Science.gov

Sample records for biobased products

  1. Development of biobased products.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Research conducted over the past seven years by the biotechnology byproducts consortium (BBC) addresses its mission to investigate the opportunities to add value to agricultural products, byproducts and coproducts and to manage the wastewater arising from agribusinesses in an environmentally favorable way. Since a wide variety of research approaches have been taken, the results are collected in five topic groups: (1) bioremediation that includes anaerobic fermentations of wastes to produce methane and hydrogen, the genetics of methanogenesis and in situ remediation of contaminated aquifer systems, landfill leachates and industrial effluents; (2) land application of fermentation byproducts and their use in animal feeds; (3) biocatalytic studies of transformations of components of corn and soybean oils, peroxidases present in plant products, such as soybean hulls; (4) biochemical reactions for the production of de-icers from industrial water streams, biodiesel production from fats and greases, biodegradable plastics from polymerizable sugar derivatives, single cell foods derived from fungal growth on waste streams, and bacterial polysaccharides from Erwinia species; (5) separation and recovery of components by membrane technologies.

  2. 48 CFR 52.223-1 - Biobased Product Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Biobased Product....223-1 Biobased Product Certification. As prescribed in 23.406(a), insert the following provision: Biobased Product Certification (DEC 2007) As required by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002...

  3. Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    arise. Wild Rose manure digester facility in Wisconsin, Dairyland Power Cooperative Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States...all stages of biomass tech- nology, this Roadmap update discusses policy measures and related efforts to assist with market penetration of biofuels...barriers be overcome in all stages of the life cycle of developing biomass feedstocks and converting them to biobased fuels, power, and products

  4. Biobased lubricant additives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  5. 48 CFR 52.223-2 - Affirmative Procurement of Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts. 52.223-2 Section 52.223-2 Federal Acquisition... Procurement of Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts (DEC 2007) (a) In the performance of... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-2 Affirmative Procurement of Biobased Products...

  6. 77 FR 10939 - Driving Innovation and Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... identify and implement solutions to increase the visibility of biobased and other sustainable products; (c... Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product Procurement Memorandum for the... procurement of biobased products to promote rural economic development, create new jobs, and provide...

  7. Electron Microscopy as a Valuable Tool for Designing Biobased Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efforts are being made worldwide, including USDA laboratories [1-2] to investigate new uses for agriculturally-derived and/or biobased materials as well as to improve and transform such materials to create products of novel functionalities. While the knowledge of biopolymers and material processing ...

  8. New bioactive and biobased product applications of pectin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pectin is well known for its bioactive health-promoting properties and use in biobased products. Recent reports have demonstrated that pectin and pectic fractions have potential as prebiotics, prevent pathogenic bacterial adhesion, increase prostate specific antigen doubling time in patients with re...

  9. Bio-based products from solar energy and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Producing bio-based products directly from CO₂ and solar energy is a desirable alternative to the conventional biorefining that relies on biomass feedstocks. The production paradigm is based on an artificial photosynthetic system that converts sunlight to electricity and H₂ via water electrolysis. An autotrophic H₂-oxidizing bacterium fixes CO₂ in dark conditions. The assimilated CO₂ is stored in bacterial cells as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), from which a range of products can be derived. Compared with natural photosynthesis of a fast-growing cyanobacterium, the artificial photosynthetic system has much higher energy efficiency and productivity of bio-based products. The new technology looks promising because of possible cost reduction in feedstock, equipment, and operation.

  10. Biobased industrial products. Priorities for research and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    Biological sciences are likely to make the same impact on the formation of new industries in the next century as the physical and chemical sciences have had on industrial development throughout the century now coming to a close. The biological sciences, when combined with recent and future advances in process engineering, can become the foundation for producing a wide variety of industrial products from renewable plant resources. These "biobased industrial products" will include liquid fuels, chemicals, lubricants, plastics, and building materials. For example, genetically engineered crops currently under development include rapeseed that produces industrial oils, corn that produces specialty chemicals, and transgenic plants that produce polyesters. Except perhaps for large-scale production of bioenergy crops, the land and other agricultural resources of the United States are sufficient to satisfy current domestic and export demands for food, feed, and fiber and still produce the raw materials for most biobased industrial products.

  11. Recirculation: A New Concept to Drive Innovation in Sustainable Product Design for Bio-Based Products.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, James; Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Herrero-Davila, Lorenzo; Moity, Laurianne

    2016-12-29

    Bio-based products are made from renewable materials, offering a promising basis for the production of sustainable chemicals, materials, and more complex articles. However, biomass is not a limitless resource or one without environmental and social impacts. Therefore, while it is important to use biomass and grow a bio-based economy, displacing the unsustainable petroleum basis of energy and chemical production, any resource must be used effectively to reduce waste. Standards have been developed to support the bio-based product market in order to achieve this aim. However, the design of bio-based products has not received the same level of attention. Reported here are the first steps towards the development of a framework of understanding which connects product design to resource efficiency. Research and development scientists and engineers are encouraged to think beyond simple functionality and associate value to the potential of materials in their primary use and beyond.

  12. Fostering the Bioeconomic Revolution in Biobased Products and Bioenergy: An Environmental Approach

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-01-01

    This document is a product of the Biomass Research and Development Board and presents a high-level summary of the emerging national strategy for biobased products and bioenergy. It provides the first integrated approach to policies and procedures that will promote R&D and demonstration leading to accelerated production of biobased products and bioenergy.

  13. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    PubMed

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 3 CFR - Driving Innovation and Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP); and (d) the Secretary of Agriculture to amend... the economic impact associated with the biobased product industry to be submitted to the President... biofuels and biobased products, but shall generate separate data for each category. Sec. 7. Education...

  15. Advanced biomass science and technology for bio-based products: proceedings

    Treesearch

    Chung Hse; Zehui Jiang; Mon-Lin Kuo

    2009-01-01

    This book was developed from the proceedings of the Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products Symposium held in Beijing, China, May 23-25, 2007. The symposium was designed to provide a forum for researchers, producers, and consumers of biomass and bio-based products; to exchange information and ideas; and to stimulate new research and...

  16. Opportunities in the industrial biobased products industry.

    PubMed

    Carole, Tracy M; Pellegrino, Joan; Paster, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 89 million metric t of organic chemicals and lubricants, the majority of which are fossil based, are produced annually in the United States. The development of new industrial bioproducts, for production in stand-alone facilities or biorefineries, has the potential to reduce our dependence on imported oil and improve energy security. Advances in biotechnology are enabling the optimization of feedstock composition and agronomic characteristics and the development of new and improved fermentation organisms for conversion of biomass to new end products or intermediates. This article reviews recent biotechnology efforts to develop new industrial bioproducts and improve renewable feedstocks and key market opportunities.

  17. Bio-based production of methacrylic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) is an important industrial chemical commodity, with annual production exceeding 3 million metric tons and a market value surpassing $9 billion. The primary use of MAA is the conversion to ester derivatives, which are further converted into numerous useful polymers. Despite the...

  18. Replacing fossil based plastic performance products by bio-based plastic products-Technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    van den Oever, Martien; Molenveld, Karin

    2017-07-25

    Larger scale market introduction of new bio-based products requires a clear advantage regarding sustainability, as well as an adequate techno-economic positioning relative to fossil based products. In a previous paper [Broeren et al., 2016], LCA results per kg and per functionality equivalent of bio-based plastics were presented, together with economic considerations. The present paper discusses the mechanical and thermal properties of a range of commercially available bio-based plastics based on polylactic acid (PLA), cellulose esters, starch and polyamides, and the feasibility of replacing fossil-based counterparts based on performance. The evaluation is approached from an end user perspective. First, potentially suitable bio-based plastics are selected based on manufacturers' specifications in technical data sheets, then a first experimental evaluation is performed on injection moulded ISO specimens, and finally a further selection of plastics is tested on large 50×70cm panels. This technical feasibility study indicates that so far bio-based plastics do not completely match the properties of high performance materials like flame retardant V-0 PC/ABS blends used in electronic devices. The performance gap is being decreased by the development of stereocomplex PLA and hybrid PLA blends with polycarbonate, which offer clearly improved properties with respect to maximum usage temperature and toughness. In addition, several materials meet the V-0 flammability requirements needed in specific durable applications. On the other hand, improving these properties so far has negative consequences for the bio-based content. This study also shows that replacement of bulk polymers like PS is feasible using PLA compounds with a bio-based content as high as 85%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  20. Finding the Bio in Biobased Products: Electrophoretic Identification of Wheat Proteins in Processed Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verification of the bio-content in bio-based or green products identifies genuine products, exposes counterfeit copies, supports or refutes content claims and ensures consumer confidence. When the bio-content includes protein, elemental nitrogen analysis is insufficient for verification since non-pr...

  1. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    PubMed Central

    Clark, James H.; Farmer, Thomas J.; Hunt, Andrew J.; Sherwood, James

    2015-01-01

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents. PMID:26225963

  2. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  3. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers.

  4. 14C determination in different bio-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Arévalo, Francisco-Javier; Gómez Martínez, Isabel; Agulló García, Lidia; Reina Maldonado, María-Teresa; García León, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Radiocarbon determination can be used as a tool to investigate the presence of biological elements in different bio-based products, such as biodiesel blends. These products may also be produced from fossil materials obtaining the same final molecules, so that composition is chemically indistinguishable. The amount of radiocarbon in these products can reveal how much of these biological elements have been used, usually mixed with petrol derived components, free of 14C. Some of these products are liquid and thus the handling at the laboratory is not as straightforward as with solid samples. At Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) we have tested the viability of these samples using a graphitization system coupled to an elemental analyzer used for combustion of the samples, thus avoiding any vacuum process. Samples do not follow any chemical pre-treatment procedure and are directly graphitized. Specific equipment for liquid samples related to the elemental analyzer was tested. Measurement of samples was performed by low-energy AMS at the 1 MV HVEE facility at CNA, paying special attention to background limits and reproducibility during sample preparation.

  5. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. Funding Information Work in the laboratories of the authors was supported by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) of the Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV; FNR Grants 220-095-08A and 220-095-08D; Bio-ProChemBB project, ERA-IB programme), by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU Grant AZ13040/05) and the Evonik Degussa AG. PMID

  6. Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2005-11-30

    While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

  7. 76 FR 3789 - Voluntary Labeling Program for Biobased Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... unsaturated polyester resins that are used to fabricate fiberglass-reinforced and particulate reinforced composites used in an increasingly wide variety of applications in the transportation and building and construction industries. The biobased content in these commercially-available resins falls in the 8 to 22...

  8. Production of bio-based materials using photobioreactors with binary cultures

    DOEpatents

    Beliaev, Alex S; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Hill, Eric A; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2013-08-27

    A method, device and system for producing preselected products, (either finished products or preselected intermediary products) from biobased precursors or CO.sub.2 and/or bicarbonate. The principal features of the present invention include a method wherein a binary culture is incubated with a biobased precursor in a closed system to transform at least a portion of the biobased precursor to a preselected product. The present invention provides a method of cultivation that does not need sparging of a closed bioreactor to remove or add a gaseous byproduct or nutrient from a liquid medium. This improvement leads to significant savings in energy consumption and allows for the design of photobioreactors of any desired shape. The present invention also allows for the use of a variety of types of waste materials to be used as the organic starting material.

  9. Production of bio-based materials using photobioreactors with binary cultures

    DOEpatents

    Beliaev, Alex S.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.

    2017-01-31

    A method, device and system for producing preselected products, (either finished products or preselected intermediary products) from biobased precursors or CO.sub.2 and/or bicarbonate. The principal features of the present invention include a method wherein a binary culture is incubated with a biobased precursor in a closed system to transform at least a portion of the biobased precursor to a preselected product. The present invention provides a method of cultivation that does not need sparging of a closed bioreactor to remove or add a gaseous byproduct or nutrient from a liquid medium. This improvement leads to significant savings in energy consumption and allows for the design of photobioreactors of any desired shape. The present invention also allows for the use of a variety of types of waste materials to be used as the organic starting material.

  10. Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Schlup

    2005-11-04

    A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between KSU

  11. Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum in Support of the Biobased Products Industry

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Dorgan

    2005-07-31

    The project had a dominant education component. The project involved revising curriculum to educate traditional engineering students in the emerging field of industrial biotechnology. New classes were developed and offered. As a result, the curriculum of the Colorado School of Mines was expanded to include new content. Roughly 100 undergraduates and about 10 graduate students each year benefit from this curricular expansion. The research associated with this project consisted of developing new materials and energy sources from renewable resources. Several significant advances were made, most importantly the heat distortion temperature of polylactide (PLA) was increased through the addition of cellulosic nanowhiskers. The resulting ecobionanocomposites have superior properties which enable the use of renewable resource based plastics in a variety of new applications. Significant amounts of petroleum are thereby saved and considerable environmental benefits also result. Effectiveness and economic feasibility of the project proved excellent. The educational activities are continuing in a sustainable fashion, now being supported by tuition revenues and the normal budgeting of the University. The PI will be teaching one of the newly developed classes will next Fall (Fall 2006), after the close of the DOE grant, and again repeatedly into the future. Now established, the curriculum in biobased products and energy will grow and evolve through regular teaching and revision. On the research side, the new plastic materials appear economically feasible and a new collaboration between the PI’s group and Sealed Air, a major food-packaging manufacturer, has been established to bring the new green plastics to market. Public benefits of the project are noteworthy in many respects. These include the development of a better educated workforce and citizenry capable of providing technological innovation as a means of growing the economy and providing jobs. In particular, the

  12. Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum in Support of the Biobased Products Industry

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Dorgan

    2005-09-30

    The project had a dominant education component. The project involved revising curriculum to educate traditional engineering students in the emerging field of industrial biotechnology. New classes were developed and offered. As a result, the curriculum of the Colorado School of Mines was expanded to include new content. Roughly 100 undergraduates and about 10 graduate students each year benefit from this curricular expansion. The research associated with this project consisted of developing new materials and energy sources from renewable resources. Several significant advances were made, most importantly the heat distortion temperature of polylactide (PLA) was increased through the addition of cellulosic nanowhiskers. The resulting ecobionanocomposites have superior properties which enable the use of renewable resource based plastics in a variety of new applications. Significant amounts of petroleum are thereby saved and considerable environmental benefits also result. The original project objectives had to be modified as a result of DOE funding cuts, the Biomass Program did not receive adequate funding to fully fund its selected projects. Nonetheless, effectiveness and economic feasibility of the project proved excellent. The educational activities are continuing in a sustainable fashion, now being supported by tuition revenues and the normal budgeting of the University. PI Dorgan taught one of the newly developed classes will in the Fall 2006, after the close of the DOE grant, and again repeatedly into the future. Now established, the curriculum in biobased products and energy will grow and evolve through regular teaching and revisions. On the research side, the new plastic materials appear economically feasible and a new collaboration between the PI’s group and Sealed Air, a major food-packaging manufacturer, has been established to bring the new green plastics to market. Public benefits of the project are noteworthy in many respects. These include the

  13. BIOBASED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biobased materials refer to products that mainly consist of a substance (or substances) derived from living matter (biomass) and either occur naturally or are synthesized, or it may refer to products made by processes that use biomass. Following a strict definition, many common m...

  14. BIOBASED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biobased materials refer to products that mainly consist of a substance (or substances) derived from living matter (biomass) and either occur naturally or are synthesized, or it may refer to products made by processes that use biomass. Following a strict definition, many common m...

  15. DO BIO-BASED PRODUCTS MOVE US TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY? A LOOK AT THREE CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The movement to buy "environmentally-friendly" products was recently reinvigorated by the signing of the 2002 Farm Act that requires all federal agencies to give preference to products that are made (in whole or significant part) from bio-based material. This paper add...

  16. DO BIO-BASED PRODUCTS MOVE US TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY? A LOOK AT THREE CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The movement to buy "environmentally-friendly" products was recently reinvigorated by the signing of the 2002 Farm Act that requires all federal agencies to give preference to products that are made (in whole or significant part) from bio-based material. This paper add...

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-2 - Affirmative Procurement of Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... launch support equipment. (ii) Military equipment, i.e., a product or system designed or procured for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Affirmative Procurement of Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts. 52.223-2 Section 52.223-2 Federal Acquisition...

  18. 48 CFR 52.223-2 - Affirmative Procurement of Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... launch support equipment. (ii) Military equipment, i.e., a product or system designed or procured for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Affirmative Procurement of Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts. 52.223-2 Section 52.223-2 Federal Acquisition...

  19. Health, safety, and ecological implications of using biobased floor-stripping products.

    PubMed

    Massawe, Ephraim; Geiser, Kenneth; Ellenbecker, Michael; Marshall, Jason

    2007-05-01

    The main objective of the study reported here was to investigate the ecological, health, and safety (EHS) implications of using biobased floor strippers as alternatives to solvent-based products such as Johnson Wax Professional (Pro Strip). The authors applied a quick EHS-scoring technique developed by the Surface Solution Laboratory (SSL) of the Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI) to some alternative, biobased products that had previously performed as well as or close to as well as the currently used product. The quick technique is considered an important step in EHS assessment, particularly for toxics use reduction planners and advocates who may not have the resources to subject many alternative products or processes at once to detailed EHS analysis. Taking this step narrows available options to a manageable number. (Technical-performance experiments were also conducted, but the results are not discussed or reported in this paper). The cost of switching to biobased floor strippers was assessed and compared with the cost of using the traditional product, both at full strength and at the dilution ratios recommended by the respective manufacturers. The EHS analysis was based on a framework consisting of five parameters: volatile organic compounds (VOCs); pH; global-warming potential (GWP); ozone depletion potential (ODP); and safety scores in areas such as flammability, stability, and special hazards, based on ratings from the Hazardous Material Classification System (HMIS) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Total EHS scores were calculated with data derived from the material safety data sheets. For most cleaning products previously investigated by the TURI SSL, the investigators have demonstrated that the five key parameters used in the study reported here can successfully be used for quick screening of the EHS impacts of cleaning alternatives. All eight biobased, or green, products evaluated in the study had better EHS-screening scores than did

  20. Biobased products research at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent research by our group at the NCAUR has concerned the research and development of biobased products, most of which are derived from the residues produced during agricultural processing. These include: novel sophorolipids from yeast as natural emulsifiers and surfactants for certified organic...

  1. DO BIO-BASED PRODUCTS MOVE US TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY? A LOOK AT THREE USEPA CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Do Bio-Based Products Move Us Toward Sustainability? A Look at Three Case Studies within the US EPA
    Mary Am Curran
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research & Development, Cincinnati, OH 45268; curran.maryann@epagov
    Abstract The movement to buy "...

  2. DO BIO-BASED PRODUCTS MOVE US TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY? A LOOK AT THREE USEPA CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Do Bio-Based Products Move Us Toward Sustainability? A Look at Three Case Studies within the US EPA
    Mary Am Curran
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research & Development, Cincinnati, OH 45268; curran.maryann@epagov
    Abstract The movement to buy "...

  3. 77 FR 25632 - Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is proposing to amend 7 CFR part 3201, Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement, to incorporate statutory changes to section 9002 of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act (FSRIA) that were effected when the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (FCEA) was signed into law on June 18, 2008.

  4. Technoeconomic evaluation of bio-based styrene production by engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Claypool, Joshua T; Raman, D Raj; Jarboe, Laura R; Nielsen, David R

    2014-08-01

    Styrene is an important commodity chemical used in polymers and resins, and is typically produced from the petrochemical feedstocks benzene and ethylene. Styrene has recently been produced biosynthetically for the first time using engineered Escherichia coli, and this bio-based route may represent a lower energy and renewable alternative to petroleum-derived styrene. However, the economics of such an approach has not yet been investigated. Using an early-stage technoeconomic evaluation tool, a preliminary economic analysis of bio-based styrene from C(6)-sugar feedstock has been conducted. Owing to styrene's limited water solubility, it was assumed that the resulting fermentation broth would spontaneously form two immiscible liquid phases that could subsequently be decanted. Assuming current C(6) sugar prices and industrially achievable biokinetic parameter values (e.g., product yield, specific growth rate), commercial-scale bio-based styrene has a minimum estimated selling price (MESP) of 1.90 USD kg(-1) which is in the range of current styrene prices. A Monte Carlo analysis revealed a potentially large (0.45 USD kg(-1)) standard deviation in the MESP, while a sensitivity analysis showed feedstock price and overall yield as primary drivers of MESP.

  5. Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Becker, Judith; Lange, Anna; Fabarius, Jonathan; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Driven by the quest for sustainability, recent years have seen a tremendous progress in bio-based production routes from renewable raw materials to commercial goods. Particularly, the production of organic acids has crystallized as a competitive and fast-evolving field, related to the broad applicability of organic acids for direct use, as polymer building blocks, and as commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering and industrial market scenarios with focus on organic acids as top value products from biomass, accessible through fermentation and biotransformation.

  6. Natural products as biofuels and bio-based chemicals: fatty acids and isoprenoids.

    PubMed

    Beller, Harry R; Lee, Taek Soon; Katz, Leonard

    2015-09-23

    Although natural products are best known for their use in medicine and agriculture, a number of fatty acid-derived and isoprenoid natural products are being developed for use as renewable biofuels and bio-based chemicals. This review summarizes recent work on fatty acid-derived compounds (fatty acid alkyl esters, fatty alcohols, medium- and short-chain methyl ketones, alkanes, α-olefins, and long-chain internal alkenes) and isoprenoids, including hemiterpenes (e.g., isoprene and isopentanol), monoterpenes (e.g., limonene), and sesquiterpenes (e.g., farnesene and bisabolene).

  7. Industrial biotechnology for the production of bio-based chemicals--a cradle-to-grave perspective.

    PubMed

    Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Törnvall, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Linda; Börjesson, Pål

    2007-03-01

    Shifting the resource base for chemical production from fossil feedstocks to renewable raw materials provides exciting possibilities for the use of industrial biotechnology-based process tools. This review gives an indication of the current developments in the transition to bio-based production, with a focus on the production of chemicals, and points out some of the challenges that exist in the large-scale implementation of industrial biotechnology. Furthermore, the importance of evaluating the environmental impact of bio-based products with respect to their entire life cycle is highlighted, demonstrating that the choice of the raw material often turns out to be an important parameter influencing the life cycle performance.

  8. Biobased production of alkanes and alkenes through metabolic engineering of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Kyoung; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-08-26

    Advancement in metabolic engineering of microorganisms has enabled bio-based production of a range of chemicals, and such engineered microorganism can be used for sustainable production leading to reduced carbon dioxide emission there. One area that has attained much interest is microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and in particular, alkanes and alkenes are important high-value chemicals as they can be utilized for a broad range of industrial purposes as well as 'drop-in' biofuels. Some microorganisms have the ability to biosynthesize alkanes and alkenes naturally, but their production level is extremely low. Therefore, there have been various attempts to recruit other microbial cell factories for production of alkanes and alkenes by applying metabolic engineering strategies. Here we review different pathways and involved enzymes for alkane and alkene production and discuss bottlenecks and possible solutions to accomplish industrial level production of these chemicals by microbial fermentation.

  9. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Finding the "bio" in biobased products: electrophoretic identification of wheat proteins in processed products.

    PubMed

    Robertson, George H; Hurkman, William J; Cao, Trung K; Tanaka, Charlene K; Orts, William J

    2010-04-14

    Verification of the biocontent in biobased or "green" products identifies genuine products, exposes counterfeit copies, supports or refutes content claims, and ensures consumer confidence. When the biocontent includes protein, elemental nitrogen analysis is insufficient for verification since non-protein, but nitrogen-rich, content also may be present. However, the proteins can be extracted, separated by electrophoretic methods, and detected by UV absorption, protein stain, or immunoblotting. We utilized capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to separate proteins in a gliadin fraction that had been dissolved in aqueous ethanol (70%) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to separate proteins in a gliadin-plus-glutenin fraction that had been dissolved in water containing both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT). We sought to verify the presence of these wheat grain proteins in wheat bread, a wheat flake cereal, wheat beer, and an enclosure for an antique automobile ignition coil reputed to contain wheat gluten. Proteins extracted from commercial wheat, corn, and soy flours served as standards, and proteins from heat-altered wheat served as process condition references. This approach successfully identified wheat proteins in these products especially if the process temperature did not exceed 120 degrees C. Above this temperature attenuation was nearly complete for proteins analyzed by CZE, but wheat-like patterns could still be recognized by one- and two-dimensional PAGE. Immunoblots reacted with grain-specific antibodies confirmed the identities of the cereal component especially when the protein pattern was greatly altered by thermal modification, specific protein adsorption, or protein digestion. In addition to verifying that wheat proteins are present, the complementary use of these methods can reveal whether whole wheat gluten or merely an alcohol-soluble fraction had been used in the specific product and indicate the

  11. Bio-based production of C2-C6 platform chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Kim, Byoungjin; Shin, Jae Ho; Choi, Yong Jun; Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Lee, Joungmin; Park, Hye Gwon; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-10-01

    Platform chemicals composed of 2-6 carbons derived from fossil resources are used as important precursors for making a variety of chemicals and materials, including solvents, fuels, polymers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, and foods. Due to concerns regarding our environment and the limited nature of fossil resources, however, increasing interest has focused on the development of sustainable technologies for producing these platform chemicals from renewable resources. The techniques and strategies for developing microbial strains for chemicals production have advanced rapidly, and it is becoming feasible to develop microbes for producing additional types of chemicals, including non-natural molecules. In this study, we review the current status of the bio-based production of major C2-C6 platform chemicals, focusing on the microbial production of platform chemicals that have been used for the production of chemical intermediates, building block compounds, and polymers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Development Of Sustainable Biobased Products And Bioenergy In Cooperation With The Midwest Consortium For Sustainable Biobased Products And Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Ladisch; Randy Woodson

    2009-03-18

    Collaborative efforts of Midwest Consortium have been put forth to add value to distiller's grains by further processing them into fermentable sugars, ethanol, and a protein rich co-product consistent with a pathway to a biorenewables industry (Schell et al, 2008). These studies were recently published in the enclosed special edition (Volume 99, Issue 12) of Bioresource Technology journal. Part of them have demonstrated the utilization of distillers grains as additional feedstock for increased ethanol production in the current dry grind process (Kim et al., 2008a, b; Dien et al.,2008, Ladisch et al., 2008a, b). Results showed that both liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) were effective for enhancing digestibility of distiller's grains. Enzymatic digestion of distiller's grains resulted in more than 90% glucose yield under standard assay conditions, although the yield tends to drop as the concentration of dry solids increases. Simulated process mass balances estimated that hydrolysis and fermentation of distillers grains can increase the ethanol yield by 14% in the current dry milling process (Kim et al., 2008c). Resulting co-products from the modified process are richer in protein and oil contents than conventional distiller's grains, as determined both experimentally and computationally. Other research topics in the special edition include water solubilization of DDGS by transesterification reaction with phosphite esters (Oshel el al., 2008) to improve reactivity of the DDGS to enzymes, hydrolysis of soluble oligomers derived from DDGS using functionalized mesoporous solid catalysts (Bootsma et al., 2008), and ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) production from DDGS by solventogenic Clostridia (Ezeji and Blaschek, 2008). Economic analysis of a modified dry milling process, where the fiber and residual starch is extracted and fermented to produce more ethanol from the distillers grains while producing highly concentrated protein co-product

  13. Development of bio-based fine chemical production through synthetic bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Araki, Michihiro; Okai, Naoko; Wakai, Satoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-12-14

    Fine chemicals that are physiologically active, such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, flavoring agents as well as additives for foods, feed, and fertilizer are produced by enzymatically or through microbial fermentation. The identification of enzymes that catalyze the target reaction makes possible the enzymatic synthesis of the desired fine chemical. The genes encoding these enzymes are then introduced into suitable microbial hosts that are cultured with inexpensive, naturally abundant carbon sources, and other nutrients. Metabolic engineering create efficient microbial cell factories for producing chemicals at higher yields. Molecular genetic techniques are then used to optimize metabolic pathways of genetically and metabolically well-characterized hosts. Synthetic bioengineering represents a novel approach to employ a combination of computer simulation and metabolic analysis to design artificial metabolic pathways suitable for mass production of target chemicals in host strains. In the present review, we summarize recent studies on bio-based fine chemical production and assess the potential of synthetic bioengineering for further improving their productivity.

  14. Bio-based production of monomers and polymers by metabolically engineered microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hannah; Yang, Jung Eun; Ha, Ji Yeon; Chae, Tong Un; Shin, Jae Ho; Gustavsson, Martin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-12-01

    Recent metabolic engineering strategies for bio-based production of monomers and polymers are reviewed. In the case of monomers, we describe strategies for producing polyamide precursors, namely diamines (putrescine, cadaverine, 1,6-diaminohexane), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, glutaric, adipic, and sebacic acids), and ω-amino acids (γ-aminobutyric, 5-aminovaleric, and 6-aminocaproic acids). Also, strategies for producing diols (monoethylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, and 1,4-butanediol) and hydroxy acids (3-hydroxypropionic and 4-hydroxybutyric acids) used for polyesters are reviewed. Furthermore, we review strategies for producing aromatic monomers, including styrene, p-hydroxystyrene, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and phenol, and propose pathways to aromatic polyurethane precursors. Finally, in vivo production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and recombinant structural proteins having interesting applications are showcased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Engineering of the xylose metabolic pathway for microbial production of bio-based chemicals].

    PubMed

    Liu, Weixi; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Tao

    2013-08-01

    As the rapid development of economy necessitates a large number of oil, the contradiction between energy supply and demand is further exacerbated by the dwindling reserves of petroleum resource. Therefore, the research of the renewable cellulosic biomass resources is gaining unprecedented momentum. Because xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose in lignocellulose hydrolyzes, high-efficiency bioconversion of xylose becomes one of the vital factors that affect the industrial prospects of lignocellulose application. According to the research progresses in recent years, this review summarized the advances in bioconversion of xylose, which included identification and redesign of the xylose metabolic pathway, engineering the xylose transport pathway and bio-based chemicals production. In order to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution issues, the development of advanced bio-fuel technology, especially engineering the microbe able to metabolize xylose and produce ethanol by synthetic biology, is environmentally benign and sustainable.

  16. Biobased plastics in a bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Philp, J C; Ritchie, R J; Guy, K

    2013-02-01

    Bioeconomy plans include a biobased industries sector in which some oil-derived plastics and chemicals are replaced by new or equivalent products derived, at least partially, from biomass. Some of these biobased products are here today, but to fulfil their societal potential, greater attention is required to promote awareness, and to improve their market share while making valuable contributions to climate change mitigation.

  17. Bio-based and biodegradable plastics for use in crop production.

    PubMed

    Riggi, Ezio; Santagata, Gabriella; Malinconico, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The production and management of crops uses plastics for many applications (e.g., low tunnels, high tunnels, greenhouses, mulching, silage bags, hay bales, pheromone traps, coatings of fertilizers or pesticides or hormones or seeds, and nursery pots and containers for growing transplants). All these applications have led some authors to adopt the term "plasticulture" when discussing the use of plastic materials in agriculture and related industries. Unfortunately, the sustainability of this use of plastics is low, and renewability and degradability have become key words in the debate over sustainable production and utilization of plastic. Recently, researchers and the plastics industry have made strong efforts (i) to identify new biopolymers and natural additives from renewable sources that can be used in plastics production and (ii) to enhance the degradability (biological or physical) of the new ecologically sustainable materials. In the present review, we describe the main research results, current applications, patents that have been applied for in the last two decades, and future perspectives on sustainable use of plastics to support crop production. The article presents some promising patents on bio-based and biodegradable plastics for use in crop production.

  18. Life cycle of the corn-soybean agroecosystem for biobased production.

    PubMed

    Landis, Amy E; Miller, Shelie A; Theis, Thomas L

    2007-02-15

    Biobased product life cycle assessments (LCAs) have focused largely on energy (fossil fuel) usage and greenhouse gas emissions during the agriculture and production stages. This paper compiles a more comprehensive life cycle inventory (LCI) for use in future bioproduct LCAs that rely on corn or soybean crops as feedstocks. The inventory includes energy, C, N, P, major pesticides, and U.S. EPA criteria air pollutants that result from processes such as fertilizer production, energy production, and on-farm chemical and equipment use. Agroecosystem material flows were modeled using a combination of GREET (the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model), a linear fractionation model that describes P biogeochemical cycling, and Monte Carlo Analysis. Results show that the dominant air emissions resulted from crop farming, fertilizers, and on-farm nitrogen flows (e.g., N20 and NO). Seed production and irrigation provided no more than 0.002% to any of the inventory emissions or energy flows and may be neglected in future LCAs of corn or soybeans as feedstocks from the U.S. Corn Belt. Lime contributes significantly (17% of total emissions) to air emissions and should not be neglected in bioproduct LCAs.

  19. Pretreatment of spent sulphite liquor via ultrafiltration and nanofiltration for bio-based succinic acid production.

    PubMed

    Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Kookos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2016-09-10

    Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been employed to evaluate the simultaneous production of lignosulphonates and bio-based succinic acid using the bacterial strains Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Ultrafiltration with membranes of 10, 5 and 3kDa molecular weight cut-off results in significant losses of lignosulphonates (26-50%) in the permeate stream, while nanofiltration using membrane with 500Da molecular weight cut-off results in high retention yields of lignosulphonates (95.6%) in the retentate stream. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures using permeates from ultrafiltrated SSL resulted in similar succinic acid concentration (27.5g/L) and productivity (0.4g/L/h) by both strains. When permeates from nanofiltrated SSL were used, the strain B. succiniciproducens showed the highest succinic acid concentration (33.8g/L), yield (0.58g per g of consumed sugars) and productivity (0.48g/L/h). The nanofiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor could lead to the production of 306.3kg of lignosulphonates and 52.7kg of succinic acid, whereas the ultrafiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor using a 3kDa membrane could result in the production of 237kg of lignosulphonates and 71.8kg of succinic acid when B. succiniproducens is used in both cases.

  20. Biobased chemicals: the convergence of green chemistry with industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Philp, Jim C; Ritchie, Rachael J; Allan, Jacqueline E M

    2013-04-01

    Policy issues around biobased chemicals are similar to those for biobased plastics. However, there are significant differences that arise from differences in production volumes and the more specific applications of most chemicals. The drivers for biobased chemicals production are similar to those for biobased plastics, particularly the environmental drivers. However, in Europe, biobased chemical production is further driven by the need to improve the competitiveness of the chemicals industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bio-Based Production of Dimethyl Itaconate From Rice Wine Waste-Derived Itaconic Acid.

    PubMed

    Joo, Young-Chul; You, Seung Kyou; Shin, Sang Kyu; Ko, Young Jin; Jung, Ki Ho; Sim, Sang A; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-08-28

    Dimethyl itaconate is an important raw material for copolymerization, but it is not synthesized from itaconic acid by organisms. Moreover, Corynebacterium glutamicum is used as an important industrial host for the production of organic acids, but it does not metabolize itaconic acid. Therefore, the biosynthetic route toward dimethyl itaconate from itaconic acid is highly needed. In this study, a biological procedure for dimethyl itaconate production is developed from rice wine waste-derived itaconic acid using the engineered C. glutamicum strain. The first step is to investigate the effect of the co-overexpression of the codon-optimized cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (CadA*) and a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in acetic acid metabolism (RamA) on itaconic acid production. The second step is to convert itaconic acid into dimethyl itaconate by lipase-catalyzed esterification. The CadA* and RamA-overexpressing CG4 strain increases the itaconic acid concentration under N-starvation with glucose and acetic acid compared with the concentration produced in the base mCGXII medium with glucose. Furthermore, the rice wine waste-derived itaconic acid is successfully converted into dimethyl itaconate using lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and a methanol substrate. This study is the first trial for bio-based production of dimethyl itaconate from rice wine waste-derived itaconic acid. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform.

  3. Substrate and product role in the Shvo's catalyzed selective hydrogenation of the platform bio-based chemical 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Thomas; Solinas, Gavino; Zanotti, Valerio; Albonetti, Stefania; Cavani, Fabrizio; Vaccari, Angelo; Mazzanti, Andrea; Ranieri, Silvia; Mazzoni, Rita

    2014-07-14

    The bio-based substrate and target product 2,5-bishydroxymethylfuran (BHMF) demonstrated to influence the reaction kinetics in the homogeneous reduction of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) catalyzed by the Ru-based Shvo's catalyst. A combined experimental and computational study supports an important role of the -CH2OH moiety which may be involved in the catalytic cycle toward the formation of different intermediates from HMF and BHMF. The reaction is selective and leads to quantitative formation of BHMF working under mild conditions. Furthermore, an optimized recycling procedure which avoids the use of water, allows recover and reuse of the catalyst without loss of activity. The mechanistic insights from this work may be extended to provide a general description of the chemistry of the Shvo's catalyst feeding further bio-based molecules.

  4. Rhodococcus opacus B4: a promising bacterium for production of biofuels and biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ana Rita; Rocha, Isabel; Alves, Maria Madalena; Pereira, Maria Alcina

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial lipids have relevant applications in the production of renewable fuels and biobased oleochemicals. The genus Rhodococcus is one of the most relevant lipid producers due to its capability to accumulate those compounds, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), when cultivated on different defined substrates, namely sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons but also on complex carbon sources present in industrial wastes. In this work, the production of storage lipids by Rhodococcus opacus B4 using glucose, acetate and hexadecane is reported for the first time and its productivity compared with Rhodococcus opacus PD630, the best TAG producer bacterium reported. Both strains accumulated mainly TAG from all carbon sources, being influenced by the carbon source itself and by the duration of the accumulation period. R. opacus B4 produced 0.09 and 0.14 g L(-1) at 24 and 72 h, with hexadecane as carbon source, which was 2 and 3.3 fold higher than the volumetric production obtained by R. opacus PD630. Both strains presented similar fatty acids (FA) profiles in intact cells while in TAG produced fraction, R. opacus B4 revealed a higher variability in fatty acid composition than R. opacus PD630, when both strains were cultivated on hexadecane. The obtained results open new perspectives for the use of R. opacus B4 to produce TAG, in particular using oily (alkane-contaminated) waste and wastewater as cheap raw-materials. Combining TAG production with hydrocarbons degradation is a promising strategy to achieve environmental remediation while producing added value compounds.

  5. Life cycle risks for human health: a comparison of petroleum versus bio-based production of five bulk organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Roes, Alexander L; Patel, Martin K

    2007-10-01

    This article describes the development and application of a generic approach to the comparative assessment of risks related to the production of organic chemicals by petrochemical processes versus white biotechnology. White biotechnology, also referred to as industrial biotechnology, typically uses bio-based feedstocks instead of the fossil raw materials used in the petrochemical sector. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the production of chemicals by means of white biotechnology has lower conventional risks than their production by petrochemical processes. Conventional risks are the risks of well-established processes, and not those related to genetically modified microorganisms and plants. Our approach combines classical risk assessment methods (largely based on toxicology), as developed by the life cycle assessment (LCA) community, with statistics on technological disasters, accidents, and work-related illnesses. Moreover, it covers the total process chain for both petrochemical and bio-based products from cradle to grave. The approach was applied to five products: the plastics polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), and ethanol. Our results show that the conventional risks related to the white biotechnology products studied are lower than those of the petrochemical products. However, considering the uncertainties with respect to the ranges of input data, the (incomplete) coverage of emissions by the environmental priority strategies (EPS) 2000 method, and the uncertainties of the assumptions made in this study (i.e., large to very large), the differences in results between bio-based and petrochemical products fall into the uncertainty range. Because of this, future research is necessary to decrease the uncertainties before we can conclude that the conventional risks of biotechnologically produced chemicals are lower than those of fossil-fuel-derived chemicals.

  6. [Preface for special issue on bio-based materials (2016)].

    PubMed

    Weng, Yunxuan

    2016-06-25

    Bio-based materials are new materials or chemicals with renewable biomass as raw materials such as grain, legume, straw, bamboo and wood powder. This class of materials includes bio-based polymer, biobased fiber, glycotechnology products, biobased rubber and plastics produced by biomass thermoplastic processing and basic biobased chemicals, for instance, bio-alcohols, organic acids, alkanes, and alkenes, obtained by bio-synthesis, bio-processing and bio-refinery. Owing to its environmental friendly and resource conservation, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry taking the lead in the world scientific and technological innovation and economic development. An overview of bio-based materials development is reported in this special issue, and the industrial status and research progress of the following aspects, including biobased fiber, polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable mulching film, bio-based polyamide, protein based biomedical materials, bio-based polyurethane, and modification and processing of poly(lactic acid), are introduced.

  7. Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    International commerce places unique pressures on the sustainability of water resources and marine environments. System impacts include noise, emissions, and chemical and biological pollutants like introduction of invasive species into key ecosystems. At the same time, maritime trade also enables the sustainability ambition of intragenerational equity in the economy through the global circulation of commodities and manufactured goods, including agricultural, energy and mining resources (UN Trade and Development Board 2013). This paper presents a framework to guide the analysis of the multiple dimensions of the sustainable commerce-ocean nexus. As a demonstration case, we explore the social, economic and environmental aspects of the nexus framework using scenarios for the production and transportation of conventional and bio-based energy commodities. Using coupled LCA and GIS methodologies, we are able to orient the findings spatially for additional insight. Previous work on the sustainable use of marine resources has focused on distinct aspects of the maritime environment. The framework presented here, integrates the anthropogenic use, governance and impacts on the marine and coastal environments with the natural components of the system. A similar framework has been highly effective in progressing the study of land-change science (Turner et al 2007), however modification is required for the unique context of the marine environment. This framework will enable better research integration and planning for sustainability objectives including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, protection of critical marine habitat and species, and better management of the ocean as an emerging resource base for the production and transport of commodities and energy across the globe. The framework can also be adapted for vulnerability analysis, resilience studies and to evaluate the trends in production, consumption and

  8. 76 FR 53113 - Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    .... Information regarding the Federal biobased preferred procurement program (one part of the BioPreferred Program... Request: Extension of a currently approved information collection. Abstract: The USDA BioPreferred Program... agencies in lieu of their fossil energy-based counterparts, with certain limited exceptions. Further,...

  9. Catalytic modification of fats and oils to value-added biobased products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biobased materials derived from fats and oils can be relatively benign to the environment because they tend to have good biodegradability. Oils are used in a myriad of applications, including foods, cosmetics, paints, biodegradable lubricants and polymers, biodiesel, and more. For many of these ap...

  10. 77 FR 23365 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Biobased Procurements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... require contractors to report the biobased products purchased under service and construction contracts... support for the requirement that contractors report annually on the biobased products purchased and...

  11. Uncertainty in the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Production of Three Biobased Polymer Families.

    PubMed

    Posen, I Daniel; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael

    2016-03-15

    Interest in biobased products has been motivated, in part, by the claim that these products have lower life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than their fossil counterparts. This study investigates GHG emissions from U.S. production of three important biobased polymer families: polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and bioethylene-based plastics. The model incorporates uncertainty into the life cycle emission estimates using Monte Carlo simulation. Results present a range of scenarios for feedstock choice (corn or switchgrass), treatment of coproducts, data sources, end of life assumptions, and displaced fossil polymer. Switchgrass pathways generally have lower emissions than corn pathways, and can even generate negative cradle-to-gate emissions if unfermented residues are used to coproduce energy. PHB (from either feedstock) is unlikely to have lower emissions than fossil polymers once end of life emissions are included. PLA generally has the lowest emissions when compared to high emission fossil polymers, such as polystyrene (mean GHG savings up to 1.4 kg CO2e/kg corn PLA and 2.9 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass PLA). In contrast, bioethylene is likely to achieve the greater emission reduction for ethylene intensive polymers, like polyethylene (mean GHG savings up to 0.60 kg CO2e/kg corn polyethylene and 3.4 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass polyethylene).

  12. 76 FR 6366 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... percentage of biobased content practicable. Section 2902.3(c) now incorrectly includes the phrase ``highest percentage of biobased products.'' D. 7 CFR 2902.4--Procurement Programs USDA has revised paragraph (b)(2)(ii... to a procuring agency, other than data confirming the biobased content of a product. H. 7 CFR 2902.9...

  13. Characterizing compositional changes of Napier grass at different stages of growth for biofuel and biobased products potential.

    PubMed

    Takara, Devin; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum, is a high yielding, perennial feedstock that can be harvested year-round in (sub)tropical geographies of the world. Because of its high moisture content (∼ 80%w/w), Napier grass presents a unique opportunity for fractionation into solid and liquid streams, where the extruded cellulosic fibers can serve as a substrate for biofuel production, and the nutrient-rich juice can serve as a substrate for co-product generation. The aim of this study evaluated the effects of biomass age on constituents relevant to biofuel and biobased product generation. Although obvious morphological changes can be observed in the field due to natural senescence, the results obtained in this work suggested that the cellulose content does not change significantly with respect to age. Data surrounding the hemicellulose and lignin contents, however, were inconclusive as their degree of significance varied with the statistics applied to analyze the raw data.

  14. Integrated automation for continuous high-throughput synthetic chromosome assembly and transformation to identify improved yeast strains for industrial production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An exponential increase in our understanding of genomes, proteomes, and metabolomes provides greater impetus to address critical biotechnological issues such as sustainable production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals and, in particular, the development of improved microbial biocatalysts for use i...

  15. 7 CFR 2902.7 - Determining biobased content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining biobased content. 2902.7 Section 2902.7....7 Determining biobased content. (a) Certification requirements. For any product offered for... how to determine biobased content. Upon request, manufacturers and vendors must provide USDA and...

  16. 76 FR 6319 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... biobased content practicable. Section 2902.3(c) now incorrectly includes the phrase ``highest percentage of biobased products.'' D. 7 CFR 2902.4--Procurement Programs USDA has revised paragraph (b)(2)(ii) to read... percentage of biobased content. Section 9002(a)(2) requires ] procuring agencies to procure designated items...

