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Sample records for biobehavioral family model

  1. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  2. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  3. Educating cancer prevention researchers in emerging biobehavioral models: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A; Li, Dennis H; Noor, Syed W; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-12-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and delivery method, as well as each session. A total of 11 students and 22 presenters participated in the course. In each class session, one presenter was from a behavioral science background,and the other was from a biological sciences background. Both presenters and students expressed overall satisfaction with the content and format of the course. The presentation of topics from a transdisciplinary perspective and interaction with presenters from both biological and behavioral sciences are valuable and can help junior researchers prepare to meet the emerging challenges in cancer prevention research. PMID:21720937

  4. Educating cancer prevention researchers in emerging biobehavioral models: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A; Li, Dennis H; Noor, Syed W; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-12-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and delivery method, as well as each session. A total of 11 students and 22 presenters participated in the course. In each class session, one presenter was from a behavioral science background,and the other was from a biological sciences background. Both presenters and students expressed overall satisfaction with the content and format of the course. The presentation of topics from a transdisciplinary perspective and interaction with presenters from both biological and behavioral sciences are valuable and can help junior researchers prepare to meet the emerging challenges in cancer prevention research.

  5. Biological basis for sleep disturbance and behavioral symptoms in dementia: a biobehavioral model.

    PubMed

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Martin, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Behavioral symptoms and sleep disturbance occur in more than 56% of older adults with mild to moderate dementia and are challenging and costly. This article proposes a biobehavioral causal model to explain sleep disturbances and behavioral symptoms in dementia (BSD) based on an integrative science perspective using the life cycle model of stress (chronic stress) integrating genetic, neuroendocrine, and personality factors. The model proposes that: (a) BSD are an outcome of sleep disturbance; (b) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is key to sleep disturbances and BSD; (c) genotype influences response to stress hormones; (d) HPA is influenced by genotype; (e) trait anxiety moderates the relationship between HPA axis and BSD and/or sleep disturbances; and (f) trait anxiety is influenced by genotype. Examining these relationships simultaneously will advance our theoretical understanding of BSD and sleep disturbances, potentially providing a basis for the design of targeted interventions and prevention strategies with an understanding of risk.

  6. Preparation and tumor cell model based biobehavioral evaluation of the nanocarrier system using partially reduced graphene oxide functionalized by surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yimin; Liu, Kunping; Luo, Zewei; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, surfactant-functionalized nanomaterials are tending toward development of novel tumor-targeted drug carriers to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer therapy. Now, investigating the biocompatibility and uptake mechanism of specific drug delivery systems is a growing trend, but usually a troublesome issue, in simple pharmaceutical research. Methods We first reported the partially reduced graphene oxide modified with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as a nanocarrier system. Then, the nanocarrier was characterized by atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-Ray powder diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Epirubicin (EPI) was attached to PSSG via π–π stacking, hydrogen bonding, and physical absorption to form conjugates of PSSG–EPI. The adsorption and desorption profiles, cytotoxicity coupled with drug accumulation, and uptake of PSSG and PSSG–EPI were evaluated. Finally, the subcellular behaviors, distribution, and biological fate of the drug delivery system were explored by confocal laser scanning microscope using direct fluorescence colocalization imaging and transmission electron microscopy. Results The partially reduced graphene oxide sheets functionalized by surfactant exhibit good dispersibility. Moreover, due to much less carboxyl groups retained on the edge of PSSG sheets, the nanocarriers exhibit biocompatibility in vitro. The obtained PSSG shows a high drug-loading capacity of 2.22 mg/mg. The complexes of PSSG–EPI can be transferred to lysosomes in 2 hours through endocytosis, then the drug is released in the cytoplasm in 8 hours, and ultimately EPI is delivered into cell nucleus to exhibit medicinal effects in 1 day. Conclusion The comprehensive exploration of the biological uptake mechanism of functional graphene-mediated tumor cell targeting model provides a typical

  7. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and

  8. Family Relational Factors in Pediatric Depression and Asthma: Pathways of Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Beatrice L.; Miller, Bruce D.; Lim, Jungha; Lillis, Kathleen; Ballow, Mark; Stern, Trudy; Simmens, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tested a multilevel biobehavioral family model proposing that negative family emotional climate contributes to child depressive symptoms, which in turn contribute to asthma disease severity. Parent-child relational insecurity is proposed as a mediator. Method: Children with asthma (N = 112; ages 7-18; 55% male) reported…

  9. Developmental interplay between children's biobehavioral risk and the parenting environment from toddler to early school age: Prediction of socialization outcomes in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Kim, Sanghag; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    We followed 100 community families from toddler age to preadolescence. Each mother- and father-child dyad was observed at 25, 38, 52, 67, and 80 months (10 hr/child) to assess positive and power-assertive parenting. At age 10 (N = 82), we obtained parent- and child-reported outcome measures of children's acceptance of parental socialization: cooperation with parental monitoring, negative attitude toward substance use, internalization of adult values, and callous-unemotional tendencies. Children who carried a short serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) allele and were highly anger prone, based on anger observed in laboratory from 25 to 80 months, were classified as high in biobehavioral risk. The remaining children were classified as low in biobehavioral risk. Biobehavioral risk moderated links between parenting history and outcomes. For low-risk children, parenting measures were unrelated to outcomes. For children high in biobehavioral risk, variations in positive parenting predicted cooperation with monitoring and negative attitude toward substance use, and variations in power-assertive parenting predicted internalization of adult values and callous-unemotional tendencies. Suboptimal parenting combined with high biobehavioral risk resulted in the poorest outcomes. The effect for attitude toward substance use supported differential susceptibility: children high in biobehavioral risk who received optimal parenting had a more adaptive outcome than their low-risk peers. The remaining effects were consistent with diathesis-stress.

  10. Effects of guided imagery on biobehavioral factors in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Victoria; Lyon, Debra E; Elswick, R K; McCain, Nancy L; Gray, D Patricia

    2014-02-01

    Women diagnosed with fibromyalgia (N = 72) participated in a 10-week randomized trial to examine the effectiveness of guided imagery on self-efficacy, perceived stress, and selected biobehavioral factors (FMS symptoms; immune biomarkers). Participants in both guided imagery and usual care control conditions completed measures and donated 3 cc of blood at baseline, 6- and 10-weeks. A mixed effects linear model to test for differences between groups for all behavioral and biologic variables demonstrated that after 10 weeks of daily intervention use, guided imagery participants reported statistically significant increases in self-efficacy and statistically significant decreases in stress, fatigue, pain, and depression. There were no statistically significant changes in biomarker levels, although total group C-reactive protein was elevated at baseline (4.7 mg/L), indicating an inflammatory process. Subsequent studies should be undertaken to more fully elucidate the biobehavioral aspects of nonpharmacological intervention effectiveness. PMID:23124538

  11. FIRST-GENERATION LATINA MOTHERS' EXPERIENCES OF SUPPLEMENTING HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START WITH THE ATTACHMENT AND BIOBEHAVIORAL CATCH-UP PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Denmark, Nicole; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative pilot study examined first-generation Latina mothers' experiences of supplementing home-based Early Head Start (EHS) services with the evidence-based Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; M. Dozier, O. Lindheim, & J. Ackerman, 2005) program. Ten low-income, first-generation Latina mothers with infants and toddlers enrolled in home-based EHS were provided 10 ABC home visits by a supplemental parent coach. Following delivery of ABC, mothers participated in in-depth, semistructured, qualitative interviews about their experiences. Interview themes included positive experiences of both EHS and the ABC, a high value placed on receiving both programs, and cultural relevance of the ABC program for Latino families. Participants offered several suggestions for improved program delivery. Study findings suggest that a model of EHS supplemented by ABC delivered to the Latino community is feasible, valuable to participants, and culturally relevant. Considerations for sustainability of this supplemental model are discussed.

  12. FIRST-GENERATION LATINA MOTHERS' EXPERIENCES OF SUPPLEMENTING HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START WITH THE ATTACHMENT AND BIOBEHAVIORAL CATCH-UP PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Denmark, Nicole; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative pilot study examined first-generation Latina mothers' experiences of supplementing home-based Early Head Start (EHS) services with the evidence-based Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; M. Dozier, O. Lindheim, & J. Ackerman, 2005) program. Ten low-income, first-generation Latina mothers with infants and toddlers enrolled in home-based EHS were provided 10 ABC home visits by a supplemental parent coach. Following delivery of ABC, mothers participated in in-depth, semistructured, qualitative interviews about their experiences. Interview themes included positive experiences of both EHS and the ABC, a high value placed on receiving both programs, and cultural relevance of the ABC program for Latino families. Participants offered several suggestions for improved program delivery. Study findings suggest that a model of EHS supplemented by ABC delivered to the Latino community is feasible, valuable to participants, and culturally relevant. Considerations for sustainability of this supplemental model are discussed. PMID:27552398

  13. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  14. Model of Family Grief Assessment and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberti, Joseph W.; Detmer, Carol Michler

    1993-01-01

    Uses structural and family systems models as basis for evaluation/treatment of grieving families. Notes that, in structural model, families can be assessed in terms of how family has attempted to fill role left by loss. Suggests that family systems approach can be integrated with structural model, demonstrating techniques to assess changes in…

  15. Biobehavioral pathways underlying spousal health dynamics: its nature, correlates, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is a very special relationship that has a high potential to influence physical and mental health throughout the adult lifespan and into old age. In this viewpoint, we propose a model that outlines plausible biobehavioral pathways that may underlie previously established spousal interrelations in long-term health trajectories and discuss specific resources that may facilitate favorable outcomes for everyone involved. Specifically, we focus on spousal associations in physical activity as an important health behavior and in stress-related processes as a key daily-life mechanism, which both reveal effects that may accumulate over time to impact longer-term health outcomes. We also consider spousal resources such as collaborative problem solving and joint goals as psychological variables that characterize the dynamics within a given marriage. We conclude by discussing areas in theory and research that are ripe for further consideration and lay out target questions for future inquiry. PMID:24776655

  16. Biobehavioral pathways underlying spousal health dynamics: its nature, correlates, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is a very special relationship that has a high potential to influence physical and mental health throughout the adult lifespan and into old age. In this viewpoint, we propose a model that outlines plausible biobehavioral pathways that may underlie previously established spousal interrelations in long-term health trajectories and discuss specific resources that may facilitate favorable outcomes for everyone involved. Specifically, we focus on spousal associations in physical activity as an important health behavior and in stress-related processes as a key daily-life mechanism, which both reveal effects that may accumulate over time to impact longer-term health outcomes. We also consider spousal resources such as collaborative problem solving and joint goals as psychological variables that characterize the dynamics within a given marriage. We conclude by discussing areas in theory and research that are ripe for further consideration and lay out target questions for future inquiry.

  17. Brief Report: A Pilot Study of Parent-Child Biobehavioral Synchrony in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jason K; Fenning, Rachel M; Howland, Mariann A; Baucom, Brian R; Moffitt, Jacquelyn; Erath, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    The theory of biobehavioral synchrony proposes that the predictive power of parent-child attunement likely lies in the manner with which behaviors are aligned with relevant biological processes. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may challenge the formation of behavioral and physiological synchrony, but maintenance of such parent-child attunement could prove beneficial. The present study is the first to examine parent-child physiological synchrony in ASD. Parent and child electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured continuously during naturalistic free play. Parent-child EDA synchrony (positive covariation) was positively correlated with observed parent-child emotional attunement. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that child ASD symptoms moderated the association between parent EDA and child EDA, such that EDA synchrony was stronger for children with lower ASD symptom levels.

  18. Behavioral Symptoms after Breast Cancer Treatment: A Biobehavioral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Christopher; LeRoy, Angie; Karuga, Maryanne

    2015-01-01

    Being diagnosed and treated for breast cancer is emotionally and physically challenging. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death for women in the United States. Accordingly, women with a breast cancer history are the largest group of female cancer survivors. Psychological stress substantially augments adverse autonomic, endocrine, and immune discharge, including enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, inflammation is a key biological mechanism underlying the symptom cluster of pain, depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances; there is also good evidence that inflammation contributes to breast cancer recurrence. Stress may exert direct effects on psychological and physiological risk processes. In this review, we take a biobehavioral approach to understanding predictors and mechanisms underlying somatic symptoms in breast cancer survivors. PMID:26247972

  19. Implications of Biobehavioral States for the Education and Treatment of Students with the Most Profoundly Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Implications of biobehavioral state measures for the assessment of students with profoundly handicapping conditions are discussed in relation to similar behaviors observed in infants and among persons recovering from severe head trauma. Biobehavioral states assessed include: asleep-inactive, asleep-active, drowsy, awake-inactive-alert,…

  20. Discriminatory power of RNA family models

    PubMed Central

    zu Siederdissen, Christian Höner; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: RNA family models group nucleotide sequences that share a common biological function. These models can be used to find new sequences belonging to the same family. To succeed in this task, a model needs to exhibit high sensitivity as well as high specificity. As model construction is guided by a manual process, a number of problems can occur, such as the introduction of more than one model for the same family or poorly constructed models. We explore the Rfam database to discover such problems. Results: Our main contribution is in the definition of the discriminatory power of RNA family models, together with a first algorithm for its computation. In addition, we present calculations across the whole Rfam database that show several families lacking high specificity when compared to other families. We give a list of these clusters of families and provide a tentative explanation. Our program can be used to: (i) make sure that new models are not equivalent to any model already present in the database; and (ii) new models are not simply submodels of existing families. Availability: www.tbi.univie.ac.at/software/cmcompare/. The code is licensed under the GPLv3. Results for the whole Rfam database and supporting scripts are available together with the software. Contact: choener@tbi.univie.ac.at PMID:20823307

  1. Community implementation outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up.

    PubMed

    Caron, E B; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC.

  2. Community implementation outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up.

    PubMed

    Caron, E B; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC. PMID:26746112

  3. Ordinary Variations in Human Maternal Caregiving in Infancy and Biobehavioral Development in Early Childhood: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hane, Amie Ashley; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent models of early caregiving find that pups reared by dams providing low levels of early stimulation subsequently display heightened stress reactivity and social aggression. We examined these effects in humans by investigating the effects of early caregiving on markers of biobehavioral development at ages 2 and 3 years. This study extended the findings reported by Hane and Fox (2006) in which 185 mothers and infants were observed and scored for variations in maternal caregiving behavior (MCB) at age 9 months. Relative to young children who received high quality MCB in infancy, those who received low-quality MCB showed significantly higher socially inhibited behavior with adults, right frontal electroencephalographam (EEG) asymmetry, aggressive play, and maternal reported internalizing behavior problems and anger proneness. These effects were independent of early temperamental reactivity. Results parallel rodent models and demonstrate that ordinary variations in MCB influence stress reactivity and social behavior in young children. (149 words) PMID:20806328

  4. Cancer Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Testing a Biobehavioral/Cognitive Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Brittany M.; Yang, Hae-Chung; Strunk, Daniel R.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this Phase II trial, we evaluated a novel psychological treatment for depressed patients coping with the stresses of cancer. Effectiveness of a combined biobehavioral intervention (BBI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was studied. Method: Participants were 36 cancer survivors (mean age = 49 years; 88% Caucasian; 92% female)…

  5. Temperament, Tympanum, and Temperature: Four Provisional Studies of the Biobehavioral Correlates of Tympanic Membrane Temperature Asymmetries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Essex, Marilyn J.; Alkon, Abbey; Smider, Nancy A.; Pickrell, Tyler; Kagan, Jerome

    2002-01-01

    Examined associations between tympanic membrane (TM) temperature asymmetries and biobehavioral attributes of 4- to 8- year-old children. Found shared patterns of associations that linked TM temperature lateralities to individual differences in behavior and socioaffective difficulties. Found that warmer left TMs were associated with affectively…

  6. Intervening with Foster Parents to Enhance Biobehavioral Outcomes among Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Mary; Bick, Johanna; Bernard, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Children in foster care face a number of challenges that threaten their ability to form attachment relationships with foster parents and to regulate their behavior and biology. The authors describe the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) intervention, an evidence-based intervention aimed at helping foster children develop trusting…

  7. Early Father Involvement Moderates Biobehavioral Susceptibility to Mental Health Problems in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Essex, Marilyn J.; Alkon, Abbey; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Kraemer, Helena C.; Kupfer, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study how early father involvement and children's biobehavioral sensitivity to social contexts interactively predict mental health symptoms in middle childhood. Method: Fathers' involvement in infant care and maternal symptoms of depression were prospectively ascertained in a community-based study of child health and development in…

  8. Brief Report: A Pilot Study of Parent-Child Biobehavioral Synchrony in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason K.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Howland, Mariann A.; Baucom, Brian R.; Moffitt, Jacquelyn; Erath, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of biobehavioral synchrony proposes that the predictive power of parent-child attunement likely lies in the manner with which behaviors are aligned with relevant biological processes. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may challenge the formation of behavioral and physiological synchrony, but maintenance of such parent-child…

  9. Asteroid families from cratering: Detection and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, A.; Cellino, A.; Knežević, Z.; Novaković, B.; Spoto, F.; Paolicchi, P.

    2014-07-01

    A new asteroid families classification, more efficient in the inclusion of smaller family members, shows how relevant the cratering impacts are on large asteroids. These do not disrupt the target, but just form families with the ejecta from large craters. Of the 12 largest asteroids, 8 have cratering families: number (2), (4), (5), (10), (87), (15), (3), and (31). At least another 7 cratering families can be identified. Of the cratering families identified so far, 7 have >1000 members. This imposes a remarkable change from the focus on fragmentation families of previous classifications. Such a large dataset of asteroids believed to be crater ejecta opens a new challenge: to model the crater and family forming event(s) generating them. The first problem is to identify which cratering families, found by the similarity of proper elements, can be formed at once, with a single collision. We have identified as a likely outcome of multiple collisions the families of (4), (10), (15), and (20). Of the ejecta generated by cratering, only a fraction reaches the escape velocity from the surviving parent body. The distribution of velocities at infinity, giving to the resulting family an initial position and shape in the proper elements space, is highly asymmetric with respect to the parent body. This shape is deformed by the Yarkovsky effect and by the interaction with resonances. All the largest asteroids have been subjected to large cratering events, thus the lack of a family needs to be interpreted. The most interesting case is (1) Ceres, which is not the parent body of the nearby family of (93). Two possible interpretations of the low family forming efficiency are based on either the composition of Ceres with a significant fraction of ice, protected by a thin crust, or with the larger escape velocity of ~500 m/s.

  10. RNAlien - Unsupervised RNA family model construction.

    PubMed

    Eggenhofer, Florian; Hofacker, Ivo L; Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian

    2016-09-30

    Determining the function of a non-coding RNA requires costly and time-consuming wet-lab experiments. For this reason, computational methods which ascertain the homology of a sequence and thereby deduce functionality and family membership are often exploited. In this fashion, newly sequenced genomes can be annotated in a completely computational way. Covariance models are commonly used to assign novel RNA sequences to a known RNA family. However, to construct such models several examples of the family have to be already known. Moreover, model building is the work of experts who manually edit the necessary RNA alignment and consensus structure. Our method, RNAlien, starting from a single input sequence collects potential family member sequences by multiple iterations of homology search. RNA family models are fully automatically constructed for the found sequences. We have tested our method on a subset of the Rfam RNA family database. RNAlien models are a starting point to construct models of comparable sensitivity and specificity to manually curated ones from the Rfam database. RNAlien Tool and web server are available at http://rna.tbi.univie.ac.at/rnalien/.

  11. RNAlien – Unsupervised RNA family model construction

    PubMed Central

    Eggenhofer, Florian; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Determining the function of a non-coding RNA requires costly and time-consuming wet-lab experiments. For this reason, computational methods which ascertain the homology of a sequence and thereby deduce functionality and family membership are often exploited. In this fashion, newly sequenced genomes can be annotated in a completely computational way. Covariance models are commonly used to assign novel RNA sequences to a known RNA family. However, to construct such models several examples of the family have to be already known. Moreover, model building is the work of experts who manually edit the necessary RNA alignment and consensus structure. Our method, RNAlien, starting from a single input sequence collects potential family member sequences by multiple iterations of homology search. RNA family models are fully automatically constructed for the found sequences. We have tested our method on a subset of the Rfam RNA family database. RNAlien models are a starting point to construct models of comparable sensitivity and specificity to manually curated ones from the Rfam database. RNAlien Tool and web server are available at http://rna.tbi.univie.ac.at/rnalien/. PMID:27330139

  12. Family gym: a model to promote physical activity for families with young children.

    PubMed

    Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Hoffman, Jessica A; Thomas, Jordan; DuBois, Matthew; Agrawal, Tara; Griffin, Daphne; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine Locke; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Wirth, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    This report describes Family Gym, a family-centered model that (1) provides free access to physical activity for low-income families in the inner city; (2) targets young children (3-8 years) and their families; (3) engages families together in physical activity; and (4) stimulates social interaction among families.

  13. Stress, Immunity, and Cervical Cancer: Biobehavioral Outcomes of a Randomized Clinical Trail

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Edward L.; Wenzel, Lari B.; Osann, Kathryn; Dogan-Ates, Aysun; Chantana, Nissa; Reina-Patton, Astrid; Laust, Amanda K.; Nishimoto, Kevin P.; Chicz-DeMet, Alexandra; du Pont, Nefertiti; Monk, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancer diagnosis and treatment imparts chronic stressors affecting quality of life (QOL) and basic physiology. However, the capacity to increase survival by improving QOL is controversial. Patients with cervical cancer, in particular, have severely compromised QOL, providing a population well-suited for the evaluation of novel psychosocial interventions and the exploration of mechanisms by which modulation of the psychoneuroimmune axis might result in improved clinical outcomes. Experimental Design A randomized clinical trial was conducted in cervical cancer survivors that were enrolled at ≥13 and <22 months after diagnosis (n = 50), comparing a unique psychosocial telephone counseling (PTC) intervention to usual care. QOL and biological specimens (saliva and blood) were collected at baseline and 4 months post-enrollment. Results The PTC intervention yielded significantly improved QOL (P = 0.011). Changes in QOL were significantly associated with a shift of immune system T helper type 1and 2 (Th1/Th2) bias, as measured by IFN-γ/interleukin-5 ELISpot T lymphocyte precursor frequency; improved QOL being associated with increased Th1 bias (P = 0.012). Seruminterleukin-10 and the neuroendocrine variables of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone revealed trends supporting this shift in immunologic stance and suggested a PTC-mediated decrease of the subject’s chronic stress response. Conclusions This study documents the utility of a unique PTC intervention and an association between changes in QOL and adaptive immunity (T helper class). These data support the integration of the chronic stress response into biobehavioral models of cancer survivorship and suggests a novel mechanistic hypotheses by which interventions leading to enhanced QOL could result in improved clinical outcome including survival. PMID:18381952

  14. Understanding Dying Patients and Their Families: Using the family FIRO model.

    PubMed

    Librach, S L; Talbot, Y

    1991-02-01

    Caring for dying patients and their families presents unique opportunities and challenges for the family physician. The family FIRO model provides a simple way of assessing families and providing appropriate, individualized care. This article outlines the model, discusses the care of dying patients and their families from the FIRO perspective, and provides a guideline for the family physician. A framework is suggested for teaching residents to support families.

  15. To assess, to control, to exclude: Effects of biobehavioral factors on circulating inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Bower, Julie E.; Cho, Hyong Jin; Creswell, J. David; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Hamby, Mary E.; Hoyt, Michael A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Robles, Theodore F.; Sloan, Erica K.; Thomas, KaMala S.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral scientists have increasingly included inflammatory biology as mechanisms in their investigation of psychosocial dynamics on the pathobiology of disease. However, a lack of standardization of inclusion and exclusion criteria and assessment of relevant control variables impacts the interpretation of these studies. The present paper reviews and discusses human biobehavioral factors that can affect the measurement of circulating markers of inflammation. Keywords relevant to inflammatory biology and biobehavioral factors were searched through PubMed. Age, sex, and hormonal status, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and race, body mass index, exercise, diet, caffeine, smoking, alcohol, sleep disruption, antidepressants, aspirin, and medications for cardiovascular disease are all reviewed. A tiered set of recommendations as to whether each variable should be assessed, controlled for, or used as an exclusion criteria is provided. These recommendations provide a framework for observational and intervention studies investigating linkages between psychosocial and behavioral factors and inflammation. PMID:19389469

  16. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: issues for biobehavioral and psychosocial research.

    PubMed

    Waller, Jo; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Forrest, Sue; Wardle, Jane

    2004-02-01

    There is now overwhelming evidence that high-risk, sexually transmitted types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the main causal agent in cervical cancer. Biobehavioral and psychosocial research is uniquely capable of addressing many of the issues raised by HPV and its link with cervical cancer. In this article we review current findings in this area and identify issues for future research. The first of the three sections explores issues associated with the introduction of HPV testing for the detection and management of cervical abnormalities and the impact of growing public awareness of the sexually transmitted nature of cervical cancer. The implications for public understanding of cervical cancer, psychosocial issues associated with screening, and the potential impact on screening uptake are discussed. The second section addresses the role of biobehavioral factors in the persistence and progression of HPV infection as well as possible interventions to minimize the risk of persistence. Finally, primary prevention of HPV is discussed.

  17. To assess, to control, to exclude: effects of biobehavioral factors on circulating inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Bower, Julie E; Cho, Hyong Jin; Creswell, J David; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Hamby, Mary E; Hoyt, Michael A; Martin, Jennifer L; Robles, Theodore F; Sloan, Erica K; Thomas, Kamala S; Irwin, Michael R

    2009-10-01

    Behavioral scientists have increasingly included inflammatory biology as mechanisms in their investigation of psychosocial dynamics on the pathobiology of disease. However, a lack of standardization of inclusion and exclusion criteria and assessment of relevant control variables impacts the interpretation of these studies. The present paper reviews and discusses human biobehavioral factors that can affect the measurement of circulating markers of inflammation. Keywords relevant to inflammatory biology and biobehavioral factors were searched through PubMed. Age, sex, and hormonal status, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and race, body mass index, exercise, diet, caffeine, smoking, alcohol, sleep disruption, antidepressants, aspirin, and medications for cardiovascular disease are all reviewed. A tiered set of recommendations as to whether each variable should be assessed, controlled for, or used as an exclusion criteria is provided. These recommendations provide a framework for observational and intervention studies investigating linkages between psychosocial and behavioral factors and inflammation.

  18. A family of lowered isothermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieles, Mark; Zocchi, Alice

    2015-11-01

    We present a family of self-consistent, spherical, lowered isothermal models, consisting of one or more mass components, with parametrized prescriptions for the energy truncation and for the amount of radially biased pressure anisotropy. The models are particularly suited to describe the phase-space density of stars in tidally limited, mass-segregated star clusters in all stages of their life-cycle. The models extend a family of isotropic, single-mass models by Gomez-Leyton and Velazquez, of which the well-known Woolley, King and Wilson (in the non-rotating and isotropic limit) models are members. We derive analytic expressions for the density and velocity dispersion components in terms of potential and radius, and introduce a fast model solver in PYTHON (LIMEPY), that can be used for data fitting or for generating discrete samples.

  19. The Family FIRO Model: The Integration of Group Theory and Family Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, Nicholas; Doherty, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Family Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (Family FIRO) Model, an integration of small-group theory and family therapy. The model is offered as a framework for organizing family issues. Discusses three fundamental issues of human relatedness and their applicability to group dynamics. (Author/NB)

  20. The Family FIRO Model: A Modest Proposal for Organizing Family Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; Colangelo, Nicholas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a model for organizing family issues and family treatment. Schutz's Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) model is offered as a framework for organizing family issues into inclusion, control, and affection categories, constituting a logical hierarchy of core issues to be dealt with in treating multiproblem families. (JAC)

  1. Emphases of the Major Family Therapy Models: A Family FIRO Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes 13 models of family therapy according to their special emphases on the Family FIRO (Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation) model's dimensions of inclusion, control, and intimacy. Final conceptual analysis of models indicated that four family therapy models emphasized inclusion as a primary focus, four emphasized control, and…

  2. Graphical Models via Univariate Exponential Family Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunho; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Allen, Genevera I.; Liu, Zhandong

    2016-01-01

    Undirected graphical models, or Markov networks, are a popular class of statistical models, used in a wide variety of applications. Popular instances of this class include Gaussian graphical models and Ising models. In many settings, however, it might not be clear which subclass of graphical models to use, particularly for non-Gaussian and non-categorical data. In this paper, we consider a general sub-class of graphical models where the node-wise conditional distributions arise from exponential families. This allows us to derive multivariate graphical model distributions from univariate exponential family distributions, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and exponential distributions. Our key contributions include a class of M-estimators to fit these graphical model distributions; and rigorous statistical analysis showing that these M-estimators recover the true graphical model structure exactly, with high probability. We provide examples of genomic and proteomic networks learned via instances of our class of graphical models derived from Poisson and exponential distributions. PMID:27570498

  3. Celebrating Families: An Inclusive Model of Family-Centred Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Barry; Addenbrooke, Mandy; Attfield, Elizabeth; Conway, Sally

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an innovative week of training days, entitled Celebrating Families, which took place at Sunfield, Worcestershire, in July 2002. The week, for and around families of children with special needs, arose from a shared vision and philosophy held by three host organisations. Representatives of all three organisations have…

  4. A Model of Family Background, Family Process, Youth Self-Control, and Delinquent Behavior in Two-Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, So-Hee; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of two-parent families with 11- and 12-year-old youths (N = 591), we tested a structural model of family background, family process (marital conflict and parenting), youth self-control, and delinquency four years later. Consistent with the conceptual model, marital conflict and youth self-control are directly…

  5. Three Family Models from the Heterotic String

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Stuart

    2005-12-02

    In this talk I outline work done in collaboration with R.J. Zhang and T. Kobayashi. We show how to construct the equivalent of three family orbifold GUTs in five dimensions from the heterotic string. I focus on one particular model with E(6) gauge symmetry in 5D, the third family and Higgs doublet coming from the 5D bulk and the first two families living on 4D SO(10) branes. Note the E(6) gauge symmetry is broken to Pati-Salam in 4D which subsequently breaks to the Standard Model gauge symmetry via the Higgs mechanism. The model has two flaws, one fatal and one perhaps only unaesthetic. The model has a small set of vector-like exotics with fractional electromagnetic charge. Unfortunately not all of these states obtain mass at the compactification scale. This flaw is fatal. The second problem is R parity violating interactions. These problems may be avoidable in alternate orbifold compactification schemes. It is these problems which we discuss in this talk.

  6. Human amygdala engagement moderated by early life stress exposure is a biobehavioral target for predicting recovery on antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Green, Erin; Suppes, Trisha; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Hastie, Trevor; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Williams, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala circuitry and early life stress (ELS) are both strongly and independently implicated in the neurobiology of depression. Importantly, animal models have revealed that the contribution of ELS to the development and maintenance of depression is likely a consequence of structural and physiological changes in amygdala circuitry in response to stress hormones. Despite these mechanistic foundations, amygdala engagement and ELS have not been investigated as biobehavioral targets for predicting functional remission in translational human studies of depression. Addressing this question, we integrated human neuroimaging and measurement of ELS within a controlled trial of antidepressant outcomes. Here we demonstrate that the interaction between amygdala activation engaged by emotional stimuli and ELS predicts functional remission on antidepressants with a greater than 80% cross-validated accuracy. Our model suggests that in depressed people with high ELS, the likelihood of remission is highest with greater amygdala reactivity to socially rewarding stimuli, whereas for those with low-ELS exposure, remission is associated with lower amygdala reactivity to both rewarding and threat-related stimuli. This full model predicted functional remission over and above the contribution of demographics, symptom severity, ELS, and amygdala reactivity alone. These findings identify a human target for elucidating the mechanisms of antidepressant functional remission and offer a target for developing novel therapeutics. The results also offer a proof-of-concept for using neuroimaging as a target for guiding neuroscience-informed intervention decisions at the level of the individual person. PMID:27791054

  7. Family Ranching and Farming: A Consensus Management Model to Improve Family Functioning and Decrease Work Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Fetsch, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that internal and external threats could squeeze ranch and farm families out of business. Offers six-step Consensus Management Model that combines strategic planning with psychoeducation/family therapy. Describes pilot test with intergenerational ranch family that indicated improvements in family functioning, including reduced stress and…

  8. Family Stress and Adaptation to Crises: A Double ABCX Model of Family Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbin, Hamilton I.; Patterson, Joan M.

    Recent developments in family stress and coping research and a review of data and observations of families in a war-induced crisis situation led to an investigation of the relationship between a stressor and family outcomes. The study, based on the Double ABCX Model in which A (the stressor event) interacts with B (the family's crisis-meeting…

  9. TRAJECTORIES OF CHANGE IN ATTACHMENT AND BIOBEHAVIORAL CATCH-UP AMONG HIGH-RISK MOTHERS: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Yarger, Heather A; Hoye, Julie R; Dozier, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Using an intensive short-term longitudinal design, this study first examined whether there were significant differences in maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness after completion of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; Dozier & the Infant-Caregiver Project Lab, 2013) when compared to a control condition. The second aim was to explore the rate and shape of change in parenting behaviors. Participants were 24 mothers and their biological children, who were randomly assigned to ABC (n = 13) or a control condition (n = 11). A structured play assessment with each mother and her child was video-recorded prior to randomization into the study, before each intervention session, and at a follow-up visit. A total of 270 videos were coded for sensitivity and intrusiveness. Hierarchical linear growth models were used to estimate the total change in parenting qualities across the 10 intervention sessions when comparing ABC to a control condition. Piecewise hierarchical linear growth models were used to investigate patterns of change across the intervention for mothers within ABC. Mothers in the ABC condition showed greater increases in sensitivity and decreases in intrusiveness than mothers in the control condition. There was evidence for nonlinear patterns of change in sensitivity and intrusiveness among mothers in ABC. These results support the effectiveness of ABC in changing sensitivity quickly. PMID:27548644

  10. A Process Model of Family Formation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Diana R.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models of family formation have assumed sexual coupling as the foundation of family life. This article proposes instead a model of family formation predicated on the processes of taking care of one another, eating together, and sharing life together. The interpersonal dynamics that distinguish a family from other close relationships…

  11. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model.

