphere. wIRA promotes healing of acute and chronic wounds both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic cellular effects. Methods: This publication includes a literature review with search in PubMed/Medline for “water-filtered infrared-A” and “wound”/”ulcus” or “wassergefiltertes Infrarot A” and “Wunde”/”Ulkus”, respectively (publications in English and German), and additional analysis of study data. Seven prospective clinical studies (of these six randomized controlled trials (RCT), the largest study with n=400 patients) were identified and included. All randomized controlled clinical trials compare a combination of high standard care plus wIRA treatment vs. high standard care alone. The results below marked with “vs.” present these comparisons. Results: wIRA increases tissue temperature (+2.7°C at a tissue depth of 2 cm), tissue oxygen partial pressure (+32% at a tissue depth of 2 cm) and tissue perfusion (effect sizes within the wIRA group). wIRA promotes normal as well as disturbed wound healing by diminishing inflammation and exudation, by promotion of infection defense and regeneration, and by alleviation of pain (with respect to alleviation of pain, without any exception during 230 irradiations, 13.4 vs. 0.0 on a visual analogue scale (VAS 0–100), median difference between groups 13.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.3/16.7, p<0.000001) with a substantially reduced need for analgesics (52–69% less in the three groups with wIRA compared to the three control groups in visceral surgery, p=0.000020 and 0.00037 and 0.0045, respectively; total of 6 vs. 14.5 analgesic tablets on 6

  9. Use of Serologic Responses against Enteropathogens to Assess the Impact of a Point-of-Use Water Filter: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Western Province, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Laura Divens; Priest, Jeffrey W; Ivan, Emil; Rusine, John; Nagel, Corey; Kirby, Miles; Rosa, Ghislaine; Clasen, Thomas F

    2017-07-24

    Diarrhea is a leading contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the challenge of blinding most water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions, diarrheal disease outcome measures in WASH intervention trials are subject to potential bias and misclassification. Using the platform of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a household-based drinking water filter in western province, Rwanda, we assessed the impact of the drinking water filter on enteric seroconversion in young children as a health outcome and examined the association between serological responses and caregiver-reported diarrhea. Among the 2,179 children enrolled in the trial, 189 children 6-12 months of age were enrolled in a nested serology study. These children had their blood drawn at baseline and 6-12 months after the intervention was distributed. Multiplex serologic assays for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, norovirus, Campylobacter, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae were performed. Despite imperfect uptake, receipt of the water filter was associated with a significant decrease in seroprevalence of IgG directed against Cryptosporidium parvum Cp17 and Cp23 (relative risk [RR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.89). Serologic responses were positively associated with reported diarrhea in the previous 7 days for both Giardia intestinalis (RR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04-3.63) and C. parvum (RR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.09-4.50). Serological responses for all antigens generally increased in the follow-up round, rising sharply after 12 months of age. The water filter is associated with reduced serological responses against C. parvum, a proxy for exposure and infection; therefore, serological responses against protozoa may be a suitable health outcome measure for WASH trials among children with diarrhea.

  10. Bioaugmentation with an anaerobic fungus in a two-stage process for biohydrogen and biogas production using corn silage and cattail.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Gilroyed, Brandon; Yanke, Jay; Gruninger, Robert; Vedres, Darrell; McAllister, Tim; Hao, Xiying

    2015-06-01

    Bioaugmentation with an anaerobic fungus, Piromyces rhizinflata YM600, was evaluated in an anaerobic two-stage system digesting corn silage and cattail. Comparable methane yields of 328.8±16.8mLg(-1)VS and 295.4±14.5mLg(-1)VS and hydrogen yields of 59.4±4.1mLg(-1)VS and 55.6±6.7mLg(-1)VS were obtained for unaugmented and bioaugmented corn silage, respectively. Similar CH4 yields of 101.0±4.8mLg(-1)VS and 104±19.1mLg(-1)VS and a low H2 yield (<1mLg(-1)VS) were obtained for unaugmented and bioaugmented cattail, respectively. However, bioaugmentation resulted in an initial increase in CH4 and H2 production rates and also increased volatile fatty acid degradation rate for both substrates. Our study demonstrates the potential of bioaugmentation with anaerobic fungus for improving the digestibility of lignocellulose substrates for biogas and biohydrogen production.

  11. Impacts of gene bioaugmentation with pJP4-harboring bacteria of 2,4-D-contaminated soil slurry on the indigenous microbial community.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Yuji; Tsutsui, Hirofumi; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Fujita, Masanori; Ike, Michihiko

    2012-04-01

    Gene bioaugmentation is a bioremediation strategy that enhances biodegradative potential via dissemination of degradative genes from introduced microorganisms to indigenous microorganisms. Bioremediation experiments using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-contaminated soil slurry and strains of Pseudomonas putida or Escherichia coli harboring a self-transmissible 2,4-D degradative plasmid pJP4 were conducted in microcosms to assess possible effects of gene bioaugmentation on the overall microbial community structure and ecological functions (carbon source utilization and nitrogen transformation potentials). Although exogenous bacteria decreased rapidly, 2,4-D degradation was stimulated in bioaugmented microcosms, possibly because of the occurrence of transconjugants by the transfer of pJP4. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that, although the bacterial community structure was disturbed immediately after introducing exogenous bacteria to the inoculated microcosms, it gradually approached that of the uninoculated microcosms. Biolog assay, nitrate reduction assay, and monitoring of the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nirK and nirS genes of denitrifying bacteria showed no irretrievable depressive effects of gene bioaugmentation on the carbon source utilization and nitrogen transformation potentials. These results may suggest that gene bioaugmentation with P. putida and E. coli strains harboring pJP4 is effective for the degradation of 2,4-D in soil without large impacts on the indigenous microbial community.

  12. Start-up of a two-stage bioaugmented anoxic-oxic (A/O) biofilm process treating petrochemical wastewater under different DO concentrations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingbo; Ma, Fang; Chang, Chein-Chi; Cui, Di; Wang, Li; Yang, Jixian; Wang, Liang

    2009-07-01

    The traditional two-stage anoxic-oxic (A/O) activated sludge process might be inefficient in pollutants removal and could not ensure the effluent quality. By installing polyurethane foams as carriers and inoculating specialized bacteria in the oxic compartments, the activated sludge systems could be transformed into bioaugmented biofilm processes to enhance the removal efficiency to recalcitrant pollutants. Optimal environment should be provided for the bioaugmented bacteria during systems' start-up. In the present research, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was studied as a crucial environmental factor on the performances of the bioagumented systems. The results indicated that the system adopted lower DO concentration took less time to start-up, performed higher pollutants removal efficiency and stronger resistance to shock loadings compared to the system with higher DO level. This was the first attempt to evaluate the importance of DO concentration on the start-up of the two-stage bioaugmented A/O biofilm process.

  13. Mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from tea field soil using bioaugmentation with a Trichoderma viride biofertilizer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengjun; Fu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Shuanglong; Bai, Zhihui; Xiao, Runlin; Li, Yong; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Land-use conversion from woodlands to tea fields in subtropical areas of central China leads to increased nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, partly due to increased nitrogen fertilizer use. A field investigation of N2O using a static closed chamber-gas chromatography revealed that the average N2O fluxes in tea fields with 225 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) fertilizer application were 9.4 ± 6.2 times higher than those of woodlands. Accordingly, it is urgent to develop practices for mitigating N2O emissions from tea fields. By liquid-state fermentation of sweet potato starch wastewater and solid-state fermentation of paddy straw with application of Trichoderma viride, we provided the tea plantation with biofertilizer containing 2.4 t C ha(-1) and 58.7 kg N ha(-1). Compared to use of synthetic N fertilizer, use of biofertilizer at 225 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) significantly reduced N2O emissions by 33.3%-71.8% and increased the tea yield by 16.2%-62.2%. Therefore, the process of bioconversion/bioaugmentation tested in this study was found to be a cost-effective and feasible approach to reducing N2O emissions and can be considered the best management practice for tea fields.

  14. Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Tea Field Soil Using Bioaugmentation with a Trichoderma viride Biofertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengjun; Fu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Shuanglong; Xiao, Runlin; Li, Yong; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Land-use conversion from woodlands to tea fields in subtropical areas of central China leads to increased nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, partly due to increased nitrogen fertilizer use. A field investigation of N2O using a static closed chamber-gas chromatography revealed that the average N2O fluxes in tea fields with 225 kg N ha−1 yr−1 fertilizer application were 9.4 ± 6.2 times higher than those of woodlands. Accordingly, it is urgent to develop practices for mitigating N2O emissions from tea fields. By liquid-state fermentation of sweet potato starch wastewater and solid-state fermentation of paddy straw with application of Trichoderma viride, we provided the tea plantation with biofertilizer containing 2.4 t C ha−1 and 58.7 kg N ha−1. Compared to use of synthetic N fertilizer, use of biofertilizer at 225 kg N ha−1 yr−1 significantly reduced N2O emissions by 33.3%–71.8% and increased the tea yield by 16.2%–62.2%. Therefore, the process of bioconversion/bioaugmentation tested in this study was found to be a cost-effective and feasible approach to reducing N2O emissions and can be considered the best management practice for tea fields. PMID:24955418

  15. Co-digestion, biostimulation and bioaugmentation to enhance methanation of brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    Goberna, Marta; Camacho, Maria del Mar; Lopez-Abadia, Juan Antonio; García, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    More than 300,000 tonnes of brewer's spent grain (BSG) is generated annually during beer production. This protein- and nutrient-rich by-product is mostly employed as an animal feedstuff. However, its marketability is compromised by its rapid deterioration owing to its high humidity and fermentable sugar content. Drying BSG can be achieved using the bio-energy generated from the anaerobic digestion of part of the BSG produced in the same brewery. We employed three types of strategies to enhance the biomethanation of BSG in mesophilic batch incubations. First, we co-digested BSG with peach flesh residues, juice residues, sewage sludge and pig slurry. Second, we supplemented BSG with chemical additives (carbon and energy sources) in order to biostimulate the methane-producing microbial communities. Finally, we used anaerobically acclimatised BSG to augment the initial microbial load in assays digesting BSG either alone or in co-digestion with sewage sludge. All co-substrates assayed were suitable to be fermented in combination with BSG, although methane production was highest for the mixtures with sewage sludge and pig slurry, with their high pH values and nutrient contents. Nine out of 14 combinations of stimulatory chemicals significantly enhanced BSG methanation compared with a non-supplemented control. Overall, bioaugmenting the anaerobic microbial consortia by using fermented BSG as an inoculum when co-digesting BSG with sewage sludge performed best in terms of methane yield.

  16. Bioaugmentation of a soil bioreactor designed for pilot-scale anaerobic bioremediation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fantroussi, S.E. |; Belkacemi, M.; Naveau, H.; Agathos, S.N.; Top, E.M.; Mahillon, J.

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this work was to answer the following questions: (i) can the authors realize a long-term dechlorination with a pure anaerobic strain in soil and (ii) can the authors monitor the process on an adequate scale with a controlled simulator of in situ conditions. The soil bioreactor was fed continuously with 3-chlorobenzonate (3-CB) as a model chloroaromatic compound. Bioaugmentation was carried out by inoculating Desulfomonile tiedjei in localized areas in the bioreactor. Temporal and spatial distribution of the 3-CB dechlorination activity was investigated with specific biological activity tests for approximately 4 months following the inoculation. These tests involved the minimally invasive sampling of geometrically distinct points in the reactor and their off-site handling within reconstructed microcosms, allowing the assessment of dechlorinating and methanogenic soil activities. Using autoclaved and nonautoclaved agricultural soil, the results showed a heterogeneous distribution of the dechlorination activity in the bioreactor. The autoclaved soil expressed a high microbial activity as reflected by biogas production and 3-CB dechlorination. Furthermore, durable establishment of D. tiedjei in both autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil was shown, although in the latter portion of the reactor the microorganism was maintained only at the top surface.

  17. Degradative capacities and bioaugmentation potential of an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium strain DN11

    SciTech Connect

    Yuki Kasai; Yumiko Kodama; Yoh Takahata; Toshihiro Hoaki; Kazuya Watanabe

    2007-09-15

    Azoarcus sp. strain DN11 is a denitrifying bacterium capable of benzene degradation under anaerobic conditions. The present study evaluated strain DN11 for its application to bioaugmentation of benzene-contaminated underground aquifers. Strain DN11 could grow on benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and benzoate as the sole carbon and energy sources under nitrate-reducing conditions, although o- and p-xylenes were transformed in the presence of toluene. Phenol was not utilized under anaerobic conditions. Kinetic analysis of anaerobic benzene degradation estimated its apparent affinity and inhibition constants to be 0.82 and 11 {mu}M, respectively. Benzene-contaminated groundwater taken from a former coal-distillation plant site in Aichi, Japan was anaerobically incubated in laboratory bottles and supplemented with either inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrate) alone, or the nutrients plus strain DN11, showing that benzene was significantly degraded only when DN11 was introduced. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, and quantitative PCR revealed that DN11 decreased after benzene was degraded. Following the decrease in DN11 16S rRNA gene fragments corresponding to bacteria related to Owenweeksia hongkongensis and Pelotomaculum isophthalicum, appeared as strong bands, suggesting possible metabolic interactions in anaerobic benzene degradation. Results suggest that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations. 50 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Degradative capacities and bioaugmentation potential of an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium strain DN11.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Yuki; Kodama, Yumiko; Takahata, Yoh; Hoaki, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2007-09-01

    Azoarcus sp. strain DN11 is a denitrifying bacterium capable of benzene degradation under anaerobic conditions. The present study evaluated strain DN11 for its application to bioaugmentation of benzene-contaminated underground aquifers. Strain DN11 could grow on benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and benzoate as the sole carbon and energy sources under nitrate-reducing conditions, although o- and p-xylenes were transformed in the presence of toluene. Phenol was not utilized under anaerobic conditions. Kinetic analysis of anaerobic benzene degradation estimated its apparent affinity and inhibition constants to be 0.82 and 11 microM, respectively. Benzene-contaminated groundwater taken from a former coal-distillation plant site was anaerobically incubated in laboratory bottles and supplemented with either inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrate) alone, or the nutrients plus strain DN11, showing that benzene was significantly degraded only when DN11 was introduced. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, and quantitative PCR revealed that DN11 decreased after benzene was degraded. Following the decrease in DN11 16S rRNA gene fragments corresponding to bacteria related to Owenweeksia hongkongensis and Pelotomaculum isophthalicum, appeared as strong bands, suggesting possible metabolic interactions in anaerobic benzene degradation. Results suggest that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations.

  19. Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge.

  20. Biostimulation and bioaugmentation for on-site treatment of weathered diesel fuel in Arctic soil.

    PubMed

    Thomassin-Lacroix, E J M; Eriksson, M; Reimer, K J; Mohn, W W

    2002-08-01

    Bioremediation of weathered diesel fuel in Arctic soil at low temperature was studied both on-site in small-scale biopiles and in laboratory microcosms. The field study site was on Ellesmere Island (82 degrees 30'N, 62 degrees 20'W). Biostimulation was by fertilization with phosphorous and nitrogen. Bioaugmentation was with an enrichment culture originating from the field site. In biopiles, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were reduced from 2.9 to 0.5 mg/g of dry soil over a period of 65 days. In microcosms at 7 degrees C, TPH were reduced from 2.4 to 0.5 mg/g of dry soil over a period of 90 days. Inoculation had no effect on hydrocarbon removal in biopiles or in microcosms. Maximum TPH removal rates in the biopiles were approximately 90 micro g of TPH g(-1) of soil day(-1), occurring during the first 14 days when ambient temperature ranged from 0 to 10 degrees C. The fate of three phylotypes present in the inoculum was monitored using most-probable-number PCR, targeting 16S rRNA genes. Populations of all three phylotypes increased more than 100-fold during incubation of both uninoculated and inoculated biopiles. The inoculum increased the initial populations of the phylotypes but did not significantly affect their final populations. Thus, biostimulation on site enriched populations that were also selected in laboratory enrichment cultures.

  1. The impact of bioaugmentation on dechlorination kinetics and on microbial dechlorinating communities in subsurface clay till.

    PubMed

    Bælum, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte; Chambon, Julie C; Jensen, Christine Mosegaard; Brochmann, Rikke P; Dennis, Philip; Laier, Troels; Broholm, Mette M; Bjerg, Poul L; Binning, Philip J; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2014-03-01

    A molecular study on how the abundance of the dechlorinating culture KB-1 affects dechlorination rates in clay till is presented. DNA extracts showed changes in abundance of specific dechlorinators as well as their functional genes. Independently of the KB-1 added, the microbial dechlorinator abundance increased to the same level in all treatments. In the non-bioaugmented microcosms the reductive dehalogenase gene bvcA increased in abundance, but when KB-1 was added the related vcrA gene increased while bvcA genes did not increase. Modeling showed higher vinyl-chloride dechlorination rates and shorter time for complete dechlorination to ethene with higher initial concentration of KB-1 culture, while cis-dichloroethene dechlorination rates were not affected by KB-1 concentrations. This study provides high resolution abundance profiles of Dehalococcoides spp. (DHC) and functional genes, highlights the ecological behavior of KB-1 in clay till, and reinforces the importance of using multiple functional genes as biomarkers for reductive dechlorination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  3. Use & Misuse of Water-filtered Tobacco Smoking Pipes in the World. Consequences for Public Health, Research & Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional definition of an “epidemic” has been revisited by antismoking researchers. After 400 years, Doctors would have realized that one aspect of an ancient cultural daily practice of Asian and African societies was in fact a “global “epidemic””. This needed further investigation particularly if one keeps in his mind the health aspects surrounding barbecues. Method: Here, up-to-date biomedical results are dialectically confronted with anthropological findings, hence in real life, in order to highlight the extent of the global confusion: from the new definition of an “epidemic” and “prevalence” to the myth of “nicotine “addiction”” and other themes in relation to water filtered tobacco smoking pipes (WFTSPs). Results: We found that over the last decade, many publications, -particularly reviews, “meta-analyses” and “systematic reviews”- on (WFTSPs), have actually contributed to fuelling the greatest mix-up ever witnessed in biomedical research. One main reason for such a situation has been the absolute lack of critical analysis of the available literature and the uncritical use of citations (one seriously flawed review has been cited up to 200 times). Another main reason has been to take as granted a biased smoking robot designed at the US American of Beirut whose measured yields of toxic chemicals may differ dozens of times from others' based on the same “protocol”. We also found that, for more than one decade, two other main methodological problems are: 1) the long-lived unwillingness to distinguish between use and misuse; 2) the consistent unethical rejection of biomedical negative results which, interestingly, are quantitatively and qualitatively much more instructive than the positive ones. Conclusion: the great majority of WFTSP toxicity studies have actually measured, voluntarily or not, their misuse aspects, not the use in itself. This is in contradiction with both the harm reduction and public

  4. Water-filtered near-infrared influences collagen synthesis of keloid-fibroblasts in contrast to normal foreskin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zöller, Nadja; König, Anke; Butting, Manuel; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August; Valesky, Eva; Kippenberger, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Hypertrophic scar development is associated to impaired wound healing, imbalanced fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. Stigmatization, physical restrictions and high recurrence rates are only some aspects that illustrate the severe influence impaired wound healing can have on patients' life. The treatment of hypertrophic scars especially keloids is still a challenge. In recent years water-filtered near-infrared irradiation (wIRA) composed of near-infrared (NIR) and a thermal component is applied for an increasing penal of clinical purposes. It is described to beneficially influence e.g. wound healing. But discrimination between the thermal and the NIR dependent components of these effects has not been conclusively elucidated. Aim of our study was therefore to investigate the influence of the light fraction on the thermal impact of wIRA irradiation in dermal cells. We concentrated our analysis on morphological properties and collagen synthesis. Foreskin fibroblasts and the keloid fibroblast cell line KF111 were exposed to temperatures between 37°C and 46°C with or without additional irradiation with 360J/cm(2) NIR. Our results show that viability was not influenced by irradiation. Independent of the analysed fibroblast species temperature dependent occurrence of spheric cells could be observed. These morphological changes were clearly counteracted by additional light exposure. Convective heat reduced collagen type I synthesis in both cell species depending on the applied temperature. Co-treatment with NIR significantly reversed this effect in keloid fibroblast cultures treated at 46°C whereas no difference could be observed in the foreskin fibroblasts. The observed influence on collagen type I synthesis was associated to a temperature dependent TGF-β1 secretion reduction. Co-stimulation of keloid cultures with NIR at 46°C completely abolished the temperature dependent TGF-β1 secretion reduction. In foreskin fibroblast cultures co

  5. Artificial ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J R

    1994-01-01

    Many inorganic and organic compounds promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A. Both the transesterification step, where a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is formed with concomitant cleavage of RNA, and the hydrolysis step, where the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is converted to a phosphate monoester, may be mimicked with compounds that are readily synthesized in the laboratory. Electrophilic activation of the phosphate ester and charge neutralization are generally important means by which artificial RNases promote phosphate diester displacement reactions. Several artificial RNases operate by a bifunctional general acid/general base mechanism, as does RNase A. Provision of an intramolecular nucleophile appears to be an important pathway for metal complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis. In contrast to the successful design of compounds that promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A, there are no artificial nucleases to date that will cleave the 3' P-O bond of RNA or hydrolyze an oligonucleotide of DNA. Artificial RNases based on both metal complexes and organic compounds have been described. Metal complexes may be particularly effective catalysts for both transesterification and hydrolysis reactions of phosphate diesters. Under physiological conditions (37 degrees C and neutral pH), several metal complexes catalyze the transesterification of RNA. Future work should involve the development of metal complexes which are inert to metal ion release but which maintain open coordination sites for catalytic activity. The design of compounds containing multiple amine or imidazole groups that may demonstrate bifunctional catalysis is a promising route to new artificial RNases. Further design of these compounds and careful placement of catalytic groups may yield new RNase mimics that operate under physiological conditions. The attachment of artificial RNases to recognition agents such as oligodeoxynucleotides to create new sequence-specific endoribonucleases is an exciting field of

  6. Enhancing Transport of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 for Bioaugmentation of Aquifers Contaminated with Methyl tert-Butyl Ether

    PubMed Central

    Streger, Sheryl H.; Vainberg, Simon; Dong, Hailiang; Hatzinger, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    The gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has become a widespread contaminant in groundwater throughout the United States. Bioaugmentation of aquifers with MTBE-degrading cultures may be necessary to enhance degradation of the oxygenate in some locations. However, poor cell transport has sometimes limited bioaugmentation efforts in the past. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transport characteristics of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735, a pure culture capable of growth on MTBE, and to improve movement of the strain through aquifer solids. The wild-type culture moved only a few centimeters in columns of aquifer sediment. An adhesion-deficient variant (H. flava ENV735:24) of the wild-type strain that moved more readily through sediments was obtained by sequential passage of cells through columns of sterile sediment. Hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction chromatography revealed that the wild-type strain is much more hydrophobic than the adhesion-deficient variant. Electrophoretic mobility assays and transmission electron microscopy showed that the wild-type bacterium contains two distinct subpopulations, whereas the adhesion-deficient strain has only a single, homogeneous population. Both the wild-type strain and adhesion-deficient variant degraded MTBE, and both were identified by 16S rRNA analysis as pure cultures of H. flava. The effectiveness of surfactants for enhancing transport of the wild-type strain was also evaluated. Many of the surfactants tested were toxic to ENV735; however, one nonionic surfactant, Tween 20, enhanced cell transport in sand columns. Improving microbial transport may lead to a more effective bioaugmentation strategy for MTBE-contaminated sites where indigenous oxygenate degraders are absent. PMID:12406751

  7. Effect of bioaugmentation to enhance phytoremediation for removal of phenanthrene and pyrene from soil with Sorghum and Onobrychis sativa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of plants to remove Poly-aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil (phytoremediation) is emerging as a cost-effective method. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils can be promoted by the use of adding microorganisms with the potential of pollution biodegradation (bioaugmentation). In the present work, the effect of bacterial consortium was studied on the capability of Sorghum and Onobrychis sativa for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with phenanthrene and pyrene. 1.5 kg of the contaminated soil in the ratio of 100 and 300 mg phenanthrene and/or pyrene per kg of dry soil was then transferred into each pot (nine modes). The removal efficiency of natural, phytoremediation and bioaugmentation, separately and combined, were evaluated. The samples were kept under field conditions, and the remaining concentrations of pyrene and phenanthrene were determined after 120 days. The rhizosphere as well as the microbial population of the soil was also determined. Results indicated that both plants were able to significantly remove pyrene and phenanthrene from the contaminated soil samples. Phytoremediation alone had the removal efficiency of about 63% and 74.5% for pyrene and phenanthrene respectively. In the combined mode, the removal efficiency dramatically increased, leading to pyrene and phenanthrene removal efficiencies of 74.1% and 85.02% for Onobrychis sativa and 73.84% and 85.2% for sorghum, respectively. According to the results from the present work, it can be concluded that Onobrychis sativa and sorghum are both efficient in removing pyrene and phenanthrene from contamination and bioaugmentation can significantly enhance the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with pyrene and phenanthrene by 22% and 16% respectively. PMID:24406158

  8. Effect of bioaugmentation to enhance phytoremediation for removal of phenanthrene and pyrene from soil with Sorghum and Onobrychis sativa.