  17. Fatty acid from the renewable sources: a promising feedstock for the production of biofuels and biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Xian, Mo; Cao, Yujin; Fang, Fang; Zou, Huibin

    2014-01-01

    With the depletion of the nonrenewable petrochemical resources and the increasing concerns of environmental pollution globally, biofuels and biobased chemicals produced from the renewable resources appear to be of great strategic significance. The present review described the progress in the biosynthesis of fatty acid and its derivatives from renewable biomass and emphasized the importance of fatty acid serving as the platform chemical and feedstock for a variety of chemicals. Due to the low efficient conversions of lignocellulosic biomass or carbon dioxide to fatty acid, we also put forward that rational strategies for the production of fatty acid and its derivatives should further derive from the consideration of whole bioprocess (pretreatment, saccharification, fermentation, separation), multiscale analysis and interdisciplinary combinations (omics, kinetics, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, fermentation and so on). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-scale exploration of the technical, economic, and environmental dimensions of bio-based chemical production.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Kai H; Herrgård, Markus J

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, bio-based chemicals have gained traction as a sustainable alternative to petrochemicals. However, despite rapid advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, there remain significant economic and environmental challenges. In order to maximize the impact of research investment in a new bio-based chemical industry, there is a need for assessing the technological, economic, and environmental potentials of combinations of biomass feedstocks, biochemical products, bioprocess technologies, and metabolic engineering approaches in the early phase of development of cell factories. To address this issue, we have developed a comprehensive Multi-scale framework for modeling Sustainable Industrial Chemicals production (MuSIC), which integrates modeling approaches for cellular metabolism, bioreactor design, upstream/downstream processes and economic impact assessment. We demonstrate the use of the MuSIC framework in a case study where two major polymer precursors (1,3-propanediol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid) are produced from two biomass feedstocks (corn-based glucose and soy-based glycerol) through 66 proposed biosynthetic pathways in two host organisms (Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The MuSIC framework allows exploration of tradeoffs and interactions between economy-scale objectives (e.g. profit maximization, emission minimization), constraints (e.g. land-use constraints) and process- and cell-scale technology choices (e.g. strain design or oxygenation conditions). We demonstrate that economy-scale assessment can be used to guide specific strain design decisions in metabolic engineering, and that these design decisions can be affected by non-intuitive dependencies across multiple scales.

  19. From zero to hero - production of bio-based nylon from renewable resources using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kind, Stefanie; Neubauer, Steffi; Becker, Judith; Yamamoto, Motonori; Völkert, Martin; Abendroth, Gregory von; Zelder, Oskar; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-09-01

    Polyamides are important industrial polymers. Currently, they are produced exclusively from petrochemical monomers. Herein, we report the production of a novel bio-nylon, PA5.10 through an integration of biological and chemical approaches. First, systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum was used to create an effective microbial cell factory for the production of diaminopentane as the polymer building block. In this way, a hyper-producer, with a high diaminopentane yield of 41% in shake flask culture, was generated. Subsequent fed-batch production of C. glutamicum DAP-16 allowed a molar yield of 50%, a productivity of 2.2gL(-1)h(-1), and a final titer of 88gL(-1). The streamlined producer accumulated diaminopentane without generating any by-products. Solvent extraction from alkalized broth and two-step distillation provided highly pure diaminopentane (99.8%), which was then directly accessible for poly-condensation. Chemical polymerization with sebacic acid, a ten-carbon dicarboxylic acid derived from castor plant oil, yielded the bio-nylon, PA5.10. In pure form and reinforced with glass fibers, the novel 100% bio-polyamide achieved an excellent melting temperature and the mechanical strength of the well-established petrochemical polymers, PA6 and PA6.6. It even outperformed the oil-based products in terms of having a 6% lower density. It thus holds high promise for applications in energy-friendly transportation. The demonstration of a novel route for generation of bio-based nylon from renewable sources opens the way to production of sustainable bio-polymers with enhanced material properties and represents a milestone in industrial production. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  1. Polymers from biobased materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chum, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on polymers from biobased materials which are polymers derived from renewable resources by chemical or combined chemical and mechanical methods, or produced directly in biological processes. Combinations of renewable and conventional fossil-fuel-derived plastics are also biobased materials. This assessment reviews materials from renewable resources and their properties, including major biopolymers produced by plants and selected animal sources.

  2. Field Demonstration of Bio-based Hydraulic Fluids for Military Construction Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-24

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Committed to Excellence 21-24 May 2007 2 Outline Background Federal Biobased Products Preferred Procurement Program New...Biodegradable/ Biobased Hydraulic Fluid Specification Field Demonstration-Final results Conclusions Committed to Excellence 21-24 May 2007 3 Background...Developing and Promoting Biobased Products and Bioenergy U.S. Army has issued a Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid (BHF) Specification to accept Bio-based Fluids

  3. Biocatalysts and methods for conversion of hemicellulose hydrolysates to biobased products

    DOEpatents

    Preston, James F

    2015-03-31

    The invention relates to processes and biocatalysts for producing ethanol and other useful products from biomass and/or other materials. Initial processing of lignocellulosic biomass frequently yields methylglucuronoxylose (MeGAX) and related products which are resistant to further processing by common biocatalysts. Strains of Enterobacter asburiae are shown to be useful in bioprocessing of MeGAX and other materials into useful bioproducts such as ethanol, acetate, lactate, and many others. Genetic engineering may be used to enhance production of desired bioproducts.

  4. A synthetic biochemistry module for production of bio-based chemicals from glucose.

    PubMed

    Opgenorth, Paul H; Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic biochemistry, the cell-free production of biologically based chemicals, is a potentially high-yield, flexible alternative to in vivo metabolic engineering. To limit costs, cell-free systems must be designed to operate continuously with minimal addition of feedstock chemicals. We describe a robust, efficient synthetic glucose breakdown pathway and implement it for the production of bioplastic. The system's performance suggests that synthetic biochemistry has the potential to become a viable industrial alternative.

  5. Fostering the Bioeconomic Revolution ... in Biobased Products and Bioenergy: An Environmental Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    soaps, detergents, wetting agents, and foaming agents. Taxol: an anticancer drug used for treating ovarian (and possibly other) cancers . Extracted...filler for auto fenders, and panels for vehicle liners 16 Pharmaceuticals and veterinary products Taxol for cancer treatment There will also be...vegetable oils, or microalgae oils. bioeconomic: an economy based on biological sci- ences and advances in related engineering disciplines and

  6. Bio-based production of chemicals, materials and fuels -Corynebacterium glutamicum as versatile cell factory.

    PubMed

    Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Since their discovery almost 60 years ago, Corynebacterium glutamicum and related subspecies are writing a remarkable success story in industrial biotechnology. Today, these gram-positive soil bacteria, traditionally well-known as excellent producers of L-amino acids are becoming flexible, efficient production platforms for various chemicals, materials and fuels. This development is intensively driven by systems metabolic engineering concepts integrating systems biology and synthetic biology into strain engineering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of hydrophobic amino acids from biobased resources: wheat gluten and rubber seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Widyarani; Sari, Yessie W; Ratnaningsih, Enny; Sanders, Johan P M; Bruins, Marieke E

    2016-09-01

    Protein hydrolysis enables production of peptides and free amino acids that are suitable for usage in food and feed or can be used as precursors for bulk chemicals. Several essential amino acids for food and feed have hydrophobic side chains; this property may also be exploited for subsequent separation. Here, we present methods for selective production of hydrophobic amino acids from proteins. Selectivity can be achieved by selection of starting material, selection of hydrolysis conditions, and separation of achieved hydrolysate. Several protease combinations were applied for hydrolysis of rubber seed protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). High degree of hydrolysis (>50 %) could be achieved. Hydrophobic selectivity was influenced by the combination of proteases and by the extent of hydrolysis. Combination of Pronase and Peptidase R showed the highest selectivity towards hydrophobic amino acids, roughly doubling the content of hydrophobic amino acids in the products compared to the original substrates. Hydrophobic selectivity of 0.6 mol-hydrophobic/mol-total free amino acids was observed after 6 h hydrolysis of wheat gluten and 24 h hydrolysis of rubber seed proteins and BSA. The results of experiments with rubber seed proteins and wheat gluten suggest that this process can be applied to agro-industrial residues.

  8. Production and applications of carbohydrate-derived sugar acids as generic biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    Mehtiö, Tuomas; Toivari, Mervi; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Harlin, Ali; Penttilä, Merja; Koivula, Anu

    2016-10-01

    This review considers the chemical and biotechnological synthesis of acids that are obtained by direct oxidation of mono- or oligosaccharide, referred to as sugar acids. It focuses on sugar acids which can be readily derived from plant biomass sources and their current and future applications. The three main classes of sugar acids are aldonic, aldaric and uronic acids. Interest in organic acids derived from sugars has recently increased, as part of the interest to develop biorefineries which produce not only biofuels, but also chemicals to replace those currently derived from petroleum. More than half of the most desirable biologically produced platform chemicals are organic acids. Currently, the only sugar acid with high commercial production is d-gluconic acid. However, other sugar acids such as d-glucaric and meso-galactaric acids are being produced at a lower scale. The sugar acids have application as sequestering agents and binders, corrosion inhibitors, biodegradable chelators for pharmaceuticals and pH regulators. There is also considerable interest in the use of these molecules in the production of synthetic polymers, including polyamides, polyesters and hydrogels. Further development of these sugar acids will lead to higher volume production of the appropriate sugar acids and will help support the next generation of biorefineries.

  9. Bio-based phenols and fuel production from catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin by activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Liu, Yupeng; Yadavalli, Gayatri; Tang, Juming

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin for renewable phenols and fuels using activated carbon (AC) as a catalyst. A central composite experimental design (CCD) was used to optimize the reaction condition. The effects of reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV, h(-1)) on product yields were investigated. GC/MS analysis showed that the main chemical compounds of bio-oils were phenols, guaiacols, hydrocarbons and esters, most of which were ranged from 71% to 87% of the bio-oils depending on different reaction conditions. Bio-oils with high concentrations of phenol (45% in the bio-oil) were obtained. The calorific value analysis revealed that the high heating values (HHV) of the lignin-derived biochars were from 20.4 to 24.5 MJ/kg in comparison with raw lignin (19 MJ/kg). The reaction mechanism of this process was analyzed.

  10. 75 FR 71491 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is proposing to amend the Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement (Guidelines) to add 14 sections that will designate the following items within which biobased products would be afforded Federal procurement preference: Animal repellents; bath products; bioremediation materials; compost activators and accelerators; concrete and asphalt cleaners; cuts, burns, and abrasions ointments; dishwashing products; erosion control materials; floor cleaners and protectors; hair care products; interior paints and coatings; oven and grill cleaners; slide way lubricants; and thermal shipping containers. USDA is also proposing minimum biobased contents for each of these items.

  11. Biobased products from soybeans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With recent rises in petroleum crude oil prices to over $50 per barrel and anticipated future price increases as petroleum resources become less available, many applications that depend on petroleum are searching for alternatives. Along with this, more stringent environmental standards, ability to ...

  12. Biobased adhesives and non-conventional bonding

    Treesearch

    Charles Frihart

    2010-01-01

    Biobased adhesives fall into several major classes based upon their chemical structures. Starches are used in large volume, especially in the paper products industries, but cellulosics generally do not have the strength and water resistance needed for most wood products. Several authors have covered cellulosics adhesives (Baumann and Conner 2002, Pizzi 2006). However...

  13. Current Trends in Biobased Lubricant Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biobased lubricants are those comprising ingredients derived from natural raw materials such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. Biolubricants provide a number of benefits over petroleum-based products including: biodegradability, renewability, and non-toxicity. As a result, manufacture ...

  14. Biobased Lubricant Development - Problems and Opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biobased lubricants are those comprising ingredients derived from natural sources such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. Biolubricants provide a number of economic, environmental and health benefits over petroleum-based products. Among these are: biodegradability, renewability and non-t...

  15. Synthesis and Verification of Biobased Terephthalic Acid from Furfural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Yuya; Kimura, Saori; Kasuya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Exploiting biomass as an alternative to petrochemicals for the production of commodity plastics is vitally important if we are to become a more sustainable society. Here, we report a synthetic route for the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the monomer of the widely used thermoplastic polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), from the biomass-derived starting material furfural. Biobased furfural was oxidised and dehydrated to give maleic anhydride, which was further reacted with biobased furan to give its Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The dehydration of the DA adduct gave phthalic anhydride, which was converted via phthalic acid and dipotassium phthalate to TPA. The biobased carbon content of the TPA was measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy and the TPA was found to be made of 100% biobased carbon.

  16. Synthesis and Verification of Biobased Terephthalic Acid from Furfural

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yuya; Kimura, Saori; Kasuya, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting biomass as an alternative to petrochemicals for the production of commodity plastics is vitally important if we are to become a more sustainable society. Here, we report a synthetic route for the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the monomer of the widely used thermoplastic polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), from the biomass-derived starting material furfural. Biobased furfural was oxidised and dehydrated to give maleic anhydride, which was further reacted with biobased furan to give its Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The dehydration of the DA adduct gave phthalic anhydride, which was converted via phthalic acid and dipotassium phthalate to TPA. The biobased carbon content of the TPA was measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy and the TPA was found to be made of 100% biobased carbon. PMID:25648201

  17. Synthesis and verification of biobased terephthalic acid from furfural.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Yuya; Kimura, Saori; Kasuya, Ken-ichi

    2015-02-04

    Exploiting biomass as an alternative to petrochemicals for the production of commodity plastics is vitally important if we are to become a more sustainable society. Here, we report a synthetic route for the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the monomer of the widely used thermoplastic polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), from the biomass-derived starting material furfural. Biobased furfural was oxidised and dehydrated to give maleic anhydride, which was further reacted with biobased furan to give its Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The dehydration of the DA adduct gave phthalic anhydride, which was converted via phthalic acid and dipotassium phthalate to TPA. The biobased carbon content of the TPA was measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy and the TPA was found to be made of 100% biobased carbon.

  18. PCB in the environment: bio-based processes for soil decontamination and management of waste from the industrial production of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Siracusa, Giovanna; Becarelli, Simone; Lorenzi, Roberto; Gentini, Alessandro; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2017-09-05

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are hazardous soil contaminants for which a bio-based technology for their recovery is essential. The objective of this study was to validate the exploitation of spent mushroom substrate (SMS), a low or null cost organic waste derived from the industrial production of P. ostreatus, as bulking agent in a dynamic biopile pilot plant. The SMS shows potential oxidative capacity towards recalcitrant compounds. The aim was consistent with the design of a process of oxidation of highly chlorinated PCBs, which is independent from their reductive dehalogenation. Feasibility was verified at a mesocosm scale and validated at pilot scale in a dynamic biopile pilot plant treating ten tons of a historically contaminated soil (9.28±0.08mg PCB/kg soil dry weight). Mixing of the SMS with the soil was required for the depletion of the contaminants. At the pilot scale, after eight months of incubation, 94.1% depletion was recorded. A positive correlation between Actinobacteria and Firmicutes active metabolism, soil laccase activity and PCB removal was observed. The SMS was found to be exploitable as a versatile low cost organic substrate capable of activating processes for the oxidation of highly chlorinated PCBs. Moreover, its exploitation as bulking agent in biopiles is a valuable management strategy for the re-utilisation of an organic waste deriving from the industrial cultivation of edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 43808 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... noted that some product descriptions also indicate that the product contains nutrients or organic... use of packaging materials, fuels, etc. for product transport, having a negative effect on the.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is amending the Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for...

  20. Assessment of biobased materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chum, H.L.

    1989-12-01

    Biobased materials are polymers derived from renewable resources by chemical or combined chemical and mechanical methods, or produced directly in biological processes. Combinations of renewable and conventional fossil-fuel-derived plastics are also biobased materials. This assessment reviews materials from renewable resources and their properties including major biopolymers produced by plants and selected animal sources. Examples discussed are wood, its polymeric components such as cellulose and lignin, related polymers such as chitin, other carbohydrate polymers such as starch, which when combined with plastics can impart environmental degradability to the resulting material. The conventional role of inexpensive wood flour as a filler is reviewed as well as the future research necessary to bring these materials into a higher value use as a reinforcing material for composites. Automotive, building, and packaging materials applications are considered. Bioproduction of materials is reviewed for selected polymers such as cellulose, other plant cell wall polymers, and proteins, with emphasis on silk and wool. These materials can be produced with specific properties such as biodegradability (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate and valerate copolymers, polylactide polymers) or specific mechanical properties.

  1. Production of bio-based fiber gums from the waste streams resulting from the commercial processing of corn bran and oat hulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. food and non-food industries would benefit from the development of a domestically produced crude, semi-pure and pure bio-based fiber gum from corn bran and oat hulls processing waste streams. When corn bran and oat hulls are processed to produce a commercial cellulose enriched fiber gel, th...

  2. Substrate specificity of 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium symbiosum: toward a bio-based production of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Anutthaman; Pierik, Antonio J; Kahnt, Jörg; Zelder, Oskar; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2011-05-03

    Expression of six genes from two glutamate fermenting clostridia converted Escherichia coli into a producer of glutaconate from 2-oxoglutarate of the general metabolism (Djurdjevic, I. et al. 2010, Appl. Environ. Microbiol.77, 320-322). The present work examines whether this pathway can also be used to reduce 2-oxoadipate to (R)-2-hydroxyadipic acid and dehydrate its CoA thioester to 2-hexenedioic acid, an unsaturated precursor of the biotechnologically valuable adipic acid (hexanedioic acid). 2-Hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium symbiosum, the key enzyme of this pathway and a potential radical enzyme, catalyzes the reversible dehydration of (R)-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA to (E)-glutaconyl-CoA. Using a spectrophotometric assay and mass spectrometry, it was found that (R)-2-hydroxyadipoyl-CoA, oxalocrotonyl-CoA, muconyl-CoA, and butynedioyl-CoA, but not 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA, served as alternative substrates. Hydration of butynedioyl-CoA most likely led to 2-oxosuccinyl-CoA, which spontaneously hydrolyzed to oxaloacetate and CoASH. The dehydratase is not specific for the CoA-moiety because (R)-2-hydroxyglutaryl-thioesters of N-acetylcysteamine and pantetheine served as almost equal substrates. Whereas the related 2-hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase generated the stable and inhibitory 2,4-pentadienoyl-CoA radical, the analogous allylic ketyl radical could not be detected with muconyl-CoA and 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase. With the exception of (R)-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA, all mono-CoA-thioesters of dicarboxylates used in this study were synthesized with glutaconate CoA-transferase from Acidaminococcus fermentans. The now possible conversion of (R)-2-hydroxyadipate via (R)-2-hydroxyadipoyl-CoA and 2-hexenedioyl-CoA to 2-hexenedioate paves the road for a bio-based production of adipic acid.

  3. Environmentally friendly and biobased lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biobased and environmentally friendly lubricants are finding applications in many areas ranging from hydraulic fluids to grease. They offer excellent biodegradability and very low ecotoxicity; high viscosity index; improved tribological properties; lower volatility and flash points relative to petro...

  4. Bioprocessing of bio-based chemicals produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-12-01

    The feedstocks used for the production of bio-based chemicals have recently expanded from edible sugars to inedible and more recalcitrant forms of lignocellulosic biomass. To produce bio-based chemicals from renewable polysaccharides, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed and include separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), and consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). In the last decade, SHF, SSF, and CBP have been used to generate macromolecules and aliphatic and aromatic compounds that are capable of serving as sustainable, drop-in substitutes for petroleum-based chemicals. The present review focuses on recent progress in the bioprocessing of microbially produced chemicals from renewable feedstocks, including starch and lignocellulosic biomass. In particular, the technological feasibility of bio-based chemical production is discussed in terms of the feedstocks and different bioprocessing approaches, including the consolidation of enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation.

  5. Advances in catalytic production of bio-based polyester monomer 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Li, Junke; Tang, Yanjun; Lin, Lu; Long, Minnan

    2015-10-05

    Recently, the production and utilization of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) have become a hot research topic in catalyst field and polyester industry for its special chemical structure and a wide range of raw material source. FDCA is a potential replacement for the terephthalic acid monomer used in the production of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), which opens up a new pathway for obtaining biomass-based polyester to replace or partially replace petroleum based polyester. Here, we mainly reviewed the catalytic pathway for the synthesis of FDCA derived from lignocellulosic biomass or from the related downstream products, such as glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Moreover, the utilization of oxidation catalysts, the reaction mechanism, the existing limitations and unsolved challenges were also elaborated in detail. Therefore, we hope this mini review provides a helpful overview and insight to readers in this exciting research area.

  6. Citrus waste as feedstock for bio-based products recovery: Review on limonene case study and energy valorization.

    PubMed

    Negro, Viviana; Mancini, Giuseppe; Ruggeri, Bernardo; Fino, Debora

    2016-08-01

    The citrus peels and residue of fruit juices production are rich in d-limonene, a cyclic terpene characterized by antimicrobial activity, which could hamper energy valorization bioprocess. Considering that limonene is used in nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, citrus by-products processing appear to be a suitable feedstock either for high value product recovery or energy bio-processes. This waste stream, more than 10MTon at 2013 in European Union (AIJN, 2014), can be considered appealing, from the view point of conducting a key study on limonene recovery, as its content of about 1%w/w of high value-added molecule. Different processes are currently being studied to recover or remove limonene from citrus peel to both prevent pollution and energy resources recovery. The present review is aimed to highlight pros and contras of different approaches suggesting an energy sustainability criterion to select the most effective one for materials and energy valorization.

  7. ESTIMATING WATER FOOTPRINT AND MANAGING BIOREFINERY WASTEWATER IN THE PRODUCTION OF BIO-BASED RENEWABLE DIESEL BLENDSTOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, May M.; Sawyer, Bernard M

    2016-12-01

    This analysis covers the entire biorefinery operation. The study focuses on net water consumed for the production of a unit of biofuel: blue, green, and grey water footprint. Blue water is defined as the water consumed in the biorefinery that is withdrawn from surface and ground water. Blue water footprint includes enzyme cultivation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, bioreactor, cooling system, boiler, fuel upgrading, combustor track, and on-site WWT. Grey water is defined as wastewater generated from the biorefinery and was evaluated based on the wastewater treatment plant design. Green water, defined as rainwater consumed for the production, is not required in the RDB process. Approximately 7–15 gal of water are required to produce a gallon of RDB when corn stover or non-irrigated perennial grasses, switchgrass and Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus), serve as the feedstock in the contiguous United States. Bioelectricity generation from the biorefinery resulted in a net water credit, which reduced the water footprint. The life cycle grey water footprint for nitrogen is primarily from nitrogen in the feedstock production stage because no wastewater is discharged into the environment in the RDB process. Perennial grasses-based RDB production shows a promising grey water footprint, while corn stover-based RDB production has a relatively low green water footprint. Results from the study can help improve our understanding of the water sustainability of advanced biofuel technology under development. Make-up water for cooling and boiling remains a major demand in the biorefinery. The work revealed a key issue or trade-off between achieving zero liquid discharge to maximize water resource use and potentially increasing cost of fuel production. Solid waste disposal was identified as a management issue, and its inverse relationship with wastewater management could affect economic sustainability.

  8. 75 FR 6795 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...; topical pain relief products; and turbine drip oils. USDA is also proposing minimum biobased contents for... the various brands of crankcase oils or interior paints. Once USDA designates an item, procuring... under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Section 6002. Some of the products that...

  9. Biobased and biodegradable polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Kaiyan

    In this dissertation, various noncrosslinked and crosslinked biobased and biodegradable polymer nanocomposites were fabricated and characterized. The properties of these polymer nanocomposites, and their relating mechanisms and corresponding applications were studied and discussed in depth. Chapter 1 introduces the research background and objectives of the current research. Chapter 2 presents the development of a novel low cost carbon source for bacterial cellulose (BC) production and fabrication and characterization of biobased polymer nanocomposites using produced BC and soy protein based resins. The carbon source, soy flour extract (SFE), was obtained from defatted soy flour (SF) and BC yield achieved using SFE medium was high. The results of this study showed that SFE consists of five sugars and Acetobacter xylinum metabolized sugars in a specific order. Chapter 3 discusses the fabrication and characterization of biodegradable polymer nanocomposites using BC and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). These polymer nanocomposites had excellent tensile and thermal properties. Crosslinking of PVA using glutaraldehyde (GA) not only increased the mechanical and thermal properties but the water-resistance. Chapter 4 describes the development and characterization of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) based biodegradable polymer nanocomposites by blending MFC suspension with PVA. Chemical crosslinking of the polymer nanocomposites was carried out using glyoxal to increase the mechanical and thermal properties as well as to make the PVA partially water-insoluble. Chapter 5 reports the development and characterization of halloysite nanotube (HNT) reinforced biodegradable polymer nanocomposites utilizing HNT dispersion and PVA. Several separation techniques were used to obtain individualized HNT dispersion. The results indicated uniform dispersion of HNTs in both PVA and malonic acid (MA) crosslinked PVA resulted in excellent mechanical and thermal properties of the materials, especially

  10. Ionic liquid as a promising biobased green solvent in combination with microwave irradiation for direct biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    The wet biomass microalgae of Nannochloropsis sp. was converted to biodiesel using direct transesterification (DT) by microwave technique and ionic liquid (IL) as the green solvent. Three different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-metyhlimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl], 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium methyl sulphate [EMIM][MeSO4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3]) and organic solvents (hexane and methanol) were used as co-solvents under microwave irradiation and their performances in terms of percentage disruption, cell walls ruptured and biodiesel yields were compared at different reaction times (5, 10 and 15 min). [EMIM][MeSO4] showed highest percentage cell disruption (99.73%) and biodiesel yield (36.79% per dried biomass) after 15 min of simultaneous reaction. The results demonstrated that simultaneous extraction-transesterification using ILs and microwave irradiation is a potential alternative method for biodiesel production.

  11. Bio-based wood adhesives research: Advances and outlooks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the past three decades, concerns related to the environment and human health risks and interests in resources recycling and sustainability have propelled the resurgence of the research on bio-based adhesives, especially those based on agricultural and forest products and byproducts. In this concl...

  12. 76 FR 41179 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Biobased Procurements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... require contractors to report the biobased products purchased under service and construction contracts... purchased under service and construction contracts. This will allow Federal agencies to monitor compliance...--Photographic, Mapping, Printing, and Publication Services; Y--Construction of Structures and Facilities; and...

  13. Preparation of biobased sponges from un-tanned hides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of our research endeavors to address ongoing challenges faced by the U.S. hide and leather industries is to develop innovative uses and novel biobased products from hides to improve prospective markets and to secure a viable future for hides and leather industries. We had previously investigate...

  14. 129Xe NMR studies of biochar made from biobased materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochar is created by pyrolysis of biobased materials under controlled oxidative environments. The product is charcoal-like and can be used as filtration medium, sequestrant for metallic ions, soil conditioner, and other applications. In our work we have found 129Xe NMR to be an excellent technique...

  15. Including public perspectives in industrial biotechnology and the biobased economy.

    PubMed

    Paula, Lino; Birrer, Frans

    2006-01-01

    Industrial ("white") biotechnology promises to contribute to a more sustainable future. Compared to current production processes, cases have been identified where industrial biotechnology can decrease the amount of energy and raw materials used to make products and also reduce the amount of emissions and waste produced during production. However, switching from products based on chemical production processes and fossil fuels towards "biobased" products is at present not necessarily economically viable. This is especially true for bulk products, for example ethanol production from biomass. Therefore, scientists are also turning to genetic modification as a means to develop organisms that can produce at lower costs. These include not only micro-organisms, but also organisms used in agriculture for food and feed. The use of genetic modification for "deliberate release" purposes, in particular, has met great opposition in Europe. Many industrial biotechnology applications may, due to their scale, entail deliberate releases of GM organisms. Thus, the biobased economy brings back a familiar question; is it ethically justifiable, and acceptable to citizens, to expose the environment and society to the risks associated with GM, in order to protect that same environment and to sustain our affluent way of life? For a successful innovation towards a biobased economy, its proponents, especially producers, need to take into account (take responsibility for) such issues when developing new products and processes. These issues, and how scientists can interact with citizens about them in a timely way, are further explored in projects at Delft University and Leiden University, also in collaboration with Utrecht University.

  16. Biobased Epoxy Resins from Deconstructed Native Softwood Lignin.

    PubMed

    van de Pas, Daniel J; Torr, Kirk M

    2017-08-14

    The synthesis of novel epoxy resins from lignin hydrogenolysis products is reported. Native lignin in pine wood was depolymerized by mild hydrogenolysis to give an oil product that was reacted with epichlorohydrin to give epoxy prepolymers. These were blended with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether or glycerol diglycidyl ether and cured with diethylenetriamine or isophorone diamine. The key novelty of this work lies in using the inherent properties of the native lignin in preparing new biobased epoxy resins. The lignin-derived epoxy prepolymers could be used to replace 25-75% of the bisphenol A diglycidyl ether equivalent, leading to increases of up to 52% in the flexural modulus and up to 38% in the flexural strength. Improvements in the flexural strength were attributed to the oligomeric products present in the lignin hydrogenolysis oil. These results indicate lignin hydrogenolysis products have potential as sustainable biobased polyols in the synthesis of high performance epoxy resins.

  17. Development of Biobased Composites of Structural Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Christopher Alan

    Highly biobased composites with properties and costs rivaling those consisting of synthetic constituents are a goal of much current research. The obvious material choices, vegetable oil based resins and natural fibers, present the challenges of poor resin properties and weak fiber/matrix bonding, respectively. Conventional methods of overcoming poor resin quality involve the incorporation of additives, which dilutes the resulting composite's bio-content and increases cost. To overcome these limitations while maintaining high bio-content and low cost, epoxidized sucrose soyate is combined with surface-treated flax fiber to produce biocomposites. These composites are fabricated using methods emphasizing scalability and efficiency, for cost effectiveness of the final product. This approach resulted in the successful production of biocomposites having properties that meet or exceed those of conventional pultruded members. These properties, such as tensile and flexural strengths of 223 and 253 MPa, respectively, were achieved by composites having around 85% bio-content.

  18. Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.

    PubMed

    Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

    2011-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well.

  19. Biobased industrial lubricants and biopreferred program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global chemical industry growth is projected at 3 to 6 percent per year through 2025, while the biobased chemicals market share is expected to grow from 2 to 22 percent and biobased polymers are expected to increase from 0.1 to 10-20 percent market share. Finding a renewable replacement for petrole...

  20. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy.

    PubMed

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Mey, Marjan; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  1. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    PubMed Central

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Breusegem, Frank Van; Mey, Marjan De; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy. PMID:23761802

  2. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  3. Bio-based polyurethane foams from renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanzione, M.; Russo, V.; Sorrentino, A.; Tesser, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Oliviero, M.; Di Serio, M.; Iannace, S.; Verdolotti, L.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, bio-derived natural materials, such as vegetable oils, polysaccharides and biomass represent a rich source of hydroxyl precursors for the synthesis of polyols which can be potentially used to synthesize "greener" polyurethane foams. Herein a bio-based precursor (obtained from succinic acid) was used as a partial replacement of conventional polyol to synthesize PU foams. A mixture of conventional and bio-based polyol in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Experimental results highlighted the suitability of this bio-precursor to be used in the production of flexible PU foams. Furthermore the chemo-physical characterization of the resulting foams show an interesting improvement in thermal stability and elastic modulus with respect to the PU foams produced with conventional polyol.

  4. Fast-responding bio-based shape memory thermoplastic polyurethanes

    DOE PAGES

    Petrovic, Zoran S.; Milic, Jelena; Zhang, Fan; ...

    2017-05-31

    Fast response shape-memory polyurethanes were prepared from bio-based polyols, diphenyl methane diisocyanate and butane diol. The bio-based polyester polyols were synthesized from 9-hydroxynonanoic acid, a product obtained by ozonolysis of fatty acids extracted from soy oil and castor oil. The morphology of polyurethanes was investigated by synchrotron ultra-small angle X-ray scattering, which revealed the inter-domain spacing between the hard and soft phases, the degree of phase separation, and the level of intermixing between the hard and soft phases. We also conducted thorough investigations of the thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties of the polyurethanes, and found that high crystallization rate ofmore » the soft segment gives these polyurethanes unique properties suitable for shapememory applications, such as adjustable transition temperatures, high degree of elastic elongations, and good mechanical strength. In conclusion, these materials are also potentially biodegradable and biocompatible, therefore suitable for biomedical and environmental applications.« less

  5. Synthesis of biobased succinonitrile from glutamic acid and glutamine.

    PubMed

    Lammens, Tijs M; Le Nôtre, Jérôme; Franssen, Maurice C R; Scott, Elinor L; Sanders, Johan P M

    2011-06-20

    Succinonitrile is the precursor of 1,4-diaminobutane, which is used for the industrial production of polyamides. This paper describes the synthesis of biobased succinonitrile from glutamic acid and glutamine, amino acids that are abundantly present in many plant proteins. Synthesis of the intermediate 3-cyanopropanoic amide was achieved from glutamic acid 5-methyl ester in an 86 mol% yield and from glutamine in a 56 mol % yield. 3-Cyanopropanoic acid can be converted into succinonitrile, with a selectivity close to 100% and a 62% conversion, by making use of a palladium(II)-catalyzed equilibrium reaction with acetonitrile. Thus, a new route to produce biobased 1,4-diaminobutane has been discovered. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Biocatalysis for biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    de Regil, Rubén; Sandoval, Georgina

    2013-10-17

    The design and development of greener processes that are safe and friendly is an irreversible trend that is driven by sustainable and economic issues. The use of Biocatalysis as part of a manufacturing process fits well in this trend as enzymes are themselves biodegradable, require mild conditions to work and are highly specific and well suited to carry out complex reactions in a simple way. The growth of computational capabilities in the last decades has allowed Biocatalysis to develop sophisticated tools to understand better enzymatic phenomena and to have the power to control not only process conditions but also the enzyme's own nature. Nowadays, Biocatalysis is behind some important products in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and bulk chemicals industry. In this review we want to present some of the most representative examples of industrial chemicals produced in vitro through enzymatic catalysis.

  7. Biocatalysis for Biobased Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    de Regil, Rubén; Sandoval, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of greener processes that are safe and friendly is an irreversible trend that is driven by sustainable and economic issues. The use of Biocatalysis as part of a manufacturing process fits well in this trend as enzymes are themselves biodegradable, require mild conditions to work and are highly specific and well suited to carry out complex reactions in a simple way. The growth of computational capabilities in the last decades has allowed Biocatalysis to develop sophisticated tools to understand better enzymatic phenomena and to have the power to control not only process conditions but also the enzyme’s own nature. Nowadays, Biocatalysis is behind some important products in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and bulk chemicals industry. In this review we want to present some of the most representative examples of industrial chemicals produced in vitro through enzymatic catalysis. PMID:24970192

  8. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities – for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight – these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material’s systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an “amberless” system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as

  9. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzalez-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as part of our

  10. Structure-triboproperty in biobased amphiphiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives are amphiphilic and display a number of properties critical to their application in tribological processes. Among such properties are: viscosity, viscosity index, oxidation stability, cold flow, boundary friction, etc. The properties of these biobased amphiphiles...

  11. Synergy between bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Teekens, Amanda M; Bruins, Marieke E; van Kasteren, Johannes Mn; Hendriks, Wouter H; Sanders, Johan Pm

    2016-06-01

    Processing biomass into multi-functional components can contribute to the increasing demand for raw materials for feed and bio-based non-food products. This contribution aims to demonstrate synergy between the bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery of currently used feed ingredients. Illustrating the biorefinery concept, rapeseed was selected as a low priced feed ingredient based on market prices versus crude protein, crude fat and apparent ileal digestible lysine content. In addition it is already used as an alternative protein source in diets and can be cultivated in European climate zones. Furthermore, inclusion level of rapeseed meal in pig diet is limited because of its nutritionally active factors. A conceptual process was developed to improve rapeseeds nutritional value and producing other bio-based building blocks simultaneously. Based on the correlation between market prices of feed ingredients and its protein and fat content, the value of refined products was estimated. Finally, a sensitivity analysis, under two profit scenario, shows that the process is economically feasible. This study demonstrates that using biorefinery processes on feed ingredients can improve feed quality. In conjunction, it produces building blocks for a bio-based industry and creates synergy between bio-based and feed industry for more efficient use of biomass. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Integrating separation and conversion - Conversion of biorefinery process streams to biobased chemicals and fuels

    Treesearch

    Joseph J. Bozell; Berenger Biannic; Diana Cedeno; Thomas Elder; Omid Hosseinaei; Lukas Delbeck; Jae-Woo Kim; C.J. O' Lenick; Timothy Young

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The concept of the integrated biorefinery is critical to developing a robust biorefining industry in the USA.Within this model, the biorefinery will produce fuel as a highvolume output addressing domestic energy needs and biobased chemical products (high-value organics) as an output providing necessary economic support for fuel production. This paper will...

  13. Boron brings big benefits to bio-based blends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solution to the problems with bio-based lubrication can be approached by a combination of blending and additive strategies. However, many additives do not show efficacy when used in bio-based lubricants. Additive addition also lowers the bio-based content of the blend, which in turn limits the a...

  14. Development of expert system for biobased polymer material selection: food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Biobased food packaging materials are gaining more attention owing to their intrinsic biodegradable nature and renewability. Selection of suitable biobased polymers for food packaging applications could be a tedious task with potential mistakes in choosing the best materials. In this paper, an expert system was developed using Exsys Corvid software to select suitable biobased polymer materials for packaging fruits, dry food and dairy products. If - Then rule based system was utilized to accomplish the material selection process whereas a score system was formulated to facilitate the ranking of selected materials. The expert system selected materials that satisfied all constraints and selection results were presented in suitability sequence depending on their scores. The expert system selected polylactic acid (PLA) as the most suitable material.

  15. Composites and blends from biobased materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    The program is focused on the development of composites and blends from biobased materials to use as membranes, high value plastics, and lightweight composites. Biobased materials include: cellulose derivative microporous materials, cellulose derivative copolymers, and cellulose derivative blends. This year`s research focused on developing an improved understanding of the molecular features that cellulose based materials with improved properties for gas separation applications. Novel cellulose ester membrane composites have been developed and are being evaluated under a collaborative research agreement with Dow Chemicals Company.

  16. The Future of Ethenolysis in Biobased Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Spekreijse, Jurjen; Sanders, Johan P M; Bitter, Johannes H; Scott, Elinor L

    2017-02-08

    The desire to utilise biobased feedstocks and develop more sustainable chemistry poses new challenges in catalysis. A synthetically useful catalytic conversion is ethenolysis, a cross metathesis reaction with ethylene. In this Review, the state of the art of ethenolysis in biobased chemistry was extensively examined using methyl oleate as a model compound for fatty acids. Allied to this, the ethenolysis of fatty acid, polymers and more challenging substrates are reviewed. To determine the limiting factors for the application of ethenolysis on biomass, the influence of reaction parameters were investigated and the bottlenecks for reaching high turnover numbers identified. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Madbouly, Samy A; Kessler, Michael R

    2015-01-21

    In this study, a series of biobased polyols were prepared from olive, canola, grape seed, linseed, and castor oil using a novel, solvent/catalyst-free synthetic method. The biobased triglyceride oils were first oxidized into epoxidized vegetable oils with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by ring-opening reaction with castor oil fatty acid. The molecular structures of the polyols and the resulting polyurethane were characterized. The effects of cross-linking density and the structures of polyols on the thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of the polyurethanes were also investigated.

  18. Encapsulation of a model compound in pectin delays its release from a biobased polymeric material

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A model compound was encapsulated in pectin and then extruded with thermoplastic starch to form a composite. The intended product was a food-contact tray made of biobased polymers infused with an anti-microbial agent; however, caffeine was used as the model compound in the preliminary work. The mode...

  19. The physical properties, morphology and viscoelasticity of biobased sponges prepared from un-tanned hides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of our research endeavors to address ongoing challenges faced by the U.S. hide and leather industries is to develop innovative uses and novel biobased products from hides to improve prospective markets and to secure a viable future for hides and leather industries. We had previously investigate...

  20. Development of polyion-complex hydrogels as an alternative approach for the production of bio-based polymers for food packaging applications: A review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of packaging materials from renewable resources has for a long time been desirable for sustainability reasons, but with the recent explosion in prices of petroleum products, this now becomes also more economically viable. This paper shows how fundamental chemistry underlying three forms ...

  1. Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

    2013-09-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Keasling, Jay D; Katz, Leonard

    2017-04-01

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containing discrete enzymatic domains organized into modules. The modular nature of PKSs has enabled a multitude of efforts to engineer the PKS genes to produce novel polyketides of predicted structure. We have repurposed PKSs to produce a number of short-chain mono- and di-carboxylic acids and ketones that could have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals.

  3. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Keasling, Jay D.; Katz, Leonard

    2016-11-16

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containing discrete enzymatic domains organized into modules. The modular nature of PKSs has enabled a multitude of efforts to engineer the PKS genes to produce novel polyketides of predicted structure. Finally, we have repurposed PKSs to produce a number of short-chain mono- and di-carboxylic acids and ketones that could have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals.

  4. Biobased polymers for corrosion protection of metals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anticorrosive biobased polymers were developed in our lab. We isolated an exopolysaccharide produced by a microbe that, when coated on metal substrates, exhibited unique corrosion inhibition. Corrosion is a worldwide problem and impacts the economy, jeopardizes human health and safety, and impedes t...

  5. Biobased thioethers as metal-absorbing ligands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable oils have been reacted with thiols (mercaptans) to form biobased thioether-functionalized vegetable oils (TFVO). TFVO were efficient in the extraction of a model heavy-metal ion (Ag+) from an aqueous solution. TFVO, prepared from corn oil, was capable of reducing Ag+ concentration from 600...

  6. Potential for Biobased Adhesives in Wood Bonding

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest and research on using bio-based materials as wood adhesives; however, they have achieved only limited market acceptance. To better understand this low level of replacement, it is important to understand why adhesives work or fail in moisture durability tests. A holistic model for wood adhesives has been developed that clarifies...

  7. Latent heat characteristics of biobased oleochemical carbonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleochemical carbonates represent biobased materials that can be readily prepared through a carbonate interchange reaction between renewably available C10-C18 fatty alcohols. Although these carbonates have commercial use in cosmetics and lubricant applications, they have not been examined as phase ...

  8. Mixed film lubrication with biobased oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most tribological processes (e.g. metalworking), occur in the mixed film regime where the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of the oils play critical roles. In the work described here, the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of various biobased oils were evaluated. The oils were then investiga...

  9. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Jerry

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  10. Scenario projections for future market potentials of biobased bulk chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dornburg, Veronika; Hermann, Barbara G; Patel, Martin K

    2008-04-01

    Three scenario projections for future market potentials of biobased bulk chemicals produced by means of white biotechnology are developed for Europe (EU-25) until the year 2050, and potential nonrenewable energy savings, greenhouse gas emission reduction, and land use consequences are analyzed. These scenarios assume benign, moderate, and disadvantageous conditions for biobased chemicals. The scenario analysis yields a broad range of values for the possible market development of white biotechnology chemicals, that is, resulting in a share of white biotechnology chemicals relative to all organic chemicals of about 7 (or 5 million tonnes), 17.5 (or 26 million tonnes), or 38% (or 113 million tonnes) in 2050. We conclude that under favorable conditions, white biotechnology enables substantial savings of nonrenewable energy use (NREU) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to the energy use of the future production of all organic chemicals from fossil resources. Savings of NREU reach up to 17% for starch crops and up to 31% for lignocellulosic feedstock by 2050, and saving percentages for GHG emissions are in a similar range. Parallel to these environmental benefits, economic advantages of up to 75 billion Euro production cost savings arise.

  11. Liquefaction of oak tree bark with different biomass/phenol mass ratios and utilizing bio-based polyols for carbon foam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbay, N.; Yargic, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon foam is sponge like carbonaceous material with low density, high conductivity and high strength; which is used in various applications such as catalyst supports, membrane separations, high thermally conductive heat sinks, energy absorption materials, high temperature thermal insulation. Coal or fossil oils are conventionally used to fabricate pitch, phenolic resin and polyurethane as carbon foam precursor. Biomass liquefaction is a developing technique to convert biomass resources into the industrial chemicals. In this study, oak tree bark was liquefied under mild conditions with different mass ratio of biomass/phenol; and the liquefaction product was used as polyol to produce porous resin foams. Obtained resin foams were carbonized at 400 °C, and then activated at 800 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Structure evaluation of resin foams, carbonized foams and activated carbon foams from liquefied oak tree bark was investigated by using elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, bulk density and compressive strength tests.

  12. Processing biobased polymers using plasticizers: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desplentere, Frederik; Cardon, Ludwig; Six, Wim; Erkoç, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In polymer processing, the use of biobased products shows lots of possibilities. Considering biobased materials, biodegradability is in most cases the most important issue. Next to this, bio based materials aimed at durable applications, are gaining interest. Within this research, the influence of plasticizers on the processing of the bio based material is investigated. This work is done for an extrusion grade of PLA, Natureworks PLA 2003D. Extrusion through a slit die equipped with pressure sensors is used to compare the experimental pressure values to numerical simulation results. Additional experimental data (temperature and pressure data along the extrusion screw and die are recorded) is generated on a dr. Collin Lab extruder producing a 25mm diameter tube. All these experimental data is used to indicate the appropriate functioning of the numerical simulation tool Virtual Extrusion Laboratory 6.7 for the simulation of both the industrial available extrusion grade PLA and the compound in which 15% of plasticizer is added. Adding the applied plasticizer, resulted in a 40% lower pressure drop over the extrusion die. The combination of different experiments allowed to fit the numerical simulation results closely to the experimental values. Based on this experience, it is shown that numerical simulations also can be used for modified bio based materials if appropriate material and process data are taken into account.