  12. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model. PMID:25735013

  13. Conceptualizing Family Stress: A Systemic Revision of Hill's ABCX Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Alberta Y.

    This report offers a theoretical approach to the study of family adaptation to stress. Major works pertaining to family theory, research, and stress, published since 1979, are explored as a theoretical framework, and three conclusions are drawn from these sources: (1) Hill's ABCX model of family stress still influences family stress research; (2)…

  14. Participatory Action Research as a Model for Conducting Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…

  15. Priority setting in family change and clinical practice: the Family FIRO Model.

    PubMed

    Doherty, W J; Colangelo, N; Hovander, D

    1991-06-01

    We update a theoretical framework for understanding priority setting for the management of family change, with special emphasis on developmental change. We propose that three core dimensions of family interaction--inclusion, control, and intimacy--constitute an optimal priority sequence for managing major family change stemming from life-cycle transitions and other stressful experiences. In the next section of the article, we compare the Family FIRO Model and other models of family change. Finally, we suggest that therapists can benefit from an explicit, clinical decision-making model for setting priorities in treatment: issues of inclusion take precedence over issues of control, which in turn take precedence over issues of intimacy.

  16. Biobehavioral Intervention for Cancer Stress: Conceptualization, Components, and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Emery, Charles F.; Thiel, Debora L.

    2009-01-01

    Trials testing the efficacy of psychological interventions for cancer patients had their beginnings in the 1970s. Since then, hundreds of trials have found interventions to be generally efficacious. In this article, we describe an intervention grounded in a conceptual model that includes psychological, behavioral, and biological components. It is…

  17. Psychology of Supplementation in Sport and Exercise: Motivational Antecedents and Biobehavioral Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Rafer; Arent, Shawn

    Research concerning the physiological and biobehavioral effects of supplements commonly used in sport or exercise settings has multiplied rapidly over the last decade. However, less attention has been directed to understanding the motivational pathways leading to sport and exercise supplement use. This chapter summarizes known usage rates for sport/fitness supplements and describes motivational theories and constructs that may be of use for understanding individuals' use of these substances. In this respect, we contend that researchers should consider behavioral approaches, the theory of planned behavior, balance theory, achievement goal theory, social physique anxiety, and muscle dysmorphia as useful for developing an understanding of the psychological influences on supplement use. For some of the latter theories/constructs, research has already shown support for their explanatory abilities, whereas research is scant and the utility for understanding sport/exercise supplement use is yet to be determined for many of the theories. In addition to describing the motivation behind supplement use, this chapter summarizes the biobehavioral effects of a select group of supplements commonly used to improve performance, fitness, or health. Specifically, we consider psychobiological effects of caffeine, creatine, Ginkgo biloba, and St. John's wort related to enhanced arousal, improved memory and cognition, enhanced brain function and protection, and reduced depression. There is promising initial evidence for the efficacy of these compounds in producing favorable psychological outcomes, although certain shortcomings of many studies on these compounds must be taken into account before reaching definitive conclusions.

  18. Capturing the Family Context of Emotion Regulation: A Family Systems Model Comparison Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Grych, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Several dimensions of family functioning are recognized as formative influences on children's emotion regulation. Historically, they have been studied separately, limiting our ability to understand how they function within the family system. The present investigation tested models including family emotional climate, interparental conflict,…

  19. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  20. Family Economic Pressure and Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: Application of the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2005-01-01

    This study used a sample of 501 families from the Mississippi Delta region to examine the feasibility of the Family Stress Model for understanding adolescent suicidal ideation. The results indicated that family economic pressure was related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, was related to parental hostile behavior and physical…

  1. The McMaster Model of Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Nathan B; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The model of family functioning being presented is the product of over 20 years of research in clinical work with family units. The model uses a general systems theory approach in an attempt to describe the structure, organization, and transactional patterns of the family unit. (Author)

  2. A Family Process Model of Problem Behaviors in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which different family processes and personal experiences of social contexts are related to the adjustment of adolescents in a subsample of 755 mother-child dyads drawn from the National Survey of Families and Households. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine a model in which joint family contexts…

  3. Behavioral Health Issues among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Explorations on the Frontiers of the Biobehavioral Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Spero M., Ed.; Dinges, Norman G., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The nine major overview and position papers contained in the monograph were originally presented at a conference held for the purpose of reviewing, from the Native American perspective, the National Institute of Medicine's comprehensive volume, "Health and Behavior: Frontiers of Research in the Biobehavioral Sciences." The papers, each of which…

  4. Shape shifters: biobehavioral determinants and phenomena in symptom research.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Elizabeth J; Meek, Paula; Cook, Paul F; Lowe, Nancy K; Sousa, Karen H

    2012-01-01

    Symptom assessment and management are critical to patient-centered care. Traditionally, the determinants of a symptom are viewed as separate from the phenomena associated with that symptom. By separating determinants and phenomena, however, the complexity and dynamism of the patient experience are ignored. Likewise, categorizing symptom determinants and phenomena as solely biological or behavioral minimizes their dimensionality and may hinder interdisciplinary dialogue. Here we propose that determinants and phenomena are not fixed but shift between each other depending on perspective. To illustrate this way of thinking the metaphor of the "shape shifter" from folklore is used. A shape shifter moves between states and may be seen differently by the same person at different times or by multiple individuals at one time. To guide discussion, we present 5 exemplars of increasing complexity, wherein a determinant becomes a phenomenon or vice versa, depending upon context. Suggestions for statistical testing of the model are included with each. We conclude by exploring how shifting between determinants and phenomena may affect symptom cluster assessment and management.

  5. Childhood negative emotionality predicts biobehavioral dysregulation fifteen years later.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Melissa J; Luecken, Linda J; Modecki, Kathryn L; Sandler, Irwin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A

    2016-09-01

    The temperamental trait of negative emotionality (NE) plays an important role in maladaptation among adults experiencing significant life stress. However, the prospective relation between childhood NE and subsequent interrelated behavioral, emotional, and biological dysregulation in later life has not yet been established among children who experience early adversity. Using a longitudinal sample of youth who experienced parental divorce during childhood (N = 160; 53% male; 83% White), we tested the hypothesis that childhood NE would predict physiological, emotional, and behavioral dysregulation 15 years later. NE was assessed by maternal report when youth were between 9 and 12 years old. Fifteen years later, young adults (mean age = 25.55 years) participated in a psychosocial stress task to assess cortisol reactivity and reported on internalizing symptoms and problematic alcohol use. Structural equation modeling revealed that higher childhood NE predicted significantly greater alcohol use, internalizing symptoms, and total cortisol output during a stress task 15 years later. Importantly, these findings held after adjusting for childhood internalizing symptoms. In addition, problematic alcohol use was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and internalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that childhood NE is a critical risk marker for interrelated forms of dysregulation in young adulthood among at-risk youth. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100364

  6. Psychobiology and the treatment of drug dependence: the biobehavioral interface.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R E

    1986-01-01

    In the past 15 years there has been an explosion of data on the multivariate nature of drug dependence. The complex relationship between addictive disorders and psychopathology has been better clarified. Certain Axis I and II diagnoses in DSM-III appear to occur more commonly in alcohol- and drug-dependent patients than in the general population, suggesting that they may serve as risk factors for the development of addictive disorders. Psychopathological symptoms also result during periods of chronic intoxication and may persist as secondary psychiatric disorders even in the absence of continued substance use. Behavioral research in human and animal models has begun to yield insights into the nature of dependence disorders and the importance of brain mechanisms of reinforcement to the addiction process. Inevitably, neural scientists are beginning to delineate the commonalities and differences in drug reinforcement across drug class. The research has begun to suggest pharmacological approaches to the treatment of drug dependence and withdrawal. This paper provides an overview of research on the psychobiology of drug dependence with implications for the clinician.

  7. Family boundary characteristics, work-family conflict and life satisfaction: A moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinyan

    2015-10-01

    Although work-family border and boundary theory suggest individuals' boundary characteristics influence their work-family relationship, it is largely unknown how boundary flexibility and permeability mutually influence work-family conflict and subsequent employee outcomes. Moreover, the existing work-family conflict research has been mainly conducted in the United States and other Western countries. To address these gaps in the work-family literature, the present study examines a moderated mediation model regarding how family boundary characteristics may influence individuals' work-family conflict and life satisfaction with a sample of 278 Chinese full-time employees. Results showed that employees' family flexibility negatively related to their perceived work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW), and both these two relationships were augmented by individuals' family permeability. In addition, WIF mediated the relationship between family flexibility and life satisfaction; the indirect effect of family flexibility on life satisfaction via WIF was stronger for individuals with higher family permeability. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Family boundary characteristics, work-family conflict and life satisfaction: A moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinyan

    2015-10-01

    Although work-family border and boundary theory suggest individuals' boundary characteristics influence their work-family relationship, it is largely unknown how boundary flexibility and permeability mutually influence work-family conflict and subsequent employee outcomes. Moreover, the existing work-family conflict research has been mainly conducted in the United States and other Western countries. To address these gaps in the work-family literature, the present study examines a moderated mediation model regarding how family boundary characteristics may influence individuals' work-family conflict and life satisfaction with a sample of 278 Chinese full-time employees. Results showed that employees' family flexibility negatively related to their perceived work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW), and both these two relationships were augmented by individuals' family permeability. In addition, WIF mediated the relationship between family flexibility and life satisfaction; the indirect effect of family flexibility on life satisfaction via WIF was stronger for individuals with higher family permeability. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25331584

  9. Family Theory According to the Cambridge Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is a summary of and an introduction to the family systems theory of David Kantor and William Lehr as expressed in their book, Inside the Family. Their concepts of family boundaries, dimensions, typal arrangements, and the four player system are presented and discussed. (Author)

  10. Modeling Family Adaptation to Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald, Jr.; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a survey of 1,099 families who have a child with Fragile X syndrome, we examined adaptation across 7 dimensions of family life: parenting knowledge, social support, social life, financial impact, well-being, quality of life, and overall impact. Results illustrate that although families report a high quality of life, they struggle…

  11. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with young children. This line of research would highlight specific pathways to target to prevent the onset of early parental and child dysfunction. PMID:18491229

  12. The Character-Disordered Family: A Community Treatment Model for Family Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lorna M.; Shafer, Gretchen

    1979-01-01

    A collaborative approach to treating sexually abusive families is described, in which such families are viewed as analogous to "character-disordered" individuals. This model, unlike traditional voluntary treatment models, is explained to assume that effective intervention requires authoritative control and careful coordination of all professional…

  13. A biobehavioral framework for examining altered sleep-wake patterns in homeless women.

    PubMed

    Davis, J E; Shuler, P A

    2000-03-01

    The interactions among psychosocial and environmental stressors and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-ovarian-immune axes may provide a framework for examining altered sleep-wake patterns in women. Based on this biobehavioral framework, homeless women represent a subgroup of the female population who have many lifestyle factors that might make them vulnerable to sleep disturbances. This article presents a study designed to investigate the self-reported sleep patterns and lifestyle factors associated with the sleep of 50 homeless women, 18-44 years of age, residing in the downtown area of Los Angeles. Results indicated that almost half of the women slept six or less hours a day and had a day/night sleep pattern. A majority of the women reported restless sleep. Drinking beer, using cocaine, anxiety, depression, loneliness, and concerns about safety and money were factors significantly related to altered sleep patterns. PMID:10839059

  14. Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S E; Klein, L C; Lewis, B P; Gruenewald, T L; Gurung, R A; Updegraff, J A

    2000-07-01

    The human stress response has been characterized, both physiologically and behaviorally, as "fight-or-flight." Although fight-or-flight may characterize the primary physiological responses to stress for both males and females, we propose that, behaviorally, females' responses are more marked by a pattern of "tend-and-befriend." Tending involves nurturant activities designed to protect the self and offspring that promote safety and reduce distress; befriending is the creation and maintenance of social networks that may aid in this process. The biobehavioral mechanism that underlies the tend-and-befriend pattern appears to draw on the attachment-caregiving system, and neuroendocrine evidence from animal and human studies suggests that oxytocin, in conjunction with female reproductive hormones and endogenous opioid peptide mechanisms, may be at its core. This previously unexplored stress regulatory system has manifold implications for the study of stress.

  15. The use of single-electrode wireless EEG in biobehavioral investigations.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce novice and intermediate EEG researchers to a convenient and user-friendly EEG system from NeuroSky, Inc. In our recent study we were interested in changes in the frontal cortical EEG activity of healthy adults as a function of accommodative stress during performance of a sustained attention task. We used a commercially available low-cost wireless EEG device from NeuroSky (MindSet), which has a single active Fp1 dry electrode capable of recording research-grade EEG coupled with powerful noise-filtering and data software support. The convenience and ease-of-use of MindSet is further enhanced with validated eSense meters of Attention and Meditation. In this chapter we also provide additional data analytic support for EEG power spectrum using SPSS syntax commonly used in many biobehavioral sciences.

  16. Model Strategies in Bilingual Education: Family Literacy and Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Heather; Russo, Alexander W. W.

    This study reports on nine family literacy projects that focus on families whose primary language is not English. The first six projects fall under the Kenan service model, which sees that children receive more or as many services as adults and is organized around children's needs. These include the Canoncito Family Support/Early Childhood…

  17. Teaching English to Refugees: A Family Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Elise; Brown, Dorothy S.

    The instructional program in English as a second language (ESL) followed by a family of 12 Hmong refugees in a small midwestern town is described. Eight of the younger members of the family met for one hour three times each week. Instruction was under the guidance of two teachers, thus allowing for individual help. Other volunteers assisted from…

  18. An Integrative Training Model for Family Therapists: The Hahnemann Master of Family Therapy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Robert

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the two-year Master of Family Therapy Program at the Hahnemann Medical College in Philadelphia. The program entered its third year in 1979. It is based on a relational, or contextual, model of family therapy, influenced primarily by the ideas and theoretical constructs of Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy. (Author)

  19. The Decker Family Development Center: Supportive Data of an Intervention Model for Multiple-Risk Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Carole; And Others

    The Decker Family Development Center in Barberton (Ohio) is a holistic "one-stop shop" that provides services to families who are at multiple risk. During its 5 years of operation, this center has developed a model that goes beyond cooperation into co-construction to empower stakeholders. This paper describes the center and its successes and…

  20. The confluence model: birth order as a within-family or between-family dynamic?

    PubMed

    Zajonc, R B; Sulloway, Frank J

    2007-09-01

    The confluence model explains birth-order differences in intellectual performance by quantifying the changing dynamics within the family. Wichman, Rodgers, and MacCallum (2006) claimed that these differences are a between-family phenomenon--and hence are not directly related to birth order itself. The study design and analyses presented by Wichman et al. nevertheless suffer from crucial shortcomings, including their use of unfocused tests, which cause statistically significant trends to be overlooked. In addition, Wichman et al. treated birth-order effects as a linear phenomenon thereby ignoring the confluence model's prediction that these two samples may manifest opposing results based on age. This article cites between- and within-family data that demonstrate systematic birth-order effects as predicted by the confluence model. The corpus of evidence invoked here offers strong support for the assumption of the confluence model that birth-order differences in intellectual performance are primarily a within-family phenomenon.

  1. Legumes as a Model Plant Family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human population derives the majority of its nutrition either directly or indirectly (via animal protein) from two plant families: the grasses and the legumes. Grain legumes alone supply approximately 33% of human protein nutrition. Thus, it is critical for genetic improvement of legume crop spe...

  2. An Explanatory Model for Family Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibpshman, Terrance L.

    An evaluation was made of PACE (Parent and Child Education), a family literacy program initiated in Kentucky in 1986. PACE was created because of the widespread belief that the state has a serious problem with undereducation of its adult population and the belief also that this problem is the result of persistent patterns of educational failure…

  3. A Family-Centered Model for Sharing Genetic Risk.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary B

    2015-01-01

    The successes of the Human Genome Project have ushered in a new era of genomic science. To effectively translate these discoveries, it will be critical to improve the communication of genetic risk within families. This will require a systematic approach that accounts for the nature of family relationships and sociocultural beliefs. This paper proposes the application of the Family Systems Illness Model, used in the setting of cancer care, to the evolving field of genomics. PMID:26479564

  4. A Training Model for School, Family, and Community Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchfield, Tracy A.; Zyromski, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Several authors emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to working with students, families, and their communities. However, existing school-community collaboration programs have not provided a model for direct clinical services to families using collaborative partnerships with counselors. The authors propose one training model…

  5. Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

  6. Temperament, tympanum, and temperature: four provisional studies of the biobehavioral correlates of tympanic membrane temperature asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas; Essex, Marilyn J; Alkon, Abbey; Smider, Nancy A; Pickrell, Tyler; Kagan, Jerome

    2002-01-01

    Previous research in both humans and nonhuman primates suggests that subtle asymmetries in tympanic membrane (TM) temperatures may be related to aspects of cognition and socioaffective behavior. Such associations could plausibly reflect lateralities in cerebral blood flow that support side-to-side differences in regional cortical activation. Asymmetries in activation of the left and right frontal cortex, for example, are correlates of temperamental differences in child behavior and markers of risk status for affective and anxiety disorders. Tympanic membrane temperatures might thus reflect the neural asymmetries that subserve individual differences in temperament and behavior. This report merged findings from four geographically and demographically distinctive studies, which utilized identical thermometry methods to examine associations between TM temperature asymmetries and biobehavioral attributes of 4- to 8-year-old children (N = 468). The four studies produced shared patterns of associations that linked TM temperature lateralities to individual differences in behavior and socioaffective difficulties. Warmer left TMs were associated with "surgent," affectively positive behaviors, whereas warmer right TMs were related to problematic, affectively negative behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest that asymmetries in TM temperatures could be associated with behavior problems that signal risk for developmental psychopathology.

  7. Determining menstrual phase in human biobehavioral research: A review with recommendations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alicia M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Carlson, Samantha; Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Wetherington, Cora Lee; McKee, Sherry A; Allen, Sharon S

    2016-02-01

    Given the volume and importance of research focusing on menstrual phase, a review of the strategies being used to identify menstrual phase and recommendations that will promote methodological uniformity in the field is needed. We conducted a literature review via Ovid Medline and PsycINFO. Our goal was to review methods used to identify menstrual phase and subphases in biobehavioral research studies with women who had physiologically natural menstrual cycles. Therefore, we excluded articles that focused on any of the following: use of exogenous hormones, the postpartum period, menstrual-related problems (e.g., polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis), and infertility/anovulation. We also excluded articles on either younger (<18 years old) or older (>45 years old) study samples. We initially identified a total of 1,809 articles. After our exclusionary criteria were applied, 146 articles remained, within which our review identified 6 different methods used to identify menstrual phase and subphases. The most common method used was self-report of onset of menses (145/146 articles) followed by urine luteinizing hormone testing (50/146 articles) and measurement of hormones (estradiol and/or progesterone) in blood samples (49/146 articles). Overall, we found a lack of consistency in the methodology used to determine menstrual phase and subphases. We provide several options to improve accuracy of phase identification, as well as to minimize costs and burden. Adoption of these recommendations will decrease misclassification within individual studies, facilitate cross-study comparisons, and enhance the reproducibility of results.

  8. Generalized Linear Models in Family Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs), as defined by J. A. Nelder and R. W. M. Wedderburn (1972), unify a class of regression models for categorical, discrete, and continuous response variables. As an extension of classical linear models, GLMs provide a common body of theory and methodology for some seemingly unrelated models and procedures, such as…

  9. Muon-electron conversion in a family gauge boson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Yoshio; Yamanaka, Masato

    2016-11-01

    We study the μ-e conversion in muonic atoms via an exchange of family gauge boson (FGB) A21 in a U (3) FGB model. Within the class of FGB model, we consider three types of family-number assignments for quarks. We evaluate the μ-e conversion rate for various target nuclei, and find that next generation μ-e conversion search experiments can cover entire energy scale of the model for all of types of the quark family-number assignments. We show that the conversion rate in the model is so sensitive to up- and down-quark mixing matrices, Uu and Ud, where the CKM matrix is given by VCKM =Uu†Ud. Precise measurements of conversion rates for various target nuclei can identify not only the types of quark family-number assignments, but also each quark mixing matrix individually.

  10. Revenge of the one-family technicolor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Terning, John

    1993-09-01

    We describe how isospin splitting and techniquark-technilepton splitting in one-family technicolor models can reduce the predicted value of the electroweak radiative correction parameter S, without making a large contribution to the T parameter.

  11. A model for communication skills development for family practice residents.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, J L; Payne, F E

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to demonstrate the need for including interpersonal communication skills training in family practice residency programs, and (2) to present a communication model that can be used for such training. Interpersonal communication skills are important in almost all areas of contact with patients: history taking, physical examination, prescription writing and patient education, counseling, and psychotherapy. Presentation of the communication model includes definition of the interpersonal communication skills that would be stressed in family practice residency programs. These skills include empathy, respect, warmth, concreteness, genuineness, self-disclosure, confrontation, immediacy, and behavior modification. Examples of how a family physician may communicate each of these skills are also included. The implementation of the communication model in a department of family practice for training residents and faculty in the use of these communication skills is also described. PMID:759551

  12. A model for communication skills development for family practice residents.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, J L; Payne, F E

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to demonstrate the need for including interpersonal communication skills training in family practice residency programs, and (2) to present a communication model that can be used for such training. Interpersonal communication skills are important in almost all areas of contact with patients: history taking, physical examination, prescription writing and patient education, counseling, and psychotherapy. Presentation of the communication model includes definition of the interpersonal communication skills that would be stressed in family practice residency programs. These skills include empathy, respect, warmth, concreteness, genuineness, self-disclosure, confrontation, immediacy, and behavior modification. Examples of how a family physician may communicate each of these skills are also included. The implementation of the communication model in a department of family practice for training residents and faculty in the use of these communication skills is also described.

  13. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Explosive Families: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. U.; Todd, S. N.; Caipen, T. L.; Jensen, C. B.; Hughs, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    The "DaMaGe-Initiated-Reaction" (DMGIR) computational model has been developed to predict the response of high explosives to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of a reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. Specifically designed experiments were used to study the initiation process of each explosive family with embedded shock sensors and optical diagnostics. The experimental portion of this model development began with a study of PBXN-5 to develop DMGIR model coefficients for the rigid plastic bonded family, followed by studies of the cast, and bulk-moldable explosive families. The experimental results show an initiation mechanism that is related to input energy and material damage, with well defined initiation thresholds for each explosive family. These initiation details will extend the predictive capability of the DMGIR model from the rigid family into the cast and bulk-moldable families.

  14. Non-shock initiation model for explosive families : experimental results.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark U.; Jensen, Charles B.; Todd, Steven N.; Hugh, Chance G.; Caipen, Terry L.

    2010-03-01

    The 'DaMaGe-Initiated-Reaction' (DMGIR) computational model has been developed to predict the response of high explosives to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of a reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. Specifically designed experiments were used to study the initiation process of each explosive family with embedded shock sensors and optical diagnostics. The experimental portion of this model development began with a study of PBXN-5 to develop DMGIR model coefficients for the rigid plastic bonded family, followed by studies of the cast, and bulk-moldable explosive families. The experimental results show an initiation mechanism that is related to input energy and material damage, with well defined initiation thresholds for each explosive family. These initiation details will extend the predictive capability of the DMGIR model from the rigid family into the cast and bulk-moldable families.

  15. Redistributing wealth to families: the advantages of the MYRIADE model.

    PubMed

    Legendre, François; Lorgnet, Jean-Paul; Thibault, Florence

    2005-10-01

    This study aims to shed light on the main characteristics of the French system for redistributing wealth to families through tax revenues and social transfers. For the purposes of this exercise, the authors used the MYRIADE microsimulation model, which covers most of the redistribution system, though it is limited to monetary flows such as family benefits, housing allowances, minimum social welfare payments, income tax, and tax on furnished accommodation. The authors used a particular methodology to highlight the way this redistribution works; rather than calculate the difference between each family's disposable income and their gross primary income, they opted to isolate the variation in disposable income that could be attributed to the youngest member of each family where there is at least one child under the age of 25. The average increase in disposable income that this child contributes to his or her family amounts to in200 per month. PMID:16127124

  16. Biobehavioral Factors Mediate Exercise Effects on Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Laura Q; Vicari, Sandra; Trammell, Rita; Hopkins-Price, Patricia; Fogleman, Amanda; Spenner, Allison; Rao, Krishna; Courneya, Kerry S; Hoelzer, Karen S; Robbs, Randall; Verhulst, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Examine mediators of fatigue response to an exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors (BCS) in a pilot randomized controlled trial. Methods Postmenopausal BCS (n=46; ≤ Stage II), off primary treatment, and reporting fatigue and/or sleep dysfunction were randomized to a 3-month exercise intervention (160 minutes/week of moderate intensity aerobic walking, twice weekly resistance training with resistance bands) or control group. Six discussion group sessions provided behavioral support to improve adherence. Fatigue, serum cytokines, accelerometer physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, sleep dysfunction, and psychosocial factors were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Results Exercise intervention effect sizes for fatigue were: fatigue intensity d=0.30 (p=.34), interference d=−0.38 (p=.22), and general fatigue d=−0.49 (p=.13). Using Freedman-Schatzkin difference-in-coefficients tests, increase in fatigue intensity was significantly mediated by interleukin (IL)-6 (82%), IL-10 (94%), IL-6:IL-10 (49%), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha:IL-10 (78%) with reduced sleep dysfunction increasing the relationship between intervention and fatigue intensity rather than mediating intervention effects (−88%). Decrease in fatigue interference was mediated by sleep dysfunction (35%) while IL-10 and pro:anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios increased the relationship between intervention and interference (−25% to −40%). The reduction in general fatigue was significantly mediated by minutes of physical activity (76%), sleep dysfunction (45%), and physical activity enjoyment (40%) with IL-10 (−40%) and IL-6:IL-10 (−11%) increasing the intervention-fatigue relationship. In the intervention group, higher baseline fatigue, anxiety, depression, and perceived exercise barriers interference predicted a greater decline in fatigue interference and/or general fatigue during the intervention. Conclusions Biobehavioral factors mediated and enhanced

  17. The biobehavioral and neuroimmune impact of low-dose ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    York, Jason M; Blevins, Neil A; Meling, Daryl D; Peterlin, Molly B; Gridley, Daila S; Cengel, Keith A; Freund, Gregory G

    2011-01-01

    In the clinical setting, repeated exposures (10–30) to low-doses of ionizing radiation (≤ 200 cGy), as seen in radiotherapy for cancer, causes fatigue. Almost nothing is known, however, about the fatigue inducing effects of a single exposure to environmental low-dose ionizing radiation that might occur during high-altitude commercial air flight, a nuclear reactor accident or a solar particle event (SPE). To investigate the short-term impact of low-dose ionizing radiation on mouse biobehaviors and neuroimmunity, male CD-1 mice were whole body irradiated with 50 cGy or 200 cGy of gamma or proton radiation. Gamma radiation was found to reduce spontaneous locomotor activity by 35% and 36%, respectively, 6 h post irradiation. In contrast, the motivated behavior of social exploration was un-impacted by gamma radiation. Examination of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcripts in the brain demonstrated that gamma radiation increased hippocampal TNF-α expression as early as 4 h post-irradiation. This was coupled to subsequent increases in IL-1RA (8 h and 12 h post irradiation) in the cortex and hippocampus and reductions in activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) (24 h post irradiation) in the cortex. Finally, restraint stress was a significant modulator of the neuroimmune response to radiation blocking the ability of 200 cGy gamma radiation from impairing locomotor activity and altering the brain-based inflammatory response to irradiation. Taken together, these findings indicate that low-dose ionizing radiation rapidly activates the neuroimmune system potentially causing early onset fatigue-like symptoms in mice. PMID:21958477

  18. The biobehavioral and neuroimmune impact of low-dose ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    York, Jason M; Blevins, Neil A; Meling, Daryl D; Peterlin, Molly B; Gridley, Daila S; Cengel, Keith A; Freund, Gregory G

    2012-02-01

    In the clinical setting, repeated exposures (10-30) to low-doses of ionizing radiation (≤200 cGy), as seen in radiotherapy for cancer, causes fatigue. Almost nothing is known, however, about the fatigue inducing effects of a single exposure to environmental low-dose ionizing radiation that might occur during high-altitude commercial air flight, a nuclear reactor accident or a solar particle event (SPE). To investigate the short-term impact of low-dose ionizing radiation on mouse biobehaviors and neuroimmunity, male CD-1 mice were whole body irradiated with 50 cGy or 200 cGy of gamma or proton radiation. Gamma radiation was found to reduce spontaneous locomotor activity by 35% and 36%, respectively, 6 h post irradiation. In contrast, the motivated behavior of social exploration was un-impacted by gamma radiation. Examination of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcripts in the brain demonstrated that gamma radiation increased hippocampal TNF-α expression as early as 4 h post-irradiation. This was coupled to subsequent increases in IL-1RA (8 and 12 h post irradiation) in the cortex and hippocampus and reductions in activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) (24 h post irradiation) in the cortex. Finally, restraint stress was a significant modulator of the neuroimmune response to radiation blocking the ability of 200 cGy gamma radiation from impairing locomotor activity and altering the brain-based inflammatory response to irradiation. Taken together, these findings indicate that low-dose ionizing radiation rapidly activates the neuroimmune system potentially causing early onset fatigue-like symptoms in mice.

  19. Psycho-socioeconomic bio-behavioral associations on all-cause mortality: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effects of psychological,socioeconomic, biological and behavioral parameters on mortality. Methods: A prospective design was employed. Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (analyzed in 2015); follow-up mortality status evaluated in 2011. Psychological function was assessed from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as a measure of depression. Socioeconomic risk was assessed from poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status. Biological parameters included cholesterol, weight status, diabetes, hypertension and systemic inflammation. Behavioral parameters assessed included physical activity (accelerometry), dietary behavior, smoking status (cotinine) and sleep. These 14 psycho-socioeconomic bio-behavioral (PSBB) parameters allowed for the calculation of an overall PSBB Index, ranging from 0-14. Results: Among the evaluated 2530 participants, 161 died over the unweighted median follow-up period of 70.0 months. After adjustment, for every 1 increase in the overall PSBB index score,participants had a 15% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76-0.96). After adjustment, the Behavioral Index (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) and the Socioeconomic Index(HR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99) were significant, but the Psychological Index (HR = 0.67; 95%CI: 0.29-1.51) and the Biological Index (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.89-1.18) were not. Conclusion: Those with a worse PSBB score had an increased risk of all-cause mortality.Promotion of concurrent health behaviors may help to promote overall well-being and prolong survival. PMID:27386420

  20. Life Skills Literacy: An Intervention Model to Alleviate Family Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lee N.; Carswell, Andrew T.; Palmer, Lance; Sweaney, Annie L.; Mullis, Rebecca M.; Leonas, Karen K.; Moss, Joan Koonce; Mauldin, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Life Skills Literacy (LSL) is a multidisciplinary intervention model that helps families living with limited resources (including poverty) achieve sustainable well-being. This model, based on ecological theory and a readiness for change framework, prepares people to learn from the program and teaches necessary life skills. The LSL project…

  1. Trials and tribulations of conducting bio-behavioral surveys in prisons: implementation science and lessons from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Azbel, Lyuba; Grishaev, Yevgeny; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Chernova, Olena; Dvoryak, Sergey; Polonsky, Maxim; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Ukraine is home to Europe's worst HIV epidemic, overwhelmingly fueled by people who inject drugs who face harsh prison sentences. In Ukraine, HIV and other infectious diseases are concentrated in prisons, yet the magnitude of this problem had not been quantified. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the systematic health survey of prisoners in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative interviews were carried out with research and prison administrative staff to assess the barriers and facilitators to conducting a bio-behavioral survey in Ukrainian prisons. Findings - Crucial barriers at the institutional, staff, and participant level require addressing by: first, ensuring Prison Department involvement at every stage; second, tackling pre-conceived attitudes about drug addiction and treatment among staff; and third, guaranteeing confidentiality for participants. Originality/value - The burden of many diseases is higher than expected and much higher than in the community. Notwithstanding the challenges, scientifically rigorous bio-behavioral surveys are attainable in criminal justice systems in the FSU with collaboration and careful consideration of this specific context.