    PubMed

    Baneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Rezaei Kalantary, Roshanak; Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad; Nasseri, Simin; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Esrafili, Ali

    2014-01-09

    The use of plants to remove Poly-aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil (phytoremediation) is emerging as a cost-effective method. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils can be promoted by the use of adding microorganisms with the potential of pollution biodegradation (bioaugmentation). In the present work, the effect of bacterial consortium was studied on the capability of Sorghum and Onobrychis sativa for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with phenanthrene and pyrene. 1.5 kg of the contaminated soil in the ratio of 100 and 300 mg phenanthrene and/or pyrene per kg of dry soil was then transferred into each pot (nine modes). The removal efficiency of natural, phytoremediation and bioaugmentation, separately and combined, were evaluated. The samples were kept under field conditions, and the remaining concentrations of pyrene and phenanthrene were determined after 120 days. The rhizosphere as well as the microbial population of the soil was also determined. Results indicated that both plants were able to significantly remove pyrene and phenanthrene from the contaminated soil samples. Phytoremediation alone had the removal efficiency of about 63% and 74.5% for pyrene and phenanthrene respectively. In the combined mode, the removal efficiency dramatically increased, leading to pyrene and phenanthrene removal efficiencies of 74.1% and 85.02% for Onobrychis sativa and 73.84% and 85.2% for sorghum, respectively. According to the results from the present work, it can be concluded that Onobrychis sativa and sorghum are both efficient in removing pyrene and phenanthrene from contamination and bioaugmentation can significantly enhance the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with pyrene and phenanthrene by 22% and 16% respectively.

  9. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  10. Artificial Rheotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anais; Hanson, Kasey; Pine, David; Chaikin, Paul; CSMR, NYU Team

    2013-11-01

    Self propelled colloids realize a controlled realization of an artificial bacterium. However living systems present a range of advanced properties such as the migration in gradients, or taxis, based on complex conformational change of proteins. For example, rheotaxis, the directed movement of an organism resulting from a fluid flow, has been reported notably for fish, e.g. salmon, or spermatozoa. Here, we present experimental observations of artificial rheotaxis, i.e. upstream migration of self propelled particles in the presence of a flow. We will present a simple model to account for this surprising effect. In the absence of biological component, this effect is intriguing and questions the ingredients at stake in the living matter.

  11. Artificial Rheotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Hanson, Kasey; Vatchinsky, Adrian; Pine, David; Chaikin, Paul; CSMR Team

    2013-03-01

    Self propelled colloids realize a controlled realization of an artificial bacterium. However living systems present a range of advanced properties such as the migration in gradients, or taxis, based on complex conformational change of proteins. For example, rheotaxis, the directed movement of an organism resulting from a fluid flow, has been reported notably for fish, e.g. salmon, or spermatozoa. Here, we present experimental observations of artificial rheotaxis, i.e. upstream migration of self propelled particles in the presence of a flow. We will present a simple model to account for this surprising effect. In the absence of biological component, this effect is intriguing and questions the ingredients at stake in the living matter.

  12. Artificial vision.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  13. Evaluation of impact of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets and point-of-use water filters on HIV-1 disease progression in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Walson, Judd L; Sangaré, Laura R; Singa, Benson O; Naulikha, Jacqueline Mulongo; Piper, Benjamin K S; Yuhas, Krista; Onchiri, Frankline Magaki; Otieno, Phelgona A; Mermin, Jonathan; Zeh, Clement; Richardson, Barbra Ann; John-Stewart, Grace

    2013-06-01

    Among HIV-1-infected individuals in Africa, coinfection with malaria and diarrhoeal disease may be associated with more rapid HIV-1 disease progression. We sought to determine whether the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets and simple point-of-use water filters can delay HIV-1 disease progression. A prospective cohort study. Two HIV care sites in Kenya. HIV-1-infected adults not yet meeting criteria for antiretroviral therapy. One group received the standard of care, whereas the other received long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets and water filters. Individuals were followed for up to 24 months. The primary outcome measures were time to CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl and a composite endpoint of time to CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl and nontraumatic death. Time to disease progression was compared using Cox proportional hazards regression. Of 589 individuals included, 361 received the intervention and 228 served as controls. Median baseline CD4 cell counts were similar (P=0.36). After controlling for baseline CD4 cell count, individuals receiving the intervention were 27% less likely to reach the endpoint of a CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl (hazard ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.57-0.95). CD4 cell count decline was also significantly less in the intervention group (-54 vs. -70 cells/μl per year, P=0.03). In addition, the incidence of malaria and diarrhoea were significantly lower in the intervention group. Provision of a long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net and water filter was associated with a delay in CD4 cell count decline and may be a simple, practical and cost-effective strategy to delay HIV-1 progression in many resource-limited settings.

  14. Effect of bioaugmented inoculation on microbiota dynamics during solid-state fermentation of Daqu starter using autochthonous of Bacillus, Pediococcus, Wickerhamomyces and Saccharomycopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Lin, Weifeng; Liu, Xiong; Wang, Xiaowen; Gan, Xing; Luo, Lixin; Lin, Wei-Tie

    2017-02-01

    Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor and vinegar production, is still manufactured through a traditional spontaneous solid-state fermentation process with no selected microorganisms are intentionally inoculated. The aim of this work was to analyze the microbiota dynamics during the solid-state fermentation process of Daqu using a traditional and bioaugmented inoculation with autochthonous of Bacillus, Pediococcus, Saccharomycopsis and Wickerhamomyces at an industrial scale. Highly similar dynamics of physicochemical parameters, enzymatic activities and microbial communities were observed during the traditional and bioaugmented solid-state fermentation processes. Both in the two cases, groups of Streptophyta, Rickettsiales and Xanthomonadales only dominated the first two days, but Bacillales and Eurotiales became predominant members after 2 and 10 days fermentation, respectively. Phylotypes of Enterobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Saccharomycetales and Mucorales dominated the whole fermentation process. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in microbial structure was observed between the traditional and bioaugmented fermentation processes. However, slightly higher microbial richness was found during the bioaugmented fermentation process after 10 days fermentation. Our results reinforced the microbiota dynamic stability during the solid-state fermentation process of Daqu, and might aid in controlling the traditional Daqu manufacturing process.

  15. Bioaugmentation with GFP-Tagged Pseudomonas migulae AN-1 in Aniline-Contaminated Aquifer Microcosms: Cellular Responses, Survival and Effect on Indigenous Bacterial Community.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongsheng; Qu, Dan; Zhou, Rui; Ma, Yunge; Wang, Hao; Ren, Hejun

    2016-05-28

    The recently isolated aniline-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas migulae AN-1 was tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to investigate its bioaugmentation potential against anilinecontaminated groundwater through microcosm experiments. The survival and cellular response of GFP-tagged AN-1 introduced in a lab-scale aquifer corresponded directly with aniline consumption. During the process, the GFP-tagged AN-1 biomass increased from 7.52 × 10⁵ cells/ml to 128 × 10⁵ cells/ml and the degradation rate of aniline was 6.04 mg/l/h. GFP-tagged AN-1 was moderately hydrophobic (41.74%-47.69%) when treated with 20- 100 mg/l aniline and exhibited relatively strong hydrophobicity (55.25%-65.78%) when the concentration of aniline was ≥100 mg/l. The membrane permeability of AN-1 increased followed by a rise in aniline below 100 mg/l and was invariable with aniline above 100 mg/l. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (accounted for 99.22% in the non-bioaugmentation samples) changed to 89.23% after bioaugmentation with GFP-tagged AN-1. Actinobacteria increased from 0.29% to 2.01%, whereas the abundance of Firmicutes barely changed. These combined findings demonstrate the feasibility of removing aniline in aquifers by introducing the strain AN-1 and provide valuable information on the changes in the diversity of dominant populations during bioaugmentation.

  16. Integrated biodepuration of pesticide-contaminated wastewaters from the fruit-packaging industry using biobeds: Bioaugmentation, risk assessment and optimized management.

    PubMed

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Karanasios, Evangelos; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Manthou, Elena; Sitra, Stefania; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2016-12-15

    Wastewaters from fruit-packaging plants contain high loads of toxic and persistent pesticides and should be treated on site. We evaluated the depuration performance of five pilot biobeds against those effluents. In addition we tested bioaugmentation with bacterial inocula as a strategy for optimization of their depuration capacity. Finally we determined the composition and functional dynamics of the microbial community via q-PCR. Practical issues were also addressed including the risk associated with the direct environmental disposal of biobed-treated effluents and decontamination methods for the spent packing material. Biobeds showed high depuration capacity (>99.5%) against all pesticides with bioaugmentation maximizing their depuration performance against the persistent fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ). This was followed by a significant increase in the abundance of bacteria, fungi and of catabolic genes of aromatic compounds catA and pcaH. Bioaugmentation was the most potent decontamination method for spent packing material with composting being an effective alternative. Risk assessment based on practical scenarios (pome and citrus fruit-packaging plants) and the depuration performance of the pilot biobeds showed that discharge of the treated effluents into an 0.1-ha disposal site did not entail an environmental risk, except for TBZ-containing effluents where a larger disposal area (0.2ha) or bioaugmentation alleviated the risk.

  17. Metagenomic insight of nitrogen metabolism in a tannery wastewater treatment plant bioaugmented with the microbial consortium BM-S-1.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo-Jun; Kim, In-Soo; Ekpeghere, Kalu I; Song, Bongkeun; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Hong-Gi; Kim, Jong-Tae; Koh, Sung-Cheol

    2016-11-09

    Nitrogen (N) removal in a tannery wastewater treatment plant was significantly enhanced by the bioaugmentation of the novel consortium BM-S-1. In order to identify dominant taxa responsible for N metabolisms in the different stages of the treatment process, Illumina MiSeq Sequencer was used to conduct metagenome sequencing of the microbial communities in the different stages of treatment system, including influent (I), buffering (B), primary aeration (PA), secondary aeration (SA) and sludge digestion (SD). Based on MG-RAST analysis, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in B, PA, SA and SD, whereas Firmicutes was the most dominant in I before augmentation. The augmentation increased the abundance of the denitrification genes found in the genera such as Ralstonia (nirS, norB and nosZ), Pseudomonas (narG, nirS and norB) and Escherichia (narG) in B and PA. In addition, Bacteroides, Geobacter, Porphyromonasand Wolinella carrying nrfA gene encoding dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium were abundantly present in B and PA. This was corroborated with the higher total N removal in these two stages. Thus, metagenomic analysis was able to identify the dominant taxa responsible for dissimilatory N metabolisms in the tannery wastewater treatment system undergoing bioaugmentation. This metagenomic insight into the nitrogen metabolism will contribute to a successful monitoring and operation of the eco-friendly tannery wastewater treatment system.

  18. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons in copper phytoremediation by a salt marsh plant (Juncus maritimus) and the role of autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, I P F M; Mucha, A P; Reis, I; Rodrigues, P; Almeida, C M R

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed to investigate, under controlled but environmental relevant conditions, the effects of the presence of both inorganic and organic contaminants (copper and petroleum hydrocarbons) on phytoremediation potential of the salt marsh plant Juncus maritimus. Moreover, bioaugmentation, with an autochthonous microbial consortium (AMC) resistant to Cu, was tested, aiming an increase in the remediation potential of this plant in the presence of a co-contamination. Salt marsh plants with sediment attached to their roots were collected, placed in vessels, and kept in greenhouses, under tidal simulation. Sediments were contaminated with Cu and petroleum, and the AMC was added to half of the vessels. After 5 months, plants accumulated significant amounts of Cu but only in belowground structures. The amount of Cu was even higher in the presence of petroleum. AMC addition increased Cu accumulation in belowground tissues, despite decreasing Cu bioavailability, promoting J. maritimus phytostabilization potential. Therefore, J. maritimus has potential to phytoremediate co-contaminated sediments, and autochthonous bioaugmentation can be a valuable strategy for the recovery and management of moderately impacted estuaries. This approach can contribute for a sustainable use of the environmental resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  19. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    PubMed

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils.

  20. Bioaugmentation of copper polluted soil microcosms with Amycolatopsis tucumanensis to diminish phytoavailable copper for Zea mays plants.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Amoroso, María Julia; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2010-03-01

    Amycolatopsis tucumanensis DSM 45259, the strain of a recently recognized novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis with remarkable copper resistance, was used to bioaugment soil microcosms experimentally polluted with copper and for studying the ability of this strain to effectively diminish phytoavailable copper from soils. Our results demonstrated that A. tucumanensis was capable of profusely colonizing both, copper polluted and non-polluted soil. Copper bioimmobilization ability of A. tucumanensis on soil was assessed measuring the bioavailable copper in the soil solution extracted from polluted soil by using chemical and physical methods and, in this way, 31% lower amounts of the metal were found in soil solution as compared to non-bioaugmented soil. The results obtained when using Zea mays as bioindicator correlated well with the values obtained by the chemical and physical procedures: 20% and 17% lower tissue contents of copper were measured in roots and leaves, respectively. These data confirmed the efficiency of the bioremediation process using A. tucumanensis and at the same time proved that chemical, physical and biological methods for assessing copper bioavailability in soils were correlated. These results suggest a potential use of this strain at large scale in copper soil bioremediation strategies. To our knowledge, this work is the first to apply and to probe the colonization ability of an Amycolatopsis strain in soil microcosms and constitutes the first application of an Amycolatopsis strain on bioremediation of polluted soils.

  1. Bioaugmentation for treatment of full-scale diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE) wastewater by Serratia sp. BDG-2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maoxia; Fan, Rong; Zou, Wenhui; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang; Li, Xudong

    2016-05-15

    A novel bacterial strain BDG-2 was isolated and used to augment the treatment of silicon plate manufacturing wastewater that primarily contains diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE). BDG-2 was identified as a Serratia sp. Under the optimal conditions of 30 °C, pH 9 and DGBE concentration of 2000 mg L(-1), the bioaugmented system achieved 96.92% COD removal after 39.9h. Laboratory-scale technological matching results indicated that, in a biofilm process with the addition of 100 mg L(-1) ammonia and 5 mg L(-1) total phosphorus (TP), 70.61% COD removal efficiency could be obtained in 46 h. Addition of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) to the reactors during the suspension process enhanced the settleability of the BDG-2 culture. Subsequently, successful start-up and stable operation of a full-scale bioaugmented treatment facilities were accomplished, and the volumetric organic load in the plug-flow aeration tank was 2.17 ± 0.81 kg m(-3) d(-1). The effluent COD of the facilities was stable and always below 100 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of bioaugmentation and biostimulation effects on the treatment of refinery oily sludge using 2(n) full factorial design.

    PubMed

    Jasmine, Jublee; Mukherji, Suparna

    2014-08-01

    Bioremediation approaches for the treatment of oily sludge from a refinery were evaluated using a 2(3) factorial design. The three strategies tested were bioaugmentation with indigenous microbial consortia (MO) isolated from oily sludge, biostimulation with nutrients (NP) and biostimulation with the surfactant Triton X-100 (TX). Eight experimental runs were conducted in triplicate with factor settings ± (high/low) as per the 2(3) design. The main effects and the effects of various interactions of the factors on oil degradation and microbial growth in suspension were evaluated during a 30 day study. Multifactor ANOVA could reveal the significant effects while the normal order score approach failed in this scenario. The main effect of biostimulation with nutrients in the form of nitrate and phosphate, as well as biostimulation with Triton X-100, was positive and significant when both oil degradation and microbial growth in suspension were chosen as the response variables. However, the main effect of bioaugmentation was only significant for oil degradation but was insignificant for microbial growth at a 90% confidence level. The MO-NP binary interaction and the MO-NP-TX ternary interactions were positive and significant, indicating the synergistic effect of these strategies on oil degradation and microbial growth. All other binary interactions were found to be insignificant.

  3. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation as strategies for the bioremediation of a burned woodland soil contaminated by toxic hydrocarbons: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    In this work, the natural attenuation strategy (no soil amendments done) was compared with two different bioremediation approaches, namely bioaugmentation through soil inoculation with a suspension of Trichoderma sp. mycelium and biostimulation by soil addition with a microbial growth promoting formulation, in order to verify the effectiveness of these methods in terms of degradation efficiency towards toxic hydrocarbons, with particular attention to the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction, in a forest area impacted by recent wildfire in Northern Italy. The area under investigation, divided into three parcels, was monitored to figure out the dynamics of decay in soil concentration of C₁₂₋₄₀ hydrocarbons (including isoalkanes, cycloalkanes, alkyl-benzenes and alkyl-naphthalenes besides PAHs) and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, following the adoption of the foregoing different remediation strategies. Soil hydrocarbonoclastic potential was even checked by characterizing the autochthonous microbial cenoses. Field experiments proved that the best performance in the abatement of HMW hydrocarbons was reached 60 days after soil treatment through the biostimulation protocol, when about 70% of the initial concentration of HMW hydrocarbons was depleted. Within the same time, about 55% degradation was obtained with the bioaugmentation protocol, whilst natural attenuation allowed only a 45% removal of the starting C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction. Therefore, biostimulation seems to significantly reduce the time required for the remediation, most likely because of the enhancement of microbial degradation through the improvement of nutrient balance in the burned soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of bioreactors for comparative study of natural attenuation, biostimulation, and bioaugmentation of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Mohammad-Saeed; Kariminia, Hamid-Reza; Rahmati, Mahmood; Fazlollahi, Farhad; Polasko, Alexandra; Mahendra, Shaily; Wilding, W Vincent; Fletcher, Thomas H

    2017-08-19

    Bioremediation of soil and groundwater sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons is known as a technically viable, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable technology. The purpose of this study is to investigate laboratory-scale bioremediation of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soil through development of eight bioreactors, two bioreactors for each bioremediation mode. The modes were: (1) natural attenuation (NA); (2) biostimulation (BS) with oxygen and nutrients; (3) bioaugmentation (BA) with hydrocarbon degrading isolates; (4) a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation (BS-BA). Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) mass balance over the bioreactors showed about 2% of initial 20,000mgkg-soil(-1) TPH was removed by advection due to synthetic groundwater which was flowing through the soil, and the rest of decrease in TPH was caused by biodegradation. The BS-BA mode showed the highest TPH biodegradation percentage (89.7±0.3%) compared to the NA (51.4±0.6%), BS (81.9±0.3%) and BA (62.9±0.5%) modes. Furthermore, an increase in microbial population was another evidence of TPH biodegradation by microorganism. Reaction rate data from each bioremediation mode were fitted with a first-order reaction rate model. The Monod kinetic constants including maximum specific growth rate of microorganisms (μmax) and substrate concentration at half-velocity constant (Ks) were estimated for each bioremediation modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Moving closer towards restoration of contaminated estuaries: Bioaugmentation with autochthonous rhizobacteria improves metal rhizoaccumulation in native Spartina maritima.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Jennifer; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio David; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Piedras, José María Barcia; Caviedes, Miguel Angel; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    Spartina maritima is an ecosystem engineer that has shown to be useful for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment using soil from a metal-contaminated estuary was designed to investigate the effect of a native bacterial consortium, isolated from S. maritima rizhosphere and selected owing to their plant growth promoting properties and multiresistance to heavy metals, on plant growth and metal accumulation. Plants of S. maritima were randomly assigned to three soil bioaugmentation treatments (without inoculation, one inoculation and repeated inoculations) for 30 days. Growth parameters and photosynthetic traits, together with total concentrations of several metals were determined in roots and/or leaves. Bacterial inoculation improved root growth, through a beneficial effect on photosynthetic rate (AN) due to its positive impact on functionality of PSII and chlorophyll concentration. Also, favoured intrinsic water use efficiency of S. maritima, through the increment in AN, stomatal conductance and in root-to-shoot ratio. Moreover, this consortium was able to stimulate plant metal uptake specifically in roots, with increases of up to 19% for As, 65% for Cu, 40% for Pb and 29% for Zn. Thus, bioaugmentation of S. maritima with the selected bacterial consortium can be claimed to enhance plant adaptation and metal rhizoaccumulation during marsh restoration programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Insitu bioaugmentation of nitrification in the regeneration zone: practical application and experiences at full-scale plants.

    PubMed

    Krhutkovi, O; Novák, L; Pachmanová, L; Benáková, A; Wanner, J; Kos, M

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification is the rate-limiting process in the design of activated sludge process. It is especially unstable during the winter season (when the temperature of activated sludge mixed liquor drops below 13 degrees C). It is therefore difficult to meet the ammonia effluent standards in winter. The common way to compensate for low nitrification rates at low temperatures is to increase sludge retention time (SRT). However, the increase of SRT is accompanied by negative factors such as elevated sludge concentration, higher sludge loading of secondary clarifiers, formation of unsettleable microflocs, etc. The low performance of nitrification at low temperatures can also be compensated for by enhancing the nitrification population in activated sludge. This paper describes such a method called bioaugmentation of nitrification in situ. This procedure takes place in a so-called regeneration tank, which is situated in the return activated sludge stream. The results of the operation of two wastewater treatment plants with regeneration zones are described in this paper, together with some economic evaluation of the bioaugmentation method.

  7. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation.