  13. Cascade use indicators for selected biopolymers: Are we aiming for the right solutions in the design for recycling of bio-based polymers?

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Jakob; Bezama, Alberto; Thrän, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    When surveying the trends and criteria for the design for recycling (DfR) of bio-based polymers, priorities appear to lie in energy recovery at the end of the product life of durable products, such as bio-based thermosets. Non-durable products made of thermoplastic polymers exhibit good properties for material recycling. The latter commonly enjoy growing material recycling quotas in countries that enforce a landfill ban. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are needed for characterizing progress in the development towards more recycling friendly bio-based polymers. This would enable the deficits in recycling bio-based plastics to be tracked and improved. The aim of this paper is to analyse the trends in the DfR of bio-based polymers and the constraints posed by the recycling infrastructure on plastic polymers from a systems perspective. This analysis produces recommendations on how life cycle assessment indicators can be introduced into the dialogue between designers and recyclers in order to promote DfR principles to enhance the cascading use of bio-based polymers within the bioeconomy, and to meet circular economy goals.

  14. Cascade use indicators for selected biopolymers: Are we aiming for the right solutions in the design for recycling of bio-based polymers?

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Jakob; Bezama, Alberto; Thrän, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    When surveying the trends and criteria for the design for recycling (DfR) of bio-based polymers, priorities appear to lie in energy recovery at the end of the product life of durable products, such as bio-based thermosets. Non-durable products made of thermoplastic polymers exhibit good properties for material recycling. The latter commonly enjoy growing material recycling quotas in countries that enforce a landfill ban. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are needed for characterizing progress in the development towards more recycling friendly bio-based polymers. This would enable the deficits in recycling bio-based plastics to be tracked and improved. The aim of this paper is to analyse the trends in the DfR of bio-based polymers and the constraints posed by the recycling infrastructure on plastic polymers from a systems perspective. This analysis produces recommendations on how life cycle assessment indicators can be introduced into the dialogue between designers and recyclers in order to promote DfR principles to enhance the cascading use of bio-based polymers within the bioeconomy, and to meet circular economy goals. PMID:28097922

  15. Investigation of tribological properties of biobased polymers and polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Satyam Kumar

    Worldwide potential demands for replacing petroleum derived raw materials with renewable plant-based ones in the production of valuable polymeric materials and composites are quite significant from the social and environmental standpoints. Therefore, using low-cost renewable resources has deeply drawn the attention of many researchers. Among them, natural oils are expected to be ideal alternative feedstock since oils, derived from plant and animal sources, are found in profusion in the world. The important feature of these types of materials is that they can be designed and tailored to meet different requirements. The real challenge lies in finding applications which would use sufficiently large quantities of these materials allowing biodegradable polymers to compete economically in the market. Lack of material and tribological characterizations have created an awareness to fulfill this essential objective. In order to understand the viability of biobased polymers in structural applications, this thesis work elucidates the study of friction and wear characteristics of polymers and polymeric composites made out of natural oil available profusely in plants and animals. The natural oils used in this study were soybean and tung oil. Various monomeric components like styrene, divinely benzene etc. were used in the synthesis of biobased polymers through Rh-catalyzed isomerization techniques. For the different polymeric composites, spent germ, a byproduct of ethanol production, is used as the filler and an organoclay called montmorillonite is used as the reinforcing agent in the polymer matrix. The effect of crosslinker concentration, filler composition and reinforcement agent concentration was studied under dry sliding. A ball-on-flat tribometer with a probe made out of steel, silicon nitride or diamond was used for most of the experimental work to measure friction and generate wear. The wear tracks were quantified with an atomic force microscope and a contact

  16. Biodegradable and bio-based polymers: future prospects of eco-friendly plastics.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Tadahisa

    2015-03-09

    Currently used plastics are mostly produced from petrochemical products, but there is a growing demand for eco-friendly plastics. The use of bio-based plastics, which are produced from renewable resources, and biodegradable plastics, which are degraded in the environment, will lead to a more sustainable society and help us solve global environmental and waste management problems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Closure of the Cycle: Enzymatic Synthesis and Functionalization of Bio-Based Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Alessandro; Herrero Acero, Enrique; Ferrario, Valerio; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M; Gardossi, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    The polymer industry is under pressure to mitigate the environmental cost of petrol-based plastics. Biotechnologies contribute to the gradual replacement of petrol-based chemistry and the development of new renewable products, leading to the closure of carbon circle. An array of bio-based building blocks is already available on an industrial scale and is boosting the development of new generations of sustainable and functionally competitive polymers, such as polylactic acid (PLA). Biocatalysts add higher value to bio-based polymers by catalyzing not only their selective modification, but also their synthesis under mild and controlled conditions. The ultimate aim is the introduction of chemical functionalities on the surface of the polymer while retaining its bulk properties, thus enlarging the spectrum of advanced applications.

  18. From petrochemistry to biotech: a European perspective on the bio-based economy

    PubMed Central

    Landeweerd, Laurens; Surette, Monique; van Driel, Corry

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the issues at play in Europe with regard to the transition to a bio-based economy. Agricultural crops have always been used for the production of food, feed, fibre and fuel. The Model T Ford—the first mass produced car—originally ran on bioethanol, and wood has been in use as a source for energy ever since the discovery of fire. What is new is that the balance between agricultural uses is changing under the pressure of an increasing need for food and feed, as well as the new need for biofuels and biomaterials. At the basis of this change lie several serious issues related to the current use of bio-based feedstock to secure energy supply, the future depletion of natural resources and global climate change. Innovations in industrial biotechnology are expected to play a crucial role in dealing with these issues in biomass use.

  19. Synthesis of bio-based aldehyde from seaweed polysaccharide and its interaction with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kholiya, Faisal; Chaudhary, Jai Prakash; Vadodariya, Nilesh; Meena, Ramavatar

    2016-10-05

    Here, we demonstrate a successful synthesis of bio-based aldehyde namely dialdehyde-carboxymethylagarose (DCMA) using carboxymethyagarose (CMA). Further reaction parameters (i.e. reaction temperature, pH and periodate concentration) were optimized to achieve maximum aldehyde content and product yield. The synthesis of DCMA was confirmed by employing FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TGA, DSC, EA and GPC techniques. To investigate the aldehyde functionality, DCMA was allowed to interact with BSA and obtained results were found to be comparable with that of synthetic aldehyde (Formaldehyde). Further interaction of DCMA with BSA was confirmed by using UV-vis, FTIR, fluorescent spectroscopy, CD and DLS analysis. Results of this study revealed that bio-based aldehyde behaves like formaldehyde. This study adds value to abundant marine biopolymers and opens the new research area for polymer researchers.

  20. Bio-based Polymer Foam from Soyoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnaillie, Laetitia M.; Wool, Richard P.

    2006-03-01

    The growing bio-based polymeric foam industry is presently lead by plant oil-based polyols for polyurethanes and starch foams. We developed a new resilient, thermosetting foam system with a bio-based content higher than 80%. The acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and its fatty acid monomers is foamed with pressurized carbon dioxide and cured with free-radical initiators. The foam structure and pore dynamics are highly dependent on the temperature, viscosity and extent of reaction. Low-temperature cure hinds the destructive pore coalescence and the application of a controlled vacuum results in foams with lower densities ˜ 0.1 g/cc, but larger cells. We analyze the physics of foam formation and stability, as well as the structure and mechanical properties of the cured foam using rigidity percolation theory. The parameters studied include temperature, vacuum applied, and cross-link density. Additives bring additional improvements: nucleating agents and surfactants help produce foams with a high concentration of small cells and low bulk density. Hard and soft thermosetting foams with a bio content superior to 80% are successfully produced and tested. Potential applications include foam-core composites for hurricane-resistant housing, structural reinforcement for windmill blades, and tissue scaffolds.

  1. [Research progress in salting-out extraction of bio-based chemicals].

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianying; Liu, Chunjiao; Sun, Yaqin; Xiu, Zhilong

    2013-10-01

    Bio-refinery using cheap biomass focuses mainly on strain improvement and fermentation strategies whereas less effort is made on down-stream processing. Using cheap biomass more impurities are introduced into the fermentation broths than mono-sugar substrate, thus down-stream processing for bio-based chemicals becomes the key problem in industrial production. The technique called salting-out extraction (SOE) was introduced in this review, which is used to separate target products from fermentation broth on the basis of partition difference of chemicals in two phases formed by mixing salts and organic solvents (or amphipathic chemicals) with broth at suitable ratios. The effect of solvents and salts on the formation of two aqueous phases, especially short chain alcohols and inorganic salts, and the application of SOE in recovery of bio-based chemicals, such as lactic acid, 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol and acetoin were summarized. The bio-chemicals were efficiently recovered from fermentation broth, and most of the impurities (cells and proteins) were removed in the same step. This technique is promising in the separation of bio-based chemicals, especially the recovery of hydrophilic molecules with low molecular weights.

  2. Development of novel multifunctional biobased polymer composites with tailored conductive network of micro-and-nano-fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Siu N.; Ghaffari, Shahriar; Naguib, Hani E.

    2013-04-01

    Biobased/green polymers and nanotechnology warrant a multidisciplinary approach to promote the development of the next generation of materials, products, and processes that are environmentally sustainable. The scientific challenge is to find the suitable applications, and thereby to create the demand for large scale production of biobased/green polymers that would foster sustainable development of these eco-friendly materials in contrast to their petroleum/fossil fuel derived counterparts. In this context, this research aims to investigate the synergistic effect of green materials and nanotechnology to develop a new family of multifunctional biobased polymer composites with promoted thermal conductivity. For instance, such composite can be used as a heat management material in the electronics industry. A series of parametric studies were conducted to elucidate the science behind materials behavior and their structure-toproperty relationships. Using biobased polymers (e.g., polylactic acid (PLA)) as the matrix, heat transfer networks were developed and structured by embedding hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) in the PLA matrix. The use of hybrid filler system, with optimized material formulation, was found to promote the composite's effective thermal conductivity by 10-folded over neat PLA. This was achieved by promoting the development of an interconnected thermally conductive network through structuring hybrid fillers. The thermally conductive composite is expected to afford unique opportunities to injection mold three-dimensional, net-shape, lightweight, and eco-friendly microelectronic enclosures with superior heat dissipation performance.

  3. Life-cycle analysis of bio-based aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-12-01

    Well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of bio-based aviation fuels, including hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) from various oil seeds, Fischer-Tropsch jet (FTJ) from corn-stover and co-feeding of coal and corn-stover, and pyrolysis jet from corn stover, is conducted and compared with petroleum jet. WTWa GHG emission reductions relative to petroleum jet can be 41-63% for HRJ, 68-76% for pyrolysis jet and 89% for FTJ from corn stover. The HRJ production stage dominates WTWa GHG emissions from HRJ pathways. The differences in GHG emissions from HRJ production stage among considered feedstocks are much smaller than those from fertilizer use and N2O emissions related to feedstock collection stage. Sensitivity analyses on FTJ production from coal and corn-stover are also conducted, showing the importance of biomass share in the feedstock, carbon capture and sequestration options, and overall efficiency. For both HRJ and FTJ, co-product handling methods have significant impacts on WTWa results.

  4. Porous structures from bio-based polymers via supercritical drying

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural biobased polymers (biopolymers or biomacromolecules) such as polysaccharides, proteins, and polylactic acid derived from plant and animal sources are interesting materials due to their abundance, renewability, low cost, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and interesting chemistry. Many biop...

  5. Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Biobased Polyurethane-Coated Fertilizer with Atmosphere "Outerwear".

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiazhuo; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong C; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Qinghua

    2017-05-10

    The development of efficient biobased controlled-release fertilizers has captured much research attention because of the environmental concerns and food scarcity problems. In this work, a biomimetic superhydrophobic biobased polyurethane-coated fertilizer (SBPF) was successfully fabricated by increasing surface roughness and reducing surface energy of polyurethane (PU) coating. The green PU coating was synthesized from low-cost, biodegradable, and renewable cottonseed oil. The nutrient release longevity of SBPF revealed 2-fold enhancement compared with the normal biobased PU-coated fertilizer (BPF). The significant improvement of nutrient release characteristics can be attributed to the atmosphere "outerwear" which ensured the nonwetting contact of water with superhydrophobic surfaces in gas state instead of in liquid state. The new concept introduced in this study can inform the development of the next generation of biobased controlled release fertilizers.

  6. 7 CFR 3201.7 - Determining biobased content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... biobased content must be based on third party ASTM/ISO compliant test facility testing using the ASTM International Radioisotope Standard Method D 6866. ASTM International Radioisotope Standard Method D 6866...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.7 - Determining biobased content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... biobased content must be based on third party ASTM/ISO compliant test facility testing using the ASTM International Radioisotope Standard Method D 6866. ASTM International Radioisotope Standard Method D 6866...

  8. 7 CFR 2902.40 - Laundry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... products. These are laundry products used for regular cleaning activities. (b) Minimum biobased content... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laundry products. 2902.40 Section 2902.40 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items §...

  9. Bio-based polycarbonate as synthetic toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauenstein, O.; Agarwal, S.; Greiner, A.

    2016-06-01

    Completely bio-based poly(limonene carbonate) is a thermoplastic polymer, which can be synthesized by copolymerization of limonene oxide (derived from limonene, which is found in orange peel) and CO2. Poly(limonene carbonate) has one double bond per repeating unit that can be exploited for further chemical modifications. These chemical modifications allow the tuning of the properties of the aliphatic polycarbonate in nearly any direction. Here we show synthetic routes to demonstrate that poly(limonene carbonate) is the perfect green platform polymer, from which many functional materials can be derived. The relevant examples presented in this study are the transformation from an engineering thermoplastic into a rubber, addition of permanent antibacterial activity, hydrophilization and even pH-dependent water solubility of the polycarbonate. Finally, we show a synthetic route to yield the completely saturated counterpart that exhibits improved heat processability due to lower reactivity.

  10. Bio-based polycarbonate as synthetic toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Hauenstein, O.; Agarwal, S.; Greiner, A.

    2016-01-01

    Completely bio-based poly(limonene carbonate) is a thermoplastic polymer, which can be synthesized by copolymerization of limonene oxide (derived from limonene, which is found in orange peel) and CO2. Poly(limonene carbonate) has one double bond per repeating unit that can be exploited for further chemical modifications. These chemical modifications allow the tuning of the properties of the aliphatic polycarbonate in nearly any direction. Here we show synthetic routes to demonstrate that poly(limonene carbonate) is the perfect green platform polymer, from which many functional materials can be derived. The relevant examples presented in this study are the transformation from an engineering thermoplastic into a rubber, addition of permanent antibacterial activity, hydrophilization and even pH-dependent water solubility of the polycarbonate. Finally, we show a synthetic route to yield the completely saturated counterpart that exhibits improved heat processability due to lower reactivity. PMID:27302694

  11. Novel renewable products for biorefineries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A biorefinery integrates unit operations to convert biomass into a variety of biobased products, including fuels, chemicals, energy, and feed. Government policy initiatives over the last 1-2 decades have emphasized the production of biobased fuels, and consequently the number of dry-grind ethanol bi...

  12. Biobased Amines: From Synthesis to Polymers; Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Froidevaux, Vincent; Negrell, Claire; Caillol, Sylvain; Pascault, Jean-Pierre; Boutevin, Bernard

    2016-11-23

    Amines are key intermediates in the chemical industry due to their nucleophilic characteristic which confers a high reactivity to them. Thus, they are key monomers for the synthesis of polyamides, polyureas, polyepoxydes, which are all of growing interest in automotive, aerospace, building, or health applications. Despite a growing interest for biobased monomers and polymers, and particularly polyamides, it should be noticed that very few natural amines are available. Actually, there is only chitosan and poly(lysine). In this review we present both fundamental and applied research on the synthesis of biobased primary and secondary amines with current available biobased resources. Their use is described as a building block for material chemistry. Hence, we first recall some background on the synthesis of amines, including the reactivity of amines. Second we focus on the synthesis of biobased amines from all sorts of biomass, from carbohydrate, terpenes, or oleochemical sources. Third, because they need optimization and technological developments, we discuss some examples of their use for the creation of biobased polymers. We conclude with the future of the synthesis of biobased amines and their use in different applications.

  13. To be, or not to be biodegradable… that is the question for the bio-based plastics.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Auxiliadora

    2016-09-01

    Global warming, market and production capacity are being the key drivers for selecting the main players for the next decades in the market of bio-based plastics. The drop-in bio-based polymers such as the bio-based polyethylene terephtalate (PET) or polyethylene (PE), chemically identical to their petrochemical counterparts but having a component of biological origin, are in the top of the list. They are followed by new polymers such as PHA and PLA with a significant market growth rate since 2014 with projections to 2020. Research will provide improved strains designed through synthetic and systems biology approaches; furthermore, the use of low-cost substrates will contribute to the widespread application of these bio- based polymers. The durability of plastics is not considered anymore as a virtue, and interesting bioprospecting strategies to isolate microorganisms for assimilating the recalcitrant plastics will pave the way for in vivo strategies for plastic mineralization. In this context, waste management of bio-based plastic will be one of the most important issues in the near future in terms of the circular economy. There is a clear need for standardized labelling and sorting instructions, which should be regulated in a coordinated way by policymakers and material producers. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Today's and tomorrow's bio-based bulk chemicals from white biotechnology: a techno-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B G; Patel, M

    2007-03-01

    Little information is yet available on the economic viability of the production of bio-based bulk chemicals and intermediates from white biotechnology (WB). This paper details a methodology to systematically evaluate the techno-economic prospects of present and future production routes of bio-based bulk chemicals produced with WB. Current and future technology routes are evaluated for 15 products assuming prices of fermentable sugar between 70 euro/t and 400 euro/t and crude oil prices of US $25/barrel and US $50/barrel. The results are compared to current technology routes of petrochemical equivalents. For current state-of-the-art WB processes and a crude oil price of US $25/barrel, WB-based ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, polytrimethylene terephthalate and succinic acid are economically viable. Only three WB products are economically not viable for future technology: acetic acid, ethylene and PLA. Future-technology ethylene and PLA become economically viable for a higher crude oil price (US $50/barrel). Production costs plus profits of WB products decrease by 20-50% when changing from current to future technology for a crude oil price of US $25 per barrel and across all sugar prices. Technological progress in WB can thus contribute significantly to improved economic viability of WB products. A large-scale introduction of WB-based production of economically viable bulk chemicals would therefore be desirable if the environmental impacts are smaller than those of current petrochemical production routes.

  15. Novel bio-based and biodegradable polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengzhe

    Most plastic materials, including high performance thermoplastics and thermosets are produced entirely from petroleum-based products. The volatility of the natural oil markets and the increasing cost of petroleum have led to a push to reduce the dependence on petroleum products. Together with an increase in environmental awareness, this has promoted the use of alternative, biorenewable, environmentally-friendly products, such as biomass. The growing interest in replacing petroleum-based products by inexpensive, renewable, natural materials is important for sustainable development into the future and will have a significant impact on the polymer industry and the environment. This thesis involved characterization and development of two series of novel bio-based polymer blends, namely polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/polyamide (PA) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/soy protein. Blends with different concentrations and compatible microstructures were prepared using twin-screw extruder. For PHA/PA blends, the poor mechanical properties of PHA improved significantly with an excellent combination of strength, stiffness and toughness by adding PA. Furthermore, the effect of blending on the viscoelastic properties has been investigated using small-amplitude oscillatory shear flow experiments as a function of blend composition and angular frequency. The elastic shear modulus (G‧) and complex viscosity of the blends increased significantly with increasing the concentration of PHA. Blending PLA with soy protein aims at reducing production cost, as well as accelerating the biodegradation rate in soil medium. In this work, the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the blends were investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile tests.

  16. Towards a sustainable biobased industry - Highlighting the impact of extremophiles.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Anna; Schäfers, Christian; Schröder, Carola; Antranikian, Garabed

    2017-05-13

    The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats. By applying modern technologies it is now feasible to deliver robust enzymes (extremozymes) and robust microbial systems that are active at temperatures up to 120°C, at pH 0 and 12 and at 1000bar. In the post-genomic era, different sophisticated "omics" analyses will allow the identification of countless novel enzymes regardless of the lack of cultivability of most microorganisms. Furthermore, elaborate protein-engineering methods are clearing the way towards tailor-made robust biocatalysts. Applying environmentally friendly and efficient biological processes, terrestrial and marine biomass can be converted to high value products e.g. chemicals, building blocks, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, food, feed and biofuels. Thus, further application of extremophiles has the potential to improve sustainability of existing biotechnological processes towards a greener biobased industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A multi-scale, multi-disciplinary approach for assessing the technological, economic and environmental performance of bio-based chemicals.

    PubMed

    Herrgård, Markus; Sukumara, Sumesh; Campodonico, Miguel; Zhuang, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, bio-based chemicals have gained interest as a renewable alternative to petrochemicals. However, there is a significant need to assess the technological, biological, economic and environmental feasibility of bio-based chemicals, particularly during the early research phase. Recently, the Multi-scale framework for Sustainable Industrial Chemicals (MuSIC) was introduced to address this issue by integrating modelling approaches at different scales ranging from cellular to ecological scales. This framework can be further extended by incorporating modelling of the petrochemical value chain and the de novo prediction of metabolic pathways connecting existing host metabolism to desirable chemical products. This multi-scale, multi-disciplinary framework for quantitative assessment of bio-based chemicals will play a vital role in supporting engineering, strategy and policy decisions as we progress towards a sustainable chemical industry.

  18. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Külahoglu, Canan; Tazelaar, Anne O E; Kurz, Samantha; Nierop, Klaas G J; van der Werf, Adrie; Weber, Andreas P M; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2014-05-01

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome. Methods for dissemination, cross-fertilization and cryopreservation of the symbiosis Azolla filiculoides-Nostoc azollae are tested based on the fern spores. To study molecular processes in Azolla including spore induction, a database of 37 649 unigenes from RNAseq of microsporocarps, megasporocarps and sporophytes was assembled, then validated. Spores obtained year-round germinated in vitro within 26 d. In vitro fertilization rates reached 25%. Cryopreservation permitted storage for at least 7 months. The unigene database entirely covered central metabolism and to a large degree covered cellular processes and regulatory networks. Analysis of genes engaged in transition to sexual reproduction revealed a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like protein in ferns with special features induced in sporulating Azolla fronds. Although domestication of a fern-cyanobacteria symbiosis may seem a daunting task, we conclude that the time is ripe and that results generated will serve to more widely access biochemicals in fern biomass for a biobased economy. No claim to original European Union works. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Development of a cleaner, durable and ash-less biobased firelogs from grass clippings and other agricultural derived residues with plant wax as a binder and starter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invention describes the development of a firelong, mini-firelog, stove pellet and fire-starter comprised of all-natural renewable resources. Besides being totally biobased, developed logs have several distinct advantages. The developed product utilizes renewable biomass as a raw material, prod...

  20. Gallic Acid as an Oxygen Scavenger in Bio-Based Multilayer Packaging Films

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Astrid F.; Sängerlaub, Sven; Müller, Kajetan

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen scavengers are used in food packaging to protect oxygen-sensitive food products. A mixture of gallic acid (GA) and sodium carbonate was used as an oxygen scavenger (OSc) in bio-based multilayer packaging films produced in a three-step process: compounding, flat film extrusion, and lamination. We investigated the film surface color as well as oxygen absorption at different relative humidities (RHs) and temperatures, and compared the oxygen absorption of OSc powder, monolayer films, and multilayer films. The films were initially brownish-red in color but changed to greenish-black during oxygen absorption under humid conditions. We observed a maximum absorption capacity of 447 mg O2/g GA at 21 °C and 100% RH. The incorporation of GA into a polymer matrix reduced the rate of oxygen absorption compared to the GA powder because the polymer acted as a barrier to oxygen and water vapor diffusion. As expected, the temperature had a significant effect on the initial absorption rate of the multilayer films; the corresponding activation energy was 75.4 kJ/mol. Higher RH significantly increased the oxygen absorption rate. These results demonstrate for the first time the production and the properties of a bio-based multilayer packaging film with GA as the oxygen scavenger. Potential applications include the packaging of food products with high water activity (aw > 0.86). PMID:28772849

  1. Gallic Acid as an Oxygen Scavenger in Bio-Based Multilayer Packaging Films.

    PubMed

    Pant, Astrid F; Sängerlaub, Sven; Müller, Kajetan

    2017-05-03

    Oxygen scavengers are used in food packaging to protect oxygen-sensitive food products. A mixture of gallic acid (GA) and sodium carbonate was used as an oxygen scavenger (OSc) in bio-based multilayer packaging films produced in a three-step process: compounding, flat film extrusion, and lamination. We investigated the film surface color as well as oxygen absorption at different relative humidities (RHs) and temperatures, and compared the oxygen absorption of OSc powder, monolayer films, and multilayer films. The films were initially brownish-red in color but changed to greenish-black during oxygen absorption under humid conditions. We observed a maximum absorption capacity of 447 mg O₂/g GA at 21 °C and 100% RH. The incorporation of GA into a polymer matrix reduced the rate of oxygen absorption compared to the GA powder because the polymer acted as a barrier to oxygen and water vapor diffusion. As expected, the temperature had a significant effect on the initial absorption rate of the multilayer films; the corresponding activation energy was 75.4 kJ/mol. Higher RH significantly increased the oxygen absorption rate. These results demonstrate for the first time the production and the properties of a bio-based multilayer packaging film with GA as the oxygen scavenger. Potential applications include the packaging of food products with high water activity (aw > 0.86).

  2. Cascade Biocatalysis for Sustainable Asymmetric Synthesis: From Biobased l-Phenylalanine to High-Value Chiral Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Wu, Shuke; Li, Zhi

    2016-09-12

    Sustainable synthesis of useful and valuable chiral fine chemicals from renewable feedstocks is highly desirable but remains challenging. Reported herein is a designed and engineered set of unique non-natural biocatalytic cascades to achieve the asymmetric synthesis of chiral epoxide, diols, hydroxy acid, and amino acid in high yield and with excellent ee values from the easily available biobased l-phenylalanine. Each of the cascades was efficiently performed in one pot by using the cells of a single recombinant strain over-expressing 4-10 different enzymes. The cascade biocatalysis approach is promising for upgrading biobased bulk chemicals to high-value chiral chemicals. In addition, combining the non-natural enzyme cascades with the natural metabolic pathway of the host strain enabled the fermentative production of the chiral fine chemicals from glucose.

  3. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil as raw material for biobased materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been a lot of recent interest in using vegetable oils as biodegradable and renewable raw materials for the syntheses of various biobased materials. Although most of the attention has been paid to soybean oil thus far, cottonseed oil is a viable alternative. An advantage of cottonseed oil...

  4. Boundary friction in liquid and dry film biobased lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farm-based raw materials such as fats, seed oils, starches, proteins, and gums can be subjected to various degrees of processing to make them suitable for use in lubrication. The resulting biobased ingredients are then blended with each other and/or with synthetic ingredients to formulate lubricant...

  5. Biobased methacrylic acid via selective catalytic decarboxylation of itaconic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report a bio-based route to methacrylic acid via selective decarboxylation of itaconic acid utilizing catalytic ruthenium carbonyl propionate in an aqueous solvent system. High selectivity (>90%) was achieved at low catalyst loading (0.1 mol %) with high substrate concentration (5.5 M) at low tem...

  6. Opportunity and development of bio-based composites

    Treesearch

    Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2005-01-01

    Our forests are a naturally renewable resource that has been used as a principal source of bio-energy and building materials for centuries. The rapid growth of world population has now resulted in substantial increases in demand and in consumption of all raw materials. This now provides a unique opportunity of developing new bio-based composites. The 100-year history...

  7. Development of biobased sandwich structures for mass transit application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munusamy, Sethu Raaj

    Efforts to increase the biobased content in sandwich composites are being investigated to reduce the dependence on synthetically produced or mined, energy-intensive materials for numerous composite applications. Vegetable oil-based polyurethane foams are gaining recognition as good substitutes for synthetic counter parts while utilizing bast fiber to replace fiberglass is also gaining credence. In this study, soy oil-based polyurethane foam was evaluated as a core in a sandwich construction with facesheets of hybridized kenaf and E-glass fibers in a vinyl ester resin matrix to replace traditionally used plywood sheeting on steel frame for mass transit bus flooring systems. As a first step towards implementation, the static performance of the biobased foam was compared to 100% synthetic foam. Secondly, biobased sandwich structures were processed and their static performance was compared to plywood. The biobased sandwich composites designed and processed were shown to hold promise towards replacing plywood for bus flooring applications by displaying an increase of 130% for flexural strength and 135% for flexural modulus plus better indentation values.

  8. Biobased oil structure on amphiphilic and tribological properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biobased oils are those derived from farm-based renewable raw materials. Most are vegetable oils (such as soybean, canola, corn, etc.) or chemical modifications of vegetable oils. They have a number of interesting structural features that impact their amphiphilic and lubrication properties. The basi...

  9. HFRR investigation of biobased and petroleum based oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biobased oils come in a wide range of chemical structures as do petroleum based oils. In addition, a distinct structural difference exists between these two broad categories of oils. Previous work has shown that, in spite of the structural differences, these two categories of oils display similar pr...

  10. Micro- and nano bio-based delivery systems for food applications: In vitro behavior.

    PubMed

    de Souza Simões, Lívia; Madalena, Daniel A; Pinheiro, Ana C; Teixeira, José A; Vicente, António A; Ramos, Óscar L

    2017-03-27

    Micro- and nanoencapsulation is an emerging technology in the food field that potentially allows the improvement of food quality and human health. Bio-based delivery systems of bioactive compounds have a wide variety of morphologies that influence their stability and functional performance. The incorporation of bioactive compounds in food products using micro- and nano-delivery systems may offer extra health benefits, beyond basic nutrition, once their encapsulation may provide protection against undesired environmental conditions (e.g., heat, light and oxygen) along the food chain (including processing and storage), thus improving their bioavailability, while enabling their controlled release and target delivery. This review provides an overview of the bio-based materials currently used for encapsulation of bioactive compounds intended for food applications, as well as the main production techniques employed in the development of micro- and nanosystems. The behavior of such systems and of bioactive compounds entrapped into, throughout in vitro gastrointestinal systems, is also tracked in a critical manner. Comparisons between various in vitro digestion systems (including the main advantages and disadvantages) currently in use, as well as correlations between the behavior of micro- and nanosystems studied through in vitro and in vivo systems were highlighted and discussed here for the first time. Finally, examples of bioactive micro- and nanosystems added to food simulants or to real food matrices are provided, together with a revision of the main challenges for their safe commercialization, the regulatory issues involved and the main legislation aspects.

  11. Structure Property Relationships of Biobased Epoxy Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorana, Anthony Surraht

    The thesis is about the synthesis, characterization, development, and application of epoxy resins derived from sustainable feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose, plant oils, and other non-food feedstocks. The thesis can be divided into two main topics 1) the synthesis and structure property relationship investigation of new biobased epoxy resin families and 2) mixing epoxy resins with reactive diluents, nanoparticles, toughening agents, and understanding co-curing reactions, filler/matrix interactions, and cured epoxy resin thermomechanical, viscoelastic, and dielectric properties. The thesis seeks to bridge the gap between new epoxy resin development, application for composites and advanced materials, processing and manufacturing, and end of life of thermoset polymers. The structures of uncured epoxy resins are characterized through traditional small molecule techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy. The structure of epoxy resin monomers are further understood through the process of curing the resins and cured resins' properties through rheology, chemorheology, dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, fracture toughness, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and notched izod impact testing. It was found that diphenolate esters are viable alternatives to bisphenol A and that the structure of the ester side chain can have signifi-cant effects on monomer viscosity. The structure of the cured diphenolate based epoxy resins also influence glass transition temperature and dielectric properties. Incorporation of reactive diluents and flexible resins can lower viscosity, extend gel time, and enable processing of high filler content composites and increase fracture toughness. Incorpora-tion of high elastic modulus nanoparticles such as graphene can provide increases in physical properties such as elastic modulus and fracture toughness. The synthesis

  12. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a) Definition. Personal hygiene products including bar soaps, liquids... products marketed as hand cleaners and/or hand sanitizers. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a) Definition. Personal hygiene products including bar soaps, liquids... products marketed as hand cleaners and/or hand sanitizers. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a) Definition. Personal hygiene products including bar soaps, liquids... products marketed as hand cleaners and/or hand sanitizers. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal...

  15. 77 FR 33269 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is proposing to amend the Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement (Guidelines) to add 12 sections that will designate the following product categories within which biobased products would be afforded Federal procurement preference: Agricultural spray adjuvants; animal cleaning products; deodorants; dethatcher products; fuel conditioners; leather, vinyl, and rubber care products; lotions and moisturizers; shaving products; specialty precision cleaners and solvents; sun care products; wastewater systems coatings; and water clarifying agents. USDA is also proposing minimum biobased contents for each of these product categories.

  16. Pilot-scale production of washed cottonseed meal and co-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enhanced utilization of defatted cottonseed meal (CSM)-based products as industrial and biobased raw materials would increase the profitability of cotton growers and processors. Especially, water washed cottonseed meal has been shown the potential as a biobased wood adhesive. In this work, we propos...

  17. Synthesis, properties and applications of bio-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Madhusudhan

    Bio-based feedstock have become very significant as they offer a value proposition in terms of carbon balance and also in terms of endowing biodegradability where needed. Thus a lot of attention is being given to the modification such feedstock for different applications. Soybean oil is one such feedstock. The oil is a triglyceride ester composed of different fatty acids, which are common to other plant oils. Thus soybean oil serves as a platform for plant oils, as modifications of this oil, can in theory be extended to cover other plant oils. Methyl oleate was used as a model fatty acid ester, to synthesize hydroxyesters with ethylene glycol via a two stage oxidative cleavage of the double bonds. Ozone was chosen as the oxidant due to its many advantages. The first stage involved oxidation of the double bond to aldehydes, ozonides and acetals, which were subsequently converted to hydroxyesters (hydroxy values of 220 - 270) in near quantitative yield by treatment with Oxone. This method could be extended to soybean oil to make "polyols" which could find applications in resin syntheses. Silylation was employed as another platform to functionalize soybean oil and fatty acid methyl esters with a reactive silane (vinyltrimethoxy silane). This simple modification produced materials that are cured by atmospheric moisture and are useful as coatings. The silylation was controlled by varying the grafting time, cure temperature and the concentration of the silane. Products with gel content as high as 90% could be achieved. The coating exhibited good adhesion to metal, glass, concrete and paper. Steel panels coated with these coatings exhibited good stability against corrosion in high humidity conditions and moderate stability against a salt spray. The silylation was also successfully utilized to improve the tensile strength of the blend of biodegradable polyester, poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) with talc. A reactive extrusion process was employed to graft vinyl

  18. Biobased Epoxy Nanocomposites Derived from Lignin-Based Monomers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shou; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-07-13

    Biobased epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized based on 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol (dihydroeugenol, DHE), a molecule that has been obtained from the lignin component of biomass. To increase the content of hydroxyl groups, DHE was o-demethylated using aqueous HBr to yield propylcatechol (DHEO), which was subsequently glycidylated to epoxy monomer. Optimal conditions in terms of yield and epoxy equivalent weight were found to be 60 °C with equal NaOH/phenolic hydroxyl molar ratio. The structural evolution from DHE to cured epoxy was followed by (1)H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nano-montmorillonite modified DHEO epoxy exhibited improved storage modulus and thermal stability as determined from dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. This study widens the synthesis routes of biobased epoxy thermosets from lignin-based molecules.

  19. Catalytic Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Terpene Scaffolds: Access to Challenging Bio-Based Organic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, Giulia; Stuck, Moritz; Martín, Carmen; Belmonte, Marta Martínez; Martin, Eddy; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C; Kleij, Arjan W

    2016-06-08

    The challenging coupling of highly substituted terpene oxides and carbon dioxide into bio-based cyclic organic carbonates catalyzed by Al(aminotriphenolate) complexes is reported. Both acyclic as well as cyclic terpene oxides were used as coupling partners, showing distinct reactivity/selectivity behavior. Whereas cyclic terpene oxides showed excellent chemoselectivity towards the organic carbonate product, acyclic substrates exhibited poorer selectivities owing to concomitant epoxide rearrangement reactions and the formation of undesired oligo/polyether side products. Considering the challenging nature of these coupling reactions, the isolated yields of the targeted bio-carbonates are reasonable and in most cases in the range 50-60 %. The first crystal structures of tri-substituted terpene based cyclic carbonates are reported and their stereoconnectivity suggests that their formation proceeds through a double inversion pathway.

  20. Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of Biobased, Compostable Polymers Containing Lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Stephanie Beret

    Biobased and compostable materials have gained in popularity as sustainable solutions for reducing waste and minimizing environmental impacts. Polylactide (PLA) continues to be a popular biobased polymer, but has limited use due to its brittleness, high vapor and ultraviolet (UV) light permeability. This study addresses these shortfalls through copolymerization of lactide (LA) with organosolv lignin from switchgrass (OSL) and delta-valerolactone (DVL) to produce 100 % biobased polymers with improved properties. Incorporation of hydrophobic OSL into poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), even in small quantities (up to 0.26%) resulted in a considerable decrease in water vapor transition rate (WVTR) of up to 64 %, nearly a 20 % decrease in UV light transmission, and slowing of hydrolytic degradation. Unfortunately, lignin appears to stop the chain propagation and effectively reduces overall M M w of the copolymer. Young's modulus for these copolymers is affected little as stress and strain decreased proportionally with the addition of OSL, resulting in a copolymer that is nearly equal to PLLA in stiffness. To improve elasticity, terpolymers of PLLA-DVL-OSL were explored. The addition of DVL to the polymerization was found to increase UV transmission rate, an effect that could be counteracted through OSL addition. PLLA-DVL co and terpolymers showed low Young's modulus, characteristic for polymers with elastomeric properties. WVTR was seen to decrease with the addition of DVL and was even further reduced through addition of OSL, resulting in an overall WVTR reduction of up to 79 %.

  1. Processing and characterization of bio-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hong

    Much research has focused on bio-based composites as a potential material to replace petroleum-based plastics. Considering the high price of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), PHA/ Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) composite is a promising economical and high-performance biodegradable material. In this paper, we discuss the effect of DDGS on PHA composites in balancing cost with material performance. Poly (lactic acid) PLA/DDGS composite is another excellent biodegradable composite, although as a bio-based polymer its degradation time is relatively long. The goal of this research is therefore to accelerate the degradation process for this material. Both bio-based composites were extruded through a twin-screw microcompounder, and the two materials were uniformly mixed. The morphology of the samples was examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); thermal stability was determined with a Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA); other thermal properties were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA). Viscoelastic properties were also evaluated using a Rheometer.

  2. Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking: The catalyst for sustainable bio-based economic growth in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mengal, Philippe; Wubbolts, Marcel; Zika, Eleni; Ruiz, Ana; Brigitta, Dieter; Pieniadz, Agata; Black, Sarah

    2017-06-27

    This article discusses the preparation, structure and objectives of the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU). BBI JU is a public-private partnership (PPP) between the European Commission (EC) and the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC), the industry-led private not-for-profit organisation representing the private sectors across the bio-based industries. The model of the public-private partnership has been successful as a new approach to supporting research and innovation and de-risking investment in Europe. The BBI JU became a reality in 2014 and represents the largest industrial and economic cooperation endeavour financially ever undertaken in Europe in the area of industrial biotechnologies. It is considered to be one of the most forward-looking initiatives under Horizon 2020 and demonstrates the circular economy in action. The BBI JU will be the catalyst for this strategy to mobilise actors across Europe including large industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), all types of research organisations, networks and universities. It will support regions and in doing so, the European Union Member States and associated countries in the implementation of their bioeconomy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sulfuric acid as a catalyst for ring-opening of biobased bis-epoxides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable oils can be relatively and easily transformed into bio-based epoxides. Because of this, the acid-catalyzed epoxide ring-opening has been explored for the preparation of bio-based lubricants and polymers. Detailed model studies are carried out only with mono-epoxide made from methyl oleate,...

  4. Investigation of biobased and petroleum base oils in the entire spectrum of lubrication regimes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tribological properties of biobased and petroleum-based base oils in the entire lubrication regime were investigated. High oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO) and commercially available polyalphaolefin (PAO-6) were selected to represent biobased and petroleum-based base oils, respectively. These two oil...

  5. 78 FR 46794 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Update to Biobased Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... biobased report to a new Governmentwide Web site instead of the agency environmental point of contact. DATE... instructions for the annual biobased report; the reports will be submitted to a new Web site rather than to...

  6. Biobased flocculants derived from animal processing protein by-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are class of substances that are widely used to facilitate the removal of particles or colloidal material from a liquid. Sustainable alternatives for these substances are needed. Past attempts to use biological polymers as flocculants have shown limited success. This ...

  7. Biobased lubricants and functional products from Cuphea oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cuphea (Lythraceae) is an annual plant that produces a small seed rich in saturated medium-chain triacylglycerols (TAGs). With the need for higher seed yields, oil content, and less seed shattering, Oregon State University began developing promising cuphea crosses. Cuphea PSR23 is a hybrid between C...

  8. An attempt towards simultaneous biobased solvent based extraction of proteins and enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic materials from distiller's grains and solubles.

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, S.; Bals, B. D.; Lin, Y. J.; Negri, M. C.; Datta, R.; Pasieta, L.; Ahmad, S. F.; Moradia, A. A.; Dale, B. E.; Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems; Michigan State Univ.; Vertec BioSolvents Inc.; Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

    2010-07-01

    Distiller's grains and solubles (DGS) is the major co-product of corn dry mill ethanol production, and is composed of 30% protein and 30-40% polysaccharides. We report a strategy for simultaneous extraction of protein with food-grade biobased solvents (ethyl lactate, d-limonene, and distilled methyl esters) and enzymatic saccharification of glucan in DGS. This approach would produce a high-value animal feed while simultaneously producing additional sugars for ethanol production. Preliminary experiments on protein extraction resulted in recovery of 15-45% of the protein, with hydrophobic biobased solvents obtaining the best results. The integrated hydrolysis and extraction experiments showed that biobased solvent addition did not inhibit hydrolysis of the cellulose. However, only 25-33% of the total protein was extracted from DGS, and the extracted protein largely resided in the aqueous phase, not the solvent phase. We hypothesize that the hydrophobic solvent could not access the proteins surrounded by the aqueous phase inside the fibrous structure of DGS due to poor mass transfer. Further process improvements are needed to overcome this obstacle.

  9. Bio-based lubricants for numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupu, Dedi Rosa Putra; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Osman, Kahar

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a programming code to provide numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem in line contacts which is modeled through an infinite cylinder on a plane to represent the application of roller bearing. In this simulation, vegetable oils will be used as bio-based lubricants. Temperature is assumed to be constant at 40°C. The results show that the EHL pressure for all vegetable oils was increasing from inlet flow until the center, then decrease a bit and rise to the peak pressure. The shapes of EHL film thickness for all tested vegetable oils are almost flat at contact region.

  10. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Douglas R; Imhof, Arnout; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-12-07

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon solar irradiation. Herein, we demonstrate significant reduction in the ROS concentration by encapsulating an antioxidant photostabilizer with multiple UV filters into biobased ethyl cellulose nanoparticles. The developed nanoparticles display complete broadband UV protection and can form transparent and flexible films. This system therefore shows significant potential toward effective and safe nanoparticle-based UV protective coatings.

  11. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  12. Biobased lubricant additives derived from limonene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limonene is a natural product widely found in many plants as a constituent of “essential oils.” It is commercially produced as a byproduct of the citrus industry from processing of fruits such as oranges, lemons, lime, tangerines, mandarins, and grapefruits. Limonene is a C10 hydrocarbon with a com...

  13. Bio-based Adsorbents from Agricultural Byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural byproducts are often not used to the extent possible. Here we demonstrate that these byproducts can be used as starting material for production of activated carbon. These carbons can be used for uptake of water contaminants such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. We will sho...

  14. Superamphiphobic overhang structured coating on a biobased material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuominen, Mikko; Teisala, Hannu; Haapanen, Janne; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Honkanen, Mari; Vippola, Minnamari; Bardage, Stig; Wålinder, Magnus E. P.; Swerin, Agne

    2016-12-01

    A superamphiphobic coating on a biobased material shows extreme liquid repellency with static contact angles (CA) greater than 150° and roll-off angles less than 10° against water, ethylene glycol, diiodomethane and olive oil, and a CA for hexadecane greater than 130°. The coating consisting of titania nanoparticles deposited by liquid flame spray (LFS) and hydrophobized using plasma-polymerized perfluorohexane was applied to a birch hardwood. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging after sample preparation by UV laser ablation of coated areas revealed that capped structures were formed and this, together with the geometrically homogeneous wood structure, fulfilled the criteria for overhang structures to occur. The coating showed high hydrophobic durability by still being non-wetted after 500 000 water drop impacts, and this is discussed in relation to geometrical factors and wetting forces. The coating was semi-transparent with no significant coloration. A self-cleaning effect was demonstrated with both water and oil droplets. A self-cleanable, durable and highly transparent superamphiphobic coating based on a capped overhang structure has a great potential for commercial feasibility in a variety of applications, here exemplified for a biobased material.