  2. Trials and tribulations of conducting bio-behavioral surveys in prisons: implementation science and lessons from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Azbel, Lyuba; Grishaev, Yevgeny; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Chernova, Olena; Dvoryak, Sergey; Polonsky, Maxim; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Ukraine is home to Europe's worst HIV epidemic, overwhelmingly fueled by people who inject drugs who face harsh prison sentences. In Ukraine, HIV and other infectious diseases are concentrated in prisons, yet the magnitude of this problem had not been quantified. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the systematic health survey of prisoners in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative interviews were carried out with research and prison administrative staff to assess the barriers and facilitators to conducting a bio-behavioral survey in Ukrainian prisons. Findings - Crucial barriers at the institutional, staff, and participant level require addressing by: first, ensuring Prison Department involvement at every stage; second, tackling pre-conceived attitudes about drug addiction and treatment among staff; and third, guaranteeing confidentiality for participants. Originality/value - The burden of many diseases is higher than expected and much higher than in the community. Notwithstanding the challenges, scientifically rigorous bio-behavioral surveys are attainable in criminal justice systems in the FSU with collaboration and careful consideration of this specific context. PMID:27219905

  3. Too close and too rigid: applying the Circumplex Model of Family Systems to first-generation family firms.

    PubMed

    Michael-Tsabari, Nava; Lavee, Yoav

    2012-06-01

    Despite growing research interest in family businesses, little is known about the characteristics of the families engaging in them. The present paper uses Olson's (Journal of Psychotherapy & the Family, 1988, 4(12), 7-49; Journal of Family Therapy, 2000, 22, 144-167) Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems to look at first-generation family firms. We describe existing typologies of family businesses and discuss similarities between the characteristics of first-generation family firms and the rigidly enmeshed family type described in the Circumplex Model. The Steinberg family business (Gibbon & Hadekel (1990) Steinberg: The breakup of a family empire. ON, Canada: MacMillan) serves to illustrate the difficulties of rigidly enmeshed first-generation family firms. Implications for understanding troubled family businesses are discussed together with guidelines for the assessment of a family business in crisis and for intervention: enhancing open communication; allowing for more flexible leadership style, roles, and rules; and maintaining a balance between togetherness and separateness. PMID:22765328

  4. Too close and too rigid: applying the Circumplex Model of Family Systems to first-generation family firms.

    PubMed

    Michael-Tsabari, Nava; Lavee, Yoav

    2012-06-01

    Despite growing research interest in family businesses, little is known about the characteristics of the families engaging in them. The present paper uses Olson's (Journal of Psychotherapy & the Family, 1988, 4(12), 7-49; Journal of Family Therapy, 2000, 22, 144-167) Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems to look at first-generation family firms. We describe existing typologies of family businesses and discuss similarities between the characteristics of first-generation family firms and the rigidly enmeshed family type described in the Circumplex Model. The Steinberg family business (Gibbon & Hadekel (1990) Steinberg: The breakup of a family empire. ON, Canada: MacMillan) serves to illustrate the difficulties of rigidly enmeshed first-generation family firms. Implications for understanding troubled family businesses are discussed together with guidelines for the assessment of a family business in crisis and for intervention: enhancing open communication; allowing for more flexible leadership style, roles, and rules; and maintaining a balance between togetherness and separateness.

  5. Applying ecological modeling to parenting for Australian refugee families.

    PubMed

    Grant, Julian; Guerin, Pauline B

    2014-10-01

    Children in families with parents from refugee backgrounds are often viewed as a vulnerable group with increased risks of developing physical or psychological problems. However, there is very little research regarding the strategies that parents might use to parent their children in a new country while they also manage the interrelated challenges of poverty, social isolation, maternal stress, and mental ill health that often go along with resettlement. We explore the application of ecological modeling, specifically at individual, institutional, and policy levels, within an Australian context to critique the factors that shape the development of parenting capacity within refugee families settling in a new Western country. Ecological modeling enables examination of how public policy at local state and national levels influences the individual and family directly and through the organizations that are given the task of implementing many of the policy recommendations. Recommendations for health practice and research are made.

  6. Applying ecological modeling to parenting for Australian refugee families.

    PubMed

    Grant, Julian; Guerin, Pauline B

    2014-10-01

    Children in families with parents from refugee backgrounds are often viewed as a vulnerable group with increased risks of developing physical or psychological problems. However, there is very little research regarding the strategies that parents might use to parent their children in a new country while they also manage the interrelated challenges of poverty, social isolation, maternal stress, and mental ill health that often go along with resettlement. We explore the application of ecological modeling, specifically at individual, institutional, and policy levels, within an Australian context to critique the factors that shape the development of parenting capacity within refugee families settling in a new Western country. Ecological modeling enables examination of how public policy at local state and national levels influences the individual and family directly and through the organizations that are given the task of implementing many of the policy recommendations. Recommendations for health practice and research are made. PMID:24583875

  7. Guide to Parent Involvement: Parents as Adult Learners. The Family Academy Model of the Family as Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Univ., Washington, DC. Adult Learning Potential Inst.

    This document is the second of a series of four reports developed to provide a comprehensive overview of parent involvement, encompassing the family, parenting needs, and existing resources, in addition to current parent education approaches and practices. This "Family Academy Model" provides one interpretation of how the family functions as…

  8. The Family-Study Interface and Academic Outcomes: Testing a Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2011-01-01

    Expanding on family-work and work-study models, this article investigated a model for family-study conflict and family-study facilitation. The focus of the study was the relationship of family-study conflict and family-study facilitation with students' effortful behaviors and academic performance among a sample of university students (N = 1,656).…

  9. An Interaction-Based Model of a Social Exchange in the Two-Generation Farm Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard-Reisch, Deborah S.; Weigel, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a model which blends the family and work spheres into an exchange-based model of family interaction in two-generation farm families. Specific recommendations are made to help rural family practitioners, educators, and Cooperative Extension agents better understand and work with two-generation farm families. (LLL)

  10. Treating Families of Demented Patients: Two Group Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Joel

    The prevalence of dementias in the elderly is steadily increasing. While caring for a dementing patient at home, families are subject to tremendous physical stresses and emotional reactions such as guilt, anger, grief, role confusion, depression, resentment, and loneliness. Two group treatment models addressing the mental health needs of…

  11. Redistributing Wealth to Families: The Advantages of the MYRIADE Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legendre, Francois; Lorgnet, Jean-Paul; Thibault, Florence

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to shed light on the main characteristics of the French system for redistributing wealth to families through tax revenues and social transfers. For the purposes of this exercise, the authors used the MYRIADE microsimulation model, which covers most of the redistribution system, though it is limited to monetary flows such as family…

  12. Designing Experiments to Discriminate Families of Logic Models

    PubMed Central

    Videla, Santiago; Konokotina, Irina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G.; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Schaub, Torsten; Siegel, Anne; Guziolowski, Carito

    2015-01-01

    Logic models of signaling pathways are a promising way of building effective in silico functional models of a cell, in particular of signaling pathways. The automated learning of Boolean logic models describing signaling pathways can be achieved by training to phosphoproteomics data, which is particularly useful if it is measured upon different combinations of perturbations in a high-throughput fashion. However, in practice, the number and type of allowed perturbations are not exhaustive. Moreover, experimental data are unavoidably subjected to noise. As a result, the learning process results in a family of feasible logical networks rather than in a single model. This family is composed of logic models implementing different internal wirings for the system and therefore the predictions of experiments from this family may present a significant level of variability, and hence uncertainty. In this paper, we introduce a method based on Answer Set Programming to propose an optimal experimental design that aims to narrow down the variability (in terms of input–output behaviors) within families of logical models learned from experimental data. We study how the fitness with respect to the data can be improved after an optimal selection of signaling perturbations and how we learn optimal logic models with minimal number of experiments. The methods are applied on signaling pathways in human liver cells and phosphoproteomics experimental data. Using 25% of the experiments, we obtained logical models with fitness scores (mean square error) 15% close to the ones obtained using all experiments, illustrating the impact that our approach can have on the design of experiments for efficient model calibration. PMID:26389116

  13. Designing Experiments to Discriminate Families of Logic Models.

    PubMed

    Videla, Santiago; Konokotina, Irina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Schaub, Torsten; Siegel, Anne; Guziolowski, Carito

    2015-01-01

    Logic models of signaling pathways are a promising way of building effective in silico functional models of a cell, in particular of signaling pathways. The automated learning of Boolean logic models describing signaling pathways can be achieved by training to phosphoproteomics data, which is particularly useful if it is measured upon different combinations of perturbations in a high-throughput fashion. However, in practice, the number and type of allowed perturbations are not exhaustive. Moreover, experimental data are unavoidably subjected to noise. As a result, the learning process results in a family of feasible logical networks rather than in a single model. This family is composed of logic models implementing different internal wirings for the system and therefore the predictions of experiments from this family may present a significant level of variability, and hence uncertainty. In this paper, we introduce a method based on Answer Set Programming to propose an optimal experimental design that aims to narrow down the variability (in terms of input-output behaviors) within families of logical models learned from experimental data. We study how the fitness with respect to the data can be improved after an optimal selection of signaling perturbations and how we learn optimal logic models with minimal number of experiments. The methods are applied on signaling pathways in human liver cells and phosphoproteomics experimental data. Using 25% of the experiments, we obtained logical models with fitness scores (mean square error) 15% close to the ones obtained using all experiments, illustrating the impact that our approach can have on the design of experiments for efficient model calibration.

  14. A new, but old business model for family physicians: cash.

    PubMed

    Weber, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The following study is an exploratory investigation into the opportunity identification, opportunity analysis, and strategic implications of implementing a cash-only family physician practice. The current market dynamics (i.e., increasing insurance premiums, decreasing benefits, more regulations and paperwork, and cuts in federal and state programs) suggest that there is sufficient motivation for these practitioners to change their current business model. In-depth interviews were conducted with office managers and physicians of family physician practices. The results highlighted a variety of issues, including barriers to change, strategy issues, and opportunities/benefits. The implications include theory applications, strategic marketing applications, and managerial decision-making. PMID:23924222

  15. A new, but old business model for family physicians: cash.

    PubMed

    Weber, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The following study is an exploratory investigation into the opportunity identification, opportunity analysis, and strategic implications of implementing a cash-only family physician practice. The current market dynamics (i.e., increasing insurance premiums, decreasing benefits, more regulations and paperwork, and cuts in federal and state programs) suggest that there is sufficient motivation for these practitioners to change their current business model. In-depth interviews were conducted with office managers and physicians of family physician practices. The results highlighted a variety of issues, including barriers to change, strategy issues, and opportunities/benefits. The implications include theory applications, strategic marketing applications, and managerial decision-making.

  16. Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency. "The Family and Delinquency" (LaMar T. Empey) systematically reviews and weighs the evidence to support prominent theories on the origins of…

  17. Culture and Parenting: Family Models Are Not One-Size-Fits-All. FPG Snapshot #67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Family process models guide theories and research about family functioning and child development outcomes. Theory and research, in turn, inform policies and services aimed at families. But are widely accepted models valid across cultural groups? To address these gaps, FPG researchers examined the utility of two family process models for families…

  18. Defining a Family of Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using Log-Linear Models with Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robert A.; Templin, Jonathan L.; Willse, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses log-linear models with latent variables (Hagenaars, in "Loglinear Models with Latent Variables," 1993) to define a family of cognitive diagnosis models. In doing so, the relationship between many common models is explicitly defined and discussed. In addition, because the log-linear model with latent variables is a general model for…

  19. Phenomenological implications of supersymmetric family nonuniversal U(1){sup '} models

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Lisa L.; Jiang Jing; Langacker, Paul G.; Liu Tao

    2010-11-01

    We construct a class of anomaly-free supersymmetric U(1){sup '} models that are characterized by family nonuniversal U(1){sup '} charges motivated from E{sub 6} embeddings. The family nonuniversality arises from an interchange of the standard roles of the two SU(5) 5{sup *} representations within the 27 of E{sub 6} for the third generation. We analyze U(1){sup '} and electroweak symmetry breaking and present the particle mass spectrum. The models, which include additional Higgs multiplets and exotic quarks at the TeV scale, result in specific patterns of flavor-changing neutral currents in the b{yields}s transitions that can accommodate the presently observed deviations in this sector from the standard model predictions.

  20. A family of models for Schelling binary choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad; Pireddu, Marina

    2016-02-01

    We introduce and study a family of discrete-time dynamical systems to model binary choices based on the framework proposed by Schelling in 1973. The model we propose uses a gradient-like adjustment mechanism by means of a family of smooth maps and allows understanding and analytically studying the phenomena qualitatively described by Schelling. In particular, we investigate existence of steady states and their relation to the equilibria of the static model studied by Schelling, and we analyze local stability, linking several examples and considerations provided by Schelling with bifurcation theory. We provide examples to confirm the theoretical results and to numerically investigate the possible destabilizations, as well as the emergence of coexisting attractors. We show the existence of chaos for a particular example.

  1. Semantics and ambiguity of stochastic RNA family models.

    PubMed

    Giegerich, Robert; Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic models, such as hidden Markov models or stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs) can fail to return the correct, maximum likelihood solution in the case of semantic ambiguity. This problem arises when the algorithm implementing the model inspects the same solution in different guises. It is a difficult problem in the sense that proving semantic nonambiguity has been shown to be algorithmically undecidable, while compensating for it (by coalescing scores of equivalent solutions) has been shown to be NP-hard. For stochastic context-free grammars modeling RNA secondary structure, it has been shown that the distortion of results can be quite severe. Much less is known about the case when stochastic context-free grammars model the matching of a query sequence to an implicit consensus structure for an RNA family. We find that three different, meaningful semantics can be associated with the matching of a query against the model--a structural, an alignment, and a trace semantics. Rfam models correctly implement the alignment semantics, and are ambiguous with respect to the other two semantics, which are more abstract. We show how provably correct models can be generated for the trace semantics. For approaches, where such a proof is not possible, we present an automated pipeline to check post factum for ambiguity of the generated models. We propose that both the structure and the trace semantics are worth-while concepts for further study, possibly better suited to capture remotely related family members.

  2. Toward Understanding Stress in Ministers' Families: An Application of the Double ABCX Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrander, Diane L.; Henry, Carolyn S.

    Recent literature indicates that ministers' families face not only the normative developmental stressors of other families, but an additional set of stressors created by the interface between the family and the church systems. Based upon the Double ABCX model of family stress, particular ministers' families will vary in their ability to adapt to…

  3. Fourth standard model family neutrino at future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Sultansoy, S.

    2005-09-01

    It is known that flavor democracy favors the existence of the fourth standard model (SM) family. In order to give nonzero masses for the first three-family fermions flavor democracy has to be slightly broken. A parametrization for democracy breaking, which gives the correct values for fundamental fermion masses and, at the same time, predicts quark and lepton Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrices in a good agreement with the experimental data, is proposed. The pair productions of the fourth SM family Dirac ({nu}{sub 4}) and Majorana (N{sub 1}) neutrinos at future linear colliders with {radical}(s)=500 GeV, 1 TeV, and 3 TeV are considered. The cross section for the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{nu}{sub 4}{nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}N{sub 1}) and the branching ratios for possible decay modes of the both neutrinos are determined. The decays of the fourth family neutrinos into muon channels ({nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}){yields}{mu}{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}) provide cleanest signature at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. Meanwhile, in our parametrization this channel is dominant. W bosons produced in decays of the fourth family neutrinos will be seen in detector as either di-jets or isolated leptons. As an example, we consider the production of 200 GeV mass fourth family neutrinos at {radical}(s)=500 GeV linear colliders by taking into account di-muon plus four jet events as signatures.

  4. Promotion of a family planning program: the Taiwan model.

    PubMed

    Sun, T H

    1987-07-01

    Taiwan has been able to reduce its total fertility rate (TFR) from 4.7 (1966) to 1.9 (1985). Demographers have estimated that Taiwan will achieve zero population growth (ZPG) in 70 years if the TFR remains the same, and if the TFR continues to decline, ZPG may be achieved in 40-50 years. Taiwan's 25 year strong family planning program has contributed greatly to this progress. So successful has it been that many family planning researchers and policy makers from around the world have studied the program over its 25 years and it serves as a model for other developing countries. Actual family planning activities include family planning education and promotion to motivate the public to understand the meaning and importance of family planning and subsequently to practice family planning, and the provision of contraceptives to the motivated. Education/promotion consists of home visits, sending congratulatory and informative letters to postpartum parents, establishing a telephone hotline, group education, and using the mass media. The Taiwan program finds that good supervision is a key to a successful program because it links the policy making units to the field and it contributes to maintaining quality fieldwork. Due to a good record system of program inputs, e.g., number of home visits, and outputs, e.g., fertility data, the program can quantitatively evaluate its goals defined in 3-5 year plans. For example, for over 2 decades, it has motivated approximately 90% of fecund women or their husbands to accept at least 1 contraceptive. Researchers hope to soon be able to further evaluate this program by measuring the quality of the program.

  5. Molecular modeling of pathogenesis-related proteins of family 5.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claudia E; Fernandes, Cláudia L; de Souza, Osmar N; Salzano, Francisco M; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2006-01-01

    The family of pathogenesis-related (PR) 5 proteins have diverse functions, and some of them are classified as thaumatins, osmotins, and inhibitors of alpha-amylase or trypsin. Although the specific function of many PR5 in plants is unknown, they are involved in the acquired systemic resistance and response to biotic stress, causing the inhibition of hyphal growth and reduction of spore germination, probably by a membrane permeabilization mechanism or by interaction with pathogen receptors. We have constructed three-dimensional models of four proteins belonging to the Rosaceae and Fagaceae botanical families by using the technique of comparative molecular modelling by homology. There are four main structural differences between all the PR5, corresponding to regions with replacements of amino acids. Folding and the secondary structures are very similar for all of them. However, the isoelectric point and charge distributions differ for each protein.

  6. HIV prevention and research considerations for women in sub-Saharan Africa: moving toward biobehavioral prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Abigail

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses current and emerging HIV prevention strategies for women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in light of recent trial results and ongoing research. What are the major opportunities and challenges for widespread implementation of new and emerging HIV prevention strategies? The paper discusses the major individual, social and structural factors that underpin women's disproportionate risk for HIV infection, with attention to gender, adolescents as a vulnerable population, and the need to engage men. Also, the influence of these factors on the ultimate success of both behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention technologies for women in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed. Finally, the paper examined how the new and emerging biobehavioral prevention strategies served as tools to empower women to adopt healthy HIV preventive and reproductive health behaviors. PMID:26050373

  7. HIV prevention and research considerations for women in sub-Saharan Africa: moving toward biobehavioral prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Abigail

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses current and emerging HIV prevention strategies for women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in light of recent trial results and ongoing research. What are the major opportunities and challenges for widespread implementation of new and emerging HIV prevention strategies? The paper discusses the major individual, social and structural factors that underpin women's disproportionate risk for HIV infection, with attention to gender, adolescents as a vulnerable population, and the need to engage men. Also, the influence of these factors on the ultimate success of both behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention technologies for women in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed. Finally, the paper examined how the new and emerging biobehavioral prevention strategies served as tools to empower women to adopt healthy HIV preventive and reproductive health behaviors.

  8. Biobehavioral indices of emotion regulation relate to school attitudes, motivation, and behavior problems in a low-income preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Stroud, Laura; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Dickstein, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Effective emotion regulation may promote resilience and preschool classroom adjustment by supporting adaptive peer interactions and engagement in learning activities. We investigated how hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) regulation, cardiac reactivity, and classroom emotion displays related to adjustment among low-income preschoolers attending Head Start. A total of 62 four-year-olds completed a laboratory session including a baseline soothing video; emotion-eliciting slides/video clips, and recovery. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, and vagal tone were measured throughout. Independent coders used handheld computers to observe classroom emotion expression/regulation. Teachers rated child motivation, persistence/attention, learning attitudes, and internalizing/externalizing symptoms. Results reveal associations between biobehavioral markers of regulatory capacity and early school adjustment.

  9. Biobehavioral indices of emotion regulation relate to school attitudes, motivation, and behavior problems in a low-income preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Stroud, Laura; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Dickstein, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Effective emotion regulation may promote resilience and preschool classroom adjustment by supporting adaptive peer interactions and engagement in learning activities. We investigated how hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) regulation, cardiac reactivity, and classroom emotion displays related to adjustment among low-income preschoolers attending Head Start. A total of 62 four-year-olds completed a laboratory session including a baseline soothing video; emotion-eliciting slides/video clips, and recovery. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, and vagal tone were measured throughout. Independent coders used handheld computers to observe classroom emotion expression/regulation. Teachers rated child motivation, persistence/attention, learning attitudes, and internalizing/externalizing symptoms. Results reveal associations between biobehavioral markers of regulatory capacity and early school adjustment. PMID:17347370

  10. A Network Synthesis Model for Generating Protein Interaction Network Families

    PubMed Central

    Sahraeian, Sayed Mohammad Ebrahim; Yoon, Byung-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a novel network synthesis model that can generate families of evolutionarily related synthetic protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks. Given an ancestral network, the proposed model generates the network family according to a hypothetical phylogenetic tree, where the descendant networks are obtained through duplication and divergence of their ancestors, followed by network growth using network evolution models. We demonstrate that this network synthesis model can effectively create synthetic networks whose internal and cross-network properties closely resemble those of real PPI networks. The proposed model can serve as an effective framework for generating comprehensive benchmark datasets that can be used for reliable performance assessment of comparative network analysis algorithms. Using this model, we constructed a large-scale network alignment benchmark, called NAPAbench, and evaluated the performance of several representative network alignment algorithms. Our analysis clearly shows the relative performance of the leading network algorithms, with their respective advantages and disadvantages. The algorithm and source code of the network synthesis model and the network alignment benchmark NAPAbench are publicly available at http://www.ece.tamu.edu/bjyoon/NAPAbench/. PMID:22912671

  11. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Explosive Families: Numerical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, S. N.; Anderson, M. U.; Caipen, T. L.; Grady, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    A damage initiated reaction (DMGIR) computational model is being developed for the CTH shock physics code to predict the response of an explosive to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. The DMGIR model is a complement to the History Variable Reactive Burn (HVRB) model embedded in the current CTH code. Specifically designed experiments are supporting the development, implementation, and validation of the DMGIR numerical approach. PBXN-5 was the initial explosive material used experimentally to develop the DMGIR model. This explosive represents a family of plastically bonded explosives with good mechanical strength and rigid body properties. The model has been extended to cast explosives represented by Composition B.

  12. Disaster Hits Home: A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget; Marlatt, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored individual and family adjustment processes among parents (n = 30) and children (n = 55) who were displaced to Colorado after Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 23 families, this article offers an inductive model of displaced family adjustment. Four stages of family adjustment are presented in the model: (a)…

  13. Partners Plus: Families and Caregivers in Partnerships. Model Demonstration. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Corrine W.; Frank, Adrienne; Ownby, Lisa L.

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of Partners Plus: Families and Caregivers in Partnerships, a model demonstration project designed to expand respite care options for families of children (birth to 8 years old) with disabilities. The program uses a natural and family-centered model that involves families in the design,…

  14. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Duijster, Denise; van Loveren, Cor; Dusseldorp, Elise; Verrips, Gijsbert H W

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) scores were extracted from dental records. A validated parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and oral hygiene behaviours. Data on neighbourhood quality were obtained from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. Structural equation modelling indicated that the model was valid after applying a few modifications. In the revised model, lower maternal education level was related to poorer family organization, lower levels of social support, lower dental self-efficacy, and an external dental health locus of control. These, in turn, were associated with poorer oral hygiene behaviours, which were linked to higher levels of childhood dental caries. In addition, lower maternal education level and poorer neighbourhood quality were directly associated with higher caries levels in children. This model advances our understanding of determinants of childhood dental caries and the pathways in which they operate. Conception of these pathways is essential for guiding the development of caries-preventive programmes for children. Clues for further development of the model are suggested.

  15. The Family Adaptation Model: A Life Course Perspective. Technical Report 880.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.

    This conceptual model for explaining the factors and processes that underlie family adaptation in the Army relies heavily upon two traditions: the "Double ABCX" model of family stress and adaptation and the "Person-Environment Fit" model. The new model has three major parts: the environmental system, the personal system, and family adaptation.…

  16. Towards a Family Process Model of Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms: Exploring Multiple Relations with Child and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy S.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has focused on maternal dysphoria and child adjustment. However, family process models indicate gaps in the study of paternal dysphoria, broader family functioning, and diverse child outcomes. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers and fathers of kindergarten children completed measures of depressive symptoms, family…

  17. Modeling spatial accessibility of immigrants to culturally diverse family physicians.

    PubMed

    Wanga, Lu; Roisman, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This article uses accessibility as an analytical tool to examine health care access among immigrants in a multicultural urban setting. It applies and improves on two widely used accessibility models—the gravity model and the two-step floating catchment area model—in measuring spatial accessibility by Mainland Chinese immigrants in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area. Empirical data on physician-seeking behaviors are collected through two rounds of questionnaire surveys. Attention is focused on journey to physician location and utilization of linguistically matched family physicians. Based on the survey data, a two-zone accessibility model is developed by relaxing the travel threshold and distance impedance parameters that are traditionally treated as a constant in the accessibility models. General linear models are used to identify relationships among spatial accessibility, geography, and socioeconomic characteristics of Mainland Chinese immigrants. The results suggest a spatial mismatch in the supply of and demand for culturally sensitive care, and residential location is the primary factor that determines spatial accessibility to family physicians. The article yields important policy implications.

  18. China's Marriage Law: a model for family responsibilities and relationships.

    PubMed

    Hare-Mustin, R T

    1982-12-01

    China's Marriage Law of 1981 is presented with a brief commentary. The law encompasses the responsibilities of spouses, parents, children, grandparents, and siblings to one another. The new law is contrasted with the 1950 Marriage Law, which prohibited such feudal practices of former times as arranged marriages and child betrothals. The 1981 law is concerned with equality and the lawful needs of women, children, and the aged. Family planning is encouraged. Divorce is made easier to obtain. Adoptees and stepchildren are provided for. The law provides a legislative model for personal relationships.

  19. China's Marriage Law: a model for family responsibilities and relationships.

    PubMed

    Hare-Mustin, R T

    1982-12-01

    China's Marriage Law of 1981 is presented with a brief commentary. The law encompasses the responsibilities of spouses, parents, children, grandparents, and siblings to one another. The new law is contrasted with the 1950 Marriage Law, which prohibited such feudal practices of former times as arranged marriages and child betrothals. The 1981 law is concerned with equality and the lawful needs of women, children, and the aged. Family planning is encouraged. Divorce is made easier to obtain. Adoptees and stepchildren are provided for. The law provides a legislative model for personal relationships. PMID:7160464

  20. Modeling the Effects of Early Childhood Intervention Variables on Parent and Family Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Brookfield, Jeffri

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered…

  1. Applying the Codependency Model to a Group for Families of Obsessive-Compulsive People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Marlene

    1995-01-01

    Applies codependency group model to families of obsessive-compulsive people based on view that these families are normal, feeling people who are trying to cope with unremitting stress. Clinical vignettes illustrate how these families are similar to families of alcoholics in their management of emotions and in their dysfunctional behaviors. (JBJ)

  2. Putting theory to the test: examining family context, caregiver motivation, and conflict in the Family Check-Up model.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Van Ryzin, Mark; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J

    2014-05-01

    This study examined contextual factors (caregiver depression, family resources, ethnicity, and initial levels of youth problem behavior) related to the effectiveness of the Family Check-Up (FCU) and evaluated family processes as a mediator of FCU intervention response and adolescent antisocial behavior. We followed a sample of 180 ethnically diverse youths of families who engaged in the FCU intervention. Family data were collected as part of the FCU assessment, and youth data were collected over 4 years, from sixth through ninth grade. Findings indicated that caregiver depression and minority status predicted greater caregiver motivation to change. In turn, caregiver motivation was the only direct predictor of FCU intervention response during a 1-year period. Growth in family conflict from sixth through eighth grade mediated the link between FCU response and ninth-grade antisocial behavior. This study explicitly tested core aspects of the FCU intervention model and demonstrated that caregiver motivation is a central factor that underlies family response to the FCU. The study also provided support for continued examination of family process mechanisms that account for enduring effects of the FCU and other family-centered interventions.

  3. Preon Model and Family Replicated E_6 Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Chitta Ranjan; Laperashvili, Larisa V.

    2008-02-01

    Previously we suggested a new preon model of composite quark-leptons and bosons with the 'flipped' E6 × ˜E6 gauge symmetry group. We assumed that preons are dyons having both hyper-electric g and hyper-magnetic ˜g charges, and these preons-dyons are confined by hyper-magnetic strings which are an N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes created by the condensation of spreons near the Planck scale. In the present paper we show that the existence of the three types of strings with tensions Tk = kT0 (k = 1,2,3) producing three (and only three) generations of composite quark-leptons, also provides three generations of composite gauge bosons ('hyper-gluons') and, as a consequence, predicts the family replicated [E6]3 unification at the scale ~1017 GeV. This group of unification ha! s the possibility of breaking to the group of symmetry: [SU(3)C]3 × [SU(2)L]3 × [U(1)Y]3 × [U(1)(B-L)]3 which undergoes the breakdown to the Standard Model at lower energies. Some predictive advantages of the family replicated gauge groups of symmetry are briefly discussed.

  4. Three-family unification in higher dimensional models

    SciTech Connect

    Mimura, Yukihiro; Nandi, S.

    2009-05-01

    In orbifold models, gauge, Higgs, and the matter fields can be unified in one multiplet from the compactification of higher dimensional supersymmetric gauge theory. We study how three families of chiral fermions can be unified in the gauge multiplet. The bulk gauge interaction includes the Yukawa interactions to generate masses for quarks and leptons after the electroweak symmetry is broken. The bulk Yukawa interaction has global or gauged flavor symmetry originating from the R symmetry or bulk gauge symmetry, and the Yukawa structure is restricted. When the global and gauged flavor symmetries are broken by orbifold compactification, the remaining gauge symmetry which contains the standard model gauge symmetry is restricted. The restrictions from the bulk flavor symmetries can provide explanations of fermion mass hierarchy.

  5. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    PubMed

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.

  6. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  7. Families of Chronically Ill Children: A Systems and Social-Ecological Model of Adaptation and Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazak, Anne E.

    1989-01-01

    Presents family systems model for understanding adaptation and coping in childhood chronic illness. Provides overview of systems and social-ecological theories relevant to this population. Reviews literature on stress and coping in these families. Examines unique issues and discusses importance of these models for responding to families with…

  8. Applying the Post-Modern Double ABC-X Model to Family Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Samantha; Anderson, Melinda; Swafford, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops the argument that using the Double ABC-X model in family and consumer sciences (FCS) curricula is a way to educate nutrition and dietetics students regarding a family's perceptions of food insecurity. The Double ABC-X model incorporates ecological theory as a basis to explain family stress and the resulting adjustment and…

  9. Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

  10. Graded Response Model Based on the Logistic Positive Exponent Family of Models for Dichotomous Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    2008-01-01

    Samejima ("Psychometrika "65:319--335, 2000) proposed the logistic positive exponent family of models (LPEF) for dichotomous responses in the unidimensional latent space. The objective of the present paper is to propose and discuss a graded response model that is expanded from the LPEF, in the context of item response theory (IRT). This specific…

  11. Learning from e-Family History: A Model of Online Family Historian Research Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on doctoral research which investigated the online research behaviour of family historians, from the overall perspective of local studies collections and developing online services for family historians. Method: A hybrid (primarily ethnographic) study was employed using qualitative diaries and shadowing, to examine…

  12. [The comparative study on parent-adolescent communication between the model student family and the delinquent adolescent family].

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Shin, H S

    1990-12-31

    This research is based on the communication system theory which considers the family as a communication system or a communication network and which understand interpersonal relations among family members through a communication. This research is intended to define the difference of Parent-Adolescent Child communication between the model student family and the delinquent adolescent family, and also found the factors affecting parent-adolescent child communication. This aims to clarify wether a delinquent behavior is associated with family members' relations caused by dysfunctional communication between parents and their child, moreover explorate their problem to find the method of nursing intervention for prevention and treatment for delinquency. Subjects are 190 families (570 persons: father, mother, adolescent child) of model high school students and 87 families (261 persons) of delinquent adolescents. The employed tool is Olson et al's Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PAC, 20 items). The followings are the results derived through hypotheses verification. First, Comparison of two groups showed a significant difference in Parent-Adolescent Communication (t = 2.77, p less than 0.1). In the communication of delinquent group showed lower response than the model group. And also communication of the model group was more opened and positive (t = 2.41, p less than .05), and showed fewer problems (t = 2.06, p less than .05), the delinquent group had more problems. 2ndary, the delinquent group showed significantly more disagreement in response to variable of PAC than the model group. As analyzing of factors affects the Parents-Adolescent Communication, the best method to protect juvenile from delinquency are consistent open-hearted, congruent communication with mutual concern and warm mind between parents and child. And even though the all family don't hardly send together their time for their job, parents have to arrange many times to hold communication with children

  13. Biobehavioral consequences of prenatal exposure to a matrilineal overthrow and relocation in captive infant rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Joshua A; Del Rosso, Laura A; Capitanio, John P

    2016-09-01

    There is a general consensus that perinatal experiences help to shape infant behavior; however, relatively little is known about the effects of prenatal experience on postnatal phenotype in non-human primates. The current study sought to take advantage of a naturally occurring incident in a captive population of rhesus monkeys. Following a matrilineal overthrow in an outdoor field cage, pregnant female rhesus macaques were relocated from outdoor to indoor housing. Using data collected from the California National Primate Research Center's Biobehavioral Assessment Program, we assessed infants born to mothers that were in their first or second trimester of pregnancy during the overthrow and relocation, and compared their data with that of animals from two control groups born in the same year: indoor mother raised infants and field cage reared infants. Our results suggest that the experience of an overthrow and relocation during the first trimester elevated postnatal emotional responsiveness, while the same experience in the second trimester resulted in modified HPA axis regulation, elevated glucocorticoid output following maternal separation, and lower hematocrit levels compared to control groups. These data add to a growing body of literature that prenatal experiences represent a significant contribution to postnatal phenotypic variability. Findings such as ours have implications for studies in captive management and the management of captive rhesus monkey populations. Am. J. Primatol. 78:895-903, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27150125

  14. Multimodal Physiotherapy Based on a Biobehavioral Approach as a Treatment for Chronic Tension-Type Headache: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Beltran-Alacreu, Hector; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common primary headache affecting the general population, which is characterized by bilateral headache and mild to moderate pain. This disorder causes high levels of disability and recent scientific evidence suggests that manual therapy (MT) and therapeutic exercise are effective in reducing medication intake and decreasing the frequency and intensity of headaches in patients with TTH. Case Presentation: A 34-year-old woman was known to have chronic TTH. Initially, the patient presented moderate headaches 5 days per week, mechanical neck pain and no positive response to analgesics. A battery of self-reports was given to the patient to assess disability (using the Spanish versions of the Headache Impact Test-6 and the neck disability index), pain (visual analogue scale) and psychosocial issues (Spanish version of the pain catastrophizing scale) involved in the headaches. All measurements were taken four times during 161 days. Eleven sessions of treatment including MT, motor control therapeutic exercise (MCTE) and therapeutic patient education (TPE) were applied. Conclusions: This biobehavioral-based multimodal physical rehabilitation treatment combining MT, TPE and MCTE produced a substantial reduction in pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, disability and the impact of headaches on patient’s life. PMID:26705532

  15. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly.