  8. Heat for wounds - water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) for wound healing - a review.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Gerd; Hartel, Mark; Mercer, James B

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Wassergefiltertes Infrarot A (wIRA) ist eine spezielle Form der Wärmestrahlung mit hohem Eindringvermögen in das Gewebe und geringer thermischer Belastung der Hautoberfläche. wIRA entspricht dem Großteil der die Erdoberfläche in gemäßigten Klimazonen durch Wasser und Wasserdampf der Atmosphäre gefiltert erreichenden Sonnenwärmestrahlung. wIRA fördert die Heilung akuter und chronischer Wunden sowohl über thermische und temperaturabhängige als auch über nicht-thermische und temperaturunabhängige zelluläre Effekte.Methoden: Diese Publikation schließt eine Literaturübersicht mit Suche in PubMed/Medline nach “water-filtered infrared-A” und “wound”/”ulcus” oder “wassergefiltertes Infrarot A” und “Wunde”/”Ulkus” (Publikationen in Englisch und Deutsch) und zusätzliche Analysen von Studiendaten ein. 7 prospektive klinische Studien (davon 6 randomisierte kontrollierte Studien (RCT), die größte Studie mit n=400 Patienten) wurden gefunden und eingeschlossen. Alle randomisierten kontrollierten klinischen Studien vergleichen eine Kombination aus Therapie auf hohem Niveau plus wIRA-Therapie vs. Therapie auf hohem Niveau allein. Die mit „vs.“ gekennzeichneten Ergebnisse unten zeigen diese Vergleiche. Ergebnisse: wIRA steigert die Temperatur (+2,7°C in 2 cm Gewebetiefe) und den Sauerstoffpartialdruck im Gewebe (+32% in 2 cm Gewebetiefe) und die Gewebedurchblutung (Größe der Effekte innerhalb der wIRA-Gruppe). wIRA fördert sowohl die normale als auch die gestörte Wundheilung, indem es Entzündung und Sekretion mindert, Infektionsabwehr und Regeneration fördert und Schmerzen lindert (bezüglich Schmerzlinderung ausnahmslos während 230 Bestrahlungen, 13.4 vs. 0,0 auf einer visuellen Analogskala (VAS 0–100), mediane Differenz zwischen den Gruppen 13.8, 95%-Konfidenzinterval (KI) 12.3/16.7, p<0,000001) mit relevant weniger Analgetikabedarf (52–69% weniger in den drei Gruppen mit wIRA verglichen mit den drei

  9. Artificial rheotaxis.

    PubMed

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anaïs; Barral, Jérémie; Hanson, Kasey; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Pine, David J; Chaikin, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    Motility is a basic feature of living microorganisms, and how it works is often determined by environmental cues. Recent efforts have focused on developing artificial systems that can mimic microorganisms, in particular their self-propulsion. We report on the design and characterization of synthetic self-propelled particles that migrate upstream, known as positive rheotaxis. This phenomenon results from a purely physical mechanism involving the interplay between the polarity of the particles and their alignment by a viscous torque. We show quantitative agreement between experimental data and a simple model of an overdamped Brownian pendulum. The model notably predicts the existence of a stagnation point in a diverging flow. We take advantage of this property to demonstrate that our active particles can sense and predictably organize in an imposed flow. Our colloidal system represents an important step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes.

  10. Artificial Hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Bryan E.; Olsen, Matthew T.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of biophysical study on the hydrogenase (H2ase) enzymes have yielded sufficient information to guide the synthesis of analogues of their active sites. Three families of enzymes serve as inspiration for this work: the [FeFe]-, [NiFe]-, and [Fe]-H2ases, all of which feature iron centers bound to both CO and thiolate. Artificial H2ases effect the oxidation of H2 of H2 and the reverse reaction, the reduction of protons. These reactions occur via the intermediacy of metal hydrides. The inclusion of amine bases within the catalysts is an important design feature that is emulated in related bioinspired catalysts. Continuing challenges are the low reactivity of H2 towards biomimetic H2ases. PMID:20356731

  11. Artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Scott, William B

    2005-04-25

    NASA's Artificial Gravity program consists of a team of researchers from Wyle Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). The short-radius centrifuge (SRC), built by Wyle Laboratories, will be integrated with UTMB's conducted bedrest studies, which mimic the detrimental effects of weightlessness (or microgravity). Bedrest subjects will be spun on the SRC at various accelerations and for various time periods, while being monitored medically. Parameters such as bone loss, muscle atrophy, balance control, and oxygen consumption will then be compared in order to research ways of mitigating the impact on astronauts' physiology. Other potential benefits from these studies extend to population groups on Earth, such as bedridden patients.

  12. Bioaugmentation of a historically contaminated soil by polychlorinated biphenyls with Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several species belonging to the ecological group of white-rot basidiomycetes are able to bring about the remediation of matrices contaminated by a large variety of anthropic organic pollutants. Among them, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are characterized by a high recalcitrance due to both their low bioavailability and the inability of natural microbial communities to degrade them at significant rates and extents. Objective of this study was to assess the impact of a maize stalk-immobilized Lentinus tigrinus CBS 577.79 inoculant combined with soybean oil (SO), as a possible PCB-mobilizing agent, on the bioremediation and resident microbiota of an actual Aroclor 1260 historically contaminated soil under unsaturated solid-phase conditions. Results Best overall PCB depletions (33.6 ± 0.3%) and dechlorination (23.2 ± 1.3%) were found after 60 d incubation in the absence of SO where, however, the fungus appeared to exert adverse effects on both the growth of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria and the abundance of genes coding for both biphenyl dioxygenase (bph) and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. A significant (P < 0.001) linear inverse relationship between depletion yields and degree of chlorination was observed in both augmented and control microcosms in the absence of SO; conversely, this negative correlation was not evident in SO-amended microcosms where the additive inhibited the biodegradation of low chlorinated congeners. The presence of SO, in fact, resulted in lower abundances of both biphenyl-degrading bacteria and bph. Conclusions The PCB depletion extents obtained in the presence of L. tigrinus are by far higher than those reported in other remediation studies conducted under unsaturated solid phase conditions on actual site soils historically contaminated by Aroclor 1260. These results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy with the maize stalk-immobilized mycelium of this species might be promising in the reclamation of PCB

  13. Climate and Health Co-Benefits in Low-Income Countries: A Case Study of Carbon Financed Water Filters in Kenya and a Call for Independent Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Arnold, Benjamin F; Dentz, Holly N; Colford, John M; Null, Clair

    2017-03-01

    The recent global climate agreement in Paris aims to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development and establishes an international trading mechanism to meet this goal. Currently, carbon offset program implementers are allowed to collect their own monitoring data to determine the number of carbon credits to be awarded. We summarize reasons for mandating independent monitoring of greenhouse gas emission reduction projects. In support of our policy recommendations, we describe a case study of a program designed to earn carbon credits by distributing almost one million drinking water filters in rural Kenya to avert the use of fuel for boiling water. We compare results from an assessment conducted by our research team in the program area among households with pregnant women or caregivers in rural villages with low piped water access with the reported program monitoring data and discuss the implications. Our assessment in Kenya found lower levels of household water filter usage than the internal program monitoring reported estimates used to determine carbon credits; we found 19% (n = 4,041) of households reported filter usage 2-3 years after filter distribution compared to the program stated usage rate of 81% (n = 14,988) 2.7 years after filter distribution. Although carbon financing could be a financially sustainable approach to scale up water treatment and improve health in low-income settings, these results suggest program effectiveness will remain uncertain in the absence of requiring monitoring data be collected by third-party organizations. Independent monitoring should be a key requirement for carbon credit verification in future international carbon trading mechanisms to ensure programs achieve benefits in line with sustainable development goals. Citation: Pickering AJ, Arnold BF, Dentz HN, Colford JM Jr., Null C. 2017. Climate and health co-benefits in low-income countries: a case study of carbon financed water filters in Kenya and a

  14. Climate and Health Co-Benefits in Low-Income Countries: A Case Study of Carbon Financed Water Filters in Kenya and a Call for Independent Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Dentz, Holly N.; Colford, John M.; Null, Clair

    2016-01-01

    Background: The recent global climate agreement in Paris aims to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development and establishes an international trading mechanism to meet this goal. Currently, carbon offset program implementers are allowed to collect their own monitoring data to determine the number of carbon credits to be awarded. Objectives: We summarize reasons for mandating independent monitoring of greenhouse gas emission reduction projects. In support of our policy recommendations, we describe a case study of a program designed to earn carbon credits by distributing almost one million drinking water filters in rural Kenya to avert the use of fuel for boiling water. We compare results from an assessment conducted by our research team in the program area among households with pregnant women or caregivers in rural villages with low piped water access with the reported program monitoring data and discuss the implications. Discussion: Our assessment in Kenya found lower levels of household water filter usage than the internal program monitoring reported estimates used to determine carbon credits; we found 19% (n = 4,041) of households reported filter usage 2–3 years after filter distribution compared to the program stated usage rate of 81% (n = 14,988) 2.7 years after filter distribution. Although carbon financing could be a financially sustainable approach to scale up water treatment and improve health in low-income settings, these results suggest program effectiveness will remain uncertain in the absence of requiring monitoring data be collected by third-party organizations. Conclusion: Independent monitoring should be a key requirement for carbon credit verification in future international carbon trading mechanisms to ensure programs achieve benefits in line with sustainable development goals. Citation: Pickering AJ, Arnold BF, Dentz HN, Colford JM Jr., Null C. 2017. Climate and health co-benefits in low-income countries: a case

  15. Artificial Respiration and Artificial Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Joseph; Brook, Morris H.; Lopez, Jose F.

    1965-01-01

    A training program in the newer methods of treatment of acute cardiopulmonary emergencies which was developed at the University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, is reported. Artificial respiration by the chance rescuer, primary and secondary resuscitation, and post-resuscitation measures involving the use of special drugs and equipment by trained personnel are described. Figures and tables designed for wall-mounting and ready reference in an emergency situation are presented. Firstaid ventilatory adjuncts for use by trained personnel are classified and critically appraised, and the propriety of their use is emphasized. A plea is made to the medical profession and allied agencies to assume the responsibility of spreading knowledge of the new techniques more widely. Unless effective treatment is instituted early enough to prevent death or permanent anoxic damage to heart and brain, follow-through therapy will often be fruitless. PMID:14339303

  16. Upregulated expression of La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 and collagen type I gene following water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation in a 3-dimensional human epidermal tissue culture model as revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yohei; Nakayama, Jun

    2017-02-27

    Water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation can induce various biological effects, as our previous clinical, histological, and biochemical investigations have shown. However, few studies that examined the changes thus induced in gene expression. The aim was to investigate the changes in gene expression in a 3-dimensional reconstructed epidermal tissue culture exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation. DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to assess gene expression levels in a 3-dimensional reconstructed epidermal model composed of normal human epidermal cells exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation. The water filter allowed 1000-1800 nm wavelengths and excluded 1400-1500 nm wavelengths, and cells were exposed to 5 or 10 rounds of near-infrared irradiation at 10 J/cm(2) . A DNA microarray with over 50 000 different probes showed 18 genes that were upregulated or downregulated by at least twofold after irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that, relative to control cells, the gene encoding La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (LARP6), which regulates collagen expression, was significantly and dose-dependently upregulated (P < 0.05) by water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared exposure. Gene encoding transcripts of collagen type I were significantly upregulated compared with controls (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates the ability of water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation to stimulate the production of type I collagen. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  17. Artificial gametes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt Peter; Chang, Ching-Chien

    2007-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) has been an efficient medical treatment for infertility in the past decades. However, conventional IVF approaches may be insufficient when gametes are lacking or non-viable thus precluding a significant number of patients from treatment. Ultimately, creation of artificial gametes may provide an universal solution for all indications. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has provided successful cloning in different animal species indicating that a derived technology may be applicable in infertility treatment procedures. Attempts to produce functional male or female gamete through nuclear transfer have been described through the process called haploidization. Initial successes have been observed, however, significant alterations at spindle construction and chromosomal segregation were also described. Stem cell technology may provide an alternative route to obtain fully functional gametes. Both sperm cells and oocytes were obtained using specific culture conditions for embryo originated stem cell. These two mainstream approaches are presented in the current review. Both of these techniques are involving sophisticated methods and consequently both of them demonstrate technical and ethical challenges. Related questions on (mitotic/meiotic) cell division, genetic/epigenetic alterations and cell renewal are needed to be addressed before clinical application.

  18. Bioaugmentation of biological contact oxidation reactor (BCOR) with phenol-degrading bacteria for coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treatment.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Han, Hongjun; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Chunyan; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the biological contact oxidation reactor (BCOR) treating coal gasification wastewater (CGW) after augmented with phenol degrading bacteria (PDB). The PDB were isolated with phenol, 4-methyl phenol, 3,5-dimethyl phenol and resorcinol as carbon resources. Much of the refractory phenolic compounds were converted into easily-biodegradable compounds in spite of low TOC removal. The bioaugmentation with PDB significantly enhanced the removal of COD, total phenols (TP) and NH3-N, with efficiencies from 58% to 78%, 66% to 80%, and 5% to 25%, respectively. In addition, the augmented BCOR exhibited strong recovery capability in TP and COD removal while recovery of NH3-N removal needed longer time. Microbial community analysis revealed that the PDB presented as dominant populations in the bacteria consortia, which in turn determined the overall performance of the system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Explaining low rates of sustained use of siphon water filter: evidence from follow-up of a randomised controlled trial in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Najnin, Nusrat; Arman, Shaila; Abedin, Jaynal; Unicomb, Leanne; Levine, David I; Mahmud, Minhaj; Leder, Karin; Yeasmin, Farzana; Luoto, Jill E; Albert, Jeff; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-04-01

    To assess sustained siphon filter usage among a low-income population in Bangladesh and study relevant motivators and barriers. After a randomised control trial in Bangladesh during 2009, 191 households received a siphon water filter along with educational messages. Researchers revisited households after 3 and 6 months to assess filter usage and determine relevant motivators and barriers. Regular users were defined as those who reported using the filter most of the time and were observed to be using the filter at follow-up visits. Integrated behavioural model for water, sanitation and hygiene (IBM-WASH) was used to explain factors associated with regular filter use. Regular filter usage was 28% at the 3-month follow-up and 21% at the 6-month follow-up. Regular filter users had better quality water at the 6-month, but not at the 3-month visit. Positive predictors of regular filter usage explained through IBM-WASH at both times were willingness to pay >US$1 for filters, and positive attitude towards filter use (technology dimension at individual level); reporting boiling drinking water at baseline (psychosocial dimension at habitual level); and Bengali ethnicity (contextual dimension at individual level). Frequently reported barriers to regular filter use were as follows: considering filter use an additional task, filter breakage and time required for water filtering (technology dimension at individual level). The technological, psychosocial and contextual dimensions of IBM-WASH contributed to understanding the factors related to sustained use of siphon filter. Given the low regular usage rate and the hardware-related problems reported, the contribution of siphon filters to improving water quality in low-income urban communities in Bangladesh is likely to be minimal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Degradation of trace concentrations of the persistent groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in bioaugmented rapid sand filters.

    PubMed

    Albers, Christian Nyrop; Feld, Louise; Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens

    2015-10-15

    Groundwater is an important drinking water resource. Yet, this resource is threatened by pollution from chemicals, such as pesticides and their degradation products. To investigate the potential for remediation of groundwater polluted by trace concentrations of the pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM), we established a pilot waterworks including two sand filters. The waterworks treated groundwater polluted with 0.2 μg/L BAM at flow conditions typical for rapid sand filters. Bioaugmentation of the sand filter with a specific BAM-degrading bacterium (Aminobacter sp. MSH1) resulted in significant BAM degradation to concentrations below the legal threshold level (0.1 μg/L), and this without adverse effects on other sand filter processes such as ammonium and iron oxidation. However, efficient degradation for more than 2-3 weeks was difficult to maintain due to loss of MSH1-bacteria, especially during backwashing. By limiting backwash procedures, the period of degradation was prolonged, but bacteria (and hence degradation activity) were still lost with time. Protozoa were observed to grow in the filters to a density that contributed significantly to the general loss of bacteria from the filters. Additionally, the concentration of easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in the remediated water may have been too low to sustain a sufficient population of degrader bacteria in the filter. This study shows that scaling up is not trivial and shortcomings in transferring degradation rates obtained in batch experiments to a rapid sand filter system are discussed. Further optimization is necessary to obtain and control more temporally stable systems for water purification. However, for the first time outside the laboratory and at realistic conditions a potential for the biodegradation of recalcitrant micropollutants in bioaugmented rapid sand filters is shown.

  1. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used option to manage waste activated sludge (WAS), there are some drawbacks related to its slow reaction rate and low energy productivity. This study examined an anaerobic WAS digester, augmented with an iron-reducing microbial consortium, relative to changes in microbial community structure and process performance at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 to 10 days. The enhanced methanation performance (approximately 40 % increase in methane yield) by the bioaugmentation was sustained until the HRT was decreased to 12.5 days, under Fe(3+)-rich conditions (ferric oxyhydroxide, 20 mM Fe). Enhanced iron-reducing activity was evidenced by the increased Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio maintained above 50 % during the stable operational phases. A further decrease in HRT to 10 days resulted in a significant performance deterioration, along with a drop in the Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio to <35 %, after four turnovers of operation. Prevailing existence of putative iron-reducing bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to decrease in HRT were observed. Lowering HRT led to evident shifts in bacterial community structure likely associated with washout of IRBs, leading to decreases in iron respiration activity and AD performance at a lower HRT. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically over phases, and the community transitions correlated well with the changes in process performance. Overall, the combined biostimulation and bioaugmentation investigated in this study proved effective for enhanced methane recovery from anaerobic WAS digestion, which suggests an interesting potential for high-rate AD.

  2. Bacterial diversity and bioaugmentation in floodwater of a paddy field in the presence of the herbicide molinate.

    PubMed

    Barreiros, Luisa; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C

    2011-04-01

    This work aimed at studying variations on the diversity and composition of the bacterial community of a rice paddy field floodwater, subjected to conventional management, namely by using the herbicide molinate. The promotion of the herbicide biodegradation either by the autochthonous microbiota or by a bioaugmentation process was also assessed. This study comprehended four sampling campaigns at key dates of the farming procedures (seeding, immediately and 6 days after application of the herbicide molinate, and after synthetic fertilization) and the subsequent physic-chemical and microbiological characterization (pH, DOC and molinate contents, total cells, cultivable bacteria and DGGE profiling) of the samples. Multivariate analysis of the DGGE profiles showed temporal variations in the bacterial community structure and the Shannon's index values indicated that the bacterial diversity reached its minimum at the molinate application day. The highest bacterial diversity coincided with the periods with undetectable concentrations of the herbicide, although microcosm assays suggested that other factors than molinate may have been responsible for the decrease of the bacterial diversity. The ability of autochthonous microorganisms to degrade molinate and the influence of the herbicide on the bacterial community composition were assessed in microcosm assays using floodwater collected at the same dates. Given molinate was not degraded by autochthonous microorganisms, and considering it represents an environmental contaminant, bioaugmentation microcosms were assayed aiming the assessment of the feasibility of a bioremediation process to clean contaminated floodwater. A molinate-mineralizing culture, previously isolated, promoted molinate removal, induced alterations in the autochthonous bacterial community structure and diversity, and was undetected after 7 days of incubation, suggesting the feasibility of the process.

  3. Kinetics modeling predicts bioaugmentation with Sphingomonad cultures as a viable technology for enhanced pharmaceutical and personal care products removal during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nicolette A; Lutovsky, April C; Andaker, Greta L; Ferguson, John F; Gough, Heidi L

    2014-08-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) discharged with wastewater treatment effluents are a surface water quality concern. PPCPs are partially removed during wastewater treatment and biological transformation is an important removal mechanism. To investigate the potential for enhanced PPCP removal using bioaugmentation, bacteria were previously isolated from activated sludge capable of degrading PPCPs to ng/L concentrations. This study examined the degradation kinetics of triclosan and bisphenol A by five of these bacteria, both in pure culture and when augmented to activated sludge. Sorption coefficients were determined to account for the influence of partitioning during bioremoval. When the bacteria were added to activated sludge, degradation increased. Experimentally determined kinetic parameters were used to model a full-scale continuous treatment process, showing that low biomass could achieve reduced effluent PPCP concentrations. These results demonstrated that bioaugmentation may improve PPCP removal using established wastewater infrastructure under conditions of high solids partitioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioaugmentation of nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation by heterotrophic denitrifying sludge addition: A promising way for promotion of chemoautotrophic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, He-Ping; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Xin; Li, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation (NAFO) is a new and valuable bio-process for the treatment of wastewaters with low C/N ratio, and the NAFO process is in state of the art. The heterotrophic denitrifying sludge (HDS), possessing NAFO activity, was used as bioaugmentation to enhance NAFO efficiency. At a dosage of 6% (V/V), the removal of nitrate and ferrous was 2.4 times and 2.3 times of as primary, and the volumetric removal rate (VRR) of nitrate and ferrous was 2.4 times and 2.2 times of as primary. Tracing experiments of HDS indicated that the bioaugmentation on NAFO reactor was resulted from the NAFO activity by HDS itself. The predominant bacteria in HDS were identified as Thauera (52.5%) and Hyphomicrobium (20.0%) which were typical denitrifying bacteria and had potential ability to oxidize ferrous. In conclusion, HDS could serve as bioaugmentation or a new seeding sludge for operating high-efficiency NAFO reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioaugmentation of half-matured granular sludge with special microbial culture promoted establishment of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degrading aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiangchun; Ma, Jingyun; Xiong, Weicong; Wang, Xinrui

    2015-06-01

    Aerobic granular sludge degrading recalcitrant compounds are generally hard to be cultivated. This study investigated the feasibility of cultivating 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrading aerobic granules using half-matured sludge granules pre-grown on glucose as the seeds and bioaugmentation with a 2,4-D degrading strain Achromobacter sp. QXH. Results showed that bioaugmentation promoted the steady transformation of glucose-grown granules to 2,4-D degrading sludge granules and fast establishment of 2,4-D degradation ability. The 2,4-D degradation rate of the bioaugmented granules was enhanced by 36-62 % compared to the control at 2,4-D concentrations of 144-565 mg/L on Day 18. The inoculated strain was incorporated into the half-matured granules successfully and survived till the end of operation (220 days). Sludge granules at a mean size of 420 µm and capable of utilizing 500 mg/L 2,4-D as the sole carbon source were finally obtained. Sludge microbial community shifted slightly during the whole operation and the dominant bacteria species belonged to Proteobacteria.

  6. Isolation of a naphthalene-degrading strain from activated sludge and bioaugmentation with it in a MBR treating coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin

    2015-03-01

    A highly effective naphthalene-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from acclimated activated sludge from a coal gasification wastewater plant, and identified as a Streptomyces sp., designated as strain QWE-35. The optimal pH and temperature for naphthalene degradation were 7.0 and 35°C. The presence of additional glucose and methanol significantly increased the degradation efficiency of naphthalene. The strain showed tolerance to the toxicity of naphthalene at a concentration as great as 200 mg/L. The Andrews mode could be fitted to the degradation kinetics data well over a wide range of initial naphthalene concentrations (10-200 mg/L), with kinetic values q max = 0.84 h(-1), K s = 40.39 mg/L, and K i = 193.76 mg/L. Metabolic intermediates were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, allowing a new degradation pathway for naphthalene to be proposed for the first time. Strain QWE-35 was added into a membrane bioreactor (MBR) to enhance the treatment of real coal gasification wastewater. The results showed that the removal of chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen were similar between bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented MBRs, however, significant removal of naphthalene was obtained in the bioaugmented reactor. The findings suggest a potential bioremediation role of Streptomyces sp. QWE-35 in the removal of naphthalene from wastewaters.

  7. [Water-filtered infrared-A-hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy in advanced and recurrent tumors. Initial results of a multicenter phase I-II study].