  15. Biobased composites from glyoxal-phenolic resins and sisal fibers.

    PubMed

    Ramires, Elaine C; Megiatto, Jackson D; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain; Frollini, Elisabete

    2010-03-01

    Lignocellulosic materials can significantly contribute to the development of biobased composites. In this work, glyoxal-phenolic resins for composites were prepared using glyoxal, which is a dialdehyde obtained from several natural resources. The resins were characterized by (1)H, (13)C, 2D, and (31)P NMR spectroscopies. Resorcinol (10%) was used as an accelerator for curing the glyoxal-phenol resins in order to obtain the thermosets. The impact-strength measurement showed that regardless of the cure cycle used, the reinforcement of thermosets by 30% (w/w) sisal fibers improved the impact strength by one order of magnitude. Curing with cycle 1 (150 degrees C) induced a high diffusion coefficient for water absorption in composites, due to less interaction between the sisal fibers and water. The composites cured with cycle 2 (180 degrees C) had less glyoxal resin coverage of the cellulosic fibers, as observed by images of the fractured interface observed by SEM. This study shows that biobased composites with good properties can be prepared using a high proportion of materials obtained from natural resources.

  16. Valorization of an industrial organosolv-sugarcane bagasse lignin: Characterization and use as a matrix in biobased composites reinforced with sisal fibers.

    PubMed

    Ramires, Elaine C; Megiatto, Jackson D; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain; Frollini, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, the main focus was the characterization and application of the by-product lignin isolated through an industrial organosolv acid hydrolysis process from sugarcane bagasse, aiming at the production of bioethanol. The sugarcane lignin was characterized and used to prepare phenolic-type resins. The analysis confirmed that the industrial sugarcane lignin is of HGS type, with a high proportion of the less substituted aromatic ring p-hydroxyphenyl units, which favors further reaction with formaldehyde. The lignin-formaldehyde resins were used to produce biobased composites reinforced with different proportions of randomly distributed sisal fibers. The presence of lignin moieties in both the fiber and matrix increases their mutual affinity, as confirmed by SEM images, which showed good adhesion at the biocomposite fiber/matrix interface. This in turn allowed good load transference from the matrix to the fiber, leading to biobased composites with good impact strength (near 500 J m(-1) for a 40 wt% sisal fiber-reinforced composite). The study demonstrates that sugarcane bagasse lignin obtained from a bioethanol plant can be used without excessive purification in the preparation of lignocellulosic fiber-reinforced biobased composites displaying high mechanical properties.

  17. Suitability of bio-based ionic liquids for the extraction and purification of IgG antibodies†

    PubMed Central

    Quental, Maria V.; Tavares, Ana P. M.; Prasad, Kamalesh; Freire, Mara G.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, remarkable advances in the production and use of antibodies as therapeutic drugs and in research/diagnostic fields have led to their recognition as value-added proteins. These biopharmaceuticals have become increasingly important, reinforcing the current demand for the development of more benign, scalable and cost-effective techniques for their purification. Typical polymer–polymer and polymer–salt aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been studied for such a goal; yet, the limited polarity range of the coexisting phases and their low selective nature still are their major drawbacks. To overcome this limitation, in this work, ABS formed by bio-based ionic liquids (ILs) and biocompatible polymers were investigated. Bio-based ILs composed of ions derived from natural sources, namely composed of the cholinium cation and anions derived from plants natural acids, have been designed, synthesized, characterized and used for the creation of ABS with polypropyleneglycol (PPG 400). The respective ternary phase diagrams were initially determined at 25 °C to infer on mixture compositions required to form aqueous systems of two phases, further applied in the extraction of pure immunoglobulin G (IgG) to identify the most promising bio-based ILs, and finally employed in the purification of IgG from complex and real matrices of rabbit serum. Remarkably, the complete extraction of IgG to the IL-rich phase was achieved in a single-step. With pure IgG a recovery yield of 100% was obtained, while with rabbit serum this value slightly decreased to ca. 85%. Nevertheless, a 58% enhancement in the IgG purity was achieved when compared with its purity in serum samples. The stability of IgG before and after extraction was also evaluated by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In most ABS formed by bio-based ILs, Ig

  18. Suitability of bio-based ionic liquids for the extraction and purification of IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Dibyendu; Sharma, Mukesh; Quental, Maria V; Tavares, Ana P M; Prasad, Kamalesh; Freire, Mara G

    2016-11-21

    In the past decade, remarkable advances in the production and use of antibodies as therapeutic drugs and in research/diagnostic fields have led to their recognition as value-added proteins. These biopharmaceuticals have become increasingly important, reinforcing the current demand for the development of more benign, scalable and cost-effective techniques for their purification. Typical polymer-polymer and polymer-salt aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been studied for such a goal; yet, the limited polarity range of the coexisting phases and their low selective nature still are their major drawbacks. To overcome this limitation, in this work, ABS formed by bio-based ionic liquids (ILs) and biocompatible polymers were investigated. Bio-based ILs composed of ions derived from natural sources, namely composed of the cholinium cation and anions derived from plants natural acids, have been designed, synthesized, characterized and used for the creation of ABS with polypropyleneglycol (PPG 400). The respective ternary phase diagrams were initially determined at 25 °C to infer on mixture compositions required to form aqueous systems of two phases, further applied in the extraction of pure immunoglobulin G (IgG) to identify the most promising bio-based ILs, and finally employed in the purification of IgG from complex and real matrices of rabbit serum. Remarkably, the complete extraction of IgG to the IL-rich phase was achieved in a single-step. With pure IgG a recovery yield of 100% was obtained, while with rabbit serum this value slightly decreased to ca. 85%. Nevertheless, a 58% enhancement in the IgG purity was achieved when compared with its purity in serum samples. The stability of IgG before and after extraction was also evaluated by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In most ABS formed by bio-based ILs, IgG retained

  19. Conversion of rice straw to bio-based chemicals: an integrated process using Lactobacillus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Block, David E.; Shoemaker, Sharon P.; Mills, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Commercialization of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for bio-based chemical production is problematic due to the high processing costs of pretreatment and saccharifying enzymes combined with low product yields. Such low product yield can be attributed, in large part, to the incomplete utilization of the various carbohydrate sugars found in the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we demonstrate that Lactobacillus brevis is able to simultaneously metabolize all fermentable carbohydrates in acid pre-processed rice straw hydrolysate, thereby allowing complete utilization of all released sugars. Inhibitors present in rice straw hydrolysate did not affect lactic acid production. Moreover, the activity of exogenously added cellulases was not reduced in the presence of growing cultures of L. brevis. These factors enabled the use of L. brevis in a process termed simultaneous saccharification and mixed sugar fermentation (SSMSF). In SSMSF with L. brevis, sugars present in rice straw hydrolysate were completely utilized while the cellulase maintained its maximum activity due to the lack of feedback inhibition from glucose and/or cellobiose. By comparison to a sequential hydrolysis and fermentation process, SSMSF reduced operation time and the amount of cellulase enzyme necessary to produce the same amount of lactic acid. PMID:20084509

  20. 7 CFR 3202.4 - Criteria for product eligibility to use the certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... biobased content, as described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(4) of this section. (1) BioPreferred... products that are not BioPreferred Products. (i) If the product is not an intermediate ingredient or...

  1. 7 CFR 3202.4 - Criteria for product eligibility to use the certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... biobased content, as described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(4) of this section. (1) BioPreferred... products that are not BioPreferred Products. (i) If the product is not an intermediate ingredient or...

  2. 7 CFR 3202.4 - Criteria for product eligibility to use the certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... biobased content, as described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(4) of this section. (1) BioPreferred... products that are not BioPreferred Products. (i) If the product is not an intermediate ingredient or...

  3. Design, characterization and modeling of biobased acoustic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari Mosanenzadeh, Shahrzad

    Polymeric open cell foams are widely used as sound absorbers in sectors such as automobile, aerospace, transportation and building industries, yet there is a need to improve sound absorption of these foams through understanding the relation between cell morphology and acoustic properties of porous material. Due to complicated microscopic structure of open cell foams, investigating the relation between foam morphology and acoustic properties is rather intricate and still an open problem in the field. The focus of this research is to design and develop biobased open cell foams for acoustic applications to replace conventional petrochemical based foams as well as investigating the link between cell morphology and macroscopic properties of open cell porous structures. To achieve these objectives, two industrially produced biomaterials, polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and their composites were examined and highly porous biobased foams were fabricated by particulate leaching and compression molding. Acoustic absorption capability of these foams was enhanced utilizing the effect of co-continuous blends to form a bimodal porous structure. To tailor mechanical and acoustic properties of biobased foams, blends of PLA and PHA were studied to reach the desired mechanical and viscoelastic properties. To enhance acoustic properties of porous medium for having a broad band absorption effect, cell structure must be appropriately graded. Such porous structures with microstructural gradation are called Functionally Graded Materials (FGM). A novel graded foam structure was designed with superior sound absorption to demonstrate the effect of cell arrangement on performance of acoustic fixtures. Acoustic measurements were performed in a two microphone impedance tube and acoustic theory of Johnson-Champoux-Allard was applied to the fabricated foams to determine micro cellular properties such as tortuosity, viscous and thermal lengths from sound absorption impedance tube

  4. Bio-Based Solvents for Green Extraction of Lipids from Oleaginous Yeast Biomass for Sustainable Aviation Biofuel.

    PubMed

    Breil, Cassandra; Meullemiestre, Alice; Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2016-02-06

    Lipid-based oleaginous microorganisms are potential candidates and resources for the sustainable production of biofuels. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of several alternative bio-based solvents for extracting lipids from yeasts. We used experimental design and simulation with Hansen solubility simulations and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) to simulate the solubilization of lipids in each of these solvents. Lipid extracts were analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to obtain the distribution of lipids classes and gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) to obtain fatty acid profiles. Our aim was to correlate simulation with experimentation for extraction and solvation of lipids with bio-based solvents in order to make a preliminary evaluation for the replacement of hexane to extract lipids from microorganisms. Differences between theory and practice were noted for several solvents, such as CPME, MeTHF and ethyl acetate, which appeared to be good candidates to replace hexane.

  5. Development of the University of Washington Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals Process Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, Richard

    2014-02-04

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design and build a bioconversion steam explosion reactor and ancillary equipment such as a high pressure boiler and a fermenter to support the bioconversion process research. This equipment has been in constant use since its installation in 2012. Following are research projects that it has supported: • Investigation of novel chip production method in biofuels production • Investigation of biomass refining following steam explosion • Several studies on use of different biomass feedstocks • Investigation of biomass moisture content on pretreatment efficacy. • Development of novel instruments for biorefinery process control Having this equipment was also instrumental in the University of Washington receiving a $40 million grant from the US Department of Agriculture for biofuels development as well as several other smaller grants. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  6. Mango and acerola pulps as antioxidant additives in cassava starch bio-based film.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carolina O; Silva, Luciana T; Silva, Jaff R; López, Jorge A; Veiga-Santos, Pricila; Druzian, Janice I

    2011-03-23

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating mango and acerola pulps into a biodegradable matrix as a source of polyphenols, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds. We also sought to evaluate the efficacy of mango and acerola pulps as antioxidants in film-forming dispersions using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack palm oil (maintained for 45 days of storage) under accelerated oxidation conditions (63% relative humidity and 30 °C) to simulate a storage experiment. The total carotenoid, total polyphenol, and vitamin C contents of films were evaluated, while the total carotenoid, peroxide index, conjugated diene, and hexanal content of the packaged product (palm oil) were also monitored. The same analysis also evaluated palm oil packed in films without antioxidant additives (C1), palm oil packed in low-density polyethylene films (C2), and palm oil with no package (C3) as a control. Although the film-forming procedure affected the antioxidant compounds, the results indicated that antioxidants were effective additives for protecting the packaged product. A lower peroxide index (36.12%), which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05), was detected in products packed in film formulations containing high concentration of additives. However, it was found that the high content of vitamin C in acerola pulp acted as a prooxidant agent, which suggests that the use of rich vitamin C pulps should be avoided as additives for films.

  7. Spray-assisted nanocoating of the biobased material urushiol.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hirohmi; Fujimoto, Aya; Takahara, Atsushi

    2015-03-03

    We have demonstrated the spray-assisted coating of the catechol derivative, urushiol. Spraying a mixture of urushiol and iron(II) acetate formed a uniform coating about 10 nm thick, as confirmed by AFM observations. XPS measurements revealed that various substrates, including polyolefins and thermosetting resins, were successfully coated with urushiol. The coating showed good solvent tolerance and coating adhesion after baking at 100 °C for 10 min or after aerobic oxidation for several days. Interestingly, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements and strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM) revealed that density and Young's modulus of the spray-assisted nanocoatings were higher than those of spray-coated samples. Moreover, the coating was uninvolved in physical properties except surface properties, as demonstrated by several experiments. Because urushiol is a promising biobased material, our unique spray-assisted coating technique could provide a general approach for material-independent surface modification techniques that are environmentally sustainable.

  8. Challenges in the development of bio-based solvents: a case study on methyl(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl carbonate as an alternative aprotic solvent.

    PubMed

    Jin, Saimeng; Byrne, Fergal; McElroy, Con Robert; Sherwood, James; Clark, James H; Hunt, Andrew J

    2017-09-21

    Many traditional solvents have drawbacks including sustainability and toxicity issues. Legislation, such as REACH, is driving the move towards less hazardous chemicals and production processes. Therefore, safer bio-based solvents need to be developed. Herein, a 10 step method has been proposed for the development of new bio-based solvents, which utilises a combination of in silico modelling of Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs), experimental Kamlet-Abboud-Taft parameters, a selection of green synthetic routes followed by application testing and toxicity measurements. The challenges that the chemical industry face in the development of new bio-based solvents are highlighted through a case study on methyl(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl carbonate (MMC), which can be synthesised from glycerol. Although MMC is an attractive candidate as a replacement solvent, simply being bio-derived is not enough for a molecule to be regarded as green. The methodology of solvent development described here is a broadly applicable protocol that will indicate if a new bio-based solvent is functionally proficient, and will also highlight the importance of early stage Kamlet-Abboud-Taft parameters determination and toxicity testing in the development of a green solvent.

  9. Development of a sweet sorghum juice clarification method in the manufacture of industrial feedstocks for value-added products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in interest of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) for small, medium, and large-scale manufacture of renewable, biobased fuels and chemicals. New fermentation organisms hold tremendous potential for the production of biobased fuels, chemical...

  10. Environmental performance of bio-based and biodegradable plastics: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Scott; Wagner, Martin

    2017-09-21

    Future plastic materials will be very different from those that are used today. The increasing importance of sustainability promotes the development of bio-based and biodegradable polymers, sometimes misleadingly referred to as 'bioplastics'. Because both terms imply "green" sources and "clean" removal, this paper aims at critically discussing the sometimes-conflicting terminology as well as renewable sources with a special focus on the degradation of these polymers in natural environments. With regard to the former we review innovations in feedstock development (e.g. microalgae and food wastes). In terms of the latter, we highlight the effects that polymer structure, additives, and environmental variables have on plastic biodegradability. We argue that the 'biodegradable' end-product does not necessarily degrade once emitted to the environment because chemical additives used to make them fit for purpose will increase the longevity. In the future, this trend may continue as the plastics industry also is expected to be a major user of nanocomposites. Overall, there is a need to assess the performance of polymer innovations in terms of their biodegradability especially under realistic waste management and environmental conditions, to avoid the unwanted release of plastic degradation products in receiving environments.

  11. Determining the bio-based content of bio-plastics used in Thailand by radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploykrathok, T.; Chanyotha, S.

    2017-06-01

    Presently, there is an increased interest in the development of bio-plastic products from agricultural materials which are biodegradable in order to reduce the problem of waste disposal. Since the amount of modern carbon in bio-plastics can indicate how much the amount of agricultural materials are contained in the bio-plastic products, this research aims to determine the modern carbon in bio-plastic using the carbon dioxide absorption method. The radioactivity of carbon-14 contained in the sample is measured by liquid scintillation counter (Tri-carb 3110 TR, PerkinElmer). The percentages of bio-based content in the samples were determined by comparing the observed modern carbon content with the values contained in agricultural raw materials. The experimental results show that only poly(lactic acid) samples have the modern carbon content of 97.4%, which is close to the agricultural materials while other bio-plastics types are found to have less than 50% of the modern carbon content. In other words, most of these bio-plastic samples were mixed with other materials which are not agriculturally originated.

  12. Bio-based solvents: an emerging generation of fluids for the design of eco-efficient processes in catalysis and organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanlong; Jérôme, François

    2013-12-21

    Biomass and waste exhibit great potential for replacing fossil resources in the production of chemicals. The search for alternative reaction media to replace petroleum-based solvents commonly used in chemical processes is an important objective of significant environmental consequence. Recently, bio-based derivatives have been either used entirely as green solvents or utilized as pivotal ingredients for the production of innovative solvents potentially less toxic and more bio-compatible. This review presents the background and classification of these new media and highlights recent advances in their use in various areas including organic synthesis, catalysis, biotransformation and separation. The greenness, advantages and limitations of these solvents are also discussed.

  13. Recent developments on genetic engineering of microalgae for biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ng, I-Son; Tan, Shi-I; Kao, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Yu-Kaung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-08-08

    Microalgae serve as a promising source for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Microalgae can help mitigate greenhouse effect. They are superior to terrestrial plants as feedstock in many aspects and their biomass is naturally rich in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, pigments and other valuable compounds. However, there are still some obstacles in developing microalgae-based biofuels and chemicals in industry Due to the relatively slow growth rate and high cultivation cost of microalgae, Therefore, screening of to screen efficient and robust microalgal strains as well as genetic modifications of the available strains for further improvement are of urgent demand in the development of microalgae-based biorefinery. In genetic engineering of microalgae, transformation and selection methods are the key steps to accomplish the target gene modification. For a powerful genetic screening, the resistance gene used should be efficient. However, determination of the preferable type and dosage of antibiotics used for transformant selection is usually time-consuming and microalgal-strain-dependent. Therefore, more powerful and efficient techniques should be developed to meet this need. In this review, the conventional and emerging genome-editing tools (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9, TALEN and ZFN) used in editing the genomes of nuclear, mitochondria and chloroplast of microalgae are thoroughly surveyed. In the current scenario, insufficient genomic data will challenge the applications of such genome editing tools in microalgae. Although all the techniques mentioned above demonstrate their abilities to perform gene editing and desired phenotype screening, there still need to overcome higher production cost and lower biomass productivity, to achieve efficient production of the desired products in microalgal biorefineries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Fatma B.; Mubofu, Egid B.

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. PMID:25894225

  15. Osteoblasts Growth Behaviour on Bio-Based Calcium Carbonate Aragonite Nanocrystal

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zuki Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanocrystals derived from cockle shells emerge to present a good concert in bone tissue engineering because of their potential to mimic the composition, structure, and properties of native bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response of CaCO3 nanocrystals on hFOB 1.19 and MC3T3 E-1 osteoblast cells in vitro. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed by MTT and BrdU assays, and LDH was measured to determine the effect of CaCO3 nanocrystals on cell membrane integrity. Cellular morphology was examined by SEM and fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that CaCO3 nanocrystals had no toxic effects to some extent. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and protein synthesis were enhanced by the nanocrystals when compared to the control. Cellular interactions were improved, as indicated by SEM and fluorescent microscopy. The production of VEGF and TGF-1 was also affected by the CaCO3 nanocrystals. Therefore, bio-based CaCO3 nanocrystals were shown to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and improve the osteointegration process. PMID:24734228

  16. Synthesis and characterization of a novel bio-based resin from maleated soybean oil polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel bio-based resin was prepared by the radical copolymerization of maleated soybean oil polyols (MSBOP) and styrene (ST). Structure of the product was studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and the result was found to be consistent with that of theoretical structure. Swelling experiments indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with the increase of hydroxyl value. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) revealed that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing hydroxyl values, and that its thermal stability showed a good correlation with the hydroxyl value. The tensile strength and impact strength were significantly affected by the hydroxyl value of soybean oil polyols. With increasing hydroxyl value, the tensile strength presented an increasing trend, while the impact strength showed a decreasing one. Moreover, the property of the polymer from elastomer to plastic character also depended on the functionality of the hydroxyl value of soybean oil polyols.

  17. Potential biological applications of bio-based anacardic acids and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Fatma B; Mubofu, Egid B

    2015-04-16

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30-35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported.

  18. Biobased polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated hollow mesoporous silica as a green flame retardant for epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Dong; Tang, Gang; Chen, Junmin; Huang, Zheng-Qi; Hu, Yuan

    2017-09-04

    Here, we describe a multifunctional biobased polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated hollow mesoporous silica (HM-SiO2@CS@PCL) as a green flame retardant through layer-by-layer assembly using hollow mesoporous silica (HM-SiO2), chitosan (CS) and phosphorylated cellulose (PCL). The electrostatic interactions deposited the CS/PCL coating on the surface of HM-SiO2. Subsequently, this multifunctional flame retardant was used to enhance thermal properties and flame retardancy of epoxy resin. The addition of HM-SiO2@CS@PCL to the epoxy resin thermally destabilized the epoxy resin composite, but generated a higher char yield. Furthermore, HM-SiO2 played a critical role and generated synergies with CS and PCL to improve fire safety of the epoxy resin due to the multiple flame retardancy elements (P, N and Si). This multi-element, synergistic, flame-retardant system resulted in a remarkable reduction (51%) of peak heat release rate and a considerable removal of flammable decomposed products. Additionally, the incorporation of HM-SiO2@CS@PCL can sustainably recycle the epoxy resin into high value-added hollow carbon spheres during combustion. Therefore, the HM-SiO2@CS@PCL system provides a practical possibility for preparing recyclable polymer materials with multi-functions and high performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bio-based barium alginate film: Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal degradation behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhao, Jin-Chao; Guo, Yi; Zhu, Ping; Wang, De-Yi

    2016-03-30

    A bio-based barium alginate film was prepared via a facile ionic exchange and casting approach. Its flammability, thermal degradation and pyrolysis behaviors, thermal degradation mechanism were studied systemically by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL-94), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). It showed that barium alginate film had much higher LOI value (52.0%) than that of sodium alginate film (24.5%). Moreover, barium alginate film passed the UL-94 V-0 rating, while the sodium alginate film showed no classification. Importantly, peak of heat release rate (PHRR) of barium alginate film in MCC test was much lower than that of sodium alginate film, suggested that introduction of barium ion into alginate film significantly decreased release of combustible gases. TG-FTIR and Py-GC-MS results indicated that barium alginate produced much less flammable products than that of sodium alginate in whole thermal degradation procedure. Finally, a possible degradation mechanism of barium alginate had been proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Seven Challenges for Transitioning into a Bio-based Circular Economy in the Agri-food Sector.

    PubMed

    Borrello, Massimiliano; Lombardi, Alessia; Pascucci, Stefano; Cembalo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop agri-food supply chains have a high potential to reduce environmental and economic costs resulting from food waste disposal. This paper illustrates an alternative to the traditional supply chain of bread based on the principles of a circular economy. Six circular interactions among seven actors (grain farmers, bread producers, retailers, compostable packaging manufacturers, insect breeders, livestock farmers, consumers) of the circular filière are created in order to achieve the goal of "zero waste". In the model, two radical technological innovations are considered: insects used as animal feed and polylactic acid compostable packaging. The main challenges for the implementation of the new supply chain are identified. Finally, some recent patents related to bread sustainable production, investigated in the current paper, are considered. Recommendations are given to academics and practitioners interested in the bio-based circular economy model approach for transforming agri-food supply chains.

  1. Dendronized hydroxypropyl cellulose: synthesis and characterization of biobased nanoobjects.

    PubMed

    Ostmark, Emma; Lindqvist, Josefina; Nyström, Daniel; Malmström, Eva

    2007-12-01

    Dendronized polymers containing a cellulose backbone have been synthesized with the aim of producing complex molecules with versatile functionalization possibilites and high molecular weight from biobased starting materials. The dendronized polymers were built by attaching premade acetonide-protected 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid functional dendrons of generation one to three to a hydroxypropyl cellulose backbone. Deprotection or functionalization of the end groups of the first generation dendronized polymer to hydroxyl groups and long alkyl chains was performed, respectively. The chemical structures of the dendronized polymers were confirmed through analysis using (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. From SEC analysis, the dendronized polymers were found to have an increasing polystyrene-equivalent molecular weight up to the second generation ( M n = 50 kg mol (-1)), whereas the polystyrene-equivalent molecular weight for the third generation was lower than for the second, although the same grafting density was obtained from (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the second and third generations. Tapping-mode atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the properties of the dendronized polymers in the dry state, exploring both the effect of the polar substrate mica and the less polar substrate highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). It was found that the molecules were in the size range of tens of nanometers and that they were apt to undertake a more elongated conformation on the HOPG surfaces when long alkyl chains were attached as the dendron end-groups.

  2. Biobased Polyamides: Recent Advances in Basic and Applied Research.

    PubMed

    Winnacker, Malte; Rieger, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Polyamides represent a very important class of polymers for a wide range of applications. After establishing in the 1930s with Nylon and Perlon, their impact on many branches has been continuously growing. In the context of developing sustainable polymers from renewable resources, many polyamides have meanwhile been described, which are based on natural building blocks. In addition to their sustainability, these biobased starting materials can provide special structural features to the resulting polymers and their properties, e.g., side groups, functionalities, or stereoinformation. While some biopolyamides are known for decades and well established (e.g., PA-11, Rilsan), many other promising candidates have been described in fundamental research studies, which have high potential but whose capability-especially for large scale and/or high-performance materials-will have to be proved in the future. Other candidates are very interesting from a scientific point of view, but with less potential for a market establishment due to price and/or feasibility reasons. This article aims at collating the recent developments in the field of biopolyamides and elucidating their properties and potential for different applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Unravelling emotional viewpoints on a bio-based economy using Q methodology.

    PubMed

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Cuppen, Eefje; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2015-10-01

    A transition to a bio-based economy will affect society and requires collective action from a broad range of stakeholders. This includes the public, who are largely unaware of this transition. For meaningful public engagement people's emotional viewpoints play an important role. However, what the public's emotions about the transition are and how they can be taken into account is underexposed in public engagement literature and practice. This article aims to unravel the public's emotional views of the bio-based economy as a starting point for public engagement. Using Q methodology with visual representations of a bio-based economy we found four emotional viewpoints: (1) compassionate environmentalist, (2) principled optimist, (3) hopeful motorist and (4) cynical environmentalist. These provide insight into the distinct and shared ways through which members of the public connect with the transition. Implications for public engagement are discussed.

  4. The Rebirth of Waste Cooking Oil to Novel Bio-based Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Cai, Bang-Xin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a kind of non-edible oil with enormous quantities and its unreasonable dispose may generate negative impact on human life and environment. However, WCO is certainly a renewable feedstock of bio-based materials. To get the rebirth of WCO, we have established a facile and high-yield method to convert WCO to bio-based zwitterionic surfactants with excellent surface and interfacial properties. The interfacial tension between crude oil and water could reach ultra-low value as 0.0016 mN m−1 at a low dosage as 0.100 g L−1 of this bio-based surfactant without the aid of extra alkali, which shows a strong interfacial activity and the great potential application in many industrial fields, in particular, the application in enhanced oil recovery in oilfields in place of petroleum-based surfactants. PMID:25944301

  5. Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Biobased Chemicals into Liquid Fuels in the Aqueous Phase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kejing; Wu, Yulong; Chen, Yu; Chen, Hao; Wang, Jianlong; Yang, Mingde

    2016-06-22

    Different biobased chemicals are produced during the conversion of biomass into fuels through various feasible technologies (e.g., hydrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, and pyrolysis). The challenge of transforming these biobased chemicals with high hydrophilicity is ascribed to the high water content of the feedstock and the inevitable formation of water. Therefore, aqueous-phase processing is an interesting technology for the heterogeneous catalytic conversion of biobased chemicals. Different reactions, such as dehydration, isomerization, aldol condensation, ketonization, and hydrogenation, are applied for the conversion of sugars, furfural/hydroxymethylfurfural, acids, phenolics, and so on over heterogeneous catalysts. The activity, stability, and reusability of the heterogeneous catalysts in water are summarized, and deactivation processes and several strategies are introduced to improve the stability of heterogeneous catalysts in the aqueous phase. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Rebirth of Waste Cooking Oil to Novel Bio-based Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Cai, Bang-Xin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a kind of non-edible oil with enormous quantities and its unreasonable dispose may generate negative impact on human life and environment. However, WCO is certainly a renewable feedstock of bio-based materials. To get the rebirth of WCO, we have established a facile and high-yield method to convert WCO to bio-based zwitterionic surfactants with excellent surface and interfacial properties. The interfacial tension between crude oil and water could reach ultra-low value as 0.0016 mN m-1 at a low dosage as 0.100 g L-1 of this bio-based surfactant without the aid of extra alkali, which shows a strong interfacial activity and the great potential application in many industrial fields, in particular, the application in enhanced oil recovery in oilfields in place of petroleum-based surfactants.

  7. The Rebirth of Waste Cooking Oil to Novel Bio-based Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Cai, Bang-Xin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-05-06

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a kind of non-edible oil with enormous quantities and its unreasonable dispose may generate negative impact on human life and environment. However, WCO is certainly a renewable feedstock of bio-based materials. To get the rebirth of WCO, we have established a facile and high-yield method to convert WCO to bio-based zwitterionic surfactants with excellent surface and interfacial properties. The interfacial tension between crude oil and water could reach ultra-low value as 0.0016 mN m(-1) at a low dosage as 0.100 g L(-1) of this bio-based surfactant without the aid of extra alkali, which shows a strong interfacial activity and the great potential application in many industrial fields, in particular, the application in enhanced oil recovery in oilfields in place of petroleum-based surfactants.

  8. Preparation and characterization of bio-based hybrid film containing chitosan and silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shahzadi, Kiran; Wu, Lin; Ge, Xuesong; Zhao, Fuhua; Li, Hui; Pang, Shuping; Jiang, Yijun; Guan, Jing; Mu, Xindong

    2016-02-10

    A bio-based hybrid film containing chitosan (CS) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been prepared by a simple casting technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible spectroscopy were employed to characterize the structure of bio-based film. The bio-based hybrid film showed unique performance compared with bare chitosan film. The incorporated nano-silver could improve the strength properly. The results revealed that AgNWs in CS film, improved its tensile strength more than 62% and Young modulus 55% compared with pure chitosan film. On the other hand tensile strength was increased 36.7% with AgNPs. Importantly, the film also exhibited conductivity and antibacterial properties, which may expand its future application. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Chemical and enzymatic catalytic routes to polyesters and oligopeptides biobased materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhui

    My Ph.D research focuses on the synthesis and property studies of different biobased materials, including polyesters, polyurethanes and oligopeptides. The first study describes the synthesis, crystal structure and physico-mechanical properties of a bio-based polyester prepared from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and 1,4-butanediol. Melt-polycondensation experiments were conducted by a two-stage polymerization using titanium tetraisopropoxide (Ti[OiPr] 4) as catalyst. Polymerization conditions (catalyst concentration, reaction time and 2nd stage reaction temperature) were varied to optimize poly(butylene furan dicarboxylate), PBF, molecular weight. A series of PBFs with different Mw were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), X-Ray diffraction and tensile testing. Influence of molecular weight and melting/crystallization enthalpy on PBF material tensile properties was explored. Cold-drawing tensile tests at room temperature for PBF with Mw 16K to 27K showed a brittle-to-ductile transition. When Mw reaches 38K, the Young's Modulus of PBF remains above 900 MPa, and the elongation at break increases to above 1000%. The mechanical properties, thermal properties and crystal structures of PBF were similar to petroleum derived poly(butylenes terephthalate), PBT. Fiber diagrams of uniaxially stretched PBF films were collected, indexed, and the unit cell was determined as triclinic (a=4.78(3) A, b=6.03(5) A, c=12.3(1) A, alpha=110.1(2)°, beta=121.1(3)°, gamma=100.6(2)°). A crystal structure was derived from this data and final atomic coordinates are reported. We concluded that there is a close similarity of the PBF structure to PBT alpha- and beta-forms. In the second study, a biobased long chain polyester polyol (PC14-OH) was synthesized from o-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (o-HOC14) and 1,4-butanediol. The first section about polyester polyurethanes describes the synthesis

  10. Dynamically vulcanized biobased polylactide/natural rubber blend material with continuous cross-linked rubber phase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yukun; Yuan, Daosheng; Xu, Chuanhui

    2014-03-26

    We prepared a biobased material, dynamically vulcanized polylactide (PLA)/natural rubber (NR) blend in which the cross-linked NR phase owned a continuous network-like dispersion. This finding breaks the traditional concept of a sea-island morphology formed after dynamic vulcanization of the blends. The scan electron microscopy and dissolution/swell experiments provided the direct proof of the continuous cross-linked NR phase. This new biobased PLA/NR blend material with the novel structure is reported for the first time in the field of dynamic vulcanization and shows promise for development for various functional applications.

  11. Bio-based thermosetting copolymers of eugenol and tung oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handoko, Harris

    There has been an increasing demand for novel synthetic polymers made of components derived from renewable sources to cope with the depletion of petroleum sources. In fact, monomers derived vegetable oils and plant sources have shown promising results in forming polymers with good properties. The following is a study of two highly viable renewable sources, eugenol and tung oil (TO) to be copolymerized into fully bio-based thermosets. Polymerization of eugenol required initial methacrylate-functionalization through Steglich esterification and the synthesized methacrylated eugenol (ME) was confirmed by 1H-NMR. Rheological studies showed ideal Newtonian behavior in ME and five other blended ME resins containing 10 -- 50 wt% TO. Free-radical copolymerization using 5 mol% of tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (crosslinking catalyst) and curing at elevated temperatures (90 -- 160 °C) formed a series of soft to rigid highly-crosslinked thermosets. Crosslinked material (89 -- 98 %) in the thermosets were determined by Soxhlet extraction to decrease with increase of TO content (0 -- 30%). Thermosets containing 0 -- 30 wt% TO possessed ultimate flexural (3-point bending) strength of 32.2 -- 97.2 MPa and flexural moduli of 0.6 -- 3.5 GPa, with 3.2 -- 8.8 % strain-to-failure ratio. Those containing 10 -- 40 wt% TO exhibited ultimate tensile strength of 3.3 -- 45.0 MPa and tensile moduli of 0.02 GPa to 1.12 GPa, with 8.5 -- 76.7 % strain-to-failure ratio. Glass transition temperatures ranged from 52 -- 152 °C as determined by DMA in 3-point bending. SEM analysis on fractured tensile test specimens detected a small degree of heterogeneity. All the thermosets are thermally stable up to approximately 300 °C based on 5% weight loss.

  12. The potential of the aquatic water fern Azolla within a biobased economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Jongerius, Anna L.; Bijl, Peter K.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J. M.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern capable of fixing atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen, the latter of which through its symbiosis with the cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae. It is currently ranked among the fastest growing plants on Earth and occurs in both tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, it is non-directly competitive with food crops. In addition, Azolla does not require inorganic fertilizers, which makes it a potential and unique source of biomass for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals that are currently derived from fossil (fuel) sources. The biochemical composition of Azolla allows the production of biofuel or biobased chemicals that are of interest to the chemical industry. Of Azolla, two extractable groups of compounds are of particular interest, i.e. the polyphenols (condensed tannins and ester-bound caffeic acid) and the lipids. The antioxidant property of polyphenols and their application to the treatment of cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases has further contributed to the growth of the polyphenol market. In addition, they can be chemically transformed into aromatic platform and specialty chemicals. The composition of the lipid fraction of Azolla is characterized by highly specific compounds consisting of C26-C36 carbon chains all bearing a ω20-hydroxy group. Such compounds produce an oil fraction upon hydrous pyrolysis, or, alternatively, are well suited to be converted to e.g. various specialty chemicals that are hardly available from both natural sources. Indeed, upon chemical conversion these lipids may yield components for fuels, plastics, cosmetics, and lubricants. Another group of interesting compounds within the lipid group are the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The demand for PUFAs has witnessed a significant increase over the last three years, particularly due to their benefits as cholesterol lowering agents. Here we will present some of the thermal and chemical conversions of the

  13. Production of novel microbial biopolymers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microorganisms are well known to produce a wide variety of biobased polymers. These biopolymers have found a wide range of commercial uses, including food, feed, and consumer and industrial products. The production and possible uses of several novel biopolymers from both bacteria and fungi will be d...

  14. 78 FR 70938 - Draft Guidelines; Product Environmental Performance Standards and Ecolabels for Voluntary Use in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... materials acquisition, production, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, maintenance or..., Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety, and Drug-Free Workplace... Management Program (FEMP) designated), water-efficient, biobased, environmentally preferable...

  15. Opportunities for using bio-based fibers for value-added composites

    Treesearch

    Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2006-01-01

    Efficient and economical utilization of various bio-based materials is an effective way to improve forest management, promote long-term sustainability, and restore native ecosystems. However, the dilemma is how to deal with lesser used, undervalued or no-value bio-resources such as small diameter trees, agricultural residues (wheat straw, rice straw, and corn stalk),...

  16. Latent Heat Characteristics of Biobased Oleochemical Carbonates as Novel Phase Change Materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleochemical carbonates are biobased materials that were readily prepared through a carbonate interchange reaction between renewable C10-C18 fatty alcohols and dimethyl or diethyl carbonate in the presence of a catalyst. These carbonates have various commercial uses in cosmetic, fuel additive and l...

  17. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  18. Diffusion coefficients of water in biobased hydrogel polymer matrices by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The diffusion coefficient of water in biobased hydrogels were measured utilizing a simple NMR method. This method tracks the migration of deuterium oxide through imaging data that is fit to a diffusion equation. The results show that a 5 wt% soybean oil based hydrogel gives aqueous diffusion of 1.37...

  19. Use of NMR Imaging to Determine the Diffusion Coefficient of Water in Bio-based Hydrogels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The diffusion of liquid in a hydrogel material is a fundamental property which must be controlled in order to create effective delivery systems for the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. NMR spectroscopy has been used to determine the diffusion of water and deuterium oxide in a bio-based h...

  20. Molecular characterisation of a bio-based active packaging containing Origanum vulgare L. essential oil using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, María; Pichardo, Silvia; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Bermúdez, José M; Aucejo, Susana; González-Vila, Francisco J; Cameán, Ana M; González-Pérez, José A

    2016-07-01

    Environmental, economic and safety challenges motivate shift towards safer materials for food packaging. New bioactive packaging techniques, i.e. addition of essential plant oils (EOs), are gaining attention by creating barriers to protect products from spoilage. Analytical pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was used to fingerprint a bioactive polylactic acid (PLA) with polybutylene succinate (PBS) (950 g kg(-1) :50 g kg(-1) ) film extruded with variable quantities (0, 20, 50 and 100 g kg(-1) ) of Origanum vulgare EO. Main PLA:PBS pyrolysis products were lactide enantiomers and monomer units from the major PLA fraction and succinic acid anhydride from the PBS fraction. Oregano EO pyrolysis released cymene, terpinene and thymol/carvacrol peaks as diagnostic peaks for EO. In fact, linear correlation coefficients better than 0.950R(2) value (P < 0.001) were found between the chromatographic area of the diagnostic peaks and the amount of oregano EO in the bioplastic. The pyrolytic behaviour of a bio-based active package polymer including EO is studied in detail. Identified diagnostic compounds provide a tool to monitor the quantity of EO incorporated into the PLA:PBS polymeric matrix. Analytical pyrolysis is proposed as a rapid technique for the identification and quantification of additives within bio-based plastic matrices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Processing and characterization of novel biobased and biodegradable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilla, Srikanth

    Human society has benefited tremendously from the use of petroleum-based plastics. However, there are growing concerns with their adverse environmental impacts and volatile costs attributed to the skyrocketing oil prices. Additionally most of the petroleum-based polymers are non-biodegradable causing problems about their disposal. Thus, during the last couple of decades, scientists ail over the world have been focusing on developing new polymeric materials that are biobased and biodegradable, also termed as green plastics . This study aims to develop green materials based on polylactide (PLA) biopolymer that can be made from plants. Although PLA can provide important advantages in terms of sustainability and biodegradability, it has its own challenges such as high cost, brittleness, and narrow processing window. These challenges are addressed in this study by investigating both new material formulations and processes. To improve the material properties and control the material costs, PLA was blended with various fillers and modifiers. The types of fillers investigated include carbon nanotube (CNT) nanoparticles and various natural fibers such as pine-wood four, recycled-wood fibers and flax fiber. Using natural fibers as fillers for PLA can result in fully biodegradable and eco-friendly biocomposites. Also due to PLA's sensitivity to moisture and temperature, molecular degradation can occur during processing leading to inferior material properties. To address this issue, one of the approaches adopted by this study was to incorporate a multifunctional chain-extender into PLA, which increased the molecular weight of PLA thereby improving the material properties. To improve the processability and reduce the material cost, both microcellular injection molding and extrusion processes have been studied. The microcellular technology allows the materials to be processed at a lower temperature, which is attractive for thermo- and moisture-sensitive materials like PLA. They

  2. Structure - Property Relationships of Furanyl Thermosetting Polymer Materials Derived from Biobased Feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fengshuo

    Biobased thermosetting polymers have drawn significant attention due to their potential positive economic and ecological impacts. New materials should mimic the rigid, phenylic structures of incumbent petroleum-based thermosetting monomers and possess superior thermal and mechanical properties. Furans and triglycerides derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and plant oils are promising candidates for preparing such thermosetting materials. In this work, furanyl diepoxies, diamines and di-vinyl esters were synthesized using biobased furanyl materials, and their thermal and mechanical properties were investigated using multiple techniques. The structure versus property relationship showed that, compared with the prepared phenylic analogues, biobased furanyl thermosetting materials possess improved glassy storage modulus (E '), advanced fracture toughness, superior high-temperature char yield and comparable glass transition temperature (Tg) properties. An additive molar function analysis of the furanyl building block to the physical properties, such as Tg and density, of thermosetting polymers was performed. The molar glass transition function value (Yg) and molar volume increment value (Va,i) of the furanyl building block were obtained. Biobased epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was modified using different fatty acids at varying molar ratios, and these prepared materials dramatically improved the critical strain energy release rate (G1c) and the critical stress intensity factor (K1c) values of commercial phenylic epoxy resins, without impairing their Tg and E ' properties. Overall, it was demonstrated that biobased furans and triglycerides possess promising potential for use in preparing high-performance thermosetting materials, and the established methodologies in this work can be utilized to direct the preparation of thermosetting materials with thermal and mechanical properties desired for practical applications.

  3. Selectivity Control in the Tandem Aromatization of Bio-Based Furanics Catalyzed by Solid Acids and Palladium.

    PubMed

    Genuino, Homer C; Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; van der Waal, Jan C; de Jong, Ed; van Haveren, Jacco; van Es, Daan S; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A

    2017-01-10

    Bio-based furanics can be aromatized efficiently by sequential Diels-Alder (DA) addition and hydrogenation steps followed by tandem catalytic aromatization. With a combination of zeolite H-Y and Pd/C, the hydrogenated DA adduct of 2-methylfuran and maleic anhydride can thus be aromatized in the liquid phase and, to a certain extent, decarboxylated to give high yields of the aromatic products 3-methylphthalic anhydride and o- and m-toluic acid. Here, it is shown that a variation in the acidity and textural properties of the solid acid as well as bifunctionality offers a handle on selectivity toward aromatic products. The zeolite component was found to dominate selectivity. Indeed, a linear correlation is found between 3-methylphthalic anhydride yield and the product of (strong acid/total acidity) and mesopore volume of H-Y, highlighting the need for balanced catalyst acidity and porosity. The efficient coupling of the dehydration and dehydrogenation steps by varying the zeolite-to-Pd/C ratio allowed the competitive decarboxylation reaction to be effectively suppressed, which led to an improved 3-methylphthalic anhydride/total aromatics selectivity ratio of 80 % (89 % total aromatics yield). The incorporation of Pd nanoparticles in close proximity to the acid sites in bifunctional Pd/H-Y catalysts also afforded a flexible means to control aromatic products selectivity, as further demonstrated in the aromatization of hydrogenated DA adducts from other diene/dienophile combinations.

  4. A roadmap for the synthesis of separation networks for the recovery of bio-based chemicals: Matching biological and process feasibility.

    PubMed

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Wu, WenZhao; Clark, Ryan L; Pfleger, Brian F; Root, Thatcher W; Maravelias, Christos T

    2016-12-01

    Microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks to high-value chemicals is an attractive alternative to current petrochemical processes because it offers the potential to reduce net CO2 emissions and integrate with bioremediation objectives. Microbes have been genetically engineered to produce a growing number of high-value chemicals in sufficient titer, rate, and yield from renewable feedstocks. However, high-yield bioconversion is only one aspect of an economically viable process. Separation of biologically synthesized chemicals from process streams is a major challenge that can contribute to >70% of the total production costs. Thus, process feasibility is dependent upon the efficient selection of separation technologies. This selection is dependent on upstream processing or biological parameters, such as microbial species, product titer and yield, and localization. Our goal is to present a roadmap for selection of appropriate technologies and generation of separation schemes for efficient recovery of bio-based chemicals by utilizing information from upstream processing, separation science and commercial requirements. To achieve this, we use a separation system comprising of three stages: (I) cell and product isolation, (II) product concentration, and (III) product purification and refinement. In each stage, we review the technology alternatives available for different tasks in terms of separation principles, important operating conditions, performance parameters, advantages and disadvantages. We generate separation schemes based on product localization and its solubility in water, the two most distinguishing properties. Subsequently, we present ideas for simplification of these schemes based on additional properties, such as physical state, density, volatility, and intended use. This simplification selectively narrows down the technology options and can be used for systematic process synthesis and optimal recovery of bio-based chemicals.