  16. Growth mixture modelling in families of the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Growth mixture modelling, a less explored method in genetic research, addresses unobserved heterogeneity in population samples. We applied this technique to longitudinal data of the Framingham Heart Study. We examined systolic blood pressure (BP) measures in 1060 males from 692 families and detected three subclasses, which varied significantly in their developmental trajectories over time. The first class consisted of 60 high-risk individuals with elevated BP early in life and a steep increase over time. The second group of 131 individuals displayed first normal BP, but showed a significant increase over time and reached high BP values late in their life time. The largest group of 869 individuals could be considered a normative group with normal BP on all exams. To identify genetic modulators for this phenotype, we tested 2,340 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 8 for association with the class membership probabilities of our model. The probability of being in Class 1 was significantly associated with a very rare variant (rs1445404) present in only four individuals from four different families located in the coding region of the gene EYA (eyes absent homolog 1 in Drosophila) (p = 1.39 × 10-13). Mutations in EYA are known to cause brachio-oto-renal syndrome, as well as isolated renal malformations. Renal malformations could cause high BP early in life. This result awaits replication; however, it suggests that analyzing genetic data stratified for high-risk subgroups defined by a unique development over time could be useful for the detection of rare mutations in common multi-factorial diseases. PMID:20017979

  17. [Changes in mental health care model and the impact on family].

    PubMed

    Cavalheri, Silvana Chorratt

    2010-01-01

    The transformations of the mental health assistance model, result of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, imposed an active role to the families on the recovering processes of a mentally ill family member. This qualitative study, based on social phenomenology, aimed at identifying the impact of the assistance model change on family dynamics. Interviews that expose the typifications elaborated by the families on a daily basis was tried as data gathering instrument. The living family type portraits people that feel overwhelmed with attributions imposed to them by the new assistance model, usurped from their own selves, who start to experience complex and litigious feelings, and feel needy of information, orientation and support from the service.

  18. A Model for Reintegrating Couples and Family Therapy Training in Psychiatric Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rait, Douglas; Glick, Ira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors propose a family-systems training model for general residency training programs in psychiatry based on the couples and family therapy training program in Stanford's Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Methods: The authors review key elements in couples and family therapy training. Examples are drawn from the…

  19. Relations between Minuchin's Structural Family Model and Kohut's Self-Psychology Constructs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…

  20. Validating the Relationship Qualities of Influence and Persuasion with the Family Social Relations Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Rachel Oakley; Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the family social relations model (SRM) to test for the personal relationship qualities of influence and persuasion in the family decision-making context of buying a new car. Uncovers patterns in the relationship qualities of influence and persuasion across three decisions families make when buying a new car (i.e., how much to spend, car…

  1. Integrating Gender on Multiple Levels: A Conceptual Model for Teaching Gender Issues in Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee; McBain, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    As the field of family therapy has evolved, there has been growing recognition as to the importance of gender in family therapy. To prepare the next generation of family therapists adequately, it is important that they recognize the many and complex ways in which gender permeates their work. In this article we present an integrative model to help…

  2. Testing a Mediational Model of Communication Among Medical Staff and Families of Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gionta, Dana A.; Harlow, Lisa L.; Loitman, Jane E.; Leeman, Joanne M.

    2005-01-01

    Three structural equation models of communication between family members and medical staff were examined to understand relations among staff accessibility, inhibitory family attitudes, getting communication needs met, perceived stress, and satisfaction with communication. Compared to full and direct models, a mediational model fit best in which…

  3. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Models: Blending Gestalt and Family Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Chris

    1978-01-01

    Family therapy is primarily focused upon interpersonal or transactional issues. Gestalt therapy is particularly well suited for short term work on intrapersonal and boundary issues. This paper shows how the selective integration of the two approaches provides a significant, new dimension in the development of family therapy. (Author)

  4. Family Involvement Following Institutionalization: Modeling Nursing Home Visits over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Zarit, Steven H.; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2003-01-01

    Gerontological research has emphasized family members' continued involvement in the lives of loved ones following institutionalization. However, many of these studies are cross-sectional in design and do not ascertain how family members' visits change over time. The present study utilized a growth curve analysis to examine preplacement and…

  5. Topic models: a novel method for modeling couple and family text data.

    PubMed

    Atkins, David C; Rubin, Timothy N; Steyvers, Mark; Doeden, Michelle A; Baucom, Brian R; Christensen, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Couple and family researchers often collect open-ended linguistic data-either through free-response questionnaire items, or transcripts of interviews or therapy sessions. Because participants' responses are not forced into a set number of categories, text-based data can be very rich and revealing of psychological processes. At the same time, it is highly unstructured and challenging to analyze. Within family psychology, analyzing text data typically means applying a coding system, which can quantify text data but also has several limitations, including the time needed for coding, difficulties with interrater reliability, and defining a priori what should be coded. The current article presents an alternative method for analyzing text data called topic models (Steyvers & Griffiths, 2006), which has not yet been applied within couple and family psychology. Topic models have similarities to factor analysis and cluster analysis in that they identify underlying clusters of words with semantic similarities (i.e., the "topics"). In the present article, a nontechnical introduction to topic models is provided, highlighting how these models can be used for text exploration and indexing (e.g., quickly locating text passages that share semantic meaning) and how output from topic models can be used to predict behavioral codes or other types of outcomes. Throughout the article, a collection of transcripts from a large couple-therapy trial (Christensen et al., 2004) is used as example data to highlight potential applications. Practical resources for learning more about topic models and how to apply them are discussed.

  6. Oxygen Concentration Controls Epigenetic Effects in Models of Familial Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Her, Yeng F.; Nelson-Holte, Molly; Maher, Louis James

    2015-01-01

    Familial paraganglioma (PGL) is a rare neuroendocrine cancer associated with defects in the genes encoding the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme. For unknown reasons, a higher prevalence of PGL has been reported for humans living at higher altitude, with increased disease aggressiveness and morbidity. In this study, we evaluate the effects of oxygen on epigenetic changes due to succinate accumulation in three SDH loss cell culture models. We test the hypothesis that the mechanism of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent dioxygenase enzymes explains the inhibitory synergy of hypoxia and succinate accumulation. We confirm that SDH loss leads to profound succinate accumulation. We further show that hypoxia and succinate accumulation synergistically inhibit α-KG-dependent dioxygenases leading to increased stabilization of transcription factor HIF1α, HIF2α, and hypermethylation of histones and DNA. Increasing oxygen suppresses succinate inhibition of α-KG-dependent dioxygenases. This result provides a possible explanation for the association between hypoxia and PGL, and suggests hyperoxia as a potential novel therapy. PMID:25985299

  7. Modeling Familial Cancer with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dung-Fang; Su, Jie; Kim, Huen Suk; Chang, Betty; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Zhao, Ruiying; Yuan, Ye; Gingold, Julian; Xia, Weiya; Darr, Henia; Mirzayans, Razmik; Hung, Mien-Chie; Schaniel, Christoph; Lemischka, Ihor R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In vitro modeling of human disease has recently become feasible with induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Here, we established patient-derived iPSCs from a Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) family and investigated the role of mutant p53 in the development of osteosarcoma (OS). LFS iPSC-derived osteoblasts (OBs) recapitulated OS features including defective osteoblastic differentiation as well as tumorigenic ability. Systematic analyses revealed that the expression of genes enriched in LFS-derived OBs strongly correlated with decreased time to tumor recurrence and poor patient survival. Furthermore, LFS OBs exhibited impaired upregulation of the imprinted gene H19 during osteogenesis. Restoration of H19 expression in LFS OBs facilitated osteoblastic differentiation and repressed tumorigenic potential. By integrating human imprinted gene network (IGN) into functional genomic analyses, we found that H19 mediates suppression of LFS-associated OS through the IGN component DECORIN (DCN). In summary, these findings demonstrate the feasibility of studying inherited human cancer syndromes with iPSCs. PMID:25860607

  8. Fatal familial insomnia: a model disease in sleep physiopathology.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Pasquale

    2005-10-01

    Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) is characterized by loss of sleep, oneiric stupor with autonomic/motor hyperactivity and somato-motor abnormalities (pyramidal signs, myoclonus, dysarthria/dysphagia, ataxia). Positon emission tomography (PET) disclosed thalamic hypometabolism and milder involvement of the cortex; neuropathology severe neuronal loss in the thalamic nuclei variably affecting the caudate, gyrus cinguli and fronto-temporal cortices. Genetic analysis disclosed a mutation in the PRNP gene and FFI was transmitted to experimental animals, thus classifying FFI within the prion diseases. Rare Sporadic Fatal Insomnia (SFI) cases occur without PRNP mutation but with features similar to FFI. FFI represents a model disease for the study of sleep-wake regulation: (I) the profound thalamic hypometabolism/atrophy associated with lack of sleep spindles and delta sleep implicate the thalamus in the origin of slow wave sleep (SWS); (II) loss of SWS is associated with marked autonomic and motor hyperactivity; termed 'agrypnia excitata', this association has been proposed as a useful clinical concept representative of thalamo-limbic dysfunction; (III) lack of SWS occurs with substantial preservation of stage 1 NREM sleep, implying that the latter has mechanisms different from SWS and unaffected by thalamic atrophy; accordingly, conflating stage 1 NREM with SWS into NREM sleep is inappropriate.

  9. On Being a Father or Sibling in Light of the Humanbecoming Family Model.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L; Braddick, Marybeth

    2016-01-01

    The following article provides an updated discussion on two Parse grounded exploratory descriptive studies in light to her recently added humanbecoming family model. The comments of the fathers and siblings from the studies reveal that family life is unpredictable and that family relationships are paradoxical evolutional emergences of shifting hopes and dreams. The humanbecoming family model provided a useful way to consider fathering and being a sibling, as unexpected unfoldings of joy-sorrow reveal purposeful new possibilities. It guides health professionals to avoid the imposition of their views on what is best for the family in favor of bearing witness to the suffering and disappointments that unfold in family life. It is important to remain open to families' sources of meaning, courage, and hope in the moment. PMID:26660776

  10. KIDS CARE: A Behavioral Model To Strengthen Patient and Family Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Merrigan, Karen; Steinmiller, Elizabeth A; Figueroa-Altmann, Ana; Davis, Katherine Finn

    2016-01-01

    Patient- and Family-Centered Care is a core value of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Satisfaction/ experience data are closely tracked to assist in determining if hospital staff are partnering effectively with patients and families. When opportunities for improvement were identified within the Nursing Department, an existing institutional model, KIDS CARE, was used to promote change. KIDS CARE was developed to teach and reinforce respectful behaviors for nurses initiating partnerships with patients and families. The Patient Satisfaction Committee partnered with the Family Advisory Council and Shared Governance Council to revise this model to help achieve the goals of improving quality of care. Next steps involved educating patients, families, and staff using innovative multimodal strategies. By engaging in this renewed commitment to Patient- and Family-Centered Care, systems and structures were developed to keep KIDS CARE relevant and make strides toward improved outcomes for patients and families.

  11. Developmental Idealism and Cultural Models of the Family in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Arland; Pierotti, Rachael S; Young-DeMarco, Linda; Watkins, Susan

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Malawi. Developmental idealism is a set of beliefs and values about development and the relationships between development and family structures and behavior. Developmental idealism states that attributes of societies and families defined as modern are better than attributes defined as traditional, that modern societies help produce modern families, that modern families facilitate the achievement of modern societies, and that the future will bring family change in the direction of modernity. Previous research has demonstrated that knowledge of developmental idealism is widespread in many places around the world, but provides little systematic data about it in sub-Saharan Africa or how knowledge of it is associated with certain demographic characteristics in that region. In this paper, we address this issue by examining whether ordinary people in two settings in Malawi, a sub-Saharan African country, have received and understood messages that are intended to associate development with certain types of family forms and family behaviors. We then examine associations between demographic characteristics and developmental idealism to investigate possible mechanisms linking global discourse about development to the grassroots. We analyze data collected in face-to-face surveys from two samples of Malawian men in 2009 and 2010, one rural, the other in a low-to-medium income neighborhood of a city. Our analysis of these survey data shows considerable evidence that many developmental idealism beliefs have been spread in that country and that education has positive effects on beliefs in the association between development and family attributes. We also find higher levels of developmental idealism awareness in the urban sample than we do in the rural sample, but once dissimilarities in education and wealth between the two samples are controlled, awareness levels no longer differed between

  12. Developmental Idealism and Cultural Models of the Family in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Arland; Pierotti, Rachael S; Young-DeMarco, Linda; Watkins, Susan

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Malawi. Developmental idealism is a set of beliefs and values about development and the relationships between development and family structures and behavior. Developmental idealism states that attributes of societies and families defined as modern are better than attributes defined as traditional, that modern societies help produce modern families, that modern families facilitate the achievement of modern societies, and that the future will bring family change in the direction of modernity. Previous research has demonstrated that knowledge of developmental idealism is widespread in many places around the world, but provides little systematic data about it in sub-Saharan Africa or how knowledge of it is associated with certain demographic characteristics in that region. In this paper, we address this issue by examining whether ordinary people in two settings in Malawi, a sub-Saharan African country, have received and understood messages that are intended to associate development with certain types of family forms and family behaviors. We then examine associations between demographic characteristics and developmental idealism to investigate possible mechanisms linking global discourse about development to the grassroots. We analyze data collected in face-to-face surveys from two samples of Malawian men in 2009 and 2010, one rural, the other in a low-to-medium income neighborhood of a city. Our analysis of these survey data shows considerable evidence that many developmental idealism beliefs have been spread in that country and that education has positive effects on beliefs in the association between development and family attributes. We also find higher levels of developmental idealism awareness in the urban sample than we do in the rural sample, but once dissimilarities in education and wealth between the two samples are controlled, awareness levels no longer differed between

  13. Developmental Idealism and Cultural Models of the Family in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pierotti, Rachael S.; Young-DeMarco, Linda; Watkins, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Malawi. Developmental idealism is a set of beliefs and values about development and the relationships between development and family structures and behavior. Developmental idealism states that attributes of societies and families defined as modern are better than attributes defined as traditional, that modern societies help produce modern families, that modern families facilitate the achievement of modern societies, and that the future will bring family change in the direction of modernity. Previous research has demonstrated that knowledge of developmental idealism is widespread in many places around the world, but provides little systematic data about it in sub-Saharan Africa or how knowledge of it is associated with certain demographic characteristics in that region. In this paper, we address this issue by examining whether ordinary people in two settings in Malawi, a sub-Saharan African country, have received and understood messages that are intended to associate development with certain types of family forms and family behaviors. We then examine associations between demographic characteristics and developmental idealism to investigate possible mechanisms linking global discourse about development to the grassroots. We analyze data collected in face-to-face surveys from two samples of Malawian men in 2009 and 2010, one rural, the other in a low-to-medium income neighborhood of a city. Our analysis of these survey data shows considerable evidence that many developmental idealism beliefs have been spread in that country and that education has positive effects on beliefs in the association between development and family attributes. We also find higher levels of developmental idealism awareness in the urban sample than we do in the rural sample, but once dissimilarities in education and wealth between the two samples are controlled, awareness levels no longer differed between

  14. Familial hypercholesterolaemia: a model of care for Australasia.

    PubMed

    Watts, Gerald F; Sullivan, David R; Poplawski, Nicola; van Bockxmeer, Frank; Hamilton-Craig, Ian; Clifton, Peter M; O'Brien, Richard; Bishop, Warrick; George, Peter; Barter, Phillip J; Bates, Timothy; Burnett, John R; Coakley, John; Davidson, Patricia; Emery, Jon; Martin, Andrew; Farid, Waleed; Freeman, Lucinda; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Juniper, Amanda; Kidd, Alexa; Kostner, Karam; Krass, Ines; Livingston, Michael; Maxwell, Suzy; O'Leary, Peter; Owaimrin, Amal; Redgrave, Trevor G; Reid, Nicola; Southwell, Lynda; Suthers, Graeme; Tonkin, Andrew; Towler, Simon; Trent, Ronald

    2011-10-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder present from birth that causes marked elevation in plasma cholesterol and premature coronary heart disease. There are at least 45,000 people with FH in Australia and New Zealand, but the vast majority remains undetected and those diagnosed with the condition are inadequately treated. To bridge this major gap in coronary prevention the FH Australasia Network (Australian Atherosclerosis Society) has developed a consensus model of care (MoC) for FH. The MoC is based on clinical experience, expert opinion, published evidence and consultations with a wide spectrum of stakeholders, and has been developed for use primarily by specialist centres intending starting a clinical service for FH. This MoC aims to provide a standardised, high-quality and cost-effective system of care that is likely to have the highest impact on patient outcomes. The MoC for FH is presented as a series of recommendations and algorithms focusing on the standards required for the detection, diagnosis, assessment and management of FH in adults and children. The process involved in cascade screening and risk notification, the backbone for detecting new cases of FH, is detailed. Guidance on treatment is based on risk stratifying patients, management of non-cholesterol risk factors, safe and effective use of statins, and a rational approach to follow-up of patients. Clinical and laboratory recommendations are given for genetic testing. An integrative system for providing best clinical care is described. This MoC for FH is not prescriptive and needs to be complemented by good clinical judgment and adjusted for local needs and resources. After initial implementation, the MoC will require critical evaluation, development and appropriate modification. PMID:21917530

  15. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  16. Counseling Family Members of Addicts/Alcoholics: The Stages of Change Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This article adapts the stages of change model, a model in which specific interventions of harm reduction are directed toward the client's readiness for treatment, as a guiding framework for counseling family members of alcoholics/addicts. Interventions at each stage of the family's readiness for change, from precontemplation to action, are…

  17. The Family of Origin Parachute Model: Landing Safely in Adult Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Gardner, Brandt C.; Taniguchi, Narumi

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of the family of origin parachute model in predicting longitudinal outcomes for couples in romantic relationships. This conceptual model contains common family variables that are theoretically and empirically related to later adult functioning and are believed to influence attitudes that adult children develop…

  18. Parametric Modeling in the CAE Process: Creating a Family of Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    This Presentation meant as an example - Give ideas of approaches to use - The significant benefit of PARAMETRIC geometry based modeling The importance of planning before you build Showcase some NX capabilities - Mesh Controls - Associativity - Divide Face - Offset Surface Reminder - This only had to be done once! - Can be used for any cabinet in that "family" Saves a lot of time if pre-planned Allows re-use in the future

  19. Mathematical models for tubular structures in the family of Papovaviridae.

    PubMed

    Twarock, R

    2005-09-01

    An important part of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that protects the viral genome. While the viral capsids of viruses in the family of Papovaviridae are usually spherical, their protein building blocks are known to assemble also as tubular structures [Kiselev, N.A., Klug, A., 1969. J. Mol. Biol. 40, 155]. In Twarock [2004. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477] Viral Tiling Theory has been introduced for the structural description of the protein stoichiometry of the spherical capsids in this family. This approach is extended here to the tubular case and is used to classify the surface lattices of tubular structures in the family of Papovaviridae. The predictions of the theory are compared with the experimental results in Kiselev and Klug [1969. J. Mol. Biol. 40, 155].

  20. A Family-Oriented Decision-Making Model for Human Research in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Rui, Deng

    2015-08-01

    This essay argues that individual-oriented informed consent is inadequate to protect human research subjects in mainland China. The practice of family-oriented decision-making is better suited to guide moral research conduct. The family's role in medical decision-making originates from the mutual benevolence that exists among family members, and is in accordance with family harmony, which is the aim of Confucian society. I argue that the practice of informed consent for medical research on human subjects ought to remain family-oriented in mainland China. This essay explores the main features of this model of informed consent and demonstrates the proper authority of the family. The family's participation in decision-making as a whole does not negate or deny the importance of the individual who is the subject of the choice, but rather acts more fully to protect research subjects.

  1. A Biobehavioral [corrected] Framework to Address the Emerging Challenge of Multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Suls, Jerry; Green, Paige A; Davidson, Karina W

    2016-04-01

    Multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of multiple physical or psychological illnesses, is prevalent particularly among older adults. The number of Americans with multiple chronic diseases is projected to increase from 57 million in 2000 to 81 million in 2020. However, behavioral medicine and health psychology, while focusing on the co-occurrence of psychological/psychiatric disorders with primary medical morbidities, have historically tended to ignore the co-occurrence of primary medical comorbidities, such as diabetes and cancer, and their biopsychosocial implications. This approach may hinder our ecologically valid understanding of the etiology, prevention, and treatment for individual patients with multimorbidity. In this selective review, we propose a heuristic behavioral framework for the etiology of multimorbidity. More acknowledgment and systematic research on multiple, co-existing disorders in behavioral medicine are consistent with the biopsychosocial model's emphasis on treating the "whole person," which means not considering any single illness, its symptoms, risk factors, or mechanisms, in isolation. As systems analytics, big data, machine learning, and mixed-model trajectory analyses, among others, come online and become more widely available, we may be able to tackle multimorbidity more holistically, efficiently, and satisfactorily.

  2. Reciprocity Family Counseling: A Multi-Ethnic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrose, David M.

    The Reciprocity Family Counseling Method involves learning principles of behavior modification including selective reinforcement, behavioral contracting, self-correction, and over-correction. Selective reinforcement refers to the recognition and modification of parent/child responses and reinforcers. Parents and children are asked to identify…

  3. A Family Involvement Model for Hearing-Impaired Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mary Trabue; Fischer, Rebecca M.

    1987-01-01

    The Mama Lere Parent-Infant Training Program (Nashville, Tennessee) which serves hearing- and speech-impaired children focuses on family involvement and an intervention plan which includes four service delivery components: facilitation of child communicative competence; educational advocacy and team decision making; information exchange; and…

  4. Family of fish-eye-related models and their supersymmetric partners

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, Adam J.

    2010-05-15

    A large family of potentials related to the Maxwell fish-eye model is derived with the help of conformal mappings. It is shown that the whole family admits square-integrable E=0 solutions of the Schroedinger equation for discrete values of the coupling constant. A corresponding supersymmetric family of partner potentials to the preceding ones is derived as well. Some applications of the considered potentials are also discussed.

  5. Dynamic Processes in Regulation and Some Implications for Biofeedback and Biobehavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Eddie, David

    2013-01-01

    Systems theory has long been applied in psychology, biology, and sociology. This paper applies newer methods of control systems modeling to the assessment of system stability in health and disease. Control systems can be characterized as open or closed systems with feedback loops. Feedback produces oscillatory activity, and the complexity of naturally occurring oscillatory patterns reflects the multiplicity of feedback mechanisms, such that many mechanisms operate simultaneously to control the system. Unstable systems, often associated with poor health, are characterized by absence of oscillation, random noise, or a very simple pattern of oscillation. This modeling approach can be applied to a diverse range of phenomena, including cardiovascular and brain activity, mood and thermal regulation, and social system stability. External system stressors such as disease, psychological stress, injury, or interpersonal conflict may perturb a system, yet simultaneously stimulate oscillatory processes and exercise control mechanisms. Resonance can occur in systems with negative feedback loops, causing high-amplitude oscillations at a single frequency. Resonance effects can be used to strengthen modulatory oscillations, but may obscure other information and control mechanisms, and weaken system stability. Positive as well as negative feedback loops are important for system function and stability. Examples are presented of oscillatory processes in heart rate variability, and regulation of autonomic, thermal, pancreatic and central nervous system processes, as well as in social/organizational systems such as marriages and business organizations. Resonance in negative feedback loops can help stimulate oscillations and exercise control reflexes, but also can deprive the system of important information. Empirical hypotheses derived from this approach are presented, including that moderate stress may enhance health and functioning. PMID:23572244

  6. Integrating the Illness Beliefs Model in clinical practice: a Family Systems Nursing knowledge utilization model.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Fabie; Dupuis, France; Turcotte, Annie; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-05-01

    To promote the integration of Family Systems Nursing (FSN) in clinical practice, we need to better understand how nurses overcome the challenges of FSN knowledge utilization. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted with 32 practicing female nurses from hospital and community settings who had received FSN intervention training and skill development based on the Illness Beliefs Model and the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models. The participants were interviewed about how they utilized FSN knowledge in their nursing practice. From the data analysis, a FSN Knowledge Utilization Model emerged that involves three major components: (a) nurses' beliefs in FSN and in their FSN skills, (b) nurses' knowledge utilization strategies to address the challenges of FSN practice, and (c) FSN positive outcomes. The FSN Knowledge Utilization Model describes a circular, incremental, and iterative process used by nurses to integrate FSN in daily nursing practice. Findings point to a need for re-evaluation of educational and management strategies in clinical settings for advancing the practice of FSN.

  7. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.

  8. A Family Counselor Practicum Based on a Deliberate Psychological Education Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Donna; Ancellotti, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe a family counseling practicum that is based on cognitive-developmental theory and uses a Deliberate Psychological Education (DPE) model for developing a curriculum. Designed to promote the growth and development of adult learners, DPE facilitates learning and the developmental growth of beginning family counselors. (Contains…

  9. A Longitudinal Family-Level Model of Arab Muslim Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.; Templin, Thomas N.; Hough, Edythe Ellison; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems. This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures…

  10. Using the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce Model with Families of Young Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Kacie M.; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho; Iovannone, Rose; Crosland, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the feasibility and potential efficacy of implementing an adapted, family-centered version of the school-based prevent-teach-reinforce (PTR) model. The research included two families who implemented the PTR process for their children in collaboration with the researchers. The adapted PTR was tested using a…

  11. Building a Conceptual Model of Family Response to a Child's Chronic Illness or Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Thomas P.; And Others

    This literature review provides information to help in building a model of family caregiving for children with emotional disorders, focusing on the elements of stress, coping, and appraisal. Because literature on families' perceptions, use of resources, and coping with a child with an emotional disorder is nonexistent, the review uses the…

  12. Models of population-based analyses for data collected from large extended families

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Devereux, Richard B.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Laston, Sandra; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Shara, Nawar M.; Welty, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Large studies of extended families usually collect valuable phenotypic data that may have scientific value for purposes other than testing genetic hypotheses if the families were not selected in a biased manner. These purposes include assessing population-based associations of diseases with risk factors/covariates and estimating population characteristics such as disease prevalence and incidence. Relatedness among participants however, violates the traditional assumption of independent observations in these classic analyses. The commonly used adjustment method for relatedness in population-based analyses is to use marginal models, in which clusters (families) are assumed to be independent (unrelated) with a simple and identical covariance (family) structure such as those called independent, exchangeable and unstructured covariance structures. However, using these simple covariance structures may not be optimally appropriate for outcomes collected from large extended families, and may under- or over-estimate the variances of estimators and thus lead to uncertainty in inferences. Moreover, the assumption that families are unrelated with an identical family structure in a marginal model may not be satisfied for family studies with large extended families. The aim of this paper is to propose models incorporating marginal models approaches with a covariance structure for assessing population-based associations of diseases with their risk factors/covariates and estimating population characteristics for epidemiological studies while adjusting for the complicated relatedness among outcomes (continuous/categorical, normally/non-normally distributed) collected from large extended families. We also discuss theoretical issues of the proposed models and show that the proposed models and covariance structure are appropriate for and capable of achieving the aim. PMID:20882324

  13. The Indian Family Wellness project: an application of the tribal participatory research model.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Philip A; Ball, Thomas J

    2002-09-01

    This paper describes a family-centered prevention intervention for preschool-aged children-the Indian Family Wellness (IFW) project. The development, implementation, and evaluation of IFW has been based upon a tribal participatory research model, an approach that emphasizes full participation of tribes and tribal members in all phases of the research process and incorporates cultural and historical factors vital to strengthening American Indian and Alaska Native families. We present four mechanisms of tribal participatory research, describe how they have been applied in the IFW project, and consider the implications of this work for the field of family-centered prevention research.

  14. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents’ cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized Integrative Family Stress Model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across three times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers’ perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms five years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers’ perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers’ familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways. PMID:25751100

  15. Longitudinal and integrative tests of family stress model effects on Mexican origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca M B; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-05-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents' cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized integrative family stress model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across 3 times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers' perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms 5 years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for a wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers' perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers' familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways. PMID:25751100

  16. LMX, Breach Perceptions, Work-Family Conflict, and Well-Being: A Mediational Model.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rachel T; Morganson, Valerie J; Matthews, Russell A; Atkinson, Theresa P

    2016-01-01

    Despite research advances, work-family scholars still lack an understanding of how leadership constructs relate to an employee's ability to effectively manage the work-family interface. In addition, there remains a need to examine the process through which leadership and work-family conflict influence well-being outcomes. Using a sample of 312 workers, a mediated process model grounded in social exchange theory is tested wherein the authors seek to explain how leaders shape employee perceptions, which, in turn, impact organizational fulfillment of expectations (i.e., psychological contract breach), work-family conflict, and well-being. A fully latent structural equation model was used to test study hypotheses, all of which were supported. Building on existing theory, findings suggest that the supervisor plays a critical role as a frontline representative for the organization and that work-family conflict is reduced and well-being enhanced through a process of social exchange between the supervisor and worker.

  17. An efficient technique for Bayesian modeling of family data using the BUGS software

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Harold T.; Perls, Thomas T.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Linear mixed models have become a popular tool to analyze continuous data from family-based designs by using random effects that model the correlation of subjects from the same family. However, mixed models for family data are challenging to implement with the BUGS (Bayesian inference Using Gibbs Sampling) software because of the high-dimensional covariance matrix of the random effects. This paper describes an efficient parameterization that utilizes the singular value decomposition of the covariance matrix of random effects, includes the BUGS code for such implementation, and extends the parameterization to generalized linear mixed models. The implementation is evaluated using simulated data and an example from a large family-based study is presented with a comparison to other existing methods. PMID:25477899

  18. A Frank mixture copula family for modeling higher-order correlations of neural spike counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Arno; Obermayer, Klaus

    2009-12-01

    In order to evaluate the importance of higher-order correlations in neural spike count codes, flexible statistical models of dependent multivariate spike counts are required. Copula families, parametric multivariate distributions that represent dependencies, can be applied to construct such models. We introduce the Frank mixture family as a new copula family that has separate parameters for all pairwise and higher-order correlations. In contrast to the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern copula family that shares this property, the Frank mixture copula can model strong correlations. We apply spike count models based on the Frank mixture copula to data generated by a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons and compare the goodness of fit to distributions based on the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern family. Finally, we evaluate the importance of using proper single neuron spike count distributions on the Shannon information. We find notable deviations in the entropy that increase with decreasing firing rates. Moreover, we find that the Frank mixture family increases the log likelihood of the fit significantly compared to the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern family. This shows that the Frank mixture copula is a useful tool to assess the importance of higher-order correlations in spike count codes.

  19. A Model Project on Joint Custody for Families Undergoing Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemmelman, Steven E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A model of service for parents undergoing divorce and considering joint custody of their children is described. The model integrates several intervention strategies, including mediation, group treatment, divorce counseling, and child guidance. The applicability of the model to a range of problems related to divorce and child custody is…

  20. A hierarchical frailty model for familial testicular germ-cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Valberg, Morten; Grotmol, Tom; Tretli, Steinar; Veierød, Marit B; Moger, Tron A; Aalen, Odd O

    2014-02-15

    Using a 2-level hierarchical frailty model, we analyzed population-wide data on testicular germ-cell tumor (TGCT) status in 1,135,320 two-generational Norwegian families to examine the risk of TGCT in family members of patients. Follow-up extended from 1954 (cases) or 1960 (unaffected persons) to 2008. The first-level frailty variable was compound Poisson-distributed. The underlying Poisson parameter was randomized to model the frailty variation between families and was decomposed additively to characterize the correlation structure within a family. The frailty relative risk (FRR) for a son, given a diseased father, was 4.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.12, 5.19), with a borderline significantly higher FRR for nonseminoma than for seminoma (P = 0.06). Given 1 affected brother, the lifetime FRR was 5.88 (95% CI: 4.70, 7.36), with no difference between subtypes. Given 2 affected brothers, the FRR was 21.71 (95% CI: 8.93, 52.76). These estimates decreased with the number of additional healthy brothers. The estimated FRRs support previous findings. However, the present hierarchical frailty approach allows for a very precise definition of familial risk. These FRRs, estimated according to numbers of affected/nonaffected family members, provide new insight into familial TGCT. Furthermore, new light is shed on the different familial risks of seminoma and nonseminoma. PMID:24219863

  1. A Latent Class Model for Testing for Linkage and Classifying Families when the Sample May Contain Segregating and Non-Segregating Families

    PubMed Central

    Bastone, Laurel A.; Spielman, Richard S.; Wang, Xingmei; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Putt, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    In a quantitative trait locus (QTL) study, it is usually not feasible to select families with offspring that simultaneously display variability in more than one phenotype. When multiple phenotypes are of interest, the sample will, with high probability, contain ‘non-segregating’ families, i.e. families with both parents homozygous at the QTL. These families potentially reduce the power of regression-based methods to detect linkage. Moreover, follow-up studies in individual families will be inefficient, and potentially even misleading, if non-segregating families are selected for the study. Our work extends Haseman-Elston regression using a latent class model to account for the mixture of segregating and non-segregating families. We provide theoretical motivation for the method using an additive genetic model with two distinct functions of the phenotypic outcome, squared difference (SqD) and mean-corrected product (MCP). A permutation procedure is developed to test for linkage; simulation shows that the test is valid for both phenotypic functions. For rare alleles, the method provides increased power compared to a ‘marginal’ approach that ignores the two types of families; for more common alleles, the marginal approach has better power. These results appear to reflect the ability of the algorithm to accurately assign families to the two classes and the relative weights of segregating and non-segregating families to the test of linkage. An application of Bayes rule is used to estimate the family-specific probability of segregating. High predictive value positive values for segregating families, particularly for MCP, suggest that the method has considerable value for identifying segregating families. The method is illustrated for gene expression phenotypes measured on 27 candidate genes previously demonstrated to show linkage in a sample of 14 families. PMID:20558995

  2. Family Resource Systems: The Nebraska Model. Proceedings of the Family Resource Systems Conference (January 24-25, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Jack A., Ed.