    PubMed

    Seegenschmiedt, M H; Klautke, G; Walther, E; Feldmann, H J; Katalinic, A; Stuschke, M; von Lieven, H; Vaupel, P

    1996-09-01

    Water-filtered infrared-A-radiation (IR/A-HT) can be used to heat superficial malignant tumors. A prospective multicenter phase I-II study was conducted to evaluate toxicity and efficacy of IR/A-HT combined with external beam radiotherapy (RT). From December 1991 to June 1994, a total of 53 patients with 58 malignant lesions were entered in the study. There were 14 primary, 36 recurrent and 8 metastatic tumors which were located in the head and neck region (14), chest wall (31), abdominal wall (2) and the extremities (11). The mean tumor volume was 100 cm3. IR/A-HT was applied 1 to 2 times per week with up to 3 IR/A-HT-radiators directly before or after external RT for 1 hour at 40.5 to 44 degrees C. Temperatures were controlled at various locations at the skin surface and invasively at depth. IR/A-HT was well tolerated: in 31 (53%) lesions acute (pain, pulse or blood pressure changes, increased skin reaction etc.) and in 25 (43%) chronic side-effects (atrophy, telangiectasis, fibrosis etc.) were noted; usually the toxicity was minor and temporary. At 3 months FU, 32 (55%) lesions achieved a local CR and 19 (35%) a PR; at 12 months FU, 25 (43%) had persistent CR; 16 patients (18 lesions) were deceased and 3 (4 lesions) not yet in FU. In univariate analysis the following prognostic factors for CR at 3 or 12 months FU were found: Karnofsky, metastatic status, tumor size, total RT-dose, thermal parameters T min(av) and T mean. For acute toxicity maximum temperature Tmax(av) was prognostically decisive. Significant differences were also found when considering the "quality of the HT-application". The microwave technique was superior to the infrared-A-HT-technique with regard to the penetration depth of energy deposition. Water-filtered infrared-A-radiation can be safely and effectively applied to heat localized superficial tumors (up to 1 cm depth). To increase the area of HT application multiple infrared-A-radiators have to be combined. A multi-element-system is in

  8. Assessment of biostimulation and bioaugmentation for removing chlorinated volatile organic compounds from groundwater at a former manufacture plant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Du, Xiao-Ming; Li, Dong-Ming; Lu, Xiao-Xia

    2016-11-01

    Site in a former chemical manufacture plant in China was found contaminated with high level of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). The major contaminants chloroform (CF), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) and vinyl chloride (VC) in groundwater were up to 4.49 × 10(4), 2.76 × 10(6) and 4.35 × 10(4) μg/L, respectively. Ethene and methane were at concentrations up to 2219.80 and 165.85 μg/L, respectively. To test the hypothesis that the CVOCs in groundwater at this site could be removed via biodegradation, biomarker analyses and microcosm studies were conducted. Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA gene and VC-reductase gene vcrA at densities up to 1.5 × 10(4) and 3.2 × 10(4) copies/L were detected in some of the groundwater samples, providing strong evidence that dechlorinating bacteria were present in the aquifer. Results from the microcosm studies showed that at moderate concentrations (CF about 4000 μg/L and 1,2-DCA about 100 μg/L), CF was recalcitrant under natural condition but was degraded under biostimulation and bioaugmentation, while 1,2-DCA was degraded under all the three conditions. At high concentration (CF about 1,000,000 μg/L and 1,2-DCA about 20,000 μg/L), CF was recalcitrant under all the three treatments and 1,2-DCA was only degraded under bioaugmentation, indicating that high concentrations of contaminants were inhibitory to the bacteria. Electron donors had influence on the degradation of contaminants. Of the four fatty acids (pyruvate, acetate, propionate and lactate) examined, all could stimulate the degradation of 1,2-DCA at both moderate and high concentrations, whereas only pyruvate and acetate could stimulate the degradation of CF at moderate concentration. In the microcosms, the observed first-order degradation rates of CF and 1,2-DCA were up to 0.12 and 0.11/day, respectively. Results from the present study provided scientific basis for remediating CVOCs contaminated groundwater at the site.

  9. Household-based ceramic water filters for the prevention of diarrhea: a randomized, controlled trial of a pilot program in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas; Garcia Parra, Gloria; Boisson, Sophie; Collin, Simon

    2005-10-01

    Household water treatment is increasingly recognized as an effective means of reducing the burden of diarrheal disease among low-income populations without access to safe water. Oxfam GB undertook a pilot project to explore the use of household-based ceramic water filters in three remote communities in Colombia. In a randomized, controlled trial over a period of six months, the filters were associated with a 75.3% reduction in arithmetic mean thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) (P < 0.0001). A total of 47.7% and 24.2% of the samples from the intervention group had no detectible TTCs/100 mL or conformed to World Health Organization limits for low risk (1-10 TTCs/100 mL), respectively, compared with 0.9% and 7.3% for control group samples. Overall, prevalence of diarrhea was 60% less among households using filters than among control households (odds ratio = 0.40, 95% confidence interval = 0.25, 0.63, P < 0.0001). However, the microbiologic performance and protective effect of the filters was not uniform throughout the study communities, suggesting the need to consider the circumstances of the particular setting before implementing this intervention.

  10. Effects of water-filtered infrared-A and of heat on cell death, inflammation, antioxidative potential and of free radical formation in viable skin--first results.

    PubMed

    Piazena, Helmut; Pittermann, Wolfgang; Müller, Werner; Jung, Katinka; Kelleher, Debra K; Herrling, Thomas; Meffert, Peter; Uebelhack, Ralf; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2014-09-05

    The effects of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) and of convective heat on viability, inflammation, inducible free radicals and antioxidative power were investigated in natural and viable skin using the ex vivo Bovine Udder System (BUS) model. Therefore, skin samples from differently treated parts of the udder of a healthy cow were analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) measurement and by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Neither cell viability, the inflammation status, the radical status or the antioxidative defence systems of the skin were significantly affected by wIRA applied within 30 min by using an irradiance of 1900 W m(-2) which is of relevance for clinical use, but which exceeded the maximum solar IR-A irradiance at the Earth's surface more than 5 times and which resulted in a skin surface temperature of about 45 °C without cooling and of about 37 °C with convective cooling by air ventilation. No significant effects on viability and on inflammation were detected when convective heat was applied alone under equivalent conditions in terms of the resulting skin surface temperatures and exposure time. As compared with untreated skin, free radical formation was almost doubled, whereas the antioxidative power was reduced to about 50% after convective heating to about 45 °C.

  11. Water-filtered infrared A reduces chlamydial infectivity in vitro without causing ex vivo eye damage in pig and mouse models.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Carolin; Marti, Hanna; Frohns, Antonia; Frohns, Florian; Blenn, Christian; Leonard, Cory Ann; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin; Stein, Elisabeth; Borel, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    Repeated ocular infections with Chlamydia trachomatis trigger the development of trachoma, the most common cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) has shown positive effects on cultured cells and human skin. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of wIRA as a possible non-chemical treatment for trachoma patients. We both modeled ocular chlamydial infections using C. trachomatis B to infect human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCjE) and studied the effects of wIRA on non-infected ocular structures with two ex vivo eye models. We focused on the temperature development during wIRA irradiation in cell culture and perfused pig eyes to exclude potentially harmful side effects. Furthermore, cell viability of HCjE and cytotoxicity in mouse retina explants was analyzed. We demonstrated a significant wIRA-dependent reduction of chlamydial infectivity in HCjE cells. Moreover, we observed that wIRA treatment of HCjE prior to infection was sufficient to inhibit chlamydial infectivity and that visible light enhances the effect of wIRA. Irradiation did not reduce cell viability and there was no indication of retinal damage post treatment. Additionally, temperatures during wIRA exposure did not markedly exceed physiological eye temperatures, suggesting that hyperthermia-related lesions are unlikely. For clinical applications, further exploration of wIRA as a non-chemical treatment device in an experimental animal model is essential.

  12. Effects of Temperature and Water-Filtered Infrared-A Alone or in Combination on Healthy and Glyoxal-Stressed Fibroblast Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Knels, Lilla; Valtink, Monika; De la Vega Marin, Jamlec; Steiner, Gerald; Roehlecke, Cora; Krueger, Alexander; Funk, Richard H. W.

    2012-01-01

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) radiation has been described as supportive for tissue regeneration. We sought to investigate in detail the wIRA effect at different temperatures in 3T3 fibroblasts that were treated with glyoxal to induce formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Nonirradiated and nonglyoxal-treated cells served as controls. Experiments were carried out over a range of 37°–45°C with exact temperature monitoring to distinguish between temperature and wIRA effects. Metabolic activity was assessed by resazurin assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed by JC-1 vital staining. Apoptotic changes were determined by vital staining with annexin V and YO-PRO-1 and determination of subG1 DNA content. Temperature had a dominant effect overriding effects exerted by wIRA or glyoxal treatment. The number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher at 45°C, while the percentage of healthy cells was significantly lower at 45°C. WIRA irradiation itself or in combination with glyoxal treatment exerted no damaging effects on the fibroblasts at physiological (37°–40°C) or higher (42°–45°C) temperatures compared to untreated controls. Temperatures of 45°C, which can occur during inappropriate application of infrared irradiation, damage cells even in the absence of wIRA or glyoxal application. PMID:23125892

  13. Assessing the Impact of Water Filters and Improved Cook Stoves on Drinking Water Quality and Household Air Pollution: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Barstow, Christina; Johnson, Michael; Kirby, Miles; Ngabo, Fidele; Thomas, Evan; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001) and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search PMID:24614750

  14. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Barstow, Christina; Johnson, Michael; Kirby, Miles; Ngabo, Fidele; Thomas, Evan; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001) and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  15. Water filter provision and home-based filter reinforcement reduce diarrhea in Kenyan HIV-infected adults and their household members.

    PubMed

    Pavlinac, Patricia B; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; Chaba, Linda; Kimani, Naomi; Sangaré, Laura R; Yuhas, Krista; Singa, Benson O; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L

    2014-08-01

    Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults and children in Africa, diarrheal disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the effectiveness of provision and home-based reinforcement of a point-of-use water filtration device to reduce diarrhea among 361 HIV-infected adults in western Kenya by comparing prevalence of self-reported diarrhea before and after these interventions. After provision of the filter, 8.7% of participants reported diarrhea compared with 17.2% in the 3 months before filter provision (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.23-0.66, P < 0.001). The association was similar among 231 participants who were already taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before being given a filter (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.25-0.88, P = 0.019). Educational reinforcement was also associated with a modest reduction in self-reported diarrhea (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.20-0.99, P = 0.047). Provision and reinforcement of water filters may confer significant benefit in reducing diarrhea among HIV-infected persons, even when cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is already being used. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. The acceptability and effectiveness of a polyester drinking-water filter in a dracunculiasis-endemic village in northern region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Olsen, A; Magnussen, P; Anemana, S

    1997-01-01

    In the global effort to eradicate dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) one of the main tools is the use of filters for filtering unsafe drinking-water. The expensive and high-quality monofilament nylon filters, which for many years were donated to all dracunculiasis-endemic countries, are now mainly reserved for highly endemic countries. Polyester cloth is less expensive, and we investigated the user acceptability and effectiveness of this material as a drinking-water filter in a dracunculiasis-endemic village in Northern Region, Ghana, over a 3-month period. The polyester cloth completely retained the stages of copepods that are responsible for transmitting dracunculiasis. Over the 3-month study period a majority of respondents found that the new cloth was superior to the nylon filter with regard to strength (83%), filtering time (80%), and the ease with which the filter could be cleaned (87%). Inspection revealed that the filters were used intensively and that the new cloth was damaged after 2-3 months of use, which is also the case for the monofilament nylon filters.

  17. Water Filter Provision and Home-Based Filter Reinforcement Reduce Diarrhea in Kenyan HIV-Infected Adults and Their Household Members

    PubMed Central

    Pavlinac, Patricia B.; Naulikha, Jaqueline M.; Chaba, Linda; Kimani, Naomi; Sangaré, Laura R.; Yuhas, Krista; Singa, Benson O.; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L.

    2014-01-01

    Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected adults and children in Africa, diarrheal disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the effectiveness of provision and home-based reinforcement of a point-of-use water filtration device to reduce diarrhea among 361 HIV-infected adults in western Kenya by comparing prevalence of self-reported diarrhea before and after these interventions. After provision of the filter, 8.7% of participants reported diarrhea compared with 17.2% in the 3 months before filter provision (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.23–0.66, P < 0.001). The association was similar among 231 participants who were already taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before being given a filter (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.25–0.88, P = 0.019). Educational reinforcement was also associated with a modest reduction in self-reported diarrhea (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.20–0.99, P = 0.047). Provision and reinforcement of water filters may confer significant benefit in reducing diarrhea among HIV-infected persons, even when cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is already being used. PMID:24842881

  18. Effects of temperature and water-filtered infrared-A alone or in combination on healthy and glyoxal-stressed fibroblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Knels, Lilla; Valtink, Monika; De la Vega Marin, Jamlec; Steiner, Gerald; Roehlecke, Cora; Krueger, Alexander; Funk, Richard H W

    2012-01-01

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) radiation has been described as supportive for tissue regeneration. We sought to investigate in detail the wIRA effect at different temperatures in 3T3 fibroblasts that were treated with glyoxal to induce formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Nonirradiated and nonglyoxal-treated cells served as controls. Experiments were carried out over a range of 37°-45°C with exact temperature monitoring to distinguish between temperature and wIRA effects. Metabolic activity was assessed by resazurin assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed by JC-1 vital staining. Apoptotic changes were determined by vital staining with annexin V and YO-PRO-1 and determination of subG1 DNA content. Temperature had a dominant effect overriding effects exerted by wIRA or glyoxal treatment. The number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher at 45°C, while the percentage of healthy cells was significantly lower at 45°C. WIRA irradiation itself or in combination with glyoxal treatment exerted no damaging effects on the fibroblasts at physiological (37°-40°C) or higher (42°-45°C) temperatures compared to untreated controls. Temperatures of 45°C, which can occur during inappropriate application of infrared irradiation, damage cells even in the absence of wIRA or glyoxal application.

  19. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    D-Ai42 488 ARTIFICIAL INEELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (U) MASSACHUSETTS i/1 INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB M BRADY FEB 84 AI-M-756...Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Identify by block niiniber) -. Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a

  20. Artificial life and Piaget.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  1. Artificial Behavior: An Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Gene D.; Peden, Blaine F.

    1985-01-01

    Contrasts artificial behavior with artificial intelligence, traces Law of Effect's development from a verbal statement into a mathematical model providing algorithms for artificial behavior programs, and describes an attempt to use computer graphics and animation to simulate behavior and teach abstract concepts. (MBR)

  2. Bioaugmentation of the anaerobic digestion of food waste by dungs of herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Ozcan, Onur; Bair, Robert; Esposito, Giovanni; Ball, Ray; Lens, Piet N L; Yeh, Daniel H

    2017-03-27

    The potential improvement of biomethanation of food waste (FW) by adding dung of herbivore (giraffe, llama, koala), carnivore (tiger), and omnivore (sloth bear) animals to anaerobic sludge (AnS) was investigated. Adding 30% giraffe, sloth bear or koala dung to the AnS inoculum yielded, respectively, a 11.17 (±4.51), 10.10 (±1.23), and 1.41 (±0.56)% higher biomethane production, as compared to the control (FW with solely AnS). The highest biomethane production of 564.00 (±3.88) ml CH4/gVSadded obtained with 30% giraffe dung and 70% AnS was attributed to a higher solubilization of proteins (6.96 ± 2.76%) and recalcitrant carbohydrates (344.85 ± 54.31 mg/L as compared to zero). The biomethanation process could have been stimulated by the microorganisms or enzymes newly introduced, and/or the trace elements (Ni, Zn, and Co) present in the giraffe dung. These results indicate that bioaugmentation with zoo animals dung is worthy of further investigation as a strategy for improving the biomethane recovery from organic wastes.

  3. Bioaugmentation of Activated Sludge by an Indigenous 3-Chloroaniline-Degrading Comamonas testosteroni Strain, I2gfp

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Nico; Goris, Johan; De Vos, Paul; Verstraete, Willy; Top, Eva M.

    2000-01-01

    A strain identified as Comamonas testosteroni I2 was isolated from activated sludge and found to be able to mineralize 3-chloroaniline (3-CA). During the mineralization, a yellow intermediate accumulated temporarily, due to the distal meta-cleavage of chlorocatechol. This strain was tested for its ability to clean wastewater containing 3-CA upon inoculation into activated sludge. To monitor its survival, the strain was chromosomally marked with the gfp gene and designated I2gfp. After inoculation into a lab-scale semicontinuous activated-sludge (SCAS) system, the inoculated strain maintained itself in the sludge for at least 45 days and was present in the sludge flocs. After an initial adaptation period of 6 days, complete degradation of 3-CA was obtained during 2 weeks, while no degradation at all occurred in the noninoculated control reactor. Upon further operation of the SCAS system, only 50% 3-CA removal was observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dynamic change in the microbial community structure of the activated sludge. The DGGE patterns of the noninoculated and the inoculated reactors evolved after 7 days to different clusters, which suggests an effect of strain inoculation on the microbial community structure. The results indicate that bioaugmentation, even with a strain originating from that ecosystem and able to effectively grow on a selective substrate, is not permanent and will probably require regular resupplementation. PMID:10877785

  4. Enhanced cadmium phytoremediation of Glycine max L. through bioaugmentation of cadmium-resistant bacteria assisted by biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Rojjanateeranaj, Pongsarun; Sangthong, Chirawee; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the potential of three strains of cadmium-resistant bacteria, including Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp., to promote root elongation of Glycine max L. seedlings, soil cadmium solubility and cadmium phytoremediation in G. max L. planted in soil highly polluted with cadmium with and without nutrient biostimulation. Micrococcus sp. promoted root length in G. max L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions. Soil inoculation with Arthrobacter sp. increased the bioavailable fraction of soil cadmium, particularly in soil amended with a C:N ratio of 20:1. Pot culture experiments observed that the highest plant growth was in Micrococcus sp.-inoculated plants with nutrient biostimulation. Cadmium accumulation in the roots, stems and leaves of G. max L. was significantly enhanced by Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation. A combined use of G. max L. and Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation accelerated cadmium phytoremediation. In addition, cadmium was retained in roots more than in stems and leaves and G. max L. had the lowest translocation factor at all growth stages, suggesting that G. max L. is a phytostabilizing plant. We concluded that biostimulation-assisted bioaugmentation is an important strategy for improving cadmium phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring the impact of bioaugmentation with a PAH-degrading strain on different soil microbiomes using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Festa, Sabrina; Macchi, Marianela; Cortés, Federico; Morelli, Irma S; Coppotelli, Bibiana M

    2016-08-01

    The effect of bioaugmentation with Sphingobium sp. AM strain on different soils microbiomes, pristine soil (PS), chronically contaminated soil (IPK) and recently contaminated soil (Phe) and their implications in bioremediation efficiency was studied by focusing on the ecology that drives bacterial communities in response to inoculation. AM strain draft genome codifies genes for metabolism of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. In Phe, the inoculation improved the elimination of phenanthrene during the whole treatment, whereas in IPK no improvement of degradation of any PAH was observed. Through the pyrosequencing analysis, we observed that inoculation managed to increase the richness and diversity in both contaminated microbiomes, therefore, independently of PAH degradation improvement, we observed clues of inoculant establishment, suggesting it may use other resources to survive. On the other hand, the inoculation did not influence the bacterial community of PS. On both contaminated microbiomes, incubation conditions produced a sharp increase on Actinomycetales and Sphingomonadales orders, while inoculation caused a relative decline of Actinomycetales. Inoculation of most diverse microbiomes, PS and Phe, produced a coupled increase of Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales and Rhizobiales orders, although it may exist a synergy between those genera; our results suggest that this would not be directly related to PAH degradation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Relative effect of bioaugmentation with electrochemically active and non-active bacteria on bioelectrogenesis in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Raghavulu, S Veer; Modestra, J Annie; Amulya, K; Reddy, C Nagendranatha; Venkata Mohan, S

    2013-10-01

    Bioelectrogenic activity of microbial fuel cells (MFC) augmented with electrochemically active bacteria (EAB, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and non-EAB (Escherichia coli) as biocatalysts was investigated. Anodic microflora augmented with P. aeruginosa (AMFCP) yielded higher electrogenic activity (418 mV; 3.87 mA) than E. coli (AMFCE; 254 mV; 1.67 mA) and non-augmented native microflora (MFCC; 235 mV; 1.37 mA). Higher redox currents along with lower Tafel-slopes were observed with AMFCP operation compared to AMFCE and MFCC due to manifestation of bioaugmentation thereby minimizing the losses. A fourfold and twofold increase in capacitance and exchange current was observed with AMFCP and AMFCE operation respectively, when compared to MFCC. Tracking of augmented biocatalyst by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with defined probes documented the survivability of Pseudomonas sp. in higher numbers than Enterobacteriaceae. Study corroborated enhanced electron transfer capability of mixed consortia owing to the synergistic interaction with EAB due to augmentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioaugmentation of sewage sludge with Trametes versicolor in solid-phase biopiles produces degradation of pharmaceuticals and affects microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Jelić, Aleksandra; Pereira, M Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z; Petrović, Mira; Alves, M Madalena; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2012-11-06

    The use of sludge (biosolids) in land application may contribute to the spread of organic micropollutants as wastewater treatments do not completely remove these compounds. Therefore, the development of alternative strategies for sludge treatment is a matter of recent concern. The elimination of pharmaceuticals at pre-existent concentrations from sewage sludge was assessed, for the first time, in nonsterile biopiles by means of fungal bioaugmentation with Trametes versicolor (BTV-systems) and compared with the effect of autochthonous microbiota (NB-systems). The competition between the autochthonous fungal/bacterial communities and T. versicolor was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the cloning/sequencing approach. An inhibitory effect exerted by T. versicolor over bacterial populations was suggested. However, after 21 days, T. versicolor was no longer the main taxon in the fungal communities. The elimination profiles revealed an enhanced removal of atorvastatin-diclofenac-hydrochlorothiazide (during the whole treatment) and ranitidine-fenofibrate (at short periods) in the BTV biopiles in respect to NB biopiles, coincident with the presence of the fungus. For ibuprofen-clarithromycin-furosemide, the elimination profiles were similar irrespective of the system, and with carbamazepine no significant degradation was obtained. The results suggest that a fungal treatment with T. versicolor could be a promising process for the remediation of some pharmaceuticals in complex matrices such as biosolids.

  8. Advances in artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kei

    2010-04-01

    Artificial lungs have already been developed as complete artificial organs, and results of many investigations based on innovative concepts have been reported continuously. In open-heart surgery, artificial lungs are used for extracorporeal circulation to maintain gas exchange, and the commercial products currently available perform adequately, including providing for antithrombogenicity. However, patients after cardiopulmonary arrest or severe respiratory/circulatory failure have required long-term assist with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The number of artificial lungs used for ECMO in those cases has shown significant growth in recent years. Therefore, it is expected that durability and antithrombogenicity will ensure the prolonged use of an artificial lung for several weeks or months. Furthermore, interests in research are shifting to use of oxygenators as a bridge to lung transplantation and an implantable artificial lung. This paper discusses recent advances in artificial lungs, focusing on the current state and on trends in research and development.

  9. Antimicrobial Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (VIS + wIRA) Alters In Situ Oral Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, A; Bucher, M; Anderson, A C; Tennert, C; Hellwig, E; Wittmer, A; Vach, K; Karygianni, L

    2015-01-01

    Recently, growing attention has been paid to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in dentistry. Changing the microbial composition of initial and mature oral biofilm by aPDT using visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A wavelengths (VIS + wIRA) has not yet been investigated. Moreover, most aPDT studies have been conducted on planktonic bacterial cultures. Therefore, in the present clinical study we cultivated initial and mature oral biofilms in six healthy volunteers for 2 hours or 3 days, respectively. The biofilms were treated with aPDT using VIS+wIRA (200 mW cm(-2)), toluidine blue (TB) and chlorine e6 (Ce6) for 5 minutes. Chlorhexidine treated biofilm samples served as positive controls, while untreated biofilms served as negative controls. After aPDT treatment the colony forming units (CFU) of the biofilm samples were quantified, and the surviving bacteria were isolated in pure cultures and identified using MALDI-TOF, biochemical tests and 16S rDNA-sequencing. aPDT killed more than 99.9% of the initial viable bacterial count and 95% of the mature oral biofilm in situ, independent of the photosensitizer. The number of surviving bacterial species was highly reduced to 6 (TB) and 4 (Ce6) in the treated initial oral biofilm compared to the 20 different species of the untreated biofilm. The proportions of surviving bacterial species were also changed after TB- and Ce6-mediated aPDT of the mature oral biofilm, resulting in a shift in the microbial composition of the treated biofilm compared to that of the control biofilm. In conclusion, aPDT using VIS + wIRA showed a remarkable potential to eradicate both initial and mature oral biofilms, and also to markedly alter the remaining biofilm. This encourages the clinical use of aPDT with VIS + wIRA for the treatment of periimplantitis and periodontitis.