  5. Poly(carbonate–amide)s Derived from Bio-Based Resources: Poly(ferulic acid-co-tyrosine)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a bio-based resource found in fruits and vegetables, was coupled with a hydroxyl-amino acid to generate a new class of monomers to afford poly(carbonate–amide)s with potential to degrade into natural products. l-Serine was first selected as the hydroxyl-amino partner for FA, from which the activated p-nitrophenyl carbonate monomer was synthesized. Unfortunately, polymerizations were unsuccessful, and the elimination product was systematically obtained. To avoid elimination, we revised our strategy and used l-tyrosine ethyl ester, which lacks an acidic proton on the α position of the ethyl ester. Four new monomers were synthesized and converted into the corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s with specific regioselectivities. The polymers were fully characterized through thermal and spectroscopic analyses. Preliminary fluorescent studies revealed interesting photophysical properties for the monomers and their corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s, beyond the fluorescence characteristics of l-tyrosine and FA, making these materials potentially viable for sensing and/or imaging applications, in addition to their attractiveness as engineering materials derived from renewable resources. PMID:24839309

  6. Hybrid hierarchical bio-based materials: Development and characterization through experimentation and computational simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Mahmoodul

    Environmentally friendly bio-based composites with improved properties can be obtained by harnessing the synergy offered by hybrid constituents such as multiscale (nano- and micro-scale) reinforcement in bio-based resins composed of blends of synthetic and natural resins. Bio-based composites have recently gained much attention due to their low cost, environmental appeal and their potential to compete with synthetic composites. The advantage of multiscale reinforcement is that it offers synergy at various length scales, and when combined with bio-based resins provide stiffness-toughness balance, improved thermal and barrier properties, and increased environmental appeal to the resulting composites. Moreover, these hybrid materials are tailorable in performance and in environmental impact. While the use of different concepts of multiscale reinforcement has been studied for synthetic composites, the study of mukiphase/multiscale reinforcements for developing new types of sustainable materials is limited. The research summarized in this dissertation focused on development of multiscale reinforced bio-based composites and the effort to understand and exploit the synergy of its constituents through experimental characterization and computational simulations. Bio-based composites consisting of petroleum-based resin (unsaturated polyester), natural or bio-resin (epoxidized soybean and linseed oils), natural fibers (industrial hemp), and nanosilicate (nanoclay) inclusions were developed. The work followed the "materials by Mahmoodul Haq design" philosophy by incorporating an integrated experimental and computational approach to strategically explore the design possibilities and limits. Experiments demonstrated that the drawbacks of bio-resin addition, which lowers stiffness, strength and increases permeability, can be counter-balanced through nanoclay reinforcement. Bio-resin addition yields benefits in impact strength and ductility. Conversely, nanoclay enhances stiffness

  7. Biobased building blocks for the rational design of renewable block polymers.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Angela L; Reno, Kaleigh H; Wool, Richard P; Epps, Thomas H

    2014-10-14

    Block polymers (BPs) derived from biomass (biobased) are necessary components of a sustainable future that relies minimally on petroleum-based plastics for applications ranging from thermoplastic elastomers and pressure-sensitive adhesives to blend compatibilizers. To facilitate their adoption, renewable BPs must be affordable, durable, processable, versatile, and reasonably benign. Their desirability further depends on the relative sustainability of the renewable resources and the methods employed in the monomer and polymer syntheses. Various strategies allow these BPs' characteristics to be tuned and enhanced for commercial applications, and many of these techniques also can be applied to manipulate the wide-ranging mechanical and thermal properties of biobased and self-assembling block polymers. From feedstock to application, this review article highlights promising renewable BPs, plus their material and assembly properties, in support of de novo design strategies that could revolutionize material sustainability.

  8. Introducing biobased ionic liquids as the nonaqueous media for enzymatic synthesis of phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yan-Hong; Duan, Zhang-Qun; Li, Xiang-Qian; Wang, Zhao-Yu; Zhao, Xi-Rong

    2015-02-11

    Biobased ionic liquids with cholinium as the cation and amino acids as the anions, which could be prepared from renewable biomaterials by simple neutralization reactions, have recently been described as promising and green solvents. Herein, they were successfully used as the reaction media for enzyme-mediated transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine with l-serine for phosphatidylserine synthesis for the first time. Our results indicated that the highest phosphatidylserine yield of 86.5% was achieved. Moreover, 75% original activity of the enzyme was maintained after being used for 10 batches. The present work could be considered an alternative enzymatic strategy for preparing phosphatidylserine. Additionally, the excellent results make the biobased ionic liquids more promising candidates for use as environmentally friendly solvents in biocatalysis fields.

  9. Coupling chemical and biological catalysis: a flexible paradigm for producing biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Thomas J; Shanks, Brent H; Dumesic, James A

    2016-04-01

    Advances in metabolic engineering have allowed for the development of new biological catalysts capable of selectively de-functionalizing biomass to yield platform molecules that can be upgraded to biobased chemicals using high efficiency continuous processing allowed by heterogeneous chemical catalysis. Coupling these disciplines overcomes the difficulties of selectively activating COH bonds by heterogeneous chemical catalysis and producing petroleum analogues by biological catalysis. We show that carboxylic acids, pyrones, and alcohols are highly flexible platforms that can be used to produce biobased chemicals by this approach. More generally, we suggest that molecules with three distinct functionalities may represent a practical upper limit on the extent of functionality present in the platform molecules that serve as the bridge between biological and chemical catalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictive Methods for Dense Polymer Networks: Combating Bias with Bio-Based Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-16

    Architectural Bias • Comparison of Petroleum -Based and Bio-Based Chemical Architectures • Continuing Research on Structure-Property Relationships using...inexpensive supply of phenol from petroleum refining. Consequently, certain architectures are over-represented in a “random” sample of network-forming...A much wider array of structures can be accessed from these sources than is available from refining petroleum 11Distribution A: Approved for public

  11. High-Performance Bio-Based Cyanate Esters with Low Moisture Uptake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Uptake 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Andrew Guenthner , Matthew...release, distribution is unlimited. HIGH-PERFORMANCE BIO-BASED CYANATE ESTER RESINS WITH LOW MOISTURE UPTAKE Andrew J. Guenthner ,1 Matthew C. Davis,2...275. 2. Illicium, pimpinella, and foeniculum. Jodral, M. M., Ed.; CRC Press: Washington, DC, 2004. 3. Guenthner , A. J.; Lamison, K. R.; Vij, V

  12. 7 CFR 2902.26 - Lip care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lip care products. 2902.26 Section 2902.26... Items § 2902.26 Lip care products. (a) Definition. Personal care products formulated to replenish the... accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased lip care products....

  13. 7 CFR 2902.26 - Lip care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.26 Lip care products. (a) Definition. Personal care products formulated to replenish the... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lip care products. 2902.26 Section 2902.26... accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased lip care products....

  14. 7 CFR 3201.82 - Foot care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foot care products. 3201.82 Section 3201.82... Designated Items § 3201.82 Foot care products. (a) Definition. Products formulated to be used in the soothing or cleaning of feet. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product...

  15. 7 CFR 3201.82 - Foot care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foot care products. 3201.82 Section 3201.82... Designated Items § 3201.82 Foot care products. (a) Definition. Products formulated to be used in the soothing or cleaning of feet. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product...

  16. Environmental impacts of producing bioethanol and biobased lactic acid from standalone and integrated biorefineries using a consequential and an attributional life cycle assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Birkved, Morten; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Corona, Andrea; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-11-15

    This study evaluates the environmental impacts of biorefinery products using consequential (CLCA) and attributional (ALCA) life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches. Within ALCA, economic allocation method was used to distribute impacts among the main products and the coproducts, whereas within the CLCA system expansion was adopted to avoid allocation. The study seeks to answer the questions (i) what is the environmental impacts of process integration?, and (ii) do CLCA and ALCA lead to different conclusions when applied to biorefinery?. Three biorefinery systems were evaluated and compared: a standalone system producing bioethanol from winter wheat-straw (system A), a standalone system producing biobased lactic acid from alfalfa (system B), and an integrated biorefinery system (system C) combining the two standalone systems and producing both bioethanol and lactic acid. The synergy of the integration was the exchange of useful energy necessary for biomass processing in the two standalone systems. The systems were compared against a common reference flow: "1MJEtOH+1kgLA", which was set on the basis of products delivered by the system C. Function of the reference flow was to provide service of both fuel (bioethanol) at 99.9% concentration (wt. basis) and biochemical (biobased lactic acid) in food industries at 90% purity; both products delivered at biorefinery gate. The environmental impacts of interest were global warming potential (GWP100), eutrophication potential (EP), non-renewable energy (NRE) use and the agricultural land occupation (ALO). Regardless of the LCA approach adopted, system C performed better in most of the impact categories than both standalone systems. The process wise contribution to the obtained environmental impacts also showed similar impact pattern in both approaches. The study also highlighted that the recirculation of intermediate materials, e.g. C5 sugar to boost bioethanol yield and that the use of residual streams in the energy conversion

  17. Enhanced electromechanical performance of bio-based gelatin/glycerin dielectric elastomer by cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Ning, Nanying; Wang, Zhifei; Yao, Yang; Zhang, Liqun; Tian, Ming

    2015-10-05

    To meet the growing demand of environmental protection and resource saving, it is imperative to explore bio-based elastomers as next-generation dielectric elastomers (DEs). In this study, we used a bio-based gelatin/glycerin (GG) elastomer as the DE matrix because GG exhibits high dielectric constant (ɛr). Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), extracted from natural cellulose fibers, were used to improve the mechanical strength of GG elastomer. The results showed that CNCs with a large number of hydroxyl groups disrupted the hydrogen bonds between gelatin molecules and formed new stronger hydrogen bonds with gelatin molecules. A good interfacial adhesion between CNCs and GG was formed, and thus a good dispersion of CNCs in GG matrix was obtained, leading to the improved mechanical strength of GG. More interestingly, the ɛr of GG elastomer was obviously increased by adding 5 wt% of CNCs, ascribed to the increase in the polarizability of gelatin chains caused by the disruption of hydrogen bonds of gelatin. As a result, a 230% increase in the actuated strain at low electric field of GG was obtained by adding 5 wt% of CNCs. Since CNCs, gelatin and glycerol are all bio-based, this study offers a new method to prepare high performance DE for its application in biological and medical fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bio-based hyperbranched polyurethane/Fe3O4 nanocomposites: smart antibacterial biomaterials for biomedical devices and implants.

    PubMed

    Das, Beauty; Mandal, Manabendra; Upadhyay, Aadesh; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Karak, Niranjan

    2013-06-01

    The fabrication of a smart magnetically controllable bio-based polymeric nanocomposite (NC) has immense potential in the biomedical domain. In this context, magneto-thermoresponsive sunflower oil modified hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/Fe3O4 NCs with different wt.% of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were prepared by an in situ polymerization technique. Fourier-transform infrared, x-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetric were used to analyze various physico-chemical structural attributes of the prepared NC. The results showed good interfacial interactions between HBPU and well-dispersed superparamagnetic Fe3O4, with an average diameter of 7.65 nm. The incorporation of Fe3O4 in HBPU significantly improved the thermo-mechanical properties along with the shape-memory behavior, antibacterial activity, biocompatibility as well as biodegradability in comparison to the pristine system. The cytocompatibility of the degraded products of the NC was also verified by in vitro hemolytic activity and MTT assay. In addition, the in vivo biocompatibility and non-immunological behavior, as tested in Wistar rats after subcutaneous implantation, show promising signs for the NC to be used as antibacterial biomaterial for biomedical device and implant applications.

  19. Plant Fibre: Molecular Structure and Biomechanical Properties, of a Complex Living Material, Influencing Its Deconstruction towards a Biobased Composite

    PubMed Central

    Sorieul, Mathias; Dickson, Alan; Hill, Stefan J.; Pearson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls form an organic complex composite material that fulfils various functions. The hierarchical structure of this material is generated from the integration of its elementary components. This review provides an overview of wood as a composite material followed by its deconstruction into fibres that can then be incorporated into biobased composites. Firstly, the fibres are defined, and their various origins are discussed. Then, the organisation of cell walls and their components are described. The emphasis is on the molecular interactions of the cellulose microfibrils, lignin and hemicelluloses in planta. Hemicelluloses of diverse species and cell walls are described. Details of their organisation in the primary cell wall are provided, as understanding of the role of hemicellulose has recently evolved and is likely to affect our perception and future study of their secondary cell wall homologs. The importance of the presence of water on wood mechanical properties is also discussed. These sections provide the basis for understanding the molecular arrangements and interactions of the components and how they influence changes in fibre properties once isolated. A range of pulping processes can be used to individualise wood fibres, but these can cause damage to the fibres. Therefore, issues relating to fibre production are discussed along with the dispersion of wood fibres during extrusion. The final section explores various ways to improve fibres obtained from wood. PMID:28773739

  20. Building a bio-based industry in the Middle East through harnessing the potential of the Red Sea biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens; Archer, John; Essack, Magbubah; Bajic, Vladimir B; Gojobori, Takashi; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    The incentive for developing microbial cell factories for production of fuels and chemicals comes from the ability of microbes to deliver these valuable compounds at a reduced cost and with a smaller environmental impact compared to the analogous chemical synthesis. Another crucial advantage of microbes is their great biological diversity, which offers a much larger "catalog" of molecules than the one obtainable by chemical synthesis. Adaptation to different environments is one of the important drives behind microbial diversity. We argue that the Red Sea, which is a rather unique marine niche, represents a remarkable source of biodiversity that can be geared towards economical and sustainable bioproduction processes in the local area and can be competitive in the international bio-based economy. Recent bioprospecting studies, conducted by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, have established important leads on the Red Sea biological potential, with newly isolated strains of Bacilli and Cyanobacteria. We argue that these two groups of local organisms are currently most promising in terms of developing cell factories, due to their ability to operate in saline conditions, thus reducing the cost of desalination and sterilization. The ability of Cyanobacteria to perform photosynthesis can be fully exploited in this particular environment with one of the highest levels of irradiation on the planet. We highlight the importance of new experimental and in silico methodologies needed to overcome the hurdles of developing efficient cell factories from the Red Sea isolates.

  1. Biobased carbon content of resin extracted from polyethylene composite by carbon-14 concentration measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Kunioka, Masao; Funabashi, Masahiro; Ninomiya, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    An estimation procedure for biobased carbon content of polyethylene composite was studied using carbon-14 ((14)C) concentration ratios as measured by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS). Prior to the measurement, additives and fillers in composites should be removed because they often contain a large amount of biobased carbon and may shift the estimation. Samples of resin with purity suitable for measurement were isolated from composites with a Soxhlet extractor using heated cyclohexanone. After cooling of extraction solutions, the resin was recovered as a fine semi-crystalline precipitate, which was easily filtered. Recovery rates were almost identical (99%), even for low-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene, which may have lower crystallinity. This procedure could provide a suitable approach for estimation of biobased carbon content by AMS on the basis of the standard ASTM D 6866. The biobased carbon content for resin extracted from polyethylene composites allow for the calculation of biosynthetic polymer content, which is an indicator of mass percentage of the biobased plastic resin in the composite.

  2. Synthesis of bio-based methacrylic acid by decarboxylation of itaconic acid and citric acid catalyzed by solid transition-metal catalysts.

    PubMed

    Le Nôtre, Jérôme; Witte-van Dijk, Susan C M; van Haveren, Jacco; Scott, Elinor L; Sanders, Johan P M

    2014-09-01

    Methacrylic acid, an important monomer for the plastics industry, was obtained in high selectivity (up to 84%) by the decarboxylation of itaconic acid using heterogeneous catalysts based on Pd, Pt and Ru. The reaction takes place in water at 200-250 °C without any external added pressure, conditions significantly milder than those described previously for the same conversion with better yield and selectivity. A comprehensive study of the reaction parameters has been performed, and the isolation of methacrylic acid was achieved in 50% yield. The decarboxylation procedure is also applicable to citric acid, a more widely available bio-based feedstock, and leads to the production of methacrylic acid in one pot in 41% selectivity. Aconitic acid, the intermediate compound in the pathway from citric acid to itaconic acid was also used successfully as a substrate.

  3. Bio-based amphiphilic materials development and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farm-based raw materials are increasingly used in the development of amphiphilic materials that have potential applications in the production of a variety of consumer and industrial products, including lubricants. Raw materials of interest include: starches, proteins, fats, oils, and sugars. These ...

  4. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic... the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c) Preference compliance date... in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.89 - Animal cleaning products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal cleaning products. 3201.89 Section 3201.89... Designated Items § 3201.89 Animal cleaning products. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean, condition, or remove substances from animal hair or other parts of an animal. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  6. 7 CFR 3201.89 - Animal cleaning products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal cleaning products. 3201.89 Section 3201.89... Designated Items § 3201.89 Animal cleaning products. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean, condition, or remove substances from animal hair or other parts of an animal. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  7. Bio-based materials with novel characteristics for tissue engineering applications - A review.

    PubMed

    Bedian, Luis; Villalba-Rodríguez, Angel M; Hernández-Vargas, Gustavo; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-05-01

    Recently, a wider spectrum of bio-based materials and materials-based novel constructs and systems has been engineered with high interests. The key objective is to help for an enhanced/better quality of life in a secure way by avoiding/limiting various adverse effects of some in practice traditional therapies. In this context, different methodological approaches including in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo techniques have been exploited, so far. Among them, bio-based therapeutic constructs are of supreme interests for an enhanced and efficient delivery in the current biomedical sector of the modern world. The development of new types of novel, effective and highly reliable materials-based novel constructs for multipurpose applications is essential and a core demand to tackle many human health related diseases. Bio-based materials possess several complementary functionalities, e.g. unique chemical structure, bioactivity, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, recyclability, etc. that position them well in the modern world's materials sector. In this context, the utilization of biomaterials provides extensive opportunities for experimentation in the field of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary scientific research. With an aim to address the global dependence on petroleum-based polymers, researchers have been redirecting their interests to the engineering of biological materials for targeted applications in different industries including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and other biotechnological or biomedical applications. Herein, we reviewed biotechnological advancements at large and tissue engineering from a biomaterials perspective in particular and envision directions of future developments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzymatic synthesis of biobased polyesters using 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as the building block.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Woortman, Albert J J; Alberda van Ekenstein, Gert O R; Petrović, Dejan M; Loos, Katja

    2014-07-14

    2,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)furan is a highly valuable biobased rigid diol resembling aromatic monomers in polyester synthesis. In this work, it was enzymatically polymerized with various diacid ethyl esters by Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) via a three-stage method. A series of novel biobased furan polyesters with number-average molecular weights (M(n)) around 2000 g/mol were successfully obtained. The chemical structures and physical properties of 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan-based polyesters were fully characterized. Furthermore, we discussed the effects of the number of the methylene units in the dicarboxylic segments on the physical properties of the furan polyesters.

  9. Bio-based ionic liquid crystalline quaternary ammonium salts: properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Renjith; Rao, Talasila P; Devaki, Sudha J

    2014-03-26

    In the present work, we describe the preparation, properties, and applications of novel ionic liquid crystalline quaternary ammonium salts (QSs) of 3-pentadecylphenol, a bio-based low-cost material derived from cashew nut shell liquid. Amphotropic liquid crystalline phase formation in QSs was characterized using a combination of techniques, such as DSC, PLM, XRD, SEM, and rheology, which revealed the formation of one, two, and three dimensionally ordered mesophases in different length scales. On the basis of these results, a plausible mechanism for the formation of specific modes of packing in various mesophases was proposed. Observation of anisotropic ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability suggests their application as a solid electrolyte.

  10. 75 FR 63695 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... materials; multipurpose lubricants; office paper; topical pain relief products; and turbine drip oils. Today's final rule designates the proposed items (with the exception of office paper) within which... two substantive changes to the rule. The proposed ``office paper'' item has been withdrawn from the...

  11. Bio-based wood adhesives--preparation, characterization, and testing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adhesive bonding plays an increasing role in the forest product industry and is a key factor for efficiently utilizing timber and other lignocellulosic resources. As synthetic wood adhesives are mostly derived from depleting petrochemical resources and have resulted in increasing environmental conce...

  12. Design of biobased and biodegradable - compostable engineered plastics based on poly(lactide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jeffrey Samuelson

    Poly(lactide) (PLA) is a biobased and biodegradable - compostable plastic that is derived from renewable resources such as corn and sugar cane. It possesses excellent strength and stiffness properties and is recognized as safe for biomedical and food packaging applications. Commercially, it costs $1/lb and is now competitive with petroleum based polymers that have dominated the industry for decades. However, the material has some inherently weak properties that prevent it from certain applications - most notably, its rheological properties, brittleness, and poor high temperature performance. Cost effective modifications of the polymer to enhance these deficiencies could allow for increased applications and further its commercial growth. Multiple synthetic strategies have been developed to address PLA's performance property deficiencies. PLA typically exhibits poor melt strength and does not have the ability to strain harden, partially a result of its highly linear nature. Strain hardening and high melt strength are crucial elements of a material when producing blown films, a large untapped market for PLA. By increasing molecular weight and introducing long-chain branching into the material, these properties can be improved. Epoxy-functionalized PLA (EF-PLA) was synthesized by reacting PLA with a multifunctional epoxy polymer (MEP) using reactive extrusion processing (REX). These modified PLA polymers can function as a rheology modifier for PLA and a compatibilizer for blends with other biopolyesters. The modified PLA showed an increased melt strength and exhibited significant strain hardening, thus making it more suited for blown film applications. Blown films comprised of PLA and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) were produced using EF-PLA as a reactive modifier for rheological enhancement and compatibilization. This resulted in films with better processability (as seen by increased bubble stability) and improved mechanical properties, compared to a

  13. Metabolic engineering with plants for a sustainable biobased economy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Moon; Zhao, Le; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2013-01-01

    Plants are bona fide sustainable organisms because they accumulate carbon and synthesize beneficial metabolites from photosynthesis. To meet the challenges to food security and health threatened by increasing population growth and depletion of nonrenewable natural resources, recent metabolic engineering efforts have shifted from single pathways to holistic approaches with multiple genes owing to integration of omics technologies. Successful engineering of plants results in the high yield of biomass components for primary food sources and biofuel feedstocks, pharmaceuticals, and platform chemicals through synthetic biology and systems biology strategies. Further discovery of undefined biosynthesis pathways in plants, integrative analysis of discrete omics data, and diversified process developments for production of platform chemicals are essential to overcome the hurdles for sustainable production of value-added biomolecules from plants.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Partial Biobased Furan Polyamides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    thiophene units (15), and –poly(amide-imide) copolymer systems (16, 17). However, there are disadvantages using this method, including side reactions from...Pagliaccia, T.; Argyropoulos, D. S.; Crestini, C. Production of Chemicals From Cellulose and Biomass -Derived Compounds: Advances in the Oxidative... Biomass : A Review. In Materials, Chemicals, and Energy from Forest Biomass ; Argyropoulos, D. S., Ed.; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2007; p

  15. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  16. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  17. Biomass feedstock production systems: economic and environmental benefits

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Coleman; John A. Stanturf

    2006-01-01

    The time is ripe for expanding bioenergy production capacity and developing a bio-based economy. Modern society has created unprecedented demands for energy and chemical products that are predominately based on geologic sources. However, there is a growing consensus that constraints on the supply of petroleum and the negative environmental consequences of burning...

  18. Bio-Based Nano Composites from Plant Oil and Nano Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jue; Hong, Chang K.; Wool, Richard P.

    2003-03-01

    We explored the combination of nanoclay with new chemically functionalized, amphiphilic, plant oil resins to form bio-based nanocomposites with improved physical and mechanical properties. These can be used in many new applications, including the development of self-healing nanocomposites through controlled reversible exfoliation/intercalation, and self-assembled nano-structures. Several chemically modified triglyceride monomers of varying polarity, combined with styrene (ca 30include acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) and soybean oil pentaerythritol glyceride maleates (SOPERMA), containing either hydroxyl group or acid functionality or both. The clay used is a natural montmorillonite modified with methyl tallow bis-2-hydroxyethyl quaternary ammonium chloride, which has hydroxyl groups. Both XRD and TEM showed a completely exfoliated structure at 3 wtwhen the clay content is above 5 wtconsidered a mix of intercalated and partially exfoliated structure. The controlled polarity of the monomer has a major effect on the reversible dispersion of clay in the polymer matrix. The bio-based nanocomposites showed a significant increase in flexural modulus and strength. Supported by EPA and DoE

  19. Precision synthesis of bio-based acrylic thermoplastic elastomer by RAFT polymerization of itaconic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kotaro; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Nagai, Kanji; Kamigaito, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based polymer materials from renewable resources have recently become a growing research focus. Herein, a novel thermoplastic elastomer is developed via controlled/living radical polymerization of plant-derived itaconic acid derivatives, which are some of the most abundant renewable acrylic monomers obtained via the fermentation of starch. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerizations of itaconic acid imides, such as N-phenylitaconimide and N-(p-tolyl)itaconimide, and itaconic acid esters, such as di-n-butyl itaconate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) itaconate, are examined using a series of RAFT agents to afford well-defined polymers. The number-average molecular weights of these polymers increase with the monomer conversion while retaining relatively narrow molecular weight distributions. Based on the successful controlled/living polymerization, sequential block copolymerization is subsequently investigated using mono- and di-functional RAFT agents to produce block copolymers with soft poly(itaconate) and hard poly(itaconimide) segments. The properties of the obtained triblock copolymer are evaluated as bio-based acrylic thermoplastic elastomers. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Biobased green method to synthesise palladium and iron nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2013-02-01

    There are many methods to synthesise metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) using different reducing agents which are hazardous in nature. Although some researchers have used biobased materials for synthesis of these NPs, further research is needed in this area. To explore the scope of bio-extract for the synthesis of transition metal NPs, the present paper synthesises metal NPs replacing hazardous traditional reducing agents. This paper reports the synthesis of palladium and iron NPs, using aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit. Reduction potential of aqueous extract of polyphenolic rich T. chebula was 0.63V vs. SCE by cyclic voltammetry study which makes it a good green reducing agent. This helps to reduce palladium and iron salts to palladium and iron NPs respectively. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analyses revealed that amorphous iron NPs were within the size less than 80 nm and cubic palladium NPs were within the size less than 100 nm. The synthesised nanomaterials were remarkably stable for a long period and synthesis of stable metal NPs will need to be explored using biobased materials as reducing agents.

  1. Biobased green method to synthesise palladium and iron nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula aqueous extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2013-02-01

    There are many methods to synthesise metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) using different reducing agents which are hazardous in nature. Although some researchers have used biobased materials for synthesis of these NPs, further research is needed in this area. To explore the scope of bio-extract for the synthesis of transition metal NPs, the present paper synthesises metal NPs replacing hazardous traditional reducing agents. This paper reports the synthesis of palladium and iron NPs, using aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit. Reduction potential of aqueous extract of polyphenolic rich T. chebula was 0.63 V vs. SCE by cyclic voltammetry study which makes it a good green reducing agent. This helps to reduce palladium and iron salts to palladium and iron NPs respectively. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analyses revealed that amorphous iron NPs were within the size less than 80 nm and cubic palladium NPs were within the size less than 100 nm. The synthesised nanomaterials were remarkably stable for a long period and synthesis of stable metal NPs will need to be explored using biobased materials as reducing agents.

  2. Freshness maintenance of cherries ready for consumption using convenient, microperforated, bio-based packaging.

    PubMed

    Koutsimanis, Georgios; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2015-03-30

    Current consumer demand for high-quality ready-to-eat fresh fruit in convenient bio-based packaging was met utilizing sanitized stem-free sweet cherries and a polylactic acid (PLA) cup with a PLA peelable microperforated lid. The newly developed packaging system was compared with the petroleum-based macroperforated bag currently used for retail. After 27 days of storage at 1 °C, the PLA package maintained the cherry firmness, compared with a 50% reduction of the controls. No fungal decay was detected in the cherries stored in PLA, while the controls were non-marketable after 21 days. The PLA package allowed minimal weight loss (0.8%), compared with a weight loss of approximately 16% in the controls. Differences in the cherry aroma, color, acidity, soluble solids content, pH and quality index were also caused by the packaging type. A consumer sensory evaluation showed that cherries stored in PLA packages were more acceptable than those of the controls for appearance, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. The new package matched both the consumer demand for high-quality fresh fruit ready for consumption in convenient bio-based packaging and the extended fruit marketability and consumer satisfaction desired by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Impact of structure and functionality of core polyol in highly functional biobased epoxy resins.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Webster, Dean C

    2011-09-01

    Highly functional biobased epoxy resins were prepared using dipentaerythritol (DPE), tripentaerythritol (TPE), and sucrose as core polyols that were substituted with epoxidized soybean oil fatty acids, and the impact of structure and functionality of the core polyol on the properties of the macromolecular resins and their epoxy-anhydride thermosets was explored. The chemical structures, functional groups, molecular weights, and compositions of epoxies were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). The epoxies were also studied for their bulk viscosity, intrinsic viscosity, and density. Crosslinked with dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA), epoxy-anhydride thermosets were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile tests, and tests of coating properties. Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was used as a control. Overall, the sucrose-based thermosets exhibited the highest moduli, having the most rigid and ductile performance while maintaining the highest biobased content. DPE/TPE-based thermosets showed modestly better thermosetting performance than the control ESO thermoset.

  4. Crab Chitin-Based 2D Soft Nanomaterials for Fully Biobased Electric Devices.

    PubMed

    You, Jun; Li, Mingjie; Ding, Beibei; Wu, Xiaochen; Li, Chaoxu

    2017-03-17

    2D nanomaterials have various size/morphology-dependent properties applicable in electronics, optics, sensing, and actuating. However, intensively studied inorganic 2D nanomaterials are frequently hindered to apply in some particular and industrial fields, owing to harsh synthesis, high-cost, cytotoxicity, and nondegradability. Endeavor has been made to search for biobased 2D nanomaterials with biocompatibility, sustainability, and biodegradability. A method of hydrophobization-induced interfacial-assembly is reported to produce an unprecedented type of nanosheets from marine chitin. During this process, two layers of chitin aggregations assemble into nanosheets with high aspect ratio. With super stability and amphiphilicity, these nanosheets have super ability in creating highly stable Pickering emulsions with internal phase up to 83.4% and droplet size up to 140 μm, in analogue to graphene oxide. Combining emulsifying and carbonization can further convert these 2D precursors to carbon nanosheets with thickness as low as ≈3.8 nm. Having biologic origin, conductivity, and dispersibility in various solvents, resultant carbon nanosheets start a new scenario of exploiting marine resources for fully biobased electric devices with sustainability and biodegradability, e.g., supercapacitor, flexible circuits, and electronic sensors. Hybrid films of chitin and carbon nanosheets also offer low-cost and environment-friendly alternative of conductive components desirable in green electronics, wearable electronics, biodegradable circuits, and biologic devices.

  5. Enhancing the functionality of biobased polyester coating resins through modification with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Noordover, Bart A J; Duchateau, Robbert; van Benthem, Rolf A T M; Ming, Weihua; Koning, Cor E

    2007-12-01

    Citric acid (CA) was evaluated as a functionality-enhancing monomer in biobased polyesters suitable for coating applications. Model reactions of CA with several primary and secondary alcohols and diols, including the 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols, revealed that titanium(IV) n-butoxide catalyzed esterification reactions involving these compounds proceed at relatively low temperatures, often via anhydride intermediates. Interestingly, the facile anhydride formation from CA at temperatures around CA's melting temperature ( T m = 153 degrees C) proved to be crucial in modifying sterically hindered secondary hydroxyl end groups. OH-functional polyesters were reacted with CA in the melt between 150 and 165 degrees C, yielding slightly branched carboxylic acid functional materials with strongly enhanced functionality. The acid/epoxy curing reaction of the acid-functional polymers was simulated with a monofunctional glycidyl ether. Finally, the CA-modified polyesters were applied as coatings, using conventional cross-linking agents. The formulations showed rapid curing, resulting in chemically and mechanically stable coatings. These results demonstrate that citric acid can be applied in a new way, making use of its anhydride formation to functionalize OH-functional polyesters, which is an important new step toward fully biobased coating systems.

  6. Bio-based alternative to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with controlled materials properties.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Anthony; Spinella, Stephen; Gross, Richard A

    2015-03-09

    A series of biobased epoxy monomers were prepared from diphenolic acid (DPA) by transforming the free acid into n-alkyl esters and the phenolic hydroxyl groups into diglycidyl ethers. NMR experiments confirmed that the diglycidyl ethers of diphenolates (DGEDP) with methyl and ethyl esters have 6 and 3 mol % of glycidyl ester. Increasing the chain length of DGEDP n-alkyl esters from methyl to n-pentyl resulted in large decreases in epoxy resin viscosity (700-to-11 Pa·s). Storage modulus of DPA epoxy resins, cured with isophorone diamine, also varied with n-alkyl ester chain length (e.g., 3300 and 2100 MPa for the methyl and n-pentyl esters). The alpha transition temperature of the cured materials showed a linear decrease from 158 to 86 °C as the ester length increases. The Young's modulus and tensile strengths were about 1150 and 40 MPa, respectively, for all the cured resins tested (including DGEBA) and varied little as a function of ester length. Degree of cure for the different epoxy resins, determined by FTIR and DSC, closely approached the theoretical maximum. The result of this work demonstrates that diglycidyl ethers of n-alkyl diphenolates represent a new family of biobased liquid epoxy resins that, when cured, have similar properties to those from DGEBA.

  7. Phase Behavior and Physical Properties of New Biobased Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Toledo Hijo, Ariel Antonio Campos; Maximo, Guilherme José; Costa, Mariana Conceição; Cunha, Rosiane Lopes; Pereira, Jorge Fernando Brandão; Kurnia, Kiki Adi; Batista, Eduardo A Caldas; Meirelles, Antonio J A

    2017-03-23

    Protic ionic liquids (PILs) have emerged as promising compounds and attracted the interest of the industry and the academy community, due to their easy preparation and unique properties. In the context of green chemistry, the use of biocompounds, such as fatty acids for their synthesis could disclose a possible alternative way to produce ILs with low or non-toxic effect and consequently, expanding their applicability in bio-based processes or in the development of bioproducts. This work addressed efforts to a better comprehension of the complex Solid-Liquid-Crystal-Liquid thermodynamic equilibrium of twenty new PILs synthesized by using fatty acids commonly found in vegetable oils, as well as their rheological profile and self-assembling ability. The work revealed that their phase equilibrium and physical properties are significantly impacted by the structure of the ions used for their synthesis. The use of unsaturated fatty acids and bis(2-hydroxy ethyl)ammonium for the synthesis of these biobased ILs led to a drastic decreasing of their melting temperatures. Also, the longest alkyl chain fatty acids promoted higher self-assembling and more stable mesophases. Besides their sustainable appeal, the marked high viscosity, non-Newtonian profile and very low critical micellar concentration values of the PIL crystals here disclosed make them interesting renewable compounds with potential applications as emulsifiers, stabilizers, thickeners or biolubricants.

  8. Eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: II. Application in bio-based plastics for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2013-07-25

    The aim of the present research was to study the possibility of using eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as antioxidants for active bio-based packaging material. Eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were incorporated into thermoplastic flour (TPF) - a model bio-based plastic - through an extrusion process at temperatures above 150°C. The influences of eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on crystallinity, morphology, thermal properties, radical scavenging activity, reducing power, tensile properties and barrier properties of TPF were investigated. Although the incorporation of 3% (w/w) of eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles significantly reduced the extensibility and the oxygen barrier property of TPF, it provided antioxidant activity and improved the water vapor barrier property. In addition, TPF containing eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited superior radical scavenging activity and stronger reducing power compared with TPF containing naked eugenol. The results suggest the applicability of TPF containing eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as an antioxidant active packaging material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel biobased photo-crosslinked polymer networks prepared from vegetable oil and 2,5-furan diacrylate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel biobased crosslinked polymer networks were prepared from vegetable oil with 2,5-furan diacrylate as a difunctional stiffener through UV photopolymerization, and the mechanical properties of the resulting films were evaluated. The vegetable oil raw materials used were acrylated epoxidized soybe...

  10. The effect of biobased plastic resins containing chichen feather fibers on the growth and flowering of Begonia boliviensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate growth and flowering of Begoniaboliviensis A. DC. 'Bonfire' when grown in medium mixed with pellets made from biobased plastic resins containing chicken feather fibers. We also analyzed macro- and macro-elements in soil and leaf tissues during different develope...

  11. Nanocomposites from biobased epoxy and single-wall carbon nanotubes: synthesis, and mechanical and thermophysical properties evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagawa, Hiroaki; Mohanty, Amar K.; Drzal, Lawrence T.; Misra, Manjusri

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis, and thermophysical and mechanical properties of anhydride-cured biobased epoxy containing diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) epoxy and epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) reinforced with fluorinated single-wall carbon nanotubes (FSWCNT) are reported. Sonication was used to disperse FSWCNT in the biobased glassy epoxy network, resulting in great improvement of the modulus of nanocomposites containing extremely small amounts of FSWCNT. The glass transition temperature of the obtained nanocomposites decreased by approximately 30 °C after the addition of 0.20 wt% (0.16 vol%) FSWCNT, without adjusting the amount of the anhydride curing agent. This was because of the non-stoichiometry of the epoxy matrix, caused by the fluorine on the single wall carbon nanotubes. The adequate amount of the anhydride curing agent needed to achieve stoichiometry was experimentally determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The storage modulus of the epoxy at room temperature, which is below the glass transition temperature of the nanocomposites, increased up to 0.44 GPa with the addition of only 0.24 wt% (0.20 vol%) of FSWCNT, representing an up to 14% improvement from the modulus of the biobased ELO neat epoxies. The fracture toughness of the neat biobased ELO epoxies was also improved by approximately 43% upon addition of FSWCNT. The excellent improvement of the modulus was achieved without sacrificing the fracture toughness.

  12. Environmentally degradable bio-based polymeric blends and composites.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, Emo; Cinelli, Patrizia; Chiellini, Federica; Imam, Syed H

    2004-03-15

    Blends and composites based on environmentally degradable-ecocompatible synthetic and natural polymeric materials and fillers of natural origin have been prepared and processed under different conditions. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was used as the synthetic polymer of choice by virtue of its capability to be processed from water solution or suspension as well as from the melt by blow extrusion and injection molding. Starch and gelatin were taken as the polymeric materials from renewable resources. The fillers were all of natural origin, as waste from food and agro-industry consisted of sugar cane bagasse (SCB), wheat flour (WF), orange peels (OR), apple peels (AP), corn fibres (CF), saw dust (SD) and wheat straw (WS). All the natural or hybrid formulations were intended to be utilized for the production of: a) Environmentally degradable mulching films (hydro-biomulching) displaying, in some cases, self-fertilizing characteristics by in situ spraying of water solutions or suspensions; b) Laminates and containers to be used in agriculture and food packaging by compression and injection molding followed by baking. Some typical prototype items have been prepared and characterized in relation to their morphological and mechanical properties and tested with different methodology for their propensity to environmental degradation and biodegradation as ultimate stage of their service life. A relationship between chemical composition and mechanical properties and propensity to biodegradation has been discussed in a few representative cases.

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Thermal Performance Analysis of Complex Thermal Storage Membrane Containing Bio-Based Phase Change Material (PCM)

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Stovall, Therese K; Shrestha, Som S; Yarbrough, David W

    2010-12-01

    Since 2000, an ORNL research team has been testing different configurations of PCM-enhanced building envelop components to be used in residential and commercial buildings. During 2009, a novel type of thermal storage membrane was evaluated for building envelope applications. Bio-based PCM was encapsulated between two layers of heavy-duty plastic film forming a complex array of small PCM cells. Today, a large group of PCM products are packaged in such complex PCM containers or foils containing arrays of PCM pouches of different shapes and sizes. The transient characteristics of PCM-enhanced building envelope materials depend on the quality and amount of PCM, which is very often difficult to estimate because of the complex geometry of many PCM heat sinks. The only widely used small-scale analysis method used to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of PCM-enhanced building products is the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Unfortunately, this method requires relatively uniform, and very small, specimens of the material. However, in numerous building thermal storage applications, PCM products are not uniformly distributed across the surface area, making the results of traditional DSC measurements unrealistic for these products. In addition, most of the PCM-enhanced building products contain blends of PCM with fire retardants and chemical stabilizers. This combination of non-uniform distribution and non-homogenous composition make it nearly impossible to select a representative small specimen suitable for DSC tests. Recognizing these DSC limitations, ORNL developed a new methodology for performing dynamic heat flow analysis of complex PCM-enhanced building materials. An experimental analytical protocol to analyze the dynamic characteristics of PCM thermal storage makes use of larger specimens in a conventional heat-flow meter apparatus, and combines these experimental measurements with three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference modeling and whole building energy

  14. High performance bio-based thermosets for composites and coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramarta, Adlina Ambeg

    In the recent decade, there has been increasing interest in using renewable feedstocks as chemical commodities for composites and coatings application. Vegetable oils are promising renewable resources due to their wide availability with affordable cost. In fact, the utilization of vegetable oils to produce composite and coatings products has been around for centuries; linseed oil was widely used for wide variety of paints. However, due to its chemical structure, the application of vegetable oils for high-performance materials is limited; and thus chemical modification is necessary. One of the modification approaches is by substituting the glycerol core in the triglycerides with sucrose to form sucrose esters of vegetable oil fatty acids, in which this resin possesses a higher number of functional group per molecule and a more rigid core. In this research, thermosets of highly functionalized sucrose esters of vegetable oils were developed. Two crosslinking methods of epoxidized surcrose soyate (ESS) resins were explored: direct polymerization with anhydride moieties for composite applications and Michael-addition reaction of acrylated-epoxidized sucrose soyate (AESS) for coatings applications. In the first project, it was shown that the reaction kinetics, thermal and mechanical properties of the materials can be tuned by varying the molar ratio between the epoxide and anhydride, plus the type and amount of catalyst. Furthermore, the toughness properties of the ESS-based thermosets can be improved by changing the type of anhydride crosslinkers and incorporating secondary phase rubbers. Then, in the second system, the epoxy functionality in the ESS was converted into acrylate group, which then crosslinked with amine groups through the Michael-addition reaction to produce coatings systems. The high number of functional groups and the fast reactivity of the crosslinker results in coatings that can be cured at ambient temperature, yet still possess moderately high glass

  15. 7 CFR 3201.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased EPS foam recycling products...

  16. 7 CFR 2902.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products. (a..., will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased EPS foam recycling products. By that date...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased EPS foam recycling products...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products... with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased EPS foam recycling products...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.6 - Providing product information to Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Providing product information to Federal agencies... PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.6 Providing product information to Federal agencies....

  20. 7 CFR 3201.6 - Providing product information to Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Providing product information to Federal agencies... PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.6 Providing product information to Federal agencies....

  1. 7 CFR 3201.6 - Providing product information to Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Providing product information to Federal agencies... PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.6 Providing product information to Federal agencies....

  2. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  3. Innovative plasticized alginate obtained by thermo-mechanical mixing: Effect of different biobased polyols systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chengcheng; Pollet, Eric; Avérous, Luc

    2017-02-10

    Plasticized alginate films with different biobased polyols (glycerol and sorbitol) and their mixtures were successfully prepared by thermo-mechanical mixing instead of the usual casting-evaporation procedure. The microstructure and properties of the different plasticized alginate formulations were investigated by SEM, FTIR, XRD, DMTA and uniaxial tensile tests. SEM and XRD results showed that native alginate particles were largely destructured with the plasticizers (polyols and water), under a thermo-mechanical input. With increasing amount of plasticizers, the samples showed enhanced homogeneity while their thermal and mechanical properties decreased. Compared to sorbitol, glycerol resulted in alginate films with a higher flexibility due to its better plasticization efficiency resulting from its smaller size and higher hydrophilic character. Glycerol and sorbitol mixtures seemed to be an optimum to obtain the best properties. This work showed that thermo-mechanical mixing is a promising method to produce, at large scale, plasticized alginate-based films with improved properties.

  4. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  5. Synthesis and structure design of new bio-based elastomers via Thiol-ene-Click Reactions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafiullah; Wang, Zhao; Wang, Runguo; Zhang, Liqun

    2016-10-01

    The additions of 2-mercaptoethanol to (S)-(-)-limonene via click reaction is described as an adaptable and efficient way to obtain alcohol functionalized renewable monomer for the synthesis of new cross-linkable bio-based elastomers. Thiol first reacted with the limonene endocyclic double bond and then reacted with the exocyclics double bond to form the difunctional monomer. The structure of the monomer was determined by using FTIR, (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetrys (DSC) characterization exposed that this monomer could be used to synthesize elastomers with excellent and adaptable thermal properties. The molecular weight of the synthesized elastomer could reach 186kDaa via melting polycondensation route and the structure-properties relationship was deliberated. Finally, these elastomers were mixed with dicumyl peroxide (DCP) to form cross-linked elastomers with certain mechanical property, and the gel contents of the elastomers were confirmed by using Soxhlet extraction method.

  6. N-Alkylated dinitrones from isosorbide as cross-linkers for unsaturated bio-based polyesters.

    PubMed

    Goerz, Oliver; Ritter, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Isosorbide was esterified with acryloyl chloride and crotonic acid yielding isosorbide diacrylate (9a) and isosorbide dicrotonate (9b), which were reacted with benzaldehyde oxime in the presence of zinc(II) iodide and boron triflouride etherate as catalysts to obtain N-alkylated dinitrones 10a/b. Poly(isosorbide itaconite -co- succinate) 13 as a bio-based unsaturated polyester was cross-linked by a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with the received dinitrones 10a/b. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition led to a strong change of the mechanical properties which were investigated by rheological measurements. Nitrones derived from methyl acrylate (3a) and methyl crotonate (3b) were used as model systems and reacted with dimethyl itaconate to further characterize the 1,3-dipolaric cycloaddition.

