Science.gov

Sample records for biobehavioral family model

  1. The Biobehavioral Family Model: Close relationships and allostatic load.

    PubMed

    Priest, Jacob B; Woods, Sarah B; Maier, Candice A; Parker, Elizabeth Oshrin; Benoit, Jenna A; Roush, Tara R

    2015-10-01

    This study tested the inclusion of allostatic load as an expansion of the biobehavioral reactivity measurement in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health which proposes biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included a subsample of n = 1255 single and married, English-speaking adult participants (57% female, M age = 56 years) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS II), a nationally representative epidemiological study of health and aging in the United States. Participants completed self-reported measures of family and marital functioning, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, number of prescribed medications, and a biological protocol in which the following indices were obtained: cardiovascular functioning, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activity, inflammation, lipid/fat metabolism, and glucose metabolism. Structural equation modeling indicated good fit of the data to the hypothesized family model (χ (2) = 125.13 p = .00, SRMR = .03, CFI = .96, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .04) and hypothesized couple model (χ(2) = 132.67, p = .00, SRMR = .04, CFI = .95, TLI = .93, RMSEA = .04). Negative family interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity for anxiety and depression and allostatic load; however couple interactions predicted only depression and anxiety measures of biobehavioral reactivity. Findings suggest the importance of incorporating physiological data in measuring biobehavioral reactivity as a predicting factor in the overall BBFM model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  3. Prepregnancy Obesity and a Biobehavioral Predictive Model for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ruyak, Sharon L.; Corwin, Elizabeth J.; Lowe, Nancy K.; Neu, Madalynn; Boursaw, Blake

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test a predictive model of the associations among prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), third-trimester biological and behavioral variables, and symptoms of depression at 4 weeks postpartum. Design Secondary data analysis from a longitudinal, biobehavioral repeated measures study of women during the third trimester of pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. Setting Communities surrounding a midwestern and a western U.S. city. Participants Participants were 111 women enrolled in their third trimesters of pregnancy who were studied through 4 weeks postpartum. Methods Whole blood and saliva were used for biological measures, and validated questionnaires were used for behavioral measures. Principal component analysis and path analysis with principal component variables were used to iteratively test the model. Results There were three statistically significant direct effects in the model: the path from prepregnancy BMI to inflammation, the path from prepregnancy BMI to stress, and the path from stress to symptoms of depression at 4 weeks postpartum. Indirect effects of prepregnancy BMI on postpartum depression through intervening variables were not statistically significant, nor was the model-based total effect of prepregnancy BMI on postpartum depression. Conclusion Stress was significantly linked to prepregnancy BMI and postpartum depression. This finding highlights continuing possibilities for improving outcomes for mothers, infants, and families through stress-mitigating preventative strategies. PMID:27016697

  4. Family functioning and child asthma severity: A bio-behavioral approach.

    PubMed

    Al Ghriwati, Nour; Winter, Marcia A; Everhart, Robin S; Fiese, Barbara H

    2017-12-01

    Family factors are directly associated with the psychosocial adjustment of children with chronic illnesses such as asthma (Kaugars, Klinnert, & Bender, 2004). Research indicates that negative family factors may also contribute to child disease severity via bio-behavioral mechanisms of effect. For instance, children from more conflicted families often experience greater internalizing symptoms that subsequently impact their asthma severity (Wood et al., 2006). These pathways have yet to be examined with a comprehensive focus on strength-based family factors. This study examined whether factors such as family cohesion, problem-solving abilities, and communication influence asthma severity via their effects on child depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants were 215 children (136 males and 79 females), ages 5 to 12 years old, and their families. Primary caregiver, child, and teacher ratings of child and family functioning in addition to objective measures of parent-child interactions and asthma severity were collected. Using structural equation modeling, the authors identified significant indirect associations between family factors and child asthma severity via child depressive symptoms; however, these associations were not present in models with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest an indirect effect of family functioning on children's lung function, with differential roles of anxiety and depression in these pathways. This article also highlights the importance of incorporating multirater multimethod measures to understand children's experiences in pediatric asthma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Chronic headaches and insomnia: working toward a biobehavioral model.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason C; Park, Margaret

    2012-10-01

    Sleep disturbances are consistently associated with chronic headaches, yet the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. One potential barrier to generating new hypotheses is the lack of synthesis between models of headache and models of sleep. The goal of this paper is to present a perspective on the chronification of migraine and tension-type headaches based upon conceptual models used in sleep research. We provide a critical review of the literature on sleep and headache, highlighting the limitations in sleep methodology. Models of sleep physiology and insomnia are discussed, along with the potential implications for the chronification of migraine and tension-type headache. In addition, we propose a biobehavioral model that describes the interaction between behaviors related to coping with headache, the impact of these behaviors on insomnia and sleep physiology and the downstream propensity for future headache attacks. We hope that this perspective will stimulate interdisciplinary activity toward uncovering the pathway for more effective interventions for chronic headache patients.

  6. Testing a biobehavioral model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    van der Veek, Patrick P J; Dusseldorp, Elise; van Rood, Yanda R; Masclee, Ad A M

    2010-04-01

    The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is probably multifactorial with dysfunction at different levels of the brain-gut axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate an existing biobehavioral model of IBS symptom generation in a large group of patients. In 104 IBS patients, we assessed symptom severity by a symptom diary, visceral hypersensitivity using a barostat, autonomic function by measuring arterial baroreflex sensitivity and psychological functioning using questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to calculate the reciprocal and chronological relationships between the model variables. Analysis of the adjusted original model indicated poor fit [Satorra-Bentler chi=28.47; degrees of freedom (df)=11, P<0.01; comparative fit index (CFI)=0.78], which was caused by omission of two paths (illness behavior-IBS symptoms and trauma-IBS symptoms). The revised model yielded a reasonable fit (chi=13.88, df=9, P=0.13; CFI=0.94). The model explained 18.7% of the variance in IBS symptoms. Illness behavior completely mediated the effect of cognitions on IBS symptoms and partly mediated the effect of trauma on IBS symptoms. The fit of this alternative model was good (chi=9.85, df=8, P=0.28; CFI=0.98). The alternative model explained 20.0% of the variance in IBS symptoms. The proposed biobehavioral model could not be validated. Although visceral hypersensitivity and IBS symptom severity significantly correlate, autonomic function and IBS symptoms do not. Cognitive-behavioral aspects are important in the clinical expression of IBS, with illness behavior playing an intermediate and central role.

  7. A biobehavioral model of weight loss associated with meditative movement practice among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Larkey, Linda K; Vega-López, Sonia; Keller, Colleen; McClain, Darya; Ainsworth, Barbara; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Smith, Lisa; Jeong, Mihyun

    2014-07-01

    Women with breast cancer often experience weight gain during and after treatment, significantly increasing risk for recurrence as well as all-cause mortality. Based on a growing body of evidence, meditative movement practices may be effective for weight management. First, we describe the effects of stress on factors associated with weight gain for breast cancer survivors. Then, a model is proposed that utilizes existing evidence to suggest how meditative movement supports behavioral, psychological, and neurohormonal changes that may explain weight loss. Application of the model suggests how a novel "mindful-body-wisdom" approach may work to help reduce weight for this at-risk group.

  8. Bridging the gap between mind and body: a biobehavioral model of the effects of guided imagery on pain, pain disability, and depression.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Wendy; Jacobson, Ann

    2013-12-01

    Chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is a common and complex disorder associated with declines in physical health and functional status, emotional well-being, and quality of life. To best address the complexity of this condition, research and clinical practice for CNCP should be guided by a framework incorporating both biologic and psychologic factors. This article presents a biobehavioral model of chronic pain that hypothesizes mechanisms related to the effectiveness of a complementary therapy, guided imagery (GI), for this population. Using the research-to-model/theory strategy, we mapped findings from published reports of interdisciplinary research into physiologic and psychologic aspects of the nature and mechanisms of pain, as well as the use of GI for pain, to build the model of GI's effects on pain, pain disability, and depression. In the model, these outcomes of GI for persons experiencing CNCP are mediated by psychologic (pain self-efficacy and pain beliefs) and physiologic (immune-mediated analgesia and sickness response) variables. A biobehavioral approach to nursing phenomena will advance understanding of health and health-related issues and has the potential to improve outcomes through delineation of mechanisms underlying relationships between psychologic and biologic factors. Increased consumer use of complementary therapies to treat pain, the current cost-driven health care system, and the mandate for evidence-based practice support the need to validate the efficacy of such therapies. This empirically derived model provides a framework for practice and research for nurses and other health care providers to promote health, function, and well-being in persons with CNCP. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    Psychological interventions for adult cancer patients have primarily focused on reducing stress and enhancing quality of life. However, there has been expanded focus on biobehavioral outcomes—health behaviors, compliance, biologic responses, and disease outcomes—consistent with the Biobehavioral Model of cancer stress and disease course. The author reviewed this expanded focus in quasi-experimental and experimental studies of psychological interventions, provided methodologic detail, summarized findings, and highlighted novel contributions. A final section discussed methodologic issues, research directions, and challenges for the coming decade. PMID:12090371

  10. Biobehavioral Rehabilitation for Older Adults with Essential Tremor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Poppen, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET), the most prevalent movement disorder, has a peak prevalence in the sixth decade of life, primarily affecting the hands and head. Persons with ET are often significantly disabled and medical intervention often had limited effectiveness. Describes a biobehavioral rehabilitation model for older adults with ET. (Author/JBJ)

  11. Headache in children: update on biobehavioral treatments.

    PubMed

    Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Bianca; Landgraf, Mirjam; Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Ebinger, Friedrich; Straube, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Biobehavioral pain treatment consists of relaxation techniques, biofeedback treatment, operant pain treatment, pain coping, cognitive-behavioral treatment, and multimodal treatment. Especially in the treatment of pediatric headache, biobehavioral procedures have been found to be highly efficient and are widely accepted. They present similar effects as pharmaceutical treatments. In general, when standardized treatment programs are applied, the sessions are highly effective. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Teitelman, Anne M; Bevilacqua, Amanda W; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-09-01

    Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk-reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk-reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Generalized programs and interventions may not have universal, transnational, and crosscultural

  13. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and

  14. Family Relational Factors in Pediatric Depression and Asthma: Pathways of Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Beatrice L.; Miller, Bruce D.; Lim, Jungha; Lillis, Kathleen; Ballow, Mark; Stern, Trudy; Simmens, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tested a multilevel biobehavioral family model proposing that negative family emotional climate contributes to child depressive symptoms, which in turn contribute to asthma disease severity. Parent-child relational insecurity is proposed as a mediator. Method: Children with asthma (N = 112; ages 7-18; 55% male) reported…

  15. Developmental interplay between children's biobehavioral risk and the parenting environment from toddler to early school age: Prediction of socialization outcomes in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Kim, Sanghag; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    We followed 100 community families from toddler age to preadolescence. Each mother- and father-child dyad was observed at 25, 38, 52, 67, and 80 months (10 hr/child) to assess positive and power-assertive parenting. At age 10 (N = 82), we obtained parent- and child-reported outcome measures of children's acceptance of parental socialization: cooperation with parental monitoring, negative attitude toward substance use, internalization of adult values, and callous-unemotional tendencies. Children who carried a short serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) allele and were highly anger prone, based on anger observed in laboratory from 25 to 80 months, were classified as high in biobehavioral risk. The remaining children were classified as low in biobehavioral risk. Biobehavioral risk moderated links between parenting history and outcomes. For low-risk children, parenting measures were unrelated to outcomes. For children high in biobehavioral risk, variations in positive parenting predicted cooperation with monitoring and negative attitude toward substance use, and variations in power-assertive parenting predicted internalization of adult values and callous-unemotional tendencies. Suboptimal parenting combined with high biobehavioral risk resulted in the poorest outcomes. The effect for attitude toward substance use supported differential susceptibility: children high in biobehavioral risk who received optimal parenting had a more adaptive outcome than their low-risk peers. The remaining effects were consistent with diathesis-stress.

  16. Developmental interplay between children’s biobehavioral risk and the parenting environment from toddler to early school age: Prediction of socialization outcomes in preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J.; Kim, Sanghag; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Philibert, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    We followed 100 community families from toddler age to preadolescence. Each mother- and father-child dyad was observed at 25, 38, 52, 67, and 80 months (10 hours per child) to assess positive and power-assertive parenting. At age 10 (N=82), we obtained parent- and child-reported outcome measures of children’s acceptance of parental socialization: cooperation with parental monitoring, negative attitude toward substance use, internalization of adult values, and callous-unemotional (CU) tendencies. Children who carried a short 5-HTTLPR allele and were highly anger prone, based on anger observed in laboratory from 25 to 80 months, were classified as high in biobehavioral risk. The remaining children were classified as low in biobehavioral risk. Biobehavioral risk moderated links between parenting history and outcomes. For low-risk children, parenting measures were unrelated to outcomes. For children high in biobehavioral risk, variations in positive parenting predicted cooperation with monitoring and negative attitude toward substance use, and variations in power-assertive parenting predicted internalization of adult values and CU tendencies. Suboptimal parenting combined with high biobehavioral risk resulted in the poorest outcomes. The effect for attitude toward substance use supported differential susceptibility: Children high in biobehavioral risk who received optimal parenting had a more adaptive outcome than their low-risk peers. The remaining effects were consistent with diathesis-stress. PMID:25154427

  17. Biobehavioral mechanisms of work-related upper extremity disorders: a new agenda for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Michael

    2002-05-01

    Epidemiological studies provide support for the role of organizational and individual psychosocial stressors in work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs). Despite this evidence, the biological plausibility of a relationship between exposure to various psychosocial and work organizational stressors and WRUEDs remains unclear The Georgetown Symposium on Biobehavioral Mechanisms of Work-Related Upper Extremity Disorders was held in Washington D.C. on November 6-7, 2000 to improve the understanding of potential biobehavioral mechanisms, identify future areas for research and discuss the implications of this body of knowledge for intervention. This meeting involved presentations and discussions by researchers and clinicians from a number of disciplines (epidemiology, occupational medicine, rheumatology, orthopedics, surgery, internal medicine, psychoneuroimmunology, occupational health psychology, behavioral medicine, psychophysiology and experimental and organizational psychology). The symposium generated several papers addressing the following topics: definitions and job stress models; epidemiological foundations; musculoskeletal and biomechanical models; central nervous system models of recurrent and persistent clinical pain; psychophysiology of work; and implications for intervention. These papers comprise this special issue. The present paper summarizes the various contributions to this special issue and provides direction for future research on potential biobehavioral pathways.

  18. Effects of guided imagery on biobehavioral factors in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Victoria; Lyon, Debra E; Elswick, R K; McCain, Nancy L; Gray, D Patricia

    2014-02-01

    Women diagnosed with fibromyalgia (N = 72) participated in a 10-week randomized trial to examine the effectiveness of guided imagery on self-efficacy, perceived stress, and selected biobehavioral factors (FMS symptoms; immune biomarkers). Participants in both guided imagery and usual care control conditions completed measures and donated 3 cc of blood at baseline, 6- and 10-weeks. A mixed effects linear model to test for differences between groups for all behavioral and biologic variables demonstrated that after 10 weeks of daily intervention use, guided imagery participants reported statistically significant increases in self-efficacy and statistically significant decreases in stress, fatigue, pain, and depression. There were no statistically significant changes in biomarker levels, although total group C-reactive protein was elevated at baseline (4.7 mg/L), indicating an inflammatory process. Subsequent studies should be undertaken to more fully elucidate the biobehavioral aspects of nonpharmacological intervention effectiveness.

  19. Advancing psychology as a bio-behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Carr, John E

    2008-03-01

    Concerns for the integrity of psychology as an independent discipline have caused some psychologists to object to introducing any knowledge from the biological sciences into the training of psychologists. However, calls for the greater incorporation of the behavioral sciences in medical education, increased attention to research on the mechanisms of bio-behavioral interaction, and initiatives in translational medical research and clinical care, have prompted increased interest in interdisciplinary research, health care, and teaching. These changes, in turn, are resulting in a re-conceptualization of the structure of academic medicine with increasing emphasis upon multidisciplinary knowledge and interdisciplinary collaboration, and less emphasis upon disciplinary insularity and competitiveness. If clinical health psychology is to play a role in this evolving concept of academic health care, it must adequately prepare its trainees to function in interdisciplinary academic health care settings. This will require not only expertise in the role of behavioral factors relevant to medical disorders, but also some basic familiarity with the biological processes to which those behavioral factors relate. With the evolution of its fund of knowledge, clinical health psychology has the potential to utilize its science to discover, describe, interpret, teach and clinically apply knowledge of the mechanisms of interaction between biological functions and behavioral, learning, cognitive, socio-cultural and environmental processes. By failing to seize this initiative, clinical health psychology risks becoming irrelevant to the evolving model of medical research, education and health care.

  20. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  1. Biobehavioral Risk Factors in Children of Schizophrenic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.; Cornblatt, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    Research on risk factors for schizophrenia is reviewed with emphasis on children of schizophrenic parents. Four areas of biobehavioral functioning that have been examined in high-risk research are discussed. Three of these are considered compatible with hypothesis neurointegrative defect underlying schizophrenic-proneness. (Author/CL)

  2. Biobehavioral Factors That Shape Nutrition in Low-Income Populations: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Laraia, Barbara A; Leak, Tashara M; Tester, June M; Leung, Cindy W

    2017-02-01

    Although evidence exists for an association between income level and diet quality, a causal relationship has not been established. A number of studies found that the price of nutritious food and the time cost to prepare foods are economically driven reasons for this relationship. However, in addition to economic constraints, low-income individuals and families face a number of additional challenges linked with food choice, eating behaviors, and diet-related chronic conditions that contribute to diet quality and health. Low-income individuals have a higher burden of employment-, food-, and housing-related insecurity that threaten the livelihood of their household. Poverty and exposure to these insecurities are hypothesized to activate biobehavioral and psychological mechanisms-endocrine, immune, and neurologic systems-that influence food choice and consumption. Examples of biobehavioral and psychological factors that influence diet are stress, poor sleep, and diminished cognitive capacity. High levels of stress, poor sleep, and cognitive overload compound the challenges of economic constraints, creating a mentality of scarcity that leads to poor diet quality. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenging Behavior in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: Initial Test of Biobehavioral Influences

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Eagle, Rose; Merkens, Louise S.; Sikora, Darryn; Pettit-Kekel, Kersti; Nguyen-Driver, Mina; Steiner, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study challenging behavior (destruction, aggression, self-injury, stereotypy) in children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) using a biobehavioral model that helps distinguish biological from socially mediated variables influencing the behavior. Background SLOS is an autosomal-recessive syndrome of multiple malformations and intellectual disability resulting from a genetic error in cholesterol synthesis in all cells and tissues, including brain. The exact cause of the challenging behavior in SLOS is unclear, but defective brain cholesterol synthesis may contribute. Because the precise genetic and biochemical etiology of SLOS is known, this disorder is a good model for studying biological causes of challenging behavior. Method In a preliminary application of a biobehavioral model, we studied the association between cholesterol levels (as a biochemical indicator of disease severity) and behavior subtype (“biological” vs “learned”) in 13 children with SLOS. Parents completed a questionnaire that categorized challenging behavior as influenced primarily by social or nonsocial (thus, presumably biological) factors. Results The severity of the cholesterol synthesis defect correlated significantly with behavior subtype classification for 1 of 2 challenging behaviors. Greater severity of the cholesterol synthesis defect was associated with behavior being classified as primarily influenced by biological factors. Conclusion The interplay between challenging behavior and defective cholesterol synthesis in SLOS may help explain biological influences on the behavior. Our findings have implications for research on the effectiveness of behavioral and medical treatments for behavioral difficulties in SLOS and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23538569

  4. Challenging behavior in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: initial test of biobehavioral influences.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kurt A; Eagle, Rose; Merkens, Louise S; Sikora, Darryn; Pettit-Kekel, Kersti; Nguyen-Driver, Mina; Steiner, Robert D

    2013-03-01

    To study challenging behavior (destruction, aggression, self-injury, stereotypy) in children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) using a biobehavioral model that helps distinguish biological from socially mediated variables influencing the behavior. SLOS is an autosomal-recessive syndrome of multiple malformations and intellectual disability resulting from a genetic error in cholesterol synthesis in all cells and tissues, including brain. The exact cause of the challenging behavior in SLOS is unclear, but defective brain cholesterol synthesis may contribute. Because the precise genetic and biochemical etiology of SLOS is known, this disorder is a good model for studying biological causes of challenging behavior. In a preliminary application of a biobehavioral model, we studied the association between cholesterol levels (as a biochemical indicator of disease severity) and behavior subtype ("biological" vs "learned") in 13 children with SLOS. Parents completed a questionnaire that categorized challenging behavior as influenced primarily by social or nonsocial (thus, presumably biological) factors. The severity of the cholesterol synthesis defect correlated significantly with behavior subtype classification for 1 of 2 challenging behaviors. Greater severity of the cholesterol synthesis defect was associated with behavior being classified as primarily influenced by biological factors. The interplay between challenging behavior and defective cholesterol synthesis in SLOS may help explain biological influences on the behavior. Our findings have implications for research on the effectiveness of behavioral and medical treatments for behavioral difficulties in SLOS and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. Biobehavioral Markers of Adverse Effect in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Stanton, Mark E.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Molteno, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is difficult because information regarding prenatal exposure is often lacking, a large proportion of affected children do not exhibit facial anomalies, and no distinctive behavioral phenotype has been identified. Castellanos and Tannock have advocated going beyond descriptive symptom-based approaches to diagnosis to identify biomarkers derived from cognitive neuroscience. Classical eyeblink conditioning and magnitude comparison are particularly promising biobehavioral markers of FASD—eyeblink conditioning because a deficit in this elemental form of learning characterizes a very large proportion of alcohol-exposed children; magnitude comparison because it is a domain of higher order cognitive function that is among the most sensitive to fetal alcohol exposure. Because the neural circuitry mediating both these biobehavioral markers is well understood, they have considerable potential for advancing understanding of the pathophysiology of FASD, which can contribute to development of treatments targeted to the specific deficits that characterize this disorder. PMID:21541763

  6. Genetic Factors in Breast Cancer: Center for Interdisciplinary Biobehavioral Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Page 6 of 52 The three synergistic Projects in the MSSM Behavioral Center of Excellence (and four supporting Cores) applied a biobehavioral...study has included two bases for recruitment and interviewing, one in NYC, based at Mount Sinai School of Medicine ( MSSM ), and one in NJ, based at The...for The CINJ), MSSM , the individual hospitals in NYC, and the NJDHSS. In this paper we report on both of our approaches to case ascertainment and

  7. Brief Report: A Pilot Study of Parent-Child Biobehavioral Synchrony in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jason K; Fenning, Rachel M; Howland, Mariann A; Baucom, Brian R; Moffitt, Jacquelyn; Erath, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    The theory of biobehavioral synchrony proposes that the predictive power of parent-child attunement likely lies in the manner with which behaviors are aligned with relevant biological processes. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may challenge the formation of behavioral and physiological synchrony, but maintenance of such parent-child attunement could prove beneficial. The present study is the first to examine parent-child physiological synchrony in ASD. Parent and child electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured continuously during naturalistic free play. Parent-child EDA synchrony (positive covariation) was positively correlated with observed parent-child emotional attunement. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that child ASD symptoms moderated the association between parent EDA and child EDA, such that EDA synchrony was stronger for children with lower ASD symptom levels.

  8. Biobehavioral influences on energy intake and adult weight gain.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Megan A; Suen, Vivian M M; Roberts, Susan B

    2002-12-01

    U.S. adults are now gaining more weight and becoming obese at an earlier age than in previous years. The specific causes of adult weight gain are unknown, but may be attributed to a combination of factors leading to positive energy balance. U.S. food supply data indicate that Americans have had a gradual increase in energy intake since 1970, and that per capita energy intake was 1.42 MJ/d (340 kcal/d) higher in 1994 than that in 1984. In contrast, self-reported physical activity remained constant between 1990 and 1998. Taken together, these data indicate that the increasing trend in U.S. adult weight gain is primarily attributable to overconsumption of energy. Epidemiological and experimental studies in animals and humans provide strong evidence that biobehavioral factors such as dietary variety, liquid (vs. solid) energy, portion size, palatability (taste), snacking patterns, restaurant and other away-from-home food, and dietary restraint and disinhibition influence hunger, satiety and/or voluntary energy intake. When these eating behaviors are consistently experienced either separately or in combination over the long term, they are likely to facilitate overeating. We provide a brief overview of the evidence to date for the role of these biobehavioral factors in contributing to excess energy intake and increases in body weight over time.

  9. FIRST-GENERATION LATINA MOTHERS' EXPERIENCES OF SUPPLEMENTING HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START WITH THE ATTACHMENT AND BIOBEHAVIORAL CATCH-UP PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Denmark, Nicole; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative pilot study examined first-generation Latina mothers' experiences of supplementing home-based Early Head Start (EHS) services with the evidence-based Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; M. Dozier, O. Lindheim, & J. Ackerman, 2005) program. Ten low-income, first-generation Latina mothers with infants and toddlers enrolled in home-based EHS were provided 10 ABC home visits by a supplemental parent coach. Following delivery of ABC, mothers participated in in-depth, semistructured, qualitative interviews about their experiences. Interview themes included positive experiences of both EHS and the ABC, a high value placed on receiving both programs, and cultural relevance of the ABC program for Latino families. Participants offered several suggestions for improved program delivery. Study findings suggest that a model of EHS supplemented by ABC delivered to the Latino community is feasible, valuable to participants, and culturally relevant. Considerations for sustainability of this supplemental model are discussed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Biobehavioral pain profile in individuals with chronic spine pain.

    PubMed

    Matteliano, Deborah; Scherer, Yvonne Krall; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Pain in the spine is the most frequently described pain problem in primary care, afflicting at least 54 million Americans. When spinal pain becomes chronic, the prognosis for recovery is poor, often leading to disability and reduced quality of life. Clinical treatment is inadequate, often focusing on physical pathology alone. To improve treatment outcomes for chronic pain as recommended by current guidelines, the Biobehavioral Pain Profile (BPP), which includes six pain response subscales, was developed to guide cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The purpose of this study was to describe the BPP in 100 individuals with chronic spine pain and examine the associations between the BPP and important clinical outcomes, including chronic pain, disability, and quality of life. Participants reported a high level of pain, a low quality of life, and a high level of disability despite receiving treatment with opioids. Scores on BPP subscales including evaluating loss of control, past and current experience, physiologic responsivity, and thoughts of disease progression were elevated, indicating a need for CBT. Five of the six BPP subscales had a significant association with quality of life, chronic pain, and disability with the thought of disease progression being a strong factor for most of the clinical outcome variables. By identifying BPP, clinicians can provide appropriate treatments to improve individuals' quality of life and prevent further disability. Further study using the BPP to guide CBT is needed. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Biobehavioral Perspective on Depressive Symptoms in Patients with a Cerebral Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Starkweather, Angela; Sherwood, Paula; Lyon, Debra E.; McCain, Nancy L.; Bovbjerg, Dana Howard; Broaddus, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Over 51,000 individuals are diagnosed with a primary brain tumor in the United States each year, and for those with the most common type of malignant tumor, an astrocytoma, almost 75% will die within five years of diagnosis. While surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy have improved length of survival, mortality remains high, which underscores the need to understand how other factors affect the disease trajectory. Several recent studies have shown that depressive symptoms are independently associated with reduced quality of life and survival time after controlling for medial variables in patients with an astrocytoma. Thus, depressive symptoms represent a significant risk factor for adverse outcomes in this patient population. A growing body of evidence indicates that depressive symptoms are linked to underlying biological phenomena, particularly inflammatory activation modulated through increased peripheral levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Recent research has shown that neoplastic astrocytes respond to elevated proinflammatory cytokine levels by secreting immune mediators within the central nervous system, including cytokines and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that promote astrogliosis and angiogenesis, and may increase tumor growth and metastasis. However, because these biological factors have not as yet been measured in conjunction with depressive symptoms in these patients, little is known about the interactions that potentially influence the treatment trajectory. In order to guide future research and provide a deeper understanding of the factors that may influence depressive symptoms and length of survival in patients with an astrocytoma, a review of the literature was undertaken. Publications over the past ten years were analyzed to examine the theoretical models and measures of depressive symptoms used in previous research. While numerous studies have documented the relationship between depression and reduced length of survival, there were several

  12. Community Implementation Outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up

    PubMed Central

    Caron, EB; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC. PMID:26746112

  13. Community implementation outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up.

    PubMed

    Caron, E B; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Family gym: a model to promote physical activity for families with young children.

    PubMed

    Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Hoffman, Jessica A; Thomas, Jordan; DuBois, Matthew; Agrawal, Tara; Griffin, Daphne; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine Locke; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Wirth, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    This report describes Family Gym, a family-centered model that (1) provides free access to physical activity for low-income families in the inner city; (2) targets young children (3-8 years) and their families; (3) engages families together in physical activity; and (4) stimulates social interaction among families.

  15. Teaching-Family Model: Insuring Quality Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElgunn, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The Teaching-Family Model was one of the earliest approaches to be supported by an extensive research base. As it has evolved over four decades, it retains the focus on teaching and learning but incorporates a strength- and relationship-based orientation. The model is also unique in gathering ongoing practice-based evidence to insure quality.

  16. Early Father Involvement Moderates Biobehavioral Susceptibility to Mental Health Problems in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Essex, Marilyn J.; Alkon, Abbey; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Kraemer, Helena C.; Kupfer, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study how early father involvement and children's biobehavioral sensitivity to social contexts interactively predict mental health symptoms in middle childhood. Method: Fathers' involvement in infant care and maternal symptoms of depression were prospectively ascertained in a community-based study of child health and development in…

  17. Cancer Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Testing a Biobehavioral/Cognitive Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Brittany M.; Yang, Hae-Chung; Strunk, Daniel R.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this Phase II trial, we evaluated a novel psychological treatment for depressed patients coping with the stresses of cancer. Effectiveness of a combined biobehavioral intervention (BBI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was studied. Method: Participants were 36 cancer survivors (mean age = 49 years; 88% Caucasian; 92% female)…

  18. Intervening with Foster Parents to Enhance Biobehavioral Outcomes among Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Mary; Bick, Johanna; Bernard, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Children in foster care face a number of challenges that threaten their ability to form attachment relationships with foster parents and to regulate their behavior and biology. The authors describe the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) intervention, an evidence-based intervention aimed at helping foster children develop trusting…

  19. Brief Report: A Pilot Study of Parent-Child Biobehavioral Synchrony in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason K.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Howland, Mariann A.; Baucom, Brian R.; Moffitt, Jacquelyn; Erath, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of biobehavioral synchrony proposes that the predictive power of parent-child attunement likely lies in the manner with which behaviors are aligned with relevant biological processes. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may challenge the formation of behavioral and physiological synchrony, but maintenance of such parent-child…

  20. Testing a Military Family Stress Model.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Zamir, Osnat

    2017-03-15

    The current study examines a military family stress model, evaluating associations between deployment-related stressors (i.e., deployment length/number, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms) and parent, child, parenting, and dyadic adjustment among families in which a parent had previously deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan in the recent conflicts. Married families (N = 293) with at least one child between the ages of 4 and 12 were recruited from a Midwestern state. Service members were from the Reserve Component (National Guard or Reserves); fathers (N = 253) and/or mothers had deployed (N = 45) to the recent conflicts in the Middle East. Multiple-method (observations of parenting and couple interactions; questionnaires) and multiple informant measures were gathered online and in the homes of participants, from parents, children, and teachers. Findings demonstrated associations between mothers' and fathers' PTSD symptoms and a latent variable of child adjustment comprising teacher, parent, and child report. Mothers' but not fathers' PTSD symptoms were also associated with dyadic adjustment and parenting practices; parenting practices were in turn associated with child adjustment. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for military family stress research and interventions to support and strengthen parents and families after deployment. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  1. In Vivo Feedback Predicts Parent Behavior Change in the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up Intervention.

    PubMed

    Caron, E B; Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2016-04-04

    Understanding mechanisms and active ingredients of intervention is critical to training clinicians, particularly when interventions are transported from laboratories to communities. One promising active ingredient of parenting programs is clinicians' in vivo feedback regarding parent-child interactions. The present study examined whether a form of in vivo feedback, in the moment commenting, predicted treatment retention and parent behavior change when the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) intervention was implemented in a community setting. Observational data were collected from 78 parent-child dyads (96% mothers; M age = 29 years; 81% minority; infants' M age = 12 months; 90% minority) across 640 sessions conducted by 9 clinicians (100% female, M age = 39; 67% minority) in Hawaii. Parental behavior was assessed with a semistructured play task before and after intervention. Clinicians' in-the-moment feedback to parents was assessed from intervention session videos. Clinicians' frequency and quality of in-the-moment feedback predicted change in parental intrusiveness and sensitivity at posttreatment. Frequency of in-the-moment feedback also predicted likelihood of retention. Hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated strong support for these associations at the between-clinician level, and limited additional support at the within-clinician (i.e., between-case) level. Thus, a hypothesized active ingredient of treatment, in-the-moment feedback, predicted community-based ABC outcomes. The results complement lab-based evidence to suggest that in vivo feedback may be a mechanism of change in parenting interventions. Helping clinicians to provide frequent, high-quality in vivo feedback may improve parenting program outcomes in community settings.

  2. Graphical Models via Univariate Exponential Family Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunho; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Allen, Genevera I.; Liu, Zhandong

    2016-01-01

    Undirected graphical models, or Markov networks, are a popular class of statistical models, used in a wide variety of applications. Popular instances of this class include Gaussian graphical models and Ising models. In many settings, however, it might not be clear which subclass of graphical models to use, particularly for non-Gaussian and non-categorical data. In this paper, we consider a general sub-class of graphical models where the node-wise conditional distributions arise from exponential families. This allows us to derive multivariate graphical model distributions from univariate exponential family distributions, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and exponential distributions. Our key contributions include a class of M-estimators to fit these graphical model distributions; and rigorous statistical analysis showing that these M-estimators recover the true graphical model structure exactly, with high probability. We provide examples of genomic and proteomic networks learned via instances of our class of graphical models derived from Poisson and exponential distributions. PMID:27570498

  3. [Systemic-psychodynamic model for family evaluation].

    PubMed

    Salinas, J L; Pérez, M P; Viniegra, L; Armando Barriguete, J; Casillas, J; Valencia, A

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a family evaluation instrument called systemic-psychodynamic family evaluation model is described. Also, the second stage of the validation study of this instrument is presented (which deals with the inter-observers variation). Twenty families were studied. They were assessed always by the same interviewers designated as experts. They are all family therapy specialists and their assessment was used as the evaluation reference standard or "gold standard". The observers were psychiatrists without previous training in family therapy. For the purpose of the interview, both experts and observers were blind to the medical diagnosis of the patients. During the first stage of the validation study the observers did not have a reference guide which resulted in a low concordance rating. For the second stage, a 177 item guide was used and a considerable increase in the concordance rating was observed. Validation studies like the one used here are of considerable value to increase the reliability and further utilisation of evaluation instruments of this type.

  4. The Evolution of Psychology as a Basic Bio-behavioral Science in Healthcare Education.

    PubMed

    Carr, John E

    2017-12-01

    For over a century, researchers and educators have called for the integration of psychological science into medical school curricula, but such efforts have been impeded by barriers within medicine and psychology. In addressing these barriers, Psychology has re-examined its relationship to Medicine, incorporated psychological practices into health care, and redefined its parameters as a science. In response to interdisciplinary research into the mechanisms of bio-behavioral interaction, Psychology evolved from an ancillary social science to a bio-behavioral science that is fundamental to medicine and health care. However, in recent medical school curriculum innovations, psychological science is being reduced to a set of "clinical skills," and once again viewed as an ancillary social science. These developments warrant concern and consideration of new approaches to integrating psychological science in medical education.

  5. A Model of Family Background, Family Process, Youth Self-Control, and Delinquent Behavior in Two-Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, So-Hee; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of two-parent families with 11- and 12-year-old youths (N = 591), we tested a structural model of family background, family process (marital conflict and parenting), youth self-control, and delinquency four years later. Consistent with the conceptual model, marital conflict and youth self-control are directly…

  6. A Process Model of Family Formation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Diana R.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models of family formation have assumed sexual coupling as the foundation of family life. This article proposes instead a model of family formation predicated on the processes of taking care of one another, eating together, and sharing life together. The interpersonal dynamics that distinguish a family from other close relationships…

  7. Biobehavioral assessment of the anxiety disorders: Current progress and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Deah; Shirali, Yasmin; Haws, J Kyle; Lack, Caleb W

    2017-01-01

    It is difficult to accurately assess and differentially diagnose the anxiety disorders. The current system of assessment relies heavily on the subjective measures of client self-report, clinical observation, and clinical judgment. Fortunately, recent technological advances may enable practitioners to utilize objective, biobehavioral measures of assessment in a clinical setting. The current body of literature on two of these biobehavioral tools (eye-tracking and electrocardiogram devices) is promising, but more validation and standardization research is needed to maximize the utility of these devices. Eye-tracking devices are uniquely capable of providing data that can be used to differentially diagnose anxiety disorders from both other commonly comorbid and misdiagnosed disorders. Both eye-tracking and electrocardiogram devices are able to provide change-sensitive assessment information. This objective, real-time feedback can assist clinicians and researchers in assessing treatment efficacy and symptom fluctuation. Recently developed wearable and highly portable electrocardiogram devices, like the wearable fitness and behavior tracking devices used by many consumers, may be particularly suited for providing this feedback to clinicians. Utilizing these biobehavioral devices would supply an objective, dimensional component to the current categorical diagnostic assessment system. We posit that if adequate funding and attention are directed at this area of research, it could revolutionize diagnostic and on-going assessment practices and, in doing so, bring the field of diagnosis out of the 20th century. PMID:29043151

  8. Not all about sex: neural and biobehavioral functions of human dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Cela-Conde, Camilo José; Gomila, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    This paper provides an integrative review of neuroscientific and biobehavioral evidence about the effects of dance on the individual across cultural differences. Dance moves us, and many derive aesthetic pleasure from it. However, in addition-and beyond aesthetics-we propose that dance has noteworthy, deeper neurobiological effects. We first summarize evidence that illustrates the centrality of dance to human life indirectly from archaeology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, and cross-cultural psychology. Second, we review empirical evidence for six neural and biobehavioral functions of dance: (1) attentional focus/flow, (2) basic emotional experiences, (3) imagery, (4) communication, (5) self-intimation, and (6) social cohesion. We discuss the reviewed evidence in relation to current debates in the field of empirical enquiry into the functions of human dance, questioning the positions that dance is (1) just for pleasure, (2) all about sex, (3) just for mood management and well-being, and (4) for experts only. Being a young field, evidence is still piecemeal and inconclusive. This review aims to take a step toward a systematization of an emerging avenue of research: a neuro- and biobehavioral science of dance. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Two families of astrophysical diverging lens models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Xinzhong; Rogers, Adam

    2018-03-01

    In the standard gravitational lensing scenario, rays from a background source are bent in the direction of a foreground lensing mass distribution. Diverging lens behaviour produces deflections in the opposite sense to gravitational lensing, and is also of astrophysical interest. In fact, diverging lensing due to compact distributions of plasma has been proposed as an explanation for the extreme scattering events that produce frequency-dependent dimming of extragalactic radio sources, and may also be related to the refractive radio wave phenomena observed to affect the flux density of pulsars. In this work we study the behaviour of two families of astrophysical diverging lenses in the geometric optics limit, the power law, and the exponential plasma lenses. Generally, the members of these model families show distinct behaviour in terms of image formation and magnification, however the inclusion of a finite core for certain power-law lenses can produce a caustic and critical curve morphology that is similar to the well-studied Gaussian plasma lens. Both model families can produce dual radial critical curves, a novel distinction from the tangential distortion usually produced by gravitational (converging) lenses. The deflection angle and magnification of a plasma lens vary with the observational frequency, producing wavelength-dependent magnifications that alter the amplitudes and the shape of the light curves. Thus, multiwavelength observations can be used to physically constrain the distribution of the electron density in such lenses.

  10. A model of adaptation for families of elderly patients with dementia: focusing on family resilience.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geun Myun; Lim, Ji Young; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Sang Suk

    2017-07-19

    We constructed a model explaining families' positive adaptation in chronic crisis situations such as the problematic behavior of elderly patients with dementia and attendant caregiving stress, based on the family resilience model. Our aim was to devise an adaptation model for families of elderly patients with dementia. A survey of problematic behavior in elderly patients with dementia, family stress, family resilience, and family adaptation was conducted with 292 consenting individuals. The collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The communication process, family stress, and problematic behavior of elderly patients with dementia had direct and indirect effects on family adaptation, while belief system, organization pattern, and social support had indirect effects. Specifically, family stress and more severe problematic behavior by elderly patients with dementia negatively influenced family adaptation, while greater family resilience improved such adaptation. Interventions aiming to enhance family resilience, based on the results of this study, are required to help families with positive adaptation. Such family programs might involve practical support such as education on the characteristics of elderly persons with dementia and coping methods for their problematic behavior; forming self-help groups for families; revitalizing communication within families; and activating communication channels with experts.

  11. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Human amygdala engagement moderated by early life stress exposure is a biobehavioral target for predicting recovery on antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Green, Erin; Suppes, Trisha; Schatzberg, Alan F; Hastie, Trevor; Nemeroff, Charles B; Williams, Leanne M

    2016-10-18

    Amygdala circuitry and early life stress (ELS) are both strongly and independently implicated in the neurobiology of depression. Importantly, animal models have revealed that the contribution of ELS to the development and maintenance of depression is likely a consequence of structural and physiological changes in amygdala circuitry in response to stress hormones. Despite these mechanistic foundations, amygdala engagement and ELS have not been investigated as biobehavioral targets for predicting functional remission in translational human studies of depression. Addressing this question, we integrated human neuroimaging and measurement of ELS within a controlled trial of antidepressant outcomes. Here we demonstrate that the interaction between amygdala activation engaged by emotional stimuli and ELS predicts functional remission on antidepressants with a greater than 80% cross-validated accuracy. Our model suggests that in depressed people with high ELS, the likelihood of remission is highest with greater amygdala reactivity to socially rewarding stimuli, whereas for those with low-ELS exposure, remission is associated with lower amygdala reactivity to both rewarding and threat-related stimuli. This full model predicted functional remission over and above the contribution of demographics, symptom severity, ELS, and amygdala reactivity alone. These findings identify a human target for elucidating the mechanisms of antidepressant functional remission and offer a target for developing novel therapeutics. The results also offer a proof-of-concept for using neuroimaging as a target for guiding neuroscience-informed intervention decisions at the level of the individual person.

  13. Participatory Action Research as a Model for Conducting Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…

  14. TRAJECTORIES OF CHANGE IN ATTACHMENT AND BIOBEHAVIORAL CATCH-UP AMONG HIGH-RISK MOTHERS: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Yarger, Heather A; Hoye, Julie R; Dozier, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Using an intensive short-term longitudinal design, this study first examined whether there were significant differences in maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness after completion of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; Dozier & the Infant-Caregiver Project Lab, 2013) when compared to a control condition. The second aim was to explore the rate and shape of change in parenting behaviors. Participants were 24 mothers and their biological children, who were randomly assigned to ABC (n = 13) or a control condition (n = 11). A structured play assessment with each mother and her child was video-recorded prior to randomization into the study, before each intervention session, and at a follow-up visit. A total of 270 videos were coded for sensitivity and intrusiveness. Hierarchical linear growth models were used to estimate the total change in parenting qualities across the 10 intervention sessions when comparing ABC to a control condition. Piecewise hierarchical linear growth models were used to investigate patterns of change across the intervention for mothers within ABC. Mothers in the ABC condition showed greater increases in sensitivity and decreases in intrusiveness than mothers in the control condition. There was evidence for nonlinear patterns of change in sensitivity and intrusiveness among mothers in ABC. These results support the effectiveness of ABC in changing sensitivity quickly. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Family Environment and Cognitive Development: Twelve Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Marjoribanks, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    The review indicates that refined measures of the family environment and the use of complex statistical models increase the understanding of the relationships between socioeconomic status, sibling variables, family environment, and cognitive development. (RC)

  16. The Use of a Model to Teach Family Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Eloise; Mears, Ruth

    1985-01-01

    The model depicts the family management process occurring within the sociocultural, governmental, and economic systems. The management concepts of standards, wants/needs, values, goals, mediating variables, processes, and resources are illustrated in relation to family management. (SK)

  17. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  18. Capturing the Family Context of Emotion Regulation: A Family Systems Model Comparison Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Grych, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Several dimensions of family functioning are recognized as formative influences on children's emotion regulation. Historically, they have been studied separately, limiting our ability to understand how they function within the family system. The present investigation tested models including family emotional climate, interparental conflict, and…

  19. Systolic blood pressure, socioeconomic status, and biobehavioral risk factors in a nationally representative US young adult sample.

    PubMed

    Brummett, Beverly H; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Elder, Glen H; Williams, Redford B

    2011-08-01

    In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of >15 000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. More than 62% of the participants had SBP >120 mm Hg and 12% had SBP >140 mm Hg. More than 66% were classified as at least overweight (body mass index >25 kg/m(2)), with >36% meeting criteria for at least class I obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)). Multivariate models showed that higher household income and being married were independently associated with lower SBP. Higher body mass index, greater waist circumference, smoking, and higher alcohol intake were each independently associated with higher SBP. Meditational analyses suggested that higher education level was associated with lower SBP by way of lower body mass, smaller waist circumference, and lower resting heart rate. When these indirect effects were accounted for, education was not significantly associated with SBP. In contrast, household income remained associated with SBP even with control for all of the covariates. Results reinforce current public health concerns about rates of obesity and high blood pressure among young adults and suggest that disparities in education level and household income may play an important role in the observed decrements in health. Identifying modifiable mechanisms that link socioeconomic status to SBP using data from a large representative sample may improve risk stratification and guide the development of effective interventions.

  20. Psychosocial intervention effects on adaptation, disease course and biobehavioral processes in cancer.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    A diagnosis of cancer and subsequent treatments place demands on psychological adaptation. Behavioral research suggests the importance of cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in facilitating adaptation during active treatment and throughout cancer survivorship, which forms the rationale for the use of many psychosocial interventions in cancer patients. This cancer experience may also affect physiological adaptation systems (e.g., neuroendocrine) in parallel with psychological adaptation changes (negative affect). Changes in adaptation may alter tumor growth-promoting processes (increased angiogenesis, migration and invasion, and inflammation) and tumor defense processes (decreased cellular immunity) relevant for cancer progression and the quality of life of cancer patients. Some evidence suggests that psychosocial intervention can improve psychological and physiological adaptation indicators in cancer patients. However, less is known about whether these interventions can influence tumor activity and tumor growth-promoting processes and whether changes in these processes could explain the psychosocial intervention effects on recurrence and survival documented to date. Documenting that psychosocial interventions can modulate molecular activities (e.g., transcriptional indicators of cell signaling) that govern tumor promoting and tumor defense processes on the one hand, and clinical disease course on the other is a key challenge for biobehavioral oncology research. This mini-review will summarize current knowledge on psychological and physiological adaptation processes affected throughout the stress of the cancer experience, and the effects of psychosocial interventions on psychological adaptation, cancer disease progression, and changes in stress-related biobehavioral processes that may mediate intervention effects on clinical cancer outcomes. Very recent intervention work in breast cancer will be used to illuminate emerging trends in molecular probes of

  1. PSYCHOSOCIAL INTERVENTION EFFECTS ON ADAPTATION, DISEASE COURSE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL PROCESSES IN CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    A diagnosis of cancer and subsequent treatments place demands on psychological adaptation. Behavioral research suggests the importance of cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in facilitating adaptation during active treatment and throughout cancer survivorship, which forms the rationale for the use of many psychosocial interventions in cancer patients. This cancer experience may also affect physiological adaptation systems (e.g., neuroendocrine) in parallel with psychological adaptation changes (negative affect). Changes in adaptation may alter tumor growth-promoting processes (increased angiogenesis, migration and invasion, and inflammation) and tumor defense processes (decreased cellular immunity) relevant for cancer progression and the quality of life of cancer patients. Some evidence suggests that psychosocial intervention can improve psychological and physiological adaptation indicators in cancer patients. However, less is known about whether these interventions can influence tumor activity and tumor growth-promoting processes and whether changes in these processes could explain the psychosocial intervention effects on recurrence and survival documented to date. Documenting that psychosocial interventions can modulate molecular activities (e.g., transcriptional indicators of cell signaling) that govern tumor promoting and tumor defense processes on the one hand, and clinical disease course on the other is a key challenge for biobehavioral oncology research. This mini-review will summarize current knowledge on psychological and physiological adaptation processes affected throughout the stress of the cancer experience, and the effects of psychosocial interventions on psychological adaptation, cancer disease progression, and changes in stress-related biobehavioral processes that may mediate intervention effects on clinical cancer outcomes. Very recent intervention work in breast cancer will be used to illuminate emerging trends in molecular probes of

  2. Modeling Family Adaptation to Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald, Jr.; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a survey of 1,099 families who have a child with Fragile X syndrome, we examined adaptation across 7 dimensions of family life: parenting knowledge, social support, social life, financial impact, well-being, quality of life, and overall impact. Results illustrate that although families report a high quality of life, they struggle…

  3. Acculturation and biobehavioral profiles in pregnant women of Hispanic origin: generational differences.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberta J; Stowe, Raymond P; Brown, Adama; Wommack, Joel

    2012-01-01

    In Hispanics, acculturation may lead to negative health outcomes. This study used a cross-sectional design to investigate the psychosocial and biological risks in acculturating pregnant women of Hispanic origin (n = 470). Psychosocial risks-depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress-were assessed by self-report, whereas biological measures included stress-related and reproductive hormones. Mental health deteriorated across generations, with worsening depression, anxiety, and stress with successive generations. Stress and reproductive hormone levels decreased across generations, whereas body mass index and number of sexual partners increased. These data provide potential biobehavioral explanations of the relationship between acculturation and declining health among Hispanic women in the United States.

  4. Family-professional collaboration in pediatric rehabilitation: a practice model.

    PubMed

    An, Mihee; Palisano, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Family--professional collaboration is essential to optimize outcomes of children with disabilities and the families. The authors incorporated current knowledge to formulate principles of collaborative service delivery in pediatric rehabilitation, develop a 4-step process of implementation, and recommend strategies that professionals can use to foster a collaborative process between families and professionals. The 4-step process and key elements of each step are described in detail to illustrate application of the model to practice. The model is based on three key principles of collaborative service delivery: family-identified needs, shared responsibility, and family empowerment. Collaboration involves two-way interactions through which families and professionals share knowledge and skill, make shared decisions on goals and intervention, and build capacity in order to foster family empowerment and optimize outcomes. The 4-step process involves: (1) Mutually agreed-upon goals, (2) Shared planning, (3) Shared implementation, and (4) Shared evaluation. A unique feature of the model is the inclusion of collaborative strategies facilitated by the professional including client-centered interview, visualizing a preferred future, scaling question, family routine and activity matrix. The model may have utility for optimizing collaboration between families and professionals to foster family empowerment and optimize child and family outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation Family--professional collaboration is essential to optimize outcomes of children with disabilities and families. The model of collaborative service delivery is based on three key principles: family identified needs, shared responsibility, and family empowerment. The model of collaborative service delivery is implemented using a four step process: (1) mutually agreed-upon goals, (2) shared-planning, (3) shared implementation, and (4) shared-evaluation. The unique feature of the model is the integration of

  5. Village family planning: the Indonesian model.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The goal of the Indonesian National Family Planning Program is to reduce the 1970 birthrate by 50% by the year 2000. Since the late 1960s the government has taken an active role in family planning. The National Family Planning Coordinating Board initially concentrated on offering family planning services through health clinics on Java and Bali, but, as of 1974, family planning has been expanded to 10 provinces in the outer islands. Early in 1975 the family planning program was extended to the village through the establishment of village contraceptive distribution centers and sub-village family planning groups. The experience generated from the initiation, development and evaluation of the village family planning scheme is useful in many aspects which may be adapted in other countries of the region. The guiding concepts of Java and Bali village family planning have been non-standardization, maintaining a link to the clinic in the movement to the village, and focusing 1st on contraceptive resupply. The following conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the Indonesian experience with village family planning: 1) family planning at the clinic level alone is insufficient in the long run; 2) the village must become involved in the process of providing services; 3) the enthusiasm and imaginative response to the movement in the village has exceeded expectations; and 4) rural people are, in fact, future oriented.

  6. Family boundary characteristics, work-family conflict and life satisfaction: A moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinyan

    2015-10-01

    Although work-family border and boundary theory suggest individuals' boundary characteristics influence their work-family relationship, it is largely unknown how boundary flexibility and permeability mutually influence work-family conflict and subsequent employee outcomes. Moreover, the existing work-family conflict research has been mainly conducted in the United States and other Western countries. To address these gaps in the work-family literature, the present study examines a moderated mediation model regarding how family boundary characteristics may influence individuals' work-family conflict and life satisfaction with a sample of 278 Chinese full-time employees. Results showed that employees' family flexibility negatively related to their perceived work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW), and both these two relationships were augmented by individuals' family permeability. In addition, WIF mediated the relationship between family flexibility and life satisfaction; the indirect effect of family flexibility on life satisfaction via WIF was stronger for individuals with higher family permeability. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Model Strategies in Bilingual Education: Family Literacy and Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Heather; Russo, Alexander W. W.

    This study reports on nine family literacy projects that focus on families whose primary language is not English. The first six projects fall under the Kenan service model, which sees that children receive more or as many services as adults and is organized around children's needs. These include the Canoncito Family Support/Early Childhood…

  8. A Conceptual Model Facilitating the Transition of Involuntary Migrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Kerstin Linnéa

    2011-01-01

    Refugee families face a complex transition due to the nature of involuntary migration and the process of acculturation. There are several risk factors to the family adaptation process during the transition period, which are sociocontextually environmental dependant. Facilitating a healthy transition for refugee families, therefore, requires the role of nursing to incorporate sociopolitics into the discipline. This paper introduces a sociopolitically oriented and community-driven assessment and intervention model which is based on a family systematic approach. Interventions that aid the families in their acculturation process as well as empowers them to a well-functioning daily life, as per the SARFI model, should be adopted. As such, the future of nursing may provide additional primary health care services for refugee families; this is through a team-led “family nurse” who provides quality care for the family unit in collaboration with other health care professionals and societal authorities. PMID:22191055

  9. Peer Models in Mental Health for Caregivers and Families

    PubMed Central

    Acri, Mary; Hooley, Cole D.; Richardson, Nicole; Moaba, Lily B.