    Proceedings are presented from a 1980 conference on community based services for families of developmentaly disabled children. The following ten papers are included: "Leading Edge Services to Families of Persons with Developmental Disabilities" (R. Perske); "Family Resource Services and Support Systems for Families with Handicapped Children" (B.…

  3. Selection of sugar cane full-sib families using mixed models and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L M; Viana, A P; Gonçalves, G M; Entringer, G C

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, an experiment examining families belonging to the first selection stage of the Sugar Cane Breeding Program of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro/Rede Interuniversitária para o Desenvolvimento do Setor Sucroalcooleiro was conducted. Families and plants within families were evaluated to select superior plants for subsequent stages of the breeding program. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, in which progenies were grouped into 4 sets, each with 4 replicates and 100 seedlings per plot. The following traits were evaluated: average stem diameter, total plot weight, number of stems, Brix of the lower stem, and Brix of the upper stem. The study of families used the restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased procedure mixed models. After selection, families were genotyped via inter-simple sequence repeat to assess the genetic distance of genotypes. This approach was found to be efficient for selecting new genotypes. PMID:25501142

  4. Trajectories of Change in Obesity among Tehranian Families: Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Mahjub, Hossein; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Daneshpour, Maryam; Morris, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the trajectories of change in obesity within and between Tehranian families, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods. This study is a family-based longitudinal design, in four waves. A total of 14761 individuals, within 3980 families, were selected. Three anthropometric measurements, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and a body shape index (ABSI), were recorded. Multilevel latent growth curve modeling (MLGCM) approach was used for evaluating the change trajectories in obesity within and between the families. Results. The mean age of the subjects in the present study was 33.28 ± 19.01 (range 3–89 years) and 50.1% were male. Obesity was significantly increased (P < 0.001). Individuals with more fat become obese slower, whereas families with more fat become obese faster (P < 0.001). The initial value and growth rate of WC and ABSI were greater in men than in women, while this result is contrary to BMI (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our findings demonstrated that there is an alarming increase in the obesity trend in Tehranian families. The important role of the family in the prevention of obesity is highlighted, underlining the need for public health programs, as family centered educations to lifestyle modification, which can address this emerging crisis. PMID:27042349

  5. Towards an Empirical Model of Parental Discipline Reactions, Family Climate, Child-Rearing Values and Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Gerris, Jan R. M.

    A starting model consisting of nine latent factors referring to parental discipline reactions, child-rearing values, family climate, and social class was developed and tested by means of a LISREL approach. Data were obtained from 300 families, including 245 two-parent and 55 one-parent families. In the main outline of this model, the following…

  6. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  7. Application of a Hierarchical Model Incorporating Intra-family Correlation and Cluster Effects

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, An-Lin; Kelly, Patricia J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research interventions at the family level often include individual- and group-level data that can present an analytic challenge. The study that motivated this paper was an intervention study conducted with elementary school children and their parents. Randomization occurred at the school level, with families nested within schools. Repeated measurements collected from children and parents at different time points presented modeling challenges, including how to specify the covariance structure correctly among all measurements. Objectives To introduce a mixed model with random effects to model the correlations among family members, repeated measures, and the grouping effect. Method A hierarchical random-effect model was used that included both fixed and random effects; time and intervention-by-time variables were included as fixed effects, the school-specific variable was included as random effect, and the intrafamily correlation was modeled through a spatial autoregression covariance matrix. Comparisons were made between the performance of the proposed modeling method with other parsimony models using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC). Results The proposed modeling method produced a 3% and 9% reduction of AIC values, respectively, compared to the two other models. The likelihood ratio test further confirmed that the full model is better than the other two models (p < .0001 for both models). Discussion The data suggest that using the proposed mixed model technique will produce a significantly better model fit for intrafamily correlation with a nested study design. PMID:21317823

  8. Work-family conflict and alcohol use: examination of a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Liu, Li; Milner, Lauren A

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently documents the negative effects of work-family conflict; however, little research focuses on alcohol use. This study embraces a tension reduction theory of drinking, wherein alcohol use is thought to reduce the negative effects of stress. The purpose of the study was to test a moderated mediation model of the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use in a Chicagoland community sample of 998 caregivers. Structural equation models showed that distress mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Furthermore, tension reduction expectancies of alcohol exacerbated the relationship between distress and alcohol use. The results advance the study of work-family conflict and alcohol use, helping explain this complicated relationship using sophisticated statistical techniques. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  9. Work-family Conflict and Alcohol Use: Examination of a Moderated Mediation Model

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Liu, Li; Milner, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently documents the negative effects of work-family conflict; however, little focuses on alcohol use. This study embraces a tension-reduction theory of drinking, wherein alcohol use is thought to reduce the negative effects of stress. The purpose of the present study was to test a moderated mediation model of the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use in a Chicagoland community sample of 998 caregivers. Structural equation models showed that distress mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Furthermore, tension reduction expectancies of alcohol exacerbated the relationship between distress and alcohol use. The results advance the study of work-family conflict and alcohol use, helping explain this complicated relationship using sophisticated statistical techniques. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23480251

  10. Augmented composite likelihood for copula modeling in family studies under biased sampling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yujie; Cook, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    The heritability of chronic diseases can be effectively studied by examining the nature and extent of within-family associations in disease onset times. Families are typically accrued through a biased sampling scheme in which affected individuals are identified and sampled along with their relatives who may provide right-censored or current status data on their disease onset times. We develop likelihood and composite likelihood methods for modeling the within-family association in these times through copula models in which dependencies are characterized by Kendall's [Formula: see text] Auxiliary data from independent individuals are exploited by augmentating composite likelihoods to increase precision of marginal parameter estimates and consequently increase efficiency in dependence parameter estimation. An application to a motivating family study in psoriatic arthritis illustrates the method and provides some evidence of excessive paternal transmission of risk. PMID:26819481

  11. 'Train the trainer' model: implications for health professionals and farm family health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Brumby, Susan; Smith, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Australia is a large country with 60% of land used for agricultural production. Its interior is sparsely populated, with higher morbidity and mortality recorded in rural areas, particularly farmers, farm families, and agricultural workers. Rural health professionals in addressing health education gaps of farming groups have reported using behavioralist approaches. These approaches in isolation have been criticized as disempowering for participants who are identified as passive learners or 'empty vessels.' A major challenge in rural health practice is to develop more inclusive and innovative models in building improved health outcomes. The Sustainable Farm Families Train the Trainer (SFFTTT) model is a 5-day program developed by Western District Health Service designed to enhance practice among health professionals working with farm families in Australia. This innovative model of addressing farmer health asks health professionals to understand the context of the farm family and encourages them to value the experience and existing knowledge of the farmer, the family and the farm business. The SFFTTT program has engaged with health agencies, community, government, and industry groups across Australia and over 120 rural nurses have been trained since 2005. These trainers have successfully delivered programs to 1000 farm families, with high participant completion, positive evaluation, and improved health indicators. Rural professionals report changes in how they approach health education, clinical practice, and promotion with farm families and agricultural industries. This paper highlights the success of SFFTTT as an effective tool in enhancing primary health practice in rural and remote settings. The program is benefiting not only drought ravaged farmers but assisting rural nurses, health agencies, and health boards to engage with farm families at a level not identified previously. Furthermore, nurses and health professionals are now embracing a more 'farmer

  12. The FIRO model of family therapy: implications of factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Hafner, R J; Ross, M W

    1989-11-01

    Schutz's FIRO model contains three main elements: inclusion, control, and affection. It is used widely in mental health research and practice, but has received little empirical validation. The present study is based on factor analysis of the resources to FIRO questionnaire of 120 normal couples and 191 couples who were attending a clinic for marital/psychiatric problems. Results confirmed the validity of the FIRO model for women only. The differences between the sexes reflected a considerable degree of sex-role stereotyping, the clinical implications of which are discussed.

  13. Ecological Models: Family Systems and Beyond. A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasnoski, M. L.; O'Connor, William A.

    There has been a resurgence of interest in human ecosystems, attributable to the growth of community mental health centers and public sector funding. The first of two papers discusses human ecology models based on this resurgence. Implications for future development of the mental health area are presented with the challenge to integrate…

  14. Preparing the personal physician for practice: changing family medicine residency training to enable new model practice.

    PubMed

    Green, Larry A; Jones, Samuel M; Fetter, Gerald; Pugno, Perry A

    2007-12-01

    After two years of intensive study, in 2004 the Future of Family Medicine report concluded that the current U.S. health care system is inadequate and unsustainable, and called for changes within the specialty of family medicine to ensure the future health of the American public. With guidance and encouragement from many disciplines and health experts, a set of 10 recommendations was established to accomplish a transformative change in how family physicians serve their patients and how the essential function of primary care is achieved. From these recommendations came a period of innovation and experimentation in the training of family physicians, entitled Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4). The P4 project is a carefully designed and evaluated initiative led by the American Board of Family Medicine and the Association of Family Medicine Residency Directors and administered by TransforMED, a practice redesign initiative of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Fourteen family medicine programs were chosen to participate and will put their innovations into practice from 2007 to 2012, during which time regular evaluation will be conducted. The purpose of P4 is to learn how to improve the graduate medical education of family physicians such that they are prepared to be outstanding personal physicians and to work in the new models of practice now emerging. The innovations tested by P4 residencies are expected to inspire substantial changes in the content, structure, and locations of training of family physicians and to guide future revisions in accreditation and certification requirements. PMID:18046133

  15. Value Analysis: A Model of Personal and Professional Ethics in Marriage and Family Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Volker

    1994-01-01

    Presents Ethics Model of Marriage and Family Counseling and its underlying assumptions. Analyzes six basic counseling values in relation to microsystems of counselor and client, mesosystem of counseling process, and societal value context as the macrosystem. Utilizes discussion of suicide to apply these values to the model. Includes 17 references.…

  16. A Model for Building School-Family-Community Partnerships: Principles and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Henry, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    The extant literature documents the importance of school counselors' roles in school-family-community partnerships, yet no model exists to guide school counselors through the process of building partnerships. The authors propose a model to help school counselors navigate the process and principles of partnerships. They define partnerships; discuss…

  17. A Relational Goal-Oriented Model of Optimal Service Delivery to Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a Relational Goal-Oriented Model of Service Delivery to Children with physical or mental health difficulties and their families. This research-informed and practice-relevant model provides a broad understanding of what effective service provision entails and requires from practitioners and service organizations. The model…

  18. The Impact of Role Modeling on Proteges' Personal Learning and Work-to-Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Ho Kwong; Mao, Yina; Zhang, Haina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact of role modeling as perceived by proteges on their personal learning (i.e., relational job learning and personal skill development) and work-to-family enrichment (WFE). Results from a two-wave field survey of 173 proteges in the People's Republic of China indicate that role modeling positively affects…

  19. The Impact of Field Trips and Family Involvement on Mental Models of the Desert Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the mental models of the desert environment held by fourth- and seventh-grade students in the USA and whether those mental models could be affected by: (1) classroom field trips to a desert riparian preserve, and (2) interaction with family members at the same preserve. Results generally indicated that students in this study…

  20. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents'…

  1. The Baby TALK Model: An Innovative Approach to Identifying High-Risk Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalpando, Aimee Hilado; Leow, Christine; Hornstein, John

    2012-01-01

    This research report examines the Baby TALK model, an innovative early childhood intervention approach used to identify, recruit, and serve young children who are at-risk for developmental delays, mental health needs, and/or school failure, and their families. The report begins with a description of the model. This description is followed by an…

  2. Muslim Families and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneshpour, Manijeh

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The differences in value systems are the Muslim families' preferences for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Suggests that directions for change for Muslims need to…

  3. Effects of changing demographic factors upon women's family status in China: a model of a family status life table and its application.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a life table model for China based on Bongaarts nuclear family model and the concept marker of the family, who is identified as the senior women in the family. The attached appendix details the calculations. The type and size of the family are determined by the status change of every marker in the family; the marital, parity, and maternal states. Co-residence in the 3 generation family as well as families maintaining close emotional and economic ties regardless of residence are included. Comparisons of demographic changes are made for 1950-70 and 1981. The following factors are relevant to understanding this model. 1) Fertility, mortality, and marriage rates by age group are considered artificially constant. 2) The Markov hypothesis operates in such a way that birth variations for women at specific age groups vary with marital status. 3) The model is female only. 4) The divorce and re-marriage rate is indirectly estimated. The findings indicate that along with provincial data, 82.3% remained single in 1981 before the recommended marriage at the mature age of 20. Although the multi birth rate appears low, the distribution of births for 50-year-olds indicates the 47.6% have 3 or more births and multi births still represent a serious problem.

  4. Examining the usefulness of a Family Empowerment Program guided by the Illness Beliefs Model for families caring for a child with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Wacharasin, Chintana; Phaktoop, Maneerat; Sananreangsak, Siriyupa

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to design, implement, and evaluate a Family Empowerment Program (FEP), guided by the Illness Beliefs Model. Participants included 25 Thai family members who were the primary caregivers of a child with thalassemia. In Phase I, data were collected from participants using individual in-depth interviews and focus groups before involvement in the FEP. In Phase II, 12 hr of FEP sessions were offered to groups of participants. Content analysis of the audiotaped FEP sessions is reported in this article. Family caregivers reported that the FEP helped them share beliefs and experiences related to caring for their child with thalassemia, make decisions related to families' problems/needs and beliefs, provide each other mutual social support, and develop increased ability to manage care for their chronically ill child through sharing information and learning from other family caregivers about family functioning, family management, and family relationships. Future research is needed to examine the FEP intervention under more controlled conditions with measures that include family functioning and child health outcomes.

  5. Examining the usefulness of a Family Empowerment Program guided by the Illness Beliefs Model for families caring for a child with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Wacharasin, Chintana; Phaktoop, Maneerat; Sananreangsak, Siriyupa

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to design, implement, and evaluate a Family Empowerment Program (FEP), guided by the Illness Beliefs Model. Participants included 25 Thai family members who were the primary caregivers of a child with thalassemia. In Phase I, data were collected from participants using individual in-depth interviews and focus groups before involvement in the FEP. In Phase II, 12 hr of FEP sessions were offered to groups of participants. Content analysis of the audiotaped FEP sessions is reported in this article. Family caregivers reported that the FEP helped them share beliefs and experiences related to caring for their child with thalassemia, make decisions related to families' problems/needs and beliefs, provide each other mutual social support, and develop increased ability to manage care for their chronically ill child through sharing information and learning from other family caregivers about family functioning, family management, and family relationships. Future research is needed to examine the FEP intervention under more controlled conditions with measures that include family functioning and child health outcomes. PMID:25925406

  6. Modelling family 2 cystatins and their interaction with papain.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Suman Kumar; Bhuyan, Rajabrata; Seal, Alpana

    2013-01-01

    Cystatins are extensively studied cysteine protease inhibitors, found in wide range of organisms with highly conserved structural folds. S-type of cystatins is well known for their abundance in saliva, high selectivity and poorer activity towards host cysteine proteases in comparison to their immediate ancestor cystatin C. Despite more than 90% sequence similarity, the members of this group show highly dissimilar binding affinity towards papain. Cystatin M/E is a potent inhibitor of legumain and papain like cysteine proteases and recognized for its involvement in skin barrier formation and potential role as a tumor suppressor gene. However, the structures of these proteins and their complexes with papain or legumain are still unknown. In the present study, we have employed computational methods to get insight into the interactions between papain and cystatins. Three-dimensional structures of the cystatins are generated by homology modelling, refined with molecular dynamics simulation, validated through numerous web servers and finally complexed with papain using ZDOCK algorithm in Discovery Studio. A high degree of shape complementarity is observed within the complexes, stabilized by numerous hydrogen bonds (HB) and hydrophobic interactions. Using interaction energy, HB and solvent accessible surface area analyses, we have identified a series of key residues that may be involved in papain-cystatin interaction. Differential approaches of cystatins towards papain are also noticed which are possibly responsible for diverse inhibitory activity within the group. These findings will improve our understanding of fundamental inhibitory mechanisms of cystatin and provide clues for further research.

  7. A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe's transition to a One Planet Economy.

    PubMed

    Galli, Alessandro; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, Ertug

    2013-09-01

    Currently, the European economy is using nearly three times the ecological assets that are locally available. This situation cannot be sustained indefinitely. Tools are needed that can help reverse the unsustainable trend. In 2010, an EC funded One Planet Economy Network: Europe (OPEN:EU) project was launched to develop the evidence and innovative practical tools that will allow policy-makers and civil society to identify policy interventions to transform Europe into a One Planet Economy, by 2050. Building on the premise that no indicator alone is able to comprehensively monitor (progress towards) sustainability, the project has drawn on the Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprints to define a Footprint Family suite of indicators, to track human pressure on the planet. An environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model has then been developed to group the Footprint Family under a common framework and combine the indicators in the family with national economic accounts and trade statistics. Although unable to monitor the full spectrum of human pressures, once grouped within the MRIO model, the Footprint Family is able to assess the appropriation of ecological assets, GHG emissions as well as freshwater consumption and pollution associated with consumption of specific products and services within a specified country. Using MRIO models within the context of Footprint analyses also enables the Footprint Family to take into account full production chains with technologies specific to country of origin.

  8. Work-Family Conflict Among Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: A Structural Equation Model of Antecedents and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn Y; Raffenaud, Amanda; Fottler, Myron

    2016-01-01

    Conflict between work and family is a human resource management issue that is particularly relevant for nurses. Nursing is a demanding profession, and a high proportion of nurses are women, who tend to have greater family responsibilities than men. Little is known regarding work-family conflict among nurses, and even less is known about how this affects newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs), who can be stressed from their new jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a model of antecedents and outcomes of work-family and family-work conflict among a sample of NLRNs. We developed a model of the relationships between personal and work environment characteristics, work-family and family-work conflicts, job satisfaction, and intent to leave the job and profession. We used structural equation modeling (Amos, IBM SPSS) to test the model with data from.a survey of NLRNs. We examined a number of latent variables, as well as direct and mediating relationships. The measurement models for all latent variables were validated. The final model indicated that age, health, and family responsibilities are antecedents of family-work conflict; job demands lead to work-family conflict; family-work conflict contributes to job difficulties, which lowers job satisfaction, which, in turn, increases the intent to leave the job and profession; and work-family conflict increases the intent to leave the job and profession (but does not directly affect job satisfaction). Policies to help NLRNs with family responsibilities could reduce family-work conflict, which might reduce job difficulties and improve satisfaction and retention. In addition, policies to reduce job demands could reduce work-family conflict and improve retention.

  9. Overcoming hopelessness and social isolation: the ENGAGE model for working with neglecting families toward permanence.

    PubMed

    Petras, Donna D; Massat, Carol Rippey; Essex, Elizabeth Lehr

    2002-01-01

    The Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA) mandates policies designed to increase the frequency and speed with which permanency is achieved for children in the child welfare system. ASFA's focus is on child safety, permanency, and well-being. The expectation that parents correct neglectful conditions within specified time frames places an increased ethical responsibility on child welfare staff. Carrying out this responsibility requires vigorous and innovative approaches to engaging and working with neglectful families. Drawing on a well-established conceptual framework for understanding the determinants of effective parenting, the authors derive the ENGAGE (Engagement, Needs assessment, Goal setting, Assessment of progress, Goal achievement, Ending work) model for achieving permanency within the policy structure. The model incorporates creative client engagement, assessment of family needs, mutual goal setting, the goal achievement process, termination, and aftercare.

  10. A proposed intergenerational model of substance abuse, family functioning, and abuse/neglect.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, M J

    1995-05-01

    Although the link between substance abuse and child maltreatment has been relatively well established, there is a general recognition that this is not a simple cause-effect relationship. The current study explored the relationships among substance abuse, family functioning, and abuse/neglect in a sample of incarcerated substance abusers. Data were gathered on the earlier life experiences of 81 men and women serving sentences in two maximum security prisons, including assessments of their parents' substance abuse problems; levels of family competence within their families-of-origin; their exposure, as children and adults, to physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical/emotional neglect; and their own levels of substance abuse. Results showed generally high percentages of parental substance abuse and abuse/neglect, and relatively low levels of family competence. Correlational analyses revealed significant direct and indirect relationships among parental substance abuse, family dynamics, and exposure to both child and adult maltreatment. These four variables were also significantly associated with respondents' own substance abuse in later life, suggesting the potential for continuation of these patterns into successive generations. An intergenerational model of these family and personal functioning variables is presented and implications for service delivery with correctional clients is discussed.

  11. Review of family relational stress and pediatric asthma: the value of biopsychosocial systemic models.

    PubMed

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development. PMID:25683472

  12. Review of family relational stress and pediatric asthma: the value of biopsychosocial systemic models.

    PubMed

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development.

  13. Modeling and structural analysis of evolutionarily diverse S8 family serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Laskar, Aparna; Rodger, Euan James; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mandal, Chhabinath

    2011-01-01

    Serine proteases are an abundant class of enzymes that are involved in a wide range of physiological processes and are classified into clans sharing structural homology. The active site of the subtilisin-like clan contains a catalytic triad in the order Asp, His, Ser (S8 family) or a catalytic tetrad in the order Glu, Asp and Ser (S53 family). The core structure and active site geometry of these proteases is of interest for many applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the structural properties of different S8 family serine proteases from a diverse range of taxa using molecular modeling techniques. In conjunction with 12 experimentally determined three-dimensional structures of S8 family members, our predicted structures from an archaeon, protozoan and a plant were used for analysis of the catalytic core. Amino acid sequences were obtained from the MEROPS database and submitted to the LOOPP server for threading based structure prediction. The predicted structures were refined and validated using PROCHECK, SCRWL and MODELYN. Investigation of secondary structures and electrostatic surface potential was performed using MOLMOL. Encompassing a wide range of taxa, our structural analysis provides an evolutionary perspective on S8 family serine proteases. Focusing on the common core containing the catalytic site of the enzyme, the analysis presented here is beneficial for future molecular modeling strategies and structure-based rational drug design.

  14. LMX, Breach Perceptions, Work-Family Conflict, and Well-Being: A Mediational Model.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rachel T; Morganson, Valerie J; Matthews, Russell A; Atkinson, Theresa P

    2016-01-01

    Despite research advances, work-family scholars still lack an understanding of how leadership constructs relate to an employee's ability to effectively manage the work-family interface. In addition, there remains a need to examine the process through which leadership and work-family conflict influence well-being outcomes. Using a sample of 312 workers, a mediated process model grounded in social exchange theory is tested wherein the authors seek to explain how leaders shape employee perceptions, which, in turn, impact organizational fulfillment of expectations (i.e., psychological contract breach), work-family conflict, and well-being. A fully latent structural equation model was used to test study hypotheses, all of which were supported. Building on existing theory, findings suggest that the supervisor plays a critical role as a frontline representative for the organization and that work-family conflict is reduced and well-being enhanced through a process of social exchange between the supervisor and worker. PMID:25802949

  15. Family therapy as a model for treating childhood obesity: useful tools for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Paulina; Flodmark, Carl-Erik

    2011-01-01

    More than 15 percent of children in Europe are overweight; another 5 percent are obese. The high prevalence of obesity emphasizes the necessity of developing evidence-based treatment programs that are useful in a clinical setting. Management of childhood obesity is commonly based on lifestyle interventions where nutrition, physical activity, and behavior modification are the main targets. To incorporate lifestyle interventions, many childhood obesity treatment models use different psychological models, such as behavior modification or cognitive behavior therapy. This paper presents the key lessons from a research program on an empirically supported family-therapy-based treatment, Standardized Obesity Family Therapy (SOFT). SOFT is based on systemic and solution-focused theories and has shown positive effects on the child with respect to degree of obesity, physical fitness, self-esteem, and family functioning in several studies. The distinguishing features of SOFT are the focus on family interactions as an important source for implementing and maintaining lifestyle changes, the multidisciplinary team approach, and a limited number of sessions (three to four per year). The main aim of this paper is to provide tools for clinicians in the field of obesity who work with families, alone or in a multidisciplinary team.

  16. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems. PMID:26407854

  17. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  18. A Sociocultural Model Relating Family and School Variables to Literacy Learning for Mexican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Bryant T.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation has three purposes: (a) to structure an argument for binational collaboration of educational advancement for children of Mexican origins; (b) to put forward a conceptual model of how family and school characteristics develop alongside student learning; and (c) to answer a set of questions concerning literacy learning for children…

  19. A Formative Evaluation of the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk Coaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Smith, Burgess; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Borden, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe the results of a formative evaluation of a coaching model designed to support recipients of funding through the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) initiative. Results indicate that CYFAR coaches draw from a variety of types of coaching and that CYFAR principle investigators (PIs) are generally satisfied with…

  20. Evaluation of a Family-Centered Early Childhood Special Education Preservice Model by Program Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary M.; Mandell, Colleen J.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study evaluated the impact on program graduates of two personnel preparation projects founded on a family-centered preservice model and funded by the Office of Special Education Programs. Three cohorts totaling 22 participants were interviewed to (a) determine their attitudes and skill level in working with a diverse group of…

  1. Applying the Nominal Response Model within a Longitudinal Framework to Construct the Positive Family Relationships Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Parral, Skye N.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Ibrahim, Sirena M.; Delany, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A psychometric analysis was conducted using the nominal response model under the item response theory framework to construct the Positive Family Relationships scale. Using data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, this scale was constructed within a long-term longitudinal framework spanning middle childhood through adolescence. Items tapping…

  2. Socialization of Coping with Community Violence: Influences of Caregiver Coaching, Modeling, and Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Parrish, Katie Adams; Taylor, Kelli W.; Jackson, Kate; Walker, Jean M.; Shivy, Victoria A.

    2006-01-01

    A socialization model of coping with community violence was tested in 101 African American adolescents (55% male, ages 9-13) and their maternal caregivers living in high-violence areas of a mid-sized, southeastern city. Participants completed interviews assessing caregiver coping, family context, and child adjustment. Caregiver-child dyads also…

  3. Breaking the Patriarchal Vision of Social Science: Lessons from a Family Therapy Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Sheila

    The Milan model of systemic family therapy, developed in Italy and based on G. Bateson's cybernetic epistemology, can help meet the goals of a feminist/systemic epistemology in research by accepting data in its "traditional" form yet also connecting it to the act of researching, itself, thereby merging a feminist perspective with the domain of…

  4. Toward a Dialectical Model of Family Gender Discourse: Body, Identity, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Libby Balter; Blume, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a dialectical model representing gender discourse in families. A brief review of literature in sociology, psychology, and gender studies focuses on three dialectical issues: nature versus culture, similarity versus difference, and stability versus fluidity. Deconstructing gender theories from a postmodern feminist perspective, the authors…

  5. Four Models of Adolescent Mother-Grandmother Relationships in Black Inner-City Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfel, Nancy H.; Seitz, Victoria

    1991-01-01

    Presents four conceptual models of familial adaptation to adolescent pregnancy discerned from interviews with African-American adolescent mothers (n=119) and their mothers (n=103): Parental Replacement; Parental Supplement; Supported Primary Parent; and Parental Apprentice. Claims framework provides method for better understanding of triadic…

  6. Children at Risk for Academic Failure: A Model of Individual and Family Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilliams, Laura; Beran, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify individual and family risk factors that may explain why some students are at risk for academic failure. Students' self-concept, academic motivation, and their parents' involvement in education were reported by both students and teachers. A latent variable path model fit the data well (Comparative Fit Index…

  7. The Managerial Motivation Models Appear To Be in the Family Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanser, Kris

    Managerial motivation models have evolved beyond the human resource tradition of the 1960s and the 1970s to a form of corporate involvement with the personal needs of employees, many of whose family lifestyles have changed dramatically. To analyze the new role for companies and the corporate concern for employees' well-being, this research study…

  8. Metamotifs - a generative model for building families of nucleotide position weight matrices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Development of high-throughput methods for measuring DNA interactions of transcription factors together with computational advances in short motif inference algorithms is expanding our understanding of transcription factor binding site motifs. The consequential growth of sequence motif data sets makes it important to systematically group and categorise regulatory motifs. It has been shown that there are familial tendencies in DNA sequence motifs that are predictive of the family of factors that binds them. Further development of methods that detect and describe familial motif trends has the potential to help in measuring the similarity of novel computational motif predictions to previously known data and sensitively detecting regulatory motifs similar to previously known ones from novel sequence. Results We propose a probabilistic model for position weight matrix (PWM) sequence motif families. The model, which we call the 'metamotif' describes recurring familial patterns in a set of motifs. The metamotif framework models variation within a family of sequence motifs. It allows for simultaneous estimation of a series of independent metamotifs from input position weight matrix (PWM) motif data and does not assume that all input motif columns contribute to a familial pattern. We describe an algorithm for inferring metamotifs from weight matrix data. We then demonstrate the use of the model in two practical tasks: in the Bayesian NestedMICA model inference algorithm as a PWM prior to enhance motif inference sensitivity, and in a motif classification task where motifs are labelled according to their interacting DNA binding domain. Conclusions We show that metamotifs can be used as PWM priors in the NestedMICA motif inference algorithm to dramatically increase the sensitivity to infer motifs. Metamotifs were also successfully applied to a motif classification problem where sequence motif features were used to predict the family of protein DNA binding domains

  9. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Implementing evidence-based models in community settings

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Muir, Joan A.; Duff, Johnathan H.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting a nearly 40-year collaborative partnership between clinical researchers and clinicians, the present article reviews the authors’ experience in developing, investigating, and implementing the Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) model. The first section of the article focuses on the theory, practice, and studies related to this evidence-based family therapy intervention targeting adolescent drug abuse and delinquency. The second section focuses on the implementation model created for the BSFT intervention– a model that parallels many of the recommendations furthered within the implementation science literature. Specific challenges encountered during the BSFT implementation process are reviewed, along with ways of conceptualizing and addressing these challenges from a systemic perspective. The implementation approach that we employ uses the same systemic principles and intervention techniques as those that underlie the BSFT model itself. Recommendations for advancing the field of implementation science, based on our on-the-ground experiences, are proposed. PMID:24274187

  10. Stress in Adolescents with a Chronically Ill Parent: Inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness Model.

    PubMed

    Sieh, D S; Dikkers, A L C; Visser-Meily, J M A; Meijer, A M

    2012-12-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland's Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in this Dutch study. The Dutch Stress Questionnaire for Children was used to measure child report of stress. Ill parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Children filled in a scale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment measuring the quality of parent attachment. Both parents filled in the Parent-Child-Interaction Questionnaire-Revised. We conducted multilevel regression analyses including illness type, the ill parent's depressive symptoms, family functioning (quality of marital relationship, parent-child interaction, and parent attachment), and adolescents' gender and age. Four regression analyses were performed separately for each illness type as defined by disability (Model 1), and onset (Model 2), course (Model 3), and outcome of illness (Model 4). In all models, higher adolescent stress scores were linked to lower quality of parent-child interaction and parent attachment, and adolescents' female gender. The four models explained approximately 37 % of the variance in adolescent stress between individuals and 43-44 % of the variance in adolescent stress between families. Adolescent stress was not related to parental illness type. Our results partially supported the FSI model stating that family functioning is essential in point of child adjustment to parental illness. In the chronic stage of parental illness, adolescent stress does not seem to vary depending on illness type.

  11. An explicit SU(12) family and flavor unification model with natural fermion masses and mixings

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2012-07-01

    We present an SU(12) unification model with three light chiral families, avoiding any external flavor symmetries. The hierarchy of quark and lepton masses and mixings is explained by higher dimensional Yukawa interactions involving Higgs bosons that contain SU(5) singlet fields with VEVs about 50 times smaller than the SU(12) unification scale. The presented model has been analyzed in detail and found to be in very good agreement with the observed quark and lepton masses and mixings.

  12. Cognitive-Existential Family Therapy: A Proposed Theoretical Integration Model for Pastoral Counselors.

    PubMed

    Saunders, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental Christianity and psychology are frequently viewed as incompatible pursuits. However, proponents of the integrationist movement posit that pastoral counselors can utilize principles from psychology if they adopt the premise that all truth is God's truth. Assuming this perspective, Cognitive-Existential Family Therapy (CEFT) - a theoretical integration model compatible with Christian fundamentalism - is proposed. The philosophical assumptions and models of personality, health, and abnormality are explored. Additionally, the article provides an overview of the therapeutic process.

  13. Density of zeros of the ferromagnetic Ising model on a family of fractals.

    PubMed

    Knežević, Milan; Knežević, Dragica

    2012-06-01

    We studied distribution of zeros of the partition function of the ferromagnetic Ising model near the Yang-Lee edge on a family of Sierpinski gasket lattices whose members are labeled by an integer b (2 ≤ b<∞). The obtained exact results on the first seven members of this family show that, for b ≥ 4, associated correlation length diverges more slowly than any power law when distance δh from the edge tends to zero, ξ_{YL}∼exp[ln(b)sqrt[|ln(δh)|/ln(λ{0})

  14. Development and rescue of human familial hypercholesterolaemia in a xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bissig-Choisat, Beatrice; Wang, Lili; Legras, Xavier; Saha, Pradip K.; Chen, Leon; Bell, Peter; Pankowicz, Francis P.; Hill, Matthew C.; Barzi, Mercedes; Leyton, Claudia Kettlun; Leung, Hon-Chiu Eastwood; Kruse, Robert L.; Himes, Ryan W.; Goss, John A.; Wilson, James M.; Chan, Lawrence; Lagor, William R.; Bissig, Karl-Dimiter

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of lipid metabolism are a major cause of human morbidity, but no animal model entirely recapitulates human lipoprotein metabolism. Here we develop a xenograft mouse model using hepatocytes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolaemia caused by loss-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Like familial hypercholesterolaemia patients, our familial hypercholesterolaemia liver chimeric mice develop hypercholesterolaemia and a 'humanized‘ serum profile, including expression of the emerging drug targets cholesteryl ester transfer protein and apolipoprotein (a), for which no genes exist in mice. We go on to replace the missing LDLR in familial hypercholesterolaemia liver chimeric mice using an adeno-associated virus 9-based gene therapy and restore normal lipoprotein profiles after administration of a single dose. Our study marks the first time a human metabolic disease is induced in an experimental animal model by human hepatocyte transplantation and treated by gene therapy. Such xenograft platforms offer the ability to validate human experimental therapies and may foster their rapid translation into the clinic. PMID:26081744

  15. A simple marriage model for the power-law behaviour in the frequency distributions of family names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao-Yun; Chou, Chung-I.; Tseng, Jie-Jun

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, the frequency distributions of family names are found to decay as a power law with an exponent ranging from 1.0 to 2.2. In this work, we propose a simple marriage model which can reproduce this power-law behaviour. Our model, based on the evolution of families, consists of the growth of big families and the formation of new families. Preliminary results from the model show that the name distributions are in good agreement with empirical data from Taiwan and Norway.