  7. Bio-based Wrinkled Surfaces Harnessed from Biological Design Principles of Wood and Peroxidase Activity.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Hironori; Okuda, Noriko; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Rojas, Orlando J

    2015-11-01

    A new and simple approach for surface wrinkling inspired by polymer assemblies in wood fibers is introduced. A hard skin is synthesized on a linear polysaccharide support that resembles the structural units of the cell wall. This skin, a wood mimetic layer, is produced through immersion in a solution containing phenolic precursor and subsequent surface reaction by horseradish peroxidase. A patterned surface with micron-scale wrinkles is formed upon drying and as a result of inhomogeneous shrinkage. We demonstrate that the design of the wrinkled surfaces can be controlled by the molecular structure of the phenolic precursor, temperature, and drying stress. It is noteworthy that this is a totally bio-based system involving green materials and processes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Bio-based polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanofibers: a comprehensive investigation on the effect of interface.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, Karima; Kaddami, Hamid; Magnin, Albert; Dufresne, Alain; Ahmad, Azizan

    2015-05-20

    Novel bio-based polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofiller extracted from the rachis of date palm tree and polycaprolactone (PCL) diol based PU were prepared by casting/evaporation. Two types of nanofiber were used: cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite films were studied by DMA, DSC, and tensile tests and the morphology was investigated by SEM. Bionanocomposites presented good mechanical properties in comparison to neat PU. While comparing both nanofillers, the improvement in mechanical and thermal properties was more pronounced for the nanocomposites based on CNF which could be explained, not only by the higher aspect ratio of CNF, but also by their better dispersion in the PU matrix. Calculation of the solubility parameters of the nanofiller surface polymers and of the PU segments portend a better interfacial adhesion for CNF based nanocomposites compared to CNC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bio-based nitriles from the heterogeneously catalyzed oxidative decarboxylation of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurens; Matthessen, Roman; Rombouts, Ine; Stassen, Ivo; De Baerdemaeker, Trees; Depla, Diederik; Delcour, Jan A; Lagrain, Bert; De Vos, Dirk E

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative decarboxylation of amino acids to nitriles was achieved in aqueous solution by in situ halide oxidation using catalytic amounts of tungstate exchanged on a [Ni,Al] layered double hydroxide (LDH), NH4 Br, and H2 O2 as the terminal oxidant. Both halide oxidation and oxidative decarboxylation were facilitated by proximity effects between the reactants and the LDH catalyst. A wide range of amino acids was converted with high yields, often >90 %. The nitrile selectivity was excellent, and the system is compatible with amide, alcohol, and in particular carboxylic acid, amine, and guanidine functional groups after appropriate neutralization. This heterogeneous catalytic system was applied successfully to convert a protein-rich byproduct from the starch industry into useful bio-based N-containing chemicals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synthesis of readily recyclable biobased plastics by Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kazuki; Yoshie, Naoko

    2008-10-08

    Readily recyclable biobased plastics were designed and synthesized utilizing the thermally reversible DA reaction. Furyl-telechelic poly(butylene succinate) prepolymers (PBSF(2)) were extended with bis- and tris-maleimide linkers (M(2) and M(3)) by the DA reaction in the bulk state to produce linear and network polymers, respectively. The DA reaction was able to proceed at 25-80 degrees C, at which crystalline domains of PBSF(2) were present. In the linear polymer system, the molecular weight in the reaction equilibrium was dependent on the chain length of the prepolymer, but almost independent of the reaction temperature. The cycle of DA and retro-DA reactions was repeatable with no prepolymer deterioration.

  11. Microwave-assisted maleation of tung oil for bio-based products with versatile applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work, a simple, “green” and convenient chemical modification of tung oil for maleinized tung oil (TOMA) was developed via microwave-assisted one-step maleation. This modifying process did not involve any solvent, catalyst, or initiator, but demonstrated the most efficiency of functionalizing...

  12. Bio-based products via microwave-assisted maleation of tung oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple “green” and convenient chemical modification of tung oil for maleinized tung oil (TOMA) was developed via microwave-assisted one-step maleation. The mechanism of this microwave-assisted maleation was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). T...

  13. Microwave-assisted maleation of tung oil for bio-based products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work, a simple, “green” and convenient chemical modification of tung oil for maleinized tung oil (TOMA) was developed via microwave-assisted one-step maleation. This modifying process did not involve any solvent, catalyst, or initiator, but demonstrated the most efficiency of functionalizing...

  14. 48 CFR 52.223-2 - Affirmative Procurement of Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative Procurement of... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...-designated items such as mobile equipment hydraulic fluids, diesel fuel additives, and penetrating...

  15. Research Extension and Education Programs on Bio-based Energy Technologies and Products

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Sam; Harper, David; Womac, Al

    2010-03-02

    The overall objectives of this project were to provide enhanced educational resources for the general public, educational and development opportunities for University faculty in the Southeast region, and enhance research knowledge concerning biomass preprocessing and deconstruction. All of these efforts combine to create a research and education program that enhances the biomass-based industries of the United States. This work was broken into five primary objective areas: • Task A - Technical research in the area of biomass preprocessing, analysis, and evaluation. • Tasks B&C - Technical research in the areas of Fluidized Beds for the Chemical Modification of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Biomass Deconstruction and Evaluation. • Task D - Analyses for the non-scientific community to provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of biomass supply, demand, technologies, markets and policies; identify a set of feasible alternative paths for biomass industry development and quantify the impacts associated with alternative path. • Task E - Efforts to build research capacity and develop partnerships through faculty fellowships with DOE national labs The research and education programs conducted through this grant have led to three primary results. They include: • A better knowledge base related to and understanding of biomass deconstruction, through both mechanical size reduction and chemical processing • A better source of information related to biomass, bioenergy, and bioproducts for researchers and general public users through the BioWeb system. • Stronger research ties between land-grant universities and DOE National Labs through the faculty fellowship program. In addition to the scientific knowledge and resources developed, funding through this program produced a minimum of eleven (11) scientific publications and contributed to the research behind at least one patent.

  16. 48 CFR 970.2304 - Use of recovered materials and biobased products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place...

  17. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  18. Production and Modification of Sophorolipids from Agricultural Feedstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As petroleum prices and environmental concerns continue to raise, interest in bio-based materials, that may act as substitutes for or additives to currently used products, is becoming increasingly popular. Biosurfactants, particularly glycolipids, are one class of molecule that is receiving added a...

  19. 77 FR 69381 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... solvents; sun care products; wastewater systems coatings; and water clarifying agents. Today's final rule... contamination are dire. The commenter gave as an example the cleaning of single use and reusable medical devices... petroleum based cleaners and solvents. Thus, USDA believes that the designation of biobased...

  20. Use of mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy to track degradation of bio-based eating utensils during composting.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, Walter; Reeves, James B; Millner, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) have been used for quantitative and/or qualitative analysis of a wide range of materials. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of MIRS and NIRS for following the degradation of bio-based food utensils during composting. Polylactide (PLA)-based forks lost 34% of their initial mass and were reduced to small friable fragments after 7 weeks of composting. NIRS and MIRS spectra of forks that were incubated for 7 weeks were nearly identical to spectra of untreated forks. NIRS and MIRS were more useful in following the degradation of a starch/polypropylene (PP) polymer. Spectral results demonstrated that the starch component degraded during composting and that the PP component was recalcitrant. These results confirm that MIRS and NIRS are useful in determining the composition of biobased materials. However, the spectra did not provide useful information about the extent of PLA polymer degradation.

  1. Bio-based hyperbranched thermosetting polyurethane/triethanolamine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites as shape memory materials.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Hemjyoti; Karak, Niranjan

    2014-07-01

    Here, bio-based shape memory polymers have generated immense interest in recent times. Here, Bio-based hyperbranched polyurethane/triethanolamine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (TEA-f-MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ pre-polymerization technique. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the transmission electron microscopic studies showed the strong interfacial adhesion and the homogeneous distribution of TEA-f-MWCNT in the polyurethane matrix. The prepared epoxy cured thermosetting nanocomposites exhibited enhanced tensile strength (6.5-34.5 MPa), scratch hardness (3.0-7.5 kg) and thermal stability (241-288 degrees C). The nanocomposites showed excellent shape fixity and shape recovery. The shape recovery time decreases (24-10 s) with the increase of TEA-f-MWCNT content in the nanocomposites. Thus the studied nanocomposites have potential to be used as advanced shape memory materials.

  2. Soil functional zone management: a vehicle for enhancing production and soil ecosystem services in row-crop agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is increasing demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has made great gains in production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as Conservation ...

  3. Solvent- and Halogen-Free Modification of Biobased Polyphenols to Introduce Vinyl Groups: Versatile Aromatic Building Blocks for Polymer Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Duval, Antoine; Avérous, Luc

    2017-04-22

    Various biobased polyphenols (lignins and condensed tannins) were derivatized with vinyl ethylene carbonate, a functional cyclic carbonate, to obtain multifunctional aromatic polymers bearing vinyl groups. The reaction was optimized on a condensed tannin and soda lignin. In both cases, full conversion of the phenol groups was achieved in only 1 h at 150 °C without solvent and with K2 CO3 as a cheap and safe catalyst. This reaction was later applied to other condensed tannins and technical lignins (Kraft and organosolv), showing only little dependence on the chemical structure of the polyphenols. The obtained derivatives were thoroughly characterized by (1) H and (31) P NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and size-exclusion chromatography. The developed method was compared with previously published protocols for the introduction of vinyl groups on lignin, and shows promising advances toward the modification of biobased polyphenols according to green chemistry principles. The obtained macromolecules show great potential as highly versatile biobased aromatic building blocks for the synthesis of polymers through, for example, radical, metathesis, or thiol-ene reactions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Fully biobased and supertough polylactide-based thermoplastic vulcanizates fabricated by peroxide-induced dynamic vulcanization and interfacial compatibilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Chen; He, Yi-Song; Zeng, Jian-Bing; Li, Qiu-Tong; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-11-10

    A fully biobased and supertough thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) consisting of polylactide (PLA) and a biobased vulcanized unsaturated aliphatic polyester elastomer (UPE) was fabricated via peroxide-induced dynamic vulcanization. Interfacial compatibilization between PLA and UPE took place during dynamic vulcanization, which was confirmed by gel measurement and NMR analysis. After vulcanization, the TPV exhibited a quasi cocontinuous morphology with vulcanized UPE compactly dispersed in PLA matrix, which was different from the pristine PLA/UPE blend, exhibiting typically phase-separated morphology with unvulcanized UPE droplets discretely dispersed in matrix. The TPV showed significantly improved tensile and impact toughness with values up to about 99.3 MJ/m(3) and 586.6 J/m, respectively, compared to those of 3.2 MJ/m(3) and 16.8 J/m for neat PLA, respectively. The toughening mechanisms under tensile and impact tests were investigated and deduced as massive shear yielding of the PLA matrix triggered by internal cavitation of VUPE. The fully biobased supertough PLA vulcanizate could serve as a promising alternative to traditional commodity plastics.

  5. Lactic acid production from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae without PDC or ADH deletion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of lactic acid from renewable sugars has received growing attention as lactic acid can be used for making renewable and bio-based plastics. However, most prior studies have focused on production of lactic acid from glucose despite cellulosic hydrolysates contain xylose as well as glucose....

  6. Biobased Furanics: Kinetic Studies on the Acid Catalyzed Decomposition of 2-Hydroxyacetyl Furan in Water Using Brönsted Acid Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Biobased furanics like 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are interesting platform chemicals for the synthesis of biofuel additives and polymer precursors. 5-HMF is typically prepared from C6 ketoses like fructose, psicose, sorbose and tagatose. A known byproduct is 2-hydroxyacetylfuran (2-HAF), particularly when using sorbose and psicose as the reactants. We here report an experimental and kinetic modeling study on the rate of decomposition of 2-HAF in a typical reaction medium for 5-HMF synthesis (water, Brönsted acid), with the incentive to gain insights in the stability of 2-HAF. A total of 12 experiments were performed (batch setup) in water with sulfuric acid as the catalyst (100–170 °C, CH2SO4 ranging between 0.033 and 1.37 M and an initial 2-HAF concentration between 0.04 and 0.26 M). Analysis of the reaction mixtures showed a multitude of products, of which levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA) were the most prominent (Ymax,FA = 24 mol %, Ymax,LA = 10 mol %) when using HCl. In contrast, both LA and FA were formed in minor amounts when using H2SO4 as the catalyst. The decomposition reaction of 2-HAF using sulfuric acid was successfully modeled (R2 = 0.9957) using a first-order approach in 2-HAF and acid. The activation energy was found to be 98.7 (±2.2) kJ mol–1. PMID:28480150

  7. Continuous-Flow O-Alkylation of Biobased Derivatives with Dialkyl Carbonates in the Presence of Magnesium-Aluminium Hydrotalcites as Catalyst Precursors.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Lisa; Perosa, Alvise; Riello, Piero; Maschmeyer, Thomas; Selva, Maurizio

    2017-04-10

    The base-catalysed reactions of OH-bearing biobased derivatives (BBDs) including glycerol formal, solketal, glycerol carbonate, furfuryl alcohol and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol with non-toxic dialkyl carbonates (dimethyl and diethyl carbonate) were explored under continuous-flow (CF) conditions in the presence of three Na-exchanged Y- and X-faujasites (FAUs) and four Mg-Al hydrotalcites (HTs). Compared to previous etherification protocols mediated by dialkyl carbonates, the reported procedure offers substantial improvements not only in terms of (chemo)selectivity but also for the recyclability of the catalysts, workup, ease of product purification and, importantly, process intensification. Characterisation studies proved that both HT30 and KW2000 hydrotalcites acted as catalyst precursors: during the thermal activation pre-treatments, the typical lamellar structure of the hydrotalcite was broken down gradually into a MgO-like phase (periclase) or rather a magnesia-alumina solid solution, which was the genuine catalytic phase. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Bio-based Interpenetrating Network Polymer Composites from Locust Sawdust as Coating Material for Environmentally Friendly Controlled-Release Urea Fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong C; Zhao, Chenhao

    2016-07-20

    A novel polymer-coated nitrogen (N) fertilizer was developed using bio-based polyurethane (PU) derived from liquefied locust sawdust as the coating material. The bio-based PU was successfully coated on the surface of the urea fertilizer prills to form polymer-coated urea (PCU) fertilizer for controlled N release. Epoxy resin (EP) was also used to further modify the bio-based PU to synthesize the interpenetrating network (IPN), enhancing the slow-release properties of the PCU. The N release characteristics of the EP-modified PCU (EMPCU) in water were determine at 25 °C and compared to that of PCU and EP-coated urea (ECU). The results showed that the EP modification reduced the N release rate and increased the longevity of the fertilizer coated with bio-based PU. A corn growth study was conducted to further evaluate the filed application of the EMPCU. In comparison to commercial PCU and conventional urea fertilizer, EMPCU was more effective and increased the yield and total dry matter accumulation of the corn. Findings from this work indicated that bio-based PU derived from sawdust can be used as coating materials for PCU, particularly after EP modification. The resulting EMPCU was more environmentally friendly and cost-effective than conventional urea fertilizers coated by EP.

  9. Bio-based resistance inducers for sustainable plant protection against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Burketova, Lenka; Trda, Lucie; Ott, Peter G; Valentova, Olga

    2015-11-01

    An increasing demand for environmentally acceptable alternative for traditional pesticides provides an impetus to conceive new bio-based strategies in crop protection. Employing induced resistance is one such strategy, consisting of boosting the natural plant immunity. Upon infections, plants defend themselves by activating their immune mechanisms. These are initiated after the recognition of an invading pathogen via the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or other microbe-derived molecules. Triggered responses inhibit pathogen spread from the infected site. Systemic signal transport even enables to prepare, i.e. prime, distal uninfected tissues for more rapid and enhanced response upon the consequent pathogen attack. Similar defense mechanisms can be triggered by purified MAMPs, pathogen-derived molecules, signal molecules involved in plant resistance to pathogens, such as salicylic and jasmonic acid, or a wide range of other chemical compounds. Induced resistance can be also conferred by plant-associated microorganisms, including beneficial bacteria or fungi. Treatment with resistance inducers or beneficial microorganisms provides long-lasting resistance for plants to a wide range of pathogens. This study surveys current knowledge on resistance and its mechanisms provided by microbe-, algae- and plant-derived elicitors in different crops. The main scope deals with bacterial substances and fungus-derived molecules chitin and chitosan and algae elicitors, including naturally sulphated polysaccharides such as ulvans, fucans or carageenans. Recent advances in the utilization of this strategy in practical crop protection are also discussed.

  10. A pH-Sensitive, Biobased Calcium Carbonate Aragonite Nanocrystal as a Novel Anticancer Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Maznah; Tengku Ibrahim, Tengku Azmi; Zakaria, Zuki Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    The synthesised biobased calcium carbonate nanocrystals had demonstrated to be an effective carrier for delivery of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The use of these nanocrystals displayed high levels of selectivity and specificity in achieving effective cancer cell death without nonspecific toxicity. These results confirmed that DOX was intercalated into calcium carbonate nanocrystals at high loading and encapsulation efficiency (4.8 and 96%, resp.). The CaCO3/DOX nanocrystals are relatively stable at neutral pH (7.4), resulting in slow release, but the nanocrystals progressively dissociated in acidic pH (4.8) regimes, triggering faster release of DOX. The CaCO3/DOX nanocrystals exhibited high uptake by MDA MB231 breast cancer cells and a promising potential delivery of DOX to target cells. In vitro chemosensitivity using MTT, modified neutral red/trypan blue assay, and LDH on MDA MB231 breast cancer cells revealed that CaCO3/DOX nanocrystals are more sensitive and gave a greater reduction in cell growth than free DOX. Our findings suggest that CaCO3 nanocrystals hold tremendous promise in the areas of controlled drug delivery and targeted cancer therapy. PMID:24324966

  11. Reduction of epoxidized vegetable oils: a novel method to prepare bio-based polyols for polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Ding, Rui; Kessler, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    A novel method, epoxidation/reduction of vegetable oils, is developed to prepare bio-based polyols for the manufacture of polyurethanes (PUs). These polyols are synthesized from castor oil (CO), epoxidized soybean oil, and epoxidized linseed oil and their molecular structures are characterized. They are used to prepare a variety of PUs, and their thermomechanical properties are compared to those of PU made with petroleum-based polyol (P-450). It is shown that PUs made with polyols from soybean and linseed oil exhibit higher glass transition temperatures, tensile strength, and Young's modulus and PU made with polyol from CO exhibits higher elongation at break and toughness than PU made with P-450. However, PU made with P-450 displays better thermal resistance because of tri-ester structure and terminal functional groups. The method provides a versatile way to prepare bio-polyols from vegetable oils, and it is expected to partially or completely replace petroleum-based polyols in PUs manufacture.

  12. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    PubMed

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thiol-ene miniemulsion polymerization of a biobased monomer for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Machado, Thiago O; Cardoso, Priscilla B; Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Sayer, Claudia; Araújo, Pedro H H

    2017-07-18

    Herein, we present the synthesis and characterization of poly(thioether-ester) nanoparticles via thiol-ene miniemulsion polymerization using a biobased α,ω-diene diester monomer, namely dianhydro-d-glucityl diundec-10-enoate (DGU), synthesized from 10-undecenoic acid (derived from castor oil) and isosorbide (derived from starch). DGU was copolymerized with 1,4-butanedithiol by thiol-ene miniemulsion polymerization resulting in waterborne poly(thioether-ester) particles with diameter around 200nm. Polymers with number average molecular weight up to 11kDa were obtained via miniemulsion polymerization. DSC and XRD analyses indicated a semi-crystalline polymer with a degree of crystallinity of at least 20% and Tm around 68°C. In addition, Coumarin 6 was encapsulated in the polymer particles with efficiency up to 98%. Nanoparticles presented biocompatibility in murine fibroblast (L929) and uterine colon cancer (HeLa) cells. The substantial cellular uptake of poly(thioether-ester) nanoparticles by HeLa cells suggests a potential use in uterine colon cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, Michael; Ruhl, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels. Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  15. Bio-based topical system for enhanced salicylic acid delivery: preparation and performance of gels.

    PubMed

    Langasco, Rita; Spada, Gianpiera; Tanriverdi, Sakine Tuncay; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo; Özer, Özgen; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    New salicylic acid (SA)-loaded gels were developed using excipients made from renewable materials, and our goal was to improve drug permeation in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. We studied the preparation parameters to obtain suitable gel formulations. Only naturally occurring polymers were used as gelling agents. Two hydrogels and three lipogels were selected and characterized in terms of drug loading, pH, viability cells, rheology, mechanical properties and in vitro permeation; these hydrogels and lipogels were compared with the traditional ointment. We also evaluated skin parameters before and after gel application. The formulations that we studied are non-Newtonian fluids; they have high drug loading and suitable mechanical properties. Lipogels exhibit a slower and more linear in vitro permeation profile compared with hydrogels. The different vehicles that we used affected drug permeation and improve patient compliance. Cytotoxicity studies suggest that all of the formulations are non-toxic. Lipogels demonstrate appropriate technological features and improved performance compared with the traditional ointment with regard to their composition. Lipogels may represent a new bio-based topical system for SA delivery. The use of 'green' excipients leads to 'skin-friendly' formulations that are able to satisfy environmental safety. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Bio-based biodegradable film to replace the standard polyethylene cover for silage conservation.

    PubMed

    Borreani, Giorgio; Tabacco, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    The research was aimed at studying whether the polyethylene (PE) film currently used to cover maize silage could be replaced with bio-based biodegradable films, and at determining the effects on the fermentative and microbiological quality of the resulting silages in laboratory silo conditions. Biodegradable plastic film made in 2 different formulations, MB1 and MB2, was compared with a conventional 120-μm-thick PE film. A whole maize crop was chopped; ensiled in MB1, MB2, and PE plastic bags, 12.5kg of fresh weight per bag; and opened after 170d of conservation. At silo opening, the microbial and fermentative quality of the silage was analyzed in the uppermost layer (0 to 50mm from the surface) and in the whole mass of the silo. All the silages were well fermented with little differences in fermentative quality between the treatments, although differences in the mold count and aerobic stability were observed in trial 1 for the MB1 silage. These results have shown the possibility of successfully developing a biodegradable cover for silage for up to 6mo after ensiling. The MB2 film allowed a good silage quality to be obtained even in the uppermost part of the silage close to the plastic film up to 170d of conservation, with similar results to those obtained with the PE film. The promising results of this experiment indicate that the development of new degradable materials to cover silage till 6mo after ensiling could be possible.

  17. Rapid approach to biobased telechelics through two one-pot thiol-ene click reactions.

    PubMed

    Lluch, Cristina; Ronda, Joan C; Galià, Marina; Lligadas, Gerard; Cádiz, Virginia

    2010-06-14

    The application of environmentally friendly thiol-ene chemistry to the preparation of biobased telechelics is presented in this work. This methodology is based on two one-pot photoinitiated thiol-ene click processes: step-growth polymerization using a 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol and end-group postpolymerization modification with three functional thiols: 2-mercaptoethanol, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. We applied this approach to a potentially 100% biomass-derived monomer, allyl ester of 10-undecenoic acid (UDA). To show the generality and scope of this methodology, a series of well-defined telechelics with molecular weight ranging from 1000-3000 g/mol and hydroxyl, carboxyl, or trimethoxysilyl groups at the polymer terminus were prepared. An exhaustive (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF MS analyses demonstrates the highly end-group fidelity of this methodology being an interesting procedure for the accelerated preparation of telechelics derived from divinyl monomers. UDA-based thelechelic diol prepared using this methodology was reacted with 4,4'-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) and 1,4-butanediol as the chain extender to obtain multiblock poly(ester urethane).

  18. Polymerization and Structure of Bio-Based Plastics: A Computer Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, Shrikant N.; Wool, Richard P.

    2001-03-01

    We recently examined several hundred chemical pathways to convert chemically functionalized plant oil triglycerides, monoglycerides and reactive diluents into high performance plastics with a broad range of properties (US Patent No. 6,121,398). The resulting polymers had linear, branched, light- and highly-crosslinked chain architectures and could be used as pressure sensitive adhesives, elastomers and high performance rigid thermoset composite resins. To optimize the molecular design and minimize the number of chemical trials in this system with excess degrees of freedom, we developed a computer simulation of the free radical polymerization process. The triglyceride structure, degree of chemical substitution, mole fractions, fatty acid distribution function, and reaction kinetic parameters were used as initial inputs on a 3d lattice simulation. The evolution of the network fractal structure was computed and used to measure crosslink density, dangling ends, degree of reaction and defects in the lattice. The molecular connectivity was used to determine strength via a vector percolation model of fracture. The simulation permitted the optimal design of new bio-based materials with respect to monomer selection, cure reaction conditions and desired properties. Supported by the National Science Foundation

  19. Physico-chemical and microstructural properties of fish gelatin/agar bio-based blend films.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Setareh; Rezaei, Masoud; Hosseini, Seyed Fakhreddin

    2017-02-10

    This study was conducted with the aim of improving the physico-chemical properties of fish gelatin (FG) based films. For this purpose, FG was blended with agar (AG) in different compositions to acquire biodegradable films (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50 & 0:100, FG:AG). The obtained results showed that the AG addition strongly increased the film rigidity and resistance to fracture, while reducing the film stretchability, mainly at 50FG: 50AG ratio. AG incorporation greatly reduced the water vapor permeability (WVP) and solubility of gelatin films, as this decline for the blend film with a 50:50 ratio of biopolymers has been about 41% and 66%, respectively (p<0.05). Additional advantages of AG inclusion to FG films are the reduction of the UV-transmittance. Both polymers showed good compatibility, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Therefore, the blend composition influenced the properties of FG/AG bio-based films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of new computer-enhanced identification program for microorganisms: adaptation of BioBASE for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Miller, J M; Alachi, P

    1996-01-01

    We report the use of BioBASE, a computer-enhanced numerical identification software package, as a valuable aid for the rapid identification of unknown enteric bacilli when using conventional biochemicals. We compared BioBASE identification results with those of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's mainframe computer to determine the former's accuracy in identifying both common and rare unknown isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae by using the same compiled data matrix. Of 293 enteric strains tested by BioBASE, 278 (94.9%) were correctly identified to the species level; 13 (4.4%) were assigned unacceptable or low discrimination profiles, but 8 of these (2.7%) were listed as the first choice; and 2 (0.7%) were not identified correctly because of their highly unusual biochemical profiles. The software is user friendly, rapid, and accurate and would be of value to any laboratory that uses conventional biochemicals.

  1. 78 FR 20783 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... procurement preference, was published prematurely due to an oversight in the development process. DATES: The... within which biobased products will be afforded Federal procurement preference, as provided for under section 9002 of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, as amended by the Food, Conservation...

  2. Emerging biotechnologies for production of itaconic acid and its applications as a platform chemical

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. It is produced industrially (> 80 g L**-1) from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. The titer is low compared with citric acid production (> 200 g L**-...

  3. Polyol Structure Influences Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bio-Based 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid (FDCA) Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Haernvall, Karolina; Zitzenbacher, Sabine; Amer, Hassan; Zumstein, Michael T; Sander, Michael; McNeill, Kristopher; Yamamoto, Motonori; Schick, Michael B; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M

    2017-09-01

    Polyesters of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) have gained attention as they can be regarded as the bio-based alternatives to the petroleum-based polyesters of terephthalic acid. However, only little is known about the biodegradation and enzymatic hydrolysis of FDCA-based polyesters. This work aims to investigate the influence of different polyols on enzymatic hydrolysis of FDCA-based polyesters. A series of polyesters containing various polyols are synthesized and analyzed regarding susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis by cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica (Thc_Cut1). FDCA-based polyesters' number average molecular weight (Mn ) ranged from 9360-35 800 g mol(-1) according to gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses show decreasing glass transition temperature (Tg ) with increasing diol chain length. Crystallinity of all polyesters is below 1% except for polyesters containing 1,6-hexanediol, 1,8-octanediol, and 1,12-dodecanediol for which calculated crystallinities are 27, 37, and 30%, respectively. Thc_Cut1 hydrolyzes all tested polyesters with preference for polyesters containing 1,5-pentanediol and 1,9-nonanediol (57.7 ± 7.5 and 52.8 ± 4.0% released FDCA). Enzyme activity increases when the linear diol 1,3-propanediol is replaced by the branched analog 1,2-propanediol or ethoxy units are introduced into the polyester chain. The results will contribute to expand the knowledge of microbial biodegradation of FDCA-based polyesters. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Bio-based epoxy/chitin nanofiber composites cured with amine-type hardeners containing chitosan.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Mitsuhiro; Enjoji, Motohiro; Sakazume, Katsumi; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2016-06-25

    Sorbitol polyglycidyl ether (SPE) which is a bio-based water-soluble epoxy resin was cured with chitosan (CS) and/or a commercial water-soluble polyamidoamine- or polyetheramine-type epoxy hardener (PAA or PEA). Furthermore, biocomposites of the CS-cured SPE (CS-SPE) and CS/PAA- or CS/PEA-cured SPE (SPE-CA or SPE-CE) biocomposites with chitin nanofiber (CNF) were prepared by casting and compression molding methods, respectively. The curing reaction of epoxy and amino groups of the reactants was confirmed by the FT-IR spectral analysis. SPE-CS and SPE-CA were almost transparent films, while SPE-CE was opaque. Transparency of SPE-CS/CNF and SPE-CA/CNF became a little worse with increasing CNF content. The tanδ peak temperature of SPE-CS was higher than those of SPE-PAA and SPE-PEA. SPE-CA or SPE-CE exhibited two tanδ peak temperatures related to glass transitions of the CS-rich and PAA-rich or PEA-rich moieties. The tanδ peak temperatures related to the CS-rich and PAA-rich moieties increased with increasing CNF content. A higher order of tensile strengths and moduli of the cured resins was SPE-CS≫SPE-CA>SPE-CE. The tensile strength and modulus of each sample were much improved by the addition of 3wt% CNF, while further addition of CNF caused a lowering of the strength and modulus.

  5. Antiviral effects of polyphenols: development of bio-based cleaning wipes and filters.

    PubMed

    Catel-Ferreira, Manuella; Tnani, Hédia; Hellio, Claire; Cosette, Pascal; Lebrun, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Polyphenol molecules play multiple essential roles in plant physiology such as defences against plant-pathogens and micro-organisms. The present study reports a chemical modification of the surface of non-woven cellulosic fibre filters (Kimwipes(®)) by fixing polyphenol in order to confer them antiviral properties. The grafting of the non-woven fibres by the antiviral entity was performed using laccase. T4D bacteriophage virus of Escherichia coli B was used as virus model. Catechin polyphenol was tested as antiviral entity. Proteomic experiments were performed to quantify the potential protein target of catechin on viruses. When the modified filter was in contact with the viral suspension a large improvement in the reduction of the viral concentration was observed (5-log after 1h). Thus, we propose that this material could be used as virucidal wipes for the virus elimination from contaminated surfaces. Virus filtration experiments were performed by spraying an aerial suspension of T4D bacteriophage virus through the designed filter. The best virus capture factor f (ratio of upstream to downstream virus contents) was obtained when using 2 functionalized filters (f=2.9×10(3)). When these 2 layers were placed inside a commercial medical mask in place of its cellulose layer (Kolmi M24001 mask) (f=3.5×10(4)), the f ratio then reached 2.6×10(5) for 2h of filtration. Based on these results, this novel bio-based antiviral mask represents a significant improvement over conventional medical masks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Smart, Sustainable, and Ecofriendly Chemical Design of Fully Bio-Based Thermally Stable Thermosets Based on Benzoxazine Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Froimowicz, Pablo; R Arza, Carlos; Han, Lu; Ishida, Hatsuo

    2016-08-09

    A smart synthetic chemical design incorporating furfurylamine, a natural renewable amine, into a partially bio-based coumarin-containing benzoxazine is presented. The versatility of the synthetic approach is shown to be flexible and robust enough to be successful under more ecofriendly reaction conditions by replacing toluene with ethanol as the reaction solvent and even under solventless conditions. The chemical structure of this coumarin-furfurylamine-containing benzoxazine is characterized by FTIR, (1) H NMR spectroscopy and two-dimensional (1) H-(1) H nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (2D (1) H-(1) H NOESY). The thermal properties of the resin toward polymerization are characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the thermal stability of the resulting polymers by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results reveal that the furanic moiety induces a co-operative activating effect, thus lowering the polymerization temperature and also contributes to a better thermal stability of the resulting polymers. These results, in addition to those of natural renewable benzoxazine resins reviewed herein, highlight the positive and beneficial implication of designing novel bio-based polybenzoxazine and possibly other thermosets with desirable and competitive properties.

  7. Synthesis and properties of a bio-based epoxy resin with high epoxy value and low viscosity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Songqi; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Libo; Jiang, Yanhua; Cao, Lijun; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2014-02-01

    A bio-based epoxy resin (denoted TEIA) with high epoxy value (1.16) and low viscosity (0.92 Pa s, 258C) was synthesized from itaconic acid and its chemical structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Its curing reaction with poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) (D230) and methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) was investigated. For comparison, the commonly used diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was also cured with the same curing agents. The results demonstrated that TEIA showed higher curing reactivity towards D230/MHHPA and lower viscosity compared with DGEBA, resulting in the better processability. Owing to its high epoxy value and unique structure, comparable or better glass transition temperature as well as mechanical properties could be obtained for the TEIA-based network relative to the DGEBA-based network. The results indicated that itaconic acid is a promising renewable feedstock for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resin with high performance.

  8. Newly invented biobased materials from low-carbon, diverted waste fibers: research methods, testing, and full-scale application in a case study structure

    Treesearch

    Julee A Herdt; John Hunt; Kellen Schauermann

    2016-01-01

    This project demonstrates newly invented, biobased construction materials developed by applying lowcarbon, biomass waste sources through the Authors’ engineered fiber processes and technology. If manufactured and applied large-scale the project inventions can divert large volumes of cellulose waste into high-performance, low embodied energy, environmental construction...

  9. Synthesis of bio-based nanocomposites for controlled release of antimicrobial agents in food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGruson, Min Liu

    The utilization of bio-based polymers as packaging materials has attracted great attention in both scientific and industrial areas due to the non-renewable and nondegradable nature of synthetic plastic packaging. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biobased polymer with excellent film-forming and coating properties, but exhibits brittleness, insufficient gas barrier properties, and poor thermal stability. The overall goal of the project was to develop the polyhydroxyalkanoate-based bio-nanocomposite films modified by antimicrobial agents with improved mechanical and gas barrier properties, along with a controlled release rate of antimicrobial agents for the inhibition of foodborne pathogens and fungi in food. The ability for antimicrobial agents to intercalate into layered double hydroxides depended on the nature of the antimicrobial agents, such as size, spatial structure, and polarity, etc. Benzoate and gallate anions were successfully intercalated into LDH in the present study and different amounts of benzoate anion were loaded into LDH under different reaction conditions. Incorporation of nanoparticles showed no significant effect on mechanical properties of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films, however, significantly increased the tensile strength and elongation at break of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) films. The effects of type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles (unmodified LDH and LDH modified by sodium benzoate and sodium gallate) on structure and properties of PHBV films were then studied. The arrangement of LDH in the bio-nanocomposite matrices ranged from exfoliated to phase-separated depending on the type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles. Intercalated or partially exfoliated structures were obtained using modified LDH, however, only phase-separated structures were formed using unmodified LDH. The mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and thermo-mechanical (storage modulus) properties were significantly improved with low

  10. Converting Biomass to Products

    SciTech Connect

    Graybeal, Judith W.

    2006-06-01

    For nearly 30 years, PNNL has been developing and applying novel thermal, chemical and biological processes to convert biomass to industrial and consumer products, fuels and energy. Honors for technologies resulting from this research include the Presidential Green Chemistry Award and several Federal Laboratory Consortium and R&D 100 Awards. PNNL’s research and development activities address the complete processing scheme, from feedstock pretreatment to purified product recovery. The laboratory applies fundamental science and advanced engineering capabilities to biomass conversion and processing to ensure effective recovery of optimal value from biomass; carbohydrate polymer systems to maximize energy efficiencies; and micro-technology systems for separation and conversion processes. For example, bioproducts researchers in the laboratory’s Institute for Interfacial Catalysis develop and demonstrate the utility of new catalyst formulations for production of bio-based chemicals. This article describes a sampling of current and recent catalysis projects for biomass conversion.

  11. Synthesis of a Sulfonated Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Framework as an Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst for Biobased Chemical Conversion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yongwu; Hu, Zhigang; Gao, Yongjun; Yuan, Daqiang; Kang, Zixi; Qian, Yuhong; Yan, Ning; Zhao, Dan

    2015-10-12

    Because of limited framework stability tolerance, de novo synthesis of sulfonated covalent organic frameworks (COFs) remains challenging and unexplored. Herein, a sulfonated two-dimensional crystalline COF, termed TFP-DABA, was synthesized directly from 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol and 2,5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid through a previously reported Schiff base condensation reaction, followed by irreversible enol-to-keto tautomerization, which strengthened its structural stability. TFP-DABA is a highly efficient solid acid catalyst for fructose conversion with remarkable yields (97 % for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 65 % for 2,5-diformylfuran), good chemoselectivity, and good recyclability. The present study sheds light on the de novo synthesis of sulfonated COFs as novel solid acid catalysts for biobased chemical conversion.

  12. Photothermal triggering of self-healing processes applied to the reparation of bio-based polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuna, F. I.; Antonacci, J.; Arenas, G. F.; Pettarin, V.; Hoppe, C. E.; Williams, R. J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Green laser irradiation successfully activated self-healing processes in epoxy-acid networks modified with low amounts of gold nanoparticles (NPs). A bio-based polymer matrix, obtained by crosslinking epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with an aqueous citric acid (CA) solution, was self-healed through molecular rearrangements produced by transesterification reactions of β-hydroxyester groups generated in the polymerization reaction. The temperature increase required for the triggering of these thermally activated reactions was attained by green light irradiation of the damaged area. Compression force needed to assure a good contact between crack faces was achieved by volume dilatation generated by the same temperature rise. Gold NPs dispersed in the polymer efficiently generated heat in the presence of electromagnetic radiation under plasmon resonance, acting as nanometric heating sources and allowing remote activation of the self-healing in the crosslinked polymer.

  13. A methodology to assess the energetic valorization of bio-based polymers from the packaging industry: pyrolysis of reprocessed polylactide.

    PubMed

    Badia, J D; Santonja-Blasco, L; Martínez-Felipe, A; Ribes-Greus, A

    2012-05-01

    The energetic valorization process of bio-based polymers is addressed in this study, taking polylactide (PLA) as model. The pyrolysis of virgin and multiple-injected PLA was simulated by means of multi-rate linear-non-isothermal thermogravimetric experiments. A complete methodology, involving control of gases, thermal stability and thermal decomposition kinetics was proposed. The release of gases was monitored by Evolved Gas Analysis of the fumes of pyrolysis, by in-line FT-IR, with the aid of 2D-correlation IR characterization. A novel model to establish the thermal stability of PLAs under any linear heating profile was proposed. A kinetic strategy was methodically applied to assess the thermal decomposition in terms of activation energy and kinetic model. It was found that the pyrolysis technologies for virgin PLA could be straightforwardly transferred for the valorization of its recyclates.

  14. Evaluation of a bio-based hydrophobic cellulose laurate film as biomaterial--study on biodegradation and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Crépy, Lucie; Monchau, Francine; Chai, Feng; Raoul, Gwénaël; Hivart, Philippe; Hildebrand, Hartmut F; Martin, Patrick; Joly, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    The study aims to validate an original bio-based material, obtained by grafting fatty chains, and more especially lauric chains (C12) onto cellulose, for medical applications. The mechanical properties of the synthesized cellulose laurate (C12) are close to those of petrochemical ones such as low density polyethylene. This cellulose-based polymer is transparent, flexible, and hydrophobic. To evaluate the stability of the cellulosic films in biological fluids the samples are soaked in simulated body fluid or blood plasma for a few hours to 6 months, and then submitted to mechanical and chemical analyses. The simultaneously performed cytocompatibility tests were the colony-forming viability, the vitality and cell proliferation tests using NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and MC 3T3 osteoblast-like cells. The results show the stability, the biocompatibility, and the noncytotoxicity of the synthesized cellulose laurate films. This biomaterial may so be considered for surgical applications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Copolymerization as a Strategy to Combine Epoxidized Linseed Oil and Furfuryl Alcohol: The Design of a Fully Bio-Based Thermoset.

    PubMed

    Pin, Jean-Mathieu; Guigo, Nathanaël; Vincent, Luc; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas; Mija, Alice

    2015-12-21

    Epoxidized linseed oil and furfuryl alcohol are bio-sourced monomers known for their high-potential applications in materials science. In this work, we propose the association of these monomers through copolymerization reactions with the target to design fully bio-based thermosets. Herein, investigations on cationic polymerization reactivity have been explored using differential scanning calorimetry. The obtained structures have been confirmed by IR spectroscopy and 2 D NMR spectroscopy, which revealed the principal chain connections. In spite of the multiple capabilities of chemical connections, which include copolymerization and cross-linking, the obtained networks are homogeneous as confirmed by dynamic mechanical analysis and SEM. Furthermore, the copolymer demonstrates a semiductile behavior if subjected to tensile measurements (tensile strain at break ≈40 %), which is a significant advance in terms of its applications as a furanic bio-based thermoset material.

  16. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) Bio-Based Jet Fuel in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    groups, respectively. By comparison, the average aerosol concentrations for a study with HEFA from a mixed animal fats and oils feedstock (HEFA-F...feedstock (rendered beef fat , HEFA-T) were also found to be non-mutagenic by means of the Salmonella-Escherichia coli/microsome plate incorporation assay...Search Kerosene, Jet A, jet fuel, JP-8, HRJ, hydrorenewable jet, HRJ Camelina, HRJ plant oils, HRJ Tallow, HRJ Animal Fats and Oils, biofuel, biobased

  17. Improved solubility of DNA in recyclable and reusable bio-based deep eutectic solvents with long-term structural and chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Dibyendu; Sharma, Mukesh; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Gupta, Vishal; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2013-10-25

    The solubility of DNA in bio-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of choline chloride with levulinic acid, glycerol, ethylene glycol, sorbitol and resorcinol was investigated. The macromolecule was found to be soluble and chemically and structurally stable in DESs consisting of mixtures containing glycerol and ethylene glycol. Furthermore recyclability of the DESs was demonstrated over three consecutive reuses in DNA dissolution.

  18. Tailoring lignin biosynthesis for efficient and sustainable biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Cai, Yuanheng; Zhang, Xuebin; Gou, Mingyue; Yang, Huijun

    2014-12-01

    Increased global interest in a bio-based economy has reinvigorated the research on the cell wall structure and composition in plants. In particular, the study of plant lignification has become a central focus, with respect to its intractability and negative impact on the utilization of the cell wall biomass for producing biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Striking progress has been achieved in the last few years both on our fundamental understanding of lignin biosynthesis, deposition and assembly, and on the interplay of lignin synthesis with the plant growth and development. With the knowledge gleaned from basic studies, researchers are now able to invent and develop elegant biotechnological strategies to sophisticatedly manipulate the quantity and structure of lignin and thus to create economically viable bioenergy feedstocks. These concerted efforts open an avenue for the commercial production of cost-competitive biofuel to meet our energy needs.

  19. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake by bio-based residue application: An emerging property of agricultural soils offsetting greenhouse gas balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Ruijs, Rienke; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; Putten, Wim H. vd.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over two months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotrophic population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus spp. may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. Studies are under way to identify the active methane-oxidizers at near atmospheric methane concentrations using PLFA-Stable isotope probing (SIP). While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that the methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Moreover, the addition of

  20. Biosurfactants' Production from Renewable Natural Resources: Example of Innovativeand Smart Technology in Circular Bioeconomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satpute, Surekha K.; Płaza, Grażyna A.; Banpurkar, Arun G.

    2017-03-01

    A strong developed bio-based industrial sector will significantly reduce dependency on fossil resources, help the countries meet climate change targets, and lead to greener and more environmental friendly growth. The key is to develop new technologies to sustainably transform renewable natural resources into bio-based products and biofuels. Biomass is a valuable resource and many parameters need to be taken in to account when assessing its use and the products made from its. The bioeconomy encompass the production of renewable biological resources and their conversion into food, feed and bio-based products (chemicals, materials and fuels) via innovative and efficient technologies provided by industrial biotechnology. The paper presents the smart and efficient way to use the agro-industrial, dairy and food processing wastes for biosurfactant's production. Clarification processes are mandatory to use the raw substrates for microbial growth as well as biosurfactant production for commercial purposes. At the same time it is very essential to retain the nutritional values of those cheap substrates. Broad industrial perspectives can be achieved when quality as well as the quantity of the biosurfactant is considered in great depth. Since substrates resulting from food processing, dairy, animal fat industries are not explored in great details; and hence are potential areas which can be explored thoroughly.

  1. Biorefineries for the production of top building block chemicals and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Shin, Jae Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    Due to the growing concerns on the climate change and sustainability on petrochemical resources, DOE selected and announced the bio-based top 12 building blocks and discussed the needs for developing biorefinery technologies to replace the current petroleum based industry in 2004. Over the last 10 years after its announcement, many studies have been performed for the development of efficient technologies for the bio-based production of these chemicals and derivatives. Now, ten chemicals among these top 12 chemicals, excluding the l-aspartic acid and 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, have already been commercialized or are close to commercialization. In this paper, we review the current status of biorefinery development for the production of these platform chemicals and their derivatives. In addition, current technological advances on industrial strain development for the production of platform chemicals using micro-organisms will be covered in detail with case studies on succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid as examples.