    2017-01-01

    Peer-delivered mental health models may hold important benefits for family members, yet their prevalence, components, and outcomes are unknown. We conducted a review of peer-delivered services for families of children and adults with mental health problems. Randomized studies of interventions published between 1990-2014 were included if the intervention contained a component for family members and examined familial outcomes. Of 77 studies that were assessed for their eligibility, six met criteria. Familial components included coping and parenting skills, knowledge about mental health, and emotional support. Outcomes were uneven, although significant improvements in family functioning, knowledge about mental illness, parental concerns about their child, and parenting skills were associated with the intervention. Peer-delivered services for family members may have important benefits to family members and individuals with mental health problems; however, the research base remains thin. A research agenda to develop and examine these models is discussed. PMID:27344658

  10. Antidepressant effects on emotional temperament: toward a biobehavioral research paradigm for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Soskin, David P; Carl, Jenna R; Alpert, Jonathan; Fava, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    Given the limited efficacy of current pharmacotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) and the historical decline in antidepressant development, there is increasing clinical urgency to develop more effective treatments. To synthesize findings from clinical psychology and affective neuroscience related to the construct of emotional temperament; to examine the effects of antidepressants on the temperament dimensions of positive (PA) and negative affectivity (NA); and to propose a biobehavioral research paradigm for the treatment of MDD. We begin with an introduction to PA and NA, which emphasizes their construct development, historical context, and relevance to psychopathology. We then review studies of antidepressant effects on PA and NA, and explore two related hypotheses: (1) Cause-correction: The antidepressant response may fundamentally occur through changes in emotional temperament, with subsequent spread to syndrome or symptom changes; (2) preferential effects: Antidepressants with different mechanisms of action may have preferential effects on PA or NA. Preliminary findings appear to support the cause-correction hypothesis; there is insufficient clinical evidence to support the preferential effects hypothesis. PA and NA are biologically based temperament dimensions, which modulate emotional, motivational, and behavioral responses to positive and negative incentives. They can be altered by antidepressants, and may independently contribute to depression improvement. In addition, the distinct biobehavioral features of PA and NA suggest that combined pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments targeting these dimensions may have specific, and perhaps, synergistic antidepressant effects. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Psychology of Supplementation in Sport and Exercise: Motivational Antecedents and Biobehavioral Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Rafer; Arent, Shawn

    Research concerning the physiological and biobehavioral effects of supplements commonly used in sport or exercise settings has multiplied rapidly over the last decade. However, less attention has been directed to understanding the motivational pathways leading to sport and exercise supplement use. This chapter summarizes known usage rates for sport/fitness supplements and describes motivational theories and constructs that may be of use for understanding individuals' use of these substances. In this respect, we contend that researchers should consider behavioral approaches, the theory of planned behavior, balance theory, achievement goal theory, social physique anxiety, and muscle dysmorphia as useful for developing an understanding of the psychological influences on supplement use. For some of the latter theories/constructs, research has already shown support for their explanatory abilities, whereas research is scant and the utility for understanding sport/exercise supplement use is yet to be determined for many of the theories. In addition to describing the motivation behind supplement use, this chapter summarizes the biobehavioral effects of a select group of supplements commonly used to improve performance, fitness, or health. Specifically, we consider psychobiological effects of caffeine, creatine, Ginkgo biloba, and St. John's wort related to enhanced arousal, improved memory and cognition, enhanced brain function and protection, and reduced depression. There is promising initial evidence for the efficacy of these compounds in producing favorable psychological outcomes, although certain shortcomings of many studies on these compounds must be taken into account before reaching definitive conclusions.

  12. Biobehavioral aspects of health and aging among people of Mexican origin.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Keith E; Angel, Jacqueline L; Wong, Rebeca

    2011-10-01

    There is a growing interest in developing a deeper level of understanding of the complex phenomena that make up the aging process. Efforts to pursue questions using a multivariate and ecologically valid approaches that include biological and behavioral factors have led to significant advances in our knowledge. This special issue presents a collection of papers that represent this "biobehavioral" perspective. Little is known concerning the biobehavioral aspects of Hispanic health and there is a dearth of systematic study of how individual biological factors interact with the environmental and cultural factors to affect health outcomes among the swiftly growing older population of Mexican origin, a subgroup of older minorities that exhibits unique morbidity and mortality patterns. The group of papers here represents important contributions to understanding the health consequences in later life for individuals of Mexican descent and addresses several areas of interest including but not limited to diabetes, cognitive impairment, metabolic syndrome, frailty, socio-economic status and contextual factors that impact health. The papers presented here use interesting and useful transdisciplinary approaches that increase our knowledge of health processes in older people of Mexican descent. This special issue also provides excellent examples of the critical linkages between biological variables broadly defined and traditional social stratification, social inequalities, and social justice and the ways in which they interact. The papers taken together suggest that the processes involved in aging and health are complex, particularly in people of Mexican descent, and requires the understanding of mechanisms at multiple causes and levels of analysis.

  13. Communication with families facing life-threatening illness: a research-based model for family conferences.

    PubMed

    Fineberg, Iris Cohen; Kawashima, Michie; Asch, Steven M

    2011-04-01

    Communication is an ongoing challenge for clinicians working with people facing life-threatening illnesses and end of life. Family conferences offer patient-focused, family-oriented care that brings together patients, family members, and health care providers. The aim of this study was to develop a research-based model for family conferences to help physicians and other health care providers conduct such conferences effectively and improve communication with patients and families. We prospectively studied family conferences for patients facing life-threatening illness in two inpatient medical centers. We videotape and audiotape recorded real-life conferences and postconference interviews with participants. Twenty-four family conferences were included in the study. Participants consisted of 24 patients, 10 of whom took part in the family conferences, 49 family members, and 85 health care providers. A multidisciplinary team conducted a qualitative analysis of the videotaped and audiotaped materials using thematic analysis. The team used a multistage approach to independently and collectively analyze and integrate three data sources. The resulting theoretical model for family conferences has 4 main components. These include the underlying structural context of conference organization and the key process components of negotiation and personal stance. Emotional engagement by health care providers, emotion work, appears central to the impact of these components on the successful outcome of the conference. In addition to the theoretical model, the authors found that family conference participants place specific value on the "simultaneous presence" of conference attendees that leads to being on the "same page." Physicians and other health care professionals can use the model as a guide for conducting family conferences and strengthening communication with patients, families and colleagues.

  14. Behavioral Health Issues among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Explorations on the Frontiers of the Biobehavioral Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Spero M., Ed.; Dinges, Norman G., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The nine major overview and position papers contained in the monograph were originally presented at a conference held for the purpose of reviewing, from the Native American perspective, the National Institute of Medicine's comprehensive volume, "Health and Behavior: Frontiers of Research in the Biobehavioral Sciences." The papers, each…

  15. The Family Adaptation Model: A Life Course Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    L. (1986). Intergenerational occupational inheritance in the military: A reexamination. Adolescence , 21, 623-629. Bowen, G. L. (1987a). An ecosystem...Family Action Plans (1984-1989) by developing a con- ceptual model of factors that influence the adaptation of service members and their families to...conceptual model of factors that influence the adaptation of service members and their families to the multiplicity of role demands they face from occupy

  16. Enamel matrix proteins regulate hypoxia-induced cellular biobehavior and osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Z C; Li, S; Dong, J C; Sun, M J; Zhang, X L; Shu, R

    2017-12-05

    Hypoxia is a crucial microenvironment for inflamed periodontal tissue and periodontal wound healing. Enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) potentially can promote the formation of new periodontium. The effects of EMPs on periodontal ligament cells under hypoxia, however, remain unclear. We investigated the effects of EMPs on cellular biobehavior and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) under hypoxia. Under cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 )-induced hypoxia, cellular biobehavior of hPDLCs, including proliferation, attachment, spreading, and migration with or without EMPs, was evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), cell counting, spreading area measurement and wound scratch assay. The osteogenic activity of hPDLCs was assessed using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red S staining (ARS). The expressions of osteogenic genes including runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen type I (Col-I) were detected using real time quantitative PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry assays. The biobehavior and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs were inhibited significantly under hypoxia. EMPs have no effect on cell proliferation under mimicked hypoxia. EMPs partly reversed the inhibitory effects of hypoxia, however, for other cellular biobehavior including attachment, spreading and migration, and markedly up-regulated osteogenic differentiation activities including ALP, mineralization ability and the expressions of osteogenic genes such as Runx2, ALP, osteocalcin, and collagen type I in hPDLCs under hypoxia. EMPs attenuate the hypoxic injury to cellular biobehavior and osteogenic differentiation in hPDLCs under hypoxia.

  17. The confluence model: birth order as a within-family or between-family dynamic?

    PubMed

    Zajonc, R B; Sulloway, Frank J

    2007-09-01

    The confluence model explains birth-order differences in intellectual performance by quantifying the changing dynamics within the family. Wichman, Rodgers, and MacCallum (2006) claimed that these differences are a between-family phenomenon--and hence are not directly related to birth order itself. The study design and analyses presented by Wichman et al. nevertheless suffer from crucial shortcomings, including their use of unfocused tests, which cause statistically significant trends to be overlooked. In addition, Wichman et al. treated birth-order effects as a linear phenomenon thereby ignoring the confluence model's prediction that these two samples may manifest opposing results based on age. This article cites between- and within-family data that demonstrate systematic birth-order effects as predicted by the confluence model. The corpus of evidence invoked here offers strong support for the assumption of the confluence model that birth-order differences in intellectual performance are primarily a within-family phenomenon.

  18. Legumes as a Model Plant Family

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The human population derives the majority of its nutrition either directly or indirectly (via animal protein) from two plant families: the grasses and the legumes. Grain legumes alone supply approximately 33% of human protein nutrition. Thus, it is critical for genetic improvement of legume crop spe...

  19. A Cooperative Model for Family Daycare Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Helen L. Sally

    This discussion of the development of a child development associate (CDA) program at Edmonds Community College (ECC) for family day care providers is placed in the context of developments in day care training in Washington State. The first sections provide an overview of the development of day care provider training in Washington State from 1974…

  20. Biobehavioral Framework of Symptom and Health Outcomes of Uncertainty and Psychological Stress in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Austin, Kim W; Ameringer, Suzanne W; Starkweather, Angela R; Cloud, Leslie J; Sturgill, Jamie L; Elswick, Ronald K

    2016-12-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by complex motor and nonmotor symptoms that fluctuate in onset, severity, level of disability, and responsiveness to treatment. The unpredictable nature of PD and the inability to halt or slow disease progression may result in uncertainty and psychological stress. Uncertainty and psychological stress have important implications for symptom and health outcomes in PD. Uncertainty and psychological stress have been shown to worsen symptoms, functional capacity, and quality of life in chronic illnesses; however, the causal mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. We propose a biobehavioral framework for examining uncertainty and psychological stress in PD. The framework considers factors that may contribute to uncertainty and neuroendocrine-immune mechanisms of uncertainty and psychological stress that may influence symptom and health outcomes in PD, for the ultimate purpose of improving symptom and disease progression, functional capacity, and quality of life.

  1. Clustering of modifiable biobehavioral risk factors for chronic disease in US adults: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Dunton, Genevieve F

    2014-11-01

    Examining the co-occurrence patterns of modifiable biobehavioral risk factors for deadly chronic diseases (e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes) can elucidate the etiology of risk factors and guide disease-prevention programming. The aims of this study were to (1) identify latent classes based on the clustering of five key biobehavioral risk factors among US adults who reported at least one risk factor and (2) explore the demographic correlates of the identified latent classes. Participants were respondents of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005) with at least one of the following disease risk factors in the past year (N = 22,789), which were also the latent class indicators: (1) alcohol abuse/dependence, (2) drug abuse/dependence, (3) nicotine dependence, (4) obesity, and (5) physical inactivity. Housing sample units were selected to match the US National Census in location and demographic characteristics, with young adults oversampled. Participants were administered surveys by trained interviewers. Five latent classes were yielded: 'obese, active non-substance abusers' (23%); 'nicotine-dependent, active, and non-obese' (19%); 'active, non-obese alcohol abusers' (6%); 'inactive, non-substance abusers' (50%); and 'active, polysubstance abusers' (3.7%). Four classes were characterized by a 100% likelihood of having one risk factor coupled with a low or moderate likelihood of having the other four risk factors. The five classes exhibited unique demographic profiles. Risk factors may cluster together in a non-monotonic fashion, with the majority of the at-risk population of US adults expected to have a high likelihood of endorsing only one of these five risk factors. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.

  2. The Family Alliance Model: A Way to Study and Characterize Early Family Interactions.

    PubMed

    Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Tissot, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the family alliance (FA) model, which is designed to conceptualize the relational dynamics in the early family. FA is defined as the coordination a family can reach when fulfilling a task, such as playing a game or having a meal. According to the model, being coordinated as a family depends on four interactive functions: participation (all members are included), organization (members assume differentiated roles), focalization (family shares a common theme of activity), affect sharing (there is empathy between members). The functions are operationalized through the spatiotemporal characteristics of non-verbal interactions: for example, distance between the partners, orientation of their bodies, congruence within body segments, signals of readiness to interact, joint attention, facial expressions. Several standardized observational situations have been designed to assess FA: The Lausanne Trilogue Play (with its different versions), in which mother, father, and baby interact in all possible configurations of a triad, and the PicNic Game for families with several children. Studies in samples of non-referred and referred families (for infant or parental psychopathology) have highlighted different types of FA: disorganized, conflicted, and cooperative. The type of FA in a given family is stable through the first years and is predictive of developmental outcomes in children, such as psychofunctional symptoms, understanding of complex emotions, and Theory of Mind development.

  3. The Family Alliance Model: A Way to Study and Characterize Early Family Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Tissot, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the family alliance (FA) model, which is designed to conceptualize the relational dynamics in the early family. FA is defined as the coordination a family can reach when fulfilling a task, such as playing a game or having a meal. According to the model, being coordinated as a family depends on four interactive functions: participation (all members are included), organization (members assume differentiated roles), focalization (family shares a common theme of activity), affect sharing (there is empathy between members). The functions are operationalized through the spatiotemporal characteristics of non-verbal interactions: for example, distance between the partners, orientation of their bodies, congruence within body segments, signals of readiness to interact, joint attention, facial expressions. Several standardized observational situations have been designed to assess FA: The Lausanne Trilogue Play (with its different versions), in which mother, father, and baby interact in all possible configurations of a triad, and the PicNic Game for families with several children. Studies in samples of non-referred and referred families (for infant or parental psychopathology) have highlighted different types of FA: disorganized, conflicted, and cooperative. The type of FA in a given family is stable through the first years and is predictive of developmental outcomes in children, such as psychofunctional symptoms, understanding of complex emotions, and Theory of Mind development. PMID:28878726

  4. Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

  5. Violent Intimacy: The Family as a Model for Love Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, M. L.; Bernard, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed college students (N=461) on the incidence of violence in dating relationships and discussed the modeling of abusive behavior experienced in the family of origin. Results showed nearly a third of the students had been abused or abusive in partner relationships. Abusive students tended to come from abusive families. (Author/JAC)

  6. Muon-electron conversion in a family gauge boson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Yoshio; Yamanaka, Masato

    2016-11-01

    We study the μ-e conversion in muonic atoms via an exchange of family gauge boson (FGB) A21 in a U (3) FGB model. Within the class of FGB model, we consider three types of family-number assignments for quarks. We evaluate the μ-e conversion rate for various target nuclei, and find that next generation μ-e conversion search experiments can cover entire energy scale of the model for all of types of the quark family-number assignments. We show that the conversion rate in the model is so sensitive to up- and down-quark mixing matrices, Uu and Ud, where the CKM matrix is given by VCKM =Uu†Ud. Precise measurements of conversion rates for various target nuclei can identify not only the types of quark family-number assignments, but also each quark mixing matrix individually.

  7. A family systems nursing intervention model for paediatric health crisis.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Patricia Short; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia; Sherman, Suzan

    2012-03-01

    This article discusses the development of a family systems nursing intervention for clinical use in health crisis. Although studies in paediatric critical care provide evidence that family stress is an important clinical phenomenon, studies have demonstrated that few nurses have the requisite family intervention skills to provide family members with adequate support during crisis. In addition, few intervention studies that focus on provider-family relationships with the goal of reducing stress have been reported. This article contributes to the literature by redressing this lack. Data sources.  The literature search supporting this project spanned from 1980 to 2009 and included searches from classic nursing theory, family theory and relevant nursing research specific to the design of the intervention reported. The goal of the intervention is to provide a theoretical and practical foundation for explicit action that enhances relationships with caregivers thereby supporting the integrity of the family and enhancing their coping abilities. The intervention, based on the Family Systems Model and the family's understandings of the situation, defines specific goals and desired outcomes to guide strategic actions. Discussion of the conceptual foundation, procedural development and an example of the protocol is provided. Implications for nursing.  The intervention is designed for nurses with limited knowledge in family theory to aid them to better help families dealing with stress. The proposed intervention can be used to increase nurses' skills in family centred nursing care. Although designed for use in paediatric critical care, it can, with modifications, be used in other nursing specialty areas. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Modeling gene family evolution and reconciling phylogenetic discord.

    PubMed

    Szöllosi, Gergely J; Daubin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale databases are available that contain homologous gene families constructed from hundreds of complete genome sequences from across the three domains of life. Here, we discuss the approaches of increasing complexity aimed at extracting information on the pattern and process of gene family evolution from such datasets. In particular, we consider the models that invoke processes of gene birth (duplication and transfer) and death (loss) to explain the evolution of gene families. First, we review birth-and-death models of family size evolution and their implications in light of the universal features of family size distribution observed across different species and the three domains of life. Subsequently, we proceed to recent developments on models capable of more completely considering information in the sequences of homologous gene families through the probabilistic reconciliation of the phylogenetic histories of individual genes with the phylogenetic history of the genomes in which they have resided. To illustrate the methods and results presented, we use data from the HOGENOM database, demonstrating that the distribution of homologous gene family sizes in the genomes of the eukaryota, archaea, and bacteria exhibits remarkably similar shapes. We show that these distributions are best described by models of gene family size evolution, where for individual genes the death (loss) rate is larger than the birth (duplication and transfer) rate but new families are continually supplied to the genome by a process of origination. Finally, we use probabilistic reconciliation methods to take into consideration additional information from gene phylogenies, and find that, for prokaryotes, the majority of birth events are the result of transfer.

  9. A Family of Rater Accuracy Models.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Edward W; Jiao, Hong; Song, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Engelhard (1996) proposed a rater accuracy model (RAM) as a means of evaluating rater accuracy in rating data, but very little research exists to determine the efficacy of that model. The RAM requires a transformation of the raw score data to accuracy measures by comparing rater-assigned scores to true scores. Indices computed based on raw scores also exist for measuring rater effects, but these indices ignore deviations of rater-assigned scores from true scores. This paper demonstrates the efficacy of two versions of the RAM (based on dichotomized and polytomized deviations of rater-assigned scores from true scores) to two versions of raw score rater effect models (i.e., a Rasch partial credit model, PCM, and a Rasch rating scale model, RSM). Simulated data are used to demonstrate the efficacy with which these four models detect and differentiate three rater effects: severity, centrality, and inaccuracy. Results indicate that the RAMs are able to detect, but not differentiate, rater severity and inaccuracy, but not rater centrality. The PCM and RSM, on the other hand, are able to both detect and differentiate all three of these rater effects. However, the RSM and PCM do not take into account true scores and may, therefore, be misleading when pervasive trends exist in the rater-assigned data.

  10. Life Skills Literacy: An Intervention Model to Alleviate Family Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lee N.; Carswell, Andrew T.; Palmer, Lance; Sweaney, Annie L.; Mullis, Rebecca M.; Leonas, Karen K.; Moss, Joan Koonce; Mauldin, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Life Skills Literacy (LSL) is a multidisciplinary intervention model that helps families living with limited resources (including poverty) achieve sustainable well-being. This model, based on ecological theory and a readiness for change framework, prepares people to learn from the program and teaches necessary life skills. The LSL project…

  11. Determining Menstrual Phase in Human Biobehavioral Research: A Review with Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alicia M.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Carlson, Samantha; Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Wetherington, Cora Lee; McKee, Sherry A.; Allen, Sharon S.

    2015-01-01

    Given the volume and importance of research focusing on menstrual phase, a review of the strategies being used to identify menstrual phase and recommendations that will promote methodological uniformity in the field is needed. We conducted a literature review via Ovid Medline and PsycINFO. Our goal was to review methods used to identify menstrual phase and subphases in biobehavioral research studies with women who had physiologically natural menstrual cycles. Therefore, we excluded articles that focused on any of the following: use of exogenous hormones, the postpartum period, menstrual-related problems (e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis), and infertility/anovulation. We also excluded articles on either younger (<18 years old) or older (>45 years old) study samples. We initially identified a total of 1,809 articles. After our exclusionary criteria were applied, 146 articles remained, within which our review identified six different methods used to identify menstrual phase and subphases. The most common method used was self-report of onset of menses (145/146 articles) followed by urine luteinizing hormone testing (50/146 articles) and measurement of hormones (estradiol and/or progesterone) in blood samples (49/146 articles). Overall, we found a lack of consistency in the methodology used to determine menstrual phase and subphases. We provide several options to improve accuracy of phase identification, as well as to minimize costs and burden. Adoption of these recommendations will decrease misclassification within individual studies, facilitate cross-study comparisons and enhance the reproducibility of results. PMID:26570992

  12. Conducting Biobehavioral Research in Patients With Advanced Cancer: Recruitment Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson-White, Stephanie; Bohr, Nicole; Wickersham, Karen E

    2017-10-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and symptom management interventions over the last decade, patients continue to struggle with cancer-related symptoms. Adequate baseline and longitudinal data are crucial for designing interventions to improve patient quality of life and reduce symptom burden; however, recruitment of patients with advanced cancer in longitudinal research is difficult. Our purpose is to describe challenges and solutions to recruitment of patients with advanced cancer in two biobehavioral research studies examining cancer-related symptoms. Study 1: Symptom data and peripheral blood for markers of inflammation were collected from newly diagnosed patients receiving chemotherapy on the first day of therapy and every 3-4 weeks for up to 6 months. Study 2: Symptom data, blood, and skin biopsies were collected from cancer patients taking epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors at specific time points over 4 months. Screening and recruitment results for both studies are summarized. Timing informed consent with baseline data collection prior to treatment initiation was a significant recruitment challenge for both the studies. Possible solutions include tailoring recruitment to fit clinic needs, increasing research staff availability during clinic hours, and adding recruitment sites. Identifying solutions to these challenges will permit the conduct of studies that may lead to identification of factors contributing to variability in symptoms and development of tailored patient interventions for patients with advanced cancer.

  13. Interfaith education: A new model for today's interfaith families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Sheila C.; Arenstein, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    With societal changes rapidly transforming cultures that had been largely homogenous, today's multi-cultural - and in particular interfaith - families need new educational strategies to help them understand their cultural roots and identify and clarify what aspects of their heritages they wish to nurture and transmit to their children. This paper focuses on a new model for religious education, namely non-doctrinaire "dual-faith" education, which the principal author has helped to develop in the United States (US) through the Interfaith Community (IFC), a small, independent non-profit organisation created and led by dual-faith Jewish/Christian families. The model is premised on the notion that families can have two different faiths in one household and that - with respect and education - families can be harmonious, religion can be transmitted, and tolerance broadly nurtured. While the model is particular to the US and to families with Jewish and Christian heritages, its premises and structure have significant potential to be adaptable to other religious combinations and other cultures and countries. After reviewing relevant literature and situating the IFC model in the global and US contexts, the paper sets out to clarify the importance of the concept, describe its elements, and discuss its implications for religious education in this time of changing ethos and demography.

  14. [Cost-benefit model of the Rwanda family planning program].

    PubMed

    1991-08-01

    Significant conclusions are presented of the application of a cost-benefit model of family planning in Rwanda. The model and computer programs used were developed by the Research Triangle Institute and financed by the US Agency for International Development. The UN Population Fund participated in the project, which represented the 1st application of the model in Africa. Rwanda's population growth is among the most rapid in the world. The population has increased from about 2 million in 1950 to over 7 million in 1989. The model is composed of 2 parts, the 1st of which discloses the scope of the family planning program and its impact on population growth. The resulting projections are the basis for the 2nd module, the actual cost-benefit analysis which measures the impact of family planning on sectorial expenditures and analyzes the costs and benefits of the program in different sectors. The sectors of health, education, and agriculture are included in this presentation. 2 hypotheses about population growth are included; the 1st assumes the current family planning program and the 2nd assumes no family planning program. The model commences with population and family planning data for 1981. Data through 1989 represent observed rates and those for 1990-2011 are target rates. Only modern family planning methods are included in the model. The prevalence rate for modern methods increased from nearly null in 1981 to 5.3% in 1989 and following current trends is projected at 34.8% in 2000 and 46.8% in 2011. The total fertility rate was 8.6 in 1981 and is projected at 5.5 in 2000 and 4.7 in 2011. The total population is projected at 13.2 million in 2011 with a family planning program or 17.7 million without one. Health expenditures in the final year of the projection would be 41% greater without a family planning program. The family planning program would permit a reduction in the number of children to be educated of over 1 million students, a 54% decrease, assuming that the

  15. The family, crisis and chronic illness: an evolutionary model.

    PubMed

    Shaw, M C; Halliday, P H

    1992-05-01

    While chronic illness has a profound impact upon the individual, an immense burden is imposed upon the family. When the competing demands of an illness and the family escalate exponentially, there may be a crisis. Traditionally, crisis theory has been applied to acute care contexts such as emergency, intensive care and mental health nursing. Yet, clinical experience with families and chronic illness supports the notion of periodic crises from the prediagnostic phase to the long-haul of the illness. Moreover, the authors hypothesize that the family's perception of the event determines whether the crisis is perceived as a threat or a challenge. This paper thus addresses the perception of crisis within the framework of chronic illness from a biological and family systems nursing perspective. First, the theory of Humberto Maturana, a Chilean biologist, is explored and applied to clinical observations regarding family, crisis and chronic illness. Second, an evolutionary model for conceptualizing crisis and chronic illness is presented. Third, the role of beliefs in the family perceptions of crisis and chronic illness is discussed.

  16. Too close and too rigid: applying the Circumplex Model of Family Systems to first-generation family firms.

    PubMed

    Michael-Tsabari, Nava; Lavee, Yoav

    2012-06-01

    Despite growing research interest in family businesses, little is known about the characteristics of the families engaging in them. The present paper uses Olson's (Journal of Psychotherapy & the Family, 1988, 4(12), 7-49; Journal of Family Therapy, 2000, 22, 144-167) Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems to look at first-generation family firms. We describe existing typologies of family businesses and discuss similarities between the characteristics of first-generation family firms and the rigidly enmeshed family type described in the Circumplex Model. The Steinberg family business (Gibbon & Hadekel (1990) Steinberg: The breakup of a family empire. ON, Canada: MacMillan) serves to illustrate the difficulties of rigidly enmeshed first-generation family firms. Implications for understanding troubled family businesses are discussed together with guidelines for the assessment of a family business in crisis and for intervention: enhancing open communication; allowing for more flexible leadership style, roles, and rules; and maintaining a balance between togetherness and separateness. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  17. Family relational factors in pediatric depression and asthma: pathways of effect.

    PubMed

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lim, Jungha; Lillis, Kathleen; Ballow, Mark; Stern, Trudy; Simmens, Samuel

    2006-12-01

    This study tested a multilevel biobehavioral family model proposing that negative family emotional climate contributes to child depressive symptoms, which in turn contribute to asthma disease severity. Parent-child relational insecurity is proposed as a mediator. Children with asthma (N = 112; ages 7-18; 55% male) reported relational security, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Parent(s) reported demographics, asthma history and symptoms, and family emotional expression. Asthma diagnosis was confirmed by medical history provided by parent and child together, clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, and methacholine challenge, with disease severity categorized by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines. Medication adherence was measured prospectively. Path analysis indicated a good fit of data to the hypothesized model (chi2 = 0.072, p =.97, normal fit index = 0.998, root mean square error of approximation = 0.000). Negative family emotional climate predicted child depressive symptoms (beta =.21, p < .04), which predicted asthma disease severity (beta =.35, p < .001), with relational insecurity a partial mediator (beta = -.23, p < .05, beta =.46, p < .001, respectively). Depression was associated with disease severity even after controlling for adherence (r p = 0.38, p < .05). Findings are consistent with the proposed family model, suggesting the clinical importance of assessing and intervening in these specific family relational processes when treating children with depression and asthma.

  18. Designing Experiments to Discriminate Families of Logic Models.

    PubMed

    Videla, Santiago; Konokotina, Irina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Schaub, Torsten; Siegel, Anne; Guziolowski, Carito

    2015-01-01

    Logic models of signaling pathways are a promising way of building effective in silico functional models of a cell, in particular of signaling pathways. The automated learning of Boolean logic models describing signaling pathways can be achieved by training to phosphoproteomics data, which is particularly useful if it is measured upon different combinations of perturbations in a high-throughput fashion. However, in practice, the number and type of allowed perturbations are not exhaustive. Moreover, experimental data are unavoidably subjected to noise. As a result, the learning process results in a family of feasible logical networks rather than in a single model. This family is composed of logic models implementing different internal wirings for the system and therefore the predictions of experiments from this family may present a significant level of variability, and hence uncertainty. In this paper, we introduce a method based on Answer Set Programming to propose an optimal experimental design that aims to narrow down the variability (in terms of input-output behaviors) within families of logical models learned from experimental data. We study how the fitness with respect to the data can be improved after an optimal selection of signaling perturbations and how we learn optimal logic models with minimal number of experiments. The methods are applied on signaling pathways in human liver cells and phosphoproteomics experimental data. Using 25% of the experiments, we obtained logical models with fitness scores (mean square error) 15% close to the ones obtained using all experiments, illustrating the impact that our approach can have on the design of experiments for efficient model calibration.

  19. Report on Financing the New Model of Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Spann, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE To foster redesigning the work and workplaces of family physicians, this Future of Family Medicine task force was created to formulate and recommend a financial model that sustains and promotes a thriving New Model of care by focusing on practice reimbursement and health care finances. The goals of the task force were to develop a financial model that assesses the impact of the New Model on practice finances, and to recommend health care financial policies that, if implemented, would be expected to promote the New Model and the primary medical care function in the United States for the next few decades. METHODS The members of the task force reflected a wide range of professional backgrounds and expertise. The group met in person on 2 occasions and communicated by e-mail and conference calls to achieve consensus. A marketing study was carried out using focus groups to test the concept of the New Model with consumers. External consultants with expertise in health economics, health care finance, health policy, and practice management were engaged to assist the task force with developing the microeconomic (practice level) and macroeconomic (societal level) financial models necessary to achieve its goals. Model assumptions were derived from the published medical literature, existing practice management databases, and discussions with experienced physicians and other content experts. The results of the financial modeling exercise are included in this report. The initial draft report of the findings and recommendations was shared with a reactor panel representing a broad spectrum of constituencies. Feedback from these individuals was reviewed and incorporated, as appropriate, into the final report. RESULTS The practice-level financial model suggests that full implementation of the New Model of care within the current fee-for-service system of reimbursement would result in a 26% increase in compensation (from $167,457 to $210,288 total annual compensation) for

  20. The Family-Study Interface and Academic Outcomes: Testing a Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2011-01-01

    Expanding on family-work and work-study models, this article investigated a model for family-study conflict and family-study facilitation. The focus of the study was the relationship of family-study conflict and family-study facilitation with students' effortful behaviors and academic performance among a sample of university students (N = 1,656).…

  1. Defining a Family of Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using Log-Linear Models with Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robert A.; Templin, Jonathan L.; Willse, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses log-linear models with latent variables (Hagenaars, in "Loglinear Models with Latent Variables," 1993) to define a family of cognitive diagnosis models. In doing so, the relationship between many common models is explicitly defined and discussed. In addition, because the log-linear model with latent variables is a general model for…

  2. A new, but old business model for family physicians: cash.

    PubMed

    Weber, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The following study is an exploratory investigation into the opportunity identification, opportunity analysis, and strategic implications of implementing a cash-only family physician practice. The current market dynamics (i.e., increasing insurance premiums, decreasing benefits, more regulations and paperwork, and cuts in federal and state programs) suggest that there is sufficient motivation for these practitioners to change their current business model. In-depth interviews were conducted with office managers and physicians of family physician practices. The results highlighted a variety of issues, including barriers to change, strategy issues, and opportunities/benefits. The implications include theory applications, strategic marketing applications, and managerial decision-making.

  3. Biobehavioral Factors Mediate Exercise Effects on Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Laura Q; Vicari, Sandra; Trammell, Rita; Hopkins-Price, Patricia; Fogleman, Amanda; Spenner, Allison; Rao, Krishna; Courneya, Kerry S; Hoelzer, Karen S; Robbs, Randall; Verhulst, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Examine mediators of fatigue response to an exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors (BCS) in a pilot randomized controlled trial. Methods Postmenopausal BCS (n=46; ≤ Stage II), off primary treatment, and reporting fatigue and/or sleep dysfunction were randomized to a 3-month exercise intervention (160 minutes/week of moderate intensity aerobic walking, twice weekly resistance training with resistance bands) or control group. Six discussion group sessions provided behavioral support to improve adherence. Fatigue, serum cytokines, accelerometer physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, sleep dysfunction, and psychosocial factors were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Results Exercise intervention effect sizes for fatigue were: fatigue intensity d=0.30 (p=.34), interference d=−0.38 (p=.22), and general fatigue d=−0.49 (p=.13). Using Freedman-Schatzkin difference-in-coefficients tests, increase in fatigue intensity was significantly mediated by interleukin (IL)-6 (82%), IL-10 (94%), IL-6:IL-10 (49%), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha:IL-10 (78%) with reduced sleep dysfunction increasing the relationship between intervention and fatigue intensity rather than mediating intervention effects (−88%). Decrease in fatigue interference was mediated by sleep dysfunction (35%) while IL-10 and pro:anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios increased the relationship between intervention and interference (−25% to −40%). The reduction in general fatigue was significantly mediated by minutes of physical activity (76%), sleep dysfunction (45%), and physical activity enjoyment (40%) with IL-10 (−40%) and IL-6:IL-10 (−11%) increasing the intervention-fatigue relationship. In the intervention group, higher baseline fatigue, anxiety, depression, and perceived exercise barriers interference predicted a greater decline in fatigue interference and/or general fatigue during the intervention. Conclusions Biobehavioral factors mediated and enhanced

  4. Recruitment and Retention Results for a Population-based Cervical Cancer Biobehavioral Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Osann, Kathryn; Wenzel, Lari; Dogan, Aysun; Hsieh, Susie; Chase, Dana M.; Sappington, Sandra; Monk, Bradley J.; Nelson, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Minority and low-income cancer patients are underrepresented in clinical trials, contributing to diminished access to state-of-the-art care and disparities in cancer outcomes including survivorship issues. In cervical cancer, there is a disproportionate disease burden among minority and underserved women and persistent quality of life disruption. We encountered significant challenges in both recruitment and retention in a randomized biobehavioral clinical trial for cervical cancer survivors, identified through California Cancer Registries, leading to this investigation. Methods To determine differential rates of accrual and retention, data from our trial are analyzed using descriptive statistics, logistic regression and multivariate analysis of variance. Ethnic differences in associations between covariables and attrition rates were tested by interaction factors. Process evaluation and focus group data were obtained to inform improvement strategies. Results Of eligible subjects with viable phone numbers, 29% enrolled and 71% actively or passively refused. Enrolled Hispanic women were more likely to have less education (p<0.001), lower income (p=0.003), and more children (p=0.028). The drop out rate was associated with less education (p=0.012), foreign-birth (p=0.061), speaking Spanish in the home (p=0.012). Reported reasons for active refusal were ‘too busy’ for all women, ‘too emotional’ for non-Hispanic women, ‘too ill’ and phlebotomy for Hispanic women. Subsequent focus groups identified specific strategies to improve study materials. Conclusion Although population-based recruitment of minority and underserved cancer patients continues to be a challenge, specific sociodemographic and disease variables can predict accrual difficulties. The information herein, taken together with disease and culturally relevant strategies, can be useful when recruiting underserved cancer survivors. PMID:21402400

  5. Psycho-socioeconomic bio-behavioral associations on all-cause mortality: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effects of psychological,socioeconomic, biological and behavioral parameters on mortality. Methods: A prospective design was employed. Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (analyzed in 2015); follow-up mortality status evaluated in 2011. Psychological function was assessed from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as a measure of depression. Socioeconomic risk was assessed from poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status. Biological parameters included cholesterol, weight status, diabetes, hypertension and systemic inflammation. Behavioral parameters assessed included physical activity (accelerometry), dietary behavior, smoking status (cotinine) and sleep. These 14 psycho-socioeconomic bio-behavioral (PSBB) parameters allowed for the calculation of an overall PSBB Index, ranging from 0-14. Results: Among the evaluated 2530 participants, 161 died over the unweighted median follow-up period of 70.0 months. After adjustment, for every 1 increase in the overall PSBB index score,participants had a 15% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76-0.96). After adjustment, the Behavioral Index (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) and the Socioeconomic Index(HR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99) were significant, but the Psychological Index (HR = 0.67; 95%CI: 0.29-1.51) and the Biological Index (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.89-1.18) were not. Conclusion: Those with a worse PSBB score had an increased risk of all-cause mortality.Promotion of concurrent health behaviors may help to promote overall well-being and prolong survival. PMID:27386420

  6. The biobehavioral and neuroimmune impact of low-dose ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    York, Jason M; Blevins, Neil A; Meling, Daryl D; Peterlin, Molly B; Gridley, Daila S; Cengel, Keith A; Freund, Gregory G

    2011-01-01

    In the clinical setting, repeated exposures (10–30) to low-doses of ionizing radiation (≤ 200 cGy), as seen in radiotherapy for cancer, causes fatigue. Almost nothing is known, however, about the fatigue inducing effects of a single exposure to environmental low-dose ionizing radiation that might occur during high-altitude commercial air flight, a nuclear reactor accident or a solar particle event (SPE). To investigate the short-term impact of low-dose ionizing radiation on mouse biobehaviors and neuroimmunity, male CD-1 mice were whole body irradiated with 50 cGy or 200 cGy of gamma or proton radiation. Gamma radiation was found to reduce spontaneous locomotor activity by 35% and 36%, respectively, 6 h post irradiation. In contrast, the motivated behavior of social exploration was un-impacted by gamma radiation. Examination of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcripts in the brain demonstrated that gamma radiation increased hippocampal TNF-α expression as early as 4 h post-irradiation. This was coupled to subsequent increases in IL-1RA (8 h and 12 h post irradiation) in the cortex and hippocampus and reductions in activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) (24 h post irradiation) in the cortex. Finally, restraint stress was a significant modulator of the neuroimmune response to radiation blocking the ability of 200 cGy gamma radiation from impairing locomotor activity and altering the brain-based inflammatory response to irradiation. Taken together, these findings indicate that low-dose ionizing radiation rapidly activates the neuroimmune system potentially causing early onset fatigue-like symptoms in mice. PMID:21958477

  7. Recruitment and retention results for a population-based cervical cancer biobehavioral clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Osann, Kathryn; Wenzel, Lari; Dogan, Aysun; Hsieh, Susie; Chase, Dana M; Sappington, Sandra; Monk, Bradley J; Nelson, Edward L

    2011-06-01

    Minority and low-income cancer patients are underrepresented in clinical trials, contributing to diminished access to state-of-the-art care and disparities in cancer outcomes including survivorship issues. In cervical cancer, there is a disproportionate disease burden among minority and underserved women and persistent quality of life disruption. We encountered significant challenges in both recruitment and retention in a randomized biobehavioral clinical trial for cervical cancer survivors, identified through California Cancer Registries, leading to this investigation. To determine differential rates of accrual and retention, data from our trial are analyzed using descriptive statistics, logistic regression and multivariate analysis of variance. Ethnic differences in associations between covariables and attrition rates were tested by interaction factors. Process evaluation and focus group data were obtained to inform improvement strategies. Of eligible subjects with viable phone numbers, 29% enrolled and 71% actively or passively refused. Enrolled Hispanic women were more likely to have less education (p<0.001), lower income (p=0.003), and more children (p=0.028). The dropout rate was associated with less education (p=0.012), foreign-birth (p=0.061), speaking Spanish in the home (p=0.012). Reported reasons for active refusal were 'too busy' for all women, 'too emotional' for non-Hispanic women, 'too ill' and phlebotomy for Hispanic women. Subsequent focus groups identified specific strategies to improve study materials. Although population-based recruitment of minority and underserved cancer patients continues to be a challenge, specific sociodemographic and disease variables can predict accrual difficulties. The information herein, taken together with disease and culturally relevant strategies, can be useful when recruiting underserved cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Culture and Parenting: Family Models Are Not One-Size-Fits-All. FPG Snapshot #67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Family process models guide theories and research about family functioning and child development outcomes. Theory and research, in turn, inform policies and services aimed at families. But are widely accepted models valid across cultural groups? To address these gaps, FPG researchers examined the utility of two family process models for families…

  9. A Network Synthesis Model for Generating Protein Interaction Network Families

    PubMed Central

    Sahraeian, Sayed Mohammad Ebrahim; Yoon, Byung-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a novel network synthesis model that can generate families of evolutionarily related synthetic protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks. Given an ancestral network, the proposed model generates the network family according to a hypothetical phylogenetic tree, where the descendant networks are obtained through duplication and divergence of their ancestors, followed by network growth using network evolution models. We demonstrate that this network synthesis model can effectively create synthetic networks whose internal and cross-network properties closely resemble those of real PPI networks. The proposed model can serve as an effective framework for generating comprehensive benchmark datasets that can be used for reliable performance assessment of comparative network analysis algorithms. Using this model, we constructed a large-scale network alignment benchmark, called NAPAbench, and evaluated the performance of several representative network alignment algorithms. Our analysis clearly shows the relative performance of the leading network algorithms, with their respective advantages and disadvantages. The algorithm and source code of the network synthesis model and the network alignment benchmark NAPAbench are publicly available at http://www.ece.tamu.edu/bjyoon/NAPAbench/. PMID:22912671

  10. Fourth standard model family neutrino at future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Sultansoy, S.

    2005-09-01

    It is known that flavor democracy favors the existence of the fourth standard model (SM) family. In order to give nonzero masses for the first three-family fermions flavor democracy has to be slightly broken. A parametrization for democracy breaking, which gives the correct values for fundamental fermion masses and, at the same time, predicts quark and lepton Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrices in a good agreement with the experimental data, is proposed. The pair productions of the fourth SM family Dirac ({nu}{sub 4}) and Majorana (N{sub 1}) neutrinos at future linear colliders with {radical}(s)=500 GeV, 1 TeV, and 3 TeV are considered. The cross section for the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{nu}{sub 4}{nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}N{sub 1}) and the branching ratios for possible decay modes of the both neutrinos are determined. The decays of the fourth family neutrinos into muon channels ({nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}){yields}{mu}{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}) provide cleanest signature at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. Meanwhile, in our parametrization this channel is dominant. W bosons produced in decays of the fourth family neutrinos will be seen in detector as either di-jets or isolated leptons. As an example, we consider the production of 200 GeV mass fourth family neutrinos at {radical}(s)=500 GeV linear colliders by taking into account di-muon plus four jet events as signatures.

  11. Trials and tribulations of conducting bio-behavioral surveys in prisons: implementation science and lessons from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Azbel, Lyuba; Grishaev, Yevgeny; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Chernova, Olena; Dvoryak, Sergey; Polonsky, Maxim; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Ukraine is home to Europe's worst HIV epidemic, overwhelmingly fueled by people who inject drugs who face harsh prison sentences. In Ukraine, HIV and other infectious diseases are concentrated in prisons, yet the magnitude of this problem had not been quantified. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the systematic health survey of prisoners in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative interviews were carried out with research and prison administrative staff to assess the barriers and facilitators to conducting a bio-behavioral survey in Ukrainian prisons. Findings - Crucial barriers at the institutional, staff, and participant level require addressing by: first, ensuring Prison Department involvement at every stage; second, tackling pre-conceived attitudes about drug addiction and treatment among staff; and third, guaranteeing confidentiality for participants. Originality/value - The burden of many diseases is higher than expected and much higher than in the community. Notwithstanding the challenges, scientifically rigorous bio-behavioral surveys are attainable in criminal justice systems in the FSU with collaboration and careful consideration of this specific context.

  12. Trials and tribulations of conducting bio-behavioral surveys in prisons: implementation science and lessons from Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Azbel, Lyuba; Grishaev, Yevgeny; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Chernova, Olena; Dvoryak, Sergey; Polonsky, Maxim; Altice, Frederick L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ukraine is home to Europe's worst HIV epidemic, overwhelmingly fueled by people who inject drugs who face harsh prison sentences. In Ukraine, HIV and other infectious diseases are concentrated in prisons, yet the magnitude of this problem had not been quantified. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the systematic health survey of prisoners in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were carried out with research and prison administrative staff to assess the barriers and facilitators to conducting a bio-behavioral survey in Ukrainian prisons. Findings Crucial barriers at the institutional, staff, and participant level require addressing by: first, ensuring Prison Department involvement at every stage; second, tackling pre-conceived attitudes about drug addiction and treatment among staff; and third, guaranteeing confidentiality for participants. Originality/value The burden of many diseases is higher than expected and much higher than in the community. Notwithstanding the challenges, scientifically rigorous bio-behavioral surveys are attainable in criminal justice systems in the FSU with collaboration and careful consideration of this specific context. PMID:27219905

  13. Multimodal physiotherapy treatment based on a biobehavioral approach for patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Martín, Fernando; González-Ferrero, Luis; Martín-Alcocer, Noelia; Paris-Alemany, Alba; La Touche, Roy

    2018-01-17

    The purpose of this prospective case series was to observe and describe changes in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain of muscular origin treated with multimodal physiotherapy based on a biobehavioral approach. Nine patients diagnosed with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder and neck pain were treated with 6 sessions over the course of 2 weeks including: (1) orthopedic manual physiotherapy (joint mobilizations, neurodynamic mobilization, and dynamic soft tissue mobilizations); (2) therapeutic exercises (motor control and muscular endurance exercises); and (3) patient education. The outcome measures of craniofacial (CF-PDI) and neck disability (NDI), kinesiophobia (TSK-11) and catastrophizing (PCS), and range of cervical and mandibular motion (ROM) and posture were collected at baseline, and at 2 and 14 weeks post-baseline. Compared to baseline, statistically significant (p < 0.01) and clinically meaningful improvements that surpassed the minimal detectable change were observed at 14 weeks in CF-PDI (mean change, 8.11 points; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55 to 13.69; d = 1.38), in NDI (mean change, 5 cm; 95% CI: 1.74-8.25; d = 0.98), and in the TSK-11 (mean change, 6.55 cm; 95% CI: 2.79-10.32; d = 1.44). Clinically meaningful improvements in self-reported disability, psychological factors, ROM, and craniocervical posture were observed following a multimodal physiotherapy treatment based on a biobehavioral approach.

  14. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Duijster, Denise; van Loveren, Cor; Dusseldorp, Elise; Verrips, Gijsbert H W

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) scores were extracted from dental records. A validated parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and oral hygiene behaviours. Data on neighbourhood quality were obtained from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. Structural equation modelling indicated that the model was valid after applying a few modifications. In the revised model, lower maternal education level was related to poorer family organization, lower levels of social support, lower dental self-efficacy, and an external dental health locus of control. These, in turn, were associated with poorer oral hygiene behaviours, which were linked to higher levels of childhood dental caries. In addition, lower maternal education level and poorer neighbourhood quality were directly associated with higher caries levels in children. This model advances our understanding of determinants of childhood dental caries and the pathways in which they operate. Conception of these pathways is essential for guiding the development of caries-preventive programmes for children. Clues for further development of the model are suggested. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. Statistical Modelling of Brain Morphological Measures Within Family Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongtu; Li, Yimei; Tang, Niansheng; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Weissman, Myrna M.; Peterson, Bradley G.

    2010-01-01

    Large, family-based imaging studies can provide a better understanding of the interactions of environmental and genetic influences on brain structure and function. The interpretation of imaging data from large family studies, however, has been hindered by the paucity of well-developed statistical tools for that permit the analysis of complex imaging data together with behavioral and clinical data. In this paper, we propose to use two methods for these analyses. First, a variance components model along with score statistics is used to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as the associations of brain measures (e.g., cortical and subcortical surfaces) with their potential genetic determinants. Second, we develop a test procedure based on a resampling method to assess simultaneously the statistical significance of linear hypotheses across the entire brain. The value of these methods lies in their computational simplicity and in their applicability to a wide range of imaging data. Simulation studies show that our test procedure can accurately control the family-wise error rate. We apply our methods to the detection of statistical significance of gender-by-age interactions and of the effects of genetic variation on the thickness of the cerebral cortex in a family study of major depressive disorder. PMID:21234282

  16. Introduction to the special issue: Advances in methods and measurement in family psychology.

    PubMed

    Fiese, Barbara H; Connell, Arin; Doss, Brian; Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Rhoades, Galena K; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    This special issue presents a collection of reports that highlight recent advances in methods and measurement and also shed light on the complexity of family psychology. The importance of theory in guiding solid family science is evident throughout these reports. The reports include guides for researchers who incorporate direct observation into their research protocols and the ever-expanding field of tele-health interventions. Advanced analytic approaches are offered in the areas of grid sequence analysis, latent fixed-effects models, and the Factors of Curves Model (FOCUS). These sophisticated analytic approaches may be applied to advance systemic thinking in family psychology. The last set of articles illustrate how complex and innovative methodologies are applied to address important societal issues. Work experiences and marital relationships in African American couples address the importance of spillover effects in contemporary families. The creation of biobehavioral plasticity index has the potential to inform gene x environment contributions to family functioning. Finally, the unique methodological issues that are particularly germane to the diverse nature of stepfamilies and nonresident fathers are addressed. We hope that readers of this special issue will return to these reports as resources and examples of theory-driven methods and measurements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Disaster Hits Home: A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget; Marlatt, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored individual and family adjustment processes among parents (n = 30) and children (n = 55) who were displaced to Colorado after Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 23 families, this article offers an inductive model of displaced family adjustment. Four stages of family adjustment are presented in the model: (a)…

  18. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  19. Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency. "The Family and Delinquency" (LaMar T. Empey) systematically reviews and weighs the evidence to support prominent theories on the origins of…

  20. Developing a model of family focused practice with consumers, families, practitioners and managers: a community based participatory research approach.

    PubMed

    Reupert, Andrea; Ward, Bernadette; McCormick, Francis; Ward, Cathy; Waller, Susan; Kidd, Susan

    2018-01-30

    While governments are urging adult mental health services to support consumers in the context of their family, there is little information about what family focused practice is, nor how it might be enacted. Informed by the principles of Community Based Participatory Research, workshops were held in three rural Australian communities in 2015 to discuss the meaning of family focused practice and how such practices might be promoted. Participants described the need to raise community awareness about mental illness and provide practical support to the family. Participants emphasized the importance of practitioners genuinely communicating with consumers and their families about mental illness and the need for collaborative care and treatment planning. They also highlighted the challenges of living in rural places and posed some solutions. On the basis of the results and previous literature, we developed a model of family focused practice that outlined various stakeholders and their enactments. The model has the potential to inform policy, professional development and practice guidelines.

  1. Modeling spatial accessibility of immigrants to culturally diverse family physicians.

    PubMed

    Wanga, Lu; Roisman, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This article uses accessibility as an analytical tool to examine health care access among immigrants in a multicultural urban setting. It applies and improves on two widely used accessibility models—the gravity model and the two-step floating catchment area model—in measuring spatial accessibility by Mainland Chinese immigrants in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area. Empirical data on physician-seeking behaviors are collected through two rounds of questionnaire surveys. Attention is focused on journey to physician location and utilization of linguistically matched family physicians. Based on the survey data, a two-zone accessibility model is developed by relaxing the travel threshold and distance impedance parameters that are traditionally treated as a constant in the accessibility models. General linear models are used to identify relationships among spatial accessibility, geography, and socioeconomic characteristics of Mainland Chinese immigrants. The results suggest a spatial mismatch in the supply of and demand for culturally sensitive care, and residential location is the primary factor that determines spatial accessibility to family physicians. The article yields important policy implications.

  2. The models of Picasso's rose period: The Family of Saltimbanques.

    PubMed

    Blum, Harold P; Blum, Elsa J

    2007-06-01

    The word "model" in this context has a variety of meanings. The concept of "model" encompasses the external person who is represented by the artist, as well as the internal, conscious and unconscious, past and present mental representations of other individuals and the work of other artists. In all of these meanings, the relationships of artist and model have been quite specific to the artist under consideration and the historical-cultural period. For Picasso, the relationship of artist and model was particularly intense, reflecting myriad aspects of his personality and artistic development. The theme of artist and model was the subject of many of his paintings and graphic works. We focus particularly on his use of harlequins, saltimbanques, and circus performers during his blue and rose periods. The change in predominant models and moods between periods is noted. Among the issues considered is the relevance of these models in this particular period. Why were they especially salient objects for identification and for his artistic identity? Identification with the model may represent or be linked to earlier identifications of adolescence and childhood. We discuss the implications of these portrayals for his object relationships and the magical power, possession, and control in the development of his art. The painting "The Family of Saltimbanques," his most ambitious work to date, the integration and culmination of this theme during this period, is of particular interest.

  3. A family of dynamic models for large-eddy simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carati, D.; Jansen, K.; Lund, T.

    1995-01-01

    Since its first application, the dynamic procedure has been recognized as an effective means to compute rather than prescribe the unknown coefficients that appear in a subgrid-scale model for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The dynamic procedure is usually used to determine the nondimensional coefficient in the Smagorinsky (1963) model. In reality the procedure is quite general and it is not limited to the Smagorinsky model by any theoretical or practical constraints. The purpose of this note is to consider a generalized family of dynamic eddy viscosity models that do not necessarily rely on the local equilibrium assumption built into the Smagorinsky model. By invoking an inertial range assumption, it will be shown that the coefficients in the new models need not be nondimensional. This additional degree of freedom allows the use of models that are scaled on traditionally unknown quantities such as the dissipation rate. In certain cases, the dynamic models with dimensional coefficients are simpler to implement, and allow for a 30% reduction in the number of required filtering operations.

  4. Towards a Family Process Model of Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms: Exploring Multiple Relations with Child and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy S.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has focused on maternal dysphoria and child adjustment. However, family process models indicate gaps in the study of paternal dysphoria, broader family functioning, and diverse child outcomes. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers and fathers of kindergarten children completed measures of depressive symptoms, family…

  5. Towards a model of resilience for transnational families of Filipina domestic workers

    PubMed Central

    Garabiles, Melissa R.; Ofreneo, Mira Alexis P.

    2017-01-01

    Many Filipinos experience poverty and poor employment opportunities. In order to alleviate poverty and provide sufficient resources for their families, numerous mothers leave the Philippines to become domestic workers. The present study aimed to build a model of family resilience for transnational families. A total of 33 participants consisting of Filipino transnational families, domestic workers, and key informants participated in a series of focus group discussions and interviews. A new model of resilience among transnational families of Filipina domestic helpers was created using a constructivist grounded theory approach. The model highlighted how temporal and spatial elements are embedded in collective migration experiences. Family narratives begin with the sacrifice of separation, where mothers leave their families for a chance to solve economic problems. To successfully adapt to their separation, the families undergo five relational processes. First, families communicate across space using technology to bridge relational distance. Second, families restructure across space through role sharing and the validation of each other’s efforts in their family roles. Third, families rebuild ties through temporary family reunification that bridge physical and relational distance. Fourth, families have the collective goal of permanent family reunification by ending migration to become complete again. Fifth, they strive to commit to their families by prioritizing them instead of succumbing to difficulties. Family resilience for transnational migrants is a collectivistic process, negotiated by each family member. PMID:28837633

  6. Towards a model of resilience for transnational families of Filipina domestic workers.

    PubMed

    Garabiles, Melissa R; Ofreneo, Mira Alexis P; Hall, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    Many Filipinos experience poverty and poor employment opportunities. In order to alleviate poverty and provide sufficient resources for their families, numerous mothers leave the Philippines to become domestic workers. The present study aimed to build a model of family resilience for transnational families. A total of 33 participants consisting of Filipino transnational families, domestic workers, and key informants participated in a series of focus group discussions and interviews. A new model of resilience among transnational families of Filipina domestic helpers was created using a constructivist grounded theory approach. The model highlighted how temporal and spatial elements are embedded in collective migration experiences. Family narratives begin with the sacrifice of separation, where mothers leave their families for a chance to solve economic problems. To successfully adapt to their separation, the families undergo five relational processes. First, families communicate across space using technology to bridge relational distance. Second, families restructure across space through role sharing and the validation of each other's efforts in their family roles. Third, families rebuild ties through temporary family reunification that bridge physical and relational distance. Fourth, families have the collective goal of permanent family reunification by ending migration to become complete again. Fifth, they strive to commit to their families by prioritizing them instead of succumbing to difficulties. Family resilience for transnational migrants is a collectivistic process, negotiated by each family member.