  10. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    PubMed Central

    Möckel, Frank; Hoffmann, Gerd; Obermüller, Roy; Drobnik, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5), body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9) kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5) years, isocaloric nutrition), 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both groups each participant performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks for 45 minutes bicycle ergometer endurance exercise with a constant load according to a lactate level of 2 mmol/l (aerobic endurance load, as determined before the intervention period). In the wIRA group in addition large parts of the body (including waist, hip, and thighs) were irradiated during all ergometries of the intervention period with visible light and a predominant part of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA), using the irradiation unit “Hydrosun® 6000” with 10 wIRA radiators (Hydrosun® Medizintechnik, Müllheim, Germany, radiator type 500, 4 mm water cuvette, yellow filter, water-filtered spectrum 500-1400 nm) around a speed independent bicycle ergometer. Main variable of interest: change of “the sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” over the intervention period (4 weeks). Additional variables of interest: body weight, body mass index BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, water mass (analysis of body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis), assessment of an arteriosclerotic risk profile by blood investigation of variables of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B), clinical chemistry (fasting glucose, alanin-aminotransferase ALT (= glutamyl pyruvic transaminase GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transferase GGT, creatinine, albumin), endocrinology (leptin

  11. Use of Fixed-Film Bioreactors, in Situ Microcosms, and Molecular Biological Analyses to Evaluate Bioremediation of Chlorinated Benzenes By Indigenous Bacteria and a Bioaugmented Dechlorinating Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorah, M. M.; Teunis, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of bioremediation is complicated by contaminant mixtures, high concentrations, variable site conditions, and multiple possible degradation pathways. In this study, fixed-film bioreactor experiments, in situ microcosms, and microbial analyses were utilized to evaluate both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation processes for tri- and dichlorobenzene isomers, monochlorobenzene, and benzene in a wetland. Biofilm-based bioreactors provide a robust assessment tool because of their typically high degree of stability, even with major and repeated perturbations. Two bioreactor units seeded with an anaerobic dechlorinating consortium (WBC-2) and one unit seeded only with bacteria indigenous to the site were operated under flow-through conditions to compare biougmentation and natural attenuation. Electron donor levels were varied to fluctuate between anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and inflow concentrations of total chlorobenzenes were transitioned from 1-10 mg/L to 50-100 mg/L. Biodegradation resulted in removal efficiencies of 80 to 99 percent for the different compounds and inflow concentrations. Degradation efficiency in the native bioreactor was not impacted by cycling between anaerobic and aerobic conditions, although removal rates for monochlorobenzene and benzene increased under aerobic conditions. In situ microcosms were incubated below the wetland surface in sets of 3 treatments—unamended, biostimulated (lactate addition), and bioaugmented (WBC-2 and lactate). Additional treatment sets contained 13C-labeled contaminants to monitor for production of 13C-containing carbon dioxide and cellular material. Microcosm results verified that WBC-2 bioaugmentation can enhance biodegradation, with complete mineralization of chlorobenzene and benzene in bioaugmented and native treatments. Microbial analyses using QuantArrayTM for functional and taxonomic genes indicated potential for co-occurrence of anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Compared to the unamended

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  13. Bioremediation of diesel oil in a co-contaminated soil by bioaugmentation with a microbial formula tailored with native strains selected for heavy metals resistance.

    PubMed

    Alisi, Chiara; Musella, Rosario; Tasso, Flavia; Ubaldi, Carla; Manzo, Sonia; Cremisini, Carlo; Sprocati, Anna Rosa

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the work is to assess the feasibility of bioremediation of a soil, containing heavy metals and spiked with diesel oil (DO), through a bioaugmentation strategy based on the use of a microbial formula tailored with selected native strains. The soil originated from the metallurgic area of Bagnoli (Naples, Italy). The formula, named ENEA-LAM, combines ten bacterial strains selected for multiple resistance to heavy metals among the native microbial community. The biodegradation process of diesel oil was assessed in biometer flasks by monitoring the following parameters: DO composition by GC-MS, CO2 evolution rate, microbial load and composition of the community by T-RFLP, physiological profile in Biolog ECOplates and ecotoxicity of the system. The application of this microbial formula allowed to obtain, in the presence of heavy metals, the complete degradation of n-C(12-20), the total disappearance of phenantrene, a 60% reduction of isoprenoids and an overall reduction of about 75% of the total diesel hydrocarbons in 42 days. Concurrently with the increase of metabolic activity at community level and the microbial load, the gradual abatement of the ecotoxicity was observed. The T-RFLP analysis highlighted that most of the ENEA-LAM strains survived and some minor native strains, undetectable in the soil at the beginning of the experiment, developed. Such a bioaugmentation approach allows the newly established microbial community to strike a balance between the introduced and the naturally present microorganisms. The results indicate that the use of a tailored microbial formula may efficiently facilitate and speed up the bioremediation of matrices co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The study represents the first step for the scale up of the system and should be verified at a larger scale. In this view, this bioaugmentation strategy may contribute to overcome a critical bottleneck of the bioremediation technology.

  14. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  15. The artificial womb.

    PubMed

    Bulletti, Carlo; Palagiano, Antonio; Pace, Caterina; Cerni, Angelica; Borini, Andrea; de Ziegler, Dominique

    2011-03-01

    The availability of computer-controlled artificial hearts, kidneys, and lungs, as well as the possibility of implanting human embryos in ex vivo uterus models or an artificial endometrium, presents new perspectives for creating an artificial uterus. Survival rates have also improved, with fetuses surviving from as early as 24 weeks of gestation. These advances bring new opportunities for complete or partial ectogenesis through the creation of an artificial womb, one that could sustain the growth and development of fetuses outside of the human body.

  16. Does S-Metolachlor Affect the Performance of Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP as Bioaugmentation Bacterium for Atrazine-Contaminated Soils?

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Cristina A.; Costa, Catarina; André, Sandra; Viana, Paula; Ribeiro, Rui; Moreira-Santos, Matilde

    2012-01-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) and S-metolachlor (S-MET) are two herbicides widely used, often as mixtures. The present work examined whether the presence of S-MET affects the ATZ-biodegradation activity of the bioaugmentation bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP in a crop soil. S-MET concentrations were selected for their relevance in worst-case scenarios of soil contamination by a commercial formulation containing both herbicides. At concentrations representative of application of high doses of the formulation (up to 50 µg g−1 of soil, corresponding to a dose approximately 50× higher than the recommended field dose (RD)), the presence of pure S-MET significantly affected neither bacteria survival (∼107 initial viable cells g−1 of soil) nor its ATZ-mineralization activity. Consistently, biodegradation experiments, in larger soil microcosms spiked with 20× or 50×RD of the double formulation and inoculated with the bacterium, revealed ATZ to be rapidly (in up to 5 days) and extensively (>96%) removed from the soil. During the 5 days, concentration of S-MET decreased moderately to about 60% of the initial, both in inoculated and non-inoculated microcosms. Concomitantly, an accumulation of the two metabolites S-MET ethanesulfonic acid and S-MET oxanilic acid was found. Despite the dissipation of almost all the ATZ from the treated soils, the respective eluates were still highly toxic to an aquatic microalgae species, being as toxic as those from the untreated soil. We suggest that this high toxicity may be due to the S-MET and/or its metabolites remaining in the soil. PMID:22615921

  17. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  18. Evaluation of system performance and microbial communities of a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Ng, How Yong

    2015-09-15

    In this study, a control anaerobic membrane bioreactor (C-AnMBR) and a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor (B-AnMBR) were operated for 210 d to treat pharmaceutical wastewater. Both the bioreactors were fed with the pharmaceutical wastewater containing TCOD of 16,249 ± 714 mg/L and total dissolved solids (TDS) of 29,450 ± 2209 mg/L with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 13.0 ± 0.6 kgCOD/m(3)d. Under steady-state condition, an average total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency of 46.1 ± 2.9% and 60.3 ± 2.8% was achieved by the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The conventional anaerobes in the C-AnMBR cannot tolerate the hypersaline conditions well, resulting in lower TCOD removal efficiency, biogas production and methane yield than the B-AnMBR seeded from the coastal shore. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that marine bacterial species (Oliephilus sp.) and halophilic bacterial species (Thermohalobacter sp.) were only present in the B-AnMBR; these species could possibly degrade complex and recalcitrant organic matter and withstand hypersaline environments. Two different dominant archaeal communities, genus Methanosaeta (43.4%) and Methanolobus (61.7%), were identified as the dominant methanogens in the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The species of genus Methanolobus was reported resistant to penicillin and required sodium and magnesium for growth, which could enable it to thrive in the hypersaline environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = −0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = −0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  20. Microbial-enhanced lindane removal by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in doped soil-applications in phytoremediation and bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Salam, Jaseetha Abdul; Hatha, Mohammed A A; Das, Nilanjana

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of lindane-degrading yeast on the growth and lindane uptake by Saccharum sp., in doped garden soils. The rhizosphere of Saccharum plant was amended with yeast Candida VITJzN04 by root-inoculation. The bio-augment yeast was applied in two different forms viz., planktonic form and cells immobilized on sugarcane-bagasse, in the pot experiments. Garden soils (lindane∼100 mg/kg) exposed to various treatments were monitored for a period of 30 days, for residual lindane by gas-chromatography analysis. The lindane-removal rates in soil were expressed in terms of half-life period and were recorded as 13.3 days (yeast), 43.3 days (Saccharum), 9.8 days (free yeast-plant) and 7.1 days (immobilized yeast-plant). Additionally, Candida sp., was also identified as a plant growth promoting yeast due to its ability to produce growth hormone and solubilize insoluble phosphates in the soil for better uptake by the plant species. Bio-stimulation of the soil with yeast immobilized on sugarcane bagasse further enhanced the total yeast activity in the soil which in turn had a positive influence on lindane-removal. Combined treatment with bagasse immobilized yeast and plant showed the best lindane degradation. Results suggested that the synergistic activity of plant and yeast resulted in fast and efficient degradation of lindane. Thus, it can be concluded that Saccharum plant in combination with Candida VITJzN04 is an effective alternative for the conventional remediation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The efficiency of removal of lead and other elements from domestic drinking waters using a bench-top water filter system.

    PubMed

    Gulson, B L; Sheehan, A; Giblin, A M; Chiaradia, M; Conradt, B

    1997-04-01

    The efficiency of removal of lead (Pb) and other elements from natural drinking waters using a bench-top water filter system was evaluated in three recently-built houses in Sydney, Australia, and two from rural centres. In addition, one filter system was tested for copper (Cu), Pb and cadmium (Cd) under rigorously-controlled laboratory conditions using Sydney water. For two Sydney houses, the efficiency was evaluated using special filter cartridges concomitant with the ordinary filters. Waters after passing through the filter, was sampled when the filter had been exposed to '0', 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 l respectively and were analysed for lead isotopes and lead concentrations by high precision isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Samples that passed through the filter after '0', 50, 150 and 250 l collections were analysed for four anions and 39 cations by various methods. Sydney water was fairly uniform in its anion and cation composition, whereas water from the two rural areas contained higher concentrations of Ca, Mg and HCO3. Effects of the filter on the water compositions can be summarised into three groups: (1) elements removed during filtration--Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni. With 'age' of the filter, the efficiency of removal for Pb was maintained in the two houses with Pb concentrations greater than 10 micrograms/l in the first flush water and was maintained for Cu through all concentrations. Ca, Mg, Sr and Ba were largely removed in the first 50 1 of usage. (2) Elements added during filtration--K, Rb, Ag and P. Except for Ag, which was present throughout the testing period, these elements were added only in the first filtration. (3) Elements unaffected by filtration--Al, Si, Na, Fe, Cl and F. Efficiency of Pb removal from tap water by this system depends generally on the initial Pb content in the water. However, it also seems to depend, to some extent, on Pb speciation and water composition, as found in earlier studies of natural waters. The control

  2. Water-filtered infrared A for the treatment of chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs at home: a randomized controlled blinded study.

    PubMed

    Schumann, H; Calow, T; Weckesser, S; Müller, M L; Hoffmann, G

    2011-09-01

    Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) radiation can improve the healing of acute and chronic wounds both by thermal and thermic as well as by nonthermal and nonthermic effects. wIRA increases tissue temperature, oxygen partial pressure and perfusion. Investigation of the influence of wIRA on chronic venous stasis ulcers in an investigator-initiated, randomized, controlled, blinded study. Fifty-one patients with nonhealing chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs were treated with compression therapy, wound cleansing, nonadhesive wound dressings and 30 min irradiation [wIRA + visible light (VIS) or VIS alone], predominantly at home, five times per week over 9 weeks and an additional 4 weeks without irradiation. Compared with the control group with VIS alone, the group with wIRA + VIS showed better wound healing [after 9 weeks 85 vs. 67·5 on a 0-100 visual analogue scale (VAS), median difference 15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3-30, P = 0·012], a higher percentage of patients with a healing trend [after 9 weeks 21 of 25 (84%) vs. 13 of 26 (50%), P = 0·023], better granulation (after 9 weeks 90 vs. 80 on a 0-100 VAS, median difference 10, 95% CI 0-30, P = 0·036), a trend to less exudation (after 5 weeks 30 vs. 55 on a 0-100 VAS, P = 0·075) and to faster reduction of the wound area (after 7 weeks 39% vs. 19·5% reduction of wound area, median difference 20·5%, 95% CI -4-49%, P = 0·10; for wounds with an initial area < 10 cm(2): after 13 weeks 92% vs. 47% reduction of wound area, median difference 30%, 95% CI 0-68%, P = 0·11). The main variable 'Integral of relative ulcer area for each individual patient over time, standardized to an initial size of 1' did not reach significance. The application of wIRA at home was easily manageable. For the treatment of chronic venous stasis ulcers, the application of wIRA combined with phlebological therapy, compression therapy and wound dressing can be useful and can be recommended. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British

  3. Core Flood study for enhanced oil recovery through ex-situ bioaugmentation with thermo- and halo-tolerant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J; Upasani, Vivek N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) employing core field model ex-situ bioaugmenting a thermo- and halo-tolerant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) revealed that the biosurfactant produced was rhamnolipid type. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis showed that the purified rhamnolipids comprised two principal rhamnolipid homologues, i.e., Rha-Rha-C10-C14:1 and Rha-C8-C10. The rhamnolipid was stable under wide range of temperature (4°C, 30-100°C), pH (2.0-10.0) and NaCl concentration (0-18%, w/v). Core Flood model was designed for oil recovery operations using rhamnolipid. The oil recovery enhancement over Residual Oil Saturation was 8.82% through ex-situ bioaugmentation with rhamnolipid. The thermal stability of rhamnolipid shows promising scope for its application at conditions where high temperatures prevail in oil recovery processes, whereas its halo-tolerant nature increases its application in marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in

  5. Reduction of oxidative stress by bioaugmented strain Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 and selection of potential biomarkers in sequencing batch reactor treating tobacco wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shao, Tiejuan; Yang, Guiqin; Wang, Meizhen; Lu, Zhenmei; Min, Hang; Zhao, Long

    2010-08-01

    Oxidative stress induced by toxic pollutants is generally responsible for the poor performance of many sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating organic wastewater. In this study, the oxidative stress in two SBR systems that dealt with tobacco wastewater was monitored by measuring four popular biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione, GSH; and malondialdehyde, MDA). In the non-BA (non-bio-augmented) system, more intense oxidative stress was induced by a higher concentration of nicotine in tobacco wastewater, and excessive oxidative stress was induced by 250 mg/l of nicotine at the final stage. However, when a nicotine-degrading bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 was added to the BA (bio-augmented) system, the oxidative stress was significantly reduced compared to the non-BA system (p < 0.01).These results suggested that the oxidative stress was mainly induced by nicotine in the SBR treatment of tobacco wastewater, and that bioaugmentation with strain HF-1 would be a potential strategy to reduce the oxidative stress and thereby improve the performance in SBRs. Additionally, the positive correlation between the nicotine content and CAT, GSH and MDA activity in both systems implied that these parameters can be used as biomarkers for reflecting the performance of SBR treatment of tobacco wastewater, and in monitoring nicotine environmental pollution.

  6. Reduction of start-up time through bioaugmentation process in microbial fuel cells using an isolate from dark fermentative spent media fed anode.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Soumya; Khilari, Santimoy; Roy, Shantonu; Ghangrekar, M M; Pradhan, Debabrata; Das, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemically active bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa IIT BT SS1 was isolated from a dark fermentative spent media fed anode, and a bioaugmentation technique using the isolated strain was used to improve the start-up time of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Higher volumetric current density and lower start-up time were observed with the augmented system MFC-PM (13.7 A/m(3)) when compared with mixed culture MFC-M (8.72 A/m(3)) during the initial phase. This enhanced performance in MFC-PM was possibly due to the improvement in electron transfer ability by the augmented strain. However, pure culture MFC-P showed maximum volumetric current density (17 A/m(3)) due to the inherent electrogenic properties of Pseudomonas sp. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) study, along with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis, supported the influence of isolated species in improving the MFC performance. The present study indicates that the bioaugmentation strategy using the isolated Pseudomonas sp. can be effectively utilized to decrease the start-up time of MFC.

  7. Artificial insemination in poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  8. Artificial intelligence: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

  9. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  10. [Implantable artificial heart].

    PubMed

    Nojiri, Chisato

    2005-11-01

    Heart transplants have been decreasing globally due to the lack of available donor hearts. As a result, the increased use of artificial hearts is anticipated as an alternative therapy. Although biocompatibility issues, such as thrombus formation/thromboembolism and infection, are still the main cause of mortality associated with artificial hearts, more than 20 different types are now clinically available after a half-century of development and experimental trials. These devices range from extracorporeal pneumatic to implantable battery-powered artificial hearts. The early development of artificial hearts logically focused on volumetric pump designs incorporating functions similar to the natural heart. Today, development has shifted toward designs that are significantly different from the natural heart. These pumps utilize axial or centrifugal flow allowing for a much simpler design, which is smaller in size and has very few moving parts. With rapid advances in technology, this new generation of artificial heart pumps is beginning to emerge as an alternative to heart transplants.

  11. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  12. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, A N; Kambhampati, C; Monson, J R T; Drew, P J

    2004-09-01

    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting.

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-20

    8217’AD-A122 414 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (.) ARMY SCIENCE 1/j 13OARD WA SH INGTON Od I C PEDEN ET AL. 20 SEP 82 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 15/3 NL LEE...AND ACQUISITION WASHINGTON, D. C. 20310 A RMY CIENCE BOARD AD HOC SUBGROUP REPORT ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS SEPTEMBER 1982 DTIC DEC 1 5...TITLE (aid Subtitle) S TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Army Science Board AHSG Report Final Artificial Intelligence and Robotics S. PERFORMING ORG

  14. Artificial intelligence and statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores the possible applications of artificial intelligence in statistics and conversely, statistics in artificial intelligence. It is a collection of seventeen papers written by leaders in the field. Most of the papers were prepared for the Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics held in April 1985 and sponsored by ATandT Bell Laboratories. The book is divided into six parts: uncertainly propagation, clustering and learning, expert systems, environments for supporting statistical strategy, knowledge acquisition, and strategy. The editor ties the collection together in the first chapter by providing an overview of AI and statistics, discussing the Workshop, and exploring future research in the field.

  15. [Total artificial heart].

    PubMed

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  16. Objective assessment of skin tightening in Asians using a water-filtered near-infrared (1,000–1,800 nm) device with contact-cooling and freezer-stored gel

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yohei; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Kawashima, Makoto; Tatewaki, Naoto; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Near-infrared has been shown to penetrate deeper than optical light sources independent of skin color, allowing safer treatment for the Asian skin type. Many studies have indicated the efficacy of various types of devices, but have not included a sufficiently objective evaluation. In this study, we used three-dimensional imaging for objective evaluation of facial skin tightening using a water-filtered near-infrared device. Methods Twenty Japanese patients were treated with the water-filtered near-infrared (1,000–1,800 nm) device using a contact-cooling and nonfreezing gel stored in a freezer. Three-dimensional imaging was performed, and quantitative volume measurements were taken to evaluate the change in post-treatment volume. The patients then provided their subjective assessments. Results Objective assessments of the treated cheek volume evaluated by a three-dimensional color schematic representation with quantitative volume measurements showed significant improvement 3 months after treatment. The mean volume reduction at the last post-treatment visit was 2.554 ± 0.999 mL. The post-treatment volume was significantly reduced compared with the pretreatment volume in all patients (P < 0.0001). Eighty-five percent of patients reported satisfaction with the improvement of skin laxity, and 80% of patients reported satisfaction with improvement of rhytids, such as the nasolabial folds. Side effects, such as epidermal burns and scar formation, were not observed throughout the study. Conclusion The advantages of this water-filtered near-infrared treatment are its high efficacy for skin tightening, associated with a minimal level of discomfort and minimal side effects. Together, these characteristics facilitate our ability to administer repeated treatments and provide alternative or adjunctive treatment for patients, with improved results. This study provides a qualitative and quantitative volumetric assessment, establishing the ability of this technology to

  17. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  18. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  19. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

  20. Artificial upwelling and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The authors present results related to artificial upwelling and coastal mariculture using deep ocean water and mixing in coastal waters. They discuss the application of research results for marine waste disposal.

  1. Inflatable artificial sphincter - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100115.htm Inflatable artificial sphincter - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  2. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  3. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  4. An Artificial Turf-Based Surrogate Surface Collector for the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper describes the development of a new artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS) sampler for use in the measurement of mercury (Hg) dry deposition. In contrast to many existing surrogate surface designs, the ATSS utilizes a three-dimensional deposition surface that may more closely mimic the physical structure of many natural surfaces than traditional flat surrogate surface designs (water, filter, greased Mylar film). The ATSS has been designed to overcome several complicating factors that can impact the integrity of samples with other direct measurement approaches by providing a passive system which can be deployed for both short and extended periods of time (days to weeks), and is not contaminated by precipitation and/or invalidated by strong winds. Performance characteristics including collocated precision, in-field procedural and laboratory blanks were evaluated. The results of these performance evaluations included a mean collocated precision of 9%, low blanks (0.8 ng), high extraction efficiency (97%–103%), and a quantitative matrix spike recovery (100%). In recent years, a growing number of intensive field campaigns and routine measurement networks have provided valuable information on the rates of total mercury (Hg) wet deposition in North America (Guentzel et al., 1995; Rea et al., 1996; Dvonch et al., 1999; Landis and Keeler, 2002; Dvonch et al., 2005; Hall et al., 2005; Keeler et al., 2005; Keeler et al., 2006; Butler et al., 2008; Prestbo an

  5. An Artificial Turf-Based Surrogate Surface Collector for the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper describes the development of a new artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS) sampler for use in the measurement of mercury (Hg) dry deposition. In contrast to many existing surrogate surface designs, the ATSS utilizes a three-dimensional deposition surface that may more closely mimic the physical structure of many natural surfaces than traditional flat surrogate surface designs (water, filter, greased Mylar film). The ATSS has been designed to overcome several complicating factors that can impact the integrity of samples with other direct measurement approaches by providing a passive system which can be deployed for both short and extended periods of time (days to weeks), and is not contaminated by precipitation and/or invalidated by strong winds. Performance characteristics including collocated precision, in-field procedural and laboratory blanks were evaluated. The results of these performance evaluations included a mean collocated precision of 9%, low blanks (0.8 ng), high extraction efficiency (97%–103%), and a quantitative matrix spike recovery (100%). In recent years, a growing number of intensive field campaigns and routine measurement networks have provided valuable information on the rates of total mercury (Hg) wet deposition in North America (Guentzel et al., 1995; Rea et al., 1996; Dvonch et al., 1999; Landis and Keeler, 2002; Dvonch et al., 2005; Hall et al., 2005; Keeler et al., 2005; Keeler et al., 2006; Butler et al., 2008; Prestbo an

  6. Comparison of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation and plasmid transfer in soil resulting from bioaugmentation with two different pJP4 donors.