  16. Significant speedup of database searches with HMMs by search space reduction with PSSM family models

    PubMed Central

    Beckstette, Michael; Homann, Robert; Giegerich, Robert; Kurtz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) are currently the most popular modeling concept for protein families. They provide sensitive family descriptors, and sequence database searching with pHMMs has become a standard task in today's genome annotation pipelines. On the downside, searching with pHMMs is computationally expensive. Results: We propose a new method for efficient protein family classification and for speeding up database searches with pHMMs as is necessary for large-scale analysis scenarios. We employ simpler models of protein families called position-specific scoring matrices family models (PSSM-FMs). For fast database search, we combine full-text indexing, efficient exact p-value computation of PSSM match scores and fast fragment chaining. The resulting method is well suited to prefilter the set of sequences to be searched for subsequent database searches with pHMMs. We achieved a classification performance only marginally inferior to hmmsearch, yet, results could be obtained in a fraction of runtime with a speedup of >64-fold. In experiments addressing the method's ability to prefilter the sequence space for subsequent database searches with pHMMs, our method reduces the number of sequences to be searched with hmmsearch to only 0.80% of all sequences. The filter is very fast and leads to a total speedup of factor 43 over the unfiltered search, while retaining >99.5% of the original results. In a lossless filter setup for hmmsearch on UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, we observed a speedup of factor 92. Availability: The presented algorithms are implemented in the program PoSSuMsearch2, available for download at http://bibiserv.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/possumsearch2/. Contact: beckstette@zbh.uni-hamburg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19828575

  17. Modeling psychological well-being and family relationships among retired older people in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hui-Hsun; Chien, Li-Hui; Lin, Jie-Siang; Yeh, Yi-Hui; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2013-02-01

    Well-being is an important indicator of an individual's quality of life, especially for retired people. In the present study, we investigated the psychological well-being (PWB) of retired Taipei (Taiwan) older people and its associations with sex, family relationships, and health status. A structured questionnaire was used to measure demographics, family relationships, and perceived health status, as well as Ryff's PWB Scales. Data were analyzed from 268 retired olderpeople recruited from social service centres and public parks from September to November 2010. The Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model demonstrated a very good fit of Ryff's PWB Scales and their relations to sex, family relationships, and perceived health status. The link with PWB was stronger for family relationships than for perceived health. The Mandarin translation of Ryff's PWB Scales was found to be suitable and easy to administer to Taiwanese olderpeople. The findings suggest that nurses should note that improving family relations will facilitate the PWB of retired olderpeople, which results in better outcomes of care.

  18. b {r-arrow} s transitions in family-dependent U(1)' models.

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, V.; Everett, L.; Jiang, J.; Langacker, P.; Liu, T.; Wagner, C. E. M.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Wisconsin; Inst. for Advanced Study

    2009-01-01

    We analyze flavor-changing-neutral-current (FCNC) effects in the b {yields} s transitions that are induced by family non-universal U(1){prime} gauge symmetries. After systematically developing the necessary formalism, we present a correlated analysis for the {Delta}B = 1,2 processes. We adopt a model-independent approach in which we only require family-universal charges for the first and second generations and small fermion mixing angles. We analyze the constraints on the resulting parameter space from B{sub s}-{bar B} mixing and the time-dependent CP asymmetries of the penguin-dominated B{sub d} {yields} ({pi},{phi}, {eta}{prime}, {rho},{omega},f0)K{sub S} decays. Our results indicate that the currently observed discrepancies in some of these modes with respect to the Standard Model predictions can be consistently accommodated within this general class of models.

  19. A risk management model for familial breast cancer: A new application using Fuzzy Cognitive Map method.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Jayashree Subramanian; Karmegam, Akila; Papandrianos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly disease affecting women and thus it is natural for women aged 40-49 years (who have a family history of breast cancer or other related cancers) to assess their personal risk for developing familial breast cancer (FBC). Besides, as each individual woman possesses different levels of risk of developing breast cancer depending on their family history, genetic predispositions and personal medical history, individualized care setting mechanism needs to be identified so that appropriate risk assessment, counseling, screening, and prevention options can be determined by the health care professionals. The presented work aims at developing a soft computing based medical decision support system using Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) that assists health care professionals in deciding the individualized care setting mechanisms based on the FBC risk level of the given women. The FCM based FBC risk management system uses NHL to learn causal weights from 40 patient records and achieves a 95% diagnostic accuracy. The results obtained from the proposed model are in concurrence with the comprehensive risk evaluation tool based on Tyrer-Cuzick model for 38/40 patient cases (95%). Besides, the proposed model identifies high risk women by calculating higher accuracy of prediction than the standard Gail and NSAPB models. The testing accuracy of the proposed model using 10-fold cross validation technique outperforms other standard machine learning based inference engines as well as previous FCM-based risk prediction methods for BC.

  20. A risk management model for familial breast cancer: A new application using Fuzzy Cognitive Map method.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Jayashree Subramanian; Karmegam, Akila; Papandrianos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly disease affecting women and thus it is natural for women aged 40-49 years (who have a family history of breast cancer or other related cancers) to assess their personal risk for developing familial breast cancer (FBC). Besides, as each individual woman possesses different levels of risk of developing breast cancer depending on their family history, genetic predispositions and personal medical history, individualized care setting mechanism needs to be identified so that appropriate risk assessment, counseling, screening, and prevention options can be determined by the health care professionals. The presented work aims at developing a soft computing based medical decision support system using Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) that assists health care professionals in deciding the individualized care setting mechanisms based on the FBC risk level of the given women. The FCM based FBC risk management system uses NHL to learn causal weights from 40 patient records and achieves a 95% diagnostic accuracy. The results obtained from the proposed model are in concurrence with the comprehensive risk evaluation tool based on Tyrer-Cuzick model for 38/40 patient cases (95%). Besides, the proposed model identifies high risk women by calculating higher accuracy of prediction than the standard Gail and NSAPB models. The testing accuracy of the proposed model using 10-fold cross validation technique outperforms other standard machine learning based inference engines as well as previous FCM-based risk prediction methods for BC. PMID:26220142

  1. "Her illness is a project we can work on together": developing a collaborative family-centered intervention model for newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rintell, David; Melito, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model for intervening with families that are addressing a new diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in one member. The model is collaborative, integrative, and family-centered. It involves both working with the family collaboratively and providing strategies to promote greater collaboration within the family. The model integrates elements of crisis intervention theory, psycho-education, and family-centered approaches. The model was developed with families addressing MS, and was piloted with three families. The intervention was found to improve family members' ability to collaborate with each other. Such increased collaboration may enhance the family's ability to manage long-term illness more effectively, help the family address the impact of the illness on all family members, and generally improve the family's quality of life. PMID:24453775

  2. Beyond Main Effects Models of Adolescent Work Intensity, Family Closeness, and School Disengagement: Mediational and Conditional Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed adolescents in grades 9 through 12 to examine family closeness as either mediator or moderator of relationships between intense work and academic engagement. Found that for boys, the family closeness mediational model provided best fit for data; for girls, the moderator model fit best. Found girls were especially vulnerable to negative…

  3. Structural propensities of kinase family proteins from a Potts model of residue co-variation.

    PubMed

    Haldane, Allan; Flynn, William F; He, Peng; Vijayan, R S K; Levy, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the conformational propensities of proteins is key to solving many problems in structural biology and biophysics. The co-variation of pairs of mutations contained in multiple sequence alignments of protein families can be used to build a Potts Hamiltonian model of the sequence patterns which accurately predicts structural contacts. This observation paves the way to develop deeper connections between evolutionary fitness landscapes of entire protein families and the corresponding free energy landscapes which determine the conformational propensities of individual proteins. Using statistical energies determined from the Potts model and an alignment of 2896 PDB structures, we predict the propensity for particular kinase family proteins to assume a "DFG-out" conformation implicated in the susceptibility of some kinases to type-II inhibitors, and validate the predictions by comparison with the observed structural propensities of the corresponding proteins and experimental binding affinity data. We decompose the statistical energies to investigate which interactions contribute the most to the conformational preference for particular sequences and the corresponding proteins. We find that interactions involving the activation loop and the C-helix and HRD motif are primarily responsible for stabilizing the DFG-in state. This work illustrates how structural free energy landscapes and fitness landscapes of proteins can be used in an integrated way, and in the context of kinase family proteins, can potentially impact therapeutic design strategies. PMID:27241634

  4. Using the prevent-teach-reinforce model with families of young children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Sears, Kacie M; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho; Iovannone, Rose; Crosland, Kimberly

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to examine the feasibility and potential efficacy of implementing an adapted, family-centered version of the school-based prevent-teach-reinforce (PTR) model. The research included two families who implemented the PTR process for their children in collaboration with the researchers. The adapted PTR was tested using a multiple baseline design across routines to examine changes in child behavior across experimental conditions. Results indicated that the adapted PTR intervention was associated with reduction in child problem behavior and increases in alternative behavior in both target and non-target routines. The results also indicated that the parents were able to implement the behavior intervention plan with fidelity and successfully use the PTR process for a novel routine. The PTR intervention also had high social validity ratings; both self- and novel-rated validity indicated that the PTR intervention was acceptable to both families and the community at large. The data are discussed in terms of the expanding evidence related to the PTR model and the extension to a family context.

  5. Incorporating Religiosity into a Developmental Model of Positive Family Functioning across Generations

    PubMed Central

    Spilman, Sarah K.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a developmental model of intergenerational continuity in religiosity and its association with observed competency in romantic and parent-child relationships across two generations. Using multi-informant data from the Family Transitions Project, a 20-year longitudinal study of families that began during early adolescence (N = 451), we found that parental religiosity assessed during the youth’s adolescence was positively related to the youth’s own religiosity during adolescence which, in turn, predicted their religiosity after the transition to adulthood. The findings also supported the theoretical model guiding the study, which proposes that religiosity acts as a personal resource that will be uniquely and positively associated with the quality of family relationships. Especially important, the findings demonstrate support for the role of religiosity in a developmental process that promotes positive family functioning after addressing earlier methodological limitations in this area of study, such as cross-sectional research designs, single informant measurement, retrospective reports, and the failure to control for other individual differences. PMID:22545832

  6. A novel approach for identifying causal models of complex diseases from family data.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung; Kim, Ju H

    2015-04-01

    Causal models including genetic factors are important for understanding the presentation mechanisms of complex diseases. Familial aggregation and segregation analyses based on polygenic threshold models have been the primary approach to fitting genetic models to the family data of complex diseases. In the current study, an advanced approach to obtaining appropriate causal models for complex diseases based on the sufficient component cause (SCC) model involving combinations of traditional genetics principles was proposed. The probabilities for the entire population, i.e., normal-normal, normal-disease, and disease-disease, were considered for each model for the appropriate handling of common complex diseases. The causal model in the current study included the genetic effects from single genes involving epistasis, complementary gene interactions, gene-environment interactions, and environmental effects. Bayesian inference using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm (MCMC) was used to assess of the proportions of each component for a given population lifetime incidence. This approach is flexible, allowing both common and rare variants within a gene and across multiple genes. An application to schizophrenia data confirmed the complexity of the causal factors. An analysis of diabetes data demonstrated that environmental factors and gene-environment interactions are the main causal factors for type II diabetes. The proposed method is effective and useful for identifying causal models, which can accelerate the development of efficient strategies for identifying causal factors of complex diseases. PMID:25701286

  7. Current and recollected perceptions of family relationships: the social relations model approach applied to members of three generations.

    PubMed

    Delsing, Marc J M H; Oud, Johan H L; De Bruyn, Eric E J; Van Aken, Marcel A G

    2003-12-01

    Data from 81 three-generation families (comprising 567 participants) were analyzed to assess perceptions of current-family and family-of-origin relationships. The dimensions studied (Restrictiveness, Justice, Affection, and Trust) were derived from the family systems theories as developed by Boszormenyi-Nagy (I. Boszormenyi-Nagy & B. R. Krasner, 1986; I. Boszormenyi-Nagy & G. Spark, 1984; I. Boszormenyi-Nagy & D. N. Ulrich, 1981) and Stierlin (H. Stierlin, 1974, 1978; H. Stierlin, I. Rucker-Embden, N. Wetzel, & M. Wirsching, 1980). The social relations model (SRM) was used to disentangle the perception scores into characteristics of the perceiver (actor component), the target (partner component), and the family as a whole. For both current-family and family-of-origin relationships, significant variances of actor as well as family components were found. Empirical evidence for an association between current-family and (mother's) family-of-origin components was only found on the dimension of Restrictiveness. Clear differences were found between the means of current-family and family-of-origin perceptions, which could be explained by differences between current and past SRM components. PMID:14640796

  8. Ewing sarcoma family of tumors: a model for the new era of integrated laboratory diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Joseph D

    2008-01-01

    The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) represents one of the best models illustrating the multifaceted approach to the diagnosis of cancer that has evolved over the past decade. ESFT encompasses tumors that arise in bone or soft tissues and may have disparate histologic features. As a result, it was not until the discovery that these tumors share a common underlying molecular pathogenesis (chromosomal translocations involving the EWS gene and one of several members of the ETS family of transcription factors) that significant advances in the diagnosis and therapy of ESFT became possible. As a result, ESFT has come to embody the amalgamation of classical diagnostic tools, such as histology and routine microscopy, with newer techniques, such as immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques; the latter include PCR-based methods and fluorescence in situ hybridization. This review will address the features of ESFT and how it has emerged as a model for the new era of integrated diagnostics.

  9. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights From the Family Stress Model.

    PubMed

    Benner, Aprile D; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-03-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial and job instability) were associated with parents' economic stress. Economic stress and economic status were related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, were associated with more hostile and coercive parenting, less nurturing and involved parenting, and greater interparental hostility. Finally, mothers' hostile and coercive parenting were directly related to both adolescents' academic and sociobehavioral outcomes, whereas fathers' nurturing and involved parenting related to academic but not sociobehavioral outcomes. PMID:20454605

  10. Feasibility and potential efficacy of the family-centered Prevent-Teach-Reinforce model with families of children with developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kathleen M; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility and potential efficacy of the family-centered Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model with three families of young children with an autism spectrum disorder or language delay with sensory processing problems. Particularly, the study assessed the family adherence to the PTR intervention, changes in child behavior, family use of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), procedural integrity, and social validity. A multiple-baseline design across families was used to examine the functional relation between parent-implemented PTR intervention and changes in child behavior. Results indicated that the family-centered PTR process was successful in promoting parents to design and implement the PTR intervention plans with fidelity, and the parents' implemented intervention plans were effective in increasing replacement behavior and decreasing problem behavior across children. The results also indicated that the parents successfully used the IBRST to monitor their child's progress and were highly satisfied with the PTR intervention process and outcomes for their children.

  11. Dynamics of asteroid family halos constrained by spin/shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    A number of asteroid families cannot be identified solely on the basis of the Hierarchical Clustering Method (HCM), because they have additional 'former' members in the surroundings which constitute a so called halo (e.g. Broz & Morbidelli 2013). They are usually mixed up with the background population which has to be taken into account too.Luckily, new photometric observations allow to derive new spin/shape models, which serve as independent constraints for dynamical models. For example, a recent census of the Eos family shows 43 core and 27 halo asteroids (including background) with known spin orientations.To this point, we present a complex spin-orbital model which includes full N-body dynamics and consequently accounts for all mean-motion, secular, or three-body gravitational resonances, the Yarkovsky drift, YORP effect, collisional reorientations and also spin-orbital interactions. These are especially important for the Koronis family. In this project, we make use of data from the DAMIT database and ProjectSoft Blue Eye 600 observatory.

  12. Toward a Stress Process Model of Children’s Exposure to Physical Family and Community Violence

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Theoretically informed models are required to further the comprehensive understanding of children’s ETV. We draw on the stress process paradigm to forward an overall conceptual model of ETV (ETV) in childhood and adolescence. Around this conceptual model, we synthesize research in four dominant areas of the literature which are detailed but often disconnected including: (1) exposure to three forms of physical violence (e.g., child physical maltreatment, interparental violence, and community ETV); (2) the multilevel correlates and causes of ETV (e.g., neighborhood characteristics including concentrated disadvantage; family characteristics including socio-economic status and family stressors); (3) a range of consequences of ETV (e.g., internalizing and externalizing mental health problems, role transitions, and academic outcomes); and (4) multilevel and cross domain mediators and moderators of ETV influences (e.g., school and community factors, family social support, and individual coping resources). We highlight the range of interconnected processes through which violence exposures may influence children and suggest opportunities for prevention and intervention. We further identify needed future research on children’s ETV including coping resources as well as research on cumulative contributions of violence exposure, violence exposure modifications, curvilinearity, and timing of exposure. PMID:19434492

  13. Analyzing development of working models for disrupted attachments: the case of hidden family violence.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Catherine C; Fischer, Kurt W; O'Connor, Erin E

    2003-06-01

    This article offers a developmental model of attachment theory rooted in dynamic skill theory. Dynamic skill theory is based on the assumption that people do not have integrated, fundamentally logical minds, but instead develop along naturally fractionated strands of a web. Contrary to traditional interpretations of attachment theory, dynamic skill theory proposes that individuals continue to modify their working models of attachments throughout the lifespan. In particular, working models of close relationships develop systematically through a series of skill levels such that the skills vary across strands in the web and will not automatically form a unified whole. The continual modification of working models is particularly pertinent for the consequences of hidden family violence for individuals' development. Dynamic skill theory shows how trauma can produce not developmental delay or fixation, as has been proposed previously, but instead the construction of advanced, complex working models.

  14. Adjusting for Network Size and Composition Effects in Exponential-Family Random Graph Models.

    PubMed

    Krivitsky, Pavel N; Handcock, Mark S; Morris, Martina

    2011-07-01

    Exponential-family random graph models (ERGMs) provide a principled way to model and simulate features common in human social networks, such as propensities for homophily and friend-of-a-friend triad closure. We show that, without adjustment, ERGMs preserve density as network size increases. Density invariance is often not appropriate for social networks. We suggest a simple modification based on an offset which instead preserves the mean degree and accommodates changes in network composition asymptotically. We demonstrate that this approach allows ERGMs to be applied to the important situation of egocentrically sampled data. We analyze data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). PMID:21691424

  15. FootSpring: A Compliance Model for the ATHLETE Family of Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Dawn Deborah; Chavez-Clemente, Daniel; Sunspiral, Vytas K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates one method of modeling compliance in a wheel-on-leg walking robot. This method assumes that all of the robot s compliance takes place at the ground contact points, specifically the tires and legs, and that the rest of the robot is rigid. Optimization is used to solve for the displacement of the feet and of the center of gravity. This method was tested on both robots of the ATHLETE family, which have different compliance. For both robots, the model predicts the sag of points on the robot chassis with an average error of about one percent of the height of the robot.

  16. Adjusting for Network Size and Composition Effects in Exponential-Family Random Graph Models

    PubMed Central

    Krivitsky, Pavel N.; Handcock, Mark S.; Morris, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Exponential-family random graph models (ERGMs) provide a principled way to model and simulate features common in human social networks, such as propensities for homophily and friend-of-a-friend triad closure. We show that, without adjustment, ERGMs preserve density as network size increases. Density invariance is often not appropriate for social networks. We suggest a simple modification based on an offset which instead preserves the mean degree and accommodates changes in network composition asymptotically. We demonstrate that this approach allows ERGMs to be applied to the important situation of egocentrically sampled data. We analyze data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). PMID:21691424

  17. Testing Liddle’s three-syndrome model in families with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Alison; Honer, William G.

    2011-01-01

    While the symptoms of schizophrenia can be grouped into positive and negative syndromes, increasing evidence suggests that three clusters of symptoms are present. Liddle (1987a) described a three-syndrome model comprised of reality distortion, psychomotor poverty and disorganization symptom clusters. This model was assessed in the present study using a sample of 72 members of five families segregating schizophrenia. A wide range of psychopathology was present across a spectrum of diagnoses. Data on symptoms used in Liddle’s model were derived from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and a mental status examination. Factor analysis of the data indicated the presence of three clusters of symptoms. The psychomotor poverty or negative symptom cluster was confirmed in the familial sample. However, the other two factors differed somewhat from the Liddle model. Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and inappropriate affect formed one factor; suspiciousness and stereotyped thinking formed the other. These three symptom clusters may be comparable to the catatonic, hebephrenic and paranoid classical subtypes of schizophrenia. The implications of Liddle’s model for genetic studies of schizophrenia require further investigation. PMID:8054313

  18. Family Influences on Mania-Relevant Cognitions and Beliefs: A Cognitive Model of Mania and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen H.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study proposed and tested a cognitive model of mania and reward. Method Undergraduates (N = 284; 68.4% female; mean age = 20.99 years, standard deviation ± 3.37) completed measures of family goal setting and achievement values, personal reward-related beliefs, cognitive symptoms of mania, and risk for mania. Results Correlational analyses and structural equation modeling supported two distinct, but related facets of mania-relevant cognition: stably present reward-related beliefs and state-dependent cognitive symptoms in response to success and positive emotion. Results also indicated that family emphasis on achievement and highly ambitious extrinsic goals were associated with these mania-relevant cognitions. Finally, controlling for other factors, cognitive symptoms in response to success and positive emotion were uniquely associated with lifetime propensity towards mania symptoms. Conclusions Results support the merit of distinguishing between facets of mania-relevant cognition and the importance of the family in shaping both aspects of cognition. PMID:22623269

  19. Preparing for an influenza pandemic: model of an immunization clinic in an urban family practice

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Nicole; Franke, Carolyn; O’Connor, Shirlee A.; Shaw, Holly; Hum, Susan; Dunn, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed The surge in patient demand for the H1N1 influenza vaccine during the 2009 pandemic. Objective of the program To facilitate timely delivery of the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine to a family practice population while preserving regular clinic function and to create a model of effective vaccination delivery for future outbreaks. Program description An academic family practice in Toronto, Ont, adopted a process-improvement approach and implemented 3 Saturday stand-alone H1N1 vaccination clinics to accommodate increased demand for the vaccine. Medical directives were developed to give nurses the authority to vaccinate patients. Consent forms with eligibility criteria and risks versus benefits sheets were provided to patients in the waiting area to make optimal use of time. The clinic with “appointment blocks” for patients had improved efficiency (ie, fewer bottlenecks from waiting area to vaccination room), which was satisfactory to both staff and patients. Conclusion During a pandemic, when patient demand for vaccination is high, such stand-alone vaccination clinics in conjunction with family practices can deliver vaccines to patients in a timely and acceptable manner while promoting continuity of care. This model requires the commitment of extra staffing resources if regular primary care delivery is to be maintained. PMID:21998244

  20. A New Family of Interpolatory Non-Stationary Subdivision Schemes for Curve Design in Geometric Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Costanza; Romani, Lucia

    2010-09-01

    Univariate subdivision schemes are efficient iterative methods to generate smooth limit curves starting from a sequence of arbitrary points. Aim of this paper is to present and investigate a new family of 6-point interpolatory non-stationary subdivision schemes capable of reproducing important curves of great interest in geometric modeling and engineering applications, if starting from uniformly spaced initial samples. This new family can reproduce conic sections since it is obtained by a parameter depending affine combination of the cubic exponential B-spline symbol generating functions in the space V4,γ = {1,x,etx,e-tx} with t∈{0,s,is|s>0}. Moreover, the free parameter can be chosen to reproduce also other interesting analytic curves by imposing the algebraic conditions for the reproduction of an additional pair of exponential polynomials giving rise to different extensions of the space V4,γ.

  1. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents’ Developmental Outcomes: Insights From the Family Stress Model

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model’s generalizability. Specifically, mothers’ and fathers’ reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial and job instability) were associated with parents’ economic stress. Economic stress and economic status were related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, were associated with more hostile and coercive parenting, less nurturing and involved parenting, and greater interparental hostility. Finally, mothers’ hostile and coercive parenting were directly related to both adolescents’ academic and sociobehavioral outcomes, whereas fathers’ nurturing and involved parenting related to academic but not sociobehavioral outcomes. PMID:20454605

  2. A simulation model for the determination of tabarru' rate in a family takaful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2014-06-01

    The concept of tabarru' that is incorporated in family takaful serves to eliminate the element of uncertainty in the contract as a participant agree to relinquish as donation certain portion of his contribution. The most important feature in family takaful is that it does not guarantee a definite return on a participant's contribution, unlike its conventional counterpart where a premium is paid in return for a guaranteed amount of insurance benefit. In other words, investment return on contributed funds by the participants are based on actual investment experience. The objective of this study is to set up a framework for the determination of tabarru' rate by simulation. The model is based on binomial death process. Specifically, linear tabarru' rate and flat tabarru' rate are introduced. The results of the simulation trials show that the linear assumption on the tabarru' rate has an advantage over the flat counterpart as far as the risk of the investment accumulation on maturity is concerned.

  3. Analysis and modeling of a family of two-transistor parallel inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C. Y.; Wilson, T. G.

    1973-01-01

    A family of five static dc-to-square-wave inverters, each employing a square-loop magnetic core in conjunction with two switching transistors, is analyzed using piecewise-linear models for the nonlinear characteristics of the transistors, diodes, and saturable-core devices. Four of the inverters are analyzed in detail for the first time. These analyses show that, by proper choice of a frame of reference, each of the five quite differently appearing inverter circuits can be described by a common equivalent circuit. This equivalent circuit consists of a five-segment nonlinear resistor, a nonlinear saturable reactor, and a linear capacitor. Thus, by proper interpretation and identification of the parameters in the different circuits, the results of a detailed solution for one of the inverter circuits provide similar information and insight into the local and global behavior of each inverter in the family.

  4. A Classification of the Field of Family Therapy: A Review of Prior Attempts and a New Paradigmatic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levant, Ronald F.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews early attempts to classify the field of family therapy, including Haley's caricatures, the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry's classification, and others. The new paradigmatic model proposes a classification of the field of family therapy in terms of three therapeutic paradigms: the historical, the structure/process, and the…

  5. The Maudsley Model of Family-Based Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Evaluation of Parent-to-Parent Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Paul; Brown, Jac; Madden, Sloane

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the qualitative analysis of a randomized control trial that explores the use of parent-to-parent consultations as an augmentation to the Maudsley model of family-based treatment for anorexia. Twenty families were randomized into two groups, 10 receiving standard treatment and 10 receiving an additional parent-to-parent…

  6. Days La Familia community drug and alcohol prevention program: Family-centered model for working with inner-city Hispanic families.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, L P; Lucero, E

    1996-03-01

    Substance abuse among Hispanics is on the increase despite national efforts toward reducing it. Researchers and service providers have recognized the specific need for better prevention models that address the issues of poor Hispanics. La Familia is a community-based ATOD prevention program that targets Hispanic families with high-risk youth from 6 to 11 years old, and attempts to reduce identified risk factors while building on culturally relevant protective factors. During the 2 years, the program has enrolled 219 youth and their families utilizing existing community networks and aggressive outreach. The program resulted in a 92% retention rate and over 80% attendance per session. As a result of the program, families became more willing to discuss ATOD issues openly and made positive steps toward empowerment.

  7. A conceptual model and key variables for guiding supportive interventions for family caregivers of people receiving palliative care.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Peter

    2003-12-01

    According to the World Health Organization, the patient and family should be viewed as the "unit of care" when palliative care is required. Therefore family caregivers should receive optimal supportive care from health professionals. However, the impact of supporting a dying relative is frequently described as having negative physical and psychosocial sequalae. Furthermore, family caregivers consistently report unmet needs and there has been a dearth of rigorous supportive interventions published. In addition, comprehensive conceptual frameworks to navigate the family caregiver experience and guide intervention development are lacking. This article draws on Lazarus and Folkman's seminal work on the transactional stress and coping framework to present a conceptual model specific to family caregivers of patients receiving palliative care. A comprehensive account of key variables to aid understanding of the family caregiver experience and intervention design is provided.

  8. A family of models of partially relaxed stellar systems. I. Dynamical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenti, M.; Bertin, G.

    2005-01-01

    Recently we have found that a family of models of partially relaxed, anisotropic stellar systems, inspired earlier by studies of incomplete violent relaxation, exhibits some interesting thermodynamic properties. Here we present a systematic investigation of its dynamical characteristics, in order to establish the basis for a detailed comparison with simulations of collisionless collapse, planned for a separate paper. For a full comparison with the observations of elliptical galaxies, the models should be extended to allow for the presence a sizable dark halo and of significant rotation. In the spherical limit, the family is characterized by two dimensionless parameters, i.e. Ψ, measuring the depth of the galaxy potential, and ν, defining the form of a third global quantity Q, which is argued to be approximately conserved during collisionless collapse (in addition to the total energy and the total number of stars). The family of models is found to have the following properties. The intrinsic density profile beyond the half-mass radius r_M is basically universal and independent of Ψ. The projected density profiles are well fitted by the R1/n law, with n ranging from 2.5 to 8.5, dependent on Ψ, with n close to 4 for concentrated models. All models exhibit radial anisotropy in the pressure tensor, especially in their outer parts, already significant at r ≈ r_M. At fixed values of ν, models with lower Ψ are more anisotropic; at fixed values of Ψ, models with lower ν are more concentrated and more anisotropic. When the global amount of anisotropy, measured by 2K_r/K_T, is large, the models are unstable with respect to the radial-orbit instability; still, a wide region of parameter space (i.e., sufficiently high values of Ψ, for ν > 3/8) is covered by models that are dynamically stable; for these, the line profiles (line-of-sight velocity distribution) are Gaussian at the 5% level, with a general trend of positive values of h_4 at radii larger than the

  9. The dark side of family communication: a communication model of elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Chen; Giles, Howard

    2013-08-01

    To further address the potential factors that lead up to elder abuse in domestic settings, this paper proposes a model from a communication approach to explain dyadic influences between the family caregiver and the elderly care receiver that give rise to the abuse. That is, dysfunctional communication between the caregivers and care receivers may, therefore, increase the likelihood of elder abuse. Grounded in Bugental and her colleagues' work (1993, 1999, 2002) on child abuse, we propose a power-oriented communication model based, in part, on research in the fields of family violence and intergenerational communication to explain the likelihood of occurrence of elder abuse in family caregiving situations. We argue that certain risk factors pertaining to caregivers' characteristics--those who perceive high stress in caregiving, have mental health issues, have a history of substance abuse, and/or display verbal aggressiveness--may be more likely to attribute considerable power to those elderly under their custodianship. At the same time, such caregivers tend to feel powerless and experience loss of control when interacting with their elderly counterparts. When an elderly care receiver displays noncompliant behaviors, caregivers may be prone to employ abusive behaviors (in our model, it refers to physical abuse, verbal abuse, or communication neglect) to seek such compliance. Consequences of such abuse may result in lower self-esteem or lower confidence in one's ability to manage his/her life. It is suggested that researchers and practitioners investigate both parties' interactions closely and the role of elderly care receivers in order to detect, intervene, and prevent elder abuse.

  10. Exploiting the flexibility of a family of models for taxation and redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Modanese, G.

    2012-08-01

    We discuss a family of models expressed by nonlinear differential equation systems describing closed market societies in the presence of taxation and redistribution. We focus in particular on three example models obtained in correspondence to different parameter choices. We analyse the influence of the various choices on the long time shape of the income distribution. Several simulations suggest that behavioral heterogeneity among the individuals plays a definite role in the formation of fat tails of the asymptotic stationary distributions. This is in agreement with results found with different approaches and techniques. We also show that an excellent fit for the computational outputs of our models is provided by the κ-generalized distribution introduced by Kaniadakis in [Physica A 296, 405 (2001)].

  11. A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Chamberlain, James; Consiglio, Maria; Upchurch, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defines the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. For these models, algorithms that predict well-clear violations along aircraft current trajectories are provided. These algorithms are analogous to conflict detection algorithms but instead of predicting loss of separation, they predict whether well-clear violations will occur during a given lookahead time interval. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models.

  12. Estimation in a discrete tail rate family of recapture sampling models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Rajan; Lee, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    In the context of recapture sampling design for debugging experiments the problem of estimating the error or hitting rate of the faults remaining in a system is considered. Moment estimators are derived for a family of models in which the rate parameters are assumed proportional to the tail probabilities of a discrete distribution on the positive integers. The estimators are shown to be asymptotically normal and fully efficient. Their fixed sample properties are compared, through simulation, with those of the conditional maximum likelihood estimators.

  13. Families of smooth confidence bands for the survival function under the general random censorship model.

    PubMed

    Gulati, S; Padgett, W J

    1996-01-01

    Randomly right censored data often arise in industrial life testing and clinical trials. Several authors have proposed asymptotic confidence bands for the survival function when data are randomly censored on the right. All of these bands are based on the empirical estimator of the survival function. In this paper, families of asymptotic (1-alpha) 100% level confidence bands are developed from the smoothed estimate of the survival function under the general random censorship model. The new bands are compared to empirical bands, and it is shown that for small sample sizes, the smooth bands have a higher coverage probability than the empirical counterparts.