  7. China's Marriage Law: a model for family responsibilities and relationships.

    PubMed

    Hare-Mustin, R T

    1982-12-01

    China's Marriage Law of 1981 is presented with a brief commentary. The law encompasses the responsibilities of spouses, parents, children, grandparents, and siblings to one another. The new law is contrasted with the 1950 Marriage Law, which prohibited such feudal practices of former times as arranged marriages and child betrothals. The 1981 law is concerned with equality and the lawful needs of women, children, and the aged. Family planning is encouraged. Divorce is made easier to obtain. Adoptees and stepchildren are provided for. The law provides a legislative model for personal relationships.

  8. A family of crisis in a dissipative Fermi accelerator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonel, Edson D.; de Carvalho, R. Egydio

    2007-05-01

    The Fermi accelerator model is studied in the framework of inelastic collisions. The dynamics of this problem is obtained by use of a two-dimensional nonlinear area-contracting map. We consider that the collisions of the particle with both periodically time varying and fixed walls are inelastic. We have shown that the dissipation destroys the mixed phase space structure of the nondissipative case and in special, we have obtained and characterized in this problem a family of two damping coefficients for which a boundary crisis occurs.

  9. On Bayesian Exponentially Embedded Family for Model Order Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhenghan; Kay, Steven

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we derive a Bayesian model order selection rule by using the exponentially embedded family method, termed Bayesian EEF. Unlike many other Bayesian model selection methods, the Bayesian EEF can use vague proper priors and improper noninformative priors to be objective in the elicitation of parameter priors. Moreover, the penalty term of the rule is shown to be the sum of half of the parameter dimension and the estimated mutual information between parameter and observed data. This helps to reveal the EEF mechanism in selecting model orders and may provide new insights into the open problems of choosing an optimal penalty term for model order selection and choosing a good prior from information theoretic viewpoints. The important example of linear model order selection is given to illustrate the algorithms and arguments. Lastly, the Bayesian EEF that uses Jeffreys prior coincides with the EEF rule derived by frequentist strategies. This shows another interesting relationship between the frequentist and Bayesian philosophies for model selection.

  10. A Model of Health for Family Caregivers of Elders.

    PubMed

    Weierbach, Florence M; Cao, Yan

    2016-12-22

    Family members who provide care to their loved ones experience changes in their own health. The caregiver health model (CGHM) is a new model that identifies health holistically and identifies four determinant(s) that contribute to the health status of the family caregiver. The purpose is to introduce the CGHM: Hypothesis 1: the determinants of health in the CGHM contribute to the health of the Caregiver, Hypothesis 2: the determinants of health contribute to changes in the caregivers' health at 8 and 16 weeks, and Hypothesis 3: a change in health occurs from baseline to 8 and 16 weeks. A descriptive, longitudinal design used three data collection points and five survey instruments. Community recruitment (N = 90) occurred through word of mouth and newspapers. Inclusion criteria consisted of being a family caregiver, living in a rural residence, and providing care to elders with necessary activities of daily living (ADLs) and/or instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Following a participant generated phone call to provide consent, caregivers received an initial study packet, additional packets were sent upon return of the previous packet. Analysis for the three hypotheses included multiple backwards stepwise linear regression, generalized estimating equations (GEE), and analysis of variance (ANOVA) α = 0.05. A significant decrease in mental ( p < 0.01) but not physical health at 8 weeks ( p = 0.38) and 16 weeks ( p = 0.29) occurred over time. Two determinants displayed significant ( p < 0.05 or less) changes in mental and/or physical health at one or more time points. Study limitations include caregiver entry at varying times and self-report of elder nursing needs and medical conditions. Findings support two of the four determinants contributing to caregiver health.

  11. Modeling the Effects of Early Childhood Intervention Variables on Parent and Family Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Brookfield, Jeffri

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered…

  12. A family of hyperelastic models for human brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, L. Angela; Budday, Silvia; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Experiments on brain samples under multiaxial loading have shown that human brain tissue is both extremely soft when compared to other biological tissues and characterized by a peculiar elastic response under combined shear and compression/tension: there is a significant increase in shear stress with increasing axial compression compared to a moderate increase with increasing axial tension. Recent studies have revealed that many widely used constitutive models for soft biological tissues fail to capture this characteristic response. Here, guided by experiments of human brain tissue, we develop a family of modeling approaches that capture the elasticity of brain tissue under varying simple shear superposed on varying axial stretch by exploiting key observations about the behavior of the nonlinear shear modulus, which can be obtained directly from the experimental data.

  13. Biobehavioral Factors in Child Health Outcomes: The Roles of Maternal Stress, Maternal-Child Engagement, Salivary Cortisol, and Salivary Testosterone.

    PubMed

    Clowtis, Licia M; Kang, Duck-Hee; Padhye, Nikhil S; Rozmus, Cathy; Barratt, Michelle S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of maternal stress and ineffective maternal-child engagement (MC-E) may adversely affect child health-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maternal stress and MC-E on maternal and child biological responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone) and child health outcome in mother-child dyads of preschool children (3-5.9 years) in a low socioeconomic setting. Observational and biobehavioral data were collected from 50 mother-child dyads in a preschool setting. Assessments included maternal stress with the Perceived Stress Scale, child health outcomes with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and MC-E with videotaped mother-child interactions and scored with the Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected from mother and child for biological assays. Maternal stress was negatively correlated with MC-E (r = -.32, p < .05) and child health outcome (r = -.33, p < .05). Lower levels of MC-E predicted higher morning cortisol (p = .02) and higher morning and bedtime testosterone levels in children (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively). Child biological responses did not predict child health outcome. Maternal stress and MC-E during mother-child interactions play a significant role in the regulation of child stress physiology and child health outcome. Elevated cortisol and testosterone related to high maternal stress and low MC-E may increase the child's vulnerability to negative health outcomes-if sustained. More biobehavioral research is needed to understand how parent-child interactions affect child development and health outcomes in early childhood.

  14. Modelling familial dysautonomia in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gabsang; Studer, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have considerable promise as a novel tool for modelling human disease and for drug discovery. While the generation of disease-specific iPS cells has become routine, realizing the potential of iPS cells in disease modelling poses challenges at multiple fronts. Such challenges include selecting a suitable disease target, directing the fate of iPS cells into symptom-relevant cell populations, identifying disease-related phenotypes and showing reversibility of such phenotypes using genetic or pharmacological approaches. Finally, the system needs to be scalable for use in modern drug discovery. Here, we will discuss these points in the context of modelling familial dysautonomia (FD, Riley–Day syndrome, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy III (HSAN-III)), a rare genetic disorder in the peripheral nervous system. We have demonstrated three disease-specific phenotypes in FD-iPS-derived cells that can be partially rescued by treating cells with the plant hormone kinetin. Here, we will discuss how to use FD-iPS cells further in high throughput drug discovery assays, in modelling disease severity and in performing mechanistic studies aimed at understanding disease pathogenesis. FD is a rare disease but represents an important testing ground for exploring the potential of iPS cell technology in modelling and treating human disease. PMID:21727134

  15. Graded Response Model Based on the Logistic Positive Exponent Family of Models for Dichotomous Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    2008-01-01

    Samejima ("Psychometrika "65:319--335, 2000) proposed the logistic positive exponent family of models (LPEF) for dichotomous responses in the unidimensional latent space. The objective of the present paper is to propose and discuss a graded response model that is expanded from the LPEF, in the context of item response theory (IRT). This…

  16. Putting theory to the test: examining family context, caregiver motivation, and conflict in the Family Check-Up model.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Van Ryzin, Mark; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J

    2014-05-01

    This study examined contextual factors (caregiver depression, family resources, ethnicity, and initial levels of youth problem behavior) related to the effectiveness of the Family Check-Up (FCU) and evaluated family processes as a mediator of FCU intervention response and adolescent antisocial behavior. We followed a sample of 180 ethnically diverse youths of families who engaged in the FCU intervention. Family data were collected as part of the FCU assessment, and youth data were collected over 4 years, from sixth through ninth grade. Findings indicated that caregiver depression and minority status predicted greater caregiver motivation to change. In turn, caregiver motivation was the only direct predictor of FCU intervention response during a 1-year period. Growth in family conflict from sixth through eighth grade mediated the link between FCU response and ninth-grade antisocial behavior. This study explicitly tested core aspects of the FCU intervention model and demonstrated that caregiver motivation is a central factor that underlies family response to the FCU. The study also provided support for continued examination of family process mechanisms that account for enduring effects of the FCU and other family-centered interventions.

  17. Applying the Post-Modern Double ABC-X Model to Family Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Samantha; Anderson, Melinda; Swafford, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops the argument that using the Double ABC-X model in family and consumer sciences (FCS) curricula is a way to educate nutrition and dietetics students regarding a family's perceptions of food insecurity. The Double ABC-X model incorporates ecological theory as a basis to explain family stress and the resulting adjustment and…

  18. Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

  19. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  20. Impact of the family educational models on women's status.

    PubMed

    Shen, A

    1995-01-01

    Data from a sample survey of urban married women, 20-54 years old, in Shanghai City and Guangdong, Shandong, and Shaanxi provinces were used to compare family educational models. Husbands and wives had the same educational level among 54.2% in Shanghai, 46.3% in Shandong, 42.1% in Shaanxi, and 40.3% in Guangdong. Education of the wife was higher among 16.5% in Shanghai, 15.9% in Guangdong, and 11.7% in Shandong. Higher educational level of husbands was found to be 29.2% in Shanghai, 43.0% in Shandong and Shaanxi, and 43.8% in Guangdong. Families in which wives had less education than their husbands predominated in Guangdong. Women's status was also compared for occupation, income, control over family finances and reproduction, and time allocation. Shaanxi had more less-educated wives doing physical work or who were unemployed. Women's income as a percentage of total income was 46.43% in Shanghai, 43.31% in Guangdong, 48.84% in Shandong, and 44.90% in Shaanxi. Income was highest in Guangdong and lowest in Shaanxi. Own income management was reported as 11.2% in Shanghai, 8.0% in Shaanxi, 7.7% in Guangdong, and 4.8% in Shandong. Wives who jointly managed income with husbands were 82.4% in Shandong, 72.5% in Guangdong, 67.7% in Shanghai, and 66.5% in Shaanxi. Husbands-only managed income among 5.4% in Shanghai, 4.1% in Shaanxi, 3.4% in Shandong, and 1.8% in Guangdong. 11.1% in Shanghai, 9.3% in Guangdong and Shaanxi, and 3.8% in Shandong managed their own and husband's income. Joint reproductive decisions were made by the majority. Families were slightly larger when husbands were better educated. Fertility was lowest in Shanghai and highest in Shaanxi. Child care by the wife was the most common in Shaanxi (84.5%) and least common in Shandong (63.6%). Father's supervision of children was highest in Shaanxi (56.1%) and lowest in Guangdong (42.8%).

  1. A model of work-family conflict and well-being among Malaysian working women.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Sanaz; Akmal, Syaqirah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    Work and family are the two most important domains in a person's life. Lack of balance between work and family can lead to adverse consequences such as psychological distress; however, the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress might be mediated by job and family dissatisfaction. This study examines a model of the four dimensions of work-family conflict and their consequences on psychological distress. In particular, we test whether job and family satisfaction mediate the effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflict on psychological distress. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women who are working in the public services. Structural Equation Modeling confirmed the mediating role of family satisfaction in the effect of strain-based work interference into family and time-based family interference into work on psychological distress. In addition, our results revealed a significant path that links job to family satisfaction. Moreover, time-based work interference into family and strain-based family interference into work significantly and negatively affect job satisfaction, which in turn influence family satisfaction and eventually affect psychological distress. The results of our study show that organizations need to develop and adapt family friendly policies to mitigate level of employees' work-family conflict.

  2. Growth mixture modelling in families of the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Growth mixture modelling, a less explored method in genetic research, addresses unobserved heterogeneity in population samples. We applied this technique to longitudinal data of the Framingham Heart Study. We examined systolic blood pressure (BP) measures in 1060 males from 692 families and detected three subclasses, which varied significantly in their developmental trajectories over time. The first class consisted of 60 high-risk individuals with elevated BP early in life and a steep increase over time. The second group of 131 individuals displayed first normal BP, but showed a significant increase over time and reached high BP values late in their life time. The largest group of 869 individuals could be considered a normative group with normal BP on all exams. To identify genetic modulators for this phenotype, we tested 2,340 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 8 for association with the class membership probabilities of our model. The probability of being in Class 1 was significantly associated with a very rare variant (rs1445404) present in only four individuals from four different families located in the coding region of the gene EYA (eyes absent homolog 1 in Drosophila) (p = 1.39 × 10-13). Mutations in EYA are known to cause brachio-oto-renal syndrome, as well as isolated renal malformations. Renal malformations could cause high BP early in life. This result awaits replication; however, it suggests that analyzing genetic data stratified for high-risk subgroups defined by a unique development over time could be useful for the detection of rare mutations in common multi-factorial diseases. PMID:20017979

  3. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up: An evidence-based intervention for vulnerable infants and their families.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Mary; Roben, Caroline K P; Caron, Eb; Hoye, Julie; Bernard, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we highlight issues we consider key to the development of an evidence-based intervention for the parents of young children who had experienced early adversity. The intervention was initially developed for foster infants, but adapted for infants living with their neglecting parents, then for young children adopted internationally, and finally for toddlers in foster care or living with neglecting birth parents. The intervention and its adaptations share a focus on the importance of providing nurturance to children when they are distressed, and following children's lead when they are not distressed. We approached intervention development from a theoretical position, with attachment theory and stress neurobiology central. But we are, at heart, clinical scientists and have been open to confirmation or disconfirmation of our ideas and hypotheses. In this paper, we describe our approach, discuss issues and challenges central to our work, and share advice for addressing similar issues and challenges.

  4. Learning from e-Family History: A Model of Online Family Historian Research Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on doctoral research which investigated the online research behaviour of family historians, from the overall perspective of local studies collections and developing online services for family historians. Method: A hybrid (primarily ethnographic) study was employed using qualitative diaries and shadowing, to examine…

  5. [The comparative study on parent-adolescent communication between the model student family and the delinquent adolescent family].

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Shin, H S

    1990-12-31

    This research is based on the communication system theory which considers the family as a communication system or a communication network and which understand interpersonal relations among family members through a communication. This research is intended to define the difference of Parent-Adolescent Child communication between the model student family and the delinquent adolescent family, and also found the factors affecting parent-adolescent child communication. This aims to clarify wether a delinquent behavior is associated with family members' relations caused by dysfunctional communication between parents and their child, moreover explorate their problem to find the method of nursing intervention for prevention and treatment for delinquency. Subjects are 190 families (570 persons: father, mother, adolescent child) of model high school students and 87 families (261 persons) of delinquent adolescents. The employed tool is Olson et al's Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PAC, 20 items). The followings are the results derived through hypotheses verification. First, Comparison of two groups showed a significant difference in Parent-Adolescent Communication (t = 2.77, p less than 0.1). In the communication of delinquent group showed lower response than the model group. And also communication of the model group was more opened and positive (t = 2.41, p less than .05), and showed fewer problems (t = 2.06, p less than .05), the delinquent group had more problems. 2ndary, the delinquent group showed significantly more disagreement in response to variable of PAC than the model group. As analyzing of factors affects the Parents-Adolescent Communication, the best method to protect juvenile from delinquency are consistent open-hearted, congruent communication with mutual concern and warm mind between parents and child. And even though the all family don't hardly send together their time for their job, parents have to arrange many times to hold communication with children

  6. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of family treatment models for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lock, James

    2011-07-01

    Interest in the effectiveness of family interventions for eating disorders has increased over the past 5 years. This review considers the theoretical justification and current evidence base for the use of family treatments for eating disorders in children and adolescents. Family-based treatment is the best studied treatment. It has the strongest evidence base for effectiveness for anorexia nervosa in adolescents. Family-based treatment can be delivered in several formats and doses, and preliminary data suggest it can be disseminated by training and manuals. There is a more limited evidence base demonstrating the usefulness of family interventions for bulimia nervosa in adolescents. The implications of the findings of this review are that family interventions are the current first-line treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa and promising for adolescent bulimia nervosa. Pilot studies suggest that family interventions can be disseminated in diverse clinical settings.

  8. Patterns of parental transmission and familial aggregation models in bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, M; Martinez, M; Nöthen, M M; Propping, P; Milea, S; Mihailescu, R; Marinescu, E

    1998-09-07

    Two recent studies [McMahon et al., 1995: Am J Hum Genet 56:1277-1286; Gershon et al., 1996: Am J Med Genet (Neuropsychiatr Genet) 67:202-207] reported an excess of maternal transmission in bipolar affective disorder in multiply affected families. In a sample of 130 families ascertained through a bipolar proband without regard to psychiatric family history we analysed the frequency of maternal (MAT) and paternal (PAT) transmissions, the morbid risk (MR) in relatives of transmitting mothers and fathers and the inheritance patterns in families with MAT vs. PAT transmission of the disease. In the total sample of 130 families we identified 39 families where the disease was transmitted from the paternal side (PAT families) and 35 families where the disease was transmitted from the maternal side (MAT families). Counting PAT and MAT transmissions in these unilineal families we found nearly equal numbers for both transmission types under a narrow (BP: bipolar disorder, schizoaffective-bipolar type disorder) and a broad definition (AFF: BP, recurrent unipolar depression) of the phenotype. The MRs for narrow and broad phenotypes were not significantly different in any type of PAT relative in PAT families vs. MAT relatives in MAT families. However, in PAT families there were two times more affected females than males with both disease models, while in MAT families there was no MR difference by relatives' sex. The transmission of BP was compatible with the Mendelian major gene model in PAT families and with the multifactorial model in MAT families. Extension of the relatives' phenotype led to borderline non-Mendelian major effects in PAT families and reproduced the multifactorial model in MAT families.

  9. Evaluation of the McKenzie intervention for chronic low back pain by using selected physical and bio-behavioral outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Saud M; Al-Sayegh, Nowall A; Ben Nakhi, Huzaifa; Al-Mandeel, Mariam

    2011-07-01

    To assess the bio-behavioral and physical performance characteristics of individuals with chronic low back pain who demonstrated the pain centralization phenomenon and received the McKenzie intervention using selected bio-behavioral and physical performance measures at intake and at 5 weeks and 10 weeks after treatment. A prospective cohort study with assessment at baseline and 2 follow-ups after completion of the McKenzie intervention. Outpatient orthopedic physical therapy clinics. Sixty-two volunteers with chronic low back pain (28 men, 34 women; average ages 41.9 and 37.1 years, respectively). The subjects completed pain and related fear and disability questionnaires, underwent McKenzie mechanical assessment, and executed selected physical performances. They then received the McKenzie intervention. Outcomes measurements were repeated at the end of the 5th and 10th weeks after treatment completion. Pain-related disability and fear beliefs were assessed by using the Disability Belief Questionnaire and Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaires, respectively. The time for repeated sit to stand, trunk forward bending, and customary and fast walking were measured by stopwatch. Pain (anticipated versus actual reported) was measured before and immediately after a given physical performance. Descriptive statistics, paired t-tests, and repeated measures analysis of variance were used. Significant improvements peaked at the end of the 5th week for all outcome measures (P < .001), with slight increase in bio-behavioral variables at the end of the 10th week. McKenzie intervention reduced pain and related fear and disability beliefs and improved physical performances in individuals with chronic low back pain. Improvements in physical performances remained stable 10 weeks after treatment, regardless of the elevation in bio-behavioral factors. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Youth Depression in the Family Context: Familial Risk Factors and Models of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Janay B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.

    2006-01-01

    Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of parent and family factors is associated with youth risk for depression, ranging from parental pathology to parental cognitive style to family emotional climate. Next, treatment approaches for youth depression that have been empirically tested are described and then summarized in terms of their level of parent inclusion, including cognitive–behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and family systems approaches. Families have mostly not been incorporated into clinical treatment research with depressed adolescents, with only 32% of treatments including parents in treatment in any capacity. Nonetheless, the overall effectiveness of treatments that involve children and adolescents exclusively is very similar to that of treatments that include parents as agents or facilitators of change. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings and directions for further research. PMID:16151618

  11. Implementing multiresolution models and families of models: from entity-level simulation to desktop stochastic models and "repro" models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEver, Jimmie; Davis, Paul K.; Bigelow, James H.

    2000-06-01

    We have developed and used families of multiresolution and multiple-perspective models (MRM and MRMPM), both in our substantive analytic work for the Department of Defense and to learn more about how such models can be designed and implemented. This paper is a brief case history of our experience with a particular family of models addressing the use of precision fires in interdicting and halting an invading army. Our models were implemented as closed-form analytic solutions, in spreadsheets, and in the more sophisticated AnalyticaTM environment. We also drew on an entity-level simulation for data. The paper reviews the importance of certain key attributes of development environments (visual modeling, interactive languages, friendly use of array mathematics, facilities for experimental design and configuration control, statistical analysis tools, graphical visualization tools, interactive post-processing, and relational database tools). These can go a long way towards facilitating MRMPM work, but many of these attributes are not yet widely available (or available at all) in commercial model-development tools--especially for use with personal computers. We conclude with some lessons learned from our experience.

  12. Telemedicine model to prevent blindness from familial glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Staffieri, Sandra E; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Kearns, Lisa S; Barbour, Julie M; Edwards, Thomas L; Paul, Padma; Mackey, David A

    2011-11-01

    To develop, implement and evaluate a telemedicine model to reduce glaucoma blindness through the early detection of undiagnosed glaucoma in high-risk individuals. Prospective study, private ophthalmology practice and public outpatient clinics in Tasmania. One hundred and thirty-three individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma were invited to enrol their first-degree relatives (FDRs) to undergo an eye examination. Within the study period, 211 FDRs were available for examination. A registered nurse was trained to perform the required assessments. Clinical data were entered into a purpose-built database, converted to a portable document format and graded offsite by an ophthalmologist to determine the presence, absence or risk of developing glaucoma. Participants were notified of the grading result and recommendations for review. Incidence of undiagnosed glaucoma in a high-risk population. Previously undiagnosed glaucoma was identified in 5% of those examined. For every 19 participants screened, one new case of previously undiagnosed case of glaucoma was identified. Additionally 15% of participants showed suspicious signs of glaucoma, and 6% had ocular hypertension. A telemedicine model is an efficient method for screening, grading and notifying participants of examination results. Nurses can be adequately trained to undertake the initial screening examinations, with grading of the results performed offsite by a suitably qualified ophthalmologist. Targeted screening for glaucoma increases the yield of identifying individuals with undiagnosed glaucoma or those at greatest risk. Cost efficiencies for this model of glaucoma screening should be further explored and implemented to prevent blindness from familial glaucoma. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Family Resilience in the Military: Definitions, Models, and Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    occurs, (3) recovering quickly and relatively fully from distress or impairment, and (4) coping with residual and persistent distress or changes in...children with Down Syndrome: Responding to ‘a change in plans’ with resilience,” Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 22(2), 2007, 116–128. Wald, J., S. Taylor...The most common family resilience factors—that is, the resources that families use to cope with stress—can be grouped into five domains: family belief

  14. Relations between Minuchin's Structural Family Model and Kohut's Self-Psychology Constructs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…

  15. The biobehavioral Women's Health CoOp in Pretoria, South Africa: study protocol for a cluster-randomized design.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Zule, William A; Ndirangu, Jacqueline; Kline, Tracy L; Rodman, Nathaniel F; Doherty, Irene A; Novak, Scott P; van der Horst, Charles M

    2014-10-15

    South Africa has 6.4 million adults over the age of 15 living with HIV. Gender inequality issues continue to drive the HIV epidemic in South Africa, where Black African women bear the greatest HIV burden. Limited access to services; little capacity to negotiate sex and condom use; and other legal, social, and economic inequities make women highly vulnerable to HIV infection. Behavioral interventions have been shown to decrease risk behaviors, but they have been less successful in reducing HIV incidence. Conversely, biomedical prevention strategies have proven to be successful in reducing HIV incidence, but require behavioral interventions to increase uptake and adherence. Consequently, there is a need for integrated approaches that combine biomedical and behavioral interventions. Effective combination prevention efforts should comprise biomedical, behavioral, and structural programming proven in randomized trials that focuses on the driving forces and key populations at higher risk of HIV infection and transmission. This prospective, geographically clustered randomized field experiment is enrolling participants into two arms: a control arm that receives standard HIV testing and referral for treatment; and an intervention arm that receives an evidence-based, woman-focused behavioral intervention that emphasizes risk reduction and retention, the Women's Health CoOp. We divided the city of Pretoria into 14 mutually exclusive geographic zones and randomized these zones into either the control arm or the intervention arm. Outreach workers are recruiting drug-using women from each zone. At baseline, eligible participants complete a questionnaire and biological testing for HIV, recent drug use, and pregnancy. Follow-up interviews are completed at 6 and 12 months. The biobehavioral intervention in this study merges an efficacious behavioral HIV prevention intervention for women with biomedical prevention through HIV treatment as prevention using a Seek, Test, Treat and

  16. Risk Models for Returns to Housing Instability Among Families Experiencing Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Glendening, Zachary; Shinn, Marybeth

    2017-01-01

    This study developed risk models for returns to housing instability (that is, homelessness and unstable doubling-up situations) among families exiting emergency shelter. Participants included 446 families randomly assigned to receive priority offers of long-term housing subsidies and 578 families randomly assigned to usual care in the Family Options Study, a multisite experiment designed to test the impact of various housing and service interventions for homeless families. Relationships between family features recorded at shelter entry and returns to housing instability 20 months later were examined empirically. Correlation, hierarchical logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to combine family features into predictive risk models. Results indicated that few observable family features beyond previous housing instability offered predictive utility. Access to long-term housing subsidies appears to reduce housing instability. Further research should examine whether disability benefits, reliable employment, or effective substance dependence treatment reduce housing instability. PMID:29326757

  17. Modeling familial cancer with induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dung-Fang; Su, Jie; Kim, Huen Suk; Chang, Betty; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Zhao, Ruiying; Yuan, Ye; Gingold, Julian; Xia, Weiya; Darr, Henia; Mirzayans, Razmik; Hung, Mien-Chie; Schaniel, Christoph; Lemischka, Ihor R

    2015-04-09

    In vitro modeling of human disease has recently become feasible with induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Here, we established patient-derived iPSCs from a Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) family and investigated the role of mutant p53 in the development of osteosarcoma (OS). LFS iPSC-derived osteoblasts (OBs) recapitulated OS features including defective osteoblastic differentiation as well as tumorigenic ability. Systematic analyses revealed that the expression of genes enriched in LFS-derived OBs strongly correlated with decreased time to tumor recurrence and poor patient survival. Furthermore, LFS OBs exhibited impaired upregulation of the imprinted gene H19 during osteogenesis. Restoration of H19 expression in LFS OBs facilitated osteoblastic differentiation and repressed tumorigenic potential. By integrating human imprinted gene network (IGN) into functional genomic analyses, we found that H19 mediates suppression of LFS-associated OS through the IGN component DECORIN (DCN). In summary, these findings demonstrate the feasibility of studying inherited human cancer syndromes with iPSCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling Familial Cancer with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dung-Fang; Su, Jie; Kim, Huen Suk; Chang, Betty; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Zhao, Ruiying; Yuan, Ye; Gingold, Julian; Xia, Weiya; Darr, Henia; Mirzayans, Razmik; Hung, Mien-Chie; Schaniel, Christoph; Lemischka, Ihor R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In vitro modeling of human disease has recently become feasible with induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Here, we established patient-derived iPSCs from a Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) family and investigated the role of mutant p53 in the development of osteosarcoma (OS). LFS iPSC-derived osteoblasts (OBs) recapitulated OS features including defective osteoblastic differentiation as well as tumorigenic ability. Systematic analyses revealed that the expression of genes enriched in LFS-derived OBs strongly correlated with decreased time to tumor recurrence and poor patient survival. Furthermore, LFS OBs exhibited impaired upregulation of the imprinted gene H19 during osteogenesis. Restoration of H19 expression in LFS OBs facilitated osteoblastic differentiation and repressed tumorigenic potential. By integrating human imprinted gene network (IGN) into functional genomic analyses, we found that H19 mediates suppression of LFS-associated OS through the IGN component DECORIN (DCN). In summary, these findings demonstrate the feasibility of studying inherited human cancer syndromes with iPSCs. PMID:25860607

  19. Modeling Family Dynamics in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Burns, David D.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of children with genetic disorders and their unaffected siblings on family functioning. In this study, the reciprocal causal links between problem behaviors and maternal distress were investigated in 150 families containing a child with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and an unaffected sibling. Both children's…

  20. Family model of HIV care and treatment: a retrospective study in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nyanza Province, Kenya, had the highest HIV prevalence in the country at 14.9% in 2007, more than twice the national HIV prevalence of 7.1%. Only 16% of HIV-infected adults in the country accurately knew their HIV status. Targeted strategies to reach and test individuals are urgently needed to curb the HIV epidemic. The family unit is one important portal. Methods A family model of care was designed to build on the strengths of Kenyan families. Providers use a family information table (FIT) to guide index patients through the steps of identifying family members at HIV risk, address disclosure, facilitate family testing, and work to enrol HIV-positive members and to prevent new infections. Comprehensive family-centred clinical services are built around these steps. To assess the approach, a retrospective study of patients receiving HIV care between September 2007 and September 2009 at Lumumba Health Centre in Kisumu was conducted. A random sample of FITs was examined to assess family reach. Results Through the family model of care, for each index patient, approximately 2.5 family members at risk were identified and 1.6 family members were tested. The approach was instrumental in reaching children; 61% of family members identified and tested were children. The approach also led to identifying and enrolling a high proportion of HIV- positive partners among those tested: 71% and 89%, respectively. Conclusions The family model of care is a feasible approach to broaden HIV case detection and service reach. The approach can be adapted for the local context and should continue to utilize index patient linkages, FIT adaption, and innovative methods to package services for families in a manner that builds on family support and enhances patient care and prevention efforts. Further efforts are needed to increase family member engagement. PMID:22353553

  1. Biobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to A Matrilineal Overthrow and Relocation in Captive Infant Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, Joshua A.; Del Rosso, Laura A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2017-01-01

    There is a general consensus that perinatal experiences help to shape infant behavior; however, relatively little is known about the effects of prenatal experience on postnatal phenotype in non-human primates. The current study sought to take advantage of a naturally-occurring incident in a captive population of rhesus monkeys. Following a matrilineal overthrow in an outdoor field cage, pregnant female rhesus macaques were relocated from outdoor to indoor housing. Using data collected from the California National Primate Research Center’s Biobehavioral Assessment Program, we assessed infants born to mothers that were in their first or second trimester of pregnancy during the overthrow and relocation, and compared their data with that of animals from two control groups born in the same year: indoor mother raised infants and field cage reared infants. Our results suggest that the experience of an overthrow and relocation during the first trimester elevated postnatal emotional responsiveness, while the same experience in the second trimester resulted in modified HPA axis regulation, elevated glucocorticoid output following maternal separation, and lower hematocrit levels compared to control groups. These data add to a growing body of literature that prenatal experiences represent a significant contribution to postnatal phenotypic variability. Findings such as ours have implications for studies in captive management and the management of captive rhesus monkey populations. PMID:27150125

  2. Biobehavioral consequences of prenatal exposure to a matrilineal overthrow and relocation in captive infant rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Joshua A; Del Rosso, Laura A; Capitanio, John P

    2016-09-01

    There is a general consensus that perinatal experiences help to shape infant behavior; however, relatively little is known about the effects of prenatal experience on postnatal phenotype in non-human primates. The current study sought to take advantage of a naturally occurring incident in a captive population of rhesus monkeys. Following a matrilineal overthrow in an outdoor field cage, pregnant female rhesus macaques were relocated from outdoor to indoor housing. Using data collected from the California National Primate Research Center's Biobehavioral Assessment Program, we assessed infants born to mothers that were in their first or second trimester of pregnancy during the overthrow and relocation, and compared their data with that of animals from two control groups born in the same year: indoor mother raised infants and field cage reared infants. Our results suggest that the experience of an overthrow and relocation during the first trimester elevated postnatal emotional responsiveness, while the same experience in the second trimester resulted in modified HPA axis regulation, elevated glucocorticoid output following maternal separation, and lower hematocrit levels compared to control groups. These data add to a growing body of literature that prenatal experiences represent a significant contribution to postnatal phenotypic variability. Findings such as ours have implications for studies in captive management and the management of captive rhesus monkey populations. Am. J. Primatol. 78:895-903, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Building a Family Systems Model to Promote Adherence to PTSD Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0619 TITLE: Building a Family Systems Model to Promote Adherence to PTSD Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura A...SUBTITLE Building a Family Systems Model to Promote Adherence to PTSD Treatment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER CON000000035664 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0619... adherence to EBTs for PTSD and treatment outcomes. By studying Veterans and their families as they participate in EBTs for PTSD, we will develop a

  4. Topic models: A novel method for modeling couple and family text data

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, David C.; Rubin, Tim N.; Steyvers, Mark; Doeden, Michelle A.; Baucom, Brian R.; Christensen, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Couple and family researchers often collect open-ended linguistic data – either through free response questionnaire items or transcripts of interviews or therapy sessions. Because participant's responses are not forced into a set number of categories, text-based data can be very rich and revealing of psychological processes. At the same time it is highly unstructured and challenging to analyze. Within family psychology analyzing text data typically means applying a coding system, which can quantify text data but also has several limitations, including the time needed for coding, difficulties with inter-rater reliability, and defining a priori what should be coded. The current article presents an alternative method for analyzing text data called topic models (Steyvers & Griffiths, 2006), which has not yet been applied within couple and family psychology. Topic models have similarities with factor analysis and cluster analysis in that topic models identify underlying clusters of words with semantic similarities (i.e., the “topics”). In the present article, a non-technical introduction to topic models is provided, highlighting how these models can be used for text exploration and indexing (e.g., quickly locating text passages that share semantic meaning) and how output from topic models can be used to predict behavioral codes or other types of outcomes. Throughout the article a collection of transcripts from a large couple therapy trial (Christensen et al., 2004) is used as example data to highlight potential applications. Practical resources for learning more about topic models and how to apply them are discussed. PMID:22888778

  5. Parametric Modeling in the CAE Process: Creating a Family of Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    This Presentation meant as an example - Give ideas of approaches to use - The significant benefit of PARAMETRIC geometry based modeling The importance of planning before you build Showcase some NX capabilities - Mesh Controls - Associativity - Divide Face - Offset Surface Reminder - This only had to be done once! - Can be used for any cabinet in that "family" Saves a lot of time if pre-planned Allows re-use in the future

  6. Developmental Idealism and Cultural Models of the Family in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pierotti, Rachael S.; Young-DeMarco, Linda; Watkins, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Malawi. Developmental idealism is a set of beliefs and values about development and the relationships between development and family structures and behavior. Developmental idealism states that attributes of societies and families defined as modern are better than attributes defined as traditional, that modern societies help produce modern families, that modern families facilitate the achievement of modern societies, and that the future will bring family change in the direction of modernity. Previous research has demonstrated that knowledge of developmental idealism is widespread in many places around the world, but provides little systematic data about it in sub-Saharan Africa or how knowledge of it is associated with certain demographic characteristics in that region. In this paper, we address this issue by examining whether ordinary people in two settings in Malawi, a sub-Saharan African country, have received and understood messages that are intended to associate development with certain types of family forms and family behaviors. We then examine associations between demographic characteristics and developmental idealism to investigate possible mechanisms linking global discourse about development to the grassroots. We analyze data collected in face-to-face surveys from two samples of Malawian men in 2009 and 2010, one rural, the other in a low-to-medium income neighborhood of a city. Our analysis of these survey data shows considerable evidence that many developmental idealism beliefs have been spread in that country and that education has positive effects on beliefs in the association between development and family attributes. We also find higher levels of developmental idealism awareness in the urban sample than we do in the rural sample, but once dissimilarities in education and wealth between the two samples are controlled, awareness levels no longer differed between

  7. Developmental Idealism and Cultural Models of the Family in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Arland; Pierotti, Rachael S; Young-DeMarco, Linda; Watkins, Susan

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Malawi. Developmental idealism is a set of beliefs and values about development and the relationships between development and family structures and behavior. Developmental idealism states that attributes of societies and families defined as modern are better than attributes defined as traditional, that modern societies help produce modern families, that modern families facilitate the achievement of modern societies, and that the future will bring family change in the direction of modernity. Previous research has demonstrated that knowledge of developmental idealism is widespread in many places around the world, but provides little systematic data about it in sub-Saharan Africa or how knowledge of it is associated with certain demographic characteristics in that region. In this paper, we address this issue by examining whether ordinary people in two settings in Malawi, a sub-Saharan African country, have received and understood messages that are intended to associate development with certain types of family forms and family behaviors. We then examine associations between demographic characteristics and developmental idealism to investigate possible mechanisms linking global discourse about development to the grassroots. We analyze data collected in face-to-face surveys from two samples of Malawian men in 2009 and 2010, one rural, the other in a low-to-medium income neighborhood of a city. Our analysis of these survey data shows considerable evidence that many developmental idealism beliefs have been spread in that country and that education has positive effects on beliefs in the association between development and family attributes. We also find higher levels of developmental idealism awareness in the urban sample than we do in the rural sample, but once dissimilarities in education and wealth between the two samples are controlled, awareness levels no longer differed between

  8. KIDS CARE: A Behavioral Model To Strengthen Patient and Family Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Merrigan, Karen; Steinmiller, Elizabeth A; Figueroa-Altmann, Ana; Davis, Katherine Finn

    2016-01-01

    Patient- and Family-Centered Care is a core value of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Satisfaction/ experience data are closely tracked to assist in determining if hospital staff are partnering effectively with patients and families. When opportunities for improvement were identified within the Nursing Department, an existing institutional model, KIDS CARE, was used to promote change. KIDS CARE was developed to teach and reinforce respectful behaviors for nurses initiating partnerships with patients and families. The Patient Satisfaction Committee partnered with the Family Advisory Council and Shared Governance Council to revise this model to help achieve the goals of improving quality of care. Next steps involved educating patients, families, and staff using innovative multimodal strategies. By engaging in this renewed commitment to Patient- and Family-Centered Care, systems and structures were developed to keep KIDS CARE relevant and make strides toward improved outcomes for patients and families.

  9. The Family of Origin Parachute Model: Landing Safely in Adult Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Gardner, Brandt C.; Taniguchi, Narumi

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of the family of origin parachute model in predicting longitudinal outcomes for couples in romantic relationships. This conceptual model contains common family variables that are theoretically and empirically related to later adult functioning and are believed to influence attitudes that adult children develop…

  10. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  11. Effects of familial pain models on daily pain indices and performance during the cold pressor task.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, A; Widner, S; Loftin, M; Panopoulos, G; Allen, J

    1999-06-01

    To understand better the role of pain history in current response to pain episodes, this research examined pain-related indices from the patient's family of origin and their relationships to the patient's coping with acute pain. Participants were 42 healthy men and women who provided information about their own and their family's pain history and then were administered a cold pressor task. High frequency of family pain modeling was associated with higher frequency of current pain episodes, more types of pain, greater intensity, and also lower physiological arousal and subjective pain ratings during the cold pressor. The findings underscore the relationships between familial pain modeling and current pain-related functioning.

  12. Using the Rasch measurement model in psychometric analysis of the Family Effectiveness Measure.

    PubMed

    McCreary, Linda L; Conrad, Karen M; Conrad, Kendon J; Scott, Christy K; Funk, Rodney R; Dennis, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Valid assessment of family functioning can play a vital role in optimizing client outcomes. Because family functioning is influenced by family structure, socioeconomic context, and culture, existing measures of family functioning-primarily developed with nuclear, middle-class European American families-may not be valid assessments of families in diverse populations. The Family Effectiveness Measure was developed to address this limitation. The aim of this study was to test the Family Effectiveness Measure with data from a primarily low-income African American convenience sample using the Rasch measurement model. A sample of 607 adult women completed the measure. Rasch analysis was used to assess unidimensionality, response category functioning, item fit, person reliability, differential item functioning by race and parental status, and item hierarchy. Criterion-related validity was tested using correlations with five other variables related to family functioning. The Family Effectiveness Measure measures two separate constructs: The Effective Family Functioning construct was a psychometrically sound measure of the target construct that was more efficient because of the deletion of 22 items. The Ineffective Family Functioning construct consisted of 16 of those deleted items but was not as strong psychometrically. Items in both constructs evidenced no differential item functioning by race. Criterion-related validity was supported for both. In contrast to the prevailing conceptualization that family functioning is a single construct, assessed by positively and negatively worded items, use of the Rasch analysis suggested the existence of two constructs. Whereas the Effective Family Functioning scale is a strong and efficient measure of family functioning, the Ineffective Family Functioning scale will require additional item development and psychometric testing.

  13. Integrating the Illness Beliefs Model in clinical practice: a Family Systems Nursing knowledge utilization model.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Fabie; Dupuis, France; Turcotte, Annie; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-05-01

    To promote the integration of Family Systems Nursing (FSN) in clinical practice, we need to better understand how nurses overcome the challenges of FSN knowledge utilization. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted with 32 practicing female nurses from hospital and community settings who had received FSN intervention training and skill development based on the Illness Beliefs Model and the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models. The participants were interviewed about how they utilized FSN knowledge in their nursing practice. From the data analysis, a FSN Knowledge Utilization Model emerged that involves three major components: (a) nurses' beliefs in FSN and in their FSN skills, (b) nurses' knowledge utilization strategies to address the challenges of FSN practice, and (c) FSN positive outcomes. The FSN Knowledge Utilization Model describes a circular, incremental, and iterative process used by nurses to integrate FSN in daily nursing practice. Findings point to a need for re-evaluation of educational and management strategies in clinical settings for advancing the practice of FSN. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Interfaith Education: A New Model for Today's Interfaith Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheila C.; Arenstein, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    With societal changes rapidly transforming cultures that had been largely homogenous, today's multi-cultural--and in particular interfaith--families need new educational strategies to help them understand their cultural roots and identify and clarify what aspects of their heritages they wish to nurture and transmit to their children. This paper…

  15. Building a Family Systems Model to Promote Adherence to PTSD Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    to Promote Adherence to PTSD Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura A. Meis, PhD RECIPIENT: University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN...the most out of treatment . Findings will provide the evidence-base for when, how, and why family involvement can improve adherence to EBTs for PTSD...of family on treatment adherence among service members referred to EBTs for PTSD, 2) To evaluate a family-systems model of mechanisms of treatment

  16. Validation of a model of family caregiver communication types and related caregiver outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Kravits, Kate; Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty; Fujinami, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    Caring for the family is included as one of the eight domains of quality palliative care, calling attention to the importance of the family system and family communications about cancer during care and treatment of the disease. Previously, a model of family caregiver communication defined four caregiver communication types-Manager, Carrier, Partner, Lone-each with a unique communication pattern. The purpose of the present study was to extend the model of family caregiver communication in cancer care to further understand the impact of family communication burden on caregiving outcomes. This mixed-method study employed fieldnotes from a family caregiver intervention focused on quality of life and self-reported caregiver communication items to identify a specific family caregiver type. Caregiver types were then analyzed using outcome measures on psychological distress, skills preparedness, family inventory of needs, and quality-of-life domains. Corroboration between fieldnotes and self-reported communication for caregivers (n = 21, 16 women, mean age of 53 years) revealed a definitive classification of the four caregiver types (Manager = 6, Carrier = 5, Partner = 6, Lone = 4). Mean scores on self-reported communication items documented different communication patterns congruent with the theoretical framework of the model. Variation in caregiver outcomes measures confirmed the model of family caregiver communication types. Partner and Lone caregivers reported the lowest psychological distress, with Carrier caregivers feeling least prepared and Manager caregivers reporting the lowest physical quality of life. This study illustrates the impact of family communication on caregiving and increases our knowledge and understanding about the role of communication in caregiver burden. The research provides the first evidence-based validation for a family caregiver communication typology and its relationship to caregiver outcomes. Future research is needed to develop and test

  17. Biobehavioral effects of baclofen in anxious alcohol-dependent individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    Farokhnia, M; Schwandt, M L; Lee, M R; Bollinger, J W; Farinelli, L A; Amodio, J P; Sewell, L; Lionetti, T A; Spero, D E; Leggio, L

    2017-01-01

    Baclofen has been suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder, but the clinical data are conflicting. Here we investigated the biobehavioral effects of baclofen in a sample of anxious alcohol-dependent individuals. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent individuals with high trait anxiety (N=34). Participants received baclofen (30 mg per day) or placebo for at least 8 days, then performed an experimental session consisting of alcohol cue-reactivity followed by alcohol administration procedure (alcohol priming, then alcohol self-administration). Total amount of alcohol self-administered was the primary outcome; alcohol craving, subjective/physiological responses and mood/anxiety symptoms were also evaluated. There was no significant medication effect on the total amount of alcohol consumed during the alcohol self-administration (P=0.76). Baclofen blunted the positive association between maximum breath alcohol concentration during priming and the amount of alcohol consumption (significant interaction, P=0.03). Ratings of feeling intoxicated were significantly higher in the baclofen group after consuming the priming drink (P=0.006). During the self-administration session, baclofen significantly increased ratings of feeling high (P=0.01) and intoxicated (P=0.01). A significant reduction in heart rate (P<0.001) and a trend-level increase in diastolic blood pressure (P=0.06) were also detected in the baclofen group during the alcohol laboratory session. In conclusion, baclofen was shown to affect subjective and physiological responses to alcohol drinking in anxious alcohol-dependent individuals. These results do not support an anti-craving or anti-reinforcing effect of baclofen, but rather suggest that baclofen may act as a substitution medication for alcohol use disorder. PMID:28440812

  18. Living the academic life: A model for work-family conflict.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Mina; Shirmohammadi, Melika; Kim, Sehoon

    2015-01-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) is an inter-role conflict, which suggests that fulfilling expectations of family roles makes it difficult to satisfy expectations of work roles, and vice versa. Living an academic life includes balancing multiple work demands and family responsibilities, which may generate WFC for many faculty members. Researchers have emphasized the need for further studies of how faculty integrate work and family demands. This study explores WFC among Iranian faculty. We examine relationships among work hours, time spent with family, work-interference with family (WIF), family-interference with work (FIW), and job satisfaction. Faculty members from 25 Iranian public universities completed a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses in a single model. Findings suggest a positive relationship between faculty weekly work hours and WIF, and between time spent with family and FIW. WIF correlated negatively with job satisfaction, and work hours correlated positively with job satisfaction. Time spent with family and FIW had no influence on job satisfaction, and spouse employment moderated the relationship between WIF and job satisfaction. Findings have implications for human resources and organizational development professionals seeking insight into how faculty members and other knowledge workers experience work-family interrelationships.

  19. System Dynamics Model and Simulation of Employee Work-Family Conflict in the Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guangdong; Duan, Kaifeng; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Jianlin; Wen, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry is a demanding work environment where employees’ work-family conflict is particularly prominent. This conflict has a significant impact on job and family satisfaction and performance of employees. In order to analyze the dynamic evolution of construction industry employee’s work-family conflict between work and family domains, this paper constructs a bi-directional dynamic model framework of work-family conflict by referring to the relevant literature. Consequently, a system dynamics model of employee’s work-family conflict in the construction industry is established, and a simulation is conducted. The simulation results indicate that construction industry employees experience work interference with family conflict (WIFC) levels which are significantly greater than the family interference with work conflict (FIWC) levels. This study also revealed that improving work flexibility and organizational support can have a positive impact on the satisfaction and performance of construction industry employees from a work and family perspective. Furthermore, improving family support can only significantly improve employee job satisfaction. PMID:27801857

  20. System Dynamics Model and Simulation of Employee Work-Family Conflict in the Construction Industry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangdong; Duan, Kaifeng; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Jianlin; Wen, Shiping

    2016-10-28

    The construction industry is a demanding work environment where employees' work-family conflict is particularly prominent. This conflict has a significant impact on job and family satisfaction and performance of employees. In order to analyze the dynamic evolution of construction industry employee's work-family conflict between work and family domains, this paper constructs a bi-directional dynamic model framework of work-family conflict by referring to the relevant literature. Consequently, a system dynamics model of employee's work-family conflict in the construction industry is established, and a simulation is conducted. The simulation results indicate that construction industry employees experience work interference with family conflict (WIFC) levels which are significantly greater than the family interference with work conflict (FIWC) levels. This study also revealed that improving work flexibility and organizational support can have a positive impact on the satisfaction and performance of construction industry employees from a work and family perspective. Furthermore, improving family support can only significantly improve employee job satisfaction.

  1. Emerging models for mobilizing family support for chronic disease management: a structured review.

    PubMed

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Piette, John D

    2010-03-01

    We identify recent models for programmes aiming to increase effective family support for chronic illness management and self-care among adult patients without significant physical or cognitive disabilities. We then summarize evidence regarding the efficacy for each model identified. Structured review of studies published in medical and psychology databases from 1990 to the present, reference review, general Web searches and conversations with family intervention experts. Review was limited to studies on conditions that require ongoing self-management, such as diabetes, chronic heart disease and rheumatologic disease. Programmes with three separate foci were identified: (1) Programmes that guide family members in setting goals for supporting patient self-care behaviours have led to improved implementation of family support roles, but have mixed success improving patient outcomes. (2) Programmes that train family in supportive communication techniques, such as prompting patient coping techniques or use of autonomy supportive statements, have successfully improved patient symptom management and health behaviours. (3) Programmes that give families tools and infrastructure to assist in monitoring clinical symptoms and medications are being conducted, with no evidence to date on their impact on patient outcomes. The next generation of programmes to improve family support for chronic disease management incorporate a variety of strategies. Future research can define optimal clinical situations for family support programmes, the most effective combinations of support strategies, and how best to integrate family support programmes into comprehensive models of chronic disease care.

  2. Emerging Models for Mobilizing Family Support for Chronic Disease Management: A Structured Review

    PubMed Central

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Piette, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We identify recent models for programs aiming to increase effective family support for chronic illness management and self-care among adult patients without significant physical or cognitive disabilities. We then summarize evidence regarding the efficacy for each model identified. Methods Structured review of studies published in medical and psychology databases from 1990 to the present, reference review, general Web searches, and conversations with family intervention experts. Review was limited to studies on conditions that require ongoing self-management, such as diabetes, chronic heart disease, and rheumatologic disease. Results Programs with three separate foci were identified: 1) Programs that guide family members in setting goals for supporting patient self-care behaviors have led to improved implementation of family support roles, but have mixed success improving patient outcomes. 2) Programs that train family in supportive communication techniques, such as prompting patient coping techniques or use of autonomy supportive statements, have successfully improved patient symptom management and health behaviors. 3) Programs that give families tools and infrastructure to assist in monitoring clinical symptoms and medications are being conducted, with no evidence to date on their impact on patient outcomes. Discussion The next generation of programs to improve family support for chronic disease management incorporate a variety of strategies. Future research can define optimal clinical situations for family support programs, the most effective combinations of support strategies, and how best to integrate family support programs into comprehensive models of chronic disease care. PMID:20308347

  3. Linking family cohesion and flexibility with expressed emotion, family burden and psychological distress in caregivers of patients with psychosis: A path analytic model.

    PubMed

    Koutra, Katerina; Simos, Panagiotis; Triliva, Sofia; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-06-30

    The present study aimed to evaluate a path analytic model accounting for caregivers' psychological distress that takes into account perceived family cohesion and flexibility, expressed emotion and caregiver's burden associated with the presence of mental illness in the family. 50 first-episode and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) recruited from the Inpatient Psychiatric Unit of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was assessed in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES-IV), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of family dynamics on caregivers' psychological distress. The results showed that neither family cohesion nor family flexibility exerted significant direct effects on caregivers' psychological distress. Instead, the effect of flexibility was mediated by caregivers' criticism and family burden indicating an indirect effect on caregivers' psychological distress. These results apply equally to caregivers of first episode and chronic patients. Family interventions aiming to improve dysfunctional family interactions by promoting awareness of family dynamics could reduce the burden and improve the emotional well-being of family caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Family involvement following institutionalization: modeling nursing home visits over time.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, Joseph E; Zarit, Steven H; Pearlin, Leonard I

    2003-01-01

    Gerontological research has emphasized family members' continued involvement in the lives of loved ones following institutionalization. However, many of these studies are cross-sectional in design and do not ascertain how family members' visits change over time. The present study utilized a growth curve analysis to examine preplacement and postplacement predictors of nursing home visits over a two-year period among a sample of 65 caregivers of dementia patients. Intraindividual patterns of change suggested considerable heterogeneity in family visits. Several variables were also significantly predictive (p < .05) of change in nursing home visits. Spousal caregivers were more likely to report increased visits. Care recipients with greater cognitive impairment following institutionalization experienced increased visits. Caregivers who perceived respect and support from their social network following institutionalization also reported increased visits over the two-year study period. Caregivers who engaged in socially restorative activities after institutionalization reported decreases in visits. The findings provide a more refined understanding of the long-term involvement process following institutionalization.

  5. Family Members' Willingness to Care for People with AIDS: A Psychosocial Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, James R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents model for assessing psychosocial factors that may influence family members' willingness to care for people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): caregiver resources and coping characteristics, degree to which person with AIDS is held accountable, social support, familial obligation/affection, fears of acquiring human…

  6. A Longitudinal Family-Level Model of Arab Muslim Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.; Templin, Thomas N.; Hough, Edythe Ellison; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems. This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures…

  7. Marginal genetic effects estimation in family and twin studies using random-effects models.

    PubMed

    Tsonaka, Roula; van der Woude, Diane; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine

    2015-12-01

    Random-effects models are often used in family-based genetic association studies to properly capture the within families relationships. In such models, the regression parameters have a conditional on the random effects interpretation and they measure, e.g., genetic effects for each family. Estimating parameters that can be used to make inferences at the population level is often more relevant than the family-specific effects, but not straightforward. This is mainly for two reasons: First the analysis of family data often requires high-dimensional random-effects vectors to properly model the familial relationships, for instance when members with a different degree of relationship are considered, such as trios, mix of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, etc. The second complication is the biased sampling design, such as the multiple cases families design, which is often employed to enrich the sample with genetic information. For these reasons deriving parameters with the desired marginal interpretation can be challenging. In this work we consider the marginalized mixed-effects models, we discuss challenges in applying them in ascertained family data and propose penalized maximum likelihood methodology to stabilize the parameter estimation by using external information on the disease prevalence or heritability. The performance of our methodology is evaluated via simulation and is illustrated on data from Rheumatoid Arthritis patients, where we estimate the marginal effect of HLA-DRB1*13 and shared epitope alleles across three different study designs and combine them using meta-analysis. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  8. Incorporating Religiosity into a Developmental Model of Positive Family Functioning across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilman, Sarah K.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a developmental model of intergenerational continuity in religiosity and its association with observed competency in romantic and parent-child relationships across 2 generations. Using multi-informant data from the Family Transitions Project, a 20-year longitudinal study of families that began during early adolescence (N =…

  9. Examining family meetings at end of life: The model of practice in a hospice inpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Meeker, Mary Ann; Waldrop, Deborah P; Seo, Jin Young

    2015-10-01

    Our purpose was to rigorously examine the nature of family meetings as conducted in an inpatient hospice care unit in order to generate an inductive theoretical model. In this two-phase project, we first interviewed eight members of the interdisciplinary care team who participated in multiple family meetings each week. Interview questions explored why and how they conducted family meetings. Using an observation template created from these interview data, we subsequently conducted ethnographic observations during family meetings. Using the methods of grounded theory, our findings were synthesized into a theoretical model depicting the structure and process of formal family meetings within this setting. The core of the family meeting was characterized by cognitive and affective elements aimed at supporting the family and facilitating quality care by clarifying the past, easing the present, and protecting the future. This inductive model was subsequently found to be highly aligned with a sense of coherence, an important influence on coping, and adaptation to the stress of a life-limiting illness. Provider communication with family members is particularly critical during advanced illness and end-of-life care. The National Consensus Project clinical practice guidelines for quality palliative care list regular family meetings among the recommended practices for excellent communication during end-of-life care, but do not provide specific guidance on how and when to provide such meetings. Our findings provide a theoretical model that can inform the design of a family meeting to address family members' needs for meaningful and contextualized information, validation of their important contributions to care, and preparation for the patient's death.