  2. Solubilization of meat & bone meal protein by dilute acid hydrolysis for the production of bio-based flocculant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flocculants are substances that cause suspended particles to aggregate, therefore accelerating sedimentation to produce a clarified solution. They find use in a huge variety of applications including wastewater treatment, erosion control, and paper manufacture. Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a high pro...

  3. Bio-based rigid polyurethane foam from liquefied products of wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols

    Treesearch

    Zhifeng Zheng; Hui Pan; Yuanbo Huang; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams were prepared from the liquefied wood polyols, which was obtained by the liquefaction of southern pine wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols with sulfuric acid catalyst by using microwave-assistant as an energy source. The properties of liquefied biomass-based polyols and the rigid polyurethane foams were investigated. The results...

  4. Processing and characterization of solid and microcellular biobased and biodegradable PHBV-based polymer blends and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, Alireza

    Petroleum-based polymers have made a significant contribution to human society due to their extraordinary adaptability and processability. However, due to the wide-spread application of plastics over the past few decades, there are growing concerns over depleting fossil resources and the undesirable environmental impact of plastics. Most of the petroleum-based plastics are non-biodegradable and thus will be disposed in landfills. Inappropriate disposal of plastics may also become a potential threat to the environment. Many approaches, such as efficient plastics waste management and replacing petroleum-based plastics with biodegradable materials obtained from renewable resources, have been put forth to overcome these problems. Plastics waste management is at its beginning stages of development which is also more expensive than expected. Thus, there is a growing interest in developing sustainable biobased and biodegradable materials produced from renewable resources such as plants and crops, which can offer comparable performance with additional advantages, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, and reducing the carbon footprint. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) is one of the most promising biobased and biodegradable polymers, In fact many petroleum based polymers such as poly(propylene) (PP) can be potentially replaced by PHBV because of the similarity in their properties. Despite PHBV's attractive properties, there are many drawbacks such as high cost, brittleness, and thermal instability, which hamper the widespread usage of this specific polymer. The goals of this study are to investigate various strategies to address these drawbacks, including blending with other biodegradable polymers such as poly (butylene adipate-coterephthalate) (PBAT) or fillers (e.g., coir fiber, recycled wood fiber, and nanofillers) and use of novel processing technologies such as microcellular injection molding technique. Microcellular injection molding technique

  5. Environmentally Friendly Bio-Based Vinyl Ester Resins for Military Composite Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    DoD because of their low weight and excellent properties, enabling the production of lighter weight and stronger vehicles, ships, and structures...HAP emissions during resin processing, composite production , and painting applications. These trapping devices need to absorb most of the VOC/HAP...First, their use is not feasible in the production of large-scale structures or in field repair. Large-scale structures are typically fabricated

  6. Synthesis of highly elastic biocompatible polyurethanes based on bio-based isosorbide and poly(tetramethylene glycol) and their properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kang, Min-Sil; Knowles, Jonathan C; Gong, Myoung-Seon

    2014-09-01

    Bio-based high elastic polyurethanes were prepared from hexamethylene diisocyanate and various ratios of isosorbide to poly(tetramethylene glycol) as a diol by a simple one-shot bulk polymerization without a catalyst. Successful synthesis of the polyurethanes was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. Thermal properties were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The glass transition temperature was -47.8℃. The test results showed that the poly(tetramethylene glycol)/isosorbide-based elastomer exhibited not only excellent stress-strain properties but also superior resilience to the existing polyether-based polyurethane elastomers. The static and dynamic properties of the polyether/isosorbide-based thermoplastic elastomer were more suitable for dynamic applications. Moreover, such rigid diols impart biocompatible and bioactive properties to thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers. Degradation tests performed at 37℃ in phosphate buffer solution showed a mass loss of 4-9% after 8 weeks, except for the polyurethane with the lowest isosorbide content, which showed an initial rapid weight loss. These polyurethanes offer significant promise due to soft, flexible and biocompatible properties for soft tissue augmentation and regeneration.

  7. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, Hunter; Li, Yana; Almenar, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41-35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228-303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  8. Effect of organoclay on morphology and properties of linear low density polyethylene and Vietnamese cassava starch biobased blend.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D M; Vu, T T; Grillet, Anne-Cécile; Ha Thuc, H; Ha Thuc, C N

    2016-01-20

    Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/thermal plastic starch (TPS) blend was studied to prepare the biobased nanocomposite material using organoclay nanofil15 (N15) modified by alkilammonium as the reinforced phase. The LLDPE/TPS blend and its nanocomposites were elaborated by melt mixing method at 160 °C for 7 min. And the compounded sample was filmed by blowing method at three different zones of temperature profile which are 160-170-165 °C. The good dispersion of clay in the polymer blend matrix is showed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and a semi-exfoliated structure was obtained. The thermal and mechanical properties of materials are enhanced when N15 is added to the mixture. The effect of N15 on morphology and particles size of TPS phase is also investigated. The biodegradation test shows that more than 60% in weight of LLDPE/TPS film is degraded into CO2, H2O, methane and biomass after 5 months in compost soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A high-performance dielectric elastomer consisting of bio-based polyester elastomer and titanium dioxide powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan; Tian, Ming; Dong, Yingchao; Kang, Hailan; Gong, Daolin; Zhang, Liqun

    2013-10-01

    A bio-based polyester elastomer containing many polar groups was combined with high-dielectric-constant titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder to form a dielectric elastomer composite for the first time. The effects of the titanium dioxide filler on the elastic modulus, dielectric properties, and electromechanical responses of the polyester dielectric elastomer were studied. We found that the dielectric constant of composites increased with increasing content of TiO2. Nevertheless, the elastic modulus of the composites did not increase with increasing content of TiO2, and the polyester elastomer filled with 6 vol. % of TiO2 exhibited the lowest elastic modulus, which led to a high prestrain-free actuated strain of 11.8% at a low electric field of just 9.8 kV/mm. The actuated strain is better than other dielectric elastomers reported in the literature. The high electromechanical performance was attributed to the increase in dielectric constant and decrease in elastic modulus of the composite from those of the pure polyester elastomer. The decrease in elastic modulus was explained in detail by the competing effects of crosslink density and filler network. In addition, a dramatic increase in dielectric constant of the composite was observed and discussed through several dielectric mixing rules. Finally, the polyester elastomer and titanium dioxide are both environment-friendly, making possible the composite to be used in biological and medical devices.

  10. Synthesis of highly elastic biocompatible polyurethanes based on bio-based isosorbide and poly(tetramethylene glycol) and their properties

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kang, Min-Sil; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based high elastic polyurethanes were prepared from hexamethylene diisocyanate and various ratios of isosorbide to poly(tetramethylene glycol) as a diol by a simple one-shot bulk polymerization without a catalyst. Successful synthesis of the polyurethanes was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. Thermal properties were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The glass transition temperature was −47.8℃. The test results showed that the poly(tetramethylene glycol)/isosorbide-based elastomer exhibited not only excellent stress–strain properties but also superior resilience to the existing polyether-based polyurethane elastomers. The static and dynamic properties of the polyether/isosorbide-based thermoplastic elastomer were more suitable for dynamic applications. Moreover, such rigid diols impart biocompatible and bioactive properties to thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers. Degradation tests performed at 37℃ in phosphate buffer solution showed a mass loss of 4–9% after 8 weeks, except for the polyurethane with the lowest isosorbide content, which showed an initial rapid weight loss. These polyurethanes offer significant promise due to soft, flexible and biocompatible properties for soft tissue augmentation and regeneration. PMID:24812276

  11. From the lab to commercial reality with biobased adhesives for wood

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart; Michael J. Birkeland

    2016-01-01

    Many technologies can be demonstrated in the laboratory to give products that meet performance standards, but there are many hurdles to overcome before these products are commercially viable. Demonstrating performance under simulated commercial processes conditions is the first key step to be accomplished through using appropriate adhesive application, furnish...

  12. Biobased films prepared from collagen solutions derived from un-tanned hides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. hide and leather industries are facing challenges of meeting environmental imperatives; quantifying, maintaining, and improving current hides and leather product quality; developing new processes and products; and improving utilization of waste. One of our contributions to address these on...

  13. Biobased films prepared from collagen solutions derived from un-tanned hides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. hide and leather industries are facing challenges of meeting environmental imperatives; quantifying, maintaining, and improving current hides and leather product quality; developing new processes and products; and improving utilization of waste. One of our efforts to address these new chal...

  14. Microbial production of 1,3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of economic production processes for 1,3-propanediol is a success story for the creation of a new market for a (bulk) chemical. The compound and its favorable properties have long been known; also the fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol had been described more than 120 years ago. Nevertheless, the product remained a specialty chemical until recently, when two new processes were introduced, providing 1,3-propanediol at a competitive price. Remarkably, one of the processes is in the field of white biotechnology and based on microbial fermentation, converting a renewable carbon source into a bulk chemical. This review covers the most important patents that led to the commercialization of bio-based 1,3-propanediol. Furthermore, some of the recent developments towards a sustainable industry are addressed. Similar questions arise for a variety of products if they are to be produced bio-based in large scale. However, special emphasis is given to 1,3-propanediol production.

  15. Defense Logistics Agency Support for Environmental Sustainability - Products and Services Supporting Environmental Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-12

    Biobased resin uses wheat to replace 50% of Polypropylene • Meets or exceeds all current performance standards (impact strength, heat...of commercially viable business model for biofuel sales to the military & commercial aviation industry in Hawaii • Farm to Fly – Goal is to link the...as purchasing green products or supporting small businesses , DOD EMALL can provide the customer reports, weekly, monthly or quarterly as desired

  16. Termite resistance of biobased composition boards made from cotton byproducts and guayule bagasse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB), also known as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste, are being produced across the cotton belt of the United States annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production is expected to increase as this industry begins to expand. Use of thes...

  17. New Bio-Based Materials From Vegetable Oil: Amination and Click Reactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For some time we have been interested in utilizing vegetable oils as cheap and bio-renewable raw materials. We have found derivatization reactions with nitrogen-containing reagents to be good pathways to achieve a range of new vegetable oil-based products. One of our approaches is to derivatize ep...

  18. Opportunities of using bio-based materials for value-added composites

    Treesearch

    Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    Our forests are a naturally renewable resource that has been used as a principal source of bio-energy and building materials for centuries. The growth of world population and affluence has resulted in substantial increases in demand and in consumption for all raw materials. Resulting increases in demand for wood products provides a unique opportunity for developing new...

  19. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas.

    PubMed

    Jalava, Pasi I; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Happo, Mikko S; Markkanen, Ari; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-09-29

    One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used - rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than those with EN590

  20. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  1. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  2. Productivity

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Fox; Ray R. Hicks

    2004-01-01

    The South is blessed with abundant and diverse forest resources. Today, forests cover approximately 215 million acres in the South, which represents 29 percent of the forest land in the United States (Conner and Hartsell 2002). Maintaining the productivity of these forests is essential to the economic, environmental, and social well being of the South and the Nation....

  3. Advances in in-situ product recovery (ISPR) in whole cell biotechnology during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Van Hecke, Wouter; Kaur, Guneet; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-15

    The review presents the state-of-the-art in the applications of in-situ product recovery (ISPR) in whole-cell biotechnology over the last 10years. It summarizes various ISPR-integrated fermentation processes for the production of a wide spectrum of bio-based products. A critical assessment of the performance of various ISPR concepts with respect to the degree of product enrichment, improved productivity, reduced process flows and increased yields is provided. Requirements to allow a successful industrial implementation of ISPR are also discussed. Finally, supporting technologies such as online monitoring, mathematical modeling and use of recombinant microorganisms with ISPR are presented.

  4. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean.

  5. Initial Assessment of U.S. Refineries for Purposes of Potential Bio-Based Oil Insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Charles J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburg, Corinne; Shinn, John

    2013-04-01

    In order to meet U.S. biofuel objectives over the coming decade the conversion of a broad range of biomass feedstocks, using diverse processing options, will be required. Further, the production of both gasoline and diesel biofuels will employ biomass conversion methods that produce wide boiling range intermediate oils requiring treatment similar to conventional refining processes (i.e. fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, and hydrotreating). As such, it is widely recognized that leveraging existing U.S. petroleum refining infrastructure is key to reducing overall capital demands. This study examines how existing U.S. refining location, capacities and conversion capabilities match in geography and processing capabilities with the needs projected from anticipated biofuels production.

  6. Fatty acid-derived diisocyanate and biobased polyurethane produced from vegetable oil: synthesis, polymerization, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Hojabri, Leila; Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2009-04-13

    A new linear saturated terminal diisocyanate was synthesized from oleic acid via Curtius rearrangement, and its chemical structure was identified by FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and MS. The feasibility of utilizing this new diisocyanate for the production of polyurethanes (PUs) was demonstrated by reacting it with commercial petroleum-derived polyols and canola oil-derived polyols, respectively. The physical properties of the PUs prepared from fatty acid-derived diisocyanate were compared to those prepared from the same polyols with a similar but petroleum-derived commercially available diisocyanate: 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. It was found that the fatty acid-derived diisocyanate was capable of producing PUs with comparable properties within acceptable tolerances. This work is the first that establishes the production of linear saturated terminal diisocyanate derived from fatty acids and corresponding PUs mostly from lipid feedstock.

  7. From plant biomass to bio-based chemicals: latest developments in xylan research.

    PubMed

    Deutschmann, Rudolf; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    For a hundred years or more, oil and natural gas has supplied fuel and other raw chemicals to support economic growth. In the last decades their shrinking reservoirs and the increasing cost of production has become obvious, leading researchers to look for alternative substitutes of all the chemical materials presently derived from oil and gas. This review is focused on xylan, the second most abundant plant polysaccharide on our planet. Some xylan-derived products have already found commercial applications (ethanol, xylitol, xylo-oligosaccharides) while others could have a great future in a wide range of industries. The chemical and structural variations of xylans produced by different plants, and the concentration of xylan in various plant resources are summarized. This review discusses the latest research developments in extraction and purification methodologies, and chemical modification, as well as the analytical methods necessary for xylan related research. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biofuels and bio-based chemicals from lignocellulose: metabolic engineering strategies in strain development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rachel; Dou, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Interest in developing a sustainable technology for fuels and chemicals has unleashed tremendous creativity in metabolic engineering for strain development over the last few years. This is driven by the exceptionally recalcitrant substrate, lignocellulose, and the necessity to keep the costs down for commodity products. Traditional methods of gene expression and evolutionary engineering are more effectively used with the help of synthetic biology and -omics techniques. Compared to the last biomass research peak during the 1980s oil crisis, a more diverse range of microorganisms are being engineered for a greater variety of products, reflecting the broad applicability and effectiveness of today's gene technology. We review here several prominent and successful metabolic engineering strategies with emphasis on the following four areas: xylose catabolism, inhibitor tolerance, synthetic microbial consortium, and cellulosic oligomer assimilation.

  9. Biosensors and bio-based methods for the separation and detection of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Arun K

    2008-01-01

    The safety of our food supply is always a major concern to consumers, food producers, and regulatory agencies. A safer food supply improves consumer confidence and brings economic stability. The safety of foods from farm-to-fork through the supply chain continuum must be established to protect consumers from debilitating, sometimes fatal episodes of pathogen outbreaks. The implementation of preventive strategies like hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) assures safety but its full utility will not be realized unless supportive tools are fully developed. Rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection methods are such essential tools that, when integrated with HACCP, will improve safety of products. Traditional microbiological methods are powerful, error-proof, and dependable but these lengthy, cumbersome methods are often ineffective because they are not compatible with the speed at which the products are manufactured and the short shelf life of products. Automation in detection methods is highly desirable, but is not achievable with traditional methods. Therefore, biosensor-based tools offer the most promising solutions and address some of the modern-day needs for fast and sensitive detection of pathogens in real time or near real time. The application of several biosensor tools belonging to the categories of optical, electrochemical, and mass-based tools for detection of foodborne pathogens is reviewed in this chapter. Ironically, geometric growth in biosensor technology is fueled by the imminent threat of bioterrorism through food, water, and air and by the funding through various governmental agencies.

  10. Combining metabolic engineering and electrocatalysis: Application to the production of polyamides from sugar

    DOE PAGES

    Suastegui, Miguel; Matthiesen, John E.; Carraher, Jack M.; ...

    2016-01-14

    Here, biorefineries aim to convert biomass into a spectrum of products ranging from biofuels to specialty chemicals. To achieve economically sustainable conversion, it is crucial to streamline the catalytic and downstream processing steps. In this work, a route that combines bio- and electrocatalysis to convert glucose into bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 is reported. An engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the initial biocatalyst for the conversion of glucose into muconic acid, with the highest reported muconic acid titer of 559.5 mg L–1 in yeast. Without any separation, muconic acid was further electrocatalytically hydrogenated to 3-hexenedioic acid in 94 %more » yield despite the presence of biogenic impurities. Bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 (unsaturated polyamide-6,6) was finally obtained by polymerization of 3-hexenedioic acid with hexamethylenediamine.« less

  11. Combining metabolic engineering and electrocatalysis: Application to the production of polyamides from sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Suastegui, Miguel; Matthiesen, John E.; Carraher, Jack M.; Hernandez, Nacu; Rodriguez Quiroz, Natalia; Okerlund, Adam; Cochran, Eric W.; Shao, Zengyi; Tessonnier, Jean -Philippe

    2016-01-14

    Here, biorefineries aim to convert biomass into a spectrum of products ranging from biofuels to specialty chemicals. To achieve economically sustainable conversion, it is crucial to streamline the catalytic and downstream processing steps. In this work, a route that combines bio- and electrocatalysis to convert glucose into bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 is reported. An engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the initial biocatalyst for the conversion of glucose into muconic acid, with the highest reported muconic acid titer of 559.5 mg L–1 in yeast. Without any separation, muconic acid was further electrocatalytically hydrogenated to 3-hexenedioic acid in 94 % yield despite the presence of biogenic impurities. Bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 (unsaturated polyamide-6,6) was finally obtained by polymerization of 3-hexenedioic acid with hexamethylenediamine.

  12. Combining Metabolic Engineering and Electrocatalysis. Application to the Production of Polyamides from Sugar

    DOE PAGES

    Suastegui, Miguel; Matthiesen, John E.; Carraher, Jack M.; ...

    2016-01-14

    Biorefineries aim to convert biomass into a spectrum of products ranging from biofuels to specialty chemicals. To achieve economically sustainable conversion, it is crucial to streamline the catalytic and downstream processing steps. In this work, a route that combines bio- and electrocatalysis to convert glucose into bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 is reported. An engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the initial biocatalyst for the conversion of glucose into muconic acid, with the highest reported muconic acid titer of 559.5 mg L-1 in yeast. Without any separation, muconic acid was further electrocatalytically hydrogenated to 3-hexenedioic acid in 94 % yieldmore » despite the presence of biogenic impurities. Bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 (unsaturated polyamide-6,6) was finally obtained by polymerization of 3-hexenedioic acid with hexamethylenediamine.« less

  13. Combining Metabolic Engineering and Electrocatalysis. Application to the Production of Polyamides from Sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Suastegui, Miguel; Matthiesen, John E.; Carraher, Jack M.; Hernandez, Nacu; Rodriguez Quiroz, Natalia; Okerlund, Adam; Cochran, Eric W.; Shao, Zengyi; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-14

    Biorefineries aim to convert biomass into a spectrum of products ranging from biofuels to specialty chemicals. To achieve economically sustainable conversion, it is crucial to streamline the catalytic and downstream processing steps. In this work, a route that combines bio- and electrocatalysis to convert glucose into bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 is reported. An engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the initial biocatalyst for the conversion of glucose into muconic acid, with the highest reported muconic acid titer of 559.5 mg L-1 in yeast. Without any separation, muconic acid was further electrocatalytically hydrogenated to 3-hexenedioic acid in 94 % yield despite the presence of biogenic impurities. Bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 (unsaturated polyamide-6,6) was finally obtained by polymerization of 3-hexenedioic acid with hexamethylenediamine.

  14. Combining Metabolic Engineering and Electrocatalysis: Application to the Production of Polyamides from Sugar.

    PubMed

    Suastegui, Miguel; Matthiesen, John E; Carraher, Jack M; Hernandez, Nacu; Rodriguez Quiroz, Natalia; Okerlund, Adam; Cochran, Eric W; Shao, Zengyi; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-02-12

    Biorefineries aim to convert biomass into a spectrum of products ranging from biofuels to specialty chemicals. To achieve economically sustainable conversion, it is crucial to streamline the catalytic and downstream processing steps. In this work, a route that combines bio- and electrocatalysis to convert glucose into bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 is reported. An engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the initial biocatalyst for the conversion of glucose into muconic acid, with the highest reported muconic acid titer of 559.5 mg L(-1) in yeast. Without any separation, muconic acid was further electrocatalytically hydrogenated to 3-hexenedioic acid in 94 % yield despite the presence of biogenic impurities. Bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 (unsaturated polyamide-6,6) was finally obtained by polymerization of 3-hexenedioic acid with hexamethylenediamine.

  15. A versatile bio-based material for efficiently removing toxic dyes, heavy metal ions and emulsified oil droplets from water simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Li, Daikun; Li, Qing; Mao, Daoyong; Bai, Ningning; Dong, Hongzhou

    2017-09-05

    Developing versatile materials for effective water purification is significant for environment and water source protection. Herein, a versatile bio-based material (CH-PAA-T) was reported by simple thermal cross-linking chitosan and polyacrylic acid which exhibits excellent performances for removing insoluble oil, soluble toxic dyes and heavy metal ions from water, simultaneously. The adsorption capacities are 990.1mgg(-1) for methylene blue (MB) and 135.9mgg(-1) for Cu(2+), which are higher than most of present advanced absorbents. The adsorption towards organic dyes possesses high selectivity which makes CH-PAA-T be able to efficiently separate dye mixtures. The stable superoleophobicity under water endows CH-PAA-T good performance to separate toluene-in-water emulsion stabilized by Tween 80. Moreover, CH-PAA-T can be recycled for 10 times with negligible reduction of efficiency. Such versatile bio-based material is a potential candidate for water purification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Formation of self-extinguishing flame retardant biobased coating on cotton fabrics via Layer-by-Layer assembly of chitin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haifeng; Wang, Wei; Pan, Ying; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2015-01-22

    The self-extinguishing coating, consisting of biobased chitin derivatives, phosphorylated chitin and deacetylated chitin (chitosan), was deposited on cotton fabrics via the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembled method. The content of phosphorylated chitin prepared on cotton fabrics surface is dependent on the bilayers' number and concentration of phosphorylated chitin. In the vertical flame test, the cotton fabric with 20 bilayers prepared at the high phosphorylated chitin concentration (2 wt%) could extinguish the flame. Microcombustion calorimetry result showed that all coated cotton fabrics showed lower peak heat-release rate and total heat-release values compared with that of the pure one. Thermogravimetric analysis result indicated that thermal and thermal oxidation stability of all coated cotton fabrics were enhanced in the high temperature range (400-700°C). This work provided the flame retardant multilayer films based on fully biobased chitin derivatives on cotton fabrics to enhance its flame retardancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Esters of oligo-(glycerol carbonate-glycerol): New biobased oligomeric surfactants.

    PubMed

    Holmiere, Sébastien; Valentin, Romain; Maréchal, Philippe; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2017-02-01

    Glycerol carbonate is one of the most potentially multifunction glycerol-derived compounds. Glycerol is an important by-product of the oleochemical industry. The oligomerization of glycerol carbonate, assisted by the glycerol, results in the production of polyhydroxylated oligomers rich in linear carbonate groups. The polar moieties of these oligomers (Mw<1000Da) were supplied by glycerol and glycerol carbonate rather than ethylene oxide as in most commercial surfactants. The insertion of linear carbonate groups into the glycerol-based skeleton rendered the oligomers amphiphilic, resulting in a decrease in air/water surface tension to 57mN/m. We improved the physical and chemical properties of the oligomers, by altering the type of acylation reaction and the nature of the acyl donor. The polar head is constituted of homo-oligomers and hetero-oligomers. Homo-oligomers are oligoglycerol and/or oligocarbonate, hetero-oligomers are oligo(glycerol-glycerol carbonate). Coprah oligoesters had the best surfactant properties (CMC<1mg/mL, πcmc<30mN/m), outperforming molecules of fossil origin, such as ethylene glycol monododecyl ether, glycol ethers and fatty acid esters of sorbitan polyethoxylates. The self-assembling properties of oligocarbonate esters were highlighted by their ability to stabilize inverse and multiple emulsions. The oligo-(glycerol carbonate-glycerol ether) with relatively low molecular weights showed properties of relatively high-molecular weight molecules, and constitute a viable "green" alternative to ethoxylated surfactants.

  18. Fermentative Production of Cysteine by Pantoea ananatis

    PubMed Central

    Takumi, Kazuhiro; Ziyatdinov, Mikhail Kharisovich; Samsonov, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cysteine is a commercially important amino acid; however, it lacks an efficient fermentative production method. Due to its cytotoxicity, intracellular cysteine levels are stringently controlled via several regulatory modes. Managing its toxic effects as well as understanding and deregulating the complexities of regulation are crucial for establishing the fermentative production of cysteine. The regulatory modes include feedback inhibition of key metabolic enzymes, degradation, efflux pumps, and the transcriptional regulation of biosynthetic genes by a master cysteine regulator, CysB. These processes have been extensively studied using Escherichia coli for overproducing cysteine by fermentation. In this study, we genetically engineered Pantoea ananatis, an emerging host for the fermentative production of bio-based materials, to identify key factors required for cysteine production. According to this and our previous studies, we identified a major cysteine desulfhydrase gene, ccdA (formerly PAJ_0331), involved in cysteine degradation, and the cysteine efflux pump genes cefA and cefB (formerly PAJ_3026 and PAJ_p0018, respectively), which may be responsible for downregulating the intracellular cysteine level. Our findings revealed that ccdA deletion and cefA and cefB overexpression are crucial factors for establishing fermentative cysteine production in P. ananatis and for obtaining a higher cysteine yield when combined with genes in the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of cysteine production in P. ananatis, which has fundamental implications for establishing overproduction in this microbe. IMPORTANCE The efficient production of cysteine is a major challenge in the amino acid fermentation industry. In this study, we identified cysteine efflux pumps and degradation pathways as essential elements and genetically engineered Pantoea ananatis, an emerging host for the fermentative production of bio-based materials, to

  19. Producing bio-based bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology saves energy and combats climate change.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B G; Blok, K; Patel, M K

    2007-11-15

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechnology. Substantial further savings are possible for the future by improved fermentation and downstream processing. Worldwide CO2 savings in the range of 500-1000 million tons per year are possible using future technology. Industrial biotechnology hence offers excellent opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing dependence on fossil energy sources and therefore has the potential to make inroads into the existing chemical industry.

  20. Study on gelatin-silver nanoparticle composite towards the development of bio-based antimicrobial film.

    PubMed

    Halder, Dipankar; Mitra, Atanu; Bag, Surajit; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2011-12-01

    Nano-scale silver particle stabilized by gelatin protein was prepared through the reduction of aqueous silver nitrate solution by sodium borohydride. Gelatin concentration was varied against a fixed concentration of silver nitrate to optimize the gelatin to metal ratio. Gelatin-protected Ag-nanoparticle was characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the samples exhibited similar yellow color with a characteristic plasmonic band of silver nanoparticles at 412 nm. TEM micrographs also showed the presence of nanoscale silver particles of approximately 3.9 nm. Since silver has strong bactericidal properties and at the same time relatively less toxic to human cell, silver in various forms is ideally suited for a wide range of applications in consumer, industrial and medical products The antimicrobial properties of gelatin-silver nanocomposites were tested by 'cup-plate zone of inhibition' method. The nanocomposites exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  1. Accelerating research into bio-based FDCA-polyesters by using small scale parallel film reactors.

    PubMed

    Gruter, Gert-Jan M; Sipos, Laszlo; Adrianus Dam, Matheus

    2012-02-01

    High Throughput experimentation has been well established as a tool in early stage catalyst development and catalyst and process scale-up today. One of the more challenging areas of catalytic research is polymer catalysis. The main difference with most non-polymer catalytic conversions is the fact that the product is not a well defined molecule and the catalytic performance cannot be easily expressed only in terms of catalyst activity and selectivity. In polymerization reactions, polymer chains are formed that can have various lengths (resulting in a molecular weight distribution rather than a defined molecular weight), that can have different compositions (when random or block co-polymers are produced), that can have cross-linking (often significantly affecting physical properties), that can have different endgroups (often affecting subsequent processing steps) and several other variations. In addition, for polyolefins, mass and heat transfer, oxygen and moisture sensitivity, stereoregularity and many other intrinsic features make relevant high throughput screening in this field an incredible challenge. For polycondensation reactions performed in the melt often the viscosity becomes already high at modest molecular weights, which greatly influences mass transfer of the condensation product (often water or methanol). When reactions become mass transfer limited, catalyst performance comparison is often no longer relevant. This however does not mean that relevant experiments for these application areas cannot be performed on small scale. Relevant catalyst screening experiments for polycondensation reactions can be performed in very efficient small scale parallel equipment. Both transesterification and polycondensation as well as post condensation through solid-stating in parallel equipment have been developed. Next to polymer synthesis, polymer characterization also needs to be accelerated without making concessions to quality in order to draw relevant conclusions.

  2. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  3. Evaluating PHA productivity of bioengineered Rhodosprillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huanan; Nikolau, Basil J

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the potential of using Rhodosprillum rubrum as the biological vehicle to convert chemically simple carbon precursors to a value-added bio-based product, the biopolymer PHA. R. rubrum strains were bioengineered to overexpress individually or in various combinations, six PHA biosynthetic genes (phaC1, phaA, phaB, phaC2, phaC3, and phaJ), and the resulting nine over-expressing strains were evaluated to assess the effect on PHA content, and the effect on growth. These experiments were designed to genetically evaluate: 1) the role of each apparently redundant PHA polymerase in determining PHA productivity; 2) identify the key gene(s) within the pha biosynthetic operon that determines PHA productivity; and 3) the role of phaJ to support PHA productivity. The result of overexpressing each PHA polymerase-encoding gene indicates that phaC1 and phaC2 are significant contributors to PHA productivity, whereas phaC3 has little effect. Similarly, over-expressing individually or in combination the three PHA biosynthesis genes located in the pha operon indicates that phaB is the key determinant of PHA productivity. Finally, analogous experiments indicate that phaJ does not contribute significantly to PHA productivity. These bioengineering strains achieved PHA productivity of up to 30% of dry biomass, which is approximately 2.5-fold higher than the non-engineered control strain, indicating the feasibility of using this approach to produce value added bio-based products.

  4. Evaluating PHA Productivity of Bioengineered Rhodosprillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huanan; Nikolau, Basil J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the potential of using Rhodosprillum rubrum as the biological vehicle to convert chemically simple carbon precursors to a value-added bio-based product, the biopolymer PHA. R. rubrum strains were bioengineered to overexpress individually or in various combinations, six PHA biosynthetic genes (phaC1, phaA, phaB, phaC2, phaC3, and phaJ), and the resulting nine over-expressing strains were evaluated to assess the effect on PHA content, and the effect on growth. These experiments were designed to genetically evaluate: 1) the role of each apparently redundant PHA polymerase in determining PHA productivity; 2) identify the key gene(s) within the pha biosynthetic operon that determines PHA productivity; and 3) the role of phaJ to support PHA productivity. The result of overexpressing each PHA polymerase-encoding gene indicates that phaC1 and phaC2 are significant contributors to PHA productivity, whereas phaC3 has little effect. Similarly, over-expressing individually or in combination the three PHA biosynthesis genes located in the pha operon indicates that phaB is the key determinant of PHA productivity. Finally, analogous experiments indicate that phaJ does not contribute significantly to PHA productivity. These bioengineering strains achieved PHA productivity of up to 30% of dry biomass, which is approximately 2.5-fold higher than the non-engineered control strain, indicating the feasibility of using this approach to produce value added bio-based products. PMID:24840941

  5. Development of crayfish bio-based plastic materials processed by small-scale injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Felix, Manuel; Romero, Alberto; Cordobes, Felipe; Guerrero, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Protein has been investigated as a source for biodegradable polymeric materials. This work evaluates the development of plastic materials based on crayfish and glycerol blends, processed by injection moulding, as a fully biodegradable alternative to conventional polymer-based plastics. The effect of different additives, namely sodium sulfite or bisulfite as reducing agents, urea as denaturing agent and L-cysteine as cross-linking agent, is also analysed. The incorporation of any additive always yields an increase in energy efficiency at the mixing stage, but its effect on the mechanical properties of the bioplastics is not so clear, and even dampened. The additive developing a greater effect is L-cysteine, showing higher Young's modulus values and exhibiting a remnant thermosetting potential. Thus, processing at higher temperature yields a remarkable increase in extensibility. This work illustrates the feasibility of crayfish-based green biodegradable plastics, thereby contributing to the search for potential value-added applications for this by-product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Biobased Fat Mimicking Molecular Structuring Agents for Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and Other Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Julian R; John, George

    2015-12-09

    To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0.25 wt %, in numerous organic solvents, as well as in a range of natural edible oils, specifically a relatively unstudied group of liquids: natural medium-chain triglyceride oils, notably coconut oil. Spectroscopic analysis details the gelator structure as well as the intermolecular noncovalent interactions, which allow for gelation. X-ray diffraction studies indicate fatty acid chain packing of gelators is similar to that of natural fats, signifying the crystalline nature may lead to desirable textural properties and mouthfeel.

  7. Novel bio-based thermoset resins based on epoxidized vegetable oils for structural adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Shivshankar

    Conventional engineered wood composites are bonded for the most part through formaldehyde-based structural adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and resorcinol formaldehyde (RF). Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen; the occupational exposure and emission after manufacturing of these binders is raising more and more concern. With increasing emphasis on environmental issues, there is clear incentive to replace these hazardous conventional formaldehyde-based binders with cco-friendly resins having similar properties but derived from renewable sources, bearing in mind the economics of the structural wood composite industry. In this thesis, the curing reaction of bio-derived epoxy thermosets with inexpensive, low-toxicity precursors, including polyimines and amino acids was investigated. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were successfully crosslinked with both branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and triethylenetetramine (fETA). Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) was crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI), having different molecular weights. Curing conditions were optimized through solvent uptake and soluble fraction analysis. Finally, the mechanical properties of the optimized compositions of rigid bioepoxies were evaluated using dynamic mechanical rheological testing (DMRT). While not as stiff as conventional materials, optimized materials have sufficient room temperature moduli to show promise for coatings and as binders in engineered wood products.

  8. Hydrophobically modified chitosan: a bio-based material for antimicrobial active film.

    PubMed

    Inta, Orathai; Yoksan, Rangrong; Limtrakul, Jumras

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present research was to improve the hydrophobicity of chitosan, while retaining its antibacterial activity, through the grafting of dodecenyl succinyl chains onto phthaloyl chitosan, mainly at the C-6 position. Dodecenyl succinylated phthaloyl chitosan (DS-g-PHCTS) was synthesized via phthaloylation-dodecenyl succinylation-hydrazinolysis. The obtained derivatives were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and XRD. Hydrazinolysis time was found to be a key factor in controlling the substitution of dodecenyl succinyl chains and phthalimido groups of the final product. DS-g-PHCTS - with a grafting degree of dodecenyl succinyl chains and a substitution degree of phthalimido groups of 0.73 and 0.39, respectively - exhibited an anhydrous crystal structure and the same solubility behavior as native chitosan. The introduction of hydrophobic alkyl chains provided DS-g-PHCTS with enhanced antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, DS-g-PHCTS film showed more effective bacterial growth inhibition and better water vapor barrier property under neutral pH condition than chitosan film. The results suggested that DS-g-PHCTS film could be potentially used as antibacterial active film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Silver Nanoparticle Impregnated Bio-Based Activated Carbon with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, R.; Suriyaraj, S. P.; Jayavignesh, V.; Swaminathan, K.

    2013-08-01

    The present study involves the production of silver nanoparticles using a novel yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae BU-MBT CY-1 isolated from coconut cell sap. The biological reduction of silver nitrate by the isolate was deducted at various time intervals. The yeast cells after biological silver reduction were harvested and subjected to carbonization at 400°C for 1 h and its properties were analyzed using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope attached with energy dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The average size of the silver nanoparticles present on the surface of the carbonized silver containing yeast cells (CSY) was 19 ± 9 nm. The carbonized control yeast cells (CCY) did not contain any particles on its surface. The carbonized silver nanoparticles containing yeast cells (CSY) were made into bioactive emulsion and tested for its efficacy against various pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity studies indicated that CSY bioactive nanoemulsion was effective against Gram negative organisms than Gram positive organism.

  10. Synthesis and properties of a novel bio-based polymer from modified soybean oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.; Tang, Z. J.

    2017-02-01

    Maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) was prepared by acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and maleic anhydride. AESO were obtained by the reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with acrylic acid as the ring-opening reagent. The polymer was prepared by MAESO react with styrene. The structures of the products were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and were consistent with the theoretical structures. Swelling experiment indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO. Thermal properties was tested by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), indicating that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO, and thermal stability of polymer have a good correlation with the crosslinking degree. Mechanical properties analysis presented that tensile strength and impact strength affected by epoxy value of ESO. With the increase of epoxy value, the tensile strength increase, while the impact strength decrease. The property of the polymer ranged from elastomer to plastic character depended on the functionality of the ESO.

  11. A novel partially biobased PAN-lignin blend as a potential carbon fiber precursor.

    PubMed

    Seydibeyoğlu, M Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Blends of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and lignin were prepared with three different lignin types by solution blending and solution casting. Among three types of lignin, one type was chosen and different blend concentrations were prepared and casted. The casted blend films were characterized chemically with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermally with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mechanical properties of the blends were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). FTIR analysis shows an excellent interaction of PAN and lignin. The interaction of the lignins and PAN was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DMA results reveal that the lignin enhance the mechanical properties of PAN at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The blend structure and morphology were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images show that excellent polymer blends were prepared. The results show that it is possible to develop a new precursor material with a blend of lignin and PAN. These studies show that the side product of paper and cellulosic bioethanol industries, namely, lignin can be used for new application areas.

  12. Microwave-Assisted Catalytic Synthesis of Bio-Based Copolymers from Waste Cooking Oil

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Mahrzadi Noureen; Arshad, Muhammad; Ullah, Aman

    2017-01-01

    Solvent-free copolymerization of epoxides derived from fatty esters of waste cooking oil with phthalic anhydride using (salen)CrIIICl as catalyst and n-Bu4NCl/DMAP (tetrabutylammonium chloride/4-(dimethylamino)pyridine) as co-catalysts was carried out for the first time under microwave irradiation, where reaction time was reduced from a number of hours to minutes. The polyesters were obtained with molecular weight (Mw = 3100–6750 g/mol) and dispersity values (D = 1.18–1.92) when (salen)CrIIICl/n-Bu4NCl was used as catalysts. Moreover, in the case of DMAP as a co-catalyst, polyesters with improved molecular weight (Mw = 5500–6950 g/mol) and narrow dispersity values (D = 1.07–1.28) were obtained even at reduced concentrations of (salen)CrIIICl and DMAP. The obtained products were characterized and evaluated by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) Techniques. PMID:28772674

  13. Microbial production of short chain diols.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yudong; Liu, Wei; Zou, Huibin; Cheng, Tao; Tian, Ning; Xian, Mo

    2014-12-10

    Short chain diols (propanediols, butanediols, pentanediols) have been widely used in bulk and fine chemical industries as fuels, solvents, polymer monomers and pharmaceutical precursors. The chemical production of short chain diols from fossil resources has been developed and optimized for decades. Consideration of the exhausting fossil resources and the increasing environment issues, the bio-based process to produce short chain diols is attracting interests. Currently, a variety of biotechnologies have been developed for the microbial production of the short chain diols from renewable feed-stocks. In order to efficiently produce bio-diols, the techniques like metabolically engineering the production strains, optimization of the fermentation processes, and integration of a reasonable downstream recovery processes have been thoroughly investigated. In this review, we summarized the recent development in the whole process of bio-diols production including substrate, microorganism, metabolic pathway, fermentation process and downstream process.

  14. Advantages and limitations of exergy indicators to assess sustainability of bioenergy and biobased materials

    SciTech Connect

    Maes, Dries Van Passel, Steven

    2014-02-15

    Innovative bioenergy projects show a growing diversity in biomass pathways, transformation technologies and end-products, leading to complex new processes. Existing energy-based indicators are not designed to include multiple impacts and are too constrained to assess the sustainability of these processes. Alternatively, indicators based on exergy, a measure of “qualitative energy”, could allow a more holistic view. Exergy is increasingly applied in analyses of both technical and biological processes. But sustainability assessments including exergy calculations, are not very common and are not generally applicable to all types of impact. Hence it is important to frame the use of exergy for inclusion in a sustainability assessment. This paper reviews the potentials and the limitations of exergy calculations, and presents solutions for coherent aggregation with other metrics. The resulting approach is illustrated in a case study. Within the context of sustainability assessment of bioenergy, exergy is a suitable metric for the impacts that require an ecocentric interpretation, and it allows aggregation on a physical basis. The use of exergy is limited to a measurement of material and energy exchanges with the sun, biosphere and lithosphere. Exchanges involving services or human choices are to be measured in different metrics. This combination provides a more inclusive and objective sustainability assessment, especially compared to standard energy- or carbon-based indicators. Future applications of this approach in different situations are required to clarify the potential of exergy-based indicators in a sustainability context. -- Highlights: • Innovative bioenergy projects require more advanced sustainability assessments to incorporate all environmental impacts. • Exergy-based indicators provide solutions for objective and robust measurements. • The use of exergy in a sustainability assessment is limited to material exchanges, excluding exchanges with society

  15. Short and long term behaviour of externally bonded fibre reinforced polymer laminates with bio-based resins for flexural strengthening of concrete beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSwiggan, Ciaran

    The use of bio-based resins in composites for construction is emerging as a way to reduce of embodied energy produced by a structural system. In this study, two types of bio-based resins were explored: an epoxidized pine oil resin blend (EP) and a furfuryl alcohol resin (FA) derived from corn cobs and sugar cane. Nine large-scale reinforced concrete beams strengthened using externally bonded carbon and glass fibre reinforced bio-based polymer (CFRP and GFRP) sheets were tested. The EP resin resulted in a comparable bond strength to conventional epoxy (E) when used in wet layup, with a 7% higher strength for CFRP. The FA resin, on the other hand, resulted in a very weak bond, likely due to concrete alkalinity affecting curing. However, when FA resin was used to produce prefabricated cured CFRP plates which were then bonded to concrete using conventional epoxy paste, it showed an excellent bond strength. The beams achieved an increase in peak load ranging from 18-54% and a 9-46% increase in yielding load, depending on the number of FRP layers and type of fibres and resin. Additionally, 137 concrete prisms with a mid-span half-depth saw cut were used to test CFRP bond durability, and 195 CFRP coupons were used to examine tensile strength durability. Specimens were conditioned in a 3.5% saline solution at 23, 40 or 50°C, for up to 240 days. Reductions in bond strength did not exceed 15%. Bond failure of EP was adhesive with traces of cement paste on CFRP, whereas that of FA was cohesive with a thicker layer of concrete on CFRP, suggesting that the bond between FA and epoxy paste is excellent. EP tension coupons had similar strength and modulus to E resin, whereas FA coupons had a 9% lower strength and 14% higher modulus. After 240 days of exposure, maximum reductions in tensile strength were 8, 19 and 10% for EP, FA and E resins, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was also performed to assess the significance of the reductions observed. High degrees of

  16. Advanced biotechnology: metabolically engineered cells for the bio-based production of chemicals and fuels, materials, and health-care products.

    PubMed

    Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-03-09

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in particular, have become established as important industrial workhorses in biotechnology. Recent years have seen tremendous progress in their advance into tailor-made producers, driven by the upcoming demand for sustainable processes and renewable raw materials. Here, the diversity and complexity of nature is simultaneously a challenge and a benefit. Harnessing biodiversity in the right manner through synergistic progress in systems metabolic engineering and chemical synthesis promises a future innovative bio-economy.

  17. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  18. Fermentative Succinate Production: An Emerging Technology to Replace the Traditional Petrochemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yujin; Zhang, Rubing; Sun, Chao; Cheng, Tao; Liu, Yuhua; Xian, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Succinate is a valuable platform chemical for multiple applications. Confronted with the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, fermentative succinate production from renewable biomass to replace the traditional petrochemical process is receiving an increasing amount of attention. During the past few years, the succinate-producing process using microbial fermentation has been made commercially available by the joint efforts of researchers in different fields. In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. The key limitations and challenges faced in current microbial production systems are also proposed. PMID:24396827

  19. Fermentative succinate production: an emerging technology to replace the traditional petrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yujin; Zhang, Rubing; Sun, Chao; Cheng, Tao; Liu, Yuhua; Xian, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Succinate is a valuable platform chemical for multiple applications. Confronted with the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, fermentative succinate production from renewable biomass to replace the traditional petrochemical process is receiving an increasing amount of attention. During the past few years, the succinate-producing process using microbial fermentation has been made commercially available by the joint efforts of researchers in different fields. In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. The key limitations and challenges faced in current microbial production systems are also proposed.