  14. When the Minority Thinks “Essentially” Like the Majority: Blacks Distinguish Bio-Somatic from Bio-Behavioral Essentialism in Their Conceptions of Whites, and Only the Latter Predicts Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Michael J.; Mendes, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    Essentialist beliefs about social groups can contribute to prejudice and intergroup distancing. To date, little data have been gathered regarding minority group members’ essentialistic thinking about the White majority in the U.S. Do essentialist beliefs show a similar structure when minority group members are thinking about the majority as when the majority group is thinking about the minority group? Do minority group essentialist beliefs predict affective prejudice and diminished desire for intergroup contact as they do among White respondents? We sought answers to these questions in a study that included 248 African American participants. We found clear evidence that the structure of Blacks’ essentialist thinking about Whites matches the structure of Whites’ essentialist thinking about Blacks. Specifically, Black respondents made a distinction between bio-somatic and bio-behavioral essentialism, and reported stronger endorsement of the former as compared to the latter. Also replicating prior studies of Whites’ essentialist thinking, only bio-behavioral essentialist beliefs were predictive of negative attitudes. This suggests that essentialism can be linked to prejudice even in contexts that do not involve a dominant group rationalizing its social advantages. Discussion centers on implications of this work for prejudice reduction. PMID:27489948

  15. When the Minority Thinks "Essentially" Like the Majority: Blacks Distinguish Bio-Somatic from Bio-Behavioral Essentialism in Their Conceptions of Whites, and Only the Latter Predicts Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Gill, Michael J; Mendes, Dana M

    2016-01-01

    Essentialist beliefs about social groups can contribute to prejudice and intergroup distancing. To date, little data have been gathered regarding minority group members' essentialistic thinking about the White majority in the U.S. Do essentialist beliefs show a similar structure when minority group members are thinking about the majority as when the majority group is thinking about the minority group? Do minority group essentialist beliefs predict affective prejudice and diminished desire for intergroup contact as they do among White respondents? We sought answers to these questions in a study that included 248 African American participants. We found clear evidence that the structure of Blacks' essentialist thinking about Whites matches the structure of Whites' essentialist thinking about Blacks. Specifically, Black respondents made a distinction between bio-somatic and bio-behavioral essentialism, and reported stronger endorsement of the former as compared to the latter. Also replicating prior studies of Whites' essentialist thinking, only bio-behavioral essentialist beliefs were predictive of negative attitudes. This suggests that essentialism can be linked to prejudice even in contexts that do not involve a dominant group rationalizing its social advantages. Discussion centers on implications of this work for prejudice reduction. PMID:27489948

  16. Geometrically engineering the standard model: Locally unfolding three families out of E{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect

    Bourjaily, Jacob L.

    2007-08-15

    This paper extends and builds upon the results of [J. L. Bourjaily, arXiv:0704.0444.], in which we described how to use the tools of geometrical engineering to deform geometrically engineered grand unified models into ones with lower symmetry. This top-down unfolding has the advantage that the relative positions of singularities giving rise to the many 'low-energy' matter fields are related by only a few parameters which deform the geometry of the unified model. And because the relative positions of singularities are necessary to compute the superpotential, for example, this is a framework in which the arbitrariness of geometrically engineered models can be greatly reduced. In [J. L. Bourjaily, arXiv:0704.0444.], this picture was made concrete for the case of deforming the representations of an SU{sub 5} model into their standard model content. In this paper we continue that discussion to show how a geometrically engineered 16 of SO{sub 10} can be unfolded into the standard model, and how the three families of the standard model uniquely emerge from the unfolding of a single, isolated E{sub 8} singularity.

  17. Family group conferencing in youth care: characteristics of the decision making model, implementation and effectiveness of the Family Group (FG) plans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The model of Family group-conferencing (FG-c) for decision making in child welfare has rapidly spread over the world during the past decades. Its popularity is likely to be caused by its philosophy, emphasizing participation and autonomy of families, rather than based on positive research outcomes. Conclusive evidence regarding the (cost) effectiveness of FG-c is not yet available. The aim of this protocol is to describe the design of a study to evaluate the (cost) effectiveness of FG-c as compared to Treatment as Usual. Method/Design The effectiveness of FG-c will be examined by means of a Randomized Controlled Trial. A multi-informant approach will be used to assess child safety as the primary outcome, and commitment of the social network, perceived control/ empowerment; family functioning and use of professional care as secondary outcomes. Implementation of FG-c, characteristics of family manager and family will be examined as moderators of effectiveness. Discussion Studying the effectiveness of Fg-c is crucial now the method is being implemented all over the world as a decision making model in child and youth care. Policy makers should be informed whether the ideals of participation in society and the right for self-determination indeed result in more effective care plans, and the money spent on FG-c is warranted. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register number NTR4320. The design of this study is approved by the independent Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences of The University of Amsterdam (approval number: 2013-POWL-3308). This study is financially supported by a grant from ZonMw, The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, grant number: 70-72900-98-13158. PMID:24517167

  18. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of Disability: A…

  19. Family medicine model in Turkey: a qualitative assessment from the perspectives of primary care workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A person-list-based family medicine model was introduced in Turkey during health care reforms. This study aimed to explore from primary care workers’ perspectives whether this model could achieve the cardinal functions of primary care and have an integrative position in the health care system. Methods Four groups of primary care workers were included in this exploratory-descriptive study. The first two groups were family physicians (FP) (n = 51) and their ancillary personnel (n = 22). The other two groups were physicians (n = 44) and midwives/nurses (n = 11) working in community health centres. Participants were selected for maximum variation and 102 in-depth interviews and six focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured form. Results Data analysis yielded five themes: accessibility, first-contact care, longitudinality, comprehensiveness, and coordination. Most participants stated that many people are not registered with any FP and that the majority of these belong to the most disadvantaged groups in society. FPs reported that 40-60% of patients on their lists have never received a service from them and the majority of those who use their services do not use FPs as the first point of contact. According to most participants, the list-based system improved the longitudinality of the relationship between FPs and patients. However, based on other statements, this improvement only applies to one quarter of the population. Whereas there was an improvement limited to a quantitative increase in services (immunisation, monitoring of pregnant women and infants) included in the performance-based contracting system, participants stated that services not among the performance targets, such as family planning, postpartum follow-ups, and chronic disease management, could be neglected. FPs admitted not being able to keep informed of services their patients had received at other health institutions. Half of the participants stated that the list

  20. A Filial Therapy Model through a Family Therapy Lens: See the Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The call for family-centered therapeutic services, especially for families of young children, has come from governmental organizations, professional associations, practitioners, and families. Play therapists and family therapists are prime candidates to provide such services, but professional research and literature suggest that practitioners…

  1. An Asset Model: Preparing Preservice Teachers To Work with Children and Families "of Promise."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, MaryJane W.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the impact of a course on interprofessional collaboration and field site experiences in family literacy programs on the perceptions of preservice teachers as it pertained to working with children and families "of promise." Found that students' views changed to a "family first" perspective, considering children and families to be "of…

  2. Mental health professional support in families with a member suffering from severe mental illness: a grounded theory model.

    PubMed

    Gavois, Helena; Paulsson, Gun; Fridlund, Bengt

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model of mental health professional (MHP) support based on the needs of families with a member suffering from severe mental illness (SMI). Twelve family members were interviewed with the focus on their needs of support by MHP, then the interviews were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The generated model of MHP support had two core categories: the family members' process from crisis to recovery and their interaction with the MHP about mental health/illness and daily living of the person with SMI. Interaction based on ongoing contact between MHP and family members influenced the family members' process from crisis towards recovery. Four MHP strategies--being present, listening, sharing and empowering--met the family members' needs of support in the different stages of the crisis. Being present includes early contact, early information and protection by MHP at onset of illness or relapse. Listening includes assessing burden, maintaining contact and confirmation in daily living for the person with SMI. Sharing between MHP and family members includes co-ordination, open communication and security in daily living for the person with SMI. Finally, the MHP strategy empowering includes creating a context, counselling and encouraging development for the family members. The present model has a holistic approach and can be used as an overall guide for MHP support in clinical care of families of persons with SMI. For future studies, it is important to study the interaction of the family with SMI and the connection between hope, coping and empowerment.

  3. Accelerated Hazards Model based on Parametric Families Generalized with Bernstein Polynomials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhui; Hanson, Timothy; Zhang, Jiajia

    2015-01-01

    Summary A transformed Bernstein polynomial that is centered at standard parametric families, such as Weibull or log-logistic, is proposed for use in the accelerated hazards model. This class provides a convenient way towards creating a Bayesian non-parametric prior for smooth densities, blending the merits of parametric and non-parametric methods, that is amenable to standard estimation approaches. For example optimization methods in SAS or R can yield the posterior mode and asymptotic covariance matrix. This novel nonparametric prior is employed in the accelerated hazards model, which is further generalized to time-dependent covariates. The proposed approach fares considerably better than previous approaches in simulations; data on the effectiveness of biodegradable carmustine polymers on recurrent brain malignant gliomas is investigated. PMID:24261450

  4. Comment on "Dynamic properties in a family of competitive growing models".

    PubMed

    Kolakowska, A; Novotny, M A

    2010-03-01

    The article [Phys. Rev. E 73, 031111 (2006)] by Horowitz and Albano reports on simulations of competitive surface-growth models RD+X that combine random deposition (RD) with another deposition X that occurs with probability p . The claim is made that at saturation the surface width w(p) obeys a power-law scaling w(p) proportional, variant1/pdelta, where delta is only either delta=1/2 or delta=1 , which is illustrated by the models where X is ballistic deposition and where X is RD with surface relaxation. Another claim is that in the limit p-->0+, for any lattice size L, the time evolution of w(t) generally obeys the scaling w(p,t) proportional, variant(Lalpha/pdelta)F(p2deltat/Lz), where F is Family-Vicsek universal scaling function. We show that these claims are incorrect. PMID:20365800

  5. Unified Modeling of Familial Mediterranean Fever and Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Yasemin; Demir, Alper; Erman, Burak; Gül, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) and Cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are two prototypical hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation as a result of mutations in MEFV and NLRP3 genes encoding Pyrin and Cryopyrin proteins, respectively. Pyrin and Cryopyrin play key roles in the multiprotein inflammasome complex assembly, which regulates activity of an enzyme, Caspase 1, and its target cytokine, IL-1β. Overproduction of IL-1β by Caspase 1 is the main cause of episodic fever and inflammatory findings in FMF and CAPS. We present a unifying dynamical model for FMF and CAPS in the form of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The model is composed of two subsystems, which capture the interactions and dynamics of the key molecular players and the insults on the immune system. One of the subsystems, which contains a coupled positive-negative feedback motif, captures the dynamics of inflammation formation and regulation. We perform a comprehensive bifurcation analysis of the model and show that it exhibits three modes, capturing the Healthy, FMF, and CAPS cases. The mutations in Pyrin and Cryopyrin are reflected in the values of three parameters in the model. We present extensive simulation results for the model that match clinical observations. PMID:26161132

  6. Square Root Graphical Models: Multivariate Generalizations of Univariate Exponential Families that Permit Positive Dependencies

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, David I.; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Dhillon, Inderjit S.

    2016-01-01

    We develop Square Root Graphical Models (SQR), a novel class of parametric graphical models that provides multivariate generalizations of univariate exponential family distributions. Previous multivariate graphical models (Yang et al., 2015) did not allow positive dependencies for the exponential and Poisson generalizations. However, in many real-world datasets, variables clearly have positive dependencies. For example, the airport delay time in New York—modeled as an exponential distribution—is positively related to the delay time in Boston. With this motivation, we give an example of our model class derived from the univariate exponential distribution that allows for almost arbitrary positive and negative dependencies with only a mild condition on the parameter matrix—a condition akin to the positive definiteness of the Gaussian covariance matrix. Our Poisson generalization allows for both positive and negative dependencies without any constraints on the parameter values. We also develop parameter estimation methods using node-wise regressions with ℓ1 regularization and likelihood approximation methods using sampling. Finally, we demonstrate our exponential generalization on a synthetic dataset and a real-world dataset of airport delay times. PMID:27563373

  7. Two-Variance-Component Model Improves Genetic Prediction in Family Datasets.

    PubMed

    Tucker, George; Loh, Po-Ru; MacLeod, Iona M; Hayes, Ben J; Goddard, Michael E; Berger, Bonnie; Price, Alkes L

    2015-11-01

    Genetic prediction based on either identity by state (IBS) sharing or pedigree information has been investigated extensively with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) methods. Such methods were pioneered in plant and animal-breeding literature and have since been applied to predict human traits, with the aim of eventual clinical utility. However, methods to combine IBS sharing and pedigree information for genetic prediction in humans have not been explored. We introduce a two-variance-component model for genetic prediction: one component for IBS sharing and one for approximate pedigree structure, both estimated with genetic markers. In simulations using real genotypes from the Candidate-gene Association Resource (CARe) and Framingham Heart Study (FHS) family cohorts, we demonstrate that the two-variance-component model achieves gains in prediction r(2) over standard BLUP at current sample sizes, and we project, based on simulations, that these gains will continue to hold at larger sample sizes. Accordingly, in analyses of four quantitative phenotypes from CARe and two quantitative phenotypes from FHS, the two-variance-component model significantly improves prediction r(2) in each case, with up to a 20% relative improvement. We also find that standard mixed-model association tests can produce inflated test statistics in datasets with related individuals, whereas the two-variance-component model corrects for inflation.

  8. Unified Modeling of Familial Mediterranean Fever and Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Yasemin; Demir, Alper; Erman, Burak; Gül, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) and Cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are two prototypical hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation as a result of mutations in MEFV and NLRP3 genes encoding Pyrin and Cryopyrin proteins, respectively. Pyrin and Cryopyrin play key roles in the multiprotein inflammasome complex assembly, which regulates activity of an enzyme, Caspase 1, and its target cytokine, IL-1β. Overproduction of IL-1β by Caspase 1 is the main cause of episodic fever and inflammatory findings in FMF and CAPS. We present a unifying dynamical model for FMF and CAPS in the form of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The model is composed of two subsystems, which capture the interactions and dynamics of the key molecular players and the insults on the immune system. One of the subsystems, which contains a coupled positive-negative feedback motif, captures the dynamics of inflammation formation and regulation. We perform a comprehensive bifurcation analysis of the model and show that it exhibits three modes, capturing the Healthy, FMF, and CAPS cases. The mutations in Pyrin and Cryopyrin are reflected in the values of three parameters in the model. We present extensive simulation results for the model that match clinical observations. PMID:26161132

  9. Two-Variance-Component Model Improves Genetic Prediction in Family Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, George; Loh, Po-Ru; MacLeod, Iona M.; Hayes, Ben J.; Goddard, Michael E.; Berger, Bonnie; Price, Alkes L.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic prediction based on either identity by state (IBS) sharing or pedigree information has been investigated extensively with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) methods. Such methods were pioneered in plant and animal-breeding literature and have since been applied to predict human traits, with the aim of eventual clinical utility. However, methods to combine IBS sharing and pedigree information for genetic prediction in humans have not been explored. We introduce a two-variance-component model for genetic prediction: one component for IBS sharing and one for approximate pedigree structure, both estimated with genetic markers. In simulations using real genotypes from the Candidate-gene Association Resource (CARe) and Framingham Heart Study (FHS) family cohorts, we demonstrate that the two-variance-component model achieves gains in prediction r2 over standard BLUP at current sample sizes, and we project, based on simulations, that these gains will continue to hold at larger sample sizes. Accordingly, in analyses of four quantitative phenotypes from CARe and two quantitative phenotypes from FHS, the two-variance-component model significantly improves prediction r2 in each case, with up to a 20% relative improvement. We also find that standard mixed-model association tests can produce inflated test statistics in datasets with related individuals, whereas the two-variance-component model corrects for inflation. PMID:26544803

  10. Hierarchical diagnostic classification models: a family of models for estimating and testing attribute hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Templin, Jonathan; Bradshaw, Laine

    2014-04-01

    Although latent attributes that follow a hierarchical structure are anticipated in many areas of educational and psychological assessment, current psychometric models are limited in their capacity to objectively evaluate the presence of such attribute hierarchies. This paper introduces the Hierarchical Diagnostic Classification Model (HDCM), which adapts the Log-linear Cognitive Diagnosis Model to cases where attribute hierarchies are present. The utility of the HDCM is demonstrated through simulation and by an empirical example. Simulation study results show the HDCM is efficiently estimated and can accurately test for the presence of an attribute hierarchy statistically, a feature not possible when using more commonly used DCMs. Empirically, the HDCM is used to test for the presence of a suspected attribute hierarchy in a test of English grammar, confirming the data is more adequately represented by hierarchical attribute structure when compared to a crossed, or nonhierarchical structure.

  11. (abstract) Modeling Protein Families and Human Genes: Hidden Markov Models and a Little Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    We will first give a brief overview of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and their use in Computational Molecular Biology. In particular, we will describe a detailed application of HMMs to the G-Protein-Coupled-Receptor Superfamily. We will also describe a number of analytical results on HMMs that can be used in discrimination tests and database mining. We will then discuss the limitations of HMMs and some new directions of research. We will conclude with some recent results on the application of HMMs to human gene modeling and parsing.

  12. Modelling habitat associations with fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) counts at multiple spatial scales using hierarchical count models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, B.R.; Haro, R.J.; Rogala, J.T.; Sauer, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    1. Macroinvertebrate count data often exhibit nested or hierarchical structure. Examples include multiple measurements along each of a set of streams, and multiple synoptic measurements from each of a set of ponds. With data exhibiting hierarchical structure, outcomes at both sampling (e.g. Within stream) and aggregated (e.g. Stream) scales are often of interest. Unfortunately, methods for modelling hierarchical count data have received little attention in the ecological literature. 2. We demonstrate the use of hierarchical count models using fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) count data and habitat predictors derived from sampling and aggregated spatial scales. The sampling scale corresponded to that of a standard Ponar grab (0.052 m(2)) and the aggregated scale to impounded and backwater regions within 38-197 km reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Impounded and backwater regions were resampled annually for 10 years. Consequently, measurements on clams were nested within years. Counts were treated as negative binomial random variates, and means from each resampling event as random departures from the impounded and backwater region grand means. 3. Clam models were improved by the addition of covariates that varied at both the sampling and regional scales. Substrate composition varied at the sampling scale and was associated with model improvements, and reductions (for a given mean) in variance at the sampling scale. Inorganic suspended solids (ISS) levels, measured in the summer preceding sampling, also yielded model improvements and were associated with reductions in variances at the regional rather than sampling scales. ISS levels were negatively associated with mean clam counts. 4. Hierarchical models allow hierarchically structured data to be modelled without ignoring information specific to levels of the hierarchy. In addition, information at each hierarchical level may be modelled as functions of covariates that themselves vary by and within levels. As

  13. Developing Strengths in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ted

    1976-01-01

    There are few descriptions of growth experiences for total families. This paper describes one such model. It expresses the conviction that families need opportunities to come together with other families to identify strengths, sharpen communication skills, and establish goals. (Author)

  14. Personalized Pediatric Coordinated Services (PPCS): A Family-Centered Model of Coordinated Services for Young Children with Chronic Illness and Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie Larlham Foundation, Mantua, OH.

    This report describes a model designed to provide family-centered, community-based coordinated services for families and their children with chronic health care needs. The model, which was implemented to serve 208 children over a 5-year period, is based on three key concepts: families should have the choice to receive services in their homes and…

  15. Novelty-seeking in rats--biobehavioral characteristics and possible relationship with the sensation-seeking trait in man.

    PubMed

    Dellu, F; Piazza, P V; Mayo, W; Le Moal, M; Simon, H

    1996-01-01

    A behavioral trait in rats which resembles some of the features of high-sensation seekers in man has been characterized. Given that the response to novelty is the basis of the definition of sensation-seeking, individual differences in reactivity to novelty have been studied on behavioral and biological levels. Certain individuals labeled as high responders (HR) as opposed to low responders (LR) have been shown to be highly reactive when exposed to a novel environment. These groups were investigated for free-choice responses to novel environments differing in complexity and aversiveness, and to other kinds of reinforcement, i.e. food and a drug. The HR rats appeared to seek novelty, variety and emotional stimulation. Only HR individuals have been found to be predisposed to drug-taking: they develop amphetamine self-administration whereas LR individuals do not. They also exhibit a higher sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food. On a biological level, compared to LR rats, HR animals have an enhanced level of dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens both under basal conditions or following a tail-pinch stress. HR and LR rats differ in reactivity of the corticotropic axis: HR rats exposed to a novel environment have a prolonged secretion of corticosterone compared to LR rats. The association of novelty, drug and food seeking in the same individual suggests that these characteristics share common processes. Differences in dopaminergic activity between HR and LR rats are consistent with results implicating these dopaminergic neurons in response to novelty and in drug-taking behavior. Given that rats self-administer corticosterone and that HR rats are more sensitive to the reinforcing properties of corticosteroids, it could be speculated that HR rats seek novelty for the reinforcing action of corticosterone. These characteristics may be analogous to some for the features found in human high-sensation seekers and this animal model may be useful in

  16. Family and family therapy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Karin; Baars, Jan

    2012-04-01

    This article describes how families are functioning in the Netherlands, and how family therapy is used in mental healthcare. In the open Dutch society, new ideas are easily incorporated, as exemplified by the rapid introduction and growth of family therapy in the 1980s. In recent decades, however, family therapy has lost ground to other treatment models that are more individually orientated, and adhere to stricter protocols. This decline of family therapy has been exacerbated by recent budget cuts in mental healthcare. In regular healthcare institutes family therapy now has a marginal position at best, although family treatment models are used in specific areas such as forensic treatments. In addition, the higher trained family therapists have found their own niches to work with couples and families. We argue that a stronger position of family therapy would be beneficial for patients and for families, in order to counteract the strong individualization of Dutch society. PMID:22515464

  17. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells as a model for familial dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Yazawa, Masayuki; Liu, Jianwei; Han, Leng; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Abilez, Oscar J; Navarrete, Enrique G; Hu, Shijun; Wang, Li; Lee, Andrew; Pavlovic, Aleksandra; Lin, Shin; Chen, Rui; Hajjar, Roger J; Snyder, Michael P; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E; Butte, Manish J; Ashley, Euan A; Longaker, Michael T; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2012-04-18

    Characterized by ventricular dilatation, systolic dysfunction, and progressive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common form of cardiomyopathy in patients. DCM is the most common diagnosis leading to heart transplantation and places a significant burden on healthcare worldwide. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an exceptional opportunity for creating disease-specific cellular models, investigating underlying mechanisms, and optimizing therapy. Here, we generated cardiomyocytes from iPSCs derived from patients in a DCM family carrying a point mutation (R173W) in the gene encoding sarcomeric protein cardiac troponin T. Compared to control healthy individuals in the same family cohort, cardiomyocytes derived from iPSCs from DCM patients exhibited altered regulation of calcium ion (Ca(2+)), decreased contractility, and abnormal distribution of sarcomeric α-actinin. When stimulated with a β-adrenergic agonist, DCM iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes showed characteristics of cellular stress such as reduced beating rates, compromised contraction, and a greater number of cells with abnormal sarcomeric α-actinin distribution. Treatment with β-adrenergic blockers or overexpression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) adenosine triphosphatase (Serca2a) improved the function of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from DCM patients. Thus, iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from DCM patients recapitulate to some extent the morphological and functional phenotypes of DCM and may serve as a useful platform for exploring disease mechanisms and for drug screening. PMID:22517884

  18. Supporting families with Cancer: A patient centred survivorship model of care.

    PubMed

    Craft, Emily Victoria; Billington, Caron; O'Sullivan, Rory; Watson, Wendy; Suter-Giorgini, Nicola; Singletary, Joanne; King, Elizabeth; Perfirgines, Matthew; Cashmore, Annette; Barwell, Julian

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, the Leicestershire Clinical Genetics Department in collaboration with Macmillan Cancer Support initiated a project called Supporting Families with Cancer (SFWC). The project aimed to raise awareness of inherited cancers amongst both healthcare professionals and the general public and develop a patient-centred collaborative approach to cancer treatment and support services. This paper describes the project's development of a range of community outreach events and a training scheme for primary healthcare professionals designed to improve familial cancer referral rates in Leicester. Following consultation with patients and support groups, a series of interactive 'medical supermarket' events were held in Leicester. These events focused on providing patients with a forum for sharing research data, information about diagnosis and treatments and access to support groups and other allied healthcare services with additional information being made available digitally via SFWC webpages and a series of short videos available on a YouTube channel. Qualitative and quantitative data presented here indicate that the SFWC medical supermarket model has been well received by patients and offers a patient-centred, holistic approach to cancer treatment. PMID:26077135

  19. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four "virtual family" members for thermoregulatory modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P.; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N.; Potter, Adam W.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  20. Liquid-liquid phase transition in a family of simple models of tetrahedral liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey; Franzese, Giancarlo; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Liquids with tetrahedral symmetry of the first coordination shell often display anomalous thermodynamic and dynamic behavior. Sometimes, these anomalies are associated with the liquid-liquid phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures. We study a family of simple models with few parameters and investigate the conditions for the existence of the liquid-liquid phase transition. A molecule in these models consists of a hard sphere with a square well and four point particles attached to the center of the hard sphere by directional bonds arranged in tetrahedral geometry. We also impose a condition which does not allow a point particle in one molecule to include in its attractive well more than one point particle belonging to different molecules. We find an optimal range of flexibility of the bonds created by the point particles for which the model displays a clear liquid-liquid critical point in the accessible region of the phase diagram: too flexible bonds weaken the anomalies and destroy the critical point, while too rigid bonds slow down the diffusion and shift the critical point beyond the glass transition. We also investigate how minor changes in the model parameters influence crystallization which might make liquid-liquid unobservable.

  1. Integrating Family Resilience and Family Stress Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.

    2002-01-01

    The construct, family resilience, is defined differently by practitioners and researchers. This study tries to clarify the concept of family resilience. The foundation is family stress and coping theory, particularly the stress models that emphasize adaptation processes in families exposed to major adversities. (JDM)

  2. A Structural Model of Parental Alcoholism, Family Functioning, and Psychological Health: The Mediating Effects of Hardiness and Personal Growth Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine; Kashubeck, Susan

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to: (a) determine whether personal-growth orientation and hardiness mediated the relations of parental alcoholism and family functioning to psychological well-being and distress; (b) determine whether this model was invariant across men and women; and (c) examine the role of parental alcoholism in a model that included family…

  3. Three Approaches to Modeling Gene-Environment Interactions in Longitudinal Family Data: Gene-Smoking Interactions in Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Basson, Jacob; Sung, Yun Ju; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; Schwander, Karen L; Vazquez, Ana; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be substantially heritable, yet identified genetic variants explain only a small fraction of the heritability. Gene-smoking interactions have detected novel BP loci in cross-sectional family data. Longitudinal family data are available and have additional promise to identify BP loci. However, this type of data presents unique analysis challenges. Although several methods for analyzing longitudinal family data are available, which method is the most appropriate and under what conditions has not been fully studied. Using data from three clinic visits from the Framingham Heart Study, we performed association analysis accounting for gene-smoking interactions in BP at 31,203 markers on chromosome 22. We evaluated three different modeling frameworks: generalized estimating equations (GEE), hierarchical linear modeling, and pedigree-based mixed modeling. The three models performed somewhat comparably, with multiple overlaps in the most strongly associated loci from each model. Loci with the greatest significance were more strongly supported in the longitudinal analyses than in any of the component single-visit analyses. The pedigree-based mixed model was more conservative, with less inflation in the variant main effect and greater deflation in the gene-smoking interactions. The GEE, but not the other two models, resulted in substantial inflation in the tail of the distribution when variants with minor allele frequency <1% were included in the analysis. The choice of analysis method should depend on the model and the structure and complexity of the familial and longitudinal data.

  4. Participation in action: the Healthy African American Families community conference model.

    PubMed

    Jones, Loretta; Collins, Barry E

    2010-01-01

    The Healthy African American Families project (HAAF) in Los Angeles developed "community conferences" as a method of engaging local community members in mutually beneficial participatory collaborations with academic and clinical researchers. In these conferences, community voices and concerns about a health issue are translated into the language of scientific inquiry. Scientific information and process are translated into forms that can be understood and utilized by the lay community. Equally important, the conference process enables community members to provide input into scientific projects and to take ownership of subsequent interventions resulting from the research conducted in its community. The HAAF conference model is participation in action. It may be useful for other communities engaging in community participatory prevention research. PMID:20629242

  5. Effects of economic hardship: Testing the family stress model over time.

    PubMed

    Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Donnellan, M Brent

    2016-02-01

    The current study evaluated connections between marital distress, harsh parenting, and child externalizing behaviors in line with predictions from the Family Stress Model (FSM). Prospective, longitudinal data came from 273 mothers, fathers, and children participating when the child was 2, between 3 and 5, and between 6 and 10 years old. Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Information regarding economic hardship and economic pressure were assessed during toddlerhood, and parental emotional distress, couple conflict, and harsh parenting were collected during early childhood. Child externalizing behavior was assessed during both toddlerhood and middle childhood. Results were consistent with predictions from the FSM in that economic hardship led to economic pressure, which was associated with parental emotional distress and couple conflict. This conflict was associated with harsh parenting and child problem behavior. This pathway remained statistically significant controlling for externalizing behavior in toddlerhood.

  6. Participation in Action: The Healthy African American Families Community Conference Model

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Collins, Barry E.

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy African American Families project (HAAF) in Los Angeles developed “community conferences” as a method of engaging local community members in mutually beneficial participatory collaborations with academic and clinical researchers. In these conferences, community voices and concerns about a health issue are translated into the language of scientific inquiry. Scientific information and process are translated into forms that can be understood and utilized by the lay community. Equally important, the conference process enables community members to provide input into scientific projects and to take ownership of subsequent interventions resulting from the research conducted in its community. The HAAF conference model is participation in action. It may be useful for other communities engaging in community participatory prevention research. PMID:20629242

  7. Benefit of a combined treatment with trientine and ascorbate in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice.

    PubMed

    Nagano, S; Ogawa, Y; Yanagihara, T; Sakoda, S

    1999-04-23

    We previously reported that the common toxic gain-of-function in various mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (SOD1) seen in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was an abnormal copper release from the enzyme protein. In this study, trientine and ascorbate, known to have a beneficial effect in an animal model of Wilson disease, were administered to transgenic mice overexpressing a mutated human SOD1 (G93A). The onset of neurological signs in the treated group was significantly delayed compared with that in the control group, and the time to reach total paralysis in the treated group was delayed as well. Since the agents used in this study cause low toxicity in animals and humans, this treatment may be a good candidate for clinical application.

  8. A C. elegans model of nicotine-dependent behavior: regulation by TRP-family channels.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhaoyang; Li, Wei; Ward, Alex; Piggott, Beverly J; Larkspur, Erin R; Sternberg, Paul W; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2006-11-01

    Nicotine, the primary addictive substance in tobacco, induces profound behavioral responses in mammals, but the underlying genetic mechanisms are not well understood. Here we develop a C. elegans model of nicotine-dependent behavior. We show that worms exhibit behavioral responses to nicotine that parallel those observed in mammals, including acute response, tolerance, withdrawal, and sensitization. These nicotine responses require nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family genes that are known to mediate nicotine dependence in mammals, suggesting functional conservation of nAChRs in nicotine responses. Importantly, we find that mutant worms lacking TRPC (transient receptor potential canonical) channels are defective in their response to nicotine and that such a defect can be rescued by a human TRPC channel, revealing an unexpected role for TRPC channels in regulating nicotine-dependent behavior. Thus, C. elegans can be used to characterize known genes as well as to identify new genes regulating nicotine responses.

  9. Sequencing and molecular modeling identifies candidate members of Caliciviridae family in bats.

    PubMed

    Kemenesi, Gábor; Gellért, Ákos; Dallos, Bianka; Görföl, Tamás; Boldogh, Sándor; Estók, Péter; Marton, Szilvia; Oldal, Miklós; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2016-07-01

    Emerging viral diseases represent an ongoing challenge for globalized world and bats constitute an immense, partially explored, reservoir of potentially zoonotic viruses. Caliciviruses are important human and animal pathogens and, as observed for human noroviruses, they may impact on human health on a global scale. By screening fecal samples of bats in Hungary, calicivirus RNA was identified in the samples of Myotis daubentonii and Eptesicus serotinus bats. In order to characterize more in detail the bat caliciviruses, large portions of the genome sequence of the viruses were determined. Phylogenetic analyses and molecular modeling identified firmly the two viruses as candidate members within the Caliciviridae family, with one calicivirus strain resembling members of the Sapovirus genus and the other bat calicivirus being more related to porcine caliciviruses of the proposed genus Valovirus. This data serves the effort for detecting reservoir hosts for potential emerging viruses and recognize important evolutionary relationships. PMID:27085289

  10. A Model of Fermion Masses and Flavor Mixings with Family Symmetry SU(3) otimes U(1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei-Min; Wang, Qi; Zhong, Jin-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The family symmetry SU(3) otimes U(1) is proposed to solve flavor problems about fermion masses and flavor mixings. It is breaking is implemented by some flavon fields at the high-energy scale. In addition a discrete group Z2 is introduced to generate tiny neutrino masses, which is broken by a real singlet scalar field at the middle-energy scale. The low-energy effective theory is elegantly obtained after all of super-heavy fermions are integrated out and decoupling. All the fermion mass matrices are regularly characterized by four fundamental matrices and thirteen parameters. The model can perfectly fit and account for all the current experimental data about the fermion masses and flavor mixings, in particular, it finely predicts the first generation quark masses and the values of θl13 and JlCP in neutrino physics. All of the results are promising to be tested in the future experiments.

  11. Model Family Professional Partnerships for Interventions in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Betty; Singer, George

    A meeting of professional experts in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) focused on gathering current expert opinion regarding assistance to families with a child having such an injury. Quantitative data from an ethnographic survey of 214 parents on the effects of TBI on the family is summarized. Then, normalization for families of TBI children…

  12. Synthesizing Family, Career, and Culture: A Model for Counseling in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy M., Ed.; Rotter, Joseph C., Ed.; Gold, Joshua M., Ed.