  10. Modeling the relationship between family home environment factors and parental health.

    PubMed

    Didericksen, Katharine Wickel; Berge, Jerica M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding parental health is an important part of understanding family health. Previous research suggests that family meals, familial relationship satisfaction, and family physical activity may separately be related to physical health. The current study aims to combine these variables into a structural equation model to determine the collective relationship they have with adult health within a sample of parents (n = 1,435). Most parents were married, White, and highly educated. The relationship between family meals and parental health was significant (β = -.07, t = -2.29, p < .05), with the full model having adequate fit and accounting for some of the overall variance in parental health. Familial relationship satisfaction and family physical activity were not found to be associated with parental health. Exploratory findings of the sample stratified by biological sex are described. Findings from the current study were consistent with a systemic perspective in that parents may have health benefits when they participate in family-level behavior (e.g., family meals). Additional areas for research and limitations to the current study are also discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Developing a Family-Centered Care Model for Critical Care after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Megan; Robinson, Gabrielle; Mink, Richard; Hudson, Kimberly; Dotolo, Danae; Gooding, Tracy; Ramirez, Alma; Zatzick, Douglas; Giordano, Jessica; Crawley, Deborah; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the family experience of critical care after pediatric traumatic brain injury in order to develop a model of specific factors associated with family-centered care. Design Qualitative methods with semi-structured interviews were utilized. Setting Two level 1 trauma centers. Participants Fifteen mothers of children who had an acute hospital stay after TBI within the last 5 years were interviewed about their experience of critical care and discharge planning. Participants who were primarily English, Spanish or Cantonese speaking were included. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results Content analysis was used to code the transcribed interviews and develop the family-centered care model. Three major themes emerged: 1) thorough, timely, compassionate communication, 2) capacity building for families, providers and facilities, and 3) coordination of care transitions. Participants reported valuing detailed, frequent communication that set realistic expectations and prepared them for decision-making and outcomes. Areas for capacity building included strategies to increase provider cultural humility, parent participation in care and institutional flexibility. Coordinated care transitions, including continuity of information and maintenance of partnerships with families and care teams were highlighted. Participants who were not primarily English speaking reported particular difficulty with communication, cultural understanding and coordinated transitions. Conclusions This study presents a family-centered traumatic brain injury care model based on family perspectives. In addition to communication and coordination strategies, the model offers methods to address cultural and structural barriers to meeting the needs of non-English speaking families. Given the stress experienced by families of children with TBI, careful consideration of the model themes identified here may assist in improving overall quality of care to families of

  12. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents’ cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized Integrative Family Stress Model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across three times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers’ perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms five years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers’ perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers’ familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways. PMID:25751100

  13. Primary Care Reform: Can Quebec's Family Medicine Group Model Benefit from the Experience of Ontario's Family Health Teams?

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Mylaine; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Pineault, Raynald; Hogg, William

    2011-01-01

    Canadian politicians, decision-makers, clinicians and researchers have come to agree that reforming primary care services is a key strategy for improving healthcare system performance. However, it is only more recently that real transformative initiatives have been undertaken in different Canadian provinces. One model that offers promise for improving primary care service delivery is the family medicine group (FMG) model developed in Quebec. A FMG is a group of physicians working closely with nurses in the provision of services to enrolled patients on a non-geographic basis. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the FMG's potential as a lever for improving healthcare system performance and to discuss how it could be improved. First, we briefly review the history of primary care in Quebec. Then we present the FMG model in relation to the four key healthcare system functions identified by the World Health Organization: (a) funding, (b) generating human and technological resources, (c) providing services to individuals and communities and (d) governance. Next, we discuss possible ways of advancing primary care reform, looking particularly at the family health team (FHT) model implemented in the province of Ontario. We conclude with recommendations to inspire other initiatives aimed at transforming primary care. PMID:23115575

  14. An efficient technique for Bayesian modeling of family data using the BUGS software.

    PubMed

    Bae, Harold T; Perls, Thomas T; Sebastiani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Linear mixed models have become a popular tool to analyze continuous data from family-based designs by using random effects that model the correlation of subjects from the same family. However, mixed models for family data are challenging to implement with the BUGS (Bayesian inference Using Gibbs Sampling) software because of the high-dimensional covariance matrix of the random effects. This paper describes an efficient parameterization that utilizes the singular value decomposition of the covariance matrix of random effects, includes the BUGS code for such implementation, and extends the parameterization to generalized linear mixed models. The implementation is evaluated using simulated data and an example from a large family-based study is presented with a comparison to other existing methods.

  15. Victim identification and family support in mass casualties: the Massachusetts model.

    PubMed

    Wright, R J; Peters, C D; Flannery, R B

    1999-01-01

    The Aviation Disaster Family Assistance Act of 1996 requires the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), air carriers, and the American Red Cross (ARC) to provide an integrated family assistance center to offer support to family survivors of mass casualties. A central component of post-incident response is the timely identification of victims and their personal belongings. This identification process occurs through antemortem interviews with family survivors. ARC of Massachusetts Bay determined that ARC volunteers would not play a major role in conducting antemortem interviews, and deferred primary responsibility for this task to the Massachusetts Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCMB). This paper presents the Massachusetts model for victim identification and family support at the local level. The structure and services of this model for on-site forensic processing, the fielding of antemortem interviewers, and a comprehensive training curriculum in psychological trauma and victim identification are presented. The implications are discussed.

  16. A family-based model to predict fear of recurrence for cancer survivors and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Suzanne; Kershaw, Trace S; Northouse, Laurel L; Freeman-Gibb, Laurie

    2007-03-01

    Although fear of cancer recurrence is a great concern among survivors and their families, few studies have examined predictors of fear of recurrence. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with fear of recurrence in a population-based sample (N = 246) and determine if survivors and family caregivers influenced one another's fear of recurrence. A family framework guided the study and analyses included multilevel modeling using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results indicated that survivors and family caregivers influenced each other's fear of recurrence and that caregivers had significantly more fear of recurrence than survivors. More family stressors, less positive meaning of the illness, and age were related to elevated fear of cancer recurrence for both survivors and caregivers. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. LMX, Breach Perceptions, Work-Family Conflict, and Well-Being: A Mediational Model.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rachel T; Morganson, Valerie J; Matthews, Russell A; Atkinson, Theresa P

    2016-01-01

    Despite research advances, work-family scholars still lack an understanding of how leadership constructs relate to an employee's ability to effectively manage the work-family interface. In addition, there remains a need to examine the process through which leadership and work-family conflict influence well-being outcomes. Using a sample of 312 workers, a mediated process model grounded in social exchange theory is tested wherein the authors seek to explain how leaders shape employee perceptions, which, in turn, impact organizational fulfillment of expectations (i.e., psychological contract breach), work-family conflict, and well-being. A fully latent structural equation model was used to test study hypotheses, all of which were supported. Building on existing theory, findings suggest that the supervisor plays a critical role as a frontline representative for the organization and that work-family conflict is reduced and well-being enhanced through a process of social exchange between the supervisor and worker.

  18. Are Emotions Transmitted From Work to Family? A Crossover Model of Psychological Contract Breach.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huai-Liang

    2018-01-01

    Based on affective events theory and the crossover model, this study examines the effect of psychological contract breach on employee dysfunctional behavior and partner family undermining and explores the crossover effect of employee dysfunctional behavior on partner family undermining in work-family issues. This study collected 370 employee-partner dyads (277 male employees, 93 female employees, M age = 43.59 years) from a large manufacturing organization. The results of this study support the conception that employees' psychological contract breach results in frustration in the workplace. In addition, mediation analysis results reveal that psychological contract breach relates to employee dysfunctional behavior in the workplace. The findings show that partners' psychological strain mediates the relationship between employee dysfunctional behavior and partner family undermining. Furthermore, these findings provide investigations for the crossover model to display the value of psychological contract breach in family issues.

  19. Modeling the impact of formal and informal supports for young children with disabilities and their families.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Donald B; Nelson, Lauren; Hebbeler, Kathy; Spiker, Donna

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine factors related to perceived impact of early intervention on children with disabilities and their families. A nationally representative sample of approximately 2100 parents completed a 40-minute telephone interview near their child's third birthday. Structural equation modeling examined the relationships between 3 support variables (quality of child services, quality of family services, and family/community support) and 2 outcomes at 36 months (impact on child and impact on family) and determined whether these relationships were mediated by 2 perceptual variables (optimism and confidence in parenting) or moderated by 5 demographic variables (poverty, maternal education, ethnicity, age of initial Individual Family Service Plan, and health at 36 months). Perceived impact of early intervention on both child and family were significantly related to each other. The quality of child services was related to impact on the child but not on the family. The quality of family services was related to both child and family impact. Informal support was not related to perceived impact on children or families but was strongly related to confidence in parenting and optimism. Neither optimism nor confidence in parenting mediated the relationships between services or supports and perceived impact. Minority families and families of children with poor health reported lower quality of services, but these characteristics did not moderate the relationships between services and perceived impact on the child. However, both poverty status and minority status were associated with perceptions of impact on the family. Findings reinforce the role of high-quality services in maximizing perceived impact. They also highlight the important role of informal support in promoting optimism and confidence in parenting. Poverty status, minority status, and poor health of the child are salient factors in predicting lower perceived quality of and benefit from services.

  20. Diurnal salivary alpha-amylase dynamics among dementia family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin; Granger, Douglas A; Kim, Kyungmin; Klein, Laura C; Almeida, David M; Zarit, Steven H

    2017-02-01

    The study examined diurnal regulation of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in association with daily stressors, adult day services (ADS) use, and other caregiving characteristics. A sample of 165 family caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) completed an 8-day diary study. Caregivers provided 5 saliva samples across the 8 days. On some days, caregivers provided all or most of the care. On other days, their relative attended ADS for part of the day. A 3-level unconditional linear spline model was fit to describe the typical sAA diurnal rhythms. Predictors were then added to the unconditional model to test the hypotheses on ADS use and daily stressors. Daily ADS use did not have an effect on diurnal sAA regulation. However, controlling for daily ADS use, greater ADS use over the 8 days was associated with a more prominent rise between 30 min after wake-up and before lunch, and a more prominent decline between before lunch and late afternoon. Fewer ADS days were associated with a more flattened sAA diurnal rhythm. Additionally, greater daily care-related stressor exposures had a within-person association with lower sAA levels in the late afternoon. Care-related stressor exposures had significant within- and between-person associations with sAA diurnal slopes. Furthermore, daily positive experiences had a significant between-person association with sAA diurnal slopes. Caring for a disabled family member may heighten the vulnerability to potential physiological conditions. Respite from care stressors from ADS use may have some biobehavioral benefits on sAA regulations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Diurnal Salivary Alpha-amylase Dynamics among Dementia Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Granger, Douglas A.; Kim, Kyungmin; Klein, Laura C.; Almeida, David M.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study examined diurnal regulation of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in association with daily stressors, adult day services (ADS) use, and other caregiving characteristics. Methods A sample of 165 family caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) completed an 8-day diary study. Caregivers provided 5 saliva samples across the 8 days. On some days, caregivers provided all or most of the care. On other days, their relative attended ADS for part of the day. A 3-level unconditional linear spline model was fit to describe the typical sAA diurnal rhythms. Predictors were then added to the unconditional model to test the hypotheses on ADS use and daily stressors. Results Daily ADS use did not have an effect on diurnal sAA regulation. However, controlling for daily ADS use, greater ADS use over the 8 days was associated with a more prominent rise between 30 minutes after wake-up and before lunch, and a more prominent decline between before lunch and late afternoon. Fewer ADS days were associated with a more flattened sAA diurnal rhythm. Additionally, greater daily care-related stressor exposures had a within-person association with lower sAA levels in the late afternoon. Care-related stressor exposures had significant within- and between-person associations with sAA diurnal slopes. Furthermore, daily positive experiences had a significant between-person association with sAA diurnal slopes. Conclusions Caring for a disabled family member may heighten the vulnerability to potential physiological conditions. Respite from care stressors from ADS use may have some biobehavioral benefits on sAA regulations. PMID:27786517

  2. A Predictive Model of Domestic Violence in Multicultural Families Focusing on Perpetrator.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Young; Hyun, Hye Jin

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess predictor variables of husbands in multicultural families and examine the relationship among variables after setting up a hypothetical model including influencing factors, so as to provide a framework necessary for developing nursing interventions of domestic violence. The participants were 260 husbands in multicultural families in four cities in Korea. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 20.0. Self-control, social support, family of origin violence experience and stress on cultural adaptation directly affected to dysfunctional communication, and the explanatory power of the variables was 64.7%. Family of origin violence experience in domestic stress on cultural adaptation, and dysfunctional communication were directly related to domestic violence in multicultural families, and the explanatory power of the variables was 64.6%. We found out that all variables in the model had mediation effects to domestic violence through dysfunctional communication. In other words, self-control and social support had complete mediation effects, and family of origin violence experience in domestic violence and stress on cultural adaptation had partial mediation effects. The variables explained in this study should be considered as predictive factors of domestic violence in multicultural families, and used to provide preventive nursing intervention. Our resutls can be taken into account for developing and implementing programs on alleviating dysfunctional communication in multicultural families in Korea. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    PubMed

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Repurposing Opportunities for Cognition and Biobehavioral Disturbances in MCI and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Knöchel, Christian; Voss, Martin; Gruter, Florian; Alves, Gilberto S; Matura, Silke; Sepanski, Beate; Stablein, Michael; Kraft, Dominik; Prvulovic, David; Carvalho, Andre F; Reif, Andreas; Oertel-Knochel, Viola

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may directly affect memory performance, thus leading to functional impairments. An increasing body of evidence suggests an association between dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and memory functioning in animal models as well as in human studies. Recent evidence supports a potential beneficial role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on psychopathological and cognitive symptoms, beside their established positive effects on cardiovascular health. We summarize relevant and recent evidence from epidemiological, interventional and experimental studies investigating dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and emphazing mechanisms of memory disorders, with a focus on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Omega-3 fatty acid could represent an affordable and accessible adjunctive treatment option to improve cognitive and non-cognitive function with a focus on MCI or dementia. However, apart from its translational promise, which is based on mechanistic models and evidence from animal studies, evidence for clinical benefits in humans is lacking. To follow this research question, a search through electronic databases for the following search terms to identify relevant studies was conducted: 'omega 3 fatty acids', 'cognition', 'memory', ´Alzheimer´s Disease ´, ´dementia´, ´MCI`. Studies were included if they presented original data and were published in English between 1990 and 2015. To our the best of our knowledge, there are only 8 interventional studies that investigated the effects of n3-PUFAs in dementia patients, while 6 studies were conducted in healthy individuals, which in combination show equivocal results. This verifies the need for larger and (more) well designed clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Mixed Model Association with Family-Biased Case-Control Ascertainment.

    PubMed

    Hayeck, Tristan J; Loh, Po-Ru; Pollack, Samuela; Gusev, Alexander; Patterson, Nick; Zaitlen, Noah A; Price, Alkes L

    2017-01-05

    Mixed models have become the tool of choice for genetic association studies; however, standard mixed model methods may be poorly calibrated or underpowered under family sampling bias and/or case-control ascertainment. Previously, we introduced a liability threshold-based mixed model association statistic (LTMLM) to address case-control ascertainment in unrelated samples. Here, we consider family-biased case-control ascertainment, where case and control subjects are ascertained non-randomly with respect to family relatedness. Previous work has shown that this type of ascertainment can severely bias heritability estimates; we show here that it also impacts mixed model association statistics. We introduce a family-based association statistic (LT-Fam) that is robust to this problem. Similar to LTMLM, LT-Fam is computed from posterior mean liabilities (PML) under a liability threshold model; however, LT-Fam uses published narrow-sense heritability estimates to avoid the problem of biased heritability estimation, enabling correct calibration. In simulations with family-biased case-control ascertainment, LT-Fam was correctly calibrated (average χ 2 = 1.00-1.02 for null SNPs), whereas the Armitage trend test (ATT), standard mixed model association (MLM), and case-control retrospective association test (CARAT) were mis-calibrated (e.g., average χ 2 = 0.50-1.22 for MLM, 0.89-2.65 for CARAT). LT-Fam also attained higher power than other methods in some settings. In 1,259 type 2 diabetes-affected case subjects and 5,765 control subjects from the CARe cohort, downsampled to induce family-biased ascertainment, LT-Fam was correctly calibrated whereas ATT, MLM, and CARAT were again mis-calibrated. Our results highlight the importance of modeling family sampling bias in case-control datasets with related samples. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biobehavioral profiles of arousal and social motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Swain, Deanna M.; Newsom, Cassandra; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Edgerton, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in social communication and interaction with peers, which may reflect diminished social motivation. Many children with ASD show enhanced stress when playing with other children. This study investigated social and stress profiles of children with ASD during play. Methods We utilized a peer interaction paradigm in a natural playground setting with 66 un-medicated, pre-pubertal, children 8 to 12 years (38 with ASD, 28 with typical development (TD)). Salivary cortisol was collected before and after a 20-minute playground interaction that was divided into periods of free and solicited play facilitated by a confederate child. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, mixed effects models and Spearman correlations to assess the between-group differences in social and stress functioning, identify stress responders, and explore associations between variables, respectively. Results There were no differences between the groups during unsolicited free play; however, during solicited play by the confederate, significant differences emerged such that children with ASD engaged in fewer verbal interactions and more self-play than the TD group. Regarding physiological arousal, children with ASD as a group showed relatively higher cortisol in response to social play; however, there was a broad range of responses. Moreover, those with the highest cortisol levels engaged in less social communication. Conclusions The social interaction of children with ASD can be facilitated by peer solicitation; however, it may be accompanied by increased stress. The children with ASD that have the highest level of cortisol show less social motivation; yet, it is unclear if it reflects an underlying state of heightened arousal or enhanced reactivity to social engagement, or both. PMID:24329926

  7. Familial mediterranean fever: a fascinating model of inherited autoinflammatory disorder.

    PubMed

    Portincasa, Piero; Scaccianoce, Giuseppe; Palasciano, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent and self-limited episodes of fever and painful serositis, lasting 1-3 days. FMF occurs almost exclusively among ethnic groups of the Mediterranean basin, although cases have also been found in Japan and Korean populations. Diagnosis is based on clinical features, response to colchicine and genetic analysis. Novel drugs are emerging, allowing better management of colchicine-resistant/colchicine-intolerant patients. This review aims to attract the attention of the readers on differential diagnosis and management of patients with FMF. The current state-of-the-art on FMF is outlined, with respect to epidemiological, genetic, pathophysiological and therapeutic characteristics, based on critical analysis of solid scientific literature. FMF is more frequent than it was thought before. The phenotypic expression of M694V is more severe than that of V726A. Patients with M694V/M694V homozygosity are exposed to a higher risk of developing renal amyloidosis, arthritis, dermatologic and oral lesions, higher fever and more frequent painful attacks. Life-long therapy with colchicine (1·0-2·4 mg/day) is effective and safe to prevent recurrent attacks and renal amyloidosis and to reverse proteinuria. In nonresponder patients, alternative novel approaches include interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra and the interleukin-1 decoy receptor rilonacept. The prognosis of FMF is normal if AA amyloidosis is prevented. Colchicine remains the first-line therapy to treat pain and prevent amyloidosis. A follow-up should include clinical evaluation, therapeutic adjustments, measurement of serum amyloid A and proteinuria. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Trajectories of Change in Obesity among Tehranian Families: Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Modeling.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Mahjub, Hossein; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Daneshpour, Maryam; Morris, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the trajectories of change in obesity within and between Tehranian families, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods. This study is a family-based longitudinal design, in four waves. A total of 14761 individuals, within 3980 families, were selected. Three anthropometric measurements, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and a body shape index (ABSI), were recorded. Multilevel latent growth curve modeling (MLGCM) approach was used for evaluating the change trajectories in obesity within and between the families. Results. The mean age of the subjects in the present study was 33.28 ± 19.01 (range 3-89 years) and 50.1% were male. Obesity was significantly increased (P < 0.001). Individuals with more fat become obese slower, whereas families with more fat become obese faster (P < 0.001). The initial value and growth rate of WC and ABSI were greater in men than in women, while this result is contrary to BMI (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our findings demonstrated that there is an alarming increase in the obesity trend in Tehranian families. The important role of the family in the prevention of obesity is highlighted, underlining the need for public health programs, as family centered educations to lifestyle modification, which can address this emerging crisis.

  9. Optimal parallel algorithms for problems modeled by a family of intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olariu, Stephan; Schwing, James L.; Zhang, Jingyuan

    1992-01-01

    A family of intervals on the real line provides a natural model for a vast number of scheduling and VLSI problems. Recently, a number of parallel algorithms to solve a variety of practical problems on such a family of intervals have been proposed in the literature. Computational tools are developed, and it is shown how they can be used for the purpose of devising cost-optimal parallel algorithms for a number of interval-related problems including finding a largest subset of pairwise nonoverlapping intervals, a minimum dominating subset of intervals, along with algorithms to compute the shortest path between a pair of intervals and, based on the shortest path, a parallel algorithm to find the center of the family of intervals. More precisely, with an arbitrary family of n intervals as input, all algorithms run in O(log n) time using O(n) processors in the EREW-PRAM model of computation.

  10. Work-family Conflict and Alcohol Use: Examination of a Moderated Mediation Model

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Liu, Li; Milner, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently documents the negative effects of work-family conflict; however, little focuses on alcohol use. This study embraces a tension-reduction theory of drinking, wherein alcohol use is thought to reduce the negative effects of stress. The purpose of the present study was to test a moderated mediation model of the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use in a Chicagoland community sample of 998 caregivers. Structural equation models showed that distress mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Furthermore, tension reduction expectancies of alcohol exacerbated the relationship between distress and alcohol use. The results advance the study of work-family conflict and alcohol use, helping explain this complicated relationship using sophisticated statistical techniques. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23480251

  11. Work-family conflict and alcohol use: examination of a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Liu, Li; Milner, Lauren A

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently documents the negative effects of work-family conflict; however, little research focuses on alcohol use. This study embraces a tension reduction theory of drinking, wherein alcohol use is thought to reduce the negative effects of stress. The purpose of the study was to test a moderated mediation model of the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use in a Chicagoland community sample of 998 caregivers. Structural equation models showed that distress mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Furthermore, tension reduction expectancies of alcohol exacerbated the relationship between distress and alcohol use. The results advance the study of work-family conflict and alcohol use, helping explain this complicated relationship using sophisticated statistical techniques. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  12. Ecological Models: Family Systems and Beyond. A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasnoski, M. L.; O'Connor, William A.

    There has been a resurgence of interest in human ecosystems, attributable to the growth of community mental health centers and public sector funding. The first of two papers discusses human ecology models based on this resurgence. Implications for future development of the mental health area are presented with the challenge to integrate…

  13. A path modeling approach to understanding family conflict: Reciprocal patterns of parent coercion and adolescent avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Ramos, Michelle R.; Timmons, Adele C.; Rodriguez, Aubrey R.; Margolin, Gayla

    2014-01-01

    Conflict between parents and adolescents involves reciprocal exchanges in which family members influence and shape each other’s behavior. This study uses multilevel path analysis to examine interrelations in observed behavior during 15-minute conflict discussions conducted by 103 family triads, looking specifically at parent coercive and youth avoidant behaviors. We also explore the moderating roles of parents’ past aggressive family conflict behavior on parents’ responses to youth behavior. Discussions were coded in three-minute segments. Analyses used time-lagged codes so that a family member’s behavior in one segment predicted another family member’s behavior in the following segment. The fully saturated cross-lagged model tested all possible paths (parents’ behavior predicting parents’ and youths’ subsequent behavior, and vice versa). Parents’ coercive behavior was associated with more avoidant youth behavior in the following segment when controlling for youths’ prior avoidant behavior. The opposite direction of effects also emerged: mothers became more coercive when youth were more avoidant in a prior segment. Fathers’ coercive behavior was not associated with youths’ prior behavior and, with both parents in the same model, father and youth behavior were no longer associated; however, fathers’ coercive behavior predicted more mother coercive behavior in the following segment. Mothers who had behaved more aggressively during family conflict over two waves of data collection became more coercive when youths were more avoidant, although parents’ history of aggressive family conflict behavior did not moderate father-to-youth or youth-to-parent paths. PMID:24821521

  14. Test of a model of the effects of parental illness on youth and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Pakenham, Kenneth I; Cox, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    Parental illness (PI) may have adverse impacts on youth and family functioning. Research in this area has suffered from the absence of a guiding comprehensive framework. This study tested a conceptual model of the effects of PI on youth and family functioning derived from the Family Ecology Framework (FEF; Pedersen & Revenson, 2005). A total of 85 parents with multiple sclerosis and 127 youth completed questionnaires at Time 1 and 12 months later at Time 2. Structural equation modeling results supported the FEF with regards to physical-illness disability. Specifically, the proposed mediators (role redistribution, stress, and stigma) were implicated in the processes that link parental disability to several domains of youth adjustment. The results suggest that the effects of parental depression (PD) are not mediated through these processes; rather, PD directly affects family functioning, which in turn mediates the effects onto youth adjustment. Family functioning further mediated between PD and youth well-being and behavioral-social difficulties. Although results support the effects of parental-illness disability on youth and family functioning via the proposed mediational mechanisms, the additive effects of PD on youth physical and mental health occur through direct and indirect (via family functioning) pathways, respectively. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic properties in a family of competitive growing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Claudio M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2006-03-01

    The properties of a wide variety of growing models, generically called X -RD, involving the deposition of particles according to competitive processes, such that a particle is attached to the aggregate with probability p following the mechanisms of a generic model X that provides the correlations and at random [random deposition (RD)] with probability (1-p) , are studied by means of numerical simulations and analytic developments. The study comprises the following X models: Ballistic deposition, random deposition with surface relaxation, Das Sarma-Tamboronea, Kim-Kosterlitz, Lai-Das Sarma, Wolf-Villain, large curvature, and three additional models that are variants of the ballistic deposition model. It is shown that after a growing regime, the interface width becomes saturated at a crossover time (tx2) that, by fixing the sample size, scales with p according to tx2(p)∝p-y (p>0) , where y is an exponent. Also, the interface width at saturation (Wsat) scales as Wsat(p)∝p-δ (p>0) , where δ is another exponent. It is proved that, in any dimension, the exponents δ and y obey the following relationship: δ=yβRD , where βRD=1/2 is the growing exponent for RD. Furthermore, both exponents exhibit universality in the p→0 limit. By mapping the behavior of the average height difference of two neighboring sites in discrete models of type X -RD and two kinds of random walks, we have determined the exact value of the exponent δ . When the height difference between two neighbouring sites corresponds to a random walk that after walking ⟨n⟩ steps returns to a distance from its initial position that is proportional to the maximum distance reached (random walk of type A), one has δ=1/2 . On the other hand, when the height difference between two neighboring sites corresponds to a random walk that after ⟨n⟩ steps moves ⟨l⟩ steps towards the initial position (random walk of type B), one has δ=1 . Finally, by linking four well-established universality classes

  16. Application of Family Stress Theory to Remarriage: A Model for Assessing and Helping Stepfamilies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret

    1989-01-01

    Conceptualizes remarriage and adjustment to stepfamily living as life transition in family stress theory framework. Illustrates through case example use of Double ABCX model and model's strength in providing practitioner with assessment format, guide for interventions, and a basis for policy supporting stepfamilies. (Author/CM)

  17. A Model for Building School-Family-Community Partnerships: Principles and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Henry, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    The extant literature documents the importance of school counselors' roles in school-family-community partnerships, yet no model exists to guide school counselors through the process of building partnerships. The authors propose a model to help school counselors navigate the process and principles of partnerships. They define partnerships; discuss…

  18. The Impact of Role Modeling on Proteges' Personal Learning and Work-to-Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Ho Kwong; Mao, Yina; Zhang, Haina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact of role modeling as perceived by proteges on their personal learning (i.e., relational job learning and personal skill development) and work-to-family enrichment (WFE). Results from a two-wave field survey of 173 proteges in the People's Republic of China indicate that role modeling positively affects…

  19. Review of family relational stress and pediatric asthma: the value of biopsychosocial systemic models.

    PubMed

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  20. The Baby TALK Model: An Innovative Approach to Identifying High-Risk Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalpando, Aimee Hilado; Leow, Christine; Hornstein, John

    2012-01-01

    This research report examines the Baby TALK model, an innovative early childhood intervention approach used to identify, recruit, and serve young children who are at-risk for developmental delays, mental health needs, and/or school failure, and their families. The report begins with a description of the model. This description is followed by an…

  1. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents'…

  2. The Impact of Field Trips and Family Involvement on Mental Models of the Desert Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the mental models of the desert environment held by fourth- and seventh-grade students in the USA and whether those mental models could be affected by: (1) classroom field trips to a desert riparian preserve, and (2) interaction with family members at the same preserve. Results generally indicated that students in this study…

  3. A Relational Goal-Oriented Model of Optimal Service Delivery to Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a Relational Goal-Oriented Model of Service Delivery to Children with physical or mental health difficulties and their families. This research-informed and practice-relevant model provides a broad understanding of what effective service provision entails and requires from practitioners and service organizations. The model…

  4. Couple power dynamics, systemic family functioning, and child adjustment: a test of a mediational model in a multiethnic sample.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Kristin M; Malik, Neena M; Kaczynski, Karen; Simons, Julie S

    2004-01-01

    Power dynamics in the marital dyad and systemic elements of whole-family functioning (cohesion, subsystem boundary formations) were examined in relation to each other and also in relation to child adjustment in a multiethnic sample of families. Support was found for a mediational model, such that family functioning was found to mediate the relationship between marital power dynamics and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior. Some support also was found for ethnicity as a moderator of the association between systemic family processes and children's adjustment. Disturbances in family cohesion and subsystem boundaries were more strongly related to internalizing symptomatology for children in European American families compared to children in Hispanic American families.

  5. The relationship of family characteristics and bipolar disorder using causal-pie models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-C; Kao, C-F; Lu, M-K; Yang, Y-K; Liao, S-C; Jang, F-L; Chen, W J; Lu, R-B; Kuo, P-H

    2014-01-01

    Many family characteristics were reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). The development of BPD may be mediated through different pathways, involving diverse risk factor profiles. We evaluated the associations of family characteristics to build influential causal-pie models to estimate their contributions on the risk of developing BPD at the population level. We recruited 329 clinically diagnosed BPD patients and 202 healthy controls to collect information in parental psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and conflict within family. Other than logistic regression models, we applied causal-pie models to identify pathways involved with different family factors for BPD. The risk of BPD was significantly increased with parental depression, neurosis, anxiety, paternal substance use problems, and poor relationship with parents. Having a depressed mother further predicted early onset of BPD. Additionally, a greater risk for BPD was observed with higher numbers of paternal/maternal psychopathologies. Three significant risk profiles were identified for BPD, including paternal substance use problems (73.0%), maternal depression (17.6%), and through poor relationship with parents and conflict within the family (6.3%). Our findings demonstrate that different aspects of family characteristics elicit negative impacts on bipolar illness, which can be utilized to target specific factors to design and employ efficient intervention programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  7. The Impact of Field Trips and Family Involvement on Mental Models of the Desert Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, Eugene

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the mental models of the desert environment held by fourth- and seventh-grade students in the USA and whether those mental models could be affected by: (1) classroom field trips to a desert riparian preserve, and (2) interaction with family members at the same preserve. Results generally indicated that students in this study were resolute in their models and that field trips did not impact the types of models students adhered to. Twenty-three seventh-grade students who self-selected to participate in a Family Science Club with their parents did demonstrate a shift in their mental models and developed significantly more sophisticated models over time. A critical implication of the study is that unless transformation of mental models of the environment is an explicit goal of instruction, simple exposure to the environment (even within the context of life science instruction) will not transform understandings of how organisms within an environment act and interact interdependently.

  8. Longitudinal and integrative tests of family stress model effects on Mexican origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca M B; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-05-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents' cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized integrative family stress model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across 3 times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers' perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms 5 years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for a wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers' perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers' familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A family of new, high order NS-[alpha] models arising from helicity correction in Leray turbulence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebholz, Leo G.

    2008-06-01

    This report gives a reinterpretation of the NS-[alpha] model which leads to a family of high order NS-[alpha]-deconvolution models with NS-[alpha] as the zeroth order case. First, we show that the Navier-Stokes-[alpha] model arises by adding helicity correction to Leray-[alpha] model. Higher order Leray models have recently been proposed in [W. Layton, R. Lewandowski, A high accuracy Leray-deconvolution model of turbulence and its limiting behavior, Anal. Appl. 6 (1) (2008); W. Layton, C. Manica, M. Neda, L. Rebholz, Numerical analysis and computational testing of a high-accuracy Leray-deconvolution model of turbulence, Numer. Methods Partial Differential Equations, in press]: the so-called Leray-deconvolution models, that employ van Cittert approximate deconvolution to decrease consistency error. We use an analogous helicity correction idea to develop a family of higher order accurate NS-[alpha] type models, the NS-[alpha]-deconvolution models. We prove several mathematical and physical properties for this new family of models and discuss the design of efficient algorithms for them.

  10. Family-centred care delivery: comparing models of primary care service delivery in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Hogg, William; Taljaard, Monica; Dahrouge, Simone

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether models of primary care service delivery differ in their provision of family-centred care (FCC) and to identify practice characteristics associated with FCC. Cross-sectional study. Primary care practices in Ontario (ie, 35 salaried community health centres, 35 fee-for-service practices, 32 capitation-based health service organizations, and 35 blended remuneration family health networks) that belong to 4 models of primary care service delivery. A total of 137 practices, 363 providers, and 5144 patients. Measures of FCC in patient and provider surveys were based on the Primary Care Assessment Tool. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear mixed regression models and generalized estimating equations. Patient-reported FCC scores were high and did not vary significantly by primary care model. Larger panel size in a practice was associated with lower odds of patients reporting FCC. Provider-reported FCC scores were significantly higher in community health centres than in family health networks (P = .035). A larger number of nurse practitioners and clinical services on-site were both associated with higher FCC scores, while scores decreased as the number of family physicians in a practice increased and if practices were more rural. Based on provider and patient reports, primary care reform strategies that encourage larger practices and more patients per family physician might compromise the provision of FCC, while strategies that encourage multidisciplinary practices and a range of services might increase FCC.

  11. Who steers the ship? Rural family physicians' views on collaborative care models for patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Kosteniuk, Julie; Morgan, Debra; Innes, Anthea; Keady, John; Stewart, Norma; D'Arcy, Carl; Kirk, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the views of rural family physicians (FPs) regarding collaborative care models for patients with dementia. The study aims were to explore FPs' views regarding this issue, their role in providing dementia care, and the implications of providing dementia care in a rural setting. This study employed an exploratory qualitative design with a sample of 15 FPs. All rural FPs indicated acceptance of collaborative models. The main disadvantages of practicing rural were accessing urban-based health care and related services and a shortage of local health care resources. The primary benefit of practicing rural was FPs' social proximity to patients, families, and some health care workers. Rural FPs provided care for patients with dementia that took into account the emotional and practical needs of caregivers and families. FPs described positive and negative implications of rural dementia care, and all were receptive to models of care that included other health care professionals.

  12. A Family-Oriented Decision-Making Model for Human Research in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Rui, Deng

    2015-08-01

    This essay argues that individual-oriented informed consent is inadequate to protect human research subjects in mainland China. The practice of family-oriented decision-making is better suited to guide moral research conduct. The family's role in medical decision-making originates from the mutual benevolence that exists among family members, and is in accordance with family harmony, which is the aim of Confucian society. I argue that the practice of informed consent for medical research on human subjects ought to remain family-oriented in mainland China. This essay explores the main features of this model of informed consent and demonstrates the proper authority of the family. The family's participation in decision-making as a whole does not negate or deny the importance of the individual who is the subject of the choice, but rather acts more fully to protect research subjects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Parent and family impact of autism spectrum disorders: a review and proposed model for intervention evaluation.

    PubMed

    Karst, Jeffrey S; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2012-09-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be an overwhelming experience for parents and families. The pervasive and severe deficits often present in children with ASD are associated with a plethora of difficulties in caregivers, including decreased parenting efficacy, increased parenting stress, and an increase in mental and physical health problems compared with parents of both typically developing children and children with other developmental disorders. In addition to significant financial strain and time pressures, high rates of divorce and lower overall family well-being highlight the burden that having a child with an ASD can place on families. These parent and family effects reciprocally and negatively impact the diagnosed child and can even serve to diminish the positive effects of intervention. However, most interventions for ASD are evaluated only in terms of child outcomes, ignoring parent and family factors that may have an influence on both the immediate and long-term effects of therapy. It cannot be assumed that even significant improvements in the diagnosed child will ameliorate the parent and family distress already present, especially as the time and expense of intervention can add further family disruption. Thus, a new model of intervention evaluation is proposed, which incorporates these factors and better captures the transactional nature of these relationships.

  14. Supporting resilience in foster families: A model for program design that supports recruitment, retention, and satisfaction of foster families who care for infants with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Marcellus, Lenora

    2010-01-01

    As the health, social, and developmental needs of infants in foster care become more complex, foster families are challenged to develop specialized knowledge to effectively address these needs. The goal of this qualitative research study was to identify the process of becoming a foster family and providing family foster caregiving within the context of caring for infants with prenatal drug and alcohol exposure. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to study foster families (including mothers, fathers, and birth and adoptive children) who specialized in caring for infants within a Canadian provincial child welfare system. This article describes an infant foster care model, applies resilience theory to the model, and provides recommendations for program development for foster families that specialize in the infant population.

  15. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt; Salarzadeh Jenatabadi, Hashem

    2017-02-13

    The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child's food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM) concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among latent and measurement variables that lead to the child weight indicator. To illustrate the accuracy, fit, reliability and validity of the introduced framework, real data collected from 630 families from Urumqi (Xinjiang, China) were considered. The framework includes two categories of data comprising the normal body mass index (BMI) range and obesity data. The comparison analysis between two models provides some evidence that in obesity modeling, obesity data must be extracted from the dataset and analysis must be done separately from the normal BMI range. This study may be helpful for researchers interested in childhood obesity modeling based on family environment.

  16. Modelling family 2 cystatins and their interaction with papain.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Suman Kumar; Bhuyan, Rajabrata; Seal, Alpana

    2013-01-01

    Cystatins are extensively studied cysteine protease inhibitors, found in wide range of organisms with highly conserved structural folds. S-type of cystatins is well known for their abundance in saliva, high selectivity and poorer activity towards host cysteine proteases in comparison to their immediate ancestor cystatin C. Despite more than 90% sequence similarity, the members of this group show highly dissimilar binding affinity towards papain. Cystatin M/E is a potent inhibitor of legumain and papain like cysteine proteases and recognized for its involvement in skin barrier formation and potential role as a tumor suppressor gene. However, the structures of these proteins and their complexes with papain or legumain are still unknown. In the present study, we have employed computational methods to get insight into the interactions between papain and cystatins. Three-dimensional structures of the cystatins are generated by homology modelling, refined with molecular dynamics simulation, validated through numerous web servers and finally complexed with papain using ZDOCK algorithm in Discovery Studio. A high degree of shape complementarity is observed within the complexes, stabilized by numerous hydrogen bonds (HB) and hydrophobic interactions. Using interaction energy, HB and solvent accessible surface area analyses, we have identified a series of key residues that may be involved in papain-cystatin interaction. Differential approaches of cystatins towards papain are also noticed which are possibly responsible for diverse inhibitory activity within the group. These findings will improve our understanding of fundamental inhibitory mechanisms of cystatin and provide clues for further research.

  17. [Structural equation modeling on quality of life in stroke survivors].

    PubMed

    Suh, Minhee; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to test structural equation modeling of the quality of life of stroke survivors in order to provide guidelines for development of interventions and strategies to improve their quality of life. The participants in the study were patients who visited the neurology outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Seoul between June 25 and October 15, 2009. Data collection was carried out through one-on-one interviews. Demographic factors, functional independence, social support, nutritional status, post-stroke biobehavioral changes and quality of life were investigated. The final analysis included 215 patients. Fitness of the hypothetical model was appropriate (χ(2)=111.5, p=.000, GFI=.926, AGFI=.880, RMSA=.068, NFI=.911, CFI=.953). Functional dependency, social support and post-stroke biobehavioral changes were found to be significant explaining variance in quality of life. Post-stroke biobehavioral changes had the strongest direct influence on quality of life. Nutritional status had an indirect effect on the quality of life. To improve the quality of life of stroke survivors, comprehensive interventions are necessary to manage post-stroke biobehavioral changes, and strengthening social support networks that can contribute to enhancing the quality of life of stroke survivors.

  18. Effects of changing demographic factors upon women's family status in China: a model of a family status life table and its application.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a life table model for China based on Bongaarts nuclear family model and the concept marker of the family, who is identified as the senior women in the family. The attached appendix details the calculations. The type and size of the family are determined by the status change of every marker in the family; the marital, parity, and maternal states. Co-residence in the 3 generation family as well as families maintaining close emotional and economic ties regardless of residence are included. Comparisons of demographic changes are made for 1950-70 and 1981. The following factors are relevant to understanding this model. 1) Fertility, mortality, and marriage rates by age group are considered artificially constant. 2) The Markov hypothesis operates in such a way that birth variations for women at specific age groups vary with marital status. 3) The model is female only. 4) The divorce and re-marriage rate is indirectly estimated. The findings indicate that along with provincial data, 82.3% remained single in 1981 before the recommended marriage at the mature age of 20. Although the multi birth rate appears low, the distribution of births for 50-year-olds indicates the 47.6% have 3 or more births and multi births still represent a serious problem.

  19. A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe's transition to a One Planet Economy.

    PubMed

    Galli, Alessandro; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, Ertug

    2013-09-01

    Currently, the European economy is using nearly three times the ecological assets that are locally available. This situation cannot be sustained indefinitely. Tools are needed that can help reverse the unsustainable trend. In 2010, an EC funded One Planet Economy Network: Europe (OPEN:EU) project was launched to develop the evidence and innovative practical tools that will allow policy-makers and civil society to identify policy interventions to transform Europe into a One Planet Economy, by 2050. Building on the premise that no indicator alone is able to comprehensively monitor (progress towards) sustainability, the project has drawn on the Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprints to define a Footprint Family suite of indicators, to track human pressure on the planet. An environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model has then been developed to group the Footprint Family under a common framework and combine the indicators in the family with national economic accounts and trade statistics. Although unable to monitor the full spectrum of human pressures, once grouped within the MRIO model, the Footprint Family is able to assess the appropriation of ecological assets, GHG emissions as well as freshwater consumption and pollution associated with consumption of specific products and services within a specified country. Using MRIO models within the context of Footprint analyses also enables the Footprint Family to take into account full production chains with technologies specific to country of origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Double ABCX Model of Adaptation in Racially Diverse Families with a School-Age Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Margaret M.; Wainwright, Laurel; Bennett, Jillian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the Double ABCX model of family adaptation was used to explore the impact of severity of autism symptoms, behavior problems, social support, religious coping, and reframing, on outcomes related to family functioning and parental distress. The sample included self-report measures collected from 195 families raising school-age…

  1. From child autistic symptoms to parental affective symptoms: A family process model.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kevin Ka Shing; Lam, Chun Bun; Law, Naska Chung Wa; Cheung, Ryan Yat Ming

    2018-02-15

    Depression and anxiety are prevalent among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but limited research has investigated why parenting a child with ASD is associated with elevated distress and increased risks of mental health problems. We responded to this gap in the literature by examining the associations between child autistic symptoms and parental affective symptoms, as well as the potential underlying mechanisms. Guided by a family process theory, we hypothesized that child autistic symptoms would be positively associated with parental depressive and anxiety symptoms, and that these associations would be mediated by parents' concerns about their children's characteristics (future-related worry), parental roles (parenting stress), marital relationships (marital conflicts), and family conditions (family economic pressure). Cross-sectional questionnaire data were collected from 375 parents of children with ASD residing in Hong Kong, China. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Child autistic symptoms were positively associated with parental depressive and anxiety symptoms. These associations were mediated by future-related worry, parenting stress, marital conflicts, and family economic pressure. Our findings revealed the potential pathways through which child autism symptomatology may adversely affect parental mental health. Our findings also highlighted the importance of designing multipronged intervention programs for families raising children with ASD in order to improve relevant family processes and reduce parental affective symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tri-focal Model of Care Implementation: Perspectives of Residents and Family.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Alison; Rawson, Helen; O'Connell, Beverly; Walker, Helen; Bucknall, Tracey; Forbes, Helen; Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; Ockerby, Cherene

    2017-01-01

    To explore residents' and family members' perceptions of partnership-centered long-term care (LTC) associated with implementation of the Tri-focal Model of Care. The Model promotes partnership-centered care, evidence-based practice, and a positive environment. Its implementation is supported by a specifically designed education program. The Model was implemented over approximately 12 months in seven LTC facilities in Victoria, Australia. A qualitative exploratory-descriptive approach was used. Data were collected using individual and focus group interviews with residents and family members prior to and following implementation of the Model. Data were analyzed thematically. Prior to implementation of the Model, residents described experiencing a sense of disempowerment, and emphasized the importance of communication, engagement, and being a partner in the staff-resident care relationship. Following implementation, residents reported experiencing improved partnership approaches to care, although there were factors that impacted on having a good experience. Family members described a desire to remain involved in the resident's life by establishing good communication and rapport with staff. They acknowledged this was important for partnership-centered care. Following implementation, they described experiencing a partnership with staff, giving them confidence to assist staff and be included in decisions about the resident. The Tri-focal Model of Care can enable residents, family members, and staff to be partners in resident care in LTC settings. With an ageing population, an increasing demand for complex, individualized LTC exists. Delivery of high-quality LTC requires a strategy to implement a partnership-centered approach, involving residents, family members, and staff. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Scholarship published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Journal of Nursing Scholarship.

  3. Tri‐focal Model of Care Implementation: Perspectives of Residents and Family

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Helen; O'Connell, Beverly; Walker, Helen; Bucknall, Tracey; Forbes, Helen; Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; Ockerby, Cherene

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To explore residents’ and family members’ perceptions of partnership‐centered long‐term care (LTC) associated with implementation of the Tri‐focal Model of Care. The Model promotes partnership‐centered care, evidence‐based practice, and a positive environment. Its implementation is supported by a specifically designed education program. Methods The Model was implemented over approximately 12 months in seven LTC facilities in Victoria, Australia. A qualitative exploratory‐descriptive approach was used. Data were collected using individual and focus group interviews with residents and family members prior to and following implementation of the Model. Data were analyzed thematically. Findings Prior to implementation of the Model, residents described experiencing a sense of disempowerment, and emphasized the importance of communication, engagement, and being a partner in the staff–resident care relationship. Following implementation, residents reported experiencing improved partnership approaches to care, although there were factors that impacted on having a good experience. Family members described a desire to remain involved in the resident's life by establishing good communication and rapport with staff. They acknowledged this was important for partnership‐centered care. Following implementation, they described experiencing a partnership with staff, giving them confidence to assist staff and be included in decisions about the resident. Conclusions The Tri‐focal Model of Care can enable residents, family members, and staff to be partners in resident care in LTC settings. Clinical Relevance With an ageing population, an increasing demand for complex, individualized LTC exists. Delivery of high‐quality LTC requires a strategy to implement a partnership‐centered approach, involving residents, family members, and staff. PMID:27871120

  4. Toward a Dialectical Model of Family Gender Discourse: Body, Identity, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Libby Balter; Blume, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a dialectical model representing gender discourse in families. A brief review of literature in sociology, psychology, and gender studies focuses on three dialectical issues: nature versus culture, similarity versus difference, and stability versus fluidity. Deconstructing gender theories from a postmodern feminist perspective, the authors…

  5. A Formative Evaluation of the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk Coaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Smith, Burgess; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Borden, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe the results of a formative evaluation of a coaching model designed to support recipients of funding through the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) initiative. Results indicate that CYFAR coaches draw from a variety of types of coaching and that CYFAR principle investigators (PIs) are generally satisfied with…

  6. A New Faculty Training Model for Countries Developing Academic Family Medicine Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Zammit-Montebello, Alfred

    1990-01-01

    This model was an intensive 8-month course for a group of 10 experienced Maltese general practitioners to train with a visiting professor of family medicine. Maltese teaching resources were used, and training occurred in the context of the society and health care system in which course members would teach. (Author/MLW)

  7. Socialization of Coping with Community Violence: Influences of Caregiver Coaching, Modeling, and Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Parrish, Katie Adams; Taylor, Kelli W.; Jackson, Kate; Walker, Jean M.; Shivy, Victoria A.

    2006-01-01

    A socialization model of coping with community violence was tested in 101 African American adolescents (55% male, ages 9-13) and their maternal caregivers living in high-violence areas of a mid-sized, southeastern city. Participants completed interviews assessing caregiver coping, family context, and child adjustment. Caregiver-child dyads also…

  8. Bidirectional Familial Influences in Dietary Behavior: Test of a Model of Campaign Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, June A.; Rimal, Rajiv N.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes how dietary behavior of household children and adults was affected by the Stanford Five-City Project (FCP). Tests a three-part cumulative model of bidirectional influences within the family. Finds children and adults were influenced by each other and the FCP campaign in changing and maintaining health behaviors. (PA)

  9. The Managerial Motivation Models Appear To Be in the Family Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanser, Kris

    Managerial motivation models have evolved beyond the human resource tradition of the 1960s and the 1970s to a form of corporate involvement with the personal needs of employees, many of whose family lifestyles have changed dramatically. To analyze the new role for companies and the corporate concern for employees' well-being, this research study…

  10. School-Based Collaboration with Families: An Effective Model for a Society in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, J. Brien

    1994-01-01

    Describes a family-school intervention model that shifts the ownership of a child problem prevention and solution from therapy office to school and that assertively confronts the adult, especially marital dynamics underlying many child problems. Discusses politics of collaboration and implications for the functioning of marriage and family…

  11. Breaking the Patriarchal Vision of Social Science: Lessons from a Family Therapy Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Sheila

    The Milan model of systemic family therapy, developed in Italy and based on G. Bateson's cybernetic epistemology, can help meet the goals of a feminist/systemic epistemology in research by accepting data in its "traditional" form yet also connecting it to the act of researching, itself, thereby merging a feminist perspective with the…

  12. Developmental Processes in African American Families: An Application of McLoyd's Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with McLoyd's model of African American children's development, we examined the linkages among family income, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, parenting, and children's outcomes in early and middle childhood, using a sample of 591 African American children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Income…

  13. A Model for Determining Information Diffusion in a Family Planning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Audrey R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge of the existence of birth control clinics is seen as a function of proximity to clinics, friendliness of neighborhood, and propensity to discuss birth control with neighbors. A conceptual model is developed to illustrate variables contributing to the diffusion of birth control information in a public health family planning program.…

  14. Applying the Nominal Response Model within a Longitudinal Framework to Construct the Positive Family Relationships Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Parral, Skye N.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Ibrahim, Sirena M.; Delany, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A psychometric analysis was conducted using the nominal response model under the item response theory framework to construct the Positive Family Relationships scale. Using data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, this scale was constructed within a long-term longitudinal framework spanning middle childhood through adolescence. Items tapping…

  15. Muslim Families and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneshpour, Manijeh

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The differences in value systems are the Muslim families' preferences for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Suggests that directions for change for Muslims need to…

  16. Family processes as predictors of adolescents' preferences for ascribed sources of moral authority: a proposed model.

    PubMed

    White, F A

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a model of the family's role in the moralization of the adolescent. To achieve this aim, the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems (Olson, Sprenkle, & Russell, 1979; Olson, 1983) provides the theoretical framework needed to identify levels of adaptability, cohesion, and communication within each family system. Once identified, these family processes are treated as possible predictors of certain moral preferences, in particular, the number and type of sources of moral authority held by the adolescent. The notion "source of moral authority" is based on Henry's (1983) reconceptualization of Kohlberg's stage theory of moral judgments. In light of this, a new measure, the Moral Authority Scale (MAS) has been developed to assess such adolescent preferences for different sources of moral authority. Overall, this unique approach identifies salient family processes as influencing adolescent moral reasoning by drawing together systems theory, cognitive developmental, and psychosocial approaches and generating testable predictions. In so doing, research needs and inadequacies of the current literature are highlighted and possible strategies to overcome such problems are explicated.

  17. The Montana model: integrated primary care and behavioral health in a family practice residency program.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Claire; Moore, Douglas; Burford, Duncan; Fahrenwald, Roxanne; Woodward, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    To address the local health care needs of both patients and primary care providers in Montana, an integrated primary care and behavioral health family practice clinic was developed. In this paper we describe our experience with integrating mental health and substance abuse services into a primary care setting (a community health center) while simultaneously teaching family practice physicians to take the lead in providing these services. The Deering Community Health Center in Billings, Montana, is a Federally Qualified Health Center serving a largely low-income patient population. The medical care at the clinic is provided primarily by the faculty and residents of the Montana Family Medicine Residency. The teaching model was founded on the belief that improved care will result when physicians have increased comfort with, and are able to enjoy the challenges of, patients with mental illnesses. The enhanced longitudinal curriculum incorporates mental health across the 3 years of the family practice residency. Unique characteristics of this model include staffing and the concurrent delivery of a high volume mental health service while teaching family practice resident physicians and the faculty to integrate this competency into their primary care practices.

  18. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Implementing evidence-based models in community settings

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Muir, Joan A.; Duff, Johnathan H.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting a nearly 40-year collaborative partnership between clinical researchers and clinicians, the present article reviews the authors’ experience in developing, investigating, and implementing the Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) model. The first section of the article focuses on the theory, practice, and studies related to this evidence-based family therapy intervention targeting adolescent drug abuse and delinquency. The second section focuses on the implementation model created for the BSFT intervention– a model that parallels many of the recommendations furthered within the implementation science literature. Specific challenges encountered during the BSFT implementation process are reviewed, along with ways of conceptualizing and addressing these challenges from a systemic perspective. The implementation approach that we employ uses the same systemic principles and intervention techniques as those that underlie the BSFT model itself. Recommendations for advancing the field of implementation science, based on our on-the-ground experiences, are proposed. PMID:24274187

  19. An explicit SU(12) family and flavor unification model with natural fermion masses and mixings

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2012-07-01

    We present an SU(12) unification model with three light chiral families, avoiding any external flavor symmetries. The hierarchy of quark and lepton masses and mixings is explained by higher dimensional Yukawa interactions involving Higgs bosons that contain SU(5) singlet fields with VEVs about 50 times smaller than the SU(12) unification scale. The presented model has been analyzed in detail and found to be in very good agreement with the observed quark and lepton masses and mixings.

  20. Stress in Adolescents with a Chronically Ill Parent: Inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness Model.