    PubMed

    Newby, D T; Gentry, T J; Pepper, I L

    2000-08-01

    A pilot field study was conducted to assess the impact of bioaugmentation with two plasmid pJP4-bearing microorganisms: the natural host, Ralstonia eutropha JMP134, and a laboratory-generated strain amenable to donor counterselection, Escherichia coli D11. The R. eutropha strain contained chromosomal genes necessary for mineralization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), while the E. coli strain did not. The soil system was contaminated with 2,4-D alone or was cocontaminated with 2,4-D and Cd. Plasmid transfer to indigenous populations, plasmid persistence in soil, and degradation of 2,4-D were monitored over a 63-day period in the bioreactors. To assess the impact of contaminant reexposure, aliquots of bioreactor soil were reamended with additional 2,4-D. Both introduced donors remained culturable and transferred plasmid pJP4 to indigenous recipients, although to different extents. Isolated transconjugants were members of the Burkholderia and Ralstonia genera, suggesting multiple, if not successive, plasmid transfers. Upon a second exposure to 2,4-D, enhanced degradation was observed for all treatments, suggesting microbial adaptation to 2,4-D. Upon reexposure, degradation was most rapid for the E. coli D11-inoculated treatments. Cd did not significantly impact 2,4-D degradation or transconjugant formation. This study demonstrated that the choice of donor microorganism might be a key factor to consider for bioaugmentation efforts. In addition, the establishment of an array of stable indigenous plasmid hosts at sites with potential for reexposure or long-term contamination may be particularly useful.

  7. Comparison of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Degradation and Plasmid Transfer in Soil Resulting from Bioaugmentation with Two Different pJP4 Donors

    PubMed Central

    Newby, D. T.; Gentry, T. J.; Pepper, I. L.

    2000-01-01

    A pilot field study was conducted to assess the impact of bioaugmentation with two plasmid pJP4-bearing microorganisms: the natural host, Ralstonia eutropha JMP134, and a laboratory-generated strain amenable to donor counterselection, Escherichia coli D11. The R. eutropha strain contained chromosomal genes necessary for mineralization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), while the E. coli strain did not. The soil system was contaminated with 2,4-D alone or was cocontaminated with 2,4-D and Cd. Plasmid transfer to indigenous populations, plasmid persistence in soil, and degradation of 2,4-D were monitored over a 63-day period in the bioreactors. To assess the impact of contaminant reexposure, aliquots of bioreactor soil were reamended with additional 2,4-D. Both introduced donors remained culturable and transferred plasmid pJP4 to indigenous recipients, although to different extents. Isolated transconjugants were members of the Burkholderia and Ralstonia genera, suggesting multiple, if not successive, plasmid transfers. Upon a second exposure to 2,4-D, enhanced degradation was observed for all treatments, suggesting microbial adaptation to 2,4-D. Upon reexposure, degradation was most rapid for the E. coli D11-inoculated treatments. Cd did not significantly impact 2,4-D degradation or transconjugant formation. This study demonstrated that the choice of donor microorganism might be a key factor to consider for bioaugmentation efforts. In addition, the establishment of an array of stable indigenous plasmid hosts at sites with potential for reexposure or long-term contamination may be particularly useful. PMID:10919798

  8. Artificial consciousness, artificial emotions, and autonomous robots.

    PubMed

    Cardon, Alain

    2006-12-01

    Nowadays for robots, the notion of behavior is reduced to a simple factual concept at the level of the movements. On another hand, consciousness is a very cultural concept, founding the main property of human beings, according to themselves. We propose to develop a computable transposition of the consciousness concepts into artificial brains, able to express emotions and consciousness facts. The production of such artificial brains allows the intentional and really adaptive behavior for the autonomous robots. Such a system managing the robot's behavior will be made of two parts: the first one computes and generates, in a constructivist manner, a representation for the robot moving in its environment, and using symbols and concepts. The other part achieves the representation of the previous one using morphologies in a dynamic geometrical way. The robot's body will be seen for itself as the morphologic apprehension of its material substrata. The model goes strictly by the notion of massive multi-agent's organizations with a morphologic control.

  9. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  10. Artificial vision workbench.

    PubMed

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  11. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  12. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, T.

    1985-01-01

    The vast underground reservoirs formed by aquifers constitute invaluable water supply sources as well as water storage facilities. Because natural replenishment of the supply occurs very slowly, continued excessive exploitation of it causes groundwater levels to decline with time. If not corrected this leads to an eventual depletion of a valuable natural resource. To prevent mining and groundwater pollution, the artificial recharge of groundwater basins is becoming increasingly important in groundwater management as a way to increase this natural supply of water. Artificial recharge can reduce, stop, and even reverse declining levels of groundwater. In addition, it can protect underground freshwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion from the ocean, and can be used to store surface and reclaimed water for future use. This book is a treatise of the artificial recharge of groundwater, with particular emphasis on recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater.

  13. An artificial molecular pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R.; Schneebeli, Severin T.; Li, Hao; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A.; Ke, Chenfeng; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-06-01

    Carrier proteins consume fuel in order to pump ions or molecules across cell membranes, creating concentration gradients. Their control over diffusion pathways, effected entirely through noncovalent bonding interactions, has inspired chemists to devise artificial systems that mimic their function. Here, we report a wholly artificial compound that acts on small molecules to create a gradient in their local concentration. It does so by using redox energy and precisely organized noncovalent bonding interactions to pump positively charged rings from solution and ensnare them around an oligomethylene chain, as part of a kinetically trapped entanglement. A redox-active viologen unit at the heart of a dumbbell-shaped molecular pump plays a dual role, first attracting and then repelling the rings during redox cycling, thereby enacting a flashing energy ratchet mechanism with a minimalistic design. Our artificial molecular pump performs work repetitively for two cycles of operation and drives rings away from equilibrium toward a higher local concentration.

  14. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  15. Artificial Photosynthesis: Hybrid Systems.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan; Hollmann, Frank

    Oxidoreductases are promising catalysts for organic synthesis. To sustain their catalytic cycles they require efficient supply with redox equivalents. Today classical biomimetic approaches utilizing natural electron supply chains prevail but artificial regeneration approaches bear the promise of simpler and more robust reaction schemes. Utilizing visible light can accelerate such artificial electron transport chains and even enable thermodynamically unfeasible reactions such as the use of water as reductant.This contribution critically summarizes the current state of the art in photoredoxbiocatalysis (i.e. light-driven biocatalytic oxidation and reduction reactions).

  16. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-10-04

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  17. Artificial molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S; Wilson, Miriam R; Feringa, Ben L; Leigh, David A

    2017-05-09

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new development, significant advances have been made. In this review an overview is given of the principal designs of artificial molecular motors and their modes of operation. Although synthetic molecular motors have also found widespread application as (multistate) switches, we focus on the control of directional movement, both at the molecular scale and at larger magnitudes. We identify some key challenges remaining in the field.

  18. Invitation to artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    D'heedene, R.N.

    1983-02-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence displayed by non-living objects, that is, machines. The possibility of creating intelligent machines has been a motivating force behind a great deal of computing machine development. The methods of AI are not only of historical interest, but are powerful in themselves. Artificial intelligence therefore deserves a prominent place in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. This paper discusses the pedagogical advantages of emphasizing AI in upper level courses, reasons for its present neglect, and the importance of introducing ai study. 5 references.

  19. Bioaugmentation for Groundwater Remediation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    along the southern side of a Penn Atlantic Railroad spur (Dames & Moore, 1993). The MAG-1 Area was the site of an ammunitions and weapons magazine...to accommodate rubber o-rings as a sealant , and were secured with ¼” threaded rods. The center of the end caps were drilled and tapped to attach

  20. Bioaugmentation for Groundwater Remediation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    35 7.4 PH ADJUSTMENT...oxidation-reduction potential PCE tetrachloroethene PCR polymerase chain reaction pH activity of hydrogens P&T pump-and-treat PLC programmable...hydrogens ( pH ) at the demonstration site, the ability to increase and maintain an elevated pH sufficient for successful bioremediation by adding

  1. Artificial limb connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

  2. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  3. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  4. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  5. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

  6. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...system: The synergy between discrete-event simulation and the approaches that programmers take to develop artifical - intelligence software took some...dated 28 October 1986 Subject: Army Artifical Intelligence Training Available at Fort Gordon) has indicated the availability of the following training

  7. The Artificial Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, D. R.

    An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

  8. Artificial Intelligence Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Computer Science, New Delhi, India , December 1986. (Also University of Texas, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AITR-41, August 1987). Kumar, V. and...the Tenth ICAI ) A187-55 Expert Systems for Monitoring and Control, D. Dvorak, May 1987. Many large-scale industrial processes and services are

  9. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  10. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  11. Artificial intelligence. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of the field of artificial intelligence. It contains material covering the latest advances in control, representation, language, vision, and problem solving. Problem solving in design and analysis systems is addressed. Mitcell's version-space learning procedure, Morevec's reduced-images stereo procedure, and the Strips problem solver are covered.

  12. Artificial intelligence and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, I.C.; Braddock, J.V.; Brown, W.; Langendorf, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report examines the state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence and robotics technologies and their potential in terms of Army needs. Assessment includes battlefield technology, research and technology insertions, management considerations and recommendations related to research and development personnel, and recommendations regarding the Army's involvement in the automated plant.

  13. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  14. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  15. Researchers Create Artificial Mouse 'Embryo'

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163881.html Researchers Create Artificial Mouse 'Embryo' Experiment used two types of gene-modified stem ... they've created a kind of artificial mouse embryo using stem cells, which can be coaxed to ...

  16. Research advances in artificial musk.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing

    2014-12-01

    Based on the milestone events in the research and development of artificial musk,this artilce elucidates the applications of the musk as traditional Chinese medicine,the protection of the musk deer,the research and development principles and strategies of artificial musk. Artificial musk is a major breakthrough in research on substitutes for medicinal raw materials derived from rare animals.

  17. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  18. Artificial intelligence at CSM

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.E.

    1985-08-01

    The recent developments in artificial intelligence have been cited as being the most significant technological advancement in computer science in the twentieth century. Machines that can mimic human reasoning will have a great impact upon our civilization. The way we think, learn, and work will be changed in a profound way. It is for these reasons that the Colorado School of Mines, in order to maintain its reputation of quality engineering education, has entered the AI field. CSM presently is evaluating artificial intelligence for applications in the mineral industries; decision support systems, process control, machine vision, data acquisition and analysis, etc. Future plans are to move AI out of the research laboratories and into the curriculum. An understanding of the concepts and unlimited power of the application of AI will enhance the engineering methods of Mines graduates. 6 references.

  19. Development of artificial gametes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt Peter; Kerkis, Irina; Chang, Ching-Chien

    2008-04-01

    Virtually all normal cells can reproduce themselves. The germ cells, however, can initiate reproduction of the entire organism. A special sequence of events, meiosis, is responsible for generating mature germ cells bearing a haploid genome. The basic features of meiosis, i.e. two cell divisions with no intervening DNA replication, resulting in a halving of the chromosome complement, are evident throughout evolution. The idea of generating an artificial gamete was recently put forward to provide an ultimate solution for the treatment of infertility. Currently, there are different strategies to create artificial gametes in vitro, such as converting somatic cells from mitotic division to meiotic division directly (somatic cell haploidization), or dedifferentiating somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES) cells and re-differentiating ES cells into gametes, or extracting adult stem cells and re-differentiating them into gametes.

  20. Artificially structured magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, C.M.

    1990-09-28

    This document reports the progress made during the first six months of the current three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Magnetic Materials.'' However, because some of the results of our previous three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Superconductors'' continue to emerge, both topics are addressed in this Progress Report. This report describes progress with DOE funding during the current calendar year; description of the research to be conducted during the remaining six months of the current grant year; a description of the status of the graduate students working on this research; lists of the invited talks, seminars and colloquia, of other recognition of our research, and of the publications crediting DOE sponsorship; and a summary of current and pending federal support. Since the research proposed to be conducted during the next 2 1/2 years is described in detail in our DOE proposal, it is only briefly reviewed here.

  1. Artificial perception and consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John; Johnson, John L.

    2000-06-01

    Perception has both unconscious and conscious aspects. In all cases, however, what we perceive is a model of reality. By brain construction through evolution, we divide the world into two parts--our body and the outside world. But the process is the same in both cases. We perceive a construct usually governed by sensed data but always involving memory, goals, fears, expectations, etc. As a first step toward Artificial Perception in man-made systems, we examine perception in general here.

  2. Economics and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This volume gives a overview of artificial intelligence and the use of computers in economics. Areas covered include statistics and macro economic forecasting, the use of automated techniques for economic studies and decision-making processes. The book looks at how much computers are used in business, and how far they will affect the design of markets and the structure of organizations in the future.

  3. Whither Artificial Reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Percival-Smith, Robin

    1985-01-01

    Artificial reproduction now offers sub fertile couples a number of options which raise scientific and ethical questions. This article discusses the Canadian and British experiences in formulating regulations and legislation in this important field. Current work on mammalian embryo research foretells the direction which human research will take. This article stresses the need for family physicians' participation in the ethical decisions that accompany these new developments. PMID:21274181

  4. Artificial gravity Mars spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1989-01-01

    Experience gained in the study of artificial gravity for a manned trip to Mars is reviewed, and a snowflake-configured interplanetary vehicle cluster of habitat modules, descent vehicles, and propulsion systems is presented. An evolutionary design is described which permits sequential upgrading from five to nine crew members, an increase of landers from one to as many a three per mission, and an orderly, phased incorporation of advanced technologies as they become available.

  5. Artificial intelligence: Human effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

  6. Introducing artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the field of artificial intelligence. The volume sets Al in a broad context of historical attitudes, imaginative insights, and ideas about intelligence in general. The author offers a wide-ranging survey of Al concerns, including cognition, knowledge engineering, problem inference, speech understanding, and perception. He also discusses expert systems, LISP, smart robots, and other Al products, and provides a listing of all major Al systems.

  7. Applications Of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Mohan M.; Gilmore, John F.

    1986-03-01

    Intelligence evolves out of matter, so said the Sankhya philosophers of ancient India. The discipline of artificial intelligence (Al), which was established some 30 years ago, has confirmed the validity of the above assertion. Recently, a number of AI applications have been successfully demonstrated, generating a great deal of excitement and interest in scientific and technical circles. In this special issue of Optical Engineering a representative set of applications that incorporate Al principles is presented.

  8. Embryogenesis of Artificial Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashlock, Daniel; Gent, Stephen; Bryden, Kenneth

    This chapter examines the artificial embryogeny of landscapes intended for use with virtual reality which consist of collections of polygons encoded using L-systems. Artificial Embryogeny is the study of indirect representations. A recent survey that attempts to classify different types of artificial embryogeny appears in [18]. A representation is a way of encoding a model or a solution to a problem for use in computation. For example, an array of n real numbers is a representation of the value of a function in n variables. A representation is indirect if it gives a set of directions for constructing the thing it specifies rather than encoding the object directly. The process of following the directions given in the indirect representation to obtain the final object is called expression. Indirect representations require an interpreter to express them and, because of this, are more difficult to understand at the specification or genetic level. There are number of advantages to indirect representations that more than balance this genetic obscurity in many situations. The most general of these advantages is that the transformation from the indirect specification to the final model or solution can incorporate heuristics and domain knowledge. This permits a search of a genetic space that is far smaller than the space in which the expressed objects reside and has a much higher average quality. Another advantage, showcased in this chapter, is compactness of representation. The indirect representations we evolve in this chapter use a few hundred bytes to specify megabyte-sized collections of polygons.

  9. Plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation of sequencing batch reactors for enhancement of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid removal in wastewater using plasmid pJP4.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Hirofumi; Anami, Yasutaka; Matsuda, Masami; Hashimoto, Kurumi; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2013-06-01

    Plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation was demonstrated using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for enhancing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) removal by introducing Cupriavidus necator JMP134 and Escherichia coli HB101 harboring 2,4-D-degrading plasmid pJP4. C. necator JMP134(pJP4) can mineralize and grow on 2,4-D, while E. coli HB101(pJP4) cannot assimilate 2,4-D because it lacks the chromosomal genes to degrade the intermediates. The SBR with C. necator JMP134(pJP4) showed 100 % removal against 200 mg/l of 2,4-D just after its introduction, after which 2,4-D removal dropped to 0 % on day 7 with the decline in viability of the introduced strain. The SBR with E. coli HB101(pJP4) showed low 2,4-D removal, i.e., below 10 %, until day 7. Transconjugant strains of Pseudomonas and Achromobacter isolated on day 7 could not grow on 2,4-D. Both SBRs started removing 2,4-D at 100 % after day 16 with the appearance of 2,4-D-degrading transconjugants belonging to Achromobacter, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Pandoraea. After the influent 2,4-D concentration was increased to 500 mg/l on day 65, the SBR with E. coli HB101(pJP4) maintained stable 2,4-D removal of more than 95 %. Although the SBR with C. necator JMP134(pJP4) showed a temporal depression of 2,4-D removal of 65 % on day 76, almost 100 % removal was achieved thereafter. During this period, transconjugants isolated from both SBRs were mainly Achromobacter with high 2,4-D-degrading capability. In conclusion, plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation can enhance the degradation capability of activated sludge regardless of the survival of introduced strains and their 2,4-D degradation capacity.

  10. Bioaugmentation potential of free and formulated 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 in soil, sand and water.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Aamand, Jens; Sørensen, Sebastian R

    2016-12-01

    Pesticides are used extensively worldwide, which has led to the unwanted contamination of soil and water resources. Former use of the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil) has caused pollution of ground and surface water resources by the stable degradation product 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in several parts of Europe, which has resulted in the costly closure of several drinking water wells. One strategy for preventing this in future is bioaugmentation using bacterial degraders. BAM-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 was therefore formulated into dried beads and tests undertaken to establish their potential for use in the remediation of polluted soil, sand and water. The formulation procedure included freeze drying, combined with trehalose addition for cell wall protection, thus ensuring a high amount of viable cells following prolonged storage at room temperature. The beads were round-shaped pellets with a diameter of about 1.25 mm, a dry matter content of approximately 95 % and an average viable cell content of 4.4 × 10(9) cells/g bead. Formulated MSH1 cells led to a similar, and frequently even faster, BAM mineralisation (20-65 % (14)CO2 produced from (14)C-labelled BAM) in batch tests conducted with sand, water and different soil moisture contents compared to adding free cells. Furthermore, the beads were easy to handle and had a shelf life of several months.

  11. Evaluation of bioaugmentation efficiency for the treatment of run-off water under tropical conditions: applications to the Derby-Tacaruna canal (Recife/Brazil).

    PubMed

    da Silva, M C L; Nascimento, A M; da Silva, V L; Pons, M N; da Motta, M

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the efficiency of bacterial biomass augmentation was performed at lab-scale for the pollution treatment of the Derby-Tacaruna canal. The canal is located at the central area of Great Recife, alongside an important urban corridor. The characterization of the canal water in different tidal conditions showed that the actual pollution is organic and inorganic (heavy metals). Degradation experiments of water from the canal and rain-off system polluted by synthetic wastewater were performed, using activated sludge and an industrial bioadditive. Continuous reactors under two different conditions were evaluated: with diffuse aeration and without aeration. The channel reactor was operated under steady state conditions at a flow rate of 2.5 L h(-1) and with an average residence time of 22 h without aeration and 17 h with aeration. The organic matter removal was in the range of 60% for the system inoculated with the bioadditive and 85% with activated sludge. It was concluded that the water of the Derby-Tacaruna canal may be treated by activated sludge without being affected by its salt content, while the bioaugmentation technique was not satisfactory due to inhibition by inorganics.

  12. Nitrogen removal and microbial community shift in an aerobic denitrification reactor bioaugmented with a Pseudomonas strain for coal-based ethylene glycol industry wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Du, Cong; Cui, Chong-Wei; Qiu, Shan; Shi, Sheng-Nan; Li, Ang; Ma, Fang

    2017-04-01

    An aerobic denitrification system, initially bioaugmented with Pseudomonas strain T13, was established to treat coal-based ethylene glycol industry wastewater, which contained 3219 ± 86 mg/L total nitrogen (TN) and 1978 ± 14 mg/L NO3(-)-N. In the current study, a stable denitrification efficiency of 53.7 ± 4.7% and nitrite removal efficiency of 40.1 ± 2.7% were achieved at different diluted influent concentrations. Toxicity evaluation showed that a lower toxicity of effluent was achieved when industry wastewater was treated by stuffing biofilm communities compared to suspended communities. Relatively high TN removal (~50%) and chemical oxygen demand removal percentages (>65%) were obtained when the influent concentration was controlled at below 50% of the raw industry wastewater. However, a further increased concentration led to a 20-30% decrease in nitrate and nitrite removal. Microbial network evaluation showed that a reduction in Pseudomonas abundance was induced during the succession of the microbial community. The napA gene analysis indicated that the decrease in nitrate and nitrite removal happened when abundance of Pseudomonas was reduced to less than 10% of the overall stuffing biofilm communities. Meanwhile, other denitrifying bacteria, such as Paracoccus, Brevundimonas, and Brucella, were subsequently enriched through symbiosis in the whole microbial network.

  13. Biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial community and bioaugmentation of selected bacterial strains for the depletion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a historically contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGregorio, Simona; Ruffini Castglione, Monica; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic contaminants causing hazards to organisms including humans. The objective of the study was (1) to validate the biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial population by the amendment of lignocellulosic matrices inoculated with white rot fungi, to be exploited for the depletion of PAHs (5687 ppm) in a historical contaminated soil. (2) to validate the isolation of autochthonous bacterial strains capable to use PAHs as sole carbon source and their massive bioaugmentation for PAH depletion in a historical contaminated soil. The validation has been performed at mesocosm and pilot scale (7 tons of soil in a biopile). The two approaches end up with the complete depletion of the PAHs. A genotoxicological assessment of the process and of the soil at the end of the process of decontamination has been performed. The process of soil decontamination showed an increase in the genotoxicity of either the soil and the deriving elutriates. The bioaugmetation of selected bacterial strains determined the complete detoxification of the decontaminated soil after 21 weeks. The microbial ecology of the system during the process of decontamination has been monitored.

  14. A new route of bioaugmentation by allochthonous and autochthonous through biofilm bacteria for soluble chemical oxygen demand removal of old leachate.

    PubMed

    Alijani Ardeshir, Rashid; Rastgar, Sara; Peyravi, Majid; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Shokuhi Rad, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Landfill leachate contains environmental pollutants that are generally resistant to biodegradation. In this study, indigenous and exogenous bacteria in leachate were acclimated in both biofilm and suspension forms to increase the removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). The bacteria from the leachate and sewage were acclimated to gradually increasing leachate concentration prepared using a reverse osmosis membrane over 28 days. The SCOD removal was measured aerobically or nominally anaerobically. Biofilms were prepared using different carrier media (glass, rubber, and plastic). The maximum SCOD removal in suspensions was 32% (anaerobic) and in biofilms was 39% (aerobic). In the suspension form, SCOD removal using acclimated bacteria from leachate and sewage anaerobically increased in comparison with the control (P < .05). In the biofilm form, the aerobic condition and the use of acclimated bacteria from leachate and sewage increased the removal efficiency of SCOD in comparison with other biofilm groups (P < .05). Three species of bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified in the biofilm from leachate and sewage. Bioaugmentation technology using biofilms and acclimations can be an effective, inexpensive, and simple way to decrease SCOD in old landfill leachate.