  20. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  1. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  2. Participatory development and analysis of a fuzzy cognitive map of the establishment of a bio-based economy in the Humber region.

    PubMed

    Penn, Alexandra S; Knight, Christopher J K; Lloyd, David J B; Avitabile, Daniele; Kok, Kasper; Schiller, Frank; Woodward, Amy; Druckman, Angela; Basson, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) is a widely used participatory modelling methodology in which stakeholders collaboratively develop a 'cognitive map' (a weighted, directed graph), representing the perceived causal structure of their system. This can be directly transformed by a workshop facilitator into simple mathematical models to be interrogated by participants by the end of the session. Such simple models provide thinking tools which can be used for discussion and exploration of complex issues, as well as sense checking the implications of suggested causal links. They increase stakeholder motivation and understanding of whole systems approaches, but cannot be separated from an intersubjective participatory context. Standard FCM methodologies make simplifying assumptions, which may strongly influence results, presenting particular challenges and opportunities. We report on a participatory process, involving local companies and organisations, focussing on the development of a bio-based economy in the Humber region. The initial cognitive map generated consisted of factors considered key for the development of the regional bio-based economy and their directional, weighted, causal interconnections. A verification and scenario generation procedure, to check the structure of the map and suggest modifications, was carried out with a second session. Participants agreed on updates to the original map and described two alternate potential causal structures. In a novel analysis all map structures were tested using two standard methodologies usually used independently: linear and sigmoidal FCMs, demonstrating some significantly different results alongside some broad similarities. We suggest a development of FCM methodology involving a sensitivity analysis with different mappings and discuss the use of this technique in the context of our case study. Using the results and analysis of our process, we discuss the limitations and benefits of the FCM methodology in this case and in

  3. Developing new platform chemicals: what is required for a new bio-based molecule to become a platform chemical in the bioeconomy?

    PubMed

    Bomtempo, José-Vitor; Chaves Alves, Flavia; de Almeida Oroski, Fabio

    2017-09-21

    This paper proposes a framework with six dimensions that can be useful for evaluating the potential and the current stage of a bio-based platform chemical. The framework considers the technological and strategic challenges to be fulfilled by a company that intends to lead a platform based on a bio-based chemical. A platform chemical should be an intermediate molecule, with a structure able to generate a number of derivatives, that is produced at a competitive cost, capable of allowing exploitation of the scale and scope economies, and inserted within a complete innovation ecosystem that is able to create value with governance mechanisms that are capable of allowing coordination of the innovation process and facilitation of the value capture by the focal company leading the platform, in our case the producer of the platform molecule. Based on these six dimensions, three potential platform chemicals - succinic acid, butanol and farnesene - are compared and discussed. It is possible to identify important differences concerning the technological dimensions and the strategic dimensions as well. Two of the molecules - farnesene and succinic acid - adhere to most of the conditions required to structure a platform chemical. However, the innovation ecosystem is not complete and the governance mechanisms are still under development, so it is not clear if they will be capable of allowing a favorable position for value capture by the platform leader. Butanol structuring for a platform does not seem promising. The potential of the molecule is apparently not high and the strategic initiatives are in general not focused on innovation ecosystem structuring.

  4. Participatory Development and Analysis of a Fuzzy Cognitive Map of the Establishment of a Bio-Based Economy in the Humber Region

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Alexandra S.; Knight, Christopher J. K.; Lloyd, David J. B.; Avitabile, Daniele; Kok, Kasper; Schiller, Frank; Woodward, Amy; Druckman, Angela; Basson, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) is a widely used participatory modelling methodology in which stakeholders collaboratively develop a ‘cognitive map’ (a weighted, directed graph), representing the perceived causal structure of their system. This can be directly transformed by a workshop facilitator into simple mathematical models to be interrogated by participants by the end of the session. Such simple models provide thinking tools which can be used for discussion and exploration of complex issues, as well as sense checking the implications of suggested causal links. They increase stakeholder motivation and understanding of whole systems approaches, but cannot be separated from an intersubjective participatory context. Standard FCM methodologies make simplifying assumptions, which may strongly influence results, presenting particular challenges and opportunities. We report on a participatory process, involving local companies and organisations, focussing on the development of a bio-based economy in the Humber region. The initial cognitive map generated consisted of factors considered key for the development of the regional bio-based economy and their directional, weighted, causal interconnections. A verification and scenario generation procedure, to check the structure of the map and suggest modifications, was carried out with a second session. Participants agreed on updates to the original map and described two alternate potential causal structures. In a novel analysis all map structures were tested using two standard methodologies usually used independently: linear and sigmoidal FCMs, demonstrating some significantly different results alongside some broad similarities. We suggest a development of FCM methodology involving a sensitivity analysis with different mappings and discuss the use of this technique in the context of our case study. Using the results and analysis of our process, we discuss the limitations and benefits of the FCM methodology in this case

  5. Microwave pyrolysis of rice straw: products, mechanism, and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Fong; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2013-08-01

    Rice straw is an abundant resource for the production of biofuels and bio-based products. How to convert the recalcitrant lignocellulose effectually is a critical issue. The objective of this study was to investigate the products, mechanism, and kinetics of rice straw pyrolysis by using microwave heating. The highest energy densification ratio of solid residues was achieved at the microwave power level of 300 W. The atomic H/C and O/C ratios of solid residues were much lower than those of rice straw. The primary components of gaseous product were CO, H2, CO2, and CH4, whose molecular fractions were 57%, 21%, 14%, and 8%, respectively. The more gaseous product and the less solid residues were obtained at higher microwave power levels, while the liquid production remained the same and showed a maximum of about 50 wt.%. The kinetic parameters of rice straw pyrolysis were increased with increasing microwave power level.

  6. 7 CFR 2902.3 - Applicability to Federal procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL...) Procuring items composed of highest percentage of biobased products. FSRIA section 9002(c)(1) requires procuring agencies to procure designated items composed of the highest percentage of biobased...

  7. Central metabolic nodes for diverse biochemical production.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Lauren T; Alper, Hal S

    2016-12-01

    Central carbon metabolism is conserved among all organisms for cellular function and energy generation. The connectivity of this metabolic map gives rises to key metabolite nodes. Five of these nodes in particular, pyruvate, citric acid, tyrosine and aspartate, acetyl-CoA, serve as critical starting points for the generation of a broad class of relevant chemical molecules with ranging applications from fuels, pharmaceuticals and polymer precursors. This review highlights recent progress in converting these metabolite nodes into valuable products. In particular, acetyl-CoA, the most well-connected node, serves as the building block for several classes of molecules including fatty acids and terpenes. Systematic metabolic engineering efforts focused on these metabolic building blocks has enabled the production of industrially-relevant, biobased compounds.

  8. Monomer design strategies to create natural product-based polymer materials.

    PubMed

    Kristufek, Samantha L; Wacker, Kevin T; Tsao, Yi-Yun Timothy; Su, Lu; Wooley, Karen L

    2017-04-05

    Covering: 2010-Aug. 2016In an effort towards enhancing function and sustainability, natural products have become of interest in the field of polymer chemistry. This review details the blending of chemistries developed through synthetic organic chemistry and polymer chemistry. Through synthetic organic chemical transformations, such as functional group interconversion, a protection/deprotection series, or installation of a functional group, various designs towards novel, synthetic, bio-based polymer systems are described. This review covers several classifications of natural products - oils and fatty acids, terpenes, lignin, and sugar derivatives - focusing on exploring monomers prepared by one or more synthetic steps.

  9. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective production. Here we discuss how the development of computational algorithms, novel modules and methods, omics-based techniques combined with modeling refinement are enabling reduction in development time and thus advance the field of industrial biotechnology. We further discuss how recent technological developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  10. Recent trends in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of advanced biofuels.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Seungwoo; Kim, Hye Mi; Gustavsson, Martin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-12-01

    As climate change has become one of the major global risks, our heavy dependence on petroleum-derived fuels has received much public attention. To solve such problems, production of sustainable fuels has been intensively studied over the past years. Thanks to recent advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering technologies, bio-based platforms for advanced biofuels production have been developed using various microorganisms. The strategies for production of advanced biofuels have converged upon four major metabolic routes: the 2-ketoacid pathway, the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway, the isoprenoid pathway, and the reverse β-oxidation pathway. Additionally, the polyketide synthesis pathway has recently been attracting interest as a promising alternative biofuel production route. In this article, recent trends in advanced biofuels production are reviewed by categorizing them into three types of advanced biofuels: alcohols, biodiesel and jet fuel, and gasoline. Focus is given on the strategies of employing synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for the development of microbial strains producing advanced fuels. Finally, the prospects for future advances needed to achieve much more efficient bio-based production of advanced biofuels are discussed, focusing on designing advanced biofuel production pathways coupled with screening, modifying, and creating novel enzymes.

  11. Improving succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from raw industrial carob pods.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-10-01

    Carob pods are an inexpensive by-product of locust bean gum industry that can be used as renewable feedstock for bio-based succinic acid. Here, for the first time, unprocessed raw carob pods were used to extract a highly enriched sugar solution, afterwards used as substrate to produce succinic acid using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Batch fermentations containing 30g/L sugars resulted in a production rate of 1.67gSA/L.h and a yield of 0.39gSA/g sugars. Taking advantage of A. succinogenes' metabolism, uncoupling cell growth from succinic acid production, a fed-batch mode was implemented to increase succinic acid yield and reduce by-products formation. This strategy resulted in a succinic acid yield of 0.94gSA/g sugars, the highest yield reported in the literature for fed-batch and continuous experiments, while maintaining by-products at residual values. Results demonstrate that raw carob pods are a highly efficient feedstock for bio-based succinic acid production.

  12. Toward biotechnological production of adipic acid and precursors from biorenewables.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Spelberg, Markus; Bott, Michael

    2013-08-20

    Adipic acid is the most important commercial aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in the chemical industry and is primarily used for the production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. The current adipic acid market volume is about 2.6 million tons/y and the average annual demand growth rate forecast to stay at 3-3.5% worldwide. Hitherto, the industrial production of adipic acid is carried out by petroleum-based chemo-catalytic processes from non-renewable fossil fuels. However, in the past years, efforts were made to find alternative routes for adipic acid production from renewable carbon sources by biotechnological processes. Here we review the approaches and the progress made toward bio-based production of adipic acid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgård, Markus J

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains for biofuels and -chemicals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. A bio-based, facile approach for the preparation of covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes aqueous suspensions and their potential as heat transfer fluids.

    PubMed

    Sadri, Rad; Hosseini, Maryam; Kazi, S N; Bagheri, Samira; Zubir, Nashrul; Solangi, K H; Zaharinie, Tuan; Badarudin, A

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we propose an innovative, bio-based, environmentally friendly approach for the covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes using clove buds. This approach is innovative because we do not use toxic and hazardous acids which are typically used in common carbon nanomaterial functionalization procedures. The MWCNTs are functionalized in one pot using a free radical grafting reaction. The clove-functionalized MWCNTs (CMWCNTs) are then dispersed in distilled water (DI water), producing a highly stable CMWCNT aqueous suspension. The CMWCNTs are characterized using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrostatic interactions between the CMWCNT colloidal particles in DI water are verified via zeta potential measurements. UV-vis spectroscopy is also used to examine the stability of the CMWCNTs in the base fluid. The thermo-physical properties of the CMWCNT nano-fluids are examined experimentally and indeed, this nano-fluid shows remarkably improved thermo-physical properties, indicating its superb potential for various thermal applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of bio-based helical soft-core particles by way of Ni-Fe alloy electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Mingming; Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Wenqiang; Yuan, Liming

    2011-12-01

    Ni-Fe alloy electroplating was used as a bio-limited forming process to fabricate bio-based helical soft-core ferromagnetic particles, and a low frequency vibration device was applied to the cathode to avoid microorganism (Spirulina platens) cells adhesion to the copper net during the course of plating. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The complex permittivity and permeability of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells before and after heat treatment were measured and investigated by a vector network analyzer. The results show that the Spirulina cells after plating keep their initial helical shape, and applying low frequency vibration to the copper net cathode in the plating process can effectively prevent agglomeration and intertwinement of the Spirulina cells. The microwave absorbing and electromagnetic properties of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles with heat treatment are superior to those samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles without heat treatment.

  16. A One-Pot Cascade Reaction Combining an Encapsulated Decarboxylase with a Metathesis Catalyst for the Synthesis of Bio-Based Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Gómez Baraibar, Álvaro; Reichert, Dennis; Mügge, Carolin; Seger, Svenja; Gröger, Harald; Kourist, Robert

    2016-11-14

    The combination of enzymes with traditional chemical catalysts unifies the high selectivity of the former with the versatility of the latter. A major challenge of this approach is the difference in the optimal reaction conditions for each catalyst type. In this work, we combined a cofactor-free decarboxylase with a ruthenium metathesis catalyst to produce high-value antioxidants from bio-based precursors. As suitable ruthenium catalysts did not show satisfactory activity under aqueous conditions, the reaction required the use of an organic solvent, which in turn significantly reduced enzyme activity. Upon encapsulation of the decarboxylase in a cryogel, the decarboxylation could be conducted in an organic solvent, and the recovery of the enzyme after the reaction was facilitated. After an intermediate drying step, the subsequent metathesis in pure organic solvent proved to be straightforward. The synthetic utility of the cascade was demonstrated by the synthesis of the antioxidant 4,4'-dihydroxystilbene in an overall yield of 90 %. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Biobased polymer composites derived from corn stover and feather meals as double-coating materials for controlled-release and water-retention urea fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuechao; Tong, Zhaohui; Geng, Yuqing; Li, Yuncong; Zhang, Min

    2013-08-28

    In this paper, we synthesized a biobased polyurethane using liquefied corn stover, isocyanate, and diethylenetriamine. The synthesized polyurethane was used as a coating material to control nitrogen (N) release from polymer-coated urea. A novel superabsorbent composite was also formulated from chicken feather protein (CFP), acrylic acid, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and used as an outer coating material for water retention. We studied the N release characteristics and water-retention capability of the double-layer polymer-coated urea (DPCU) applied in both water and soils. The ear yields, dry matter accumulation, total N use efficiency and N leaching from a sweet corn soil-plant system under two different irrigation regimes were also investigated. Comparison of DPCU treatments with conventional urea fertilizer revealed that DPCU treatments reduced the N release rate and improved water retention capability. Evaluation of soil and plant characteristics within the soil-plant system revealed that DPCU application effectively reduced N leaching loss, improved total N use efficiency, and increased soil water retention capability.

  18. Supertoughened Biobased Poly(lactic acid)-Epoxidized Natural Rubber Thermoplastic Vulcanizates: Fabrication, Co-continuous Phase Structure, Interfacial in Situ Compatibilization, and Toughening Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youhong; Chen, Kunling; Xu, Chuanhui; Chen, Yukun

    2015-09-10

    In the presence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP), biobased thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) composed of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) were prepared through dynamic vulcanization. Interfacial in situ compatibilization between PLA and ENR phases was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A novel "sea-sea" co-continuous phase in the PLA/ENR TPVs was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differed from the typical "sea-island" morphology that cross-linked rubber particles dispersed in plastic matrix. A sharp, brittle-ductile transition occurred with 40 wt % of ENR, showing a significantly improved impact strength of 47 kJ/m(2), nearly 15 times that of the neat PLA and 2.6 times that of the simple blend with the same PLA/ENR ratio. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results suggested that a certain amount of DCP was consumed in the PLA phase, causing a slight cross-linking or branching of PLA molecules. the effects of various DCP contents on the impact property were investigated. The toughening mechanism under impact testing was researched, and the influence factors for toughening were discussed.

  19. Thermal Annealing to Modulate the Shape Memory Behavior of a Biobased and Biocompatible Triblock Copolymer Scaffold in the Human Body Temperature Range.

    PubMed

    Merlettini, Andrea; Gigli, Matteo; Ramella, Martina; Gualandi, Chiara; Soccio, Michelina; Boccafoschi, Francesca; Munari, Andrea; Lotti, Nadia; Focarete, Maria Letizia

    2017-08-14

    A biodegradable and biocompatible electrospun scaffold with shape memory behavior in the physiological temperature range is here presented. It was obtained starting from a specifically designed, biobased PLLA-based triblock copolymer, where the central block is poly(propylene azelate-co-propylene sebacate) (P(PAz60PSeb40)) random copolymer. Shape memory properties are determined by the contemporary presence of the low melting crystals of the P(PAz60PSeb40) block, acting as switching segment, and of the high melting crystal phase of PLLA blocks, acting as physical network. It is demonstrated that a straightforward annealing process applied to the crystal phase of the switching element gives the possibility to tune the shape recovery temperature from about 25 to 50 °C, without the need of varying the copolymer's chemical structure. The thermal annealing approach here presented can be thus considered a powerful strategy for "ad hoc" programming the same material for applications requiring different recovery temperatures. Fibroblast culture experiments demonstrated scaffold biocompatibility.

  20. 7 CFR 2902.10 - Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requesting that manufacturers of these qualifying biobased products provide information for the BioPreferred... recovered material, in addition to biobased ingredients, and performance standards against which the...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.10 - Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requesting that manufacturers of these qualifying biobased products provide information for the BioPreferred... recovered material, in addition to biobased ingredients, and performance standards against which the...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.10 - Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requesting that manufacturers of these qualifying biobased products provide information for the BioPreferred... recovered material, in addition to biobased ingredients, and performance standards against which the...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.10 - Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requesting that manufacturers of these qualifying biobased products provide information for the BioPreferred... recovered material, in addition to biobased ingredients, and performance standards against which the...

  4. 7 CFR 2902.10 - Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requesting that manufacturers of these qualifying biobased products provide information for the BioPreferred... recovered material, in addition to biobased ingredients, and performance standards against which the...

  5. Heterologous expression of Mus musculus immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1) in Escherichia coli results in itaconate production.

    PubMed

    Vuoristo, Kiira S; Mars, Astrid E; van Loon, Stijn; Orsi, Enrico; Eggink, Gerrit; Sanders, Johan P M; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2015-01-01

    Itaconic acid, a C5-dicarboxylic acid, is a potential biobased building block for the polymer industry. It is obtained from the citric acid cycle by decarboxylation of cis-aconitic acid. This reaction is catalyzed by CadA in the native itaconic acid producer Aspergillus terreus. Recently, another enzyme encoded by the mammalian immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1), was found to decarboxylate cis-aconitate to itaconate in vitro. We show that heterologous expression of irg1 enabled itaconate production in Escherichia coli with production titres up to 560 mg/L.

  6. Heterologous expression of Mus musculus immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1) in Escherichia coli results in itaconate production

    PubMed Central

    Vuoristo, Kiira S.; Mars, Astrid E.; van Loon, Stijn; Orsi, Enrico; Eggink, Gerrit; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2015-01-01

    Itaconic acid, a C5-dicarboxylic acid, is a potential biobased building block for the polymer industry. It is obtained from the citric acid cycle by decarboxylation of cis-aconitic acid. This reaction is catalyzed by CadA in the native itaconic acid producer Aspergillus terreus. Recently, another enzyme encoded by the mammalian immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1), was found to decarboxylate cis-aconitate to itaconate in vitro. We show that heterologous expression of irg1 enabled itaconate production in Escherichia coli with production titres up to 560 mg/L. PMID:26347730

  7. Scalable production of mechanically tunable block polymers from sugar

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Mingyong; Schneiderman, Deborah K.; Bates, Frank S.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Zhang, Kechun

    2014-01-01

    Development of sustainable and biodegradable materials is essential for future growth of the chemical industry. For a renewable product to be commercially competitive, it must be economically viable on an industrial scale and possess properties akin or superior to existing petroleum-derived analogs. Few biobased polymers have met this formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we describe an efficient biobased route to the branched lactone, β-methyl-δ-valerolactone (βMδVL), which can be transformed into a rubbery (i.e., low glass transition temperature) polymer. We further demonstrate that block copolymerization of βMδVL and lactide leads to a new class of high-performance polyesters with tunable mechanical properties. Key features of this work include the creation of a total biosynthetic route to produce βMδVL, an efficient semisynthetic approach that employs high-yielding chemical reactions to transform mevalonate to βMδVL, and the use of controlled polymerization techniques to produce well-defined PLA–PβMδVL–PLA triblock polymers, where PLA stands for poly(lactide). This comprehensive strategy offers an economically viable approach to sustainable plastics and elastomers for a broad range of applications. PMID:24912182

  8. Scalable production of mechanically tunable block polymers from sugar.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Mingyong; Schneiderman, Deborah K; Bates, Frank S; Hillmyer, Marc A; Zhang, Kechun

    2014-06-10

    Development of sustainable and biodegradable materials is essential for future growth of the chemical industry. For a renewable product to be commercially competitive, it must be economically viable on an industrial scale and possess properties akin or superior to existing petroleum-derived analogs. Few biobased polymers have met this formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we describe an efficient biobased route to the branched lactone, β-methyl-δ-valerolactone (βMδVL), which can be transformed into a rubbery (i.e., low glass transition temperature) polymer. We further demonstrate that block copolymerization of βMδVL and lactide leads to a new class of high-performance polyesters with tunable mechanical properties. Key features of this work include the creation of a total biosynthetic route to produce βMδVL, an efficient semisynthetic approach that employs high-yielding chemical reactions to transform mevalonate to βMδVL, and the use of controlled polymerization techniques to produce well-defined PLA-PβMδVL-PLA triblock polymers, where PLA stands for poly(lactide). This comprehensive strategy offers an economically viable approach to sustainable plastics and elastomers for a broad range of applications.

  9. Production of bio-based phenolic resin and activated carbon from bio-oil and biochar derived from fast pyrolysis of palm kernel shells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gyung-Goo; Oh, Seung-Jin; Lee, Soon-Jang; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2015-02-01

    A fraction of palm kernel shells (PKS) was pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor. The experiments were performed in a temperature range of 479-555 °C to produce bio-oil, biochar, and gas. All the bio-oils were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by GC-FID and GC-MS. The maximum content of phenolic compounds in the bio-oil was 24.8 wt.% at ∼500 °C. The maximum phenol content in the bio-oil, as determined by the external standard method, was 8.1 wt.%. A bio-oil derived from the pyrolysis of PKS was used in the synthesis of phenolic resin, showing that the bio-oil could substitute for fossil phenol up to 25 wt.%. The biochar was activated using CO2 at a final activation temperature of 900 °C with different activation time (1-3 h) to produce activated carbon. Activated carbons produced were microporous, and the maximum surface area of the activated carbons produced was 807 m(2)/g.

  10. The biosynthesis of cutin and suberin as an alternative source of enzymes for the production of bio-based chemicals and materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred

    2009-06-01

    Oxygenated fatty acids such as ricinoleic acid and vernolic acid can serve in the industry as synthons for the synthesis of a wide range of chemicals and polymers traditionally produced by chemical conversion of petroleum derivatives. Oxygenated fatty acids can also be useful to synthesize specialty chemicals such as cosmetics and aromas. There is thus a strong interest in producing these fatty acids in seed oils (triacylglycerols) of crop species. In the last 15 years or so, much effort has been devoted to isolate key genes encoding proteins involved in the synthesis of oxygenated fatty acids and to express them in the seeds of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana or crop species. An often overlooked but rich source of enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of oxygenated fatty acids and their esterification to glycerol is the biosynthetic pathways of the plant lipid polyesters cutin and suberin. These protective polymers found in specific tissues of all higher plants are composed of a wide variety of oxygenated fatty acids, many of which have not been reported in seed oils (e.g. saturated omega-hydroxy fatty acids and alpha,omega-diacids). The purpose of this mini-review is to give an overview of the recent advances in the biosynthesis of cutin and suberin and discuss their potential utility in producing specific oxygenated fatty acids for specialty chemicals. Special emphasis is given to the role played by specific acyltransferases and P450 fatty acid oxidases. The use of plant surfaces as possible sinks for the accumulation of high value-added lipids is also highlighted.

  11. Confluence of structural and chemical biology: plant polyketide synthases as biocatalysts for a bio-based future.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Charles; Vickery, Christopher R; Burkart, Michael D; Noel, Joseph P

    2013-06-01

    Type III plant polyketide synthases (PKSs) biosynthesize a dazzling array of polyphenolic products that serve important roles in both plant and human health. Recent advances in structural characterization of these enzymes and new tools from the field of chemical biology have facilitated exquisite probing of plant PKS iterative catalysis. These tools have also been used to exploit type III PKSs as biocatalysts to generate new chemicals. Going forward, chemical, structural and biochemical analyses will provide an atomic resolution understanding of plant PKSs and will serve as a springboard for bioengineering and scalable production of valuable molecules in vitro, by fermentation and in planta.

  12. Poly(lactic acid)-Mass production, processing, industrial applications, and end of life.

    PubMed

    Castro-Aguirre, E; Iñiguez-Franco, F; Samsudin, H; Fang, X; Auras, R

    2016-12-15

    Global awareness of material sustainability has increased the demand for bio-based polymers like poly(lactic acid) (PLA), which are seen as a desirable alternative to fossil-based polymers because they have less environmental impact. PLA is an aliphatic polyester, primarily produced by industrial polycondensation of lactic acid and/or ring-opening polymerization of lactide. Melt processing is the main technique used for mass production of PLA products for the medical, textile, plasticulture, and packaging industries. To fulfill additional desirable product properties and extend product use, PLA has been blended with other resins or compounded with different fillers such as fibers, and micro- and nanoparticles. This paper presents a review of the current status of PLA mass production, processing techniques and current applications, and also covers the methods to tailor PLA properties, the main PLA degradation reactions, PLA products' end-of-life scenarios and the environmental footprint of this unique polymer.

  13. A biobased nitrogen-containing lubricant additive synthesized from expoxidized methyl oleate using an ionic liquid catalyst

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Utilizing an epoxidation route, an aniline adduct was synthesized from methyl oleate. An ionic liquid, 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, was found to be the key for this catalytic system. The reaction produces a product with the aniline incorporated into the fatty chain, at the 9(10) position, ...

  14. Biobased Carbon Fibers and Thermosetting Resins for Use in DOD Composites Applications: SERDP WP 1758 Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    thermosets ..........................................................................................135 Fig. 116 Kraft lignin pyrolysis products...at elevated temperatures (250–450 °C) and pressures (1–20 atm) for durations ranging from 10 s to a few hours.26 Hydrogen peroxide has been...too high a concentration, osmotic pressure restrictions overwhelm microbial capability, prevent growth, and can even be lethal to sensitive organisms

  15. Termite resistance and mechanical properties of biobased composition boards made from cotton gin byproducts and guayule bagasse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vast quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB), also known as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste, are being produced across the cotton belt of the United States annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production, also known as guayule bagasse (GB), is expected to increase as this in...

  16. Highly transparent and flexible bio-based polyimide/TiO2 and ZrO2 hybrid films with tunable refractive index, Abbe number, and memory properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tzu-Tien; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tateyama, Seiji; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system, the hybrid materials have a lower LUMO energy level which could facilitate and stabilize the charge transfer complex. Therefore, memory devices derived from these PI hybrid films exhibited tunable memory properties from DRAM, SRAM, to WORM with a different TiO2 or ZrO2 content from 0 wt% to 50 wt% with a high ON/OFF ratio (108). In addition, the different energy levels of TiO2 and ZrO2 revealed specifically unique memory characteristics, implying the potential application of the prepared 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films in highly transparent memory devices.The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system

  17. Isolation and characterization of a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment from total petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sediments: potential candidates for bioaugmentation in bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Simona; Siracusa, Giovanna; Becarelli, Simone; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Seven hydrocarbonoclastic new bacterial isolates were isolated from dredged sediments of a river estuary in Italy. The sediments were contaminated by shipyard activities since decades, mainly ascribable to the exploitation of diesel oil as the fuel for recreational and commercial navigation of watercrafts. The bacterial isolates were able to utilize diesel oil as sole carbon source. Their metabolic capacities were evaluated by GC-MS analysis, with reference to the depletion of both the normal and branched alkanes, the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester and the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. They were taxonomically identified as different species of Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas spp. by the combination of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis. The metabolic activities of interest were analyzed both in relation to the single bacterial strains and to the combination of the latter as a multibacterial species system. After 6 days of incubation in mineral medium with diesel oil as sole carbon source, the Stenotrophomonas sp. M1 strain depleted 43-46 % of Cn-alkane from C28 up to C30, 70 % of the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester and the 46 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. On the other hand, the Pseudomonas sp. NM1 strain depleted the 76 % of the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester, the 50 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. The bacterial multispecies system was able to completely deplete Cn-alkane from C28 up to C30 and to deplete the 95 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. The isolates, either as single strains and as a bacterial multispecies system, were proposed as candidates for bioaugmentation in bio-based processes for the decontamination of dredged sediments.

  18. Highly transparent and flexible bio-based polyimide/TiO2 and ZrO2 hybrid films with tunable refractive index, Abbe number, and memory properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Tien; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tateyama, Seiji; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2016-07-07

    The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system, the hybrid materials have a lower LUMO energy level which could facilitate and stabilize the charge transfer complex. Therefore, memory devices derived from these PI hybrid films exhibited tunable memory properties from DRAM, SRAM, to WORM with a different TiO2 or ZrO2 content from 0 wt% to 50 wt% with a high ON/OFF ratio (10(8)). In addition, the different energy levels of TiO2 and ZrO2 revealed specifically unique memory characteristics, implying the potential application of the prepared 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films in highly transparent memory devices.

  19. Enzymatic Specific Production and Chemical Functionalization of Phenylpropanone Platform Monomers from Lignin.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yukari; Hasegawa, Ryoichi; Kurosawa, Kanako; Maeda, Allyn H; Koizumi, Toshio; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitomi; Qu, Chen; Saito, Kaori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hatada, Yuji

    2017-01-20

    Enzymatic catalysis is an ecofriendly strategy for the production of high-value low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds from lignin. Although well-definable aromatic monomers have been obtained from synthetic lignin-model dimers, enzymatic-selective synthesis of platform monomers from natural lignin has not been accomplished. In this study, we successfully achieved highly specific synthesis of aromatic monomers with a phenylpropane structure directly from natural lignin using a cascade reaction of β-O-4-cleaving bacterial enzymes in one pot. Guaiacylhydroxylpropanone (GHP) and the GHP/syringylhydroxylpropanone (SHP) mixture are exclusive monomers from lignin isolated from softwood (Cryptomeria japonica) and hardwood (Eucalyptus globulus). The intermediate products in the enzymatic reactions show the capacity to accommodate highly heterologous substrates at the substrate-binding sites of the enzymes. To demonstrate the applicability of GHP as a platform chemical for bio-based industries, we chemically generate value-added GHP derivatives for bio-based polymers. Together with these chemical conversions for the valorization of lignin-derived phenylpropanone monomers, the specific and enzymatic production of the monomers directly from natural lignin is expected to provide a new stream in "white biotechnology" for sustainable biorefineries.

  20. A critical review of algal biomass: A versatile platform of bio-based polyesters from renewable resources.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Aqdas; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Ali, Muhammad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Algal biomass is an excellent renewable resource for the production of polymers and other products due to their higher growth rate, high photosynthetic efficiency, great potential for carbon dioxide fixation, low percentage of lignin and high amount of carbohydrates. Algae contain unique metabolites which are transformed into monomers suitable for development of novel polyesters. This review article mainly focuses on algal bio-refinery concept for polyester synthesis and on exploitation of algae-based biodegradable polyester blends and composites in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery system. Algae-derived hybrid polyester scaffolds are extensively used for bone, cartilage, cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration due to their biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. Microcapsules and microspheres of algae-derived polyesters have been used for controlled and continuous release of several pharmaceutical agents and macromolecules to produce humoral and cellular immunity with efficient intracellular delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biobased Carbon Fibers and High-Performance Thermosetting Resins for Use in U.S. Department of Defense Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    important aroma compound that is used primarily by flavor and fragrance companies, chocolate and ice cream producers, and pharmaceutical manufacturers...to dark brown oil. 1H NMR analysis showed that the degree of (meth)acrylation was 1.5–1.8 (meth)acrylate groups per molecule. Synthesis of BIO-X...sulfate, and condensed under reduced pressure. The product appeared as a dark brown tacky gel. FTIR analysis indicated the presence of –OH

  2. 7 CFR 2902.11 - Roof coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... single-coat monolith coating system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content is 20... content product. Qualifying biobased products that fall under this item may, in some cases, overlap with... determining whether or not a qualifying biobased product overlaps with recovered content roofing materials and...

  3. 7 CFR 2902.11 - Roof coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... single-coat monolith coating system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content is 20... content product. Qualifying biobased products that fall under this item may, in some cases, overlap with... determining whether or not a qualifying biobased product overlaps with recovered content roofing materials and...

  4. Fifth International Poplar Symposium: 'Poplars and willows: from research models to multipurpose trees for a bio-based society'.

    PubMed

    Tognetti, Roberto; Massacci, Angelo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia

    2011-12-01

    Carefully managed tree plantations offer an opportunity for sustainable biomass production. In recent years, the responses of the Salicaceae to environmental constraints have increasingly been investigated at different levels of biological integration, giving rise to a physiological approach to the function of trees in environmental restoration and monitoring. Significant progress has been achieved by the poplar and willow community in understanding targeted characteristics of complex tree stress responses. The Fifth International Poplar Symposium brought together experts in this area, with the main objective being to improve, coordinate and communicate existing national research on the biological and environmental dimension of multifunctional poplar and willow plantations. The secondary objective was to develop a network of research scientists and extension workers to provide scientific support for subjects interested in using fast-growing poplar and willow species for tree-related environmental projects. The ultimate goal was to build up services for the multipurpose tree plantation network on local-level management in order to obtain maximized benefits from tree crops. The purpose was also to maximize the synergy between local knowledge and global-level processes that require information on multipurpose tree crop production.

  5. Microbial production of lactate-containing polyesters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-01-01

    Due to our increasing concerns on environmental problems and limited fossil resources, biobased production of chemicals and materials through biorefinery has been attracting much attention. Optimization of the metabolic performance of microorganisms, the key biocatalysts for the efficient production of the desired target bioproducts, has been achieved by metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering allowed more efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of microbial polyesters. More recently, non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer have also been produced by one-step fermentation of engineered bacteria. Systems metabolic engineering integrating traditional metabolic engineering with systems biology, synthetic biology, protein/enzyme engineering through directed evolution and structural design, and evolutionary engineering, enabled microorganisms to efficiently produce natural and non-natural products. Here, we review the strategies for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the in vivo biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters and for the optimization of whole cell metabolism to efficiently produce lactate-containing polyesters. Also, major problems to be solved to further enhance the production of lactate-containing polyesters are discussed. PMID:23718266

  6. Integrated techno-economic and environmental analysis of butadiene production from biomass.

    PubMed

    Farzad, Somayeh; Mandegari, Mohsen Ali; Görgens, Johann F

    2017-09-01

    In this study, lignocellulose biorefineries annexed to a typical sugar mill were investigated to produce either ethanol (EtOH) or 1,3-butadiene (BD), utilizing bagasse and trash as feedstock. Aspen simulation of the scenarios were developed and evaluated in terms of economic and environmental performance. The minimum selling prices (MSPs) for bio-based BD and EtOH production were 2.9-3.3 and 1.26-1.38-fold higher than market prices, respectively. Based on the sensitivity analysis results, capital investment, Internal Rate of Return and extension of annual operating time had the greatest impact on the MSP. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that EtOH and BD productions could be profitable if the average of ten-year historical price increases by 1.05 and 1.9-fold, respectively. The fossil-based route was found inferior to bio-based pathway across all investigated environmental impact categories, due to burdens associated with oil extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological materials: Part A. tuning LCST of raft copolymers and gold/copolymer hybrid nanoparticles and Part B. Biobased nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ning

    The research described in this dissertation is comprised of two major parts. The first part studied the effects of asymmetric amphiphilic end groups on the thermo-response of diblock copolymers of (oligo/di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (meth)acrylates, OEGA/DEGMA) and the hybrid nanoparticles of these copolymers with a gold nanoparticle core. Placing the more hydrophilic end group on the more hydrophilic block significantly increased the cloud point compared to a similar copolymer composition with the end group placement reversed. For a given composition, the cloud point was shifted by as much as 28 °C depending on the placement of end groups. This is a much stronger effect than either changing the hydrophilic/hydrophobic block ratio or replacing the hydrophilic acrylate monomer with the equivalent methacrylate monomer. The temperature range of the coil-globule transition was also altered. Binding these diblock copolymers to a gold core decreased the cloud point by 5-15 °C and narrowed the temperature range of the coil-globule transition. The effects were more pronounced when the gold core was bound to the less hydrophilic block. Given the limited numbers of monomers that are approved safe for in vivo use, employing amphiphilic end group placement is a useful tool to tune a thermo-response without otherwise changing the copolymer composition. The second part of the dissertation investigated the production of value-added nanomaterials from two biorefinery "wastes": lignin and peptidoglycan. Different solvents and spinning methods (melt-, wet-, and electro-spinning) were tested to make lignin/cellulose blended and carbonized fibers. Only electro-spinning yielded fibers having a small enough diameter for efficient carbonization (≤ 5-10 μm), but it was concluded that cellulose was not a suitable binder. Cellulose lignin fibers before carbonization showed up to 90% decrease in moisture uptake compared to pure cellulose. Peptidoglycan (a bacterial cell wall

  8. Anionic Extraction for Efficient Recovery of Biobased 2,3-Butanediol-A Platform for Bulk and Fine Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Drabo, Peter; Tiso, Till; Heyman, Benedikt; Sarikaya, Eda; Gaspar, Paula; Förster, Jochen; Büchs, Jochen; Blank, Lars Mathias; Delidovich, Irina

    2017-08-24

    2,3-Butanediol (BDO) presents a promising platform molecule for the synthesis of basic and fine chemicals. Biotechnological production of BDO from renewable resources with living microbes enables high concentrations in the fermentation broth. The recovery of high-boiling BDO from an aqueous fermentation broth presents a subsequent challenge. A method is proposed for BDO isolation based on reversible complexation with phenylboronate in an anionic complex. BDO can be recovered by back-extraction into an acidic solution. The composition of the extracted species was determined by NMR spectroscopy, MS, and GC-MS methods. The conditions of extraction and back-extraction were optimized by using commercial BDO and finally applied to different fermentation broths. Up to 72-93 % BDO can be extracted and up to 80-90 % can be back-extracted under the optimized conditions. Purified bio-BDO was used in the presence of sulfuric acid for the synthesis of methyl ethyl ketone, an established organic solvent and discussed tailor-made biofuel. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Abhari, Mr. Ramin; Shukla, Dr. Nitin; Kosny, Dr. Jan

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  10. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.

  11. Microbial production of specialty organic acids from renewable and waste materials.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of organic acids has become a fast-moving field due to the increasing role of these compounds as platform chemicals. In recent years, the portfolio of specialty fermentation-derived carboxylic acids has increased considerably, including the production of glyceric, glucaric, succinic, butyric, xylonic, fumaric, malic, itaconic, lactobionic, propionic and adipic acid through innovative fermentation strategies. This review summarizes recent trends in the use of novel microbial platforms as well as renewable and waste materials for efficient and cost-effective bio-based production of emerging high-value organic acids. Advances in the development of robust and efficient microbial bioprocesses for producing carboxylic acids from low-cost feedstocks are also discussed. The industrial market scenario is also reviewed, including the latest information on the stage of development for producing these emerging bio-products via large-scale fermentation.

  12. Emerging biotechnologies for production of itaconic acid and its applications as a platform chemical.

    PubMed

    Saha, Badal C

    2017-02-01

    Recently, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. It is produced industrially (>80 g L(-1)) from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. The titer is low compared with citric acid production (>200 g L(-1)). This review summarizes the latest progress on enhancing the yield and productivity of IA production. IA biosynthesis involves the decarboxylation of the TCA cycle intermediate cis-aconitate through the action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CAD) enzyme encoded by the CadA gene in A. terreus. A number of recombinant microorganisms have been developed in an effort to overproduce it. IA is used as a monomer for production of superabsorbent polymer, resins, plastics, paints, and synthetic fibers. Its applications as a platform chemical are highlighted. It has a strong potential to replace petroleum-based methylacrylic acid in industry which will create a huge market for IA.

  13. Systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of the carbon-5 platform chemicals 5-aminovalerate and glutarate.

    PubMed

    Rohles, Christina Maria; Gießelmann, Gideon; Kohlstedt, Michael; Wittmann, Christoph; Becker, Judith

    2016-09-13

    The steadily growing world population and our ever luxurious life style, along with the simultaneously decreasing fossil resources has confronted modern society with the issue and need of finding renewable routes to accommodate for our demands. Shifting the production pipeline from raw oil to biomass requires efficient processes for numerous platform chemicals being produced with high yield, high titer and high productivity. In the present work, we established a de novo bio-based production process for the two carbon-5 platform chemicals 5-aminovalerate and glutarate on basis of the lysine-hyperproducing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum LYS-12. Upon heterologous implementation of the Pseudomonas putida genes davA, encoding 5-aminovaleramidase and davB, encoding lysine monooxygenase, 5-aminovalerate production was established. Related to the presence of endogenous genes coding for 5-aminovalerate transaminase (gabT) and glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 5-aminovalerate was partially converted to glutarate. Moreover, residual L-lysine was secreted as by-product. The issue of by-product formation was then addressed by deletion of the lysE gene, encoding the L-lysine exporter. Additionally, a putative gabT gene was deleted to enhance 5-aminovalerate production. To fully exploit the performance of the optimized strain, fed-batch fermentation was carried out producing 28 g L(-1) 5-aminovalerate with a maximal space-time yield of 0.9 g L(-1) h(-1). The present study describes the construction of a recombinant microbial cell factory for the production of carbon-5 platform chemicals. Beyond a basic proof-of-concept, we were able to specifically increase the production flux of 5-aminovalerate thereby generating a strain with excellent production performance. Additional improvement can be expected by removal of remaining by-product formation and bottlenecks, associated to the terminal pathway, to generate a strain being applicable as centerpiece for a bio-based

  14. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  15. Recent progress in cellulose nanocrystals: sources and production.

    PubMed

    Trache, Djalal; Hussin, M Hazwan; Haafiz, M K Mohamad; Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2017-02-02

    Cellulose nanocrystals, a class of fascinating bio-based nanoscale materials, have received a tremendous amount of interest both in industry and academia owing to its unique structural features and impressive physicochemical properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, renewability, low density, adaptable surface chemistry, optical transparency, and improved mechanical properties. This nanomaterial is a promising candidate for applications in fields such as biomedical, pharmaceuticals, electronics, barrier films, nanocomposites, membranes, supercapacitors, etc. New resources, new extraction procedures, and new treatments are currently under development to satisfy the increasing demand of manufacturing new types of cellulose nanocrystals-based materials on an industrial scale. Therefore, this review addresses the recent progress in the production methodologies of cellulose nanocrystals, covering principal cellulose resources and the main processes used for its isolation. A critical and analytical examination of the shortcomings of various approaches employed so far is made. Additionally, structural organization of cellulose and nomenclature of cellulose nanomaterials have also been discussed for beginners in this field.

  16. Heat resistant soy adhesives for structural wood products

    Treesearch

    Christopher G. Hunt; Charles Frihart; Jane O' Dell

    2009-01-01

    Because load-bearing bonded wood assemblies must support the structure during a fire, the limited softening and depolymerization of biobased polymers at elevated temperatures should be an advantage of biobased adhesives compared to fossil fuel-based adhesives. Because load-bearing bonded wood assemblies must support the structure during a fire, the limited softening...

  17. New advances in the integrated management of food processing by-products in Europe: sustainable exploitation of fruit and cereal processing by-products with the production of new food products (NAMASTE EU).

    PubMed

    Fava, Fabio; Zanaroli, Giulio; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Bordoni, Alessandra; Viaggi, Davide; Robertson, Jim; Waldron, Keith; Bald, Carlos; Esturo, Aintzane; Talens, Clara; Tueros, Itziar; Cebrián, Marta; Sebők, András; Kuti, Tunde; Broeze, Jan; Macias, Marta; Brendle, Hans-Georg

    2013-09-25

    By-products generated every year by the European fruit and cereal processing industry currently exceed several million tons. They are disposed of mainly through landfills and thus are largely unexploited sources of several valuable biobased compounds potentially profitable in the formulation of novel food products. The opportunity to design novel strategies to turn them into added value products and food ingredients via novel and sustainable processes is the main target of recently EC-funded FP7 project NAMASTE-EU. NAMASTE-EU aims at developing new laboratory-scale protocols and processes for the exploitation of citrus processing by-products and wheat bran surpluses via the production of ingredients useful for the formulation of new beverage and food products. Among the main results achieved in the first two years of the project, there are the development and assessment of procedures for the selection, stabilization and the physical/biological treatment of citrus and wheat processing by-products, the obtainment and recovery of some bioactive molecules and ingredients and the development of procedures for assessing the quality of the obtained ingredients and for their exploitation in the preparation of new food products.

  18. 75 FR 5033 - Departmental Management; Public meeting on BioPreferredSM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... that contain biobased materials and components. Complex assembly products are made of distinct materials and components where some or all of the components contain biobased materials. One example of a... are produced using biobased materials. This issue pertains to (1) the designation USDA of biobased...

  19. 7 CFR 2902.19 - Composite panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... flat roofs in commercial buildings. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content... minimum biobased contents are: (1) Plastic lumber composite panels—23 percent. (2) Acoustical composite... AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.19...

  20. Biobased lubricants via ruthenium catalysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of effective lubricants from natural oils is an ongoing mission. A few of the efforts have led to some promise, but many others have led elsewhere. An alternative approach to the direct use of natural oils may be needed. The drop-in replacement strategy allows industry to utilize mon...