    PubMed

    Sieh, D S; Dikkers, A L C; Visser-Meily, J M A; Meijer, A M

    2012-12-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland's Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in this Dutch study. The Dutch Stress Questionnaire for Children was used to measure child report of stress. Ill parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Children filled in a scale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment measuring the quality of parent attachment. Both parents filled in the Parent-Child-Interaction Questionnaire-Revised. We conducted multilevel regression analyses including illness type, the ill parent's depressive symptoms, family functioning (quality of marital relationship, parent-child interaction, and parent attachment), and adolescents' gender and age. Four regression analyses were performed separately for each illness type as defined by disability (Model 1), and onset (Model 2), course (Model 3), and outcome of illness (Model 4). In all models, higher adolescent stress scores were linked to lower quality of parent-child interaction and parent attachment, and adolescents' female gender. The four models explained approximately 37 % of the variance in adolescent stress between individuals and 43-44 % of the variance in adolescent stress between families. Adolescent stress was not related to parental illness type. Our results partially supported the FSI model stating that family functioning is essential in point of child adjustment to parental illness. In the chronic stage of parental illness, adolescent stress does not seem to vary depending on illness type.

  1. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  2. The discovery of novel LPMO families with a new Hidden Markov model.

    PubMed

    Voshol, Gerben P; Vijgenboom, Erik; Punt, Peter J

    2017-02-21

    Renewable biopolymers, such as cellulose, starch and chitin are highly resistance to enzymatic degradation. Therefore, there is a need to upgrade current degradation processes by including novel enzymes. Lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) can disrupt recalcitrant biopolymers, thereby enhancing hydrolysis by conventional enzymes. However, novel LPMO families are difficult to identify using existing methods. Therefore, we developed a novel profile Hidden Markov model (HMM) and used it to mine genomes of ascomycetous fungi for novel LPMOs. We constructed a structural alignment and verified that the alignment was correct. In the alignment we identified several known conserved features, such as the histidine brace and the N/Q/E-X-F/Y motif and previously unidentified conserved proline and glycine residues. These residues are distal from the active site, suggesting a role in structure rather than activity. The multiple protein alignment was subsequently used to build a profile Hidden Markov model. This model was initially tested on manually curated datasets and proved to be both sensitive (no false negatives) and specific (no false positives). In some of the genomes analyzed we identified a yet unknown LPMO family. This new family is mostly confined to the phyla of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota and the class of Oomycota. Genomic clustering indicated that at least some members might be involved in the degradation of β-glucans, while transcriptomic data suggested that others are possibly involved in the degradation of pectin. The newly developed profile hidden Markov Model was successfully used to mine fungal genomes for a novel family of LPMOs. However, the model is not limited to bacterial and fungal genomes. This is illustrated by the fact that the model was also able to identify another new LPMO family in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, the Hidden Markov model was used to verify the more distant blast hits from the new fungal family of LPMOs, which

  3. A comprehensive model for familial breast cancer incorporating BRCA1, BRCA2 and other genes

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, A C; Pharoah, P D P; McMullan, G; Day, N E; Stratton, M R; Peto, J; Ponder, B J; Easton, D F

    2002-01-01

    In computing the probability that a woman is a BRCA1 or BRCA2 carrier for genetic counselling purposes, it is important to allow for the fact that other breast cancer susceptibility genes may exist. We used data from both a population based series of breast cancer cases and high risk families in the UK, with information on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status, to investigate the genetic models that can best explain familial breast cancer outside BRCA1 and BRCA2 families. We also evaluated the evidence for risk modifiers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. We estimated the simultaneous effects of BRCA1, BRCA2, a third hypothetical gene ‘BRCA3’, and a polygenic effect using segregation analysis. The hypergeometric polygenic model was used to approximate polygenic inheritance and the effect of risk modifiers. BRCA1 and BRCA2 could not explain all the observed familial clustering. The best fitting model for the residual familial breast cancer was the polygenic, although a model with a single recessive allele produced a similar fit. There was also significant evidence for a modifying effect of other genes on the risks of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Under this model, the frequency of BRCA1 was estimated to be 0.051% (95% CI: 0.021–0.125%) and of BRCA2 0.068% (95% CI: 0.033–0.141%). The breast cancer risk by age 70 years, based on the average incidence over all modifiers was estimated to be 35.3% for BRCA1 and 50.3% for BRCA2. The corresponding ovarian cancer risks were 25.9% for BRCA1 and 9.1% for BRCA2. The findings suggest that several common, low penetrance genes with multiplicative effects on risk may account for the residual non-BRCA1/2 familial aggregation of breast cancer. The modifying effect may explain the previously reported differences between population based estimates for BRCA1/2 penetrance and estimates based on high-risk families. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 76–83. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600008 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The

  4. [Structural equation modeling on quality of life in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Won; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to test structural equation modeling of the quality of life of pre-dialysis patients, in order to provide guidelines for the development of interventions and strategies to improve the quality of life of patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Participants were patients who visited the nephrology outpatient department of a tertiary hospital located in Seoul. Data on demographic factors, social support, nutritional status, physical factors and biobehavioral factors and quality of life were collected between March 4 and March 31, 2011. In the final analysis 208 patients were included. Of the patients 42% were in a malnourished state. Anxious or depressed patients accounted for 62.0%, 72.6%, respectively. Model fit indices for the hypothetical model were in good agreement with the recommended levels (GFI=.94 and CFI=.99). Quality of life in pre-dialysis patients with CKD was significantly affected by demographic factors, social support, nutritional status, physical factors and biobehavioral factors. Biobehavioral factors had the strongest and most direct influence on quality of life of patients with CKD. In order to improve the quality of life in pre-dialysis patients with CKD, comprehensive interventions are necessary to assess and manage biobehavioral factors, physical factors and nutritional status.

  5. A simple marriage model for the power-law behaviour in the frequency distributions of family names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao-Yun; Chou, Chung-I.; Tseng, Jie-Jun

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, the frequency distributions of family names are found to decay as a power law with an exponent ranging from 1.0 to 2.2. In this work, we propose a simple marriage model which can reproduce this power-law behaviour. Our model, based on the evolution of families, consists of the growth of big families and the formation of new families. Preliminary results from the model show that the name distributions are in good agreement with empirical data from Taiwan and Norway.

  6. A logistic mixture model for a family-based association study

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Guan; Xing, Chao; Lu, Qing; Elston, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    A family-based association study design is not only able to localize causative genes more precisely than linkage analysis, but it also helps explain the genetic mechanism underlying the trait under study. Therefore, it can be used to follow up an initial linkage scan. For an association study of binary traits in general pedigrees, we propose a logistic mixture model that regresses the trait value on the genotypic values of markers under investigation and other covariates such as environmental factors. We first tested both the validity and power of the new model by simulating nuclear families inheriting a simple Mendelian trait. It is powerful when the correct disease model is specified and shows much loss of power when the dominance of a model is inversely specified, i.e., a dominant model is wrongly specified as recessive or vice versa. We then applied the new model to the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 15 simulation data to test the performance of the model when adjusting for covariates in the case of complex traits. Adjusting for the covariate that interacts with disease loci improves the power to detect association. The simplest version of the model only takes monogenic inheritance into account, but analysis of the GAW simulation data shows that even this simple model can be powerful for complex traits. PMID:18466543

  7. A cost-effectiveness model of genetic testing for the evaluation of families with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Jodie; McGaughran, Julie; Scuffham, Paul A; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2012-04-01

    Traditional management of families with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) involves periodic lifetime clinical screening of family members, an approach that does not identify all gene carriers owing to incomplete penetrance and significant clinical heterogeneity. Limitations in availability and cost have meant genetic testing is not part of routine clinical management for many HCM families. To determine the cost-effectiveness of the addition of genetic testing to HCM family management, compared with clinical screening alone. A probabilistic Markov decision model was used to determine cost per quality-adjusted life-year and cost for each life-year gained when genetic testing is included in the management of Australian families with HCM, compared with the conventional approach of periodic clinical screening alone. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $A785 (£510 or €587) per quality-adjusted life-year gained, and $A12 720 (£8261 or €9509) per additional life-year gained making genetic testing a very cost-effective strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that the cost of proband genetic testing was an important variable. As the cost of proband genetic testing decreased, the ICER decreased and was cost saving when the cost fell below $A248 (£161 or €185). In addition, the mutation identification rate was also important in reducing the overall ICER, although even at the upper limits, the ICER still fell well within accepted willingness to pay bounds. The addition of genetic testing to the management of HCM families is cost-effective in comparison with the conventional approach of regular clinical screening. This has important implications for the evaluation of families with HCM, and suggests that all should have access to specialised cardiac genetic clinics that can offer genetic testing.

  8. Structure and Organization of the Engraulidae Family U2 snRNA: An Evolutionary Model Gene?

    PubMed

    Chairi, Hicham; Gonzalez, Laureana Rebordinos

    2015-04-01

    The U2 snRNA multigene family has been analyzed in four species of the Engraulidae family--Engraulis encrasicolus, Engraulis mordax, Engraulis ringens, and Engraulis japonicas--with the object of understanding more about the structure of this multigene family in these pelagic species and studying their phylogenetic relationships. The results showed that the cluster of this gene family in the Engraulis genus is formed by the U2-U5 snRNA with highly conserved sequences of mini- and micro-satellites, such as (CTGT)n, embedded downstream of the transcription unit; findings indicate that this gene family evolved following the concerted model. The phylogenetic analysis of the non-transcribed spacer of cluster U2-U5 snDNA in the 4 species showed that the sequences of the species E. encrasicolus and E. japonicus are closely related; these two are genetically close to E. mordax and slightly more distant from E. ringens. The data obtained by molecular analysis of U2-U5 snDNA and their secondary structure, with the presence of the micro-satellite (CTGT)n and mini-satellites, show clearly that the species E. encrasicolus and E. japonicus are closely related and would be older than E. mordax and E. ringens.

  9. The Oregon Model of Behavior Family Therapy: From Intervention Design to Promoting Large-Scale System Change

    PubMed Central

    Dishion, Thomas; Forgatch, Marion; Chamberlain, Patricia; Pelham, William E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of the Oregon model of family behavior therapy over the past four decades. Inspired by basic research on family interaction and innovation in behavior change theory, a set of intervention strategies were developed that were effective for reducing multiple forms of problem behavior in children (e.g., Patterson, Chamberlain, & Reid, 1982). Over the ensuing decades, the behavior family therapy principles were applied and adapted to promote children’s adjustment to address family formation and adaptation (Family Check-Up model), family disruption and maladaptation (Parent Management Training–Oregon model), and family attenuation and dissolution (Treatment Foster Care–Oregon model). We provide a brief overview of each intervention model and summarize randomized trials of intervention effectiveness. We review evidence on the viability of effective implementation, as well as barriers and solutions to adopting these evidence-based practices. We conclude by proposing an integrated family support system for the three models applied to the goal of reducing the prevalence of severe problem behavior, addiction, and mental problems for children and families, as well as reducing the need for costly and largely ineffective residential placements. PMID:27993335

  10. Beyond Main Effects Models of Adolescent Work Intensity, Family Closeness, and School Disengagement: Mediational and Conditional Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed adolescents in grades 9 through 12 to examine family closeness as either mediator or moderator of relationships between intense work and academic engagement. Found that for boys, the family closeness mediational model provided best fit for data; for girls, the moderator model fit best. Found girls were especially vulnerable to negative…

  11. Incorporating Religiosity into a Developmental Model of Positive Family Functioning across Generations

    PubMed Central

    Spilman, Sarah K.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a developmental model of intergenerational continuity in religiosity and its association with observed competency in romantic and parent-child relationships across two generations. Using multi-informant data from the Family Transitions Project, a 20-year longitudinal study of families that began during early adolescence (N = 451), we found that parental religiosity assessed during the youth’s adolescence was positively related to the youth’s own religiosity during adolescence which, in turn, predicted their religiosity after the transition to adulthood. The findings also supported the theoretical model guiding the study, which proposes that religiosity acts as a personal resource that will be uniquely and positively associated with the quality of family relationships. Especially important, the findings demonstrate support for the role of religiosity in a developmental process that promotes positive family functioning after addressing earlier methodological limitations in this area of study, such as cross-sectional research designs, single informant measurement, retrospective reports, and the failure to control for other individual differences. PMID:22545832

  12. Structural propensities of kinase family proteins from a Potts model of residue co-variation.

    PubMed

    Haldane, Allan; Flynn, William F; He, Peng; Vijayan, R S K; Levy, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the conformational propensities of proteins is key to solving many problems in structural biology and biophysics. The co-variation of pairs of mutations contained in multiple sequence alignments of protein families can be used to build a Potts Hamiltonian model of the sequence patterns which accurately predicts structural contacts. This observation paves the way to develop deeper connections between evolutionary fitness landscapes of entire protein families and the corresponding free energy landscapes which determine the conformational propensities of individual proteins. Using statistical energies determined from the Potts model and an alignment of 2896 PDB structures, we predict the propensity for particular kinase family proteins to assume a "DFG-out" conformation implicated in the susceptibility of some kinases to type-II inhibitors, and validate the predictions by comparison with the observed structural propensities of the corresponding proteins and experimental binding affinity data. We decompose the statistical energies to investigate which interactions contribute the most to the conformational preference for particular sequences and the corresponding proteins. We find that interactions involving the activation loop and the C-helix and HRD motif are primarily responsible for stabilizing the DFG-in state. This work illustrates how structural free energy landscapes and fitness landscapes of proteins can be used in an integrated way, and in the context of kinase family proteins, can potentially impact therapeutic design strategies. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  13. From Family Violence to Dating Violence: Testing a Dual Pathway Model.

    PubMed

    Morris, Anjana Madan; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Risk factors for adolescent perpetration of or victimization by dating violence stem from different levels of adolescents' social ecologies, including the family, individual, and peer domains. However, these multiple risk factors have not been fully integrated into a single comprehensive model of dating violence development. The present study examined prospective links between exposure to family violence in pre-adolescence; pro-violent beliefs, aggression, deviant peer affiliation, and aggression toward opposite-sex peers in early adolescence and dating violence in late adolescence. Using a longitudinal study of 461 youth (51 % female; 80 % African American, 19 % Caucasian, 1 % other ethnicities), path modeling evaluated a theoretically developed dual pathway model involving a general violence pathway and an early romantic aggression pathway. Each pathway links exposure to family violence in pre-adolescence with early adolescent pro-violent beliefs and/or aggressive behavior. In both pathways, pro-violent beliefs may reinforce aggressive behaviors between same-sex and opposite-sex peers, as well as strengthen bonds with deviant peers. In the last part of both pathways, aggressive behavior and peer deviance in early adolescence may contribute directly to late adolescent dating violence perpetration and victimization. The findings provided support for both pathways, as well as sex differences in the model.

  14. Economic models of the family and the relationship between economic status and health.

    PubMed

    Tipper, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Empirical evidence strongly suggests that there is a positive relationship between economic status and health, and that married persons are healthier than their single counterparts. There are, however, a number of economic explanations for why economic status is related to health in the family context that are often overlooked in empirical studies. This paper provides a comparative introduction to three main economic approaches to the family in order to understand further why married persons are often observed to be healthier than single persons. The models discussed are the unitary model, the collective labour supply model, and the institutional economics approach. In discussing the different approaches to health formation in a family context, issues pertaining to gender, intra-household inequality, and resource transfers are also explored to highlight the advantages of considering various economic perspectives. Each of these models, it is suggested, provides an alternative view of the mechanisms for relating economic status to health, and may thus affect the interpretation of empirical results. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use effectiveness of the Creighton model ovulation method of natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Fehring, R J; Lawrence, D; Philpot, C

    1994-05-01

    To determine the use effectiveness of the Creighton model ovulation method in avoiding and achieving pregnancy. Prospective, descriptive. A natural family planning clinic at a university nursing center. Records and charts from 242 couples who were taught the Creighton model. The sample represented 1,793 months of use of the model. Creighton model demographic forms and logbook. At 12 months of use, the Creighton model was 98.8% method effective and 98.0% use effective in avoiding pregnancy. It was 24.4% use effective in achieving pregnancy. The continuation rate for the sample at 12 months of use was 78.0%. The Creighton model is an effective method of family planning when used to avoid or achieve pregnancy. However, its effectiveness depends on its being taught by qualified teachers. The effectiveness rate of the Creighton model is based on the assumption that if couples knowingly use the female partner's days of fertility for genital intercourse, they are using the method to achieve pregnancy.

  16. A simple model for interpreting cross-tabulations of family size and women's labour force participation.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, D; Pennec, S

    1993-01-01

    In this study, cross classifications by labor force, (LF) activity and fertility status and a simple log linear model were used to model the value given to activity and fertility differentials in France alone and according to the educational level of both parents. The variability of activity and fertility was viewed as strongly determined by the motivation for work and the preference for large or small families. The interactions were also examined for 12 other European countries with comparable data from the European Labor Force Survey of 1990. This analysis resulted in startling findings that variations of activity and fertility between European countries did not result from simple differences in the value women attach to work. Geographic or national differences were found to be important in explanatory models and quite separate from changes over time or across social groups within countries. The 2 x 2 cross classifications used in the 4 cells for analysis were women with a complete professional career (high LFP) with large and small families and women with little involvement in the labor force (low LFP) with large and small families. Values are attached to the 4 cells. The percentage given any one cell of the contingency table was equal to the probability that the value associated with this cell was greater than that for the 3 other ones. The logarithms of the set of frequencies of cells a, b, c, d were rearranged to yield values for alpha, beta, and omega terms, which had behavioral meanings and were not constrained. The scenarios were 3=fold. The trends in France since the 1960s have been a large increase in total activity rates for women and an increase even when controlling for family size, a decline in the proportion of large families, and fertility rates without a significant trend after controlling for activity status. Data from the 1968 and 1982 censuses for France showed that activity increased at any family size, fertility changed much less. The average

  17. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights From the Family Stress Model.

    PubMed

    Benner, Aprile D; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-03-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial and job instability) were associated with parents' economic stress. Economic stress and economic status were related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, were associated with more hostile and coercive parenting, less nurturing and involved parenting, and greater interparental hostility. Finally, mothers' hostile and coercive parenting were directly related to both adolescents' academic and sociobehavioral outcomes, whereas fathers' nurturing and involved parenting related to academic but not sociobehavioral outcomes.

  18. Inverse scattering method and soliton double solution family for the general symplectic gravity model

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yajun

    2008-08-15

    A previously established Hauser-Ernst-type extended double-complex linear system is slightly modified and used to develop an inverse scattering method for the stationary axisymmetric general symplectic gravity model. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton double solutions for the considered theory is obtained.

  19. Divergent Evolution Paths of Different Genetic Families in the Penna Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitarz, Mikołaj; Maksymowicz, Andrzej

    We present some simulations results of population growth and evolution, using the standard asexual Penna model, with individuals characterized by a string of bits representing a genome containing some possible mutations. After about 20 000 simulation steps, when only a few genetic families are still present from among rich variety of families at the beginning of the simulation game, strong peaks in mutation distribution functions are observed. This known effect is due to evolution rules with hereditary mechanism. The birth and death balance in the simulation game also leads to elimination of families specified by different genomes. The number of families G(t) versus time t follow the power law, G∝tn. Our results show the power coefficient exponent n is changing with time. Starting from about -1, smoothly achieves about -2 after hundreds of steps, and finally has semi-smooth transition to 0, when only one family exists in the environment. This is in contrast with constant n about -1 as found, for example, in Ref. 1. We suspect that this discrepancy may be due to two different time scales in simulations — initial stages follow the n ≈ -1 law, yet for large number of simulation steps we get n ≈ -2, provided the random initial population was sufficiently big to allow for still reliable statistical analysis. The n ≈ -1 evolution stage seems to be associated with the Verhulst mechanism of population elimination due to the limited environmental capacity — when the standard evolution rules were modified, we observed a plateau (n =0) in the power law in short time scale, again followed by n ≈ -2 law for longer times. The modified model uses birth rate controlled by the current population instead of the standard Verhulst death factor.

  20. Selecting elephant grass families and progenies to produce bioenergy through mixed models (REML/BLUP).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, E V; Daher, R F; Dos Santos, A; Vivas, M; Machado, J C; Gravina, G do A; de Souza, Y P; Vidal, A K; Rocha, A Dos S; Freitas, R S

    2017-05-18

    Brazil has great potential to produce bioenergy since it is located in a tropical region that receives high incidence of solar energy and presents favorable climatic conditions for such purpose. However, the use of bioenergy in the country is below its productivity potential. The aim of the current study was to select full-sib progenies and families of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum S.) to optimize phenotypes relevant to bioenergy production through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The circulating diallel-based crossing of ten elephant grass genotypes was performed. An experimental design using the randomized block methodology, with three repetitions, was set to assess both the hybrids and the parents. Each plot comprised 14-m rows, 1.40 m spacing between rows, and 1.40 m spacing between plants. The number of tillers, plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass rate, and the dry biomass production were assessed. Genetic-statistical analyses were performed through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The genetic variance in the assessed families was explained through additive genetic effects and dominance genetic effects; the dominance variance was prevalent. Families such as Capim Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, Cameroon x Cuba-115, CPAC x Cuba-115, Cameroon x Guaçu/I.Z.2, and IAC-Campinas x CPAC showed the highest dry biomass production. The family derived from the crossing between Cana D'África and Guaçu/I.Z.2 showed the largest number of potential individuals for traits such as plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass production, and dry biomass rate. The individual 5 in the family Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, planted in blocks 1 and 2, showed the highest dry biomass production.

  1. Resonant recognition model of neuropeptide Y family: hot spot amino acid distribution in the sequences.

    PubMed

    Murakami, M

    2000-10-01

    The resonant recognition model is used to predict structurally and functionally important amino acid residues (so-called hot spots) in the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family. Thirty-three polypeptides belong to this family. All of them consist of 36 amino acids. The model predicts that residues 10 and 28 in the polypeptides are hot spots. In the 33 polypeptides, most of the amino acids at residue 10 are acidic amino acids, glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Other minor amino acids, serine, glycine, and proline, have high probabilities of beta-turn occurrence. Amino acids at residue 28 are all branched hydrophobic amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine. The profile for predicting hot spots indicates repeating patterns of residues 1-18 and residues 19-36. Absolute values at residue i and residue i + 18 are the same, but these residues have opposite signs. Therefore the model of the NPY family predicts hot spots concerning a combination of residue i and residue i + 18.

  2. Toward a Stress Process Model of Children’s Exposure to Physical Family and Community Violence

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Theoretically informed models are required to further the comprehensive understanding of children’s ETV. We draw on the stress process paradigm to forward an overall conceptual model of ETV (ETV) in childhood and adolescence. Around this conceptual model, we synthesize research in four dominant areas of the literature which are detailed but often disconnected including: (1) exposure to three forms of physical violence (e.g., child physical maltreatment, interparental violence, and community ETV); (2) the multilevel correlates and causes of ETV (e.g., neighborhood characteristics including concentrated disadvantage; family characteristics including socio-economic status and family stressors); (3) a range of consequences of ETV (e.g., internalizing and externalizing mental health problems, role transitions, and academic outcomes); and (4) multilevel and cross domain mediators and moderators of ETV influences (e.g., school and community factors, family social support, and individual coping resources). We highlight the range of interconnected processes through which violence exposures may influence children and suggest opportunities for prevention and intervention. We further identify needed future research on children’s ETV including coping resources as well as research on cumulative contributions of violence exposure, violence exposure modifications, curvilinearity, and timing of exposure. PMID:19434492

  3. Dynamics of asteroid family halos constrained by spin/shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    A number of asteroid families cannot be identified solely on the basis of the Hierarchical Clustering Method (HCM), because they have additional 'former' members in the surroundings which constitute a so called halo (e.g. Broz & Morbidelli 2013). They are usually mixed up with the background population which has to be taken into account too.Luckily, new photometric observations allow to derive new spin/shape models, which serve as independent constraints for dynamical models. For example, a recent census of the Eos family shows 43 core and 27 halo asteroids (including background) with known spin orientations.To this point, we present a complex spin-orbital model which includes full N-body dynamics and consequently accounts for all mean-motion, secular, or three-body gravitational resonances, the Yarkovsky drift, YORP effect, collisional reorientations and also spin-orbital interactions. These are especially important for the Koronis family. In this project, we make use of data from the DAMIT database and ProjectSoft Blue Eye 600 observatory.

  4. A nucleotide binding rectification Brownian ratchet model for translocation of Y-family DNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Y-family DNA polymerases are characterized by low-fidelity synthesis on undamaged DNA and ability to catalyze translesion synthesis over the damaged DNA. Their translocation along the DNA template is an important event during processive DNA synthesis. In this work we present a Brownian ratchet model for this translocation, where the directed translocation is rectified by the nucleotide binding to the polymerase. Using the model, different features of the available structures for Dpo4, Dbh and polymerase ι in binary and ternary forms can be easily explained. Other dynamic properties of the Y-family polymerases such as the fast translocation event upon dNTP binding for Dpo4 and the considerable variations of the processivity among the polymerases can also be well explained by using the model. In addition, some predicted results of the DNA synthesis rate versus the external force acting on Dpo4 and Dbh polymerases are presented. Moreover, we compare the effect of the external force on the DNA synthesis rate of the Y-family polymerase with that of the replicative DNA polymerase. PMID:21699732

  5. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Episodic Recognition in Individuals with a Family History for Alzheimer Disease: The Adult Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Balota, David A.; Gordon, Brian A.; Ratcliff, Roger; Morris, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A family history of Alzheimer disease (AD) increases the risk of developing AD and can influence the accumulation of well-established AD biomarkers. There is some evidence that family history can influence episodic memory performance even in cognitively normal individuals. We attempted to replicate the effect of family history on episodic memory and used a specific computational model of binary decision making (the diffusion model) to understand precisely how family history influences cognition. Finally, we assessed the sensitivity of model parameters to family history controlling for standard neuropsychological test performance. Method Across two experiments, cognitively healthy participants from the Adult Children Study completed an episodic recognition test consisting of high and low frequency words. The diffusion model was applied to decompose accuracy and reaction time into latent parameters which were analyzed as a function of family history. Results In both experiments, individuals with a family history of AD exhibited lower recognition accuracy and this occurred in the absence of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. The diffusion model revealed this difference was due to changes in the quality of information accumulation (the drift rate) and not differences in response caution or other model parameters. This difference remained after controlling for several standard neuropsychological tests. Conclusions These results confirm that the presence of a family history of AD confers a subtle cognitive deficit in episodic memory as reflected by decreased drift rate that cannot be attributed to APOE. This measure may serve as a novel cognitive marker of preclinical AD. PMID:26192539

  6. [Family functioning, self-esteem and substance use in adolescents: a mediational model].

    PubMed

    Musitu, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Teresa I; Murgui, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    This research analyzes the direct and indirect relationships among family functioning, multidimensional self-esteem (family, academic, social, and physical self-esteem) and substance use. The study participants were composed of two independent samples of Spanish adolescents who provided information during the 2003-2004 academic year (n1 = 414, Castilla and León; n2 = 625, Comunidad Valenciana). The statistical analyses were carried out using structural equation modelling and the procedure of mediation effects analysis (Holmbeck, 1997). Results showed a significant mediational effect of self-esteem on the relation between family functioning and adolescent substance use. Moreover, results showed, on the one hand, a protection effect of family and academic self-esteem in the face of substance use and, on the other hand, a risk effect of social and physical self-esteem. It is necessary to adopt a multidimensional perspective when analyzing the self-esteem of adolescents with substance use and to prevent the over-valuation of social and physical dimensions.

  7. Transcription factor family-specific DNA shape readout revealed by quantitative specificity models.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Orenstein, Yaron; Jolma, Arttu; Yin, Yimeng; Taipale, Jussi; Shamir, Ron; Rohs, Remo

    2017-02-06

    Transcription factors (TFs) achieve DNA-binding specificity through contacts with functional groups of bases (base readout) and readout of structural properties of the double helix (shape readout). Currently, it remains unclear whether DNA shape readout is utilized by only a few selected TF families, or whether this mechanism is used extensively by most TF families. We resequenced data from previously published HT-SELEX experiments, the most extensive mammalian TF-DNA binding data available to date. Using these data, we demonstrated the contributions of DNA shape readout across diverse TF families and its importance in core motif-flanking regions. Statistical machine-learning models combined with feature-selection techniques helped to reveal the nucleotide position-dependent DNA shape readout in TF-binding sites and the TF family-specific position dependence. Based on these results, we proposed novel DNA shape logos to visualize the DNA shape preferences of TFs. Overall, this work suggests a way of obtaining mechanistic insights into TF-DNA binding without relying on experimentally solved all-atom structures. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  8. Cognitive-Existential Family Therapy: A Proposed Theoretical Integration Model for Pastoral Counselors.

    PubMed

    Saunders, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental Christianity and psychology are frequently viewed as incompatible pursuits. However, proponents of the integrationist movement posit that pastoral counselors can utilize principles from psychology if they adopt the premise that all truth is God's truth. Assuming this perspective, Cognitive-Existential Family Therapy (CEFT) - a theoretical integration model compatible with Christian fundamentalism - is proposed. The philosophical assumptions and models of personality, health, and abnormality are explored. Additionally, the article provides an overview of the therapeutic process. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. FootSpring: A Compliance Model for the ATHLETE Family of Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Dawn Deborah; Chavez-Clemente, Daniel; Sunspiral, Vytas K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates one method of modeling compliance in a wheel-on-leg walking robot. This method assumes that all of the robot s compliance takes place at the ground contact points, specifically the tires and legs, and that the rest of the robot is rigid. Optimization is used to solve for the displacement of the feet and of the center of gravity. This method was tested on both robots of the ATHLETE family, which have different compliance. For both robots, the model predicts the sag of points on the robot chassis with an average error of about one percent of the height of the robot.

  10. Family caregiver adjustment and stroke survivor impairment: A path analytic model.

    PubMed

    Pendergrass, Anna; Hautzinger, Martin; Elliott, Timothy R; Schilling, Oliver; Becker, Clemens; Pfeiffer, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are a common problem among family caregivers of stroke survivors. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between care recipient's impairment and caregiver depression, and determine the possible mediating effects of caregiver negative problem-orientation, mastery, and leisure time satisfaction. The evaluated model was derived from Pearlin's stress process model of caregiver adjustment. We analyzed baseline data from 122 strained family members who were assisting stroke survivors in Germany for a minimum of 6 months and who consented to participate in a randomized clinical trial. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The cross-sectional data were analyzed using path analysis. The results show an adequate fit of the model to the data, χ2(1, N = 122) = 0.17, p = .68; comparative fit index = 1.00; root mean square error of approximation: p < .01; standardized root mean square residual = 0.01. The model explained 49% of the variance in the caregiver depressive symptoms. Results indicate that caregivers at risk for depression reported a negative problem orientation, low caregiving mastery, and low leisure time satisfaction. The situation is particularly affected by the frequency of stroke survivor problematic behavior, and by the degree of their impairments in activities of daily living. The findings provide empirical support for the Pearlin's stress model and emphasize how important it is to target these mediators in health promotion interventions for family caregivers of stroke survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A new social-family model for eating disorders: A European multicentre project using a case-control design.

    PubMed

    Krug, Isabel; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Anderluh, Marija; Bellodi, Laura; Bagnoli, Silvia; Collier, David; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Karwautz, Andreas; Mitchell, Sarah; Nacmias, Benedetta; Ricca, Valdo; Sorbi, Sandro; Tchanuria, Kate; Wagner, Gudrun; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-12-01

    To examine a new socio-family risk model of Eating Disorders (EDs) using path-analyses. The sample comprised 1264 (ED patients = 653; Healthy Controls = 611) participants, recruited into a multicentre European project. Socio-family factors assessed included: perceived maternal and parental parenting styles, family, peer and media influences, and body dissatisfaction. Two types of path-analyses were run to assess the socio-family model: 1.) a multinomial logistic path-model including ED sub-types [Anorexia Nervosa-Restrictive (AN-R), AN-Binge-Purging (AN-BP), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and EDNOS)] as the key polychotomous categorical outcome and 2.) a path-model assessing whether the socio-family model differed across ED sub-types and healthy controls using body dissatisfaction as the outcome variable. The first path-analyses suggested that family and media (but not peers) were directly and indirectly associated (through body dissatisfaction) with all ED sub-types. There was a weak effect of perceived parenting directly on ED sub-types and indirectly through family influences and body dissatisfaction. For the second path-analyses, the socio-family model varied substantially across ED sub-types. Family and media influences were related to body dissatisfaction in the EDNOS and control sample, whereas perceived abusive parenting was related to AN-BP and BN. This is the first study providing support for this new socio-family model, which differed across ED sub-types. This suggests that prevention and early intervention might need to be tailored to diagnosis-specific ED profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparing for an influenza pandemic: model of an immunization clinic in an urban family practice.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Nicole; Franke, Carolyn; O'Connor, Shirlee A; Shaw, Holly; Hum, Susan; Dunn, Sheila

    2011-10-01

    The surge in patient demand for the H1N1 influenza vaccine during the 2009 pandemic. To facilitate timely delivery of the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine to a family practice population while preserving regular clinic function and to create a model of effective vaccination delivery for future outbreaks. An academic family practice in Toronto, Ont, adopted a process-improvement approach and implemented 3 Saturday stand-alone H1N1 vaccination clinics to accommodate increased demand for the vaccine. Medical directives were developed to give nurses the authority to vaccinate patients. Consent forms with eligibility criteria and risks versus benefits sheets were provided to patients in the waiting area to make optimal use of time. The clinic with "appointment blocks" for patients had improved efficiency (ie, fewer bottlenecks from waiting area to vaccination room), which was satisfactory to both staff and patients. During a pandemic, when patient demand for vaccination is high, such stand-alone vaccination clinics in conjunction with family practices can deliver vaccines to patients in a timely and acceptable manner while promoting continuity of care. This model requires the commitment of extra staffing resources if regular primary care delivery is to be maintained.

  13. Effects of an evidence-based parenting program on biobehavioral stress among at-risk mothers for child maltreatment: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashwini; Self-Brown, Shannon; Lai, Betty S; McCarty, Colleen; Carruth, Laura

    2017-09-11

    Parental stress is an important risk factor for child maltreatment (CM) perpetration. Evidence-based, parent-training programs can decrease CM perpetration risk and reduce self-reported parental stress; however, little is known about how such programs impact physiological stress correlates. In this quasi-experimental pilot study, maternal biobehavioral responses were measured in response to SafeCare®, an evidence-based program targeting CM, often implemented by social workers in child welfare settings. Maternal participants (N = 18) were recruited to complete SafeCare and repeated within-subject assessments pre- and post-intervention. Analyses examined associations between self-reported parental stress and mental health symptomology with stress markers for cortisol, alpha-amylase, and dihydroepiandrosterone at baseline and follow-up. Baseline correlation analyses showed strong associations between parental stress, salivary cortisol levels, and alpha-amylase. At follow-up, significant correlations were found between parental stress and alpha-amylase for intervention completers (n = 7). Completers on average exhibited decreases across self-reported parental stress and global distress symptomology and improvements in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels. Participants with impaired cortisol levels at baseline were within normal limits post-intervention. These pilot findings suggest that salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase are compelling physiological correlates of parental stress among high-risk parents. Results also support short-term, positive effects of SafeCare in potentially regulating physiological stress systems among at-risk mothers.

  14. Developing model with breeze to study radon migration and mitigation in a single family house

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.; Ward, I.C.

    1995-12-31

    A multi-cell computer model of a family house with cellar was developed with the ventilation and contaminant movement computer prediction program BREEZE. The model was used to simulate the movement of radon gas from the cellar to the living areas of the house. Field measurements were also carried out under various controlled ventilation strategies. The paper outlines the development of the computer simulations from a simple model to a more complex flow analysis. The results obtained from the simulation model and the measured values were compared. A parametric study has subsequently been carried out to investigate the movement of themore » gas for a range of natural and mechanical ventilation strategies.« less

  15. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Oniki, Thomas A; Huff, Stanley M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool.

  16. A family-based model for Iranian women's health: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Parvizy, Soroor; Mirbazegh, Fatemeh; Ghasemzade Kakroudi, Farzaneh

    2017-03-01

    In many societies, women are vulnerable to specific situations and inequalities, which may negatively impact their own and their family's health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore Iranian women's perspectives on this issue and to develop a categorical model for their health. The study was conducted using a grounded theory approach via 25 semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that family dynamism was the core variable and identified four main categories: understanding of health, reduction of women's health, the pleasure and difficulties of motherhood, cultural and/or social factors influencing women's health. Policymakers should consider policies that empower women, reduce gender inequality and provide social security to maximize the probability of women being healthy.

  17. The transtheoretical model, health belief model, and breast cancer screening among Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fathollahi-Dehkordi, Fariba; Hematti, Simin; Sirous, Reza; Tavakoli, Neda; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Participation of Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer in breast cancer screening programs is low. This study evaluates the compliance of women having a family history of breast cancer with clinical breast exam (CBE) according to the stage of transtheoretical model (TTM) and health belief model (HBM). In this cross-sectional study, we used Persian version of champion's HBM scale to collect factors associated with TTM stages applied to screening from women over 20 years and older. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS, using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, independent t -test, and analysis of covariance. Final sample size was 162 women. Thirty-three percent were in action/maintenance stage. Older women, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives, personal history of breast disease, insurance coverage, and a history of breast self-examination were associated with action/maintenance stage. Furthermore, women in action/maintenance stages had significantly fewer perceived barriers in terms of CBE in comparison to women in other stages ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in other HBM subscales scores between various stages of CBE screening behavior ( P > 0.05). The finding indicates that the rate of women in action/maintenance stage of CBE is low. Moreover, results show a strong association between perceived barriers and having a regular CBE. These clarify the necessity of promoting national target programs for breast cancer screening, which should be considered as the first preference for reducing CBE barriers.

  18. The Maudsley Model of Family-Based Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Evaluation of Parent-to-Parent Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Paul; Brown, Jac; Madden, Sloane

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the qualitative analysis of a randomized control trial that explores the use of parent-to-parent consultations as an augmentation to the Maudsley model of family-based treatment for anorexia. Twenty families were randomized into two groups, 10 receiving standard treatment and 10 receiving an additional parent-to-parent…

  19. A Bidimensional Model of Acculturation for Examining Differences in Family Functioning and Behavior Problems in Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Summer; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Shi Huang,; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of adolescent acculturation orientations to adolescent and parent reports of family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of 338 Hispanic families. Acculturation orientations are derived from the model proposed by Berry. Results indicate that integrated adolescents, who both maintain heritage culture…

  20. A family of models of partially relaxed stellar systems. I. Dynamical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenti, M.; Bertin, G.

    2005-01-01

    Recently we have found that a family of models of partially relaxed, anisotropic stellar systems, inspired earlier by studies of incomplete violent relaxation, exhibits some interesting thermodynamic properties. Here we present a systematic investigation of its dynamical characteristics, in order to establish the basis for a detailed comparison with simulations of collisionless collapse, planned for a separate paper. For a full comparison with the observations of elliptical galaxies, the models should be extended to allow for the presence a sizable dark halo and of significant rotation. In the spherical limit, the family is characterized by two dimensionless parameters, i.e. Ψ, measuring the depth of the galaxy potential, and ν, defining the form of a third global quantity Q, which is argued to be approximately conserved during collisionless collapse (in addition to the total energy and the total number of stars). The family of models is found to have the following properties. The intrinsic density profile beyond the half-mass radius r_M is basically universal and independent of Ψ. The projected density profiles are well fitted by the R1/n law, with n ranging from 2.5 to 8.5, dependent on Ψ, with n close to 4 for concentrated models. All models exhibit radial anisotropy in the pressure tensor, especially in their outer parts, already significant at r ≈ r_M. At fixed values of ν, models with lower Ψ are more anisotropic; at fixed values of Ψ, models with lower ν are more concentrated and more anisotropic. When the global amount of anisotropy, measured by 2K_r/K_T, is large, the models are unstable with respect to the radial-orbit instability; still, a wide region of parameter space (i.e., sufficiently high values of Ψ, for ν > 3/8) is covered by models that are dynamically stable; for these, the line profiles (line-of-sight velocity distribution) are Gaussian at the 5% level, with a general trend of positive values of h_4 at radii larger than the

  1. The Views of Mental Health Manager Towards the Use of a Family Work Model for Psychosis in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jeremy; Lei, Jie; Huang, Wanyi; Sin, Jacqueline; Smith, Gina

    2018-02-21

    Family Interventions in Psychosis (FIP) have been promoted internationally but have been criticised for being based on western cultural models. This paper reports on a focus group study with 10 Integrated Mental Health Service Managers in Guangzhou, China using thematic analysis. Managers believed FIP might benefit families but identified potential difficulties due to (a) families avoiding services due to the 'shame' of mental illness (b) unrealistic expectations of services amongst families (c) deferral to 'key decision-makers' within families when discussing family issues with workers. The findings indicate that FIP work should focus on interaction between carers in the first instance with service users being introduced into sessions at a later date and that more attention needs to be given by the research community to how FIP may be adapted to cultural norms within China.

  2. ITOUGH2(UNIX). Inverse Modeling for TOUGH2 Family of Multiphase Flow Simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1999-03-01

    ITOUGH2 provides inverse modeling capabilities for the TOUGH2 family of numerical simulators for non-isothermal multiphase flows in fractured-porous media. The ITOUGH2 can be used for estimating parameters by automatic modeling calibration, for sensitivity analyses, and for uncertainity propagation analyses (linear and Monte Carlo simulations). Any input parameter to the TOUGH2 simulator can be estimated based on any type of observation for which a corresponding TOUGH2 output is calculated. ITOUGH2 solves a non-linear least-squares problem using direct or gradient-based minimization algorithms. A detailed residual and error analysis is performed, which includes the evaluation of model identification criteria. ITOUGH2 can also be run in forward mode, solving subsurface flow problems related to nuclear waste isolation, oil, gas, and geothermal resevoir engineering, and vadose zone hydrology.

  3. A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Chamberlain, James; Consiglio, Maria; Upchurch, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defines the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. For these models, algorithms that predict well-clear violations along aircraft current trajectories are provided. These algorithms are analogous to conflict detection algorithms but instead of predicting loss of separation, they predict whether well-clear violations will occur during a given lookahead time interval. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models.

  4. Family of systems simulation (FOSSIM): a collaborative approach to FoS modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wymer, Debra; Washburn, Ray; Colvert, Phil; Cunefare, Dave

    2001-09-01

    Significant advances are being made in the application of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) technologies to support Government initiatives for Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) and Simulation, Test and Evaluation Process (STEP) in the Army transformation. This paper describes a collaborative approach to Family of Systems (FoS) M&S in use on the FOSSIM program to evaluate critical Theater Air and Missile Defense (TAMD) integration and interoperability issues and to explore opportunities for advanced technology exploitation. This paper provides an overview of the FOSSIM concept and describes the collaborative development and utilization methodology. Key topics discussed include Systems Engineering and Design, Model Engineering and Development, Systems Analysis, and Configuration Management (CM). The paper concludes by summarizing the FOSSIM simulation environment and modeling capabilities.

  5. The dark side of family communication: a communication model of elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Chen; Giles, Howard

    2013-08-01

    To further address the potential factors that lead up to elder abuse in domestic settings, this paper proposes a model from a communication approach to explain dyadic influences between the family caregiver and the elderly care receiver that give rise to the abuse. That is, dysfunctional communication between the caregivers and care receivers may, therefore, increase the likelihood of elder abuse. Grounded in Bugental and her colleagues' work (1993, 1999, 2002) on child abuse, we propose a power-oriented communication model based, in part, on research in the fields of family violence and intergenerational communication to explain the likelihood of occurrence of elder abuse in family caregiving situations. We argue that certain risk factors pertaining to caregivers' characteristics--those who perceive high stress in caregiving, have mental health issues, have a history of substance abuse, and/or display verbal aggressiveness--may be more likely to attribute considerable power to those elderly under their custodianship. At the same time, such caregivers tend to feel powerless and experience loss of control when interacting with their elderly counterparts. When an elderly care receiver displays noncompliant behaviors, caregivers may be prone to employ abusive behaviors (in our model, it refers to physical abuse, verbal abuse, or communication neglect) to seek such compliance. Consequences of such abuse may result in lower self-esteem or lower confidence in one's ability to manage his/her life. It is suggested that researchers and practitioners investigate both parties' interactions closely and the role of elderly care receivers in order to detect, intervene, and prevent elder abuse.

  6. Evaluation of Transtheoretical Model-Based Family Education Among Females of Zahedan (Southeast of Iran).

    PubMed

    Kamalikhah, Tahereh; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Gholian Avval, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    It cannot be denied that many improvements in female and child health have been achieved worldwide through international family planning programs. More than half of the females (57%) with unintended pregnancy admitted that they had not used birth control the month before conception. The aim of this study was to promote family planning practice among females of Zahedan (southeast of Iran) through the transtheoretical model (TTM). The current quasi-experimental study was conducted on 96 eligible females, who were allocated either to the case or the control group and were selected from homes in the border of Zahedan city (southeast of Iran) during 2010. Convenience sampling by door-to-door visits was used for finding eligible cases. A TTM-based self-administrated family planning questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants in the intervention group received education in two groups, based on their stage of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and all groups were followed for three months. The result of the chi-square test did not show any significant difference in the stage of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance before education between the control and intervention groups (P = 0.55). After education, subjects in the intervention group moved forward through stage of change and got at least one step closer to the family planning behavior., with this change being significant (P < 0.001), while the movement of participants through stage of change not being significant in control group (P = 1). The results of statistical tests illustrated that the mean knowledge of the intervention group was 7.5 ± 7.1 versus 0.5 ± 4 for the control group (P < 0.001), mean of attitude of the intervention group was 5.5 ± 5.41 versus 0.09 ± 2.04 for the control group (P < 0.001), and practicing family planning methods (P < 0.007) in the intervention group was higher than the control group after

  7. Estimation in a discrete tail rate family of recapture sampling models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Rajan; Lee, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    In the context of recapture sampling design for debugging experiments the problem of estimating the error or hitting rate of the faults remaining in a system is considered. Moment estimators are derived for a family of models in which the rate parameters are assumed proportional to the tail probabilities of a discrete distribution on the positive integers. The estimators are shown to be asymptotically normal and fully efficient. Their fixed sample properties are compared, through simulation, with those of the conditional maximum likelihood estimators.

  8. Examining the validity of the family investment and stress models and relationship to children's school readiness across five cultural groups.

    PubMed

    Iruka, Iheoma U; Laforett, Doré R; Odom, Erika C

    2012-06-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) dataset, this study examined whether the family investment and the family stress models generalized to non-European American (EA) families. Specifically, we examined whether parenting processes mediated the association between family demographics and children's school readiness, and whether the pathways vary across cultural groups. Both models were most salient for EAs followed by African Americans (AAs) and Spanish-speaking Hispanics, but less so for English-speaking Hispanics (EHs) and Asian Americans. Findings indicated that sensitive parenting was a salient mediator between family demographics and children's school readiness for all groups except EHs; negative parenting and parent-child activities were salient mediators for EAs only. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. (abstract) Modeling Protein Families and Human Genes: Hidden Markov Models and a Little Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    We will first give a brief overview of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and their use in Computational Molecular Biology. In particular, we will describe a detailed application of HMMs to the G-Protein-Coupled-Receptor Superfamily. We will also describe a number of analytical results on HMMs that can be used in discrimination tests and database mining. We will then discuss the limitations of HMMs and some new directions of research. We will conclude with some recent results on the application of HMMs to human gene modeling and parsing.

  10. Family Medicine at the University of the West Indies: a model for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Rohan G; Standard-Goldson, Aileen; Hanna-Mahase, Cherilyn; Roache-Barker, Sonia; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Motilal, M Shastri; Farquharson, Carnille; Morris, Euclid; Paul-Charles, Joanne; Williams-Green, Pauline; Adams, O Peter

    2016-09-01

    Context and background: To describe the Family Medicine (FM) postgraduate training programme at the University of the West Indies (UWI). Actions and activities: This paper was created through a review of documents, and discussions with past and present coordinators and key stakeholders at four campuses in the English-speaking Caribbean (ESC). Despite intermittent setbacks the FM programme in the ESC has grown due to: (1) The presence of an umbrella institution in the UWI. (2) The role of the Caribbean College of Family Physicians providing a unifying force of advocacy and cooperation. (3) Collaboration of staff across four sites despite large distances, differing departmental and campus structures and financial models; and varying levels of local medical and public health support. (4) The use of a modular design for academic content, which means that students have comparable learning experiences. (5) Streamlining of exit examinations, thus sharing resources in the assessment process. (6) A strong presence of FM in the undergraduate curriculum. Despite a variety of timelines in programme development and funding mechanisms, over 150 physicians have graduated in FM in the past five years. We identify the unifying strategies and institutions which made this possible and present this model as an option for new programmes in the developing world.

  11. The patient, the doctor and the family as aspects of community: new models for informed consent.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Filial obligation and its implications have been little-debated in ethics. The basis of informed consent in libertarian positions may be challenged by inclusion of others beyond the immediate doctor-patient relationship. Some of the literature arguing for and against filial duty, including feminist literature, is presented as a backdrop to the argument that a patient's family, and further, his or her community, contains the source of a broader perspective regarding decisions concerning his or her medical treatment. Communitarian models allow for a medical decision to be owned by some or all stakeholders in patient outcomes. Although such a position undoubtedly confronts traditional notions of autonomy, it offers an alternative that may positively impact the practice of medicine by providing a more holistic treatment context. New models premised on shared decision-making will be presented as frameworks that may provide a theoretical basis for greater physician input into medical decisions that impact a patient's family members and in more global terms, his or her community.

  12. Modelling habitat associations with fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) counts at multiple spatial scales using hierarchical count models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, B.R.; Haro, R.J.; Rogala, J.T.; Sauer, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    1. Macroinvertebrate count data often exhibit nested or hierarchical structure. Examples include multiple measurements along each of a set of streams, and multiple synoptic measurements from each of a set of ponds. With data exhibiting hierarchical structure, outcomes at both sampling (e.g. Within stream) and aggregated (e.g. Stream) scales are often of interest. Unfortunately, methods for modelling hierarchical count data have received little attention in the ecological literature. 2. We demonstrate the use of hierarchical count models using fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) count data and habitat predictors derived from sampling and aggregated spatial scales. The sampling scale corresponded to that of a standard Ponar grab (0.052 m(2)) and the aggregated scale to impounded and backwater regions within 38-197 km reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Impounded and backwater regions were resampled annually for 10 years. Consequently, measurements on clams were nested within years. Counts were treated as negative binomial random variates, and means from each resampling event as random departures from the impounded and backwater region grand means. 3. Clam models were improved by the addition of covariates that varied at both the sampling and regional scales. Substrate composition varied at the sampling scale and was associated with model improvements, and reductions (for a given mean) in variance at the sampling scale. Inorganic suspended solids (ISS) levels, measured in the summer preceding sampling, also yielded model improvements and were associated with reductions in variances at the regional rather than sampling scales. ISS levels were negatively associated with mean clam counts. 4. Hierarchical models allow hierarchically structured data to be modelled without ignoring information specific to levels of the hierarchy. In addition, information at each hierarchical level may be modelled as functions of covariates that themselves vary by and within levels. As

  13. Models of Integrating Physical Therapists into Family Health Teams in Ontario, Canada: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Mandoda, Shilpa; Landry, Michel D.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore the potential for different models of incorporating physical therapy (PT) services within the emerging network of family health teams (FHTs) in Ontario and to identify challenges and opportunities of each model. Methods: A two-phase mixed-methods qualitative descriptive approach was used. First, FHTs were mapped in relation to existing community-based PT practices. Second, semi-structured key-informant interviews were conducted with representatives from urban and rural FHTs and from a variety of community-based PT practices. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a categorizing/editing approach. Results: Most participants agreed that the ideal model involves embedding physical therapists directly into FHTs; in some situations, however, partnering with an existing external PT provider may be more feasible and sustainable. Access and funding remain the key issues, regardless of the model adopted. Conclusion: Although there are differences across the urban/rural divide, there exist opportunities to enhance and optimize existing delivery models so as to improve client access and address emerging demand for community-based PT services. PMID:22654231

  14. Two-Variance-Component Model Improves Genetic Prediction in Family Datasets.

    PubMed

    Tucker, George; Loh, Po-Ru; MacLeod, Iona M; Hayes, Ben J; Goddard, Michael E; Berger, Bonnie; Price, Alkes L

    2015-11-05

    Genetic prediction based on either identity by state (IBS) sharing or pedigree information has been investigated extensively with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) methods. Such methods were pioneered in plant and animal-breeding literature and have since been applied to predict human traits, with the aim of eventual clinical utility. However, methods to combine IBS sharing and pedigree information for genetic prediction in humans have not been explored. We introduce a two-variance-component model for genetic prediction: one component for IBS sharing and one for approximate pedigree structure, both estimated with genetic markers. In simulations using real genotypes from the Candidate-gene Association Resource (CARe) and Framingham Heart Study (FHS) family cohorts, we demonstrate that the two-variance-component model achieves gains in prediction r(2) over standard BLUP at current sample sizes, and we project, based on simulations, that these gains will continue to hold at larger sample sizes. Accordingly, in analyses of four quantitative phenotypes from CARe and two quantitative phenotypes from FHS, the two-variance-component model significantly improves prediction r(2) in each case, with up to a 20% relative improvement. We also find that standard mixed-model association tests can produce inflated test statistics in datasets with related individuals, whereas the two-variance-component model corrects for inflation. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating the impact a proposed family planning model would have on maternal and infant mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Ahmad Masoud; Wade, Benjamin; Riley, William

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential impact a proposed family planning model would have on reducing maternal and infant mortality in Afghanistan. Afghanistan has a high total fertility rate, high infant mortality rate, and high maternal mortality rate. Afghanistan also has tremendous socio-cultural barriers to and misconceptions about family planning services. We applied predictive statistical models to a proposed family planning model for Afghanistan to better understand the impact increased family planning can have on Afghanistan's maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate. We further developed a sensitivity analysis that illustrates the number of maternal and infant deaths that can be averted over 5 years according to different increases in contraceptive prevalence rates. Incrementally increasing contraceptive prevalence rates in Afghanistan from 10% to 60% over the course of 5 years could prevent 11,653 maternal deaths and 317,084 infant deaths, a total of 328,737 maternal and infant deaths averted. Achieving goals in reducing maternal and infant mortality rates in Afghanistan requires a culturally relevant approach to family planning that will be supported by the population. The family planning model for Afghanistan presents such a solution and holds the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of deaths. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Maternal warmth and toddler development: support for transactional models in disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Doyle, Orla; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-04-01

    Studies support cognitive and social domains of development as entwined in childhood, however, there is a paucity of investigation into the nature of the mother-child relationship within an interdependence framework. Furthermore, the focus on these processes within families from impoverished communities using frequent assessments in early childhood has been limited. Our objectives were to identify (1) the directional associations between toddler's communication ability and social competence, (2) to establish whether the association between toddler's communication ability and social competence is mediated by maternal warmth, and (3) to establish support for transactional models between toddlers' outcomes and maternal warmth in disadvantaged communities in Ireland. Participants included 173 toddlers and their families enrolled in a prenatally commencing prevention programme. Toddler's communication and social competence were assessed at 12, 18, 24 and 36 months and maternal warmth at 6 and 24 months. Cross-lagged models were estimated examining multiple paths of associations simultaneously. Direct and indirect paths of maternal warmth were also examined. Bi-directional associations were found between communication ability and social competence from 12 to 24 months but not thereafter. Maternal warmth did not significantly mediate these associations, however, support of a transactional model was found with social competence. The results support early positive associations between better communication ability and social competence in the first 2 years, however, they suggest that these associations are no longer present by the third year. The role of maternal warmth in fostering social competencies is important for toddlers and equally important is toddler's level of social competence in eliciting increased maternal warmth.