  15. Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, Carlos; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Pesciaroli, Lorena; Yunta, Felipe; Crognale, Silvia; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    Different applications of spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS), a widespread agro-industrial waste, were investigated with respect to the remediation of a historically polluted soil with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). In one treatment, the waste was sterilized (SSAS) prior to its application in order to assess its ability to biostimulate, as an organic amendment, the resident soil microbiota and ensuing contaminant degradation. For the other treatments, two bioaugmentation approaches were investigated; the first involved the use of the waste itself and thus implied the application of A. bisporus and the inherent microbiota of the waste. In the second treatment, SAS was sterilized and inoculated again with the fungus to assess its ability to act as a fungal carrier. All these treatments were compared with natural attenuation in terms of their impact on soil heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacteria, fungal growth, biodiversity of soil microbiota and ability to affect PAH bioavailability and ensuing degradation and detoxification. Results clearly showed that historically PAH contaminated soil was not amenable to natural attenuation. Conversely, the addition of sterilized spent A. bisporus substrate to the soil stimulated resident soil bacteria with ensuing high removals of 3-ring PAH. Both augmentation treatments were more effective in removing highly condensed PAH, some of which known to possess a significant carcinogenic activity. Regardless of the mode of application, the present results strongly support the adequacy of SAS for environmental remediation purposes and open the way to an attractive recycling option of this waste.

  16. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    PubMed

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  17. Artificial cell division.

    PubMed

    Mange, Daniel; Stauffer, André; Petraglio, Enrico; Tempesti, Gianluca

    2004-01-01

    After a survey of the theory and some realizations of self-replicating machines, this paper presents a novel self-replicating loop endowed with universal construction and computation properties. Based on the hardware implementation of the so-called Tom Thumb algorithm, the design of this loop leads to a new kind of cellular automaton made of a processing and a control units. The self-replication of the Swiss flag serves as an artificial cell division example of the loop which, according to autopoietic evaluation criteria, corresponds to a cell showing the phenomenology of a living system.

  18. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  19. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  20. THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS

  1. [Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María

    2011-11-01

    This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.

  2. Artificial Blood for Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Kureishi, Moeka; Akiyama, Motofusa; Kihira, Kiyohito; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is no blood bank for pet animals. Consequently, veterinarians themselves must obtain “blood” for transfusion therapy. Among the blood components, serum albumin and red blood cells (RBCs) are particularly important to save lives. This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of artificial blood for the exclusive use of dogs. First, recombinant canine serum albumin (rCSA) was produced using genetic engineering with Pichia yeast. The proteins showed identical features to those of the native CSA derived from canine plasma. Furthermore, we ascertained the crystal structure of rCSA at 3.2 Å resolution. Pure rCSA can be used widely for numerous clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Second, hemoglobin wrapped covalently with rCSA, hemoglobin–albumin cluster (Hb-rCSA3), was synthesized as an artificial O2-carrier for the RBC substitute. This cluster possesses satisfactorily negative surface net charge (pI = 4.7), which supports enfolding of the Hb core by rCSA shells. The anti-CSA antibody recognized the rCSA exterior quantitatively. The O2-binding affinity was high (P50 = 9 Torr) compared to that of the native Hb. The Hb-rCSA3 cluster is anticipated for use as an alternative material for RBC transfusion, and as an O2 therapeutic reagent that can be exploited in various veterinary medicine situations. PMID:27830776

  3. Artificial lung: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Go, T; Macchiarini, P

    2008-10-01

    While the number of the patients suffering from end-stage pulmonary disease has been increasing, the most common treatment for this entity remains mechanical ventilation that entails the risks of lung damage by itself. Although the lung protective strategy for the prevention of further damage to the lung tissue has been elucidated and performed, mechanical ventilation alone as the management tactic coping with the patients of acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic respiratory failure and lung transplantations has been a frustrated scenario. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or extracorporeal lung assist have been applied to these patients with occasional success, but it always accompanies difficulties such as multiple blood transfusion, labor intensity, technically complexity and tendency to infection. In contrast to advances in the development of cardiac or renal support systems for adults, the development of extra-, para- and intracorporeal mechanical systems for acute or chronic lung respiratory failure has logged far behind. It has been mostly due to the lack of the capable technologies. Entering 21st century with advent of new technology especially invention of the low resistance oxygenator, the developments of artificial lungs have entered the new stage. In this report current status of the artificial lungs will be reviewed.

  4. Microscopic artificial swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A; Bibette, Jérôme

    2005-10-06

    Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.

  5. The artificial catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, W.; Gerwin, W.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Zeyer, J.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    The artificial catchment ´Chicken Creeḱ is the main research site of the Transregional Collaborative Research Center SFB/TRR 38. Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the SFB/TRR 38 has gathered more than 50 scientists from BTU Cottbus, TU Munich and ETH Zurich to study the patterns and processes - and their interaction - of the initial phase of ecosystem development in an artificial catchment. The catchment was constructed in 2003 to 2005 in the Lusatian lignite-mining area close to Cottbus, Germany. It has an area of 6 ha including a small lake and is mainly composed of a 2-4 m layer of sandy to loamy Quaternary overburden sediments above a 1-2 m clay layer that seals the total catchment area at the bottom. No restoration, planting or other reclamation measures were carried out. Main research objectives are: Which abiotic and biotic patterns and processes are regulating the initial phase of ecosystem development? How do processes interact with abiotic and biotic patterns? Which patterns and processes can be used to define development stages? Which parameters are suitable for generalization and application to other initial ecosystems? The presentation will present the research concept of the SFB/TRR 38, the construction process of the catchment and first results.

  6. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  7. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  8. Development of artificial empathy.

    PubMed

    Asada, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  9. Microscopic artificial swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L.; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A.; Bibette, Jérôme

    2005-10-01

    Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.

  10. Artificial Blood for Dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Kureishi, Moeka; Akiyama, Motofusa; Kihira, Kiyohito; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-11-10

    There is no blood bank for pet animals. Consequently, veterinarians themselves must obtain "blood" for transfusion therapy. Among the blood components, serum albumin and red blood cells (RBCs) are particularly important to save lives. This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of artificial blood for the exclusive use of dogs. First, recombinant canine serum albumin (rCSA) was produced using genetic engineering with Pichia yeast. The proteins showed identical features to those of the native CSA derived from canine plasma. Furthermore, we ascertained the crystal structure of rCSA at 3.2 Å resolution. Pure rCSA can be used widely for numerous clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Second, hemoglobin wrapped covalently with rCSA, hemoglobin-albumin cluster (Hb-rCSA3), was synthesized as an artificial O2-carrier for the RBC substitute. This cluster possesses satisfactorily negative surface net charge (pI = 4.7), which supports enfolding of the Hb core by rCSA shells. The anti-CSA antibody recognized the rCSA exterior quantitatively. The O2-binding affinity was high (P50 = 9 Torr) compared to that of the native Hb. The Hb-rCSA3 cluster is anticipated for use as an alternative material for RBC transfusion, and as an O2 therapeutic reagent that can be exploited in various veterinary medicine situations.

  11. Wet Artificial Life: The Construction of Artificial Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellermann, Harold

    The creation of artificial cell-like entities - chemical systems that are able to self-replicate and evolve - requires the integration of containers, metabolism, and information. In this chapter, we present possible candidates for these subsystems and the experimental achievements made toward their replication. The discussion focuses on several suggested designs to create artificial cells from nonliving material that are currently being pursued both experimentally and theoretically in several laboratories around the world. One particular approach toward wet artificial life is presented in detail. Finally, the evolutionary advantage of cellular aggregates over naked replicator systems and the evolutionary potential of the various approaches are discussed. The enormous progress toward man-made artificial cells nourishes the hope that wet artificial life might be achieved within the next several years.

  12. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    PubMed

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas.

  13. Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Lydia Shawel; Smith, James A; Narkiewicz, Sophia; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka; Conaway, Mark; Singo, Alukhethi; Amidou, Samie; Mojapelo, Paul; Brant, Julia; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Waterborne pathogens present a significant threat to people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). This study presents a randomized, controlled trial that evaluates whether a household-level ceramic water filter (CWF) intervention can improve drinking water quality and decrease days of diarrhea in PLWH in rural South Africa. Seventy-four participants were randomized in an intervention group with CWFs and a control group without filters. Participants in the CWF arm received CWFs impregnated with silver nanoparticles and associated safe-storage containers. Water and stool samples were collected at baseline and 12 months. Diarrhea incidence was self-reported weekly for 12 months. The average diarrhea rate in the control group was 0.064 days/week compared to 0.015 days/week in the intervention group (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). Median reduction of total coliform bacteria was 100% at enrollment and final collection. CWFs are an acceptable technology that can significantly improve the quality of household water and decrease days of diarrhea for PLWH in rural South Africa.

  14. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  15. Artificial modification meeting reminder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, W. E.

    A symposium on artificial modification of the ionosphere by high-powered radio waves (V. V. Migulin, Honorary Chairman) will be held September 19-23, 1988, at the Scandic Hotel, Tromso, Norway. The symposium, sponsored by Union Radio Scientifique Internationale Commissions (URSI) G and H, is in the URSI series which started at Suzdal in 1983. Information on the scientific program is available from V.V. Migulin, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 103907, Moscow Center, Marx Avl8, U.S.S.R.; Peter Stubbe, Max- Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomy, D-3411 Katlenburg- Lindau 3, Federal Republic of Germany; or W.E. Gordon, Rice University, Space Physics and Astronomy Dept., Houston, TX 77251. For local arrangements information, contact Asgeir Brekke, Institute Matematisk Realfag, Aurora Observatory, Box 953, N-9001, Tromso, Norway.

  16. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities.

  17. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  18. Molecular artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Serena; Drouet, Samuel; Francàs, Laia; Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina; Guttentag, Miguel; Richmond, Craig; Stoll, Thibaut; Llobet, Antoni

    2014-11-21

    The replacement of fossil fuels by a clean and renewable energy source is one of the most urgent and challenging issues our society is facing today, which is why intense research has been devoted to this topic recently. Nature has been using sunlight as the primary energy input to oxidise water and generate carbohydrates (solar fuel) for over a billion years. Inspired, but not constrained, by nature, artificial systems can be designed to capture light and oxidise water and reduce protons or other organic compounds to generate useful chemical fuels. This tutorial review covers the primary topics that need to be understood and mastered in order to come up with practical solutions for the generation of solar fuels. These topics are: the fundamentals of light capturing and conversion, water oxidation catalysis, proton and CO2 reduction catalysis and the combination of all of these for the construction of complete cells for the generation of solar fuels.

  19. Artificial Quantum Thermal Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Alireza; Neven, Hartmut

    In this talk, we present a theory for engineering the temperature of a quantum system different from its ambient temperature, that is basically an analog version of the quantum metropolis algorithm. We define criteria for an engineered quantum bath that, when couples to a quantum system with Hamiltonian H, drives the system to the equilibrium state e/- H / T Tr (e - H / T) with a tunable parameter T. For a system of superconducting qubits, we propose a circuit-QED approximate realization of such an engineered thermal bath consisting of driven lossy resonators. We consider an artificial thermal bath as a simulator for many-body physics or a controllable temperature knob for a hybrid quantum-thermal annealer.

  20. Artificial heart transplants.

    PubMed

    Dunning, J

    1997-01-01

    The use of a mechanical device to support a failing heart is one of the greatest challenges in cardiothoracic practice. Many different approaches are being considered, but they share the use of many advanced engineering principles. Power supplies and the interface between artificial surfaces and the blood remain areas of difficulty. The accent is moving from console driven devices with drive lines which must cross the body wall to reach the pump, towards smaller control packs, with inductive coupling to fully contained pumps. More attention is focused on the use of axial pumps lying within the lumena of the great vessels and the ventricles. Despite the wideheld belief that mechanical pumps must confer survival advantage to the recipients, there has been no prospective study demonstrating any advantage over medical management of the failing heart. Economic considerations must be taken into account if the technology is to be available to everyone with heart failure.

  1. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Kristina K.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. PMID:28009851

  2. Compact artificial hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

  3. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  4. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  5. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  6. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  7. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  8. Miracle of an Artificial Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetes, the realization of a successful, fully automated artificial pancreas is a dearly held dream. It signifies a life freer from nightly wake-up calls to check blood glucose or deliver insulin, a life freer from ... successful artificial pancreas would mark another huge step toward better ...

  9. Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

    The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

  10. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  11. In Pursuit of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watstein, Sarah; Kesselman, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence and reviews current research in natural language processing, expert systems, and robotics and sensory systems. Discussion covers current commercial applications of artificial intelligence and projections of uses and limitations in library technical and public services, e.g., in cataloging and online information and…

  12. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  13. Artificial insemination in marsupials.

    PubMed

    Rodger, John C; Paris, Damien B B P; Czarny, Natasha A; Harris, Merrilee S; Molinia, Frank C; Taggart, David A; Allen, Camryn D; Johnston, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Assisted breeding technology (ART), including artificial insemination (AI), has the potential to advance the conservation and welfare of marsupials. Many of the challenges facing AI and ART for marsupials are shared with other wild species. However, the marsupial mode of reproduction and development also poses unique challenges and opportunities. For the vast majority of marsupials, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding basic reproductive biology to guide an AI strategy. For threatened or endangered species, only the most basic reproductive information is available in most cases, if at all. Artificial insemination has been used to produce viable young in two marsupial species, the koala and tammar wallaby. However, in these species the timing of ovulation can be predicted with considerably more confidence than in any other marsupial. In a limited number of other marsupials, such precise timing of ovulation has only been achieved using hormonal treatment leading to conception but not live young. A unique marsupial ART strategy which has been shown to have promise is cross-fostering; the transfer of pouch young of a threatened species to the pouches of foster mothers of a common related species as a means to increase productivity. For the foreseeable future, except for a few highly iconic or well studied species, there is unlikely to be sufficient reproductive information on which to base AI. However, if more generic approaches can be developed; such as ICSI (to generate embryos) and female synchronization (to provide oocyte donors or embryo recipients), then the prospects for broader application of AI/ART to marsupials are promising.

  14. Anisotropic Artificial Impedance Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarfoth, Ryan Gordon

    Anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces are a group of planar materials that can be modeled by the tensor impedance boundary condition. This boundary condition relates the electric and magnetic field components on a surface using a 2x2 tensor. The advantage of using the tensor impedance boundary condition, and by extension anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces, is that the method allows large and complex structures to be modeled quickly and accurately using a planar boundary condition. This thesis presents the theory of anisotropic impedance surfaces and multiple applications. Anisotropic impedance surfaces are a generalization of scalar impedance surfaces. Unlike the scalar version, anisotropic impedance surfaces have material properties that are dependent on the polarization and wave vector of electromagnetic radiation that interacts with the surface. This allows anisotropic impedance surfaces to be used for applications that scalar surfaces cannot achieve. Three of these applications are presented in this thesis. The first is an anisotropic surface wave waveguide which allows propagation in one direction, but passes radiation in the orthogonal direction without reflection. The second application is a surface wave beam shifter which splits a surface wave beam in two directions and reduces the scattering from an object placed on the surface. The third application is a patterned surface which can alter the scattered radiation pattern of a rectangular shape. For each application, anisotropic impedance surfaces are constructed using periodic unit cells. These unit cells are designed to give the desired surface impedance characteristics by modifying a patterned metallic patch on a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple unit cell geometries are analyzed in order to find the setup with the best performance in terms of impedance characteristics and frequency bandwidth.

  15. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  16. Effects of bioaugmentation on sorption and desorption of benzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene in freshly-spiked and historically-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, YueHua; Chen, Liang; Liu, YuLong; Liu, Fei; Fallgren, Paul H; Jin, Song

    2016-11-01

    This work investigated the frequently observed "rebounds" of contaminants of concern in groundwater systems. Specifically, influences of bioaugmented microorganisms on the sorption and desorption of representative petroleum constituents [benzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene (BTN)] were studied in freshly-spiked and historically-contaminated sediments. Capable microorganisms were enriched and supplemented to contaminated sediments to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. In freshly-spiked sediments, when petroleum-degrading microorganisms were added, concentrations of dissolved petroleum constituents appeared to increase initially, and 12.4, 14.0 and 20.0 mg/kg of benzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene, respectively desorbed from the sediments into the water phase. In the historically-contaminated sediments, the augmentation of petroleum-degrading microorganisms led to the desorption of 0.023-0.059, 0009-0.016, and 1.731-2.763 mg/L of previously sequestrated BTN into the water phase, and also triggered the desorption of 0.051-0.223, -0.133-2.630, and 2.324-1.200 mg/kg of previously sequestrated BTN as the methanol extraction quantity. The mechanisms of the enhanced desorption at the presence of microbes remain to be determined; however, we presumed that microbially produced constituents such as biosurfactants and cell mass could have attributed to the partition of petroleum compounds from the sediments. Findings from this study may partially explain "rebounds" of certain petroleum constituents into the groundwater during in situ bioremediation practice, although such immediate rebounds sometimes are weak, and the desorbed constituents can be eventually biodegraded under proper biogeochemical conditions.

  17. Adhesion to sand and ability to mineralise low pesticide concentrations are required for efficient bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus; Badawi, Nora; Nybroe, Ole; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Aamand, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide-polluted drinking water may be remediated by inoculating waterworks sand filters with specific degrading bacteria. However, degradation efficiency is often hampered by the poor adhesion behaviour of the introduced bacteria. The phenoxy acid herbicide 4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy-acetic acid (MCPA) is a widespread groundwater contaminant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific surface characteristics of MCPA-degrading bacteria could be linked to their degrading capabilities in sand filters. Four MCPA degraders with different taxonomic affiliations and original habitats (Sphingomonas sp. PM2, Sphingomonas sp. ERG5, Burkholderia sp. TFD34, Cupriavidus sp. TFD38) were characterised with regard to their motility, cell surface hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, adhesion behaviour and ability to mineralise MCPA. Strains PM2 and ERG5 were non-motile and hydrophobic, whilst strains TFD34 and TFD38 were motile and less hydrophobic. All the strains except ERG5 showed low biofilm formation on polystyrene, although it was significantly higher on glass. PM2 was the most efficient MCPA degrader as it displayed no lag phase and reached >50 % mineralisation at all concentrations (0.0016-25 mg L(-1)). PM2 adhered significantly better to sand than the other strains. No link was found between motility, biofilm formation and the ability to adhere to sand. PM2 completely removed MCPA for 14 days when inoculated in sand columns with a constant inlet of 1 mg L(-1) MCPA. These results demonstrate that besides the ability to degrade the contaminant, surface hydrophobicity and adherence abilities are significant parameters controlling sustained degradation in flow-through sand columns and must be considered when selecting bacteria for bioaugmentation.

  18. Bio-Augmentation of Cupriavidus sp. CY-1 into 2,4-D Contaminated Soil: Microbial Community Analysis by Culture Dependent and Independent Techniques.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Reddy, M Venkateswar; Umemoto, Honoka; Sato, Yuki; Kang, Mi-Hye; Yajima, Yuka; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrading bacterial strain CY-1 was isolated from the forest soil. Based on physiological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis it was identified as Cupriavidus sp. CY-1. Further 2,4-D degradation experiments at different concentrations (200 to 800 mg l(-1)) were carried out using CY-1. Effect of NaCl and KNO3 on 2,4-D degradation was also evaluated. Degradation of 2,4-D and the metabolites produced during degradation process were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS respectively. The amount of chloride ions produced during the 2,4-D degradation were analyzed by Ion chromatography (IC) and it is stoichiometric with 2,4-D dechlorination. Furthermore two different types of soils collected from two different sources were used for 2,4-D degradation studies. The isolated strain CY-1 was bio-augmented into 2,4-D contaminated soils to analyze its degradation ability. Culture independent methods like denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and culture dependent methods like colony forming units (CFU) and most probable number (MPN) were used to analyze the survivability of strain CY-1 in contaminated soil. Results of T-RFLP were coincident with the DGGE analysis. From the DGGE, T-RFLP, MPN and HPLC results it was concluded that strain CY-1 effectively degraded 2,4-D without disturbing the ecosystem of soil indigenous microorganisms.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment from total petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sediments: potential candidates for bioaugmentation in bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Simona; Siracusa, Giovanna; Becarelli, Simone; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Seven hydrocarbonoclastic new bacterial isolates were isolated from dredged sediments of a river estuary in Italy. The sediments were contaminated by shipyard activities since decades, mainly ascribable to the exploitation of diesel oil as the fuel for recreational and commercial navigation of watercrafts. The bacterial isolates were able to utilize diesel oil as sole carbon source. Their metabolic capacities were evaluated by GC-MS analysis, with reference to the depletion of both the normal and branched alkanes, the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester and the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. They were taxonomically identified as different species of Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas spp. by the combination of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis. The metabolic activities of interest were analyzed both in relation to the single bacterial strains and to the combination of the latter as a multibacterial species system. After 6 days of incubation in mineral medium with diesel oil as sole carbon source, the Stenotrophomonas sp. M1 strain depleted 43-46 % of Cn-alkane from C28 up to C30, 70 % of the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester and the 46 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. On the other hand, the Pseudomonas sp. NM1 strain depleted the 76 % of the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester, the 50 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. The bacterial multispecies system was able to completely deplete Cn-alkane from C28 up to C30 and to deplete the 95 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. The isolates, either as single strains and as a bacterial multispecies system, were proposed as candidates for bioaugmentation in bio-based processes for the decontamination of dredged sediments.

  20. Bio-Augmentation of Cupriavidus sp. CY-1 into 2,4-D Contaminated Soil: Microbial Community Analysis by Culture Dependent and Independent Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Reddy, M. Venkateswar; Umemoto, Honoka; Sato, Yuki; Kang, Mi-Hye; Yajima, Yuka; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrading bacterial strain CY-1 was isolated from the forest soil. Based on physiological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis it was identified as Cupriavidus sp. CY-1. Further 2,4-D degradation experiments at different concentrations (200 to 800 mg l-1) were carried out using CY-1. Effect of NaCl and KNO3 on 2,4-D degradation was also evaluated. Degradation of 2,4-D and the metabolites produced during degradation process were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS respectively. The amount of chloride ions produced during the 2,4-D degradation were analyzed by Ion chromatography (IC) and it is stoichiometric with 2,4-D dechlorination. Furthermore two different types of soils collected from two different sources were used for 2,4-D degradation studies. The isolated strain CY-1 was bio-augmented into 2,4-D contaminated soils to analyze its degradation ability. Culture independent methods like denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and culture dependent methods like colony forming units (CFU) and most probable number (MPN) were used to analyze the survivability of strain CY-1 in contaminated soil. Results of T-RFLP were coincident with the DGGE analysis. From the DGGE, T-RFLP, MPN and HPLC results it was concluded that strain CY-1 effectively degraded 2,4-D without disturbing the ecosystem of soil indigenous microorganisms. PMID:26710231

  1. The artificial leaf.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  2. Artificial polarization components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescato, L.; Gluch, Ekkehard; Stork, Wilhelm; Streibl, Norbert

    1990-07-01

    High frequency surface relief structures are optically anisotropic and show interesting polarisation properties 1 . These properties can be used to produce polarizations components such as wave plates polarizers. polarizing beamsplitters etc. Our experimental results show that even gratings with relatively low spatial frequency ( periods A ) exhibit a strong phase retardation and can be used as quarter-wave plates. k INTRODUC11ON The artificial birefringence exhibited by ultrahigh frequency gratings of dielectric materials can be used to produce various polarization components2 . Such components have applications in integrated optics as well as in free space optics. In order to produce the high spatial frequencies complex processes such as electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching are needed. We show in this paper that sinusoidal holographic gratings in photoresist exhibit also a strong phase ret even at relatively long periods. L EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS To obtain the phase retardation of a lower frequency ( period A ) grating a simple setup as used by Enger and 2 can be applied. In our case however there are three measurements necessary to obtain the phase retardation because transmission of the two perpendicularly polarized beams is different from each other. I GRATING PRODUCTION grating 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 period (pmj 0. 74 0. 74 0. 61 0. 54 0. 46 0. 32 0. 54 0. 54 0. 54 ne (sec) 60

  3. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Baohu; Wang, Jizhuang; Xiong, Ze; Zhan, Xiaojun; Dai, Wei; Li, Chien-Cheng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Tang, Jinyao

    2016-12-01

    Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering. Here, we show an artificial microswimmer that can sense and orient to the illumination direction of an external light source. Our microswimmer is a Janus nanotree containing a nanostructured photocathode and photoanode at opposite ends that release cations and anions, respectively, propelling the microswimmer by self-electrophoresis. Using chemical modifications, we can control the zeta potential of the photoanode and program the microswimmer to exhibit either positive or negative phototaxis. Finally, we show that a school of microswimmers mimics the collective phototactic behaviour of green algae in solution.