  17. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four ``virtual family'' members for thermoregulatory modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P.; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N.; Potter, Adam W.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  18. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four "virtual family" members for thermoregulatory modeling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N; Potter, Adam W

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  19. Personalized Pediatric Coordinated Services (PPCS): A Family-Centered Model of Coordinated Services for Young Children with Chronic Illness and Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie Larlham Foundation, Mantua, OH.

    This report describes a model designed to provide family-centered, community-based coordinated services for families and their children with chronic health care needs. The model, which was implemented to serve 208 children over a 5-year period, is based on three key concepts: families should have the choice to receive services in their homes and…

  20. Supporting families with Cancer: A patient centred survivorship model of care.

    PubMed

    Craft, Emily Victoria; Billington, Caron; O'Sullivan, Rory; Watson, Wendy; Suter-Giorgini, Nicola; Singletary, Joanne; King, Elizabeth; Perfirgines, Matthew; Cashmore, Annette; Barwell, Julian

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, the Leicestershire Clinical Genetics Department in collaboration with Macmillan Cancer Support initiated a project called Supporting Families with Cancer (SFWC). The project aimed to raise awareness of inherited cancers amongst both healthcare professionals and the general public and develop a patient-centred collaborative approach to cancer treatment and support services. This paper describes the project's development of a range of community outreach events and a training scheme for primary healthcare professionals designed to improve familial cancer referral rates in Leicester. Following consultation with patients and support groups, a series of interactive 'medical supermarket' events were held in Leicester. These events focused on providing patients with a forum for sharing research data, information about diagnosis and treatments and access to support groups and other allied healthcare services with additional information being made available digitally via SFWC webpages and a series of short videos available on a YouTube channel. Qualitative and quantitative data presented here indicate that the SFWC medical supermarket model has been well received by patients and offers a patient-centred, holistic approach to cancer treatment.

  1. Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell as a Model for Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ning; Yazawa, Masayuki; Liu, Jianwei; Han, Leng; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Abilez, Oscar J.; Navarrete, Enrique G.; Hu, Shijun; Wang, Li; Lee, Andrew; Pavlovic, Aleksandra; Lin, Shin; Chen, Rui; Hajjar, Roger J.; Snyder, Michael P.; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E.; Butte, Manish J.; Ashley, Euan A.; Longaker, Michael T.; Robbins, Robert C.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common cardiomyopathy, characterized by ventricular dilatation, systolic dysfunction, and progressive heart failure. DCM is the most common diagnosis leading to heart transplantation and places a significant burden on healthcare worldwide. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an exceptional opportunity for creating disease-specific models, investigating underlying mechanisms, and optimizing therapy. Here we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) from iPSCs derived from patients of a DCM family carrying a point mutation (R173W) in the gene encoding sarcomeric protein cardiac troponin T. Compared to the control healthy individuals in the same family cohort, DCM iPSC-CMs exhibited altered Ca2+ handling, decreased contractility, and abnormal sarcomeric α-actinin distribution. When stimulated with β-adrenergic agonist, DCM iPSC-CMs showed characteristics of failure such as reduced beating rates, compromised contraction, and significantly more cells with abnormal sarcomeric α-actinin distribution. β-adrenergic blocker treatment and over-expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (Serca2a) improved DCM iPSC-CMs function. Our study demonstrated that human DCM iPSC-CMs recapitulated to some extent the disease phenotypes morphologically and functionally, and thus can serve as a useful platform for exploring molecular and cellular mechanisms and optimizing treatment of this particular disease. PMID:22517884

  2. Individual and Familial Susceptibility to MPTP in a Common Marmoset Model for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Franke, Sigrid K; van Kesteren, Ronald E; Hofman, Sam; Wubben, Jacqueline A M; Smit, August B; Philippens, Ingrid H C H M

    2016-01-01

    Insight into susceptibility mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease (PD) would aid the understanding of disease etiology, enable target finding and benefit the development of more refined disease-modifying strategies. We used intermittent low-dose MPTP (0.5 mg/kg/week) injections in marmosets and measured multiple behavioral and neurochemical parameters. Genetically diverse monkeys from different breeding families were selected to investigate inter- and intrafamily differences in susceptibility to MPTP treatment. We show that such differences exist in clinical signs, in particular nonmotor PD-related behaviors, and that they are accompanied by differences in neurotransmitter levels. In line with the contribution of a genetic component, different susceptibility phenotypes could be traced back through genealogy to individuals of the different families. Our findings show that low-dose MPTP treatment in marmosets represents a clinically relevant PD model, with a window of opportunity to examine the onset of the disease, allowing the detection of individual variability in disease susceptibility, which may be of relevance for the diagnosis and treatment of PD in humans. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The family model stress and maternal psychological symptoms: mediated pathways from economic hardship to parenting.

    PubMed

    Newland, Rebecca P; Crnic, Keith A; Cox, Martha J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

    2013-02-01

    Although much of the extant research on low-income families has targeted parental depression as the predominant psychological response to economic hardship, the current study examined a range of maternal psychological symptoms that may mediate the relations between early economic pressure and later parenting behaviors. A family stress model was examined using data from 1,142 mothers living in 2 areas of high rural poverty, focusing on the infancy through toddlerhood period. Maternal questionnaires and observations of mother-child interactions were collected across 4 time points (6, 15, 24, and 36 months). Results from structural equation analyses indicated that early economic pressure was significantly related to a variety of symptoms (depression, hostility, anxiety, and somatization), but only depression and somatization were significantly related to decreased levels of sensitive, supportive parenting behaviors. In contrast, anxiety was positively associated with sensitive parenting. Depression and anxiety were both found to mediate the relations between economic pressure and sensitive parenting behaviors. Results further suggest that mothers did not experience change in objective economic hardship over time but did experience a small decrease in economic pressure. Discussion centers on the apparent indirect influence of early economic hardship on later psychological symptoms and parenting behaviors, as well as detailing the need for broader and more complex perspectives on maternal psychological responses that arise as a result of economic disadvantage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Peter, Richard; Geyer, Siegfried

    2012-01-06

    This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in unpaid household and family work. Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129) the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren)'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.

  5. A model of religious involvement, family processes, self-control, and juvenile delinquency in two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Guo, Siying

    2018-02-01

    Family processes, adolescent religious involvement, and self-control may serve as important mechanisms that mediate the relationship between parental religious involvement and delinquency. However, at present no study has systematically investigated the relationships among these factors and how these mediating mechanisms work. To address this gap, path analyses are conducted to test the hypothesized pathways whereby parental religious involvement operates to discourage delinquent behaviors of offspring. The study variables are taken from three waves of the study of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and its descendent NLSY79 Child and Young Adults at two year intervals (2000, 2002, and 2004). 1020 American adolescents who are 10-14 years old in 2002 are selected for final analyses. The findings suggest that parental religious involvement does not affect adolescent delinquency four years later directly, but indirectly through its influence on adolescent religious involvement, parenting practices, inter-parental conflict, and their interactions with adolescent self-control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A Multi-Mediation Model on the Relations of Bullying, Victimization, Identity, and Family with Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hoof, Anne; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; van Beek, Yolanda; Hale, William W., III; Aleva, Liesbeth

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated a multi-mediation model of the relationship between bullying behavior, peer victimization, personal identity, and family characteristics to adolescent depressive symptoms in 194 high school students, 12-18 years of age. In the first model, peer victimization mediated the relation between bullying behavior and depressive…

  7. Participation in Action: The Healthy African American Families Community Conference Model

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Collins, Barry E.

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy African American Families project (HAAF) in Los Angeles developed “community conferences” as a method of engaging local community members in mutually beneficial participatory collaborations with academic and clinical researchers. In these conferences, community voices and concerns about a health issue are translated into the language of scientific inquiry. Scientific information and process are translated into forms that can be understood and utilized by the lay community. Equally important, the conference process enables community members to provide input into scientific projects and to take ownership of subsequent interventions resulting from the research conducted in its community. The HAAF conference model is participation in action. It may be useful for other communities engaging in community participatory prevention research. PMID:20629242

  8. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of…

  9. Using Energetic Models to Investigate the Survival and Reproduction of Beaked Whales (family Ziphiidae)

    PubMed Central

    New, Leslie F.; Moretti, David J.; Hooker, Sascha K.; Costa, Daniel P.; Simmons, Samantha E.

    2013-01-01

    Mass stranding of several species of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) associated with exposure to anthropogenic sounds has raised concern for the conservation of these species. However, little is known about the species’ life histories, prey or habitat requirements. Without this knowledge, it becomes difficult to assess the effects of anthropogenic sound, since there is no way to determine whether the disturbance is impacting the species’ physical or environmental requirements. Here we take a bioenergetics approach to address this gap in our knowledge, as the elusive, deep-diving nature of beaked whales has made it hard to study these effects directly. We develop a model for Ziphiidae linking feeding energetics to the species’ requirements for survival and reproduction, since these life history traits would be the most likely to be impacted by non-lethal disturbances. Our models suggest that beaked whale reproduction requires energy dense prey, and that poor resource availability would lead to an extension of the inter-calving interval. Further, given current information, it seems that some beaked whale species require relatively high quality habitat in order to meet their requirements for survival and reproduction. As a result, even a small non-lethal disturbance that results in displacement of whales from preferred habitats could potentially impact a population if a significant proportion of that population was affected. We explored the impact of varying ecological parameters and model assumptions on survival and reproduction, and find that calf and fetus survival appear more readily affected than the survival of adult females. PMID:23874737

  10. Using energetic models to investigate the survival and reproduction of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae).

    PubMed

    New, Leslie F; Moretti, David J; Hooker, Sascha K; Costa, Daniel P; Simmons, Samantha E

    2013-01-01

    Mass stranding of several species of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) associated with exposure to anthropogenic sounds has raised concern for the conservation of these species. However, little is known about the species' life histories, prey or habitat requirements. Without this knowledge, it becomes difficult to assess the effects of anthropogenic sound, since there is no way to determine whether the disturbance is impacting the species' physical or environmental requirements. Here we take a bioenergetics approach to address this gap in our knowledge, as the elusive, deep-diving nature of beaked whales has made it hard to study these effects directly. We develop a model for Ziphiidae linking feeding energetics to the species' requirements for survival and reproduction, since these life history traits would be the most likely to be impacted by non-lethal disturbances. Our models suggest that beaked whale reproduction requires energy dense prey, and that poor resource availability would lead to an extension of the inter-calving interval. Further, given current information, it seems that some beaked whale species require relatively high quality habitat in order to meet their requirements for survival and reproduction. As a result, even a small non-lethal disturbance that results in displacement of whales from preferred habitats could potentially impact a population if a significant proportion of that population was affected. We explored the impact of varying ecological parameters and model assumptions on survival and reproduction, and find that calf and fetus survival appear more readily affected than the survival of adult females.

  11. "This Is My Family outside of My Family": Care-Based Relating in a Model Early College High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ari, Omer; Fisher-Ari, Teresa R.; Killacky, Jim; Angel, Roma

    2017-01-01

    Early college (EC) is a novel educational model in the US that combines high school and college in an effort to increase underrepresented students' access to higher education by providing engaging, hands-on instruction in a supportive learning environment. For this phenomenological inquiry, we sought to understand the role of care-based relating…

  12. Survey of the Effectiveness of Epstein's Model of Family Engagement with Special Needs Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Terri L.

    2013-01-01

    Families of children with special needs are often underrepresented in research studies regarding family engagement in education. In Delaware, the methods of engaging families in special education and the effectiveness of these methods is unknown. The basis of this project is to provide a descriptive analysis of the effectiveness of Epstein's Model…

  13. Adherence to Biobehavioral Recommendations in Pediatric Migraine as Measured by Electronic Monitoring: The Adherence in Migraine (AIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Diest, Ashley M. Kroon; Ramsey, Rachelle; Aylward, Brandon; Kroner, John W.; Sullivan, Stephanie M.; Nause, Katie; Allen, Janelle R.; Chamberlin, Leigh A.; Slater, Shalonda; Hommel, Kevin; LeCates, Susan L.; Kabbouche, Marielle A.; O’Brien, Hope L.; Kacperski, Joanne; Hershey, Andrew D.; Powers, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    optimal outcomes for children and adolescents with migraine and their families. Once daily dosing of medication may be preferred to twice daily medication for increased medication adherence among children and adolescents. PMID:27167502

  14. Climatology Analysis of Global Climate Models from HiGEM Family Over South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, M. D. S.; Ambrizzi, T.; Da Rocha, R.; Vidale, P. L.

    2014-12-01

    General Circulation Models (GCMs) have shown difficulties to correctly simulate some atmospheric patterns, especially the precipitation over South America (SA), which is often attributed to the low resolution of these models. The increased horizontal resolution of climate models aims to improve the simulations accuracy and to understand the non-linear processes during interactions between different spatial scales within the climate system. Up to this moment, these interactions did not have a good representation on low horizontal resolution GCMs. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of the horizontal resolution in high resolution coupled and atmospheric global models of HiGEM project in simulating atmospheric patterns and processes of interaction between spatial scales. The simulations were validated using different reanalysis data and compared with observations in order to understand the impact of horizontal resolution on the precipitation systems over SA. Three different horizontal resolutions for HiGEM family models were compared ≈ 60, 90 and 135 km. Precipitation estimations from CMAP, CPC and GPCP are used for validation. Both coupled and uncoupled simulations consistently represent the observed spatial patterns related to seasonal march of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the formation and location of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and the subtropical high pressure systems in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. However, they overestimate the precipitation rate, especially in the ITCZ and western border regions of higher elevation, as in southern Chile. The fine horizontal resolution contributed to the large similarity between the seasonal patterns of global models and observations, with coupled models representing better these patterns than the atmospheric models in many regions of SA. The simulated annual cycles are in phase with estimations of rainfall for most of the six regions considered. An important result is that

  15. When the Minority Thinks "Essentially" Like the Majority: Blacks Distinguish Bio-Somatic from Bio-Behavioral Essentialism in Their Conceptions of Whites, and Only the Latter Predicts Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Gill, Michael J; Mendes, Dana M

    2016-01-01

    Essentialist beliefs about social groups can contribute to prejudice and intergroup distancing. To date, little data have been gathered regarding minority group members' essentialistic thinking about the White majority in the U.S. Do essentialist beliefs show a similar structure when minority group members are thinking about the majority as when the majority group is thinking about the minority group? Do minority group essentialist beliefs predict affective prejudice and diminished desire for intergroup contact as they do among White respondents? We sought answers to these questions in a study that included 248 African American participants. We found clear evidence that the structure of Blacks' essentialist thinking about Whites matches the structure of Whites' essentialist thinking about Blacks. Specifically, Black respondents made a distinction between bio-somatic and bio-behavioral essentialism, and reported stronger endorsement of the former as compared to the latter. Also replicating prior studies of Whites' essentialist thinking, only bio-behavioral essentialist beliefs were predictive of negative attitudes. This suggests that essentialism can be linked to prejudice even in contexts that do not involve a dominant group rationalizing its social advantages. Discussion centers on implications of this work for prejudice reduction.

  16. Mental Models of Cause and Inheritance for Type 2 Diabetes Among Unaffected Individuals Who Have a Positive Family History.

    PubMed

    Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Shah, Lisa L; Cady, Alyssa D

    2018-03-01

    Using the familial risk perception (FRP) model as a framework, we elicited causal and inheritance explanations for type 2 diabetes (T2D) from people who do not have T2D but have a family history for it. We identified four composite mental models for cause of T2D: (a) purely genetic; (b) purely behavioral/environmental; (c) direct multifactorial, in which risk factors interact and over time directly lead to T2D; and (d) indirect multifactorial, in which risk factors interact and over time cause a precursor health condition (such as obesity or metabolic syndrome) that leads to T2D. Interestingly, participants described specific risk factors such as genetics, food habits, lifestyle, weight, and culture as "running in the family." Our findings provide insight into lay beliefs about T2D that can be used by clinicians to anticipate or make sense of responses to questions they pose to patients about mental models for T2D.

  17. Filling Gaps in the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: Heritage Cultural Maintenance and Adjustment in Mexican-American Families.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment.

  18. Trajectories of Infants' Biobehavioral Development: Timing and Rate of A-Not-B Performance Gains and EEG Maturation.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Leigha A; Ram, Nilam; Bell, Martha Ann; Fox, Nathan A; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly

    2018-01-17

    This study examined how timing (i.e., relative maturity) and rate (i.e., how quickly infants attain proficiency) of A-not-B performance were related to changes in brain activity from age 6 to 12 months. A-not-B performance and resting EEG (electroencephalography) were measured monthly from age 6 to 12 months in 28 infants and were modeled using logistic and linear growth curve models. Infants with faster performance rates reached performance milestones earlier. Infants with faster rates of increase in A-not-B performance had lower occipital power at 6 months and greater linear increases in occipital power. The results underscore the importance of considering nonlinear change processes for studying infants' cognitive development as well as how these changes are related to trajectories of EEG power. © 2018 The Authors. Child Development © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. A family of small-world network models built by complete graph and iteration-function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fei; Yao, Bing

    2018-02-01

    Small-world networks are popular in real-life complex systems. In the past few decades, researchers presented amounts of small-world models, in which some are stochastic and the rest are deterministic. In comparison with random models, it is not only convenient but also interesting to study the topological properties of deterministic models in some fields, such as graph theory, theorem computer sciences and so on. As another concerned darling in current researches, community structure (modular topology) is referred to as an useful statistical parameter to uncover the operating functions of network. So, building and studying such models with community structure and small-world character will be a demanded task. Hence, in this article, we build a family of sparse network space N(t) which is different from those previous deterministic models. Even though, our models are established in the same way as them, iterative generation. By randomly connecting manner in each time step, every resulting member in N(t) has no absolutely self-similar feature widely shared in a large number of previous models. This makes our insight not into discussing a class certain model, but into investigating a group various ones spanning a network space. Somewhat surprisingly, our results prove all members of N(t) to possess some similar characters: (a) sparsity, (b) exponential-scale feature P(k) ∼α-k, and (c) small-world property. Here, we must stress a very screming, but intriguing, phenomenon that the difference of average path length (APL) between any two members in N(t) is quite small, which indicates this random connecting way among members has no great effect on APL. At the end of this article, as a new topological parameter correlated to reliability, synchronization capability and diffusion properties of networks, the number of spanning trees on a representative member NB(t) of N(t) is studied in detail, then an exact analytical solution for its spanning trees entropy is also

  20. NEIGHBORHOOD EFFECT HETEROGENEITY BY FAMILY INCOME AND DEVELOPMENTAL PERIOD: EVIDENCE FROM A COUNTERFACTUAL MODEL OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION

    PubMed Central

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.; Elwert, Felix; Harding, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of disadvantaged neighborhoods on child educational outcomes likely depend on a family's economic resources and the timing of neighborhood exposures during the course of child development. This study investigates how timing of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods during childhood versus adolescence affects high school graduation and whether these effects vary across families with different income levels. It follows 6,137 children in the PSID from childhood through adolescence and overcomes methodological problems associated with the joint endogeneity of neighborhood context and family income by adapting novel counterfactual methods—a structural nested mean model estimated via two-stage regression-with-residuals—for time-varying treatments and time-varying effect moderators. Results indicate that exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods, particularly during adolescence, has a strong negative effect on high school graduation, and that this negative effect is more severe for children from poor families. PMID:27017709

  1. Rural Caregivers for a Family Member With Dementia: Models of Burden and Distress Differ for Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Norma J; Morgan, Debra G; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Wickenhauser, Joseph P; Cammer, Allison; Minish, Duane; O'Connell, Megan E; Hayduk, Leslie A

    2016-02-01

    Forecasts of increasing prevalence of dementia in rural settings, coupled with reliance on family caregiver support, indicate that a greater understanding of caregiver distress in these contexts is necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine family caregiver burden and severity of distress on the day that a family member was diagnosed with dementia at a memory clinic that serves a rural population. Participants in this retrospective study were 231 primary family caregivers of a rural community-dwelling person with dementia. On the diagnostic day, women reported more burden and severity of distress than men and spouses reported more severity of distress than adult children. A structural equation model was not supported for the entire sample, but was supported for women caregivers only (n = 161). Caregiver distress related to dementia-specific behaviors explained both global distress and burden. Patients' functional decline was related to caregiver burden. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Usability evaluation of family physicians' interaction with the Comorbidity Ontological Modeling and ExecuTion System (COMET).

    PubMed

    Abidi, Samina R; Stewart, Samuel; Shepherd, Michael; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2013-01-01

    To assess how well the COMET system meets the functional goals and usability needs of family physicians (FP) for the management of patients who have comorbid chronic heart failure (CHF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Nonexperimental post-interaction Think Aloud Sessions and survey involving Likert scale questionnaires. Licensed Family Physicians in Nova Scotia. A clinical decision support tool called "COMET - Co-morbidity Ontological Modeling & ExecuTion". COMET's main purpose is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of patients with co-morbid CHF-AF in a family practice setting. Our study suggested that although the participant family physicians are potential users of the clinical decision support software like COMET, the most common usability problems encountered are related to inadequate information content, navigation, and time and effort for data entry. We recommend that a field usability testing of a CDSS using think aloud protocols in conjunction with surveys is an effective method to uncover usability problems.

  3. Conclusions of LOD-score analysis for family data generated under two-locus models

    SciTech Connect

    Dizier, M.H.; Babron, M.C.; Clergt-Darpoux, F.

    1996-06-01

    The power to detect linkage by the LOD-score method is investigated here for diseases that depend on the effects of two genes. The classical strategy is, first, to detect a major-gene (MG) effect by segregation analysis and, second, to seek for linkage with genetic markers by the LOD-score method using the MG parameters. We already showed that segregation analysis can lead to evidence for a MG effect for many two-locus models, with the estimates of the MG parameters being very different from those of the two genes involved in the disease. We show here that use of these MG parametermore » estimates in the LOD-score analysis may lead to a failure to detect linkage for some two-locus models. For these models, use of the sib-pair method gives a non-negligible increase of power to detect linkage. The linkage-homogeneity test among subsamples differing for the familial disease distribution provides evidence of parameter misspecification, when the MG parameters are used. Moreover, for most of the models, use of the MG parameters in LOD-score analysis leads to a large bias in estimation of the recombination fraction and sometimes also to a rejection of linkage for the true recombination fraction. A final important point is that a strong evidence of an MG effect, obtained by segregation analysis, does not necessarily imply that linkage will be detected for at least one of the two genes, even with the true parameters and with a close informative marker. 17 refs., 3 tabs.« less

  4. Comparing self- and provider-collected swabbing for HPV DNA testing in female-to-male transgender adult patients: a mixed-methods biobehavioral study protocol.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Deutsch, Madeline B; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Cavanaugh, Timothy; Pardee, Dana J; McLean, Sarah; Marrow, Elliot J; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Panther, Lori; Gelman, Marcy; Green, Jamison; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-06-23

    Cervical cancer, nearly all cases of which are caused by one of several high-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (hr-HPV), leads to significant morbidity and mortality in individuals with a cervix. Trans masculine (TM) individuals were born with female reproductive organs and identify as male, man, transgender man, or another diverse gender identity different from their female assigned sex at birth. Routine preventive sexual health screening of TM patients is recommended, including screening for cervical cancer and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, as many as one in three TM patients are not up-to-date per recommended U.S. Among cisgender (non-transgender) women, self-swab hr.-HPV DNA testing as a primary cervical cancer screening method and self-swab specimen collection for other STIs have high levels of acceptability. No study has yet been conducted to compare the performance and acceptability of self- and provider-collected swabs for hr.-HPV DNA testing and other STIs in TM patients. This article describes the study protocol for a mixed-methods biobehavioral investigation enrolling 150 sexually active TM to (1) assess the clinical performance and acceptability of a vaginal self-swab for hr.-HPV DNA testing compared to provider cervical swab and cervical cytology, and (2) gather acceptability data on self-collected specimens for other STIs. Study participation entails a one-time clinical visit at Fenway Health in Boston, MA comprised of informed consent, quantitative assessment, venipuncture for syphilis testing and HIV (Rapid OraQuick) testing, randomization, collection of biological specimens/biomarkers, participant and provider satisfaction survey, and qualitative exit interview. Participants are compensated $100. The primary study outcomes are concordance (kappa statistic) and performance (sensitivity and specificity) of self-collected vaginal HPV DNA specimens vs provider-collected cervical HPV swabs as a gold standard. This study

  5. Biobehavioral Insights into Adaptive Behavior in Complex and Dynamic Operational Settings: Lessons learned from the Soldier Performance and Effective, Adaptable Response Task

    PubMed Central

    Haufler, Amy J.; Lewis, Gregory F.; Davila, Maria I.; Westhelle, Felipe; Gavrilis, James; Bryce, Crystal I.; Kolacz, Jacek; Granger, Douglas A.; McDaniel, William

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the biobehavioral correlates of adaptive behavior in the context of a standardized laboratory-based mission-relevant challenge [the Soldier Performance and Effective, Adaptable Response (SPEAR) task]. Participants were 26 healthy male volunteers (M = 34.85 years, SD = 4.12) with active military duty and leadership experience within the last 5 years (i.e., multiple leadership positions, operational deployments in combat, interactions with civilians and partner nation forces on the battlefield, experience making decisions under fire). The SPEAR task simultaneously engages perception, cognition, and action aspects of human performance demands similar to those encountered in the operational setting. Participants must engage with military-relevant text, visual, and auditory stimuli, interpret new information, and retain the commander’s intent in working memory to create a new plan of action for mission success. Time-domain measures of heart period and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were quantified, and saliva was sampled [later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA)] before-, during-, and post-SPEAR. Results revealed a predictable pattern of withdraw and recovery of the cardiac vagal tone during repeated presentation of battlefield challenges. Recovery of vagal inhibition following executive function challenge was strongly linked to better task-related performance. Rate of RSA recovery was also associated with better recall of the commander’s intent. Decreasing magnitude in the skin conductance response prior to the task was positively associated with better overall task-related performance. Lower levels of RSA were observed in participants who reported higher rates of combat deployments, and reduced RSA flexibility was associated with higher rates of casualty exposure. Greater RSA flexibility during SPEAR was associated with greater self-reported resilience. There was no consistent pattern of task

  6. A quantitative model for oxygen uptake and release in a family of hemeproteins.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juan P; Szretter, María E; Sued, Mariela; Martí, Marcelo A; Estrin, Darío A; Boechi, Leonardo

    2016-06-15

    Hemeproteins have many diverse functions that largely depend on the rate at which they uptake or release small ligands, like oxygen. These proteins have been extensively studied using either simulations or experiments, albeit only qualitatively and one or two proteins at a time. We present a physical-chemical model, which uses data obtained exclusively from computer simulations, to describe the uptake and release of oxygen in a family of hemeproteins, called truncated hemoglobins (trHbs). Through a rigorous statistical analysis we demonstrate that our model successfully recaptures all the reported experimental oxygen association and dissociation kinetic rate constants, thus allowing us to establish the key factors that determine the rates at which these hemeproteins uptake and release oxygen. We found that internal tunnels as well as the distal site water molecules control ligand uptake, whereas oxygen stabilization by distal site residues controls ligand release. Because these rates largely determine the functions of these hemeproteins, these approaches will also be important tools in characterizing the trHbs members with unknown functions. lboechi@ic.fcen.uba.ar Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Loss of Ikbkap Causes Slow, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Familial Dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Yumi; Ramirez, Grisela; Salcedo, Ernesto; Stabio, Maureen E; Lefcort, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive congenital neuropathy that is caused by a mutation in the gene for inhibitor of kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKBKAP). Although FD patients suffer from multiple neuropathies, a major debilitation that affects their quality of life is progressive blindness. To determine the requirement for Ikbkap in the developing and adult retina, we generated Ikbkap conditional knockout (CKO) mice using a TUBA1a promoter-Cre (Tα1-Cre). In the retina, Tα1-Cre expression is detected predominantly in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). At 6 months, significant loss of RGCs had occurred in the CKO retinas, with the greatest loss in the temporal retina, which is the same spatial phenotype observed in FD, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, and dominant optic atrophy. Interestingly, the melanopsin-positive RGCs were resistant to degeneration. By 9 months, signs of photoreceptor degeneration were observed, which later progressed to panretinal degeneration, including RGC and photoreceptor loss, optic nerve thinning, Müller glial activation, and disruption of layers. Taking these results together, we conclude that although Ikbkap is not required for normal development of RGCs, its loss causes a slow, progressive RGC degeneration most severely in the temporal retina, which is later followed by indirect photoreceptor loss and complete retinal disorganization. This mouse model of FD is not only useful for identifying the mechanisms mediating retinal degeneration, but also provides a model system in which to attempt to test therapeutics that may mitigate the loss of vision in FD patients.

  8. Going Global: A Model for Evaluating Empirically Supported Family-Based Interventions in New Contexts.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Knut; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Fraser, Mark W

    2014-06-01

    The spread of evidence-based practice throughout the world has resulted in the wide adoption of empirically supported interventions (ESIs) and a growing number of controlled trials of imported and culturally adapted ESIs. This article is informed by outcome research on family-based interventions including programs listed in the American Blueprints Model and Promising Programs. Evidence from these controlled trials is mixed and, because it is comprised of both successful and unsuccessful replications of ESIs, it provides clues for the translation of promising programs in the future. At least four explanations appear plausible for the mixed results in replication trials. One has to do with methodological differences across trials. A second deals with ambiguities in the cultural adaptation process. A third explanation is that ESIs in failed replications have not been adequately implemented. A fourth source of variation derives from unanticipated contextual influences that might affect the effects of ESIs when transported to other cultures and countries. This article describes a model that allows for the differential examination of adaptations of interventions in new cultural contexts. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Implementation of a Chronic Illness Model for Diabetes Care in a Family Medicine Residency Program

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Robin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION While the Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been shown to improve the care of patients with chronic illnesses, primary care physicians have been unprepared in its use, and residencies have encountered challenges in introducing it into the academic environment. AIM Our residency program has implemented a diabetes management program modeled on the CCM to evaluate its impact on health outcomes of diabetic patients and educational outcomes of residents. SETTING University-affiliated, community-based family medicine residency program. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Six residents, two faculty clinicians, and clinic staff formed a diabetes management team. We redesigned the outpatient experience for diabetic patients by incorporating elements of the CCM: multidisciplinary team care through planned and group visits; creation of a diabetes registry; use of guidelines-based flow sheets; and incorporation of self-management goal-setting. Residents received extensive instruction in diabetes management, quality improvement, and patient self-management. PROGRAM EVALUATION We achieved overall improvement in all metabolic and process measures for patients, with the percentage achieving HbA1c, LDL, and BP goals simultaneously increasing from 5.7% to 17.1%. Educational outcomes for residents, as measured by compliance with review of provider performance reports and self-management goal-setting with patients, also significantly improved. DISCUSSION Through a learning collaborative experience, residency programs can successfully incorporate chronic care training for residents while addressing gaps in care for patients with diabetes. PMID:20737237

  10. Implementation of a chronic illness model for diabetes care in a family medicine residency program.

    PubMed

    Yu, Grace Chen; Beresford, Robin

    2010-09-01

    While the Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been shown to improve the care of patients with chronic illnesses, primary care physicians have been unprepared in its use, and residencies have encountered challenges in introducing it into the academic environment. Our residency program has implemented a diabetes management program modeled on the CCM to evaluate its impact on health outcomes of diabetic patients and educational outcomes of residents. University-affiliated, community-based family medicine residency program. Six residents, two faculty clinicians, and clinic staff formed a diabetes management team. We redesigned the outpatient experience for diabetic patients by incorporating elements of the CCM: multidisciplinary team care through planned and group visits; creation of a diabetes registry; use of guidelines-based flow sheets; and incorporation of self-management goal-setting. Residents received extensive instruction in diabetes management, quality improvement, and patient self-management. We achieved overall improvement in all metabolic and process measures for patients, with the percentage achieving HbA1c, LDL, and BP goals simultaneously increasing from 5.7% to 17.1%. Educational outcomes for residents, as measured by compliance with review of provider performance reports and self-management goal-setting with patients, also significantly improved. Through a learning collaborative experience, residency programs can successfully incorporate chronic care training for residents while addressing gaps in care for patients with diabetes.

  11. Dynamical properties of a family of collisionless models of elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, G.; Trenti, M.

    2004-04-01

    N-body simulations of collisionless collapse have offered important clues to the construction of realistic stellar dynamical models of elliptical galaxies. Such simulations confirm and quantify the qualitative expectation that rapid collapse of a self-gravitating collisionless system, initially cool and significantly far from equilibrium, leads to incomplete relaxation, that is to a quasi-equilibrium configuration characterized by isotropic, quasi-Maxwellian distribution of stellar orbits in the inner regions and by radially biased anisotropic pressure in the outer parts. In earlier studies, as illustrated in a number of papers several years ago, the attention was largely focused on the successful comparison between the models (constructed under the qualitative clues offered by the N-body simulations mentioned above) and the observations. In this paper we revisit the problem of incomplete violent relaxation, by making a direct comparison between the detailed properties of a family of distribution functions and those of the products of collisionless collapse found in N-body simulations.

  12. A Conceptual Model and Clinical Framework for Integrating Mindfulness into Family Therapy with Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brody, Janet L; Scherer, David G; Turner, Charles W; Annett, Robert D; Dalen, Jeanne

    2017-06-07

    Individual and group-based psychotherapeutic interventions increasingly incorporate mindfulness-based principles and practices. These practices include a versatile set of skills such as labeling and attending to present-moment experiences, acting with awareness, and avoiding automatic reactivity. A primary motivation for integrating mindfulness into these therapies is compelling evidence that it enhances emotion regulation. Research also demonstrates that family relationships have a profound influence on emotion regulation capacities, which are central to family functioning and prosocial behavior more broadly. Despite this evidence, no framework exists to describe how mindfulness might integrate into family therapy. This paper describes the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions, highlighting how and why informal mindfulness practices might enhance emotion regulation when integrated with family therapy. We provide a clinical framework for integrating mindfulness into family therapy, particularly as it applies to families with adolescents. A brief case example details sample methods showing how incorporating mindfulness practices into family therapy may enhance treatment outcomes. A range of assessment modalities from biological to behavioral demonstrates the breadth with which the benefits of a family-based mindfulness intervention might be evaluated. © 2017 The Authors. Family Process published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Family Process Institute.

  13. A decision support model for improving a multi-family housing complex based on CO2 emission from electricity consumption.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Kim, Hyunjoong

    2012-12-15

    The number of deteriorated multi-family housing complexes in South Korea continues to rise, and consequently their electricity consumption is also increasing. This needs to be addressed as part of the nation's efforts to reduce energy consumption. The objective of this research was to develop a decision support model for determining the need to improve multi-family housing complexes. In this research, 1664 cases located in Seoul were selected for model development. The research team collected the characteristics and electricity energy consumption data of these projects in 2009-2010. The following were carried out in this research: (i) using the Decision Tree, multi-family housing complexes were clustered based on their electricity energy consumption; (ii) using Case-Based Reasoning, similar cases were retrieved from the same cluster; and (iii) using a combination of Multiple Regression Analysis, Artificial Neural Network, and Genetic Algorithm, the prediction performance of the developed model was improved. The results of this research can be used as follows: (i) as basic research data for continuously managing several energy consumption data of multi-family housing complexes; (ii) as advanced research data for predicting energy consumption based on the project characteristics; (iii) as practical research data for selecting the most optimal multi-family housing complex with the most potential in terms of energy savings; and (iv) as consistent and objective criteria for incentives and penalties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving Disease Prediction by Incorporating Family Disease History in Risk Prediction Models with Large-Scale Genetic Data.

    PubMed

    Gim, Jungsoo; Kim, Wonji; Kwak, Soo Heon; Choi, Hosik; Park, Changyi; Park, Kyong Soo; Kwon, Sunghoon; Park, Taesung; Won, Sungho

    2017-11-01

    Despite the many successes of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the known susceptibility variants identified by GWAS have modest effect sizes, leading to notable skepticism about the effectiveness of building a risk prediction model from large-scale genetic data. However, in contrast to genetic variants, the family history of diseases has been largely accepted as an important risk factor in clinical diagnosis and risk prediction. Nevertheless, the complicated structures of the family history of diseases have limited their application in clinical practice. Here, we developed a new method that enables incorporation of the general family history of diseases with a liability threshold model, and propose a new analysis strategy for risk prediction with penalized regression analysis that incorporates both large numbers of genetic variants and clinical risk factors. Application of our model to type 2 diabetes in the Korean population (1846 cases and 1846 controls) demonstrated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms accounted for 32.5% of the variation explained by the predicted risk scores in the test data set, and incorporation of family history led to an additional 6.3% improvement in prediction. Our results illustrate that family medical history provides valuable information on the variation of complex diseases and improves prediction performance. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. The SKI*HI Model: A Comprehensive Model for Identification, Language Facilitation, and Family Support for Hearing Handicapped Children Through Home Management, Ages Birth to Six. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas C.; Watkins, Susan

    The SKI HI program, a home intervention model for hearing impaired infants and their families, is described. An overview of the program is provided, followed by separate sections on administrative, direct service, and support service topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): child identification and processing (statewide hearing screening model,…

  16. Alternative service delivery models for families with a new speech generating device: Perspectives of parents and therapists.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kate Louise; Balandin, Susan; Stancliffe, Roger James

    2015-04-01

    Research has revealed limitations in the provision of in-person services to families with a new speech generating device (SGD), both in Australia and overseas. Alternative service models such as parent training, peer support and telepractice may offer a solution, but their use with this population has not been researched to date. Using interviews and focus groups, this study explored the experiences and opinions of 13 speech-language pathologists and seven parents regarding alternatives to in-person support and training for families with a new SGD. Data were analysed using grounded theory. Themes explored in this paper include the benefits and drawbacks of alternative service models as well as participants' suggestions for the optimal implementation of these approaches. Participants confirmed the utility of alternative service models, particularly for rural/remote and underserviced clients. Benefits of these models included reduced travel time for families and therapists, as well as enhanced information access, support and advocacy for parents. Participants viewed the provision of ongoing professional support to families as critical, regardless of service modality. Additional issues arising from this study include the need for development of organizational policies, resources and training infrastructure to support the implementation of these alternative service models.

  17. Diabetes and the family.

    PubMed

    Wishner, W J; O'Brien, M D

    1978-07-01

    The reaction of the family to the presence of chronic illness depends on the composition of the family, the presence of significant others, the cultural background, the education of family members, the stage of family development, and finally the health-belief model adopted by the family.

  18. Modelling pathogenesis and treatment of familial dysautonomia using patient-specific iPSCs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gabsang; Papapetrou, Eirini P; Kim, Hyesoo; Chambers, Stuart M; Tomishima, Mark J; Fasano, Christopher A; Ganat, Yosif M; Menon, Jayanthi; Shimizu, Fumiko; Viale, Agnes; Tabar, Viviane; Sadelain, Michel; Studer, Lorenz

    2009-09-17

    The isolation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers a new strategy for modelling human disease. Recent studies have reported the derivation and differentiation of disease-specific human iPSCs. However, a key challenge in the field is the demonstration of disease-related phenotypes and the ability to model pathogenesis and treatment of disease in iPSCs. Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare but fatal peripheral neuropathy, caused by a point mutation in the IKBKAP gene involved in transcriptional elongation. The disease is characterized by the depletion of autonomic and sensory neurons. The specificity to the peripheral nervous system and the mechanism of neuron loss in FD are poorly understood owing to the lack of an appropriate model system. Here we report the derivation of patient-specific FD-iPSCs and the directed differentiation into cells of all three germ layers including peripheral neurons. Gene expression analysis in purified FD-iPSC-derived lineages demonstrates tissue-specific mis-splicing of IKBKAP in vitro. Patient-specific neural crest precursors express particularly low levels of normal IKBKAP transcript, suggesting a mechanism for disease specificity. FD pathogenesis is further characterized by transcriptome analysis and cell-based assays revealing marked defects in neurogenic differentiation and migration behaviour. Furthermore, we use FD-iPSCs for validating the potency of candidate drugs in reversing aberrant splicing and ameliorating neuronal differentiation and migration. Our study illustrates the promise of iPSC technology for gaining new insights into human disease pathogenesis and treatment.

  19. Systematic study of Zc+ family from a multiquark color flux-tube model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chengrong; Ping, Jialun; Huang, Hongxia; Wang, Fan

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the present experimental results of charged charmonium-like states Zc+, we present a systematic study of the tetraquark states [c u ][c ¯ d ¯ ] in a color flux-tube model with a multibody confinement potential. Our investigation indicates that charged charmonium-like states Zc+(3900 ) or Zc+(3885 ), Zc+(3930 ) , Zc+(4020 ) or Zc+(4025 ), Z1+(4050 ), Z2+(4250 ), and Zc+(4200 ) can be described as a family of tetraquark [c u ][c ¯d ¯] states with the quantum numbers n 2SL+1 J and JP of 1 3S1 and 1+, 2 3S1 and 1+, 1 5S2 and 2+, 1 3P1 and 1-, 1 5D1 and 1+, and 1 3D1 and 1+, respectively. The predicted lowest mass charged tetraquark state [c u ][c ¯ d ¯ ] with 0+ and 1 1S0 lies at 3780 ±10 MeV /c2 in the model. These tetraquark states have compact three-dimensional spatial configurations similar to a rugby ball with higher orbital angular momentum L between the diquark [c u ] and antidiquark [c ¯d ¯] corresponding to a more prolate spatial distribution. The multibody color flux tube, a collective degree of freedom, plays an important role in the formation of those charged tetraquark states. However, the two heavier charged states Zc+(4430 ) and Zc+(4475 ) cannot be explained as tetraquark states [c u ][c ¯d ¯] in this model approach.

  20. In search of best fitted composite model to the ALAE data set with transformed Gamma and inversed transformed Gamma families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, Mastoureh; Bakar, Shaiful Anuar Abu

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a recent novel approach is applied to estimate the threshold parameter of a composite model. Several composite models from Transformed Gamma and Inverse Transformed Gamma families are constructed based on this approach and their parameters are estimated by the maximum likelihood method. These composite models are fitted to allocated loss adjustment expenses (ALAE). In comparison to all composite models studied, the composite Weibull-Inverse Transformed Gamma model is proved to be a competitor candidate as it best fit the loss data. The final part considers the backtesting method to verify the validation of VaR and CTE risk measures.

  1. Integrating Family Resilience and Family Stress Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.

    2002-01-01

    The construct, family resilience, is defined differently by practitioners and researchers. This study tries to clarify the concept of family resilience. The foundation is family stress and coping theory, particularly the stress models that emphasize adaptation processes in families exposed to major adversities. (JDM)

  2. Systematic Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Catalytically Versatile Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Families Enriched in Model Basidiomycete Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Shale, Karabo; Pagadala, Nataraj Sekhar; Tuszynski, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection to identify such P450s in model basidiomycete fungi showing a preference for different types of plant components degradation. Any P450 family comprising a large number of member P450s compared to other P450 families indicates its natural selection over other P450 families by its important role in fungal physiology. Genome-wide comparative P450 analysis in the basidiomycete species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete carnosa, Agaricus bisporus, Postia placenta, Ganoderma sp. and Serpula lacrymans, revealed enrichment of 11 P450 families (out of 68 P450 families), CYP63, CYP512, CYP5035, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5141, CYP5144, CYP5146, CYP5150, CYP5348 and CYP5359. Phylogenetic analysis of the P450 family showed species-specific alignment of P450s across the P450 families with the exception of P450s of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete carnosa, suggesting paralogous evolution of P450s in model basidiomycetes. P450 gene-structure analysis revealed high conservation in the size of exons and the location of introns. P450s with the same gene structure were found tandemly arranged in the genomes of selected fungi. This clearly suggests that extensive gene duplications, particularly tandem gene duplications, led to the enrichment of selective P450 families in basidiomycetes. Functional analysis and gene expression profiling data suggest that members of the P450 families are catalytically versatile and possibly involved in fungal colonization of plant material. To our

  3. A family medicine training program in the Republic of Georgia: incorporating a model of chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Sanders, James

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a different approach to increase the number of family medicine physicians trained with specific competencies in the management of chronic disease. In 1999 the Republic of Georgia initiated an ambitious program designed to retrain practicing physicians in the specialty of family medicine. At 2 of the implementation sites, the Center for International Health worked with local health authorities to augment the official 940-hour curriculum to include lesson plans, workshops, and practicum experiences emphasizing a model of chronic disease management, giving particular attention to hypertension. The population served by the training sites has benefited in a cost-effective manner by achieving blood pressure control for as little as $8 per year per patient; the physician learners have performed above their peer group on standardized national testing. Family medicine training programs in resource-poor settings can incorporate chronic disease management models into their curriculum and achieve high-quality patient care outcomes.

  4. Stress and Family Quality of Life in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parent Gender and the Double ABCX Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McStay, Rebecca L.; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Past research has supported the utility of the Double ABCX model of family adaptation for parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). What remains unclear is the impact of family-related variables on outcomes in both mothers and fathers within the same family. We explored the potential predictors of maternal and paternal stress…

  5. Job insecurity and work-family conflict in teachers in Sweden: Examining their relations with longitudinal cross-lagged modeling.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anne; Näswall, Katharina; Lindfors, Petra; Sverke, Magnus

    2015-06-01

    Job insecurity and work-family conflict are increasingly prevalent in contemporary working life and numerous studies have documented their antecedents and negative consequences. The present study used longitudinal questionnaire data collected among teachers in Sweden to test the direction of the relation between job insecurity and work-family conflict using cross-lagged modeling. Multiple-group comparisons were conducted to account for the skewed gender composition in the teachers' group. After controlling for baseline levels of job insecurity, work-family conflict, and four potential confounders (age, children under 12 living at home, university education, and relationship status), we found that the reciprocal relationship between job insecurity and work-family conflict over a 1-year time period fitted the data best for the men. For women, however, only the auto regression coefficients were significant. The results provide some empirical support for gender differences in the relation between job insecurity and work-family conflict. Moreover, this study partially supports theoretical assumptions suggesting that job insecurity and work-family conflict influence each other. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. A work-family conflict/subjective well-being process model: a test of competing theories of longitudinal effects.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Russell A; Wayne, Julie Holliday; Ford, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we examine competing predictions of stress reaction models and adaptation theories regarding the longitudinal relationship between work-family conflict and subjective well-being. Based on data from 432 participants over 3 time points with 2 lags of varying lengths (i.e., 1 month, 6 months), our findings suggest that in the short term, consistent with prior theory and research, work-family conflict is associated with poorer subjective well-being. Counter to traditional work-family predictions but consistent with adaptation theories, after accounting for concurrent levels of work-family conflict as well as past levels of subjective well-being, past exposure to work-family conflict was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being over time. Moreover, evidence was found for reverse causation in that greater subjective well-being at 1 point in time was associated with reduced work-family conflict at a subsequent point in time. Finally, the pattern of results did not vary as a function of using different temporal lags. We discuss the theoretical, research, and practical implications of our findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Zero-inflated endogenous count in censored model: effects of informal family care on formal health care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Kim, Young-Sook

    2012-09-01

    If informal family health care is a substitute for formal health care, then there is a scope to reduce formal health care cost by promoting informal family health care. With the use of Korean data for the elderly, this paper estimates the effects of informal family health care on formal health care, where the former is measured by the number of caregivers and the latter is measured by the formal health care expenditure. This task, however, poses a number of difficulties. The first is that the number of the family caregivers is an endogenous count regressor. The second is that there are too many zeros in the count (85%). The third is that the response variable also has a nontrivial proportion of zeros (14%). This paper overcomes these problems by combining 'control function approach', 'zero-inflated' counts, and a semiparametric estimator for censored models. The resulting procedure avoids strong parametric assumptions and behaves well computationally. Our main empirical finding is that informal family health care has a large substitute effect for diabetics and that there are also weak evidences that informal family health care has substitute effects for high blood pressure and mental diseases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Defining the complexity of childhood obesity and related behaviours within the family environment using structural equation modelling.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Coveney, John; Cox, David N

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to define the complexity of the relationships between the family environment, health behaviours and obesity. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions between parent factors, family environment, and certain aspects of children's behaviour and weight status is presented. Exploratory structural equation modelling was used to quantitatively model the relationships between parent, child and family environmental factors. Adelaide, South Australia. Families (n 157) with children aged 5-10 years completed self-reported questionnaires, providing data on parents' knowledge, diet quality and activity habits; child feeding and general parenting styles; and the food and physical activity environments. Outcome variables included children's fruit and vegetable intake, activity and sedentary habits and weight status. The proposed model was an acceptable fit (normed fit index = 0·457; comparative fit index = 0·746; root-mean-squared error associated = 0·044). Parents' BMI (β = 0·32) and nutrition and physical activity knowledge (β = 0·17) had the strongest direct associations with children's BMI Z-score. Parents' dietary intake and energy expenditure behaviours were indirectly associated with children's behaviour through the creation of the home environment. The physical activity and food environments were associated with children's sedentary (β = -0·44) and activity habits (β = 0·29), and fruit and vegetable intake (β = 0·47), respectively. A conceptual model that quantifies the complex network of family environment factors influencing children's behaviour and weight status is presented. The model provides a basis for future research on larger representative samples with a view to guiding obesity prevention interventions.

  9. Children's Mental Health in Times of Economic Recession: Replication and Extension of the Family Economic Stress Model in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solantaus, Tytti; Leinonen, Jenni; Punam Ki, Raija-Leena

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation…

  10. Adult attachment, couple attachment, and children's adaptation to school: an integrated attachment template and family risk model.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Mehta, Neera

    2009-01-01

    Most attachment theorists assume that parenting style is the central mechanism linking the quality of parents' attachment with their parents and adaptation in their children. Outside the attachment tradition, family risk models assume that many family factors affect children's adaptation, chief among them being couple relationship quality. The present study tests an integrated model that considers both theoretical and empirical links between attachment theory and family risk research. Seventy-three fathers and mothers whose first child was about to make the transition to elementary school were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and a new Couple Attachment Interview. The parents were also observed in separate visits during kindergarten year in interaction with each other and with their child. At the end of first grade, we obtained children's academic achievement test results and teachers' checklist observations of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Structural equations revealed that a family risk model that includes information from working models of attachment and observations of couple interaction predicts substantial variation in children's adaptation to elementary school.

  11. A Cognitive-Interpersonal Model of Adolescent Depression: The Impact of Family Conflict and Depressogenic Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether family conflict generates peer-related stress and subsequent depressive symptoms among adolescents. In addition, in the context of the proposed mediation model, we examine whether negative cognitive styles about the self, cause, and consequences moderate the mediational pathway between peer stress and…

  12. Developing a Parenting Training Model of Character Education for Young Learners from Poor Families by Using Transformative Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasyad, Ach.

    2015-01-01

    This research is aiming at developing a parenting training model using a character education for young learners from the poor families. The data obtained were qualitative data drawn from open answers and Focus Group Discussion. The data were analyzed by using domain analysis and taxonomy. The research findings showed that there were some problems…

  13. Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Asperger Syndrome: An Application of the Double ABCX Model of Family Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Samios, Christina; Sofronoff, Kate

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the applicability of the double ABCX model of family adjustment in explaining maternal adjustment to caring for a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-seven mothers completed questionnaires at a university clinic while their children were participating in an anxiety intervention. The children were aged between…

  14. Maternal Psychological Control and Peer Victimization in Early Adolescence: An Application of the Family Relational Schema Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanova, Milena D.; Loukas, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the family relational schema model, the current study examined the direct and indirect contributions of maternal psychological control to subsequent relational and overt peer victimization, via early adolescents' conduct problems, fear of negative evaluation, and depressive symptoms. Participants were 499 10- to 14-year-olds (53% female;…

  15. Boundary Ambiguity and Coparental Conflict after Divorce: An Empirical Test of a Family Systems Model of the Divorce Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden-Derdich, Debra A.; Leonard, Stacie A.; Christopher, F. Scott

    1999-01-01

    A family systems model of the divorce process was proposed and tested for divorced mothers and fathers using a series of multiple regression analysis. Findings support the hypothesized positive relationship between boundary ambiguity and coparental conflict. Reports factors that influence boundary ambiguity were found to be distinct for mothers…

  16. Providing competency-based family medicine residency training in substance abuse in the new millennium: a model curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This article, developed for the Betty Ford Institute Consensus Conference on Graduate Medical Education (December, 2008), presents a model curriculum for Family Medicine residency training in substance abuse. Methods The authors reviewed reports of past Family Medicine curriculum development efforts, previously-identified barriers to education in high risk substance use, approaches to overcoming these barriers, and current training guidelines of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and their Family Medicine Residency Review Committee. A proposed eight-module curriculum was developed, based on substance abuse competencies defined by Project MAINSTREAM and linked to core competencies defined by the ACGME. The curriculum provides basic training in high risk substance use to all residents, while also addressing current training challenges presented by U.S. work hour regulations, increasing international diversity of Family Medicine resident trainees, and emerging new primary care practice models. Results This paper offers a core curriculum, focused on screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment, which can be adapted by residency programs to meet their individual needs. The curriculum encourages direct observation of residents to ensure that core skills are learned and trains residents with several "new skills" that will expand the basket of substance abuse services they will be equipped to provide as they enter practice. Conclusions Broad-based implementation of a comprehensive Family Medicine residency curriculum should increase the ability of family physicians to provide basic substance abuse services in a primary care context. Such efforts should be coupled with faculty development initiatives which ensure that sufficient trained faculty are available to teach these concepts and with efforts by major Family Medicine organizations to implement and enforce residency requirements for substance abuse training. PMID

  17. Individual, family, and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: a cumulative stressors model.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, Sara R; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Polo-Tomás, Monica; Taylor, Alan

    2007-03-01

    Children who are physically maltreated are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes in childhood and adulthood, but some children who are maltreated manage to function well despite their history of adversity. Which individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children? Do children's individual strengths promote resilience even when children are exposed to multiple family and neighborhood stressors (cumulative stressors model)? Data were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Study which describes a nationally representative sample of 1,116 twin pairs and their families. Families were home-visited when the twins were 5 and 7 years old, and teachers provided information about children's behavior at school. Interviewers rated the likelihood that children had been maltreated based on mothers' reports of harm to the child and child welfare involvement with the family. Resilient children were those who engaged in normative levels of antisocial behavior despite having been maltreated. Boys (but not girls) who had above-average intelligence and whose parents had relatively few symptoms of antisocial personality were more likely to be resilient versus non-resilient to maltreatment. Children whose parents had substance use problems and who lived in relatively high crime neighborhoods that were low on social cohesion and informal social control were less likely to be resilient versus non-resilient to maltreatment. Consistent with a cumulative stressors model of children's adaptation, individual strengths distinguished resilient from non-resilient children under conditions of low, but not high, family and neighborhood stress. These findings suggest that for children residing in multi-problem families, personal resources may not be sufficient to promote their adaptive functioning.

  18. Family characteristics and health behaviour as antecedents of school nurses' concerns about adolescents' health and development: a path model approach.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Levälahti, Esko; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-05-01

    Family socio-economic factors and parents' health behaviours have been shown to have an impact on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Family characteristics have also been associated with school nurses' concerns, which arose during health examinations, about children's and adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development. Parental smoking has also been associated with smoking in adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development related to family characteristics are mediated through parents' and adolescents' own health behaviours (smoking). A path model approach using cross-sectional data was used. In 2008-2009, information about health and well-being of adolescents was gathered at health examinations of the Children's Health Monitoring Study. Altogether 1006 eighth and ninth grade pupils in Finland participated in the study. The associations between family characteristics, smoking among parents and adolescents and school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development were examined using a structural equation model. Paternal education had a direct, and, through fathers' and boys' smoking, an indirect association with school nurses' concerns about the physical health of boys. Paternal labour market status and family income were only indirectly associated with concerns about the physical health of boys by having an effect on boys' smoking through paternal smoking, and a further indirect effect on concerns about boys' health. In girls, only having a single mother was strongly associated with school nurses' concerns about psychosocial development through maternal and adolescent girl smoking. Socio-economic family characteristics and parental smoking influence adolescent smoking and are associated with school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development. The findings

  19. Providing competency-based family medicine residency training in substance abuse in the new millennium: a model curriculum.

    PubMed

    Seale, J Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Clark, Denice Crowe

    2010-05-11

    This article, developed for the Betty Ford Institute Consensus Conference on Graduate Medical Education (December, 2008), presents a model curriculum for Family Medicine residency training in substance abuse. The authors reviewed reports of past Family Medicine curriculum development efforts, previously-identified barriers to education in high risk substance use, approaches to overcoming these barriers, and current training guidelines of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and their Family Medicine Residency Review Committee. A proposed eight-module curriculum was developed, based on substance abuse competencies defined by Project MAINSTREAM and linked to core competencies defined by the ACGME. The curriculum provides basic training in high risk substance use to all residents, while also addressing current training challenges presented by U.S. work hour regulations, increasing international diversity of Family Medicine resident trainees, and emerging new primary care practice models. This paper offers a core curriculum, focused on screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment, which can be adapted by residency programs to meet their individual needs. The curriculum encourages direct observation of residents to ensure that core skills are learned and trains residents with several "new skills" that will expand the basket of substance abuse services they will be equipped to provide as they enter practice. Broad-based implementation of a comprehensive Family Medicine residency curriculum should increase the ability of family physicians to provide basic substance abuse services in a primary care context. Such efforts should be coupled with faculty development initiatives which ensure that sufficient trained faculty are available to teach these concepts and with efforts by major Family Medicine organizations to implement and enforce residency requirements for substance abuse training.

  20. Episomal Nonviral Gene Therapy Vectors Slow Progression of Atherosclerosis in a Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Alastair G; Tam, Lawrence CS; Hale, Ashley B; Cioroch, Milena; Douglas, Gillian; Channon, Keith M; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by elevated levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol). Current attempts at gene therapy for FH have been limited by the use of strong heterologous promoters which lack genomic DNA elements essential for regulated expression. Here, we have combined a mini-gene vector expressing the human LDLR cDNA from a 10 kb native human LDLR locus genomic DNA promoter element, with an efficient miRNA targeting 3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr), to further enhance LDLR expression. We show that the combined vector suppresses endogenous Hmgcr transcripts in vivo, leading to an increase in LDLR transgene expression. In a diet-induced Ldlr-/- mouse model of FH, we show that administration of the combined vector reduces atherogenic plasma lipids by ~32%. Finally, we demonstrate that our episomal nonviral vectors are able to reduce atherosclerosis by ~40% after 12 weeks in vivo. Taken together, the vector system we describe exploits the normal cellular regulation of the LDLR to provide prolonged expression of LDLR through targeted knockdown of Hmgcr. This novel gene therapy system could act alone, or in synergy with current therapies that modulate intracellular cholesterol, such as statins, greatly enhancing its therapeutic application for FH. PMID:27824334

  1. Capturing the biology of disease severity in a PSC-based model of familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Zeltner, Nadja; Fattahi, Faranak; Dubois, Nicole C; Saurat, Nathalie; Lafaille, Fabien; Shang, Lei; Zimmer, Bastian; Tchieu, Jason; Soliman, Mohamed A; Lee, Gabsang; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Studer, Lorenz

    2016-12-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a debilitating disorder that affects derivatives of the neural crest (NC). For unknown reasons, people with FD show marked differences in disease severity despite carrying an identical, homozygous point mutation in IKBKAP, encoding IκB kinase complex-associated protein. Here we present disease-related phenotypes in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) that capture FD severity. Cells from individuals with severe but not mild disease show impaired specification of NC derivatives, including autonomic and sensory neurons. In contrast, cells from individuals with severe and mild FD show defects in peripheral neuron survival, indicating that neurodegeneration is the main culprit for cases of mild FD. Although genetic repair of the FD-associated mutation reversed early developmental NC defects, sensory neuron specification was not restored, indicating that other factors may contribute to disease severity. Whole-exome sequencing identified candidate modifier genes for individuals with severe FD. Our study demonstrates that PSC-based modeling is sensitive in recapitulating disease severity, which presents an important step toward personalized medicine.

  2. Home Visiting for At-Risk Preschoolers: A Successful Model for Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievar, M. Angela; Jacobson, A.; Dier, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program promotes school readiness by providing services directly to parents through home visitation. This study describes the outcomes of the HIPPY program for Latino immigrant families in a large Southwestern city. A quasi-experimental design compared 48 families on the program…

  3. Postdivorce Family Stability and Changes in Adolescents' Academic Performance: A Growth-Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2009-01-01

    Three waves of panel data from 7,897 adolescents in the National Education Longitudinal Studies have been used to investigate whether a stabilized postdivorce family environment benefits adolescents' academic performance trajectories. The analyses indicate that compared with peers who grow up in stable postdivorce families, children of divorce who…

  4. Bidirectional Associations between Coparenting Relations and Family Member Anxiety: A Review and Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdandzic, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Feinberg, Mark E.; Aktar, Evin; Bogels, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Research into anxiety has largely ignored the dynamics of family systems in anxiety development. Coparenting refers to the quality of coordination between individuals responsible for the upbringing of children and links different subsystems within the family, such as the child, the marital relationship, and the parents. This review discusses the…

  5. [The Family Health Program and the construction of a new model for primary care in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Escorel, Sarah; Giovanella, Ligia; Magalhães de Mendonça, Maria Helena; de Castro Maia Senna, Mônica

    2007-01-01

    As part of the implementation of the country's Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saúde), the Brazilian Government created, in the second half of the 1990s, the Family Health Program (FHP) (Programa de Saúde da Família), based on community-oriented, multidisciplinary care serving people organized into small groups. For this study, we evaluated the implementation of the FHP, based on three criteria: (1) the construction of the program as an entry point for most health needs and for access to specialized care, (2) the program's linkages with a comprehensive network of health services, and (3) the incorporation of new care practices into the health system. We found that the implementation of the FHP was far from uniform. In some municipalities the FHP is a focused program that runs in parallel with other primary care efforts. However, in other municipalities the FHP is viewed as a strategy aimed at changing the primary care model, and it partially or completely replaces preexisting primary care health units. Our research confirms a trend toward incremental change in the primary care model in Brazil. However, the expansion of the FHP in large urban areas faces several obstacles to guaranteeing all individuals access to comprehensive care with adequate clinical and collective health services, including secondary and tertiary care. The positive results that we found with some of the experiences with the FHP indicate that, in addition to increased federal financial incentives, the success of the FHP depends on creative local strategies to deal with Brazil's diversity.

  6. The measurement and prevalence of an ideational model of family and economic development in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Arland; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Mitchell, Colter

    2012-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the expectation that developmental idealism has been disseminated to ordinary people and affects family behavior. Developmental idealism is a belief and value system that endorses societal and family development, views societal and family development as occurring together, and suggests that modern families are causes and consequences of societal development. We use data collected in Nepal in 2003 to examine the understandings of ordinary people and show that Nepalis can discuss ideas about development and its relationship to family life and that developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Nepal. Developmental idealism is related in predictable ways to education, work experience, rural-urban residence, and mass media exposure. Although research ascertaining the influence of developmental idealism on demographic decision-making and behavior would be valuable, we cannot evaluate this with our one-time crossectional data, but our data and theory suggest that this influence may be substantial. PMID:22963536

  7. Three Approaches to Modeling Gene-Environment Interactions in Longitudinal Family Data: Gene-Smoking Interactions in Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Basson, Jacob; Sung, Yun Ju; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; Schwander, Karen L; Vazquez, Ana; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be substantially heritable, yet identified genetic variants explain only a small fraction of the heritability. Gene-smoking interactions have detected novel BP loci in cross-sectional family data. Longitudinal family data are available and have additional promise to identify BP loci. However, this type of data presents unique analysis challenges. Although several methods for analyzing longitudinal family data are available, which method is the most appropriate and under what conditions has not been fully studied. Using data from three clinic visits from the Framingham Heart Study, we performed association analysis accounting for gene-smoking interactions in BP at 31,203 markers on chromosome 22. We evaluated three different modeling frameworks: generalized estimating equations (GEE), hierarchical linear modeling, and pedigree-based mixed modeling. The three models performed somewhat comparably, with multiple overlaps in the most strongly associated loci from each model. Loci with the greatest significance were more strongly supported in the longitudinal analyses than in any of the component single-visit analyses. The pedigree-based mixed model was more conservative, with less inflation in the variant main effect and greater deflation in the gene-smoking interactions. The GEE, but not the other two models, resulted in substantial inflation in the tail of the distribution when variants with minor allele frequency <1% were included in the analysis. The choice of analysis method should depend on the model and the structure and complexity of the familial and longitudinal data. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  8. Is uniform persistence a robust property in almost periodic models? A well-behaved family: almost-periodic Nicholson systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obaya, Rafael; Sanz, Ana M.

    2018-02-01

    Using techniques of non-autonomous dynamical systems, we completely characterize the persistence properties of an almost periodic Nicholson system in terms of some numerically computable exponents. Although similar results hold for a class of cooperative and sublinear models, in the general non-autonomous setting one has to consider persistence as a collective property of the family of systems over the hull: the reason is that uniform persistence is not a robust property in models given by almost periodic differential equations.

  9. Food availability, modeling and restriction: How are these different aspects of the family eating environment related to adolescent dietary intake?

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Larson, Nicole; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine individual associations between aspects of the family eating environment (home food availability, parental modeling, and food restriction) and adolescent dietary intake and explore the combined relationship (i.e., environment profiles) between these aspects of the family eating environment and adolescent dietary intake. Methods Adolescents [14.4 years old (SD = 2.0)] and their parents (N=2383 parent-adolescent pairs] participated in 2 coordinated, population-based studies. Adolescent surveys were completed at school and parent surveys were conducted via mail or phone. Results Healthy home food availability was positively associated with fruit/vegetable intake and negatively associated with soda and snack food intake in adolescents. Healthy parental modeling was negatively associated with adolescent soda consumption. Food restriction was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and snack food intake. Examination of family eating environment profiles revealed that it was the home food availability component of the profiles that was associated with observed differences in fruits/vegetable consumption, whereas the parental modeling and food restriction components contributed to differences in soda and snack foods consumption. Conclusions Findings indicate that among the three aspects of the family eating environment explored, making healthy food available at home was most consistently associated with healthy dietary intake in adolescents. PMID:26327222

  10. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions.

  11. Increasing the delivery of health care services to migrant farm worker families through a community partnership model.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Rainer, Laura P; Simcox, Jordan B; Thomisee, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The Farm Worker Family Health Program (FWFHP) is a 13-year community partnership model designed to increase delivery of health care services for migrant farm worker families. During a yearly 2-week immersion experience, 90 students and faculty members provide health care services, including physical examinations, health screenings, health education, physical therapy, and dental care for 1,000 migrant farm workers and migrant children. Students and faculty members gain a deeper appreciation of the health and social issues that migrant farm worker families face by providing health care services in the places where migrant families live, work, and are educated. Although the model is not unique, it is significant because of its sustained history, interdisciplinary collaboration among community and academic partners, mutual trust and connections among the partners, and the way the program is tailored to meet the needs of the population served. The principles of social responsibility and leadership frame the FWFHP experience. This community partnership model can be replicated by others working with at-risk populations in low-resource settings.

  12. Food availability, modeling and restriction: How are these different aspects of the family eating environment related to adolescent dietary intake?

    PubMed

    Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Larson, Nicole; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    To examine individual associations between aspects of the family eating environment (home food availability, parental modeling, and food restriction) and adolescent dietary intake and explore the combined relationship (i.e., environment profiles) between these aspects of the family eating environment and adolescent dietary intake. Adolescents [14.4 years old (SD = 2.0)] and their parents (N = 2383 parent-adolescent pairs] participated in 2 coordinated, population-based studies. Adolescent surveys were completed at school and parent surveys were conducted via mail or phone. Healthy home food availability was positively associated with fruit/vegetable intake and negatively associated with soda and snack food intake in adolescents. Healthy parental modeling was negatively associated with adolescent soda consumption. Food restriction was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and snack food intake. Examination of family eating environment profiles revealed that it was the home food availability component of the profiles that was associated with observed differences in fruits/vegetable consumption, whereas the parental modeling and food restriction components contributed to differences in soda and snack foods consumption. Findings indicate that among the three aspects of the family eating environment explored, making healthy food available at home was most consistently associated with healthy dietary intake in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  14. Examining the Efficacy of a Family Peer Advocate Model for Black and Hispanic Caregivers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Jamison, J M; Fourie, E; Siper, P M; Trelles, M P; George-Jones, Julia; Buxbaum Grice, A; Krata, J; Holl, E; Shaoul, J; Hernandez, B; Mitchell, L; McKay, M M; Buxbaum, J D; Kolevzon, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects individuals across all racial and ethnic groups, yet rates of diagnosis are disproportionately higher for Black and Hispanic children. Caregivers of children with ASD experience significant stressors, which have been associated with parental strain, inadequate utilization of mental health services and lower quality of life. The family peer advocate (FPA) model has been utilized across service delivery systems to provide family-to-family support, facilitate engagement, and increase access to care. This study used a randomized controlled design to examine the efficacy of FPAs in a racially and ethnically diverse sample. Results demonstrate significantly increased knowledge of ASD and reduced levels of stress for caregivers who received the FPA intervention as compared to treatment as usual.

  15. Children's mental health in times of economic recession: replication and extension of the family economic stress model in Finland.

    PubMed

    Solantaus, Tytti; Leinonen, Jenni; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation models showed that the FESM fit the data well, indicating its generalizability in Finnish society. The results confirmed that a reduction in disposable family income constitutes a risk for child mental health through increased economic pressure and negative changes in parental mental health, marital interaction, and parenting quality. Controlling the children's prerecession mental health substantiated that economic hardship can lead to deterioration in children's mental health. Alternative models based on fully recursive analyses revealed reciprocal influences between parents and their children over time: Children's prerecession mental health problems predicted compromised parenting, which in turn contributed to children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms during the recession.

  16. The Nice model can explain the dispersion of the prograde Himalia family of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daohai; Christou, Apostolos

    2017-10-01

    More than 50 irregular satellites revolve around Jupiter in which at least three distinct collisional families are identified. Among them, the Himalia family is unique in the large velocity dispersion--several hundred m/s--among its members, inconsistent with a purely collisional origin.We explore this puzzle in the context of the Nice scenario of early solar system evolution. There, the giant planets migrated significant distances due to interactions with a primordial planetesimal disk. We generate a synthetic, collisionally-produced Himalia family and follow its evolution through principal events of the Nice model. Two situations are considered: (i) The planetesimal disk is solely composed of large, moon-sized objects. In this case, the family is dramatically scattered, especially in semimajor axis and eccentricity, as the planetesimals fly by Jupiter. The velocity dispersion of $\\sim60\\%$ of family members is raised to several hundred m/s, satisfactorily explaining the observed dispersion. However, this situation is not likely as the considered planetesimals seem unphysically massive. We now consider the alternative case (ii) within the so-called ``Jumping Jupiter’’ where planetary, rather than planetesimal encounters are responsible for the observed dispersion. Here, ice giants encounter Jupiter up to a few hundred times (Nesvorn\\'{y} \\& Morbidelli 2012). We find $\\lesssim20$ such planetary encounters disperse the synthetic family to the observed degree. We also find that the family cannot survive $\\sim100$ such fly-bys as the satellites become too widely dispersed.Reference: Nesvorn\\'{y}, D., \\& Morbidelli, A. 2012, AJ, 144, 117.

  17. Family child care home providers as role models for children: Cause for concern?

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Grummon, Anna; Burney, Regan; Erinosho, Temitope; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2017-03-01

    Health behaviors associated with chronic disease, particularly healthy eating and regular physical activity, are important role modeling opportunities for individuals working in child care programs. Prior studies have not explored these risk factors in family child care home (FCCH) providers which care for vulnerable and at-risk populations. To address this gap, we describe the socio-demographic and health risk behavior profiles in a sample of providers (n = 166 FCCH) taken from baseline data of an ongoing cluster-randomized controlled intervention (2011-2016) in North Carolina. Data were collected during on-site visits where providers completed self-administered questionnaires (socio-demographics, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, number of hours of sleep per night and perceived stress) and had their height and weight measured. A risk score (range: 0-6; 0 no risk to 6 high risk) was calculated based on how many of the following were present: not having health insurance, being overweight/obese, not meeting physical activity, fruit and vegetable, and sleep recommendations, and having high stress. Mean and frequency distributions of participant and FCCH characteristics were calculated. Close to one third (29.3%) of providers reported not having health insurance. Almost all providers (89.8%) were overweight or obese with approximately half not meeting guidelines for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and sleep. Over half reported a "high" stress score. The mean risk score was 3.39 (± 1.2), with close to half of the providers having a risk score of 4, 5 or 6 (45.7%). These results stress the need to promote the health of these important care providers.

  18. Supporting Resilience in Foster Families: A Model for Program Design that Supports Recruitment, Retention, and Satisfaction of Foster Families Who Care for Infants with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcellus, Lenora

    2010-01-01

    As the health, social, and developmental needs of infants in foster care become more complex, foster families are challenged to develop specialized knowledge to effectively address these needs. The goal of this qualitative research study was to identify the process of becoming a foster family and providing family foster caregiving within the…

  19. A Family Study of the DSM-5 Section III Personality Pathology Model Using the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5).

    PubMed

    Katz, Andrea C; Hee, Danelle; Hooker, Christine I; Shankman, Stewart A

    2017-10-03

    In Section III of the DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) proposes a pathological personality trait model of personality disorders. The recommended assessment instrument is the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5), an empirically derived scale that assesses personality pathology along five domains and 25 facets. Although the PID-5 demonstrates strong convergent validity with other personality measures, no study has examined whether it identifies traits that run in families, another important step toward validating the DSM-5's dimensional model. Using a family study method, we investigated familial associations of PID-5 domain and facet scores in 195 families, examining associations between parents and offspring and across siblings. The Psychoticism, Antagonism, and Detachment domains showed significant familial aggregation, as did facets of Negative Affect and Disinhibition. Results are discussed in the context of personality pathology and family study methodology. The results also help validate the PID-5, given the familial nature of personality traits.

  20. A Bowen Family Systems Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Romantic Relationship Distress.

    PubMed

    Priest, Jacob B

    2015-07-01

    Many individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) do not respond well to currently available treatments. Moreover, treatments are less effective when GAD is accompanied by romantic relationship distress. In order to develop effective treatments for GAD and relationship distress, it is necessary to conduct theory-based research to identify links common to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, the roles of family abuse/violence and differentiation in GAD and romantic relationship distress were examined using existing data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 2,312; 2005). As predicted, family abuse/violence was directly linked to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Differentiation mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and GAD, and partially mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and romantic relationship distress. Findings suggest that current and past relationship processes may help maintain chronic anxiety and that Bowen's theory may be a useful framework for developing couple therapy treatment of GAD and romantic relationship distress. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  1. Selection of individuals for genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia: development and external validation of a prediction model for the presence of a mutation causing familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Joost; Reitsma, Johannes B; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane; Kastelein, John J P; Hovingh, G Kees; Hutten, Barbara A

    2017-02-21

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease that warrants early diagnosis to prevent premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, genetic testing to make a definite diagnosis is costly, and careful selection of eligible subjects is important. Unfortunately, accuracy of current diagnostic criteria is poor, especially in young individuals. We therefore developed and validated a model to predict the presence of an FH causing mutation in persons referred by general practitioners. All participants in the Dutch FH screening programme from 1994 to 2014 were included in the development cohort. The validation cohort consisted of consecutive patients, suspected for FH, attending the outpatient lipid clinic in Saguenay (Quebec) from 1993 to 2014. Cross-sectional data were available on medical history, lipid profile, and DNA analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used for model development. The primary outcome was the presence of a deleterious FH mutation. The development cohort comprised 26 167 FH patients and 37 939 unaffected relatives. Our final model included age; sex; levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides; history and age of CVD; use of statins; smoking; alcohol; and presence of hypertension. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 85.4% (95% CI: 85.0-85.9). The calibration slope was 1.02 (where 1.00 is optimal). In the validation cohort (1436 FH patients and 1767 unaffected persons), the AUC was 95.4% (95% CI: 94.7-96.1%) and the calibration slope 1.06. Our model showed good discrimination and calibration. We specifically expect our model to be of added value for young persons set against current diagnostic criteria, since LDL-C and age are now used as continuous predictors. The equation will be available as an online calculator to estimate the probability of the presence of an FH mutation in individual patients. This tool

  2. Initial Development of a Model of Care and Support for Primary School Children in Changing Familial Situations: A Hong Kong Hybrid Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an initial model for the care and support of primary school children coping with family situations and family changes. The model is built on existing counselling literature, incorporating the perceptions of teachers, children and parents on their needs for support and a small empirical study by the author on teachers'…

  3. Midwest Child-Parent Center (CPC) PreK-3rd Grade School Reform Model: Impacts on Child and Family Outcomes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylor, Erika; Spiker, Donna; Wei, Xin; Lease, Erin; Reynolds, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This presentation reports on the goals and preliminary outcomes of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) Expansion Project, which is a PreK to 3rd grade school reform model aimed at improving the short- and long-term outcomes of participating children and families. The model provides continuous education and family support services to schools serving a…

  4. Development of the quality assessment model of EHR software in family medicine practices: research based on user satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Damir; Kern, Josipa; Tonkovic, Stanko; Koncar, Miroslav

    2015-09-09

    Family medicine practices (FMPs) make the basis for the Croatian health care system. Use of electronic health record (EHR) software is mandatory and it plays an important role in running these practices, but important functional features still remain uneven and largely left to the will of the software developers. The objective of this study was to develop a novel and comprehensive model for functional evaluation of the EHR software in FMPs, based on current world standards, models and projects, as well as on actual user satisfaction and requirements. Based on previous theoretical and experimental research in this area, we made the initial framework model consisting of six basic categories as a base for online survey questionnaire. Family doctors assessed perceived software quality by using a five-point Likert-type scale. Using exploratory factor analysis and appropriate statistical methods over the collected data, the final optimal structure of the novel model was formed. Special attention was focused on the validity and quality of the novel model. The online survey collected a total of 384 cases. The obtained results indicate both the quality of the assessed software and the quality in use of the novel model. The intense ergonomic orientation of the novel measurement model was particularly emphasised. The resulting novel model is multiple validated, comprehensive and universal. It could be used to assess the user-perceived quality of almost all forms of the ambulatory EHR software and therefore useful to all stakeholders in this area of the health care informatisation.

  5. Improving quality of care for diabetes through a maintenance of certification activity: family physicians' use of the chronic care model.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lars E; Blackburn, Brenna; Phillips, Robert L; Puffer, James C

    2014-01-01

    Improving the care of patients with diabetes is a health care priority. Through Part 4 of Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians (MC-FP), American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) diplomates participate in quality improvement (QI) modules for diabetes. Our objective was to determine associations between physician characteristics and actions taken during Part 4 diabetes modules with quality of care outcomes. The study sample was all Part 4 modules completed by family physicians from 2005 to 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the physicians and their behavior in the module. We used linear regression to test for associations between choice of intervention, mode of intervention, and chronic care model domain with improvement in quality measures. There were 7924 modules completed by family physicians, whose mean age was 48.2 years; 61.9% were male, and 76.9% lived in urban areas. All physician and patient quality measures improved over the course of the Part 4 module. Regression models found that only baseline performance was consistently associated with quality outcomes. No other consistent association was seen between intervention type, mode, or chronic care model domain and greater likelihood of improvements; however, every quality measure improved. Through MC-FP, family physicians improved the quality of care they delivered to diabetic patients. Improvement of care across nearly all measures, despite no consistent associations between processes of care or physician characteristics with improvement, suggests that participation in QI itself may lead to higher quality health care and this may be achieved through MC-FP. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  6. A 'biopsychosocial' model for recovery: a grounded theory study of families' journeys after a Paediatric Intensive Care Admission.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Ellie; Colville, Gillian; John, Mary

    2012-06-01

    Paediatric intensive care has a significant impact on the children and families who experience it. This effect continues post-discharge as the family attempt to recover from their ordeal. This article begins with an exploration of what makes a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission potentially so traumatising and then examines current models for recovery which exist in the literature. These remain sparse and do not provide a coherent model for recovery after PICU. This paper therefore presents research which aimed to develop a model to understand the recovery journey for families. Children who had been PICU patients and their parents were interviewed and the transcripts analysed using grounded theory. Participants highlighted the importance of physical, psychological and social recovery and these have been integrated into a biopsychosocial model of recovery. Finding and accepting a 'new normal' were the culmination of this biopsychosocial journey. This paper concludes that an integrated approach to recovery is necessary and makes some recommendations for further research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Collisional Model of the "Pristine Zone" of the Main Asteroid Belt and the Dynamics of LHB Families Located There

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, Miroslav; Cibulkova, H.; Rehak, M.

    2012-10-01

    Modifying the Boulder code (Morbidelli et al. 2009), we construct a new collisional model of the Main Asteroid Belt, which is divided to six parts (inner, middle, outer, pristine zone, Cybele region and high-inclination region) in order to study relations between them and check the number of families observed in each of them. We focus on the so-called "pristine zone" between 2.825 and 2.955 AU - bounded by the 5:2 and 7:3 resonances with Jupiter - because this region is relatively empty and we may thus spot very old/eroded families. We model long-term dynamical and collisional evolution of the Itha family (around the asteroid (918) Itha) and we interpreted it as an old, dispersed and comminutioned cluster, likely dated back to the Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyr ago. We thus extend our collisional models and include the effects of the LHB too. In the framework of the Nice model, the flux of comets during the LHB is mostly controlled by the original size-freqeuncy distribution of the cometary disk beyond Neptune and a rate at which comets disrupt when they approach the Sun. To this point we provide a related discussion of various cometary disruption laws.

  8. On a family of (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models: Kinks, stability, one-loop mass shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es; Mateos Guilarte, J.

    2012-09-15

    In this paper we construct a one-parametric family of (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Inspired by the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models, we look at all possible extensions such that the kink second-order fluctuation operators are Schroedinger differential operators with Poeschl-Teller potential wells. In this situation, the associated spectral problem is solvable and therefore we shall succeed in analyzing the kink stability completely and in computing the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass exactly. When the parameter is a natural number, the family becomes the hierarchy for which the potential wells are reflectionless, the two firstmore » levels of the hierarchy being the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a family of scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order kink fluctuation operators involve Poeschl-Teller potential wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compute the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass with different methods.« less

  9. On a family of (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models: Kinks, stability, one-loop mass shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Mateos Guilarte, J.

    2012-09-15

    In this paper we construct a one-parametric family of (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Inspired by the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models, we look at all possible extensions such that the kink second-order fluctuation operators are Schroedinger differential operators with Poeschl-Teller potential wells. In this situation, the associated spectral problem is solvable and therefore we shall succeed in analyzing the kink stability completely and in computing the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass exactly. When the parameter is a natural number, the family becomes the hierarchy for which the potential wells are reflectionless, the two first levels of the hierarchy being the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a family of scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order kink fluctuation operators involve Poeschl-Teller potential wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compute the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass with different methods.

  10. Combining disease models to test for gene-environment interaction in nuclear families.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Thomas J; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Lange, Christoph; Silverman, Edwin K; DeMeo, Dawn L; Laird, Nan M

    2011-12-01

    It is useful to have robust gene-environment interaction tests that can utilize a variety of family structures in an efficient way. This article focuses on tests for gene-environment interaction in the presence of main genetic and environmental effects. The objective is to develop powerful tests that can combine trio data with parental genotypes and discordant sibships when parents' genotypes are missing. We first make a modest improvement on a method for discordant sibs (discordant on phenotype), but the approach does not allow one to use families when all offspring are affected, e.g., trios. We then make a modest improvement on a Mendelian transmission-based approach that is inefficient when discordant sibs are available, but can be applied to any nuclear family. Finally, we propose a hybrid approach that utilizes the most efficient method for a specific family type, then combines over families. We utilize this hybrid approach to analyze a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder dataset to test for gene-environment interaction in the Serpine2 gene with smoking. The methods are freely available in the R package fbati. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Analysis and proposed model of family caregivers' relationships with home health providers and perceptions of the quality of formal services.

    PubMed

    Funk, Laura; Stajduhar, Kelli

    2013-03-01

    Relationships between families and home health nurses promote effective care and service access for those at end of life, positive caregiver experiences, and satisfaction with care. This study explores family caregivers' accounts of relationships with home care nurses; findings inform a model of relationships and satisfaction with home health services. Ethnographic, qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 bereaved caregivers in one Western Canadian regional health agency. Data analysis was informed by symbolic interactionism. Participants described their relationships with home care nurses and spoke about their assessments of the care provided. Findings highlighted the importance of the length, frequency, and continuity of contact, conversation, socializing, and sharing information. Participants were cognizant of their own and care recipients' roles in building relationship. Nurse behaviors demonstrating affection, acknowledgment, commitment, and understanding were appreciated. A model links relationship preconditions, relational demonstrations, and perceived care quality and may be used to identify points of intervention.

  12. A family of models of partially relaxed stellar systems. II. Comparison with the products of collisionless collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenti, M.; Bertin, G.; van Albada, T. S.

    2005-04-01

    N-body simulations of collisionless collapse have offered important clues for the construction of realistic stellar dynamical models of elliptical galaxies. Understanding this idealized and relatively simple process, by which stellar systems can reach partially relaxed equilibrium configurations (characterized by isotropic central regions and radially anisotropic envelopes), is a prerequisite to more ambitious attempts at constructing physically justified models of elliptical galaxies in which the problem of galaxy formation is set in the generally accepted cosmological context of hierarchical clustering. In a previous paper we have discussed the dynamical properties of a family of models of partially relaxed stellar systems (the f(ν) models), designed to incorporate the qualitative properties of the products of collisionless collapse at small and at large radii. Here we revisit the problem of incomplete violent relaxation, by making a direct comparison between the detailed properties of such family of models and those of the products of collisionless collapse found in N-body simulations that we have run for the purpose. Surprisingly, the models thus identified are able to match the simulated density distributions over nine orders of magnitude and also to provide an excellent fit to the anisotropy profiles and a good representation of the overall structure in phase space. The end-products of the simulations and the best-fitting models turn out to be characterized by a level of pressure anisotropy close to the threshold for the onset of the radial-orbit instability. The conservation of Q, a third quantity that is argued to be approximately conserved in addition to total energy and total number of particles as a basis for the construction of the f(ν) family, is discussed and tested numerically.

  13. HEAL: an instructional design model applied to an online clerkship in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Wiecha, John M; Vanderschmidt, Hannelore; Schilling, Kathy

    2002-09-01

    The potential of distance learning technology to deliver educational programs in which instruction and evaluation are of a consistent and high standard across multiple settings is hampered by a lack of instructional design models. In response, we developed the HEAL (Heuristic for Electronic Asynchronous Learning) model for designing online curricula. HEAL is based on the theories that learning is facilitated by independent problem solving, investigation, and discovery (heuristics); collaboration between students fosters learning; and the proven educational cycle of practice, feedback, and reflection is integral to the interrelated domains of skill development and personal awareness.(1) The HEAL model is defined by synergistic online learning activities integrated with real patient care. It is applicable to all medical education levels. We applied this innovative design template to an online curriculum that augments our conventional six-week third-year clerkship. Our students, who were placed in distant family physician offices, needed more interaction and learning from peers and faculty. The three elements of HEAL, and implementation in the "online clerkship," are: (1) Didactic modules teach and illustrate concepts. Students study modules (HTML pages) on management of diabetes (DM), and complete five modules on evidence-based medicine (EBM). They do EBM literature searches reviewed online by peers, faculty, and librarians, who provide feedback. (2) A problem-based case discussion promotes application of concepts from modules (horizontal curricular integration). Students view streamed video of a patient with a history suggestive of diabetes, review her medical chart online, and suggest evidence-based management in an asynchronous discussion group. The case progresses weekly to mimic 12 months of continuity of care. (3) A collaborative journal activity explores the results of applying elements one and two to real patients (vertical integration). Additional elements

  14. Development and Implementation of a Transversely Isotropic Hyperelastic Constitutive Model With Two Fiber Families to Represent Anisotropic Soft Biological Tissues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    backward), and resisting rotation, tension, and shear forces (11). An illustration of an intervertebral disc is shown in figure 1c. The intervertebral discs...response to tensile (14) and shear loading. At the boundary between the vertebra and the intervertebral disc is a thin layer of semiporous bone, known...Development and Implementation of a Transversely Isotropic Hyperelastic Constitutive Model With Two Fiber Families to Represent Anisotropic Soft Biological

  15. Emergence of family medicine in Ethiopia [corrected]: an international collaborative education model.

    PubMed

    Franey, Cara; Evensen, Ann; Bethune, Cheri; Zemenfes, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Family Medicine (FM) is a new specialty in Ethiopia. The first seven family physicians graduated in February 2016 from the inaugural residency programme at Addis Ababa University. Cooperation amongst Ethiopian and expatriate decision-makers and physicians was needed to begin the programme. Intentional replacement of expatriates with Ethiopian family physicians has begun. Barriers include lack of understanding of FM and the human and financial resources needed for scaling up the programme. Regular programme review with resident physician involvement has allowed the FM training programme to adapt and fit the Ethiopian context. Further successes will result from ongoing support and advocacy from the Federal Ministry of Health and other Ethiopian, African, and international primary care organisations.

  16. A Clinic Model: Post-Intensive Care Syndrome and Post-Intensive Care Syndrome-Family.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Elizabeth L; Bloom, Sarah L; Stollings, Joanna L; Camp, Mildred; Sevin, Carla M; Jackson, James C

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients surviving critical illness in the United States has increased with advancements in medicine. Post-intensive care syndrome and post-intensive care syndrome-family are terms developed by the Society of Critical Care Medicine in order to address the cognitive, psychological, and physical sequelae emerging in patients and their families after discharge from the intensive care unit. In the United Kingdom and Europe, intensive care unit follow-up clinics have been used to address the complications of post-intensive care syndrome for some time. However, the interprofessional clinic at Vanderbilt University Medical Center is among the first in the United States to address the wide variety of problems experienced by intensive care survivors and to provide patients and their families with care after discharge from the intensive care unit.

  17. A Transactional Model of Parent–Infant Interactions in Alcoholic Families

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Chavez, Felipa

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the transactional nature of parent–infant interactions over time among alcoholic and nonalcoholic families. The sample consisted of 222 families assessed at 12, 18, and 24 months of child age. Results indicated that infant behavior did not influence parental behavior across time, but parental behavior was longitudinally predictive of infant behavior during play interactions. Higher paternal alcohol consumption at 12 months was longitudinally predictive of negative parental behavior at 24 months. Other significant risk factors included marital conflict, fathers’ depression, and fathers’ education. Results highlight the nested nature of risk in alcoholic families and the direction of influence from parent to child during interactions and suggest that 1 pathway to risk among these children is through negative parent–infant interactions. PMID:15631607

  18. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.'s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user's behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user's behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services.

  19. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.’s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user’s behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user’s behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services. PMID:27270915

  20. Primary health care as assessed by health professionals: comparison of the traditional model versus the Family Health Strategy.

    PubMed

    Flôr, Cristina Rabelo; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Rabelo, Cleonice Ferreira; Gontijo, Bernardo Luis; Carvalho, Suzana Freitas de; Bretas, Pedro Messenger Caldeira; Silva, Hygor Cabral; Pereira, Mariana Linhares; Pádua, Cristiane Menezes de

    2017-01-01

    The Family Health Strategy (FHS) should be first-contact care in the Brazilian Health System. However, Primary Health Care (PHC) still encompasses two models: the FHS and the traditional health care facilities. The expansion of the FHS has been slow and heterogeneous in many cities, rendering a comparative evaluation of key quality-related elements of PHC models crucial. To compare the performance of PHC models as perceived by health professionals. A cross-sectional study involving managers and health professionals from PHC of a medium-size city in South-eastern Brazil. Data were collected by applying the Primary Care Assessment Tool. The performance was estimated through primary health care indexes (general and partial PHCI by attributes). Univariate polytomous logistic regression was performed to compare care model performances according to their attributes. Strength of association was estimated by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Three managers and 81 health professionals participated in the study. The FHS had a better index rating than the traditional care model for general PHCI and for the attributes longitudinality, comprehensiveness, family focus and professional level. Although the FHS attained higher scores compared to the traditional model, it has not yet achieved the performance expected. This scenario points to the need for increased FHS cover and quality improvements at the existing units.

  1. Soldier and family wellness across the life course: a developmental model of successful aging, spirituality, and health promotion, Part II.

    PubMed

    Parker, M W; Fuller, G F; Koenig, H G; Bellis, J M; Vaitkus, M A; Barko, W F; Eitzen, J

    2001-07-01

    As an alternative to the current Department of Defense approach to health promotion and related research, which is critiqued in Part I of this article, the authors present a new, integrative health promotion and wellness model. This age-graded model incorporates successful aging, targeted health promotion, and spirituality in the context of the developmental perspective provided by life course constructs. By using an age-graded, multidisciplinary system of assessment, intervention, and follow-up in the context of preparing military personnel and families for the next season of life, this model advocates the prevention of disease and disability, active engagement with life, the maximization of high cognitive and physical functioning, and positive spirituality. Preliminary, selected illustrations from a variation of this model at the U.S. Army War College are provided. Progressive extrapolation of the model to other military leadership schools is proposed as a more efficacious health promotion strategy for the Department of Defense.

  2. Spectrum: a model platform for linking maternal and child survival interventions with AIDS, family planning and demographic projections.

    PubMed

    Stover, John; McKinnon, Robert; Winfrey, Bill

    2010-04-01

    LiST is implemented in Spectrum, a modular computer program designed to examine the impact of interventions on health outcomes. A typical LiST application uses three other modules in Spectrum addressing demography, family planning and HIV/AIDS. The demographic module projects the population by single age and sex over time and uses LiST calculations of the mortality rates by age group to calculate the number of deaths. The family planning module uses the proximate determinants of fertility framework to calculate the effects of increasing contraceptive use on the total fertility rate and, thus, the number of births. The HIV/AIDS module calculates the consequences of HIV epidemic trends on child mortality and the effects of programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and anti-retroviral treatment on the number of AIDS deaths. These modules provide LiST with estimates of the number of children and number of deaths by single age as they are affected by changes in fertility through family planning and interventions to prevent the transmission of HIV or delay AIDS death. Integrating LiST within the existing Spectrum system of planning models expands the scope of LiST to include the effects of demographic change, family planning and HIV interventions.

  3. Patient-centered family meetings in palliative care: a quality improvement project to explore a new model of family meetings with patients and families at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Christine R; Cahill, Philippa J; Phillips, Jane L; Johnson, Anne; Lobb, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-01

    Family meetings in palliative care can enhance communication with family members and identify unmet needs. However, the patient's voice may not be heard. This pre and post-test quality improvement project was conducted from 2013-2014 and investigated a patient-centered family meeting, which is a different approach to palliative care family meetings, to determine its feasibility and acceptability for patients, family and the palliative care team. Newly admitted patients to an Australian in-patient specialist palliative care unit were invited to ask anyone they wished to join them in a meeting with the palliative care team and to identify issues they wished to discuss. Consenting inpatients were interviewed shortly after admission; participated in a family meeting and re-interviewed 2-3 days after the meeting. Family members provided feedback at the end of the meeting. A focus group was held with staff for feedback on this new approach for family meetings. Meetings were observed, documented and thematically analyzed. Thirty-one newly admitted patients were approached to participate in a family meeting. Eighty-four percent had family meetings and the majority (96%) was attended by the patient. Thematic analysis revealed 69% of patient-centered meetings raised end-of-life concerns and 54% were "family-focused". Patient-centered family meetings in palliative care were shown to be feasible and acceptable for staff, patients and family members. Many patients and families spontaneously shared end-of-life concerns. A patient-centered approach to family meetings that includes active patient involvement may provide additional and valued opportunities for patients and families to: express mutual concerns, deliver messages of comfort and appreciation, and prepare for death. Further investigation of this approach, including families' bereavement outcomes, is warranted.

  4. Model Programs of Early Education for Hearing-Impaired Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatty, Janice C.

    This paper describes five programs of early intervention for children with hearing impairments and their families. Programs are described according to their mission, services, and unique contribution to the field of early intervention. First, essential components of all programs are identified. These are evaluation, audiological management, parent…

  5. Parenting Practices in Preschool Leading to Later Cognitive Competence: A Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievar, M. Angela; Moske, Amanda Kay; Johnson, Deborah Jean; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigates the effect of the early home environment on self-regulation in preschoolers, and how self-regulation relates to later school achievement, while taking into account family resources. Participants were part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  6. Value of Family and Group Counseling Models where Grandparents Function as Parents to Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Ray, Shannon L.

    2010-01-01

    Those involved in circumstances in which children are raised by their grandparents often encounter serious problems that require assistance from counselors. Research suggests that grandparents and parents in these families typically experience heightened stress and psychosocial distress. Additionally, the children often encounter behavioral,…

  7. Modeling the hydrologic and economic efficacy of stormwater utility credit programs for US single family residences

    EPA Science Inventory

    As regulatory pressure to reduce the environmental impact of urban stormwater intensifies, U.S. municipalities increasingly seek a dedicated source of funding for stormwater programs, such as a stormwater utility. In rare instances, single family residences are eligible for utili...

  8. Peer Counseling for Middle School Students Experiencing Family Divorce: A Deliberate Psychological Education Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprinthall, Norman A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Designed peer counseling program in which 10 high school students co-led 5 groups of 8 middle school students each who were experiencing family divorce, and 14 high school students co-led groups of elementary and middle school students with problems in self-esteem, achievement, and social isolation. Findings demonstrated positive interactive…

  9. Child Care for Families Who Are Homeless: A Model of Comprehensive Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafanello, Donna

    2004-01-01

    A family, whom out of necessity due to a lack of housing, must reside in a shelter, motel, vehicle, campground, on the street, or doubled up with relatives or friends, is considered homeless. Poverty, lack of affordable housing, domestic violence, veteran status, mental illness, and addiction disorders are among the factors that contribute to…

  10. The Montana Model: Integrated Primary Care and Behavioral Health in a Family Practice Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Claire; Moore, Douglas; Burford, Duncan; Fahrenwald, Roxanne; Woodward, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    To address the local health care needs of both patients and primary care providers in Montana, an integrated primary care and behavioral health family practice clinic was developed. In this paper we describe our experience with integrating mental health and substance abuse services into a primary care setting (a community health center) while…

  11. Parent and Family Impact of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review and Proposed Model for Intervention Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Jeffrey S.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2012-01-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be an overwhelming experience for parents and families. The pervasive and severe deficits often present in children with ASD are associated with a plethora of difficulties in caregivers, including decreased parenting efficacy, increased parenting stress, and an increase in mental and…

  12. Seeking to Engage "Hard-to-Reach" Families: Towards a Transferable Model of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evangelou, Maria; Coxon, Kate; Sylva, Kathy; Smith, Sally; Chan, Lydia L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory evaluation of the Peers Early Education Partnership "Room to Play", an innovative and experimental "drop-in" service seeking to attract and engage "hard-to-reach" families in one of the most deprived areas of a Midlands city. Located in a shop unit of a busy community shopping…

  13. Families, Schools, and Student Achievement Inequality: A Multilevel MIMIC Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Ling; Smith, Michael L.; Hauser, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines inequality in different dimensions of student academic achievement (math, science, and reading) by family background and school context in three East Asian (Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea) and three Western (United States, Germany, and the Czech Republic) nations. Building on Hauser (2009), we develop a novel…

  14. Stress and family quality of life in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: parent gender and the double ABCX model.

    PubMed

    McStay, Rebecca L; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-12-01

    Past research has supported the utility of the Double ABCX model of family adaptation for parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). What remains unclear is the impact of family-related variables on outcomes in both mothers and fathers within the same family. We explored the potential predictors of maternal and paternal stress and family quality of life in an Australian sample of 196 parents of children with ASD aged 3-16 years. Using a cross-sectional design, parents completed questionnaires assessing factors within the Double ABCX model attributed to family adaptation. Findings provide further evidence of the negative impact of child externalising behaviours and highlight the importance of family sense of coherence on positive parental outcomes.

  15. The BRIDGE HadCM3 family of climate models: HadCM3@Bristol v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Paul J.; Armstrong, Edward; Badger, Marcus P. S.; Bradshaw, Catherine D.; Bragg, Fran; Crucifix, Michel; Davies-Barnard, Taraka; Day, Jonathan J.; Farnsworth, Alex; Gordon, Chris; Hopcroft, Peter O.; Kennedy, Alan T.; Lord, Natalie S.; Lunt, Dan J.; Marzocchi, Alice; Parry, Louise M.; Pope, Vicky; Roberts, William H. G.; Stone, Emma J.; Tourte, Gregory J. L.; Williams, Jonny H. T.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding natural and anthropogenic climate change processes involves using computational models that represent the main components of the Earth system: the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface. These models have become increasingly computationally expensive as resolution is increased and more complex process representations are included. However, to gain robust insight into how climate may respond to a given forcing, and to meaningfully quantify the associated uncertainty, it is often required to use either or both ensemble approaches and very long integrations. For this reason, more computationally efficient models can be very valuable tools. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the suite of climate models based around the HadCM3 coupled general circulation model. This model was developed at the UK Met Office and has been heavily used during the last 15 years for a range of future (and past) climate change studies, but has now been largely superseded for many scientific studies by more recently developed models. However, it continues to be extensively used by various institutions, including the BRIDGE (Bristol Research Initiative for the Dynamic Global Environment) research group at the University of Bristol, who have made modest adaptations to the base HadCM3 model over time. These adaptations mean that the original documentation is not entirely representative, and several other relatively undocumented configurations are in use. We therefore describe the key features of a number of configurations of the HadCM3 climate model family, which together make up HadCM3@Bristol version 1.0. In order to differentiate variants that have undergone development at BRIDGE, we have introduced the letter B into the model nomenclature. We include descriptions of the atmosphere-only model (HadAM3B), the coupled model with a low-resolution ocean (HadCM3BL), the high-resolution atmosphere-only model (HadAM3BH), and the regional model (HadRM3B). These also include

  16. Strategies for high-throughput comparative modeling: applications to leverage analysis in structural genomics and protein family organization.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Nebojsa; Li, Zhaohui; Parnassa, Andrew; Murray, Diana

    2007-03-01

    The technological breakthroughs in structural genomics were designed to facilitate the solution of a sufficient number of structures, so that as many protein sequences as possible can be structurally characterized with the aid of comparative modeling. The leverage of a solved structure is the number and quality of the models that can be produced using the structure as a template for modeling and may be viewed as the "currency" with which the success of a structural genomics endeavor can be measured. Moreover, the models obtained in this way should be valuable to all biologists. To this end, at the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), a modular computational pipeline for automated high-throughput leverage analysis was devised and used to assess the leverage of the 186 unique NESG structures solved during the first phase of the Protein Structure Initiative (January 2000 to July 2005). Here, the results of this analysis are presented. The number of sequences in the nonredundant protein sequence database covered by quality models produced by the pipeline is approximately 39,000, so that the average leverage is approximately 210 models per structure. Interestingly, only 7900 of these models fulfill the stringent modeling criterion of being at least 30% sequence-identical to the corresponding NESG structures. This study shows how high-throughput modeling increases the efficiency of structure determination efforts by providing enhanced coverage of protein structure space. In addition, the approach is useful in refining the boundaries of structural domains within larger protein sequences, subclassifying sequence diverse protein families, and defining structure-based strategies specific to a particular family. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Tasmania's Child and Family Centres: A Place-Based Early Childhood Services Model for Families and Children from Pregnancy to Age Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine L.; Jose, Kim; van de Lageweg, Wietse I.; Christensen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tasmania's child and family centres (Centres) provide a single entry point to early childhood services (ECS) for children and families living in amongst the most disadvantaged communities in Australia. This study investigated the impact of Centres on parents' use and experiences of ECS using a mixed methods approach. The results showed that Centre…

  18. Sedentariness and weight status related to SES and family characteristics in Italian adults: exploring geographic variability through multilevel models.

    PubMed

    Matranga, Domenica; Tabacchi, Garden; Cangialosi, Donatella

    2017-09-01

    In this study, our aim was to assess the prevalence of sedentariness and overweight/obesity, two modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and to investigate the geographic variability in their association with socio-economic status (SES) and family characteristics in Italian adults. The Multipurpose Survey on Health Conditions and the Recourse to Health Services (MSHC), 2012/2013 edition, conducted by the National Institute of Statistics was used as data source. The sample for this study included 99,479 interviewed people aged 18 and over, which are representative of about 50 million persons. For the scope of this analysis, data were considered as individuals nested within families within regions and analysed through multilevel models. It was estimated that 39.8% of Italian adults are sedentary, 38.1% are partially active and 22.1% are physically active; 11.3% of Italian adults are obese and the 34.5% are overweight. There was evidence of inverse socio-economic gradient for both sedentariness and body mass index (BMI). There was higher risk of sedentariness for one-parent (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) = (1.02; 1.20)) and other family types (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = (1.20; 1.48 )) compared with couples with children. Also, the relative variation of BMI was statistically significant for one-parent, one-person and other families ( p < 0.05). An increasing north-south gradient was suggested for BMI, but not for sedentariness. Policy interventions could be addressed to reduce BMI levels in the southern area and to encourage physical activity in regions with high sedentariness. The Italian family is the key driver to promote virtuous healthy behaviours.

  19. Quality of Early Family Relationships and Individual Differences in the Timing of Pubertal Maturation in Girls: A Longitudinal Test of an Evolutionary Model

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; McFadyen-Ketchum, Steven; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    In an 8-year prospective study of 173 girls and their families, the authors tested predictions from J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary model of individual differences in pubertal timing. This model suggests that more negative–coercive (or less positive–harmonious) family relationships in early childhood provoke earlier reproductive development in adolescence. Consistent with the model, fathers' presence in the home, more time spent by fathers in child care, greater supportiveness in the parental dyad, more father–daughter affection, and more mother–daughter affection, as assessed prior to kindergarten, each predicted later pubertal timing by daughters in 7th grade, The positive dimension of family relationships, rather than the negative dimension, accounted for these relations. In total, the quality of fathers' investment in the family emerged as the most important feature of the proximal family environment relative to daughters' pubertal timing. PMID:10474213

  20. The ethical leadership challenge for effective resolution of patient and family complaints and grievances: proven methods and models.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E; Tallman, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Health care leaders and managers face the ethical leadership challenge in ensuring effective resolution of patient and family complaints and grievances. In today's society of increasing discontent about safety, quality, cost, and satisfaction, patient complaints and grievances are becoming more prevalent. Under the mandates of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act for transparency of quality and patient satisfaction scores and to be compliant with the standards from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and The Joint Commission, it is imperative that leadership ensure an ethical culture for effective resolution of patient and family complaints and grievances. This article addresses this ethical leadership challenge by providing a systematic approach with proven methods and models for effective resolution of complaints and grievances and thereby improving satisfaction, quality, safety, and cost.

  1. Support Framework for First Responder Family Members: A Proposed Model for Increasing Responder Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    agreed that local public safety organizations must do a better job of developing their family support functions and memorializing these processes...land line. It was also the perspective of the FRCOs that misinformation from the media lead to increased anxiety and apprehension within this group of...wives. In addition, the FRCOs mentioned how the wives were often misinformed due to an overreliance on the rumor mill and unsubstantiated

  2. Etiological distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior: results from a nuclear twin family model.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2012-10-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt (Clinical Psychology Review, 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment. Unfortunately, behavioral genetic research on antisocial behavior to date (and thus, the research upon which the meta-analysis was based) has relied almost exclusively on the classical twin model. This reliance is problematic, as the strict assumptions that undergird this model (e.g., shared environmental and dominant genetic influences are not present simultaneously; there is no assortative mating) can have significant consequences on heritability estimates when they are violated. The nuclear twin family model, by contrast, allows researchers to relax and statistically evaluate many of the assumptions of the classical twin design by incorporating parental self-report data along with the more standard twin data. The goal of the current study was thus to evaluate whether prior findings of etiological distinctions between AGG and RB persisted when using the nuclear twin family model. We examined a sample of 312 child twin families from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Results strongly supported prior findings of etiological distinctions between AGG and RB, such that broad genetic influences were observed to be particularly important to AGG whereas shared environmental influences contributed only to RB. Nevertheless, the current findings also implied that additive genetic influences on antisocial behavior may be overestimated when using the classical twin design.