  5. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  6. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

  7. Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer.

    PubMed

    Dai, Baohu; Wang, Jizhuang; Xiong, Ze; Zhan, Xiaojun; Dai, Wei; Li, Chien-Cheng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Tang, Jinyao

    2016-12-01

    Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering. Here, we show an artificial microswimmer that can sense and orient to the illumination direction of an external light source. Our microswimmer is a Janus nanotree containing a nanostructured photocathode and photoanode at opposite ends that release cations and anions, respectively, propelling the microswimmer by self-electrophoresis. Using chemical modifications, we can control the zeta potential of the photoanode and program the microswimmer to exhibit either positive or negative phototaxis. Finally, we show that a school of microswimmers mimics the collective phototactic behaviour of green algae in solution.

  8. BioArtificial polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  9. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    MedlinePlus

    ... additional assurance against such flaws. Also, poor filter maintenance or failure to replace the filter cartridges as recommended by the manufacturer can cause a filter to fail. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of ...

  10. Hypofractionated re-irradiation of large-sized recurrent breast cancer with thermography-controlled, contact-free water-filtered infra-red-A hyperthermia: a retrospective study of 73 patients.

    PubMed

    Notter, Markus; Piazena, Helmut; Vaupel, Peter

    2016-09-28

    Evaluation of the efficacy and toxicity of a new setup of thermographically controlled water-filtered infra-red-A (wIRA) superficial hyperthermia (HT) combined with hypofractionated re-irradiation (re-RT) to treat large-sized breast cancer recurrences. Records of 73 heavily pre-irradiated patients with 103 treatment regions, treated from September 2009 to July 2015 were retrospectively analysed. Sixty-four patients with macroscopic disease were treated with 94 regions including 46 patients with lymphangiosis carcinomatosa. Hypofractionated RT consisted of 4 Gy once per week up to a total dose of 20 Gy delivered within 1-4 min after wIRA-HT. Heating of tumour nodules and diffusely spreading cancer lesions was performed under real-time thermographic temperature monitoring, maintaining the maximum skin temperature in the ROI between 42 °C and 43 °C, achieving intratumoural temperatures up to a depth of 2 cm between 39.5 °C and 42 °C. Seventeen patients received re-re-irradiation (re-re-RT) using the same HT/RT-treatment schedule. Response rates in patients with macroscopic disease: 61% CR, 33% PR, 5% NC and 1% PD. Local control throughout life time after CR of macroscopic disease: 59%. All nine patients with microscopic disease had CR and local control throughout lifetime. Only grade 1 toxicities were observed. Application of thermographically controlled wIRA-HT combined with extremely low-dose re-irradiation provides good local control throughout lifetime of heavily pre-treated breast cancer recurrences. The twin wIRA radiator provides a sufficiently homogeneous heat deposition for the treatment of larger areas. The time lag between HT and re-RT is substantially reduced. The possibility of re-re-RT opens new therapeutic options for the future.

  11. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  12. Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.

    PubMed

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail.

  13. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  14. Artificial regeneration of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; John C. Brissette; William C. Carlson

    1986-01-01

    The artificial means for establishing stands of shortleaf pine seedlings are reviewed. In addition to the relative merits of direct seeding and planting of bare-root and container seedlings, techniques that should help ensure successful stand establishment are discussed.

  15. Food analysis using artificial senses.

    PubMed

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-02-19

    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  16. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

  17. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2004-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

  18. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  19. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  20. Artificial atoms on semiconductor surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Tisdale, W. A.; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are called artificial atoms because of their atom-like discrete electronic structure resulting from quantum confinement. Artificial atoms can also be assembled into artificial molecules or solids, thus, extending the toolbox for material design. We address the interaction of artificial atoms with bulk semiconductor surfaces. These interfaces are model systems for understanding the coupling between localized and delocalized electronic structures. In many perceived applications, such as nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and solar energy conversion, interfacing semiconductor nanocrystals to bulk materials is a key ingredient. Here, we apply the well established theories of chemisorption and interfacial electron transfer as conceptual frameworks for understanding the adsorption of semiconductor nanocrystals on surfaces, paying particular attention to instances when the nonadiabatic Marcus picture breaks down. We illustrate these issues using recent examples from our laboratory. PMID:21097704

  1. Improvement of wound healing by water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in patients with chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs including evaluation using infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, James B.; Nielsen, Stig Pors; Hoffmann, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue-penetration and with a low thermal burden to the surface of the skin. wIRA is able to improve essential and energetically meaningful factors of wound healing by thermal and non-thermal effects. Aim of the study: prospective study (primarily planned randomised, controlled, blinded, de facto with one exception only one cohort possible) using wIRA in the treatment of patients with recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs with thermographic follow-up. Methods: 10 patients (5 males, 5 females, median age 62 years) with 11 recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs were treated with water-filtered infrared-A and visible light irradiation (wIRA(+VIS), Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, water-filtered spectrum 550–1400 nm) or visible light irradiation (VIS; only possible in one patient). The uncovered wounds of the patients were irradiated two to five times per week for 30 minutes at a standard distance of 25 cm (approximately 140 mW/cm2 wIRA and approximately 45 mW/cm2 VIS). Treatment continued for a period of up to 2 months (typically until closure or nearly closure of the ulcer). The main variable of interest was “percent change of ulcer size over time” including complete wound closure. Additional variables of interest were thermographic image analysis, patient’s feeling of pain in the wound, amount of pain medication, assessment of the effect of the irradiation (by patient and by clinical investigator), assessment of feeling of the wound area (by patient), assessment of wound healing (by clinical investigator) and assessment of the cosmetic state (by patient and by clinical investigator). For these assessments visual analogue scales (VAS) were used. Results: The study showed a complete or nearly complete healing of lower leg ulcers in 7 patients and a clear reduction of ulcer size in another 2 of 10 patients, a

  2. Improvement of wound healing by water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in patients with chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs including evaluation using infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Mercer, James B; Nielsen, Stig Pors; Hoffmann, Gerd

    2008-10-21

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue-penetration and with a low thermal burden to the surface of the skin. wIRA is able to improve essential and energetically meaningful factors of wound healing by thermal and non-thermal effects. prospective study (primarily planned randomised, controlled, blinded, de facto with one exception only one cohort possible) using wIRA in the treatment of patients with recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs with thermographic follow-up. 10 patients (5 males, 5 females, median age 62 years) with 11 recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs were treated with water-filtered infrared-A and visible light irradiation (wIRA(+VIS), Hydrosun radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, water-filtered spectrum 550-1400 nm) or visible light irradiation (VIS; only possible in one patient). The uncovered wounds of the patients were irradiated two to five times per week for 30 minutes at a standard distance of 25 cm (approximately 140 mW/cm(2) wIRA and approximately 45 mW/cm(2) VIS). Treatment continued for a period of up to 2 months (typically until closure or nearly closure of the ulcer). The main variable of interest was "percent change of ulcer size over time" including complete wound closure. Additional variables of interest were thermographic image analysis, patient's feeling of pain in the wound, amount of pain medication, assessment of the effect of the irradiation (by patient and by clinical investigator), assessment of feeling of the wound area (by patient), assessment of wound healing (by clinical investigator) and assessment of the cosmetic state (by patient and by clinical investigator). For these assessments visual analogue scales (VAS) were used. The study showed a complete or nearly complete healing of lower leg ulcers in 7 patients and a clear reduction of ulcer size in another 2 of 10 patients, a clear reduction of pain and pain medication

  3. An artificial gravity demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, C.; Lemke, L.; Penzo, P.

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gravity experiment which is tethered to a Delta second stage and which uses the Small Expendable Deployer System is proposed. Following tether deployment, the Delta vehicle performs the required spin-up maneuver and can then be passivated. A surplus reentry vehicle houses the artificial gravity life science experiments. When the experiments are completed, the reentry phase of the experiment is initiated by synchronizing the spin of the configuration with the required deorbit impulse.

  4. Interdisciplinary Study on Artificial Intelligence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    systems, uiophysics of information processing, cognitive science, and traditional artificial intelligence. The objective behi d this objective was to...information processing, cognitive science, and traditional * artificial intelligence. The objective behind this objective was to provide a vehicle for reviewing...Another departure from ’classical’ neurodynamics must be sought in the strong coupling between the micro and macroscopic scales. No other physical mechanism

  5. An artificial gravity demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, C.; Lemke, L.; Penzo, P.

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gravity experiment which is tethered to a Delta second stage and which uses the Small Expendable Deployer System is proposed. Following tether deployment, the Delta vehicle performs the required spin-up maneuver and can then be passivated. A surplus reentry vehicle houses the artificial gravity life science experiments. When the experiments are completed, the reentry phase of the experiment is initiated by synchronizing the spin of the configuration with the required deorbit impulse.

  6. Actuator device for artificial leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An actuator device is described for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes a first articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly carried by the prosthesis whereby energy from the movement of the natural leg is transferred by a compressible fluid from the first hip joint assembly to the second hip joint assembly for moving the artificial leg.

  7. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Slaughter, M

    2011-09-01

    In the 1960s, cardiac surgeons and biomedical engineers pioneered the development of total artificial hearts (TAH) for the treatment of left and right heart failure. As we mark the 10th anniversary of the first implantation of the AbioCor device, the use of TAH has been limited, having failed to reach its envisioned potential and promise as an alternative therapy to heart transplantation. The Syncardia/CardioWest device, originally developed 30 years ago as the Jarvik TAH and later renamed the CardioWest TAH, continues to be used clinically in over 50 centers within the US and Europe having supported over 900 patients worldwide. Syncardia continues to develop TAH technology as evidenced by their recent introduction of a new portable pneumatic driver that enables patients to be discharged from the hospital. In contrast to TAH devices, continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VAD) have made tremendous technological strides and are rapidly gaining widespread clinical acceptance. The VAD technology has demonstrated extraordinary safety and reliability records through evolving technologies, advanced biocompatible materials, and improved patient management. Subsequently, the number of TAH implantations remains low compared to the growth in LVAD implants. Nonetheless, the Syncardia/CardioWest TAH remains an important and viable option for patients with severe biventricular failure and end organ dysfunction. Overall, a 79% survival rate has been achieved in patients supported with a Syncardia/CardioWest TAH as bridge-to-transplantation. In this review article, a brief history on the evolution of TAH devices, their current use and emerging use of evolving continuous flow VAD technology as chronic biventricular and TAH device systems are presented.

  8. Environmental and Genetic Influences of Archaeal Lipid Distribution in Natural and Artificial Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, C.; Pagani, M.

    2012-12-01

    TEX86 is a proxy of sea surface temperature based on refractory glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT) in the cell membranes of low-temperature dwelling (non-hyperthermophilic) Archaea. The degree to which environmental signals other than temperature influence the distribution of GDGT compounds is poorly understood. Few representatives of the Thaumarchaeota — the clade to which the dominant GDGT production has been attributed — have been described or isolated in pure culture, and the role of genetic lineage in the synthesis and distribution of GDGTs is unknown. For this project we collected water, filter and substrate samples from tank systems in non-profit and commercial aquariums around the United States. This analysis compares GDGT core lipids and intact polar lipid distributions with Archaeal genetic sequence data processed using rRNA and 454 Pyrosequencing. Environmental attributes (such as dissolved oxygen concentration, salinity, organic density, etc.) specific to each tank are also compared to lipid analyses and the presence of specific lineages within select tank systems. Our preliminary results demonstrate that archaeal GDGTs are present and abundant within a range of environmental conditions, including artificial saline and brackish waters derived from municipal sources. Comparisons of existing TEX86 calibration values with known temperatures suggest that residuals vary based on non-temperature parameters. Branched compounds are absent in most aquarium systems, but dominate in systems prepared with municipal water.

  9. Parallel multi-computers and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Uhr, L.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the present state and future direction of multicomputer parallel architectures for artificial intelligence research and development of artificial intelligence applications. The book provides a survey of the large variety of parallel architectures, describing the current state of the art and suggesting promising architectures to produce artificial intelligence systems such as intelligence systems such as intelligent robots. This book integrates artificial intelligence and parallel processing research areas and discusses parallel processing from the viewpoint of artificial intelligence.

  10. Weaning from artificial ventilation.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, J

    1998-06-01

    Every intubated and mechanically-ventilated patient should be clinically evaluated, at least on a daily basis, by a skilled team in order to speed up the weaning process as much as possible. Again, it should be emphasized that the adoption of an active clinical strategy when faced with "difficult" to wean patients is of paramount importance. In one study, performed in Spain, analysing the prevalence of mechanical ventilation in intensive care units [3], reported the mean number of days that patients spent on mechanical ventilation was 27. In a more recent intervention study, in which a specific protocol was followed each day [2], the mean number of days on mechanical ventilation was only 12. These data have been confirmed by several authors [4, 40], and it has also been reported that a protocol-directed weaning strategy leads not only to a significant reduction in the duration of mechanical ventilation but also to a significant decrease in the number of complications and cost [4]. However, even following a protocol-directed weaning strategy, it is possible that weaning duration can be further reduced. In a prospective study performed in our institution [41] during 32 months, we reported that, following an episode of unplanned extubation, the only independent variables associated with the need for reintubation were the number of days of mechanical ventilation and the type of ventilatory support at the time of autoextubation. Indeed, when patients were in the weaning period only 16% (5 out of 32) needed reintubation, whereas reintubation was needed in 82% (22 out of 27) of patients who had an unplanned extubation during full mechanical ventilatory support. These data suggest that there are still some patients being on mechanical ventilation for a longer than necessary period of time. Finally, very recent advances in technological areas such as artificial intelligence, are proving to be useful in the management of the weaning process. When such systems are applied to

  11. Intensification of the aerobic bioremediation of an actual site soil historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through bioaugmentation with a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Di Toro, Sara; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    /or exogenous nutrients able to sustain microorganisms in charge for PCB mineralization. Conclusion Enzyveba appears a promising agent for bioaugmenting actual-site PCB-polluted soils with a native low content of indigenous specialized microflora. This not only for its positive effects on the soil biotreatability but also for its availability on the market at a relatively low cost. PMID:16549016

  12. Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and 2HH2O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Révész, Kinga M.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Goode, Daniel J.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Lancombe, Pierre J.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2014-01-01

    An in situ bioaugmentation (BA) experiment was conducted to understand processes controlling microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. In the BA experiment, an electron donor (emulsified vegetable oil and sodium lactate) and a chloro-respiring microbial consortium were injected into a well in fractured mudstone of Triassic age. Water enriched in 2H was also injected as a tracer of the BA solution, to monitor advective transport processes. The changes in concentration and the δ13C of TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC); the δ2H of water; changes in the abundance of the microbial communities; and the concentration of dissolved H2 gas compared to pre- test conditions, provided multiple lines of evidence that enhanced biodegradation occurred in the injection well and in two downgradient wells. For those wells where the biodegradation was stimulated intensively, the sum of the molar chlorinated ethene (CE) concentrations in post-BA water was higher than that of the sum of the pre-BA background molar CE concentrations. The concentration ratios of TCE/(cis-DCE + VC) indicated that the increase in molar CE concentration may result from additional TCE mobilized from the rock matrix in response to the oil injection or due to desorption/diffusion. The stable carbon isotope mass-balance calculations show that the weighted average 13C isotope of the CEs was enriched for around a year compared to the background value in a two year monitoring period, an effective indication that dechlorination of VC was occurring. Insights gained from this study can be applied to efforts to use BA in other fractured rock systems. The study demonstrates that a BA approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation not only in fractures connected to the injection well, but also in the rock matrix around the well due to processes such as diffusion and desorption. Because the effect of the

  13. Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and ²HH₂O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks.

    PubMed

    Révész, Kinga M; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Kirshtein, Julie D; Tiedeman, Claire R; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Goode, Daniel J; Shapiro, Allen M; Voytek, Mary A; Lacombe, Pierre J; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2014-01-01

    An in situ bioaugmentation (BA) experiment was conducted to understand processes controlling microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. In the BA experiment, an electron donor (emulsified vegetable oil and sodium lactate) and a chloro-respiring microbial consortium were injected into a well in fractured mudstone of Triassic age. Water enriched in ²H was also injected as a tracer of the BA solution, to monitor advective transport processes. The changes in concentration and the δ¹³C of TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC); the δ²H of water; changes in the abundance of the microbial communities; and the concentration of dissolved H₂ gas compared to pre- test conditions, provided multiple lines of evidence that enhanced biodegradation occurred in the injection well and in two downgradient wells. For those wells where the biodegradation was stimulated intensively, the sum of the molar chlorinated ethene (CE) concentrations in post-BA water was higher than that of the sum of the pre-BA background molar CE concentrations. The concentration ratios of TCE/(cis-DCE+VC) indicated that the increase in molar CE concentration may result from additional TCE mobilized from the rock matrix in response to the oil injection or due to desorption/diffusion. The stable carbon isotope mass-balance calculations show that the weighted average ¹³C isotope of the CEs was enriched for around a year compared to the background value in a two year monitoring period, an effective indication that dechlorination of VC was occurring. Insights gained from this study can be applied to efforts to use BA in other fractured rock systems. The study demonstrates that a BA approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation not only in fractures connected to the injection well, but also in the rock matrix around the well due to processes such as diffusion and desorption. Because the effect

  14. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  15. Artificial gametes from stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel; Simón, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn.

  16. Artificial Surfaces in Phyllosphere Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Doan, Hung K; Leveau, Johan H J

    2015-08-01

    The study of microorganisms that reside on plant leaf surfaces, or phyllosphere microbiology, greatly benefits from the availability of artificial surfaces that mimic in one or more ways the complexity of foliage as a microbial habitat. These leaf surface proxies range from very simple, such as nutrient agars that can reveal the metabolic versatility or antagonistic properties of leaf-associated microorganisms, to the very complex, such as silicon-based casts that replicate leaf surface topography down to nanometer resolution. In this review, we summarize the various uses of artificial surfaces in experimental phyllosphere microbiology and discuss how these have advanced our understanding of the biology of leaf-associated microorganisms and the habitat they live in. We also provide an outlook into future uses of artificial leaf surfaces, foretelling a greater role for microfluidics to introduce biological and chemical gradients into artificial leaf environments, stressing the importance of artificial surfaces to generate quantitative data that support computational models of microbial life on real leaves, and rethinking the leaf surface ('phyllosphere') as a habitat that features two intimately connected but very different compartments, i.e., the leaf surface landscape ('phylloplane') and the leaf surface waterscape ('phyllotelma').

  17. Artificial evolution: a new path for artificial intelligence?

    PubMed

    Husbands, P; Harvey, I; Cliff, D; Miller, G

    1997-06-01

    Recently there have been a number of proposals for the use of artificial evolution as a radically new approach to the development of control systems for autonomous robots. This paper explains the artificial evolution approach, using work at Sussex to illustrate it. The paper revolves around a case study on the concurrent evolution of control networks and visual sensor morphologies for a mobile robot. Wider intellectual issues surrounding the work are discussed, as is the use of more abstract evolutionary simulations as a new potentially useful tool in theoretical biology.

  18. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  19. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  20. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles

    PubMed Central

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W. H.

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices. PMID:28138542

  1. Doped colloidal artificial spin ice

    DOE PAGES

    Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2015-10-07

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Conversely, magnetic artificial spin ices, unlike colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations, allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is raised. In contrast, the kagome ice ground state can absorb the doping charge without generating non-ground-state excitations, while at elevated temperatures the hopping of individual colloidsmore » is suppressed near the doping sites. Our results indicate that in the square ice, doping adds degeneracy to the ordered ground state and creates local weak spots, while in the kagome ice, which has a highly degenerate ground state, doping locally decreases the degeneracy and creates local hard regions.« less

  2. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  3. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  4. Artificial sensory organs: latest progress.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuo; Inada, Yuji; Shigeno, Keiji

    2017-09-21

    This study introduces the latest progress on the study of artificial sensory organs, with a special emphasis on the clinical results of artificial nerves and the concept of in situ tissue engineering. Peripheral nerves have a strong potential for regeneration. An artificial nerve uses this potential to recover a damaged peripheral nerve. The polyglycolic acid collagen tube (PGA-C tube) is a bio-absorbable tube stuffed with collagen of multi-chamber structure that consists of thin collagen films. The clinical application of the PGA-C tube began in 2002 in Japan. The number of PGA-C tubes used is now beyond 300, and satisfactory results have been reported on peripheral nerve repairs. This PGA-C tube is also effective for patients suffering from neuropathic pain.

  5. Nanobiocatalytic assemblies for artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hong; Nam, Dong Heon; Park, Chan Beum

    2014-08-01

    Natural photosynthesis, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion process, occurs through a series of photo-induced electron transfer reactions in nanoscale architectures that contain light-harvesting complexes, protein-metal clusters, and many redox biocatalysts. Artificial photosynthesis in nanobiocatalytic assemblies aims to reconstruct man-made photosensitizers, electron mediators, electron donors, and redox enzymes for solar synthesis of valuable chemicals through visible light-driven cofactor regeneration. The key requirement in the design of biocatalyzed artificial photosynthetic process is an efficient and forward electron transfer between each photosynthetic component. This review describes basic principles in combining redox biocatalysis with photocatalysis, and highlights recent research outcomes in the development of nanobiocatalytic assemblies that can mimic natural photosystems I and II, respectively. Current issues in biocatalyzed artificial photosynthesis and future perspectives will be briefly discussed.

  6. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    PubMed

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives.

  7. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Nosenko, M. A.; Drutskaya, M. S.; Moisenovich, M. M.; Nedospasov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed. PMID:27437136

  8. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W H

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind's oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices.

  9. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  10. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  11. Training Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    nearifest tLer,sclvCs in ELO r operatii.L costs in the life C’VclE Of the ef’uijjteft. E F re\\ lously rcntione6 ey~ arrle of usingF the 1lirefineer...Ibid., p. 35. 4. Avron Barr and Edward Feigenbaum, The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 1, p. 2. 5. Wissam W. Ahmed, "Theories of Artificial...Barr, Avron and Geigenbaum, Edward A. ed. The Handbook of Arti- ficial Intelligence. Vol. 1. Stanford: heuristech Press. 1981. Gevartner, William B

  12. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies. PMID:26853918

  13. Artificial cells: prospects for biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David

    2002-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nanoscale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  14. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2016-05-19

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  15. Artificial cells: prospects for biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David

    2002-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nanoscale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  16. Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis

    ScienceCinema

    Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

    2016-07-12

    The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

  17. Artificial Cells: Prospects for Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they also have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nano-scale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  18. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-20

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. Here, we designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  19. In Defense of Artificial Replacement.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Derek

    2017-02-03

    If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives.

  20. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-08

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.