  3. Modeling the evolution of complex genetic systems: the gene network family tree.

    PubMed

    Fierst, Janna L; Phillips, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    In 1994 and 1996, Andreas Wagner introduced a novel model in two papers addressing the evolution of genetic regulatory networks. This work, and a suite of papers that followed using similar models, helped integrate network thinking into biology and motivate research focused on the evolution of genetic networks. The Wagner network has its mathematical roots in the Ising model, a statistical physics model describing the activity of atoms on a lattice, and in neural networks. These models have given rise to two branches of applications, one in physics and biology and one in artificial intelligence and machine learning. Here, we review development along these branches, outline similarities and differences between biological models of genetic regulatory circuits and neural circuits models used in machine learning, and identify ways in which these models can provide novel insights into biological systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Care coordination measures of a family medicine residency as a model for hospital readmission reduction.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Wayne A

    2014-11-01

    The processes of care coordination of patient transition from hospital to outpatient settings are an integral part of the Patient-Centered Medical Home. We report a cooperative initiative between our admission hospital and family medicine residency to analyze the discharge process using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Re-engineering Discharge initiative, focusing on efficient information transfer and communication with discharged patients to insure rapid follow-up in the clinic. Our project yielded markedly reduced readmission rates compared with both local hospital and national rates.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    Auxin plays key roles in a wide variety of plant activities, including embryo development, leaf formation, phototropism, fruit development and root initiation and development. Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, encoding short-lived nuclear proteins, are key regulators in the auxin transduction pathway. But how they work is still unknown. In order to conduct a systematic analysis of this gene family in Solanaceae species, a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes was carried out. Here, 26 and 27 non redundant AUX/IAAs were identified in tomato and potato, respectively. Using tomato as a model, a comprehensive overview of SlIAA gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs and cis-elements in promoter sequences. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the predicted protein sequences of 31 OsIAAs, 29 AtIAAs, 31 ZmIAAs, and 26 SlIAAs revealed that these IAAs were clustered into three major groups and ten subgroups. Among them, seven subgroups were present in both monocot and dicot species, which indicated that the major functional diversification within the IAA family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. In contrast, group C and some other subgroups seemed to be species-specific. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that 19 of the 26 SlIAA genes could be detected in all tomato organs/tissues, however, seven of them were specifically expressed in some of tomato tissues. The transcript abundance of 17 SlIAA genes were increased within a few hours when the seedlings were treated with exogenous IAA. However, those of other six SlIAAs were decreased. The results of stress treatments showed that most SIIAA family genes responded to at least one of the three stress treatments, however, they exhibited diverse expression levels under different abiotic stress conditions in tomato seedlings. SlIAA20, SlIAA21 and SlIAA22 were not significantly influenced by stress

  6. Understanding the apparent stator-rotor connections in the rotary ATPase family using coarse-grained computer modeling.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Robin A; Papachristos, Konstantinos; Read, Daniel J; Harlen, Oliver G; Harrison, Michael; Paci, Emanuele; Muench, Stephen P; Harris, Sarah A

    2014-12-01

    Advances in structural biology, such as cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have allowed for a number of sophisticated protein complexes to be characterized. However, often only a static snapshot of a protein complex is visualized despite the fact that conformational change is frequently inherent to biological function, as is the case for molecular motors. Computer simulations provide valuable insights into the different conformations available to a particular system that are not accessible using conventional structural techniques. For larger proteins and protein complexes, where a fully atomistic description would be computationally prohibitive, coarse-grained simulation techniques such as Elastic Network Modeling (ENM) are often employed, whereby each atom or group of atoms is linked by a set of springs whose properties can be customized according to the system of interest. Here we compare ENM with a recently proposed continuum model known as Fluctuating Finite Element Analysis (FFEA), which represents the biomolecule as a viscoelastic solid subject to thermal fluctuations. These two complementary computational techniques are used to answer a critical question in the rotary ATPase family; implicit within these motors is the need for a rotor axle and proton pump to rotate freely of the motor domain and stator structures. However, current single particle cryo-EM reconstructions have shown an apparent connection between the stators and rotor axle or pump region, hindering rotation. Both modeling approaches show a possible role for this connection and how it would significantly constrain the mobility of the rotary ATPase family. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Toward a Stress Process Model of Children's Exposure to Physical Family and Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Theoretically informed models are required to further the comprehensive understanding of children's ETV. We draw on the stress process paradigm to forward an overall conceptual model of ETV (ETV) in childhood and adolescence. Around this conceptual model, we synthesize research in four dominant areas of the literature which are detailed but often…

  8. The pgip family in soybean and three other legume species: evidence for a birth-and-death model of evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) plant cell wall glycoproteins involved in plant immunity. They are typically encoded by gene families with a small number of gene copies whose evolutionary origin has been poorly investigated. Here we report the complete characterization of the full complement of the pgip family in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and the characterization of the genomic region surrounding the pgip family in four legume species. Results BAC clone and genome sequence analyses showed that the soybean genome contains two pgip loci. Each locus is composed of three clustered genes that are induced following infection with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, and remnant sequences of pgip genes. The analyzed homeologous soybean genomic regions (about 126 Kb) that include the pgip loci are strongly conserved and this conservation extends also to the genomes of the legume species Phaseolus vulgaris L., Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and Cicer arietinum L., each containing a single pgip locus. Maximum likelihood-based gene trees suggest that the genes within the pgip clusters have independently undergone tandem duplication in each species. Conclusions The paleopolyploid soybean genome contains two pgip loci comprised in large and highly conserved duplicated regions, which are also conserved in bean, M. truncatula and C. arietinum. The genomic features of these legume pgip families suggest that the forces driving the evolution of pgip genes follow the birth-and-death model, similar to that proposed for the evolution of resistance (R) genes of NBS-LRR-type. PMID:25034494

  9. A clinical model of obesity treatment is more effective in preschoolers and Spanish speaking families.

    PubMed

    Haemer, Matthew A; Ranade, Daksha; Barón, Anna E; Krebs, Nancy F

    2013-05-01

    Preschool and minority children have not been well represented in obesity treatment studies. This analysis of clinical obesity treatment was carried out within a diverse population of children 2-12 years to identify demographic characteristics associated with successful treatment. A medical record review captured BMI and demographics for children 2-12 years who began treatment during a 42-month period (n = 479). Associations of body mass index z-score (BMI-Z) change with child and family demographics were examined with logistic regression and time-to-event analysis. Treatment led to a mean BMI-Z decrease of 0.18. Half of children with follow-up (n = 273) exceeded the a priori cut-off for successful treatment of -0.1 BMI-Z. Preschoolers and children of Spanish-speakers were more likely to succeed, (Adjusted OR: 5.8 [95% CI: 2.7-12.2] and 2.3 [95% CI: 1.1, 4.9]). The hazard ratio for treatment failure was 3.7 [95% CI: 2.1, 6.8] for children starting treatment at 6-12 years compared to preschoolers, adjusted for other demographics. This mode of treatment was more likely to succeed among children treated before school age and among children whose parents spoke only Spanish. Screening and treatment for obesity in preschoolers and Hispanic immigrant families deserve further prospective study. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  10. Aetiology of anorexia nervosa: from a "psychosomatic family model" to a neuropsychiatric disorder?

    PubMed

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Seitz, Jochen; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    Eating disorders and, in particular, anorexia nervosa (AN) have morbidity and mortality rates that are among the highest of any mental disorders and are associated with significant functional impairment. More than 25 years ago, several researchers hypothesised that the prerequisite for the development of AN was a family process characterised by an overprotective and conflict-avoiding parent-child interaction. Family studies, however, suggest that AN is a complex genetic disorder that is likely expressed primarily by temperament and specific traits during childhood, including inhibition, perfectionism and harm avoidance. Recent studies have described an impaired flexibility and deficits in social cognition that are independent of body weight and the current state of the eating disorder, providing further evidence for a genetic component of AN. The physiological and psychological alterations and the increasing societal demands that occur during puberty may trigger onset. The starvation process itself is associated with severe alterations of central and peripheral metabolism, especially neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter changes, which are thought to affect the adolescent brain during the vulnerable period of neural restructuring. Long-standing malnutrition during adolescence and young adulthood associated with hormonal and neuropeptide dysfunctions may produce "biological scars" that maintain and accelerate the disorder and likely result in chronic mental disorders in adulthood as well as poor social functioning.

  11. The use of Gompertz models in growth analyses, and new Gompertz-model approach: An addition to the Unified-Richards family

    PubMed Central

    Tjørve, Even

    2017-01-01

    The Gompertz model is well known and widely used in many aspects of biology. It has been frequently used to describe the growth of animals and plants, as well as the number or volume of bacteria and cancer cells. Numerous parametrisations and re-parametrisations of varying usefulness are found in the literature, whereof the Gompertz-Laird is one of the more commonly used. Here, we review, present, and discuss the many re-parametrisations and some parameterisations of the Gompertz model, which we divide into Ti (type I)- and W0 (type II)-forms. In the W0-form a starting-point parameter, meaning birth or hatching value (W0), replaces the inflection-time parameter (Ti). We also propose new “unified” versions (U-versions) of both the traditional Ti -form and a simplified W0-form. In these, the growth-rate constant represents the relative growth rate instead of merely an unspecified growth coefficient. We also present U-versions where the growth-rate parameters return absolute growth rate (instead of relative). The new U-Gompertz models are special cases of the Unified-Richards (U-Richards) model and thus belong to the Richards family of U-models. As U-models, they have a set of parameters, which are comparable across models in the family, without conversion equations. The improvements are simple, and may seem trivial, but are of great importance to those who study organismal growth, as the two new U-Gompertz forms give easy and fast access to all shape parameters needed for describing most types of growth following the shape of the Gompertz model. PMID:28582419

  12. Taking Stock of Parent Education in the Family Courts: Envisioning a Public Health Model

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Peter; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviewed the development and current status of the parent education movement in the Family Courts. Parent education programs are now being implemented in courts throughout the United States and have a high level of public acceptance; however, a stronger research methodology to evaluate the effects and continued work to align the goals with the content and teaching strategies of these programs are needed. A new conceptual framework is proposed for parent education, which views divorce as a public health problem for children as well as a legal issue. The three-level framework uses concepts from public health to align the goals, content and format of parent education programs and to enable rigorous evaluations of the outcomes achieved by these programs. PMID:23641191

  13. What Doesn't Work for Whom? Exploring Heterogeneity in Responsiveness to the Family Check-Up in Early Childhood Using a Mixture Model Approach.

    PubMed

    Pelham, William E; Dishion, Thomas J; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2017-11-01

    This study applied latent class analysis to a family-centered prevention trial in early childhood to identify subgroups of families with differential responsiveness to the Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention. The sample included 731 families with 2-year-olds randomized to the FCU or control condition and followed through age 5 with yearly follow-up assessments. A two-step mixture model was used to examine whether specific constellations of family characteristics at age 2 (baseline) were related to intervention response across ages 3, 4, and 5. The first step empirically identified latent classes of families based on several family risk and adjustment variables selected on the basis of previous research. The second step modeled the effect of the FCU on longitudinal change in children's problem behavior in each of the empirically derived latent classes. Results suggested a five-class solution, where a significant intervention effect of moderate to large size was observed in one of the five classes-the class characterized by child neglect, legal problems, and parental mental health issues. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the intervention effect was significantly greater in this class of families than in two other classes that were generally less at risk for the development of child disruptive behavior problems, albeit still low-income. Thus, findings suggest that (a) the FCU is most successful in reducing child problem behavior in more highly distressed, low-income families, and (b) the FCU may have little impact for relatively low-risk, low-income families. Future directions include the development of a brief screening process that can triage low-income families into groups that should be targeted for intervention, redirected to other services, monitored prospectively, or left alone.

  14. The Spin-Charge-Family Theory Offers Understanding of the Triangle Anomalies Cancellation in the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankoč Borštnik, N. S.; Nielsen, H. B. F.

    2017-12-01

    The standard model has for massless quarks and leptons "miraculously" no triangle anomalies due to the fact that the sum of all possible traces $Tr [\\tau^{Ai}$$ \\tau^{Bj}$$ \\tau^{Ck}]$ --- where $\\tau^{Ai}, \\tau^{Bi}$ and $\\tau^{Ck}$ are the generators of one, of two or of three of the groups $SU(3), SU(2)$ and $U(1)$ --- over the representations of one family of the left handed fermions and anti-fermions (and separately of the right handed fermions and anti-fermions), contributing to the triangle currents, is equal to zero. It is demonstrated in this paper that this cancellation of the standard model triangle anomaly follows straightforwardly if the $SO(3,1), SU(2), U(1)$ and $ SU(3)$ are the subgroups of the orthogonal group $SO(13,1)$, as it is in the spin-charge-family theory. We comment on the $SO(10)$ anomaly cancellation, which works if handedness and charges are related "by hand".

  15. No Pain, No Gain? A Resource-Based Model of Work-to-Family Enrichment and Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Work-family scholars tend to work in two largely disconnected research streams, focusing on either work-family enrichment--the positive side of the work-family interface--or work-family conflict--the negative side of this interface. The purpose of this study is to suggest a reconciliation of the two research streams by proposing and testing a…

  16. Fertility desires and unmet need for family planning among HIV infected individuals in two HIV clinics with differing models of family planning service delivery.

    PubMed

    Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Matovu, Joseph K B; Kamya, Moses R; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Nannyonga, Maria; Wagner, Glenn J

    2015-01-28

    Eliminating family planning (FP) unmet need among HIV-infected individuals (PLHIV) is critical to elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission. We assessed FP unmet need among PLHIV attending two clinics with differing models of FP services. Nsambya Home Care provided only FP information while Mulago HIV clinic provided information and contraceptives onsite. In a cross-sectional study conducted between February-June 2011, we documented pregnancies, fertility desires, and contraceptive use among 797 HIV-infected men and women (408 in Mulago and 389 in Nsambya). FP unmet need was calculated among women who were married, unmarried but had sex within the past month, did not desire the last or future pregnancy at all or wished to postpone for ≥ two years and were not using contraceptives. Multivariable analyses for correlates of FP unmet need were computed for each clinic. Overall, 40% (315) had been pregnant since HIV diagnosis; 58% desired the pregnancies. Of those who were not pregnant, 49% (366) did not desire more children at all; 15.7% wanted children then and 35.3% later. The unmet need for FP in Nsambya (45.1%) was significantly higher than that in Mulago at 30.9% (p = 0.008). Age 40+ compared to 18-29 years (OR = 6.05; 95% CI: 1.69, 21.62 in Mulago and OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.90 in Nsambya), other Christian denominations (Pentecostal and Seventh Day Adventists) compared to Catholics (OR = 7.18; 95% CI: 2.14, 24.13 in Mulago and OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.80 in Nsambya), and monthly expenditure > USD 200 compared to < USD40 in Nsambya (OR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.90) were associated with FP unmet need. More than half of the pregnancies in this population were desired. Unmet need for FP was very high at both clinics and especially at the clinic which did not have contraceptives onsite. Lower income and younger women were most affected by the lack of contraceptives onsite. Comprehensive and aggressive FP programs are

  17. A New Family of Analytical Potential-Density Pairs for Galaxy Models Compound by Thin Disks and Spheroidal Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Y. F.; Pimentel, O. M.; González, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    A new family of three-dimensional Newtonian models for galaxies is constructed. The models describe a thin disk and a matter halo, whose gravitational potentials satisfies the equation (2) presented in Gonzalez & Pimentel (2016, Phys. Rev. D, 93, 044034), and therefore, they satisfy the energy conditions for a gravitational system. The expressions for the potential of the disk and the halo are obtained by applying the "displace, cut, and reflect" method to the solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. Analytical expressions that describe the rotation curves and the mass distributions in the disk and in the halo are computed for the first three models of the family of solutions. It is shown that the mass densities of the disks and the haloes present a maximum at the center of the system and go to zero at infinity. Finally, for some values of the free parameters, the obtained rotation curves present a flat region for larger values of the radial coordinate. The model was obtained considering the total gravitational potential, which satisfies the equation (2) imposed by Gonzalez & Pimentel (2016). The potential generated by the spheroidal halo of matter is constructed considering a multipolar expansion, expressed in cylindrical coordinates. As this solution of the Laplace equation a substitution is done so that the Laplacian is nonzero, the z coordinate (Kuzmin, 1956, AZh, 33; Toomre, 1963, ApJ, 138, 385). So the new potential satisfies Poisson equation and represents the distribution of three-dimensional material. From the gravitational potential analytical expressions were derived for the surface density of the disk, halo density of matter and from the rotation was derived. We found that the surface densities of the disks present a maximum at the center, vanishing at infinity; and the halo density is maximum at the disk surface, also vanishing at infinity. For some values of the parameters, the derived rotation curves present a flat region for

  18. A unified approach to the Richards-model family for use in growth analyses: why we need only two model forms.

    PubMed

    Tjørve, Even; Tjørve, Kathleen M C

    2010-12-07

    This paper advances a unified approach to the modeling of sigmoid organismal growth. There are numerous studies on growth, and there have been several proposals and applications of candidate models. Still, a lack of interpretation of the parameter values persists and, consequently, differences in growth patterns have riddled this field. A candidate regression model as a tool should be able to assess and compare growth-curve shapes, systematically and precisely. The Richards models constitute a useful family of growth models that amongst a multitude of parameterizations, re-parameterizations and special cases, include familiar models such as the negative exponential, the logistic, the Bertalanffy and the Gompertz. We have reviewed and systemized this family of models. We demonstrate that two specific parameterizations (or re-parameterizations) of the Richards model are able to substitute, and thus to unify all other forms and models. This unified-Richards model (with its two forms) constitutes a powerful tool for an interpretation of important characteristics of observed growth patterns, namely, [I] maximum (relative) growth rate (i.e., slope at inflection), [II] age at maximum growth rate (i.e., time at inflection), [III] relative mass or length at maximum growth rate (i.e., relative value at an inflection), [IV] value at age zero (i.e., birth, hatching or germination), and [V] asymptotic value (i.e., adult weight or length). These five parameters can characterize uniquely any sigmoid-growth data. To date most studies only compare what is referred to as the "growth-rate constant" or simply "growth rate" (k). This parameter can be interpreted as neither relative nor actual growth rate, but only as a parameter that affects the slope at inflection. We fitted the unified-Richards and five other candidate models to six artificial data sets, generated from the same models, and made a comparison based on the corrected Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc). The outcome may

  19. A Priori Analyses of Three Subgrid-Scale Models for One-Parameter Families of Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, C. David; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    1998-01-01

    The decay of isotropic turbulence a compressible flow is examined by direct numerical simulation (DNS). A priori analyses of the DNS data are then performed to evaluate three subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulation (LES): a generalized Smagorinsky model (M1), a stress-similarity model (M2), and a gradient model (M3). The models exploit one-parameter second- or fourth-order filters of Pade type, which permit the cutoff wavenumber k(sub c) to be tuned independently of the grid increment (delta)x. The modeled (M) and exact (E) SGS-stresses are compared component-wise by correlation coefficients of the form C(E,M) computed over the entire three-dimensional fields. In general, M1 correlates poorly against exact stresses (C < 0.2), M3 correlates moderately well (C approx. 0.6), and M2 correlates remarkably well (0.8 < C < 1.0). Specifically, correlations C(E, M2) are high provided the grid and test filters are of the same order. Moreover, the highest correlations (C approx.= 1.0) result whenever the grid and test filters are identical (in both order and cutoff). Finally, present results reveal the exact SGS stresses obtained by grid filters of differing orders to be only moderately well correlated. Thus, in LES the model should not be specified independently of the filter.

  20. Quark-lepton families in a model with SU(5)xSU(3) symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Z.G.; Chkareuli, D.L.

    1983-04-01

    The running (from the SU(5)xSU(3) symmetry limit ..mu..approx.10/sup 15/ GeV to our energies ..mu.. = 1--10 GeV) masses of the quarks d, s, and b and the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing angles theta/sub 1/, theta/sub 2/, and theta/sub 3/ are calculated in a grand unification model with a ''horizontal'' SU(3) symmetry between various quark-leptonic generations. Two versions of the model are treated: model A with three quark-leptonic generations (according to the standard SU(5)) and model B with six generations (as predicted by the SU(8) symmetry with unification of all quark-leptonic flavors). Both models agree with the data on the masses of the lower quarks and on the Cabibbo angle theta/sub C/ = theta/sub 1/roughly-equal(m/sub d//m/sub s/)/sup 1/2/. These models predict a very small value for the angle theta/sub 3/approx.10/sup -3/--10/sup -2/ and a rather large CP phase deltaapprox.0.1. These predictions should lead on the one hand to an essential suppression of weak (b ..-->.. u) transitions and on the other hand to a considerable charge asymmetry in the decays of the (B/sup 0/--B-bar/sup 0/) system. The models predict also the mass of the t quark: m/sub t/ = 150--200 GeV (model A) and m/sub t/ = 20-40 GeV (model B) for a c-quark mass m/sub c/ = 1.5--1.3 GeV.

  1. Evaluation of the Family Integrated Care model of neonatal intensive care: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Karel; Bracht, Marianne; Robson, Kate; Ye, Xiang Y; Mirea, Lucia; Cruz, Melinda; Ng, Eugene; Monterrosa, Luis; Soraisham, Amuchou; Alvaro, Ruben; Narvey, Michael; Da Silva, Orlando; Lui, Kei; Tarnow-Mordi, William; Lee, Shoo K

    2015-12-15

    Admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may disrupt parent-infant interaction with adverse consequences for infants and their families. Several family-centered care programs promote parent-infant interaction in the NICU; however, all of these retain the premise that health-care professionals should provide most of the infant's care. Parents play a mainly supportive role in the NICU and continue to feel anxious and unprepared to care for their infant after discharge. In the Family Integrated Care (FICare) model, parents provide all except the most advanced medical care for their infants with support from the medical team. Our hypothesis is that infants whose families complete the FICare program will have greater weight gain and better clinical and parental outcomes compared with infants provided with standard NICU care. FICare is being evaluated in a cluster randomized controlled trial among infants born at ≤ 33 weeks' gestation admitted to 19 Canadian, 6 Australian, and 1 New Zealand tertiary-level NICU. Trial enrollment began in April, 2013, with a target sample size of 675 infants in each arm, to be completed by August, 2015. Participating sites were stratified by country, and by NICU size within Canada, for randomization to either the FICare intervention or control arm. In intervention sites, parents are taught how to provide most of their infant's care and supported by nursing staff, veteran parents, a program coordinator, and education sessions. In control sites standard NICU care is provided. The primary outcome is infants' weight gain at 21 days after enrollment, which will be compared between the FICare and control groups using Student's t-test adjusted for site-level clustering, and multi-level hierarchical models accounting for both clustering and potential confounders. Similar analyses will examine secondary outcomes including breastfeeding, clinical outcomes, safety, parental stress and anxiety, and resource use. The trial was

  2. Assessment of extreme precipitation events over Amazon simulated by global climate models from HIGEM family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, M. D. S.; Ambrizzi, T.; Da Rocha, R.

    2015-12-01

    The increased horizontal resolution of climate models aims to improve the simulations accuracy and to understand the non-linear processes during interactions between different spatial scales within the climate system. Up to this moment, these interactions did not have a good representation on low horizontal resolution GCMs. The variations of extreme climatic events had been described and analyzed in the scientific literature. In a scenario of global warming it is necessary understanding and explaining extreme events and to know if global models may represent these events. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of the horizontal resolution in high resolution coupled and atmospheric global models of HiGEM project in simulating atmospheric patterns and processes of interaction between spatial scales. Moreover, evaluate the performance of coupled and uncoupled versions of the High-Resolution Global Environmental Model in capturing the signal of interannual and intraseasonal variability of precipitation over Amazon region. The results indicated that the grid refinement and ocean-atmosphere coupling contributes to a better representation of seasonal patterns, both precipitation and temperature, on the Amazon region. Besides, the climatic models analyzed represent better than other models (regional and global) the climatic characteristics of this region. This indicates a breakthrough in the development of high resolution climate models. Both coupled and uncoupled models capture the observed signal of the ENSO and MJO oscillations, although with reversed phase in some cases. The interannual variability analysis showed that coupled simulations intensify the impact of the ENSO in the Amazon. In the intraseasonal scale, although the simulations intensify this signal, the coupled models present larger similarities with observations than the atmospheric models for the extremes of precipitation. The simulation of ENSO in GCMs can be attributed to their high

  3. Task Force 1. Report of the Task Force on Patient Expectations, Core Values, Reintegration, and the New Model of Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Green, Larry A.; Graham, Robert; Bagley, Bruce; Kilo, Charles M.; Spann, Stephen J.; Bogdewic, Stephen P.; Swanson, John

    2004-01-01

    should be reliably provided in family medicine practices, and an itemization of key attributes and core values that define the specialty. It also proposed and described a New Model of family medicine for people of all ages and both genders that emphasizes patient-centered, evidence-based, whole-person care provided through a multidisciplinary team approach in settings that reduce barriers to access and use advanced information systems and other new technologies. The task force recommended a time of active experimentation to redesign the work and workplace of family physicians; the development of revised financial models for family medicine, and a national resource to provide assistance to individual practices moving to New Model practice; and cooperation with others pursuing the transformation of frontline medicine to better serve the public. CONCLUSIONS Unless there are changes in the broader health care system and within the specialty, the position of family medicine in the United States will be untenable in a 10- to 20-year time frame. Even within the constraints of today’s flawed health care system, there are major opportunities for family physicians to realize improved results for patients and economic success. A period of aggressive experimentation and redevelopment of family medicine is needed now. The future success of the discipline and its impact on public well-being depends in large measure on family medicine’s ability to rearticulate its vision and competencies in a fashion that has greater resonance with the public while substantially revising the organization and processes by which care is delivered. When accomplished, family physicians will achieve more fully the aspirations articulated by the specialty’s core values and contribute to the solution of the nation’s serious health care problems.

  4. Phosphatidylserine Ameliorates Neurodegenerative Symptoms and Enhances Axonal Transport in a Mouse Model of Familial Dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Naftelberg, Shiran; Abramovitch, Ziv; Gluska, Shani; Yannai, Sivan; Joshi, Yuvraj; Donyo, Maya; Ben-Yaakov, Keren; Gradus, Tal; Zonszain, Jonathan; Farhy, Chen; Ashery-Padan, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Familial Dysautonomia (FD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which aberrant tissue-specific splicing of IKBKAP exon 20 leads to reduction of IKAP protein levels in neuronal tissues. Here we generated a conditional knockout (CKO) mouse in which exon 20 of IKBKAP is deleted in the nervous system. The CKO FD mice exhibit developmental delays, sensory abnormalities, and less organized dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) with attenuated axons compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the CKO FD DRGs show elevated HDAC6 levels, reduced acetylated α-tubulin, unstable microtubules, and impairment of axonal retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF). These abnormalities in DRG properties underlie neuronal degeneration and FD symptoms. Phosphatidylserine treatment decreased HDAC6 levels and thus increased acetylation of α-tubulin. Further PS treatment resulted in recovery of axonal outgrowth and enhanced retrograde axonal transport by decreasing histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) levels and thus increasing acetylation of α-tubulin levels. Thus, we have identified the molecular pathway that leads to neurodegeneration in FD and have demonstrated that phosphatidylserine treatment has the potential to slow progression of neurodegeneration. PMID:27997532

  5. Phosphatidylserine Ameliorates Neurodegenerative Symptoms and Enhances Axonal Transport in a Mouse Model of Familial Dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Naftelberg, Shiran; Abramovitch, Ziv; Gluska, Shani; Yannai, Sivan; Joshi, Yuvraj; Donyo, Maya; Ben-Yaakov, Keren; Gradus, Tal; Zonszain, Jonathan; Farhy, Chen; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Perlson, Eran; Ast, Gil

    2016-12-01

    Familial Dysautonomia (FD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which aberrant tissue-specific splicing of IKBKAP exon 20 leads to reduction of IKAP protein levels in neuronal tissues. Here we generated a conditional knockout (CKO) mouse in which exon 20 of IKBKAP is deleted in the nervous system. The CKO FD mice exhibit developmental delays, sensory abnormalities, and less organized dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) with attenuated axons compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the CKO FD DRGs show elevated HDAC6 levels, reduced acetylated α-tubulin, unstable microtubules, and impairment of axonal retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF). These abnormalities in DRG properties underlie neuronal degeneration and FD symptoms. Phosphatidylserine treatment decreased HDAC6 levels and thus increased acetylation of α-tubulin. Further PS treatment resulted in recovery of axonal outgrowth and enhanced retrograde axonal transport by decreasing histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) levels and thus increasing acetylation of α-tubulin levels. Thus, we have identified the molecular pathway that leads to neurodegeneration in FD and have demonstrated that phosphatidylserine treatment has the potential to slow progression of neurodegeneration.

  6. Engaging patients and consumers in research evidence: Applying the conceptual model of patient and family engagement.

    PubMed

    Carman, Kristin L; Workman, Thomas A

    2017-01-01

    This essay discusses applying the Conceptual Framework for Patient and Family Engagement to partnerships with patients and consumers to increase their use of research evidence in healthcare decisions. The framework's foundational principles hold that engagement occurs on a continuum across all levels of healthcare-from direct care to policymaking-with patients and healthcare professionals working in full partnership and sharing responsibility for achieving a safe, high-quality, efficient, and patient-centered healthcare system. Research evidence can serve as a critical decision-making tool in partnerships between patients and health professionals. However, as the framework suggests, without patient and consumer engagement in the design, planning, interpretation, and dissemination of research findings, it is unlikely that the broader consumer population will find research evidence useful, much less use it, to guide their healthcare decisions. Understanding what factors influence patient and consumer engagement can lead to effective strategies that enable meaningful partnerships between patients and researchers. Understanding patient and consumer perspectives of research evidence is critical to engaging them in meaningful partnerships that produce actionable research findings that they can in turn use in partnership with health professionals to improve their own health and the healthcare system as a whole. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative modeling and benchmarking data sets for human histone deacetylases and sirtuin families.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Kebede, Eyob Hailu; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-02-23

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an important class of drug targets for the treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and other types of diseases. Virtual screening (VS) has become fairly effective approaches for drug discovery of novel and highly selective histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs). To facilitate the process, we constructed maximal unbiased benchmarking data sets for HDACs (MUBD-HDACs) using our recently published methods that were originally developed for building unbiased benchmarking sets for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS). The MUBD-HDACs cover all four classes including Class III (Sirtuins family) and 14 HDAC isoforms, composed of 631 inhibitors and 24609 unbiased decoys. Its ligand sets have been validated extensively as chemically diverse, while the decoy sets were shown to be property-matching with ligands and maximal unbiased in terms of "artificial enrichment" and "analogue bias". We also conducted comparative studies with DUD-E and DEKOIS 2.0 sets against HDAC2 and HDAC8 targets and demonstrate that our MUBD-HDACs are unique in that they can be applied unbiasedly to both LBVS and SBVS approaches. In addition, we defined a novel metric, i.e. NLBScore, to detect the "2D bias" and "LBVS favorable" effect within the benchmarking sets. In summary, MUBD-HDACs are the only comprehensive and maximal-unbiased benchmark data sets for HDACs (including Sirtuins) that are available so far. MUBD-HDACs are freely available at http://www.xswlab.org/ .

  8. Family caregiving of older Chinese people with dementia: testing a model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Insel, Kathleen C; Reed, Pamela G; Crist, Janice D

    2012-01-01

    The process of taking care of older people with dementia at home is complex and influenced by cultural factors, necessitating a better understanding of the interrelationships of factors within the context of culture. The aim of this study was to test the proposed Dementia Caregiving Model, specifying how caregiving appraisal, coping, perceived social support, and familism influence the impact of caregiving stressors on the psychological health of caregivers. A cross-sectional correlational design with a convenience sample (n = 96) from three outpatient clinics of hospitals in China was used. Questionnaires were utilized to measure the variables in the model. Path analysis was used to assess model fit and paths. The original proposed model did not fit the data, butminor modifications produced a very good model fit (χ(10, n = 96) = 8.14, p = .62; goodness-of-fit index = .98, comparative fit index = 1.00, and root mean square error of approximation < .001). Care recipients' behavioral problems had direct and indirect negative effects on caregivers' psychological health. Perceived social support had direct and indirect positive effects on caregivers' psychological health. Familism had indirect positive effects on caregivers' psychological health in relation with caregiving satisfaction and coping. Caregiving appraisal and coping were mediators in the model. The model findings lend support that caregivers' cognitive appraisal and coping explain some observed individual differences in stress response and outcomes. The findings broaden understanding of the effects of familism on caregivers' psychological health. In the future, programs should include interventions for caregivers, as well as interventions for care recipients.

  9. [The changing profile of caregivers of persons aged 65 years and over with disabilities within a persisting family care model].

    PubMed

    Zueras, Pilar; Spijker, Jeroen; Blanes, Amand

    2017-12-04

    The increasing participation of women in the workforce may make it difficult to sustain the current model of elderly care. The aim of this article was to determine the changing sociodemographic profile of informal elderly caregivers with disabilities, the interaction between employment and care, and the view of the public on the responsibility of that care. Cross-sectional analysis of secondary data from four national surveys were used: the disability surveys held in 1999 (N=3,936) and 2008 (N=5,257), the 2011-12 National Health Survey (N=439), and the Family and Gender survey of 2012 (N=1,359). They were analysed using contingency tables based on gender and age. Half of the informal caregivers were women aged 45 to 64 years. Between 1999 and 2011-12 they became more concentrated in the 55-64 age-bracket, among whom participation in the workforce doubled from 20% to 40%. Increased care for men was associated with unemployment. Care work had a negative impact on working life, with greater impact among women and those who cared for elderly people with severe disabilities. Less likely to consider that elderly care provision should rest on family are 45-54 year-old economically active women (only 42%) or those who are more educated (40%), compared to 60% of economically inactive women and 55% of less educated women. Economically active and educated women are less inclined to family-based care, but assume it independently of their workforce participation, whereas males do so according to their availability. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Event soil loss, runoff and the Universal Soil Loss Equation family of models: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnell, P. I. A.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryThe Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is the most widely used and misused prediction equation in the world. Although it was designed to predict long-term average annual soil loss, it has the capacity to predict event soil losses reasonably well at some geographic locations and not well at others. Its lack of capacity to predict event erosion is highly influenced by the fact the event rainfall-runoff factor used in the USLE and its revisions (RUSLE, RUSLE2) does not consider runoff explicitly. While including direct consideration of runoff in the event rainfall-runoff factor improves the capacity to predict event erosion when runoff is measured, that capacity is reduced by inaccurate runoff prediction methods. Even so, the predictions may be better than when the traditional event rainfall-runoff factor is used if the rainfall-runoff model used to predict runoff works reasonably well. Direct consideration of runoff in the rainfall-runoff factor may improve the ability of the model to account for seasonal effects. It also enhances the ability of the model to account for the spatial variations in soil loss on hillslopes which result from spatial variations in soil and vegetation. However, the USLE model will not provide a capacity to account for deposition taking place on concave hillslopes unless it is coupled with an appropriate sediment transport model, as in done in RUSLE2. Changing the basis of the event rainfall-runoff factor has consequences on a number of the other factors used in the model, in particular new values of the soil erodibility factor need to be determined. Using runoff values from cropped areas is necessary to account for differences in infiltration capacities between vegetated and tilled bare fallow areas, but requires re-evaluation of the crop factors.

  11. A simple branching model that reproduces language family and language population distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwämmle, Veit; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro

    2009-07-01

    Human history leaves fingerprints in human languages. Little is known about language evolution and its study is of great importance. Here we construct a simple stochastic model and compare its results to statistical data of real languages. The model is based on the recent finding that language changes occur independently of the population size. We find agreement with the data additionally assuming that languages may be distinguished by having at least one among a finite, small number of different features. This finite set is also used in order to define the distance between two languages, similarly to linguistics tradition since Swadesh.

  12. Tele-health services for the elderly: A novel southern Italy family needs-oriented model.

    PubMed

    De Cola, Maria C; De Luca, Rosaria; Bramanti, Alessia; Bertè, Francesco; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco S

    2016-09-01

    The world population is aging. By 2050, the global population aged over 65 years will have doubled, leading to big societal challenges for ensuring healthy, independent, and productive lives for older people. Thus, innovative local and national initiatives for e-health services are growing in an attempt to overcome such problems. We examined the effects of a telehealth system, i.e. tele-monitoring of vital parameters and neurological/psychological tele-counseling, within a family-centred service provided by a local day centre. We evaluated the clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms of 18 elderly patients (aged 65 years and over) and the care burden of their 20 caregivers, besides the usability of the tool. The one-way repeated analysis revealed a significant worsening in daily living activities (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively for Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Independent IADL (IADL)) versus a significant improvement of the patients' psychiatric condition (p < 0.001), besides a significant gradual reduction of the caregivers burden (p < 0.001). Health status perception increased through time (from an average score of 5.67 ± 1.08 at baseline to 7.72 ± 1.32 at the end of the study). It appears that a telehealth system integrated in a local health care service may significantly improve elderly persons' behaviour, and also reduce the caregivers' burden. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Acute inhibition of myostatin-family proteins preserves skeletal muscle in mouse models of cancer cachexia

    SciTech Connect

    Benny Klimek, Margaret E.; Aydogdu, Tufan; Link, Majik J.

    2010-01-15

    Cachexia, progressive loss of fat and muscle mass despite adequate nutrition, is a devastating complication of cancer associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Myostatin is a potent tonic muscle growth inhibitor. We tested how myostatin inhibition might influence cancer cachexia using genetic and pharmacological approaches. First, hypermuscular myostatin null mice were injected with Lewis lung carcinoma or B16F10 melanoma cells. Myostatin null mice were more sensitive to tumor-induced cachexia, losing more absolute mass and proportionately more muscle mass than wild-type mice. Because myostatin null mice lack expression from development, however, we also sought to manipulate myostatin acutely.more » The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A has been shown to increase muscle mass in normal and dystrophic mice by inducing the myostatin inhibitor, follistatin. Although Trichostatin A administration induced muscle growth in normal mice, it failed to preserve muscle in colon-26 cancer cachexia. Finally we sought to inhibit myostatin and related ligands by administration of the Activin receptor extracellular domain/Fc fusion protein, ACVR2B-Fc. Systemic administration of ACVR2B-Fc potently inhibited muscle wasting and protected adipose stores in both colon-26 and Lewis lung carcinoma cachexia, without affecting tumor growth. Enhanced cachexia in myostatin knockouts indicates that host-derived myostatin is not the sole mediator of muscle wasting in cancer. More importantly, skeletal muscle preservation with ACVR2B-Fc establishes that targeting myostatin-family ligands using ACVR2B-Fc or related molecules is an important and potent therapeutic avenue in cancer cachexia.« less

  14. Nurses' practice environment and work-family conflict in relation to burn out: a multilevel modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Leineweber, Constanze; Westerlund, Hugo; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Lindqvist, Rikard; Runesdotter, Sara; Tishelman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    To investigate associations between nurse work practice environment measured at department level and individual level work-family conflict on burnout, measured as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment among Swedish RNs. A multilevel model was fit with the individual RN at the 1st, and the hospital department at the 2nd level using cross-sectional RN survey data from the Swedish part of RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The data analysed here is based on a national sample of 8,620 RNs from 369 departments in 53 hospitals. Generally, RNs reported high values of personal accomplishment and lower values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. High work-family conflict increased the risk for emotional exhaustion, but for neither depersonalization nor personal accomplishment. On department level adequate staffing and good leadership and support for nurses reduced the risk for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Personal accomplishment was statistically significantly related to staff adequacy. The findings suggest that adequate staffing, good leadership, and support for nurses are crucial for RNs' mental health. Our findings also highlight the importance of hospital managers developing policies and practices to facilitate the successful combination of work with private life for employees.

  15. Comparative genomic analysis and evolution of family-B G protein-coupled receptors from six model insect species.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengjun; Chen, Mei; Sang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Wu, Wei; Li, Bin

    2013-04-25

    Family-B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR-Bs) play vital roles in many biological processes, including growth, development and reproduction. However, the evolution and function of GPCR-Bs have been poorly understood in insects. We have identified 87 GPCR-Bs from six model insect species, 20 from Tribolium castaneum, 9 from Apis mellifera, 11 from Bombyx mori, 9 from Acyrthosiphon pisum, 14 from Anopheles gambiae and 24 from Drosophila melanogaster. 22 of them were reported in this study for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there are three kinds of evolutionary patterns that occurred among GPCR-Bs during insect evolution: one-to-one orthologous relationships, species-specific expansion and episodic duplication or loss in certain insect lineages. A striking finding was the discovery of a parathyroid hormone receptor like gene (pthrl) in invertebrates, which was independently duplicated in vertebrates and invertebrates, whereas this gene was lost at least twice during insect evolution. These results indicate that PTHRL is possibly divergent in the functions between mammals and insects. The information of family-B GPCRs in nondrosophiline insects has been established, and will promote the further study on the function of these GPCRs and deorphanization of them. On the other hand, this study provides us with multiple function of GPCR-Bs in differential organisms, which will be also the potential attacking targets for new pesticides and drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing differential effects: Applying regression mixture models to identify variations in the influence of family resources on academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Smith, Jessalyn A.; Antaramian, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Developmental scientists frequently seek to understand effects of environmental contexts on development. Traditional analytic strategies assume similar environmental effects on all children, sometimes exploring possible moderating influences or exceptions (e.g. outliers) as a secondary step. These strategies are poorly matched to ecological models of human development which posit complex individual by environment interactions. An alternative conceptual framework is proposed that tests the hypothesis that the environment has differential (non-uniform) effects on children. A demonstration of the utility of this framework is provided by examining the effects of family resources on children’s academic outcomes in a multisite study (N=6305). Three distinctive groups of children were identified, including one group particularly resilient to influence of low levels of family resources. Predictors of group differences including parenting and child demographics are tested, the replicability of the results are examined, and findings are contrasted with those using traditional regression interaction effects. This approach is proposed as a partial solution to advance theories of the environment, social ecological systems research, and behavioral genetics in order to create well-tailored environments for children. PMID:19702393

  17. VISION: A Model of Cultural Responsiveness for Speech-Language Pathologists Working in Family Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has established knowledge and skills needed for culturally competent service delivery by speech-language pathologists. Among these are skills needed to demonstrate sensitivity to cultural and linguistic differences. The purpose of this article is to describe a model, VISION, to assist in development…

  18. A Gender-Moderated Model of Family Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizur, Yoel; Spivak, Amos; Ofran, Shlomit; Jacobs, Shira

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explain why adolescent girls with conduct problems (CP) are more at risk than boys to develop emotional distress (ED) in a sample composed of Israeli-born and immigrant youth from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union (n = 305, ages 14-18). We tested a structural equation model and found a very good fit to the…

  19. Modeling the Social Determinants of Caregiver Burden among Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Beth M.; Carle, Adam; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Ganz, Michael; Hauser-Cram, Penny; McCormick, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study described predictors of caregiver burden among parents of children with developmental disabilities. The sample, obtained from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs, included 12,225 children, aged 5 to 17 years, with a developmental disability. Structural equation modeling assessed the relationships…

  20. Towards a Unified Perspective on Human Service Delivery Systems: Application of the Teaching-Family Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernfeld, Gary A.; Blase, Karen A.; Fixsen, Dean L.

    2006-01-01

    The field of behavioral science has been marked by the development of a plethora of empirically derived client-specific technologies for treating a wide range of human problems. In contrast, there has been a relative paucity of conceptual models regarding the application of these techniques to the more complex arena of human services. Thus,…

  1. University and College Counselors as Athletic Team Consultants: Using a Structural Family Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcover, Jason A.; Mettrick, Jennifer; Parcover, Cynthia A. D.; Griffin-Smith, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, university and college counselors are sought out by their institution's sports coaches for assistance in achieving team goals. Traditional sport psychology models that have the individual athlete as their primary focus are insufficient frameworks for team-level consultations. The authors believe that systemic approaches may provide…

  2. Family hardship, family instability, and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Schoon, Ingrid; Jones, Elizabeth; Cheng, Helen; Maughan, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Associations between the characteristics of the family environment, in particular poverty and family structure, and cognitive development are well established, yet little is known about the role of timing and accumulation of risk in early childhood. The aim of this paper is to assess the associations between income poverty, family instability and cognitive development in early childhood. In particular, it tests the relative role of family economic hardship compared with family instability in affecting cognitive functioning at the age of 5 years. The study draws on data from the UK Millennium Cohort, linking data collected in infancy, age 3, and age 5 years. Cognitive ability was directly assessed at age 5 years with the British Ability Scales. Using regression models we examine associations between persistent income poverty, family transitions, and children's cognitive ability, controlling for family demographics and housing conditions, as well as child characteristics. The findings suggest that the experience of persistent economic hardship as well as very early poverty undermines cognitive functioning at 5 years of age. Family instability shows no significant association with cognitive functioning after controlling for family poverty, family demographics, housing and a set of control variables indicating child characteristics. Persistent poverty is a crucial risk factor undermining children's cognitive development--more so than family instability.

  3. Developing a Parent-Professional Team Leadership Model in Group Work: Work with Families with Children Experiencing Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Kuhn, Mary T.; Evans, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    Building on the respective strengths of parent-led and professional-led groups, a parent-professional team leadership model for group interventions was developed and evaluated for families of youths with emotional and behavioral problems. The model was developed based on feedback from 26 parents in focus group sessions and recommendations from…

  4. Family Quality of Life and Psychological Well-Being in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double ABCX Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, P.; Sarriá, E.; Brioso, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined family quality of life (FQOL) and psychological well-being from a multidimensional perspective. The proposed model was based on the double ABCX model, with severity of the disorder, behaviour problems, social support, sense of coherence (SOC) and coping strategies as components. Method: One hundred and eighteen…

  5. Assessment of extreme precipitation events over Amazon simulated by global climate models from HIGEM family.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, Maria; Ambrizzi, Tercio; da Rocha, Rosmeri

    2015-04-01

    The variations of extreme climatic events had been described and analyzed in the scientific literature. Both extremes of precipitation and temperature until now are not well represented by regional or global climate models. Additionally, it is important to characterize possible changes in extreme events. The only certainty is that the extreme events such as heat waves, floods, droughts, or storms may imply in severe societal and economical impacts, since they cause significant damage to agriculture, ecology and infrastructure, injury, and loss of life. Therefore, in a scenario of global warming it is necessary understanding and explaining extreme events and to know if global models may represent these events. The South America (SA) climate is characterized by different precipitation regimes and its variability has large influences of the large scale phenomena in the interanual (El Niño South Oscilation - ENSO) and intraseasonal (Maden Julian Oscilation - MJO) timescales. Normally, the AGCM and CGM use low horizontal resolution and present difficult in the representation of these low frequency variability phenomena. The goal of this work is to evaluate the performance of coupled and uncoupled versions of the High-Resolution Global Environmental Model, which will be denominated NUGEM (~60 Km), HiGEM (~90 km) and HadGEM (~135 km) and NUGAM (~60 Km), HiGAM (~90 Km) and HadGAM (~135 Km), respectively, in capturing the signal of interannual and intraseasonal variability of precipitation over Amazon. Basically we want discuss the impact of sea surface temperature in the annual cycle of atmospheric variables. The precipitation time-series were filtered on the interanual (period > 365 days) and intraseasonal (30-90 days) timescales using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The occurrence of extreme precipitation events were analyzed in Amazon region. The criterion for selection of extremes was based on the quartiles of rainfall anomalies in the bands of interest. Both

  6. Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2016-04-25

    In this study, to explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine- tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark and lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic CP violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.

  7. Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models

    DOE PAGES

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2016-04-25

    In this study, to explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine- tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark andmore » lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic CP violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.« less

  8. Emergence of the Calogero family of models in external potentials: duality, solitons and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Manas; Polychronakos, Alexios

    2017-11-01

    We present a first-order formulation of the Calogero model in external potentials in terms of a generating function, which simplifies the derivation of its dual form. Solitons naturally appear in this formulation as particles of negative mass. Using this method, we obtain the dual form of Calogero particles in external quartic, trigonometric and hyperbolic potentials, which were known to be integrable but had no known dual formulation. We derive the corresponding soliton solutions, generalizing earlier results for the harmonic Calogero system, and present numerical results that demonstrate the integrable nature of the soliton motion. We also give the collective fluid mechanical formulation of these models and derive the corresponding fluid soliton solutions in terms of meromorphic fields, commenting on issues of stability and integrability.

  9. Computational modelling of string body interaction for the violin family and simulation of wolf notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inácio, O.; Antunes, J.; Wright, M. C. M.

    2008-02-01

    Most theoretical studies of bowed-string instruments deal with isolated strings, pinned on fixed supports. In others, the instrument body dynamics have been accounted by using extremely simplified models of the string-body interaction through the instrument bridge. Such models have, nevertheless, been instrumental to the understanding of a very common and musically undesirable phenomenon known as the wolf note—a strong beating interplay between string and body vibrations. Cellos, bad and good, are particularly prone to this problem. In previous work, a computational method that allows efficient time-domain modelling of bowed strings based on a modal approach has been introduced. This has been extended to incorporate the complex dynamics of real-life instrument bodies, and their coupling to the string motions, using experimental dynamical body data. The string is modelled using its unconstrained modes, assuming pinned-pinned boundary conditions at the tailpiece and the nut. At the intermediary bridge location, the string-body coupling is enforced using the body impulse-response or modal data, as measured at the instrument bridge. In the present paper, this computational approach is applied to a specific cello, which provided experimental wolf-behaviour data under several bowing conditions, as well as laboratory measurements of the bridge impulse responses on which the numerical simulations were based. Interesting aspects of the string-body dynamical responses are highlighted by numerical simulations and the corresponding sounds and animations produced. Finally, a qualitative (and, when possible, quantitative) comparison of the experimental and numerical results is presented.

  10. Peripheral and Central Effects of Memantine in a Mixed Preclinical Mice Model of Obesity and Familial Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ettcheto, Miren; Sánchez-López, Elena; Gómez-Mínguez, Yaiza; Cabrera, Henrry; Busquets, Oriol; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; García, Maria Luisa; Carro, Eva; Casadesus, Gemma; Auladell, Carme; Vázquez Carrera, Manuel; Folch, Jaume; Camins, Antoni

    2018-02-05

    There is growing evidence that obesity associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and aging are risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms through which obesity interacts with β-amyloid (Aβ) to promote cognitive decline remains poorly understood. Memantine (MEM), a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, is currently used for the treatment of AD. Nonetheless, few studies have reported its effects on genetic preclinical models of this neurodegenerative disease exacerbated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Therefore, the present research aims to elucidate the effects of MEM on familial AD HFD-induced insulin resistance and learning and memory impairment. Furthermore, it aspires to determine the possible underlying mechanisms that connect AD to T2DM. Wild type and APPswe/PS1dE9 mice were used in this study. The animals were fed with either chow or HFD until 6 months of age, and they were treated with MEM-supplemented water (30 mg/kg) during the last 12 weeks. Our study demonstrates that MEM improves the metabolic consequences produced by HFD in this model of familial AD. Behavioural assessments confirmed that the treatment also improves animals learning abilities and decreases memory loss. Moreover, MEM treatment improves brain insulin signalling upregulating AKT, as well as cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding (CREB) expression, and modulates the amyloidogenic pathway, which, in turn, reduced the accumulation of Aβ. Moreover, this drug increases the activation of molecules involved with insulin signalling in the liver, such as insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), which is a key protein regulating hepatic resistance to insulin. These results provide new insight into the role of MEM not only in the occurrence of AD treatment, but also in its potential application on peripheral metabolic disorders where Aβ plays a key role, as is the case of T2DM.

  11. An electrostatic engine model for autoinhibition and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB) family.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Stuart; Smith, Steven O; Hayman, Michael J; Murray, Diana

    2005-07-01

    We propose a new mechanism to explain autoinhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases based on a structural model that postulates both their juxtamembrane and protein tyrosine kinase domains bind electrostatically to acidic lipids in the plasma membrane, restricting access of the kinase domain to substrate tyrosines. Ligand-induced dimerization promotes partial trans autophosphorylation of ErbB1, leading to a rapid rise in intracellular [Ca(2+)] that can activate calmodulin. We postulate the Ca(2+)/calmodulin complex binds rapidly to residues 645--660 of the juxtamembrane domain, reversing its net charge from +8 to -8 and repelling it from the negatively charged inner leaflet of the membrane. The repulsion has two consequences: it releases electrostatically sequestered phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), and it disengages the kinase domain from the membrane, allowing it to become fully active and phosphorylate an adjacent ErbB molecule or other substrate. We tested various aspects of the model by measuring ErbB juxtamembrane peptide binding to phospholipid vesicles using both a centrifugation assay and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; analyzing the kinetics of interactions between ErbB peptides, membranes, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin using fluorescence stop flow; assessing ErbB1 activation in Cos1 cells; measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer between ErbB peptides and PIP(2); and making theoretical electrostatic calculations on atomic models of membranes and ErbB juxtamembrane and kinase domains.

  12. Modeling Cortisol Daily Rhythms of Family Caregivers of Individuals With Dementia: Daily Stressors and Adult Day Services Use.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin; Almeida, David M; Rovine, Michael J; Zarit, Steven H

    2018-03-02

    The study examined the typical diurnal cortisol trajectory and its differential associations with an intervention, the adult day services (ADS) use, among a sample of family caregivers who experienced high levels of daily stress. On hundred and sixty-five caregivers of individuals with dementia completed an 8-day diary on daily stressors, positive events, sleep quality, and ADS use. The caregivers also provided five saliva samples on each diary day. Daily cortisol trajectories were modeled as a function of time elapsed since awakening, and three spline growth curve models were fit to the cortisol data. Based on the best-fitting linear spline model, the effect of daily ADS use was examined at both daily and person levels. Covariates included daily experiences and other caregiving characteristics. On ADS days, caregivers had a steeper cortisol awakening response (CAR) slope and a steeper morning decline. ADS use remained significant after controlling for covariates at both daily and person levels. The findings suggested potential biophysiological benefits of daily ADS use for a sample that was under chronic stress and high levels of daily stress.

  13. Family demands, social support and family functioning in Taiwanese families rearing children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, C-Y

    2014-06-01

    Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and social support relate to family functioning as well as the potential mediating effect of social support on the relationship between family demands and family functioning in Taiwanese families of children with DS. One hundred and fifty-five parents (80 mothers and 75 fathers) from 83 families independently completed mailed questionnaires. Data were analysed using a principal component analysis and mixed linear modelling. Families having older children with DS, greater parental education, higher family income, fewer family demands and greater social support contributed to healthier family functioning. Social support partially mediated the effects of family demands on family functioning. Family demographics, family demands and social support appear to be important factors that may play a critical role in how Taiwanese families respond to the birth of a child with DS. Care of children with DS and their families is likely to be more effective if professionals working with these families are aware of factors that contribute to healthy family functioning. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Morphological features of coronary plaques in WHHLMI rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Satoshi; Koike, Tomonari; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kuniyoshi, Nobue; Ying, Yu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asada, Yuji; Shiomi, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine their suitability for studies on coronary atherosclerosis, we evaluated the features of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits, a spontaneous animal model for coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Coronary segments of the hearts of 187 WHHLMI rabbits (10–29 months old) were sectioned serially and stained histopathologically and immunohistologically. Progression of coronary lesions was prominent in rabbits that had died suddenly. The degree of coronary lesions of females was higher than that of males. Various types of atherosclerotic lesions were observed in the coronary arteries, such as plaques with a large lipid core covered by a thin fibrous cap, fatty streaks, early and advanced fibroatheromas, fibrous lesions, and advanced lesions with calcium accumulation and the vasa vasorum. In rabbits that had died suddenly, the frequencies of fibroatheromas or advanced lesions were higher than those of rabbits euthanized. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-positive macrophages were detected in gaps among endothelial cells at the plaque surface, beneath the fibrous cap of thin-capped fibroatheromas, and at the bottom of the intimal plaques in which the tunica media was attenuated. Immunohistological results suggest that MMP-positive macrophages are involved in the initiation, progression, and destabilization of coronary plaques, in addition to vascular remodeling, even in WHHLMI rabbits. In conclusion, coronary lesions in WHHLMI rabbits resemble human atherosclerotic lesions, and thus, the WHHLMI rabbit is a suitable animal model for studies on human coronary plaques. PMID:28025424

  15. Communicating with Chinese American families in the NICU using the Giger and Davidhizar transcultural model.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Having an infant admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a frightening experience for parents. However, it can be even more frightening for them when they are from a different culture and speak a different language than the health care team. Hence, a nurse needs to be culturally competent in order to provide proper care to a multicultural society. The purpose of this article is to describe how NICU nurses can communicate with one such culture, the Chinese American, the largest Asian group in the United States. A transcultural nursing model will be described to use as a guide to help the nurse. The culture, Chinese Americans, will be described to help nurses provide culturally competent care. Research studies will be presented so the reader can develop an understanding of how parents of Chinese descent perceive the care they receive. Interventions and recommendations will be presented on how to enhance communication between the nurses and this cultural group.

  16. NOD2, the Gene Responsible for Familial Granulomatous Uveitis, in a Mouse Model of Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Holly L.; Martin, Tammy M.; Jann, Monica M.; Planck, Stephen R.; Davey, Michael P.; Kobayashi, Koichi; Flavell, Richard A.; Rosenbaum, James T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose NOD2 plays an important role in the recognition of intracellular bacteria through its ability to sense the components of bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN), namely muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and muramyl tripeptide (MTP). Specific mutations in the human NOD2 gene cause Blau syndrome, an autosomal dominant form of uveitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. As a first step toward understanding the role of NOD2 in the pathogenesis of uveitis, the authors developed a mouse model of MDP-dependent uveitis. Methods BALB/c mice and mice deficient in L-selectin or NOD2 received intravitreal injection of MDP, MTP, or PGN. The intravascular response within the iris and cellular infiltration was quantified by intravital microscopy and histologic assessment. Results MDP induced an acute, ocular inflammatory response, wherein rolling and adhering leukocytes within the vasculature were significantly increased within 6 hours after MDP treatment. A minor increase in cellular infiltration occurred at 12 hours after MDP treatment. The adhesion molecule L-selectin participated in MDP-induced vascular inflammation because L-selectin knockout mice showed a significant decrease in the number of rolling cells. Importantly, NOD2 plays an essential role in ocular inflammation induced by MDP, as indicated by the fact that uveitis did not develop in Nod2 knockout mice in response to MDP. Nod2 knockout mice also showed abolished ocular inflammation in response to MTP but not to PGN treatment. Conclusions These findings demonstrate a novel mouse model of uveitis, wherein NOD2 plays an essential role in inflammation induced by the minimal components of PGN. Thus, innate immune responses mediated by NOD2 may participate in the development of uveitis in response to bacterial products. PMID:18385071

  17. Communications with health professionals and psychological distress in family caregivers to cancer patients: A model based on stress-coping theory.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Sam

    2017-02-01

    In cancer care settings, family caregivers often exp