    Career and work constitute a major portion of most people's lives; families have an impact on people's careers; and their culture determines a great deal about how they approach family and work. The family counseling, career, and multicultural literature has given little attention to these dynamics. This text provides a multifaceted framework for…

  13. Modeling the hospital safety partnership preferences of patients and their families: a discrete choice conjoint experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Charles E; Hutchings, Tracy; Henderson, Jennifer; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients and their families play an important role in efforts to improve health service safety. Objective The objective of this study is to understand the safety partnership preferences of patients and their families. Method We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the safety partnership preferences of 1,084 patients or those such as parents acting on their behalf. Participants made choices between hypothetical safety partnerships composed by experimentally varying 15 four-level partnership design attributes. Results Participants preferred an approach to safety based on partnerships between patients and staff rather than a model delegating responsibility for safety to hospital staff. They valued the opportunity to participate in point of service safety partnerships, such as identity and medication double checks, that might afford an immediate risk reduction. Latent class analysis yielded two segments. Actively engaged participants (73.3%) comprised outpatients with higher education, who anticipated more benefits to safety partnerships, were more confident in their ability to contribute, and were more intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer a personal engagement strategy, valued scientific evidence, preferred a more active approach to safety education, and advocated disclosure of errors. The passively engaged segment (26.7%) anticipated fewer benefits, were less confident in their ability to contribute, and were less intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer an engagement strategy based on signage. They preferred that staff explain why they thought patients should help make care safer and decide whether errors were disclosed. Inpatients, those with immigrant backgrounds, and those with less education were more likely to be in this segment. Conclusion Health services need to communicate information regarding risks, ask about partnership preferences, create opportunities respecting individual differences, and

  14. Pure annihilation type decays in the family non-universal Z‧ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Dan-Dan; Lü, Cai-Dian

    2016-01-01

    By assuming that the scalar meson belongs to the first excited states or the lowest lying ground states of qq¯‧, we study the pure annihilation-type decays in the QCD factorization approach. Within the Standard Model, the branching fractions are of the order of 10-8-10-7, which is possible to measure in the ongoing LHCb experiment or forthcoming Belle-II experiment. We also study these decays in the family non-universal Z‧ model. The results show that if mZ‧ ≈ 600 GeV (ζ = 0.02), both the branching fractions and CP asymmetries of could be changed remarkably, which provides us with a place for probing the effect of new physics. These results could be used to constrain the parameters of the Z‧ model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175151, 11575151, 11375208, 11235005) and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET) by Ministry of Education of P. R. China (NCET-13-0991)

  15. Necroptosis drives motor neuron death in models of both sporadic and familial ALS

    PubMed Central

    Re, Diane B.; Verche, Virginia Le; Yu, Changhao; Amoroso, Mackenzie W.; Politi, Kristin A.; Phani, Sudarshan; Ikiz, Burcin; Hoffmann, Lucas; Koolen, Martijn; Nagata, Tetsuya; Papadimitriou, Dimitra; Nagy, Peter; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Kariya, Shingo; Wichterle, Hynek; Henderson, Christopher E.; Przedborski, Serge

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Most cases of neurodegenerative disease are sporadic, hindering the use of genetic mouse models to analyze disease mechanisms. Focusing on the motor neuron (MN) disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) we therefore devised a fully humanized co-culture model composed of human adult primary sporadic ALS (sALS) astrocytes and human embryonic stem cell-derived MNs. The model reproduces the cardinal features of human ALS: sALS astrocytes, but not those from control patients, trigger selective death of MNs. The mechanisms underlying this non-cell-autonomous toxicity were investigated in both astrocytes and MNs. Although causal in familial ALS (fALS), SOD1 does not contribute to the toxicity of sALS astrocytes. Death of MNs triggered by either sALS or fALS astrocytes occurs through necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis involving receptor-interacting protein 1 and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein. The necroptotic pathway therefore constitutes a novel potential therapeutic target for this incurable disease. PMID:24508385

  16. Using energetic models to investigate the survival and reproduction of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae).

    PubMed

    New, Leslie F; Moretti, David J; Hooker, Sascha K; Costa, Daniel P; Simmons, Samantha E

    2013-01-01

    Mass stranding of several species of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) associated with exposure to anthropogenic sounds has raised concern for the conservation of these species. However, little is known about the species' life histories, prey or habitat requirements. Without this knowledge, it becomes difficult to assess the effects of anthropogenic sound, since there is no way to determine whether the disturbance is impacting the species' physical or environmental requirements. Here we take a bioenergetics approach to address this gap in our knowledge, as the elusive, deep-diving nature of beaked whales has made it hard to study these effects directly. We develop a model for Ziphiidae linking feeding energetics to the species' requirements for survival and reproduction, since these life history traits would be the most likely to be impacted by non-lethal disturbances. Our models suggest that beaked whale reproduction requires energy dense prey, and that poor resource availability would lead to an extension of the inter-calving interval. Further, given current information, it seems that some beaked whale species require relatively high quality habitat in order to meet their requirements for survival and reproduction. As a result, even a small non-lethal disturbance that results in displacement of whales from preferred habitats could potentially impact a population if a significant proportion of that population was affected. We explored the impact of varying ecological parameters and model assumptions on survival and reproduction, and find that calf and fetus survival appear more readily affected than the survival of adult females.

  17. Using Energetic Models to Investigate the Survival and Reproduction of Beaked Whales (family Ziphiidae)

    PubMed Central

    New, Leslie F.; Moretti, David J.; Hooker, Sascha K.; Costa, Daniel P.; Simmons, Samantha E.

    2013-01-01

    Mass stranding of several species of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) associated with exposure to anthropogenic sounds has raised concern for the conservation of these species. However, little is known about the species’ life histories, prey or habitat requirements. Without this knowledge, it becomes difficult to assess the effects of anthropogenic sound, since there is no way to determine whether the disturbance is impacting the species’ physical or environmental requirements. Here we take a bioenergetics approach to address this gap in our knowledge, as the elusive, deep-diving nature of beaked whales has made it hard to study these effects directly. We develop a model for Ziphiidae linking feeding energetics to the species’ requirements for survival and reproduction, since these life history traits would be the most likely to be impacted by non-lethal disturbances. Our models suggest that beaked whale reproduction requires energy dense prey, and that poor resource availability would lead to an extension of the inter-calving interval. Further, given current information, it seems that some beaked whale species require relatively high quality habitat in order to meet their requirements for survival and reproduction. As a result, even a small non-lethal disturbance that results in displacement of whales from preferred habitats could potentially impact a population if a significant proportion of that population was affected. We explored the impact of varying ecological parameters and model assumptions on survival and reproduction, and find that calf and fetus survival appear more readily affected than the survival of adult females. PMID:23874737

  18. Filling Gaps in the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: Heritage Cultural Maintenance and Adjustment in Mexican-American Families.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment.

  19. Climatology Analysis of Global Climate Models from HiGEM Family Over South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, M. D. S.; Ambrizzi, T.; Da Rocha, R.; Vidale, P. L.

    2014-12-01

    General Circulation Models (GCMs) have shown difficulties to correctly simulate some atmospheric patterns, especially the precipitation over South America (SA), which is often attributed to the low resolution of these models. The increased horizontal resolution of climate models aims to improve the simulations accuracy and to understand the non-linear processes during interactions between different spatial scales within the climate system. Up to this moment, these interactions did not have a good representation on low horizontal resolution GCMs. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of the horizontal resolution in high resolution coupled and atmospheric global models of HiGEM project in simulating atmospheric patterns and processes of interaction between spatial scales. The simulations were validated using different reanalysis data and compared with observations in order to understand the impact of horizontal resolution on the precipitation systems over SA. Three different horizontal resolutions for HiGEM family models were compared ≈ 60, 90 and 135 km. Precipitation estimations from CMAP, CPC and GPCP are used for validation. Both coupled and uncoupled simulations consistently represent the observed spatial patterns related to seasonal march of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the formation and location of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and the subtropical high pressure systems in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. However, they overestimate the precipitation rate, especially in the ITCZ and western border regions of higher elevation, as in southern Chile. The fine horizontal resolution contributed to the large similarity between the seasonal patterns of global models and observations, with coupled models representing better these patterns than the atmospheric models in many regions of SA. The simulated annual cycles are in phase with estimations of rainfall for most of the six regions considered. An important result is that

  20. An intergenerational policy proposal for the 1990s: applying the temporary disability insurance model to family caregiving.

    PubMed

    Wisensale, S K

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a new policy initiative to assist family caregivers at a time when major demographic shifts in both the family and the workplace have taken place. Women especially are in the position of having to balance both work and family responsibilities without proper assistance. The initiative is based on an expansion of the Temporary Disability Insurance (TDI) model, to include care of family members of all ages by providing an adequate wage replacement. The shifting dependency ratio, resulting in a shrinking caregiver pool, is discussed as well as existing policies and their short-comings. For example, no current policies provide paid leave. The evolution of TDI, including resistance to it, is examined. Finally, Massachusetts' abortive attempt at a comprehensive plan for employment-leave insurance is discussed in detail and policy recommendations are outlined.

  1. Rural Caregivers for a Family Member With Dementia: Models of Burden and Distress Differ for Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Norma J; Morgan, Debra G; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Wickenhauser, Joseph P; Cammer, Allison; Minish, Duane; O'Connell, Megan E; Hayduk, Leslie A

    2016-02-01

    Forecasts of increasing prevalence of dementia in rural settings, coupled with reliance on family caregiver support, indicate that a greater understanding of caregiver distress in these contexts is necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine family caregiver burden and severity of distress on the day that a family member was diagnosed with dementia at a memory clinic that serves a rural population. Participants in this retrospective study were 231 primary family caregivers of a rural community-dwelling person with dementia. On the diagnostic day, women reported more burden and severity of distress than men and spouses reported more severity of distress than adult children. A structural equation model was not supported for the entire sample, but was supported for women caregivers only (n = 161). Caregiver distress related to dementia-specific behaviors explained both global distress and burden. Patients' functional decline was related to caregiver burden.

  2. Yielding impressive results. The Egyptian experience in family planning communication campaign has been an exemplary model for many developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wafai, M

    1994-09-01

    In Egypt the current use of family planning methods nearly doubled from 1980 to 1992. The toughest obstacles to the promotion of family planning are the deeply rooted pronatalism, the high rate of illiteracy, and low use of print media. The early efforts of the 1960s through the 1970s helped raise people's awareness of the problem, but traditional attitudes to family planning persisted. The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center established in 1979 in the State Information Service (SIS) of the Ministry of Information spearheaded the IEC efforts for family planning throughout the country. The Egyptian Contraceptives Prevalence Survey conducted in 1984 showed that the current use of family planning methods had increased 6.1% from the 1980 level, and that 56% of married women wished to stop having children, but were afraid of side effects of contraceptive use. The SIS/IEC Center launched a creative mass media campaign using TV spots and dramas. It also pioneered community-based public communication activities on population and family planning by organizing population communication forums. The local communication work is implemented by each of the 60 regional offices of SIS. Other government agencies, such as Health Insurance Organization, also launched IEC campaigns promoting their own services. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the Family of the Future and the Clinical Service Improvement Project also engaged in social marketing of contraceptives. The use of family planning methods mounted between 1980 and 1992 from 24% to nearly 48%, and the method of choice shifted from the pill to the IUD. The country's crude birth rate declined steadily from 40 per 1000 population in 1985 down to 29/1000 in 1992. The six major factors for success included an innovative communication program, religious support, political commitment, an improved service delivery system, involvement of NGOs, and the economic influence. The Egyptian experience in family

  3. Latent class model with familial dependence to address heterogeneity in complex diseases: adapting the approach to family-based association studies.

    PubMed

    Bureau, Alexandre; Croteau, Jordie; Tayeb, Arafat; Mérette, Chantal; Labbe, Aurélie

    2011-04-01

    Clinical diagnoses of complex diseases may often encompass multiple genetically heterogeneous disorders. One way of dissecting this heterogeneity is to apply latent class (LC) analysis to measurements related to the diagnosis, such as detailed symptoms, to define more homogeneous disease sub-types, influenced by a smaller number of genes that will thus be more easily detectable. We have previously developed a LC model allowing dependence between the latent disease class status of relatives within families. We have also proposed a strategy to incorporate the posterior probability of class membership of each subject in parametric linkage analysis, which is not directly transferable to genetic association methods. Under the framework of family-based association tests (FBAT), we now propose to make the contribution of an affected subject to the FBAT statistic proportional to his or her posterior class membership probability. Simulations showed a modest but robust power advantage compared to simply assigning each subject to his or her most probable class, and important power gains over the analysis of the disease diagnosis without LC modeling under certain scenarios. The use of LC analysis with FBAT is illustrated using autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms on families from the Autism Genetics Research Exchange, where we examined eight regions previously associated to autism in this sample. The analysis using the posterior probability of membership to an LC detected an association in the JARID2 gene as significant as that for ASD (P = 3 × 10(-5)) but with a larger effect size (odds ratio = 2.17 vs. 1.55).

  4. Acidophilic adaptation of family 11 endo-β-1,4-xylanases: Modeling and mutational analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Lemos Esteves, Frédéric; Ruelle, Virginie; Lamotte-Brasseur, Josette; Quinting, Birgit; Frère, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Xyl1 from Streptomyces sp. S38 belongs to the low molecular mass family 11 of endo-β-1,4-xylanases. Its three-dimensional structure has been solved at 2.0 Å and its optimum temperature and pH for enzymatic activity are 60°C and 6.0, respectively. Aspergillus kawachii xylanase XynC belongs to the same family but is an acidophilic enzyme with an optimum pH of 2.0. Structural comparison of Xyl1 and XynC showed differences in residues surrounding the two glutamic acid side chains involved in the catalysis that could be responsible for the acidophilic adaptation of XynC. Mutations W20Y, N48D, A134E, and Y193W were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis and combined in multiple mutants. Trp 20 and Tyr 193 are involved in substrate binding. The Y193W mutation inactivated Xyl1 whereas W20Y decreased the optimum pH of Xyl1 to 5.0 and slightly increased its specific activity. The N48D mutation also decreased the optimum pH of Xyl1 by one unit. The A134E substitution did not induce any change, but when combined with N48D, a synergistic effect was observed with a 1.4 unit decrease in the optimum pH. Modeling showed that the orientations of residue 193 and of the fully conserved Arg 131 are different in acidophilic and “alkaline” xylanases whereas the introduced Tyr 20 probably modifies the pKa of the acid–base catalyst via residue Asn 48. Docking of a substrate analog in the catalytic site highlighted striking differences between Xyl1 and XynC in substrate binding. Hydrophobicity calculations showed a correlation between acidophilic adaptation and a decreased hydrophobicity around the two glutamic acid side chains involved in catalysis. PMID:15096627

  5. Region-Based Association Test for Familial Data under Functional Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Axenovich, Tatiana I.

    2015-01-01

    Region-based association analysis is a more powerful tool for gene mapping than testing of individual genetic variants, particularly for rare genetic variants. The most powerful methods for regional mapping are based on the functional data analysis approach, which assumes that the regional genome of an individual may be considered as a continuous stochastic function that contains information about both linkage and linkage disequilibrium. Here, we extend this powerful approach, earlier applied only to independent samples, to the samples of related individuals. To this end, we additionally include a random polygene effects in functional linear model used for testing association between quantitative traits and multiple genetic variants in the region. We compare the statistical power of different methods using Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 mini-exome family data and a wide range of simulation scenarios. Our method increases the power of regional association analysis of quantitative traits compared with burden-based and kernel-based methods for the majority of the scenarios. In addition, we estimate the statistical power of our method using regions with small number of genetic variants, and show that our method retains its advantage over burden-based and kernel-based methods in this case as well. The new method is implemented as the R-function ‘famFLM’ using two types of basis functions: the B-spline and Fourier bases. We compare the properties of the new method using models that differ from each other in the type of their function basis. The models based on the Fourier basis functions have an advantage in terms of speed and power over the models that use the B-spline basis functions and those that combine B-spline and Fourier basis functions. The ‘famFLM’ function is distributed under GPLv3 license and is freely available at http://mga.bionet.nsc.ru/soft/famFLM/. PMID:26111046

  6. Specific Disruption of Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses in a Mouse Model of Familial Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Scott A.; Raam, Tara; Antonios, Joseph K.; Bushong, Eric A.; Koo, Edward H.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Ghosh, Anirvan

    2014-01-01

    The earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by deficits in memory and cognition indicating hippocampal pathology. While it is now recognized that synapse dysfunction precedes the hallmark pathological findings of AD, it is unclear if specific hippocampal synapses are particularly vulnerable. Since the mossy fiber (MF) synapse between dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 regions underlies critical functions disrupted in AD, we utilized serial block-face electron microscopy (SBEM) to analyze MF microcircuitry in a mouse model of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). FAD mutant MF terminal complexes were severely disrupted compared to control – they were smaller, contacted fewer postsynaptic spines and had greater numbers of presynaptic filopodial processes. Multi-headed CA3 dendritic spines in the FAD mutant condition were reduced in complexity and had significantly smaller sites of synaptic contact. Significantly, there was no change in the volume of classical dendritic spines at neighboring inputs to CA3 neurons suggesting input-specific defects in the early course of AD related pathology. These data indicate a specific vulnerability of the DG-CA3 network in AD pathogenesis and demonstrate the utility of SBEM to assess circuit specific alterations in mouse models of human disease. PMID:24454724

  7. [Brazilian scientific production on the Family Health Strategy and the change in the model of care].

    PubMed

    Silva, Livia Angeli; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima

    2013-01-01

    The variety of existing studies addressing the Family Health Strategy (ESF) and its role in the reorientation of the model of care in the country has motivated the systematization of the advances and limitations described in these studies. Thus, this study, from a review of the scientific production on this theme, analyzed if the ESF has been able to modify the model of care. Forty-one articles from the Scielo database published between 2002 and 2010 that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were analyzed. They were fully analyzed in terms of political-institutional, organizational or technical-care dimensions. The results show that despite the improvement in the work process in primary care, its replacement aspect was not seen in the majority of the studies. Universal expansion of access to the health services, extension of coverage and focus were predominant. The changes are observed when analyzed in light of the demand, with better attendance and connectivity. The most evident limits are in the lack of focus on health needs, as in the territorial issue, community participation and the social determinants addressed in an intersectoral way. Different degrees of the implementation of strategy were identified, though they have not yet resulted in system reorganization at local level. PMID:23338512

  8. Loss of Ikbkap Causes Slow, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Familial Dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Grisela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive congenital neuropathy that is caused by a mutation in the gene for inhibitor of kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKBKAP). Although FD patients suffer from multiple neuropathies, a major debilitation that affects their quality of life is progressive blindness. To determine the requirement for Ikbkap in the developing and adult retina, we generated Ikbkap conditional knockout (CKO) mice using a TUBA1a promoter-Cre (Tα1-Cre). In the retina, Tα1-Cre expression is detected predominantly in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). At 6 months, significant loss of RGCs had occurred in the CKO retinas, with the greatest loss in the temporal retina, which is the same spatial phenotype observed in FD, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, and dominant optic atrophy. Interestingly, the melanopsin-positive RGCs were resistant to degeneration. By 9 months, signs of photoreceptor degeneration were observed, which later progressed to panretinal degeneration, including RGC and photoreceptor loss, optic nerve thinning, Müller glial activation, and disruption of layers. Taking these results together, we conclude that although Ikbkap is not required for normal development of RGCs, its loss causes a slow, progressive RGC degeneration most severely in the temporal retina, which is later followed by indirect photoreceptor loss and complete retinal disorganization. This mouse model of FD is not only useful for identifying the mechanisms mediating retinal degeneration, but also provides a model system in which to attempt to test therapeutics that may mitigate the loss of vision in FD patients.

  9. Dynamical properties of a family of collisionless models of elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, G.; Trenti, M.

    2004-04-01

    N-body simulations of collisionless collapse have offered important clues to the construction of realistic stellar dynamical models of elliptical galaxies. Such simulations confirm and quantify the qualitative expectation that rapid collapse of a self-gravitating collisionless system, initially cool and significantly far from equilibrium, leads to incomplete relaxation, that is to a quasi-equilibrium configuration characterized by isotropic, quasi-Maxwellian distribution of stellar orbits in the inner regions and by radially biased anisotropic pressure in the outer parts. In earlier studies, as illustrated in a number of papers several years ago, the attention was largely focused on the successful comparison between the models (constructed under the qualitative clues offered by the N-body simulations mentioned above) and the observations. In this paper we revisit the problem of incomplete violent relaxation, by making a direct comparison between the detailed properties of a family of distribution functions and those of the products of collisionless collapse found in N-body simulations.

  10. Modeling the hydrologic and economic efficacy of stormwater utility credit programs for US single family residences.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Ruben; Green, Olivia Odom; Shuster, William D

    2014-01-01

    As regulatory pressure to reduce the environmental impact of urban stormwater intensifies, US municipalities increasingly seek a dedicated source of funding for stormwater programs, such as a stormwater utility. In rare instances, single family residences are eligible for utility discounts for installing green infrastructure. This study examined the hydrologic and economic efficacy of four such programs at the parcel scale: Cleveland (OH), Portland (OR), Fort Myers (FL), and Lynchburg (VA). Simulations were performed to model the reduction in stormwater runoff by implementing bioretention on a typical residential property according to extant administrative rules. The EPA National Stormwater Calculator was used to perform pre- vs post-retrofit comparisons and to demonstrate its ease of use for possible use by other cities in utility planning. Although surface slope, soil type and infiltration rate, impervious area, and bioretention parameters were different across cities, our results suggest that modeled runoff volume was most sensitive to percent of total impervious area that drained to the bioretention cell, with soil type the next most important factor. Findings also indicate a persistent gap between the percentage of annual runoff reduced and the percentage of fee reduced. PMID:25500463

  11. Family system dynamics and type 1 diabetic glycemic variability: a vector-auto-regressive model.

    PubMed

    Günther, Moritz Philipp; Winker, Peter; Böttcher, Claudia; Brosig, Burkhard

    2013-06-01

    Statistical approaches rooted in econometric methodology, so far foreign to the psychiatric and psychological realms have provided exciting and substantial new insights into complex mind-body interactions over time and individuals. Over 120 days, this structured diary study explored the mutual interactions of emotions within a classic 3-person family system with its Type 1 diabetic adolescent's daily blood glucose variability. Glycemic variability was measured through daily standard deviations of blood glucose determinations (at least 3 per day). Emotions were captured individually utilizing the self-assessment manikin on affective valence (negative-positive), activation (calm-excited), and control (dominated-dominant). Auto- and cross-correlating the stationary absolute (level) values of the mutually interacting parallel time series data sets through vector autoregression (VAR, grounded in econometric theory) allowed for the formulation of 2 concordant models. Applying Cholesky Impulse Response Analysis at a 95% confidence interval, we provided evidence for an adolescent being happy, calm, and in control to exhibit less glycemic variability and hence diabetic derailment. A nondominating mother and a happy father seemed to also reduce glycemic variability. Random shocks increasing glycemic variability affected only the adolescent and her father: In 1 model, the male parent felt in charge; in the other, he calmed down while his daughter turned sad. All reactions to external shocks lasted for less than 4 full days. Extant literature on affect and glycemic variability in Type 1 diabetic adolescents as well as challenges arising from introducing econometric theory to the field were discussed.

  12. Going Global: A Model for Evaluating Empirically Supported Family-Based Interventions in New Contexts.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Knut; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Fraser, Mark W

    2014-06-01

    The spread of evidence-based practice throughout the world has resulted in the wide adoption of empirically supported interventions (ESIs) and a growing number of controlled trials of imported and culturally adapted ESIs. This article is informed by outcome research on family-based interventions including programs listed in the American Blueprints Model and Promising Programs. Evidence from these controlled trials is mixed and, because it is comprised of both successful and unsuccessful replications of ESIs, it provides clues for the translation of promising programs in the future. At least four explanations appear plausible for the mixed results in replication trials. One has to do with methodological differences across trials. A second deals with ambiguities in the cultural adaptation process. A third explanation is that ESIs in failed replications have not been adequately implemented. A fourth source of variation derives from unanticipated contextual influences that might affect the effects of ESIs when transported to other cultures and countries. This article describes a model that allows for the differential examination of adaptations of interventions in new cultural contexts.

  13. A Model for Dimerization of the SOX Group E Transcription Factor Family

    PubMed Central

    Ramsook, Sarah N.; Ni, Joyce; Shahangian, Shokofeh; Vakiloroayaei, Ana; Khan, Naveen; Kwan, Jamie J.

    2016-01-01

    Group E members of the SOX transcription factor family include SOX8, SOX9, and SOX10. Preceding the high mobility group (HMG) domain in each of these proteins is a thirty-eight amino acid region that supports the formation of dimers on promoters containing tandemly inverted sites. The purpose of this study was to obtain new structural insights into how the dimerization region functions with the HMG domain. From a mutagenic scan of the dimerization region, the most essential amino acids of the dimerization region were clustered on the hydrophobic face of a single, predicted amphipathic helix. Consistent with our hypothesis that the dimerization region directly contacts the HMG domain, a peptide corresponding to the dimerization region bound a preassembled HMG-DNA complex. Sequence conservation among Group E members served as a basis to identify two surface exposed amino acids in the HMG domain of SOX9 that were necessary for dimerization. These data were combined to make a molecular model that places the dimerization region of one SOX9 protein onto the HMG domain of another SOX9 protein situated at the opposing site of a tandem promoter. The model provides a detailed foundation for assessing the impact of mutations on SOX Group E transcription factors. PMID:27532129

  14. Modeling the hydrologic and economic efficacy of stormwater utility credit programs for US single family residences.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Ruben; Green, Olivia Odom; Shuster, William D

    2014-01-01

    As regulatory pressure to reduce the environmental impact of urban stormwater intensifies, US municipalities increasingly seek a dedicated source of funding for stormwater programs, such as a stormwater utility. In rare instances, single family residences are eligible for utility discounts for installing green infrastructure. This study examined the hydrologic and economic efficacy of four such programs at the parcel scale: Cleveland (OH), Portland (OR), Fort Myers (FL), and Lynchburg (VA). Simulations were performed to model the reduction in stormwater runoff by implementing bioretention on a typical residential property according to extant administrative rules. The EPA National Stormwater Calculator was used to perform pre- vs post-retrofit comparisons and to demonstrate its ease of use for possible use by other cities in utility planning. Although surface slope, soil type and infiltration rate, impervious area, and bioretention parameters were different across cities, our results suggest that modeled runoff volume was most sensitive to percent of total impervious area that drained to the bioretention cell, with soil type the next most important factor. Findings also indicate a persistent gap between the percentage of annual runoff reduced and the percentage of fee reduced.

  15. Aggression in borderline personality disorder: A multidimensional model.

    PubMed

    Mancke, Falk; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    2015-07-01

    This article proposes a multidimensional model of aggression in borderline personality disorder (BPD) from the perspective of the biobehavioral dimensions of affective dysregulation, impulsivity, threat hypersensitivity, and empathic functioning. It summarizes data from studies that investigated these biobehavioral dimensions using self-reports, behavioral tasks, neuroimaging, neurochemistry as well as psychophysiology, and identifies the following alterations: (a) affective dysregulation associated with prefrontal-limbic imbalance, enhanced heart rate reactivity, skin conductance, and startle response; (b) impulsivity also associated with prefrontal-limbic imbalance, central serotonergic dysfunction, more electroencephalographic slow wave activity, and reduced P300 amplitude in a 2-tone discrimination task; (c) threat hypersensitivity associated with enhanced perception of anger in ambiguous facial expressions, greater speed and number of reflexive eye movements to angry eyes (shown to be compensated by exogenous oxytocin), enhanced P100 amplitude in response to blends of happy versus angry facial expressions, and prefrontal-limbic imbalance; (d) reduced cognitive empathy associated with reduced activity in the superior temporal sulcus/gyrus and preliminary findings of lower oxytocinergic and higher vasopressinergic activity; and (e) reduced self-other differentiation associated with greater emotional simulation and hyperactivation of the somatosensory cortex. These biobehavioral dimensions can be nicely linked to conceptual terms of the alternative Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) model of BPD, and thus to a multidimensional rather than a traditional categorical approach. PMID:26191822

  16. A decision support model for improving a multi-family housing complex based on CO2 emission from electricity consumption.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Kim, Hyunjoong

    2012-12-15

    The number of deteriorated multi-family housing complexes in South Korea continues to rise, and consequently their electricity consumption is also increasing. This needs to be addressed as part of the nation's efforts to reduce energy consumption. The objective of this research was to develop a decision support model for determining the need to improve multi-family housing complexes. In this research, 1664 cases located in Seoul were selected for model development. The research team collected the characteristics and electricity energy consumption data of these projects in 2009-2010. The following were carried out in this research: (i) using the Decision Tree, multi-family housing complexes were clustered based on their electricity energy consumption; (ii) using Case-Based Reasoning, similar cases were retrieved from the same cluster; and (iii) using a combination of Multiple Regression Analysis, Artificial Neural Network, and Genetic Algorithm, the prediction performance of the developed model was improved. The results of this research can be used as follows: (i) as basic research data for continuously managing several energy consumption data of multi-family housing complexes; (ii) as advanced research data for predicting energy consumption based on the project characteristics; (iii) as practical research data for selecting the most optimal multi-family housing complex with the most potential in terms of energy savings; and (iv) as consistent and objective criteria for incentives and penalties.

  17. Stress and Family Quality of Life in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parent Gender and the Double ABCX Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McStay, Rebecca L.; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Past research has supported the utility of the Double ABCX model of family adaptation for parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). What remains unclear is the impact of family-related variables on outcomes in both mothers and fathers within the same family. We explored the potential predictors of maternal and paternal stress…

  18. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  19. A Collaboratively Designed Child Mental Health Service Model: Multiple Family Groups for Urban Children with Conduct Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Mary McKernan; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Assael, Kara Dean; Chacko, Anil; Jackson, Jerrold; Fuss, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary outcomes associated with an experimental, longitudinal study of a Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery approach set within thirteen urban outpatient clinics serving children and their families living in inner-city, primarily African American and Latino communities. Specifically, this paper focuses on parent reports of child oppositional behavior and parenting stress over time. MFG is a flexible, protocol-driven approach designed to address the most common reason for referral to outpatient child mental health clinics, childhood behavioral difficulties. The MFG also aims to enhance family-level engagement and retention in ongoing care. Further, the service delivery model was collaboratively developed with intensive input from parents rearing children with conduct difficulties, parent advocates, community-based child mental health providers and services research staff in order to ultimately expand the number of effective service models that can be situated within “real world,” urban child mental health settings. PMID:22194642

  20. A Collaboratively Designed Child Mental Health Service Model: Multiple Family Groups for Urban Children with Conduct Difficulties.

    PubMed

    McKay, Mary McKernan; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Assael, Kara Dean; Chacko, Anil; Jackson, Jerrold; Fuss, Ashley

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary outcomes associated with an experimental, longitudinal study of a Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery approach set within thirteen urban outpatient clinics serving children and their families living in inner-city, primarily African American and Latino communities. Specifically, this paper focuses on parent reports of child oppositional behavior and parenting stress over time. MFG is a flexible, protocol-driven approach designed to address the most common reason for referral to outpatient child mental health clinics, childhood behavioral difficulties. The MFG also aims to enhance family-level engagement and retention in ongoing care. Further, the service delivery model was collaboratively developed with intensive input from parents rearing children with conduct difficulties, parent advocates, community-based child mental health providers and services research staff in order to ultimately expand the number of effective service models that can be situated within "real world," urban child mental health settings.

  1. A work-family conflict/subjective well-being process model: a test of competing theories of longitudinal effects.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Russell A; Wayne, Julie Holliday; Ford, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we examine competing predictions of stress reaction models and adaptation theories regarding the longitudinal relationship between work-family conflict and subjective well-being. Based on data from 432 participants over 3 time points with 2 lags of varying lengths (i.e., 1 month, 6 months), our findings suggest that in the short term, consistent with prior theory and research, work-family conflict is associated with poorer subjective well-being. Counter to traditional work-family predictions but consistent with adaptation theories, after accounting for concurrent levels of work-family conflict as well as past levels of subjective well-being, past exposure to work-family conflict was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being over time. Moreover, evidence was found for reverse causation in that greater subjective well-being at 1 point in time was associated with reduced work-family conflict at a subsequent point in time. Finally, the pattern of results did not vary as a function of using different temporal lags. We discuss the theoretical, research, and practical implications of our findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Job insecurity and work-family conflict in teachers in Sweden: Examining their relations with longitudinal cross-lagged modeling.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anne; Näswall, Katharina; Lindfors, Petra; Sverke, Magnus

    2015-06-01

    Job insecurity and work-family conflict are increasingly prevalent in contemporary working life and numerous studies have documented their antecedents and negative consequences. The present study used longitudinal questionnaire data collected among teachers in Sweden to test the direction of the relation between job insecurity and work-family conflict using cross-lagged modeling. Multiple-group comparisons were conducted to account for the skewed gender composition in the teachers' group. After controlling for baseline levels of job insecurity, work-family conflict, and four potential confounders (age, children under 12 living at home, university education, and relationship status), we found that the reciprocal relationship between job insecurity and work-family conflict over a 1-year time period fitted the data best for the men. For women, however, only the auto regression coefficients were significant. The results provide some empirical support for gender differences in the relation between job insecurity and work-family conflict. Moreover, this study partially supports theoretical assumptions suggesting that job insecurity and work-family conflict influence each other.

  3. Job insecurity and work-family conflict in teachers in Sweden: Examining their relations with longitudinal cross-lagged modeling.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anne; Näswall, Katharina; Lindfors, Petra; Sverke, Magnus

    2015-06-01

    Job insecurity and work-family conflict are increasingly prevalent in contemporary working life and numerous studies have documented their antecedents and negative consequences. The present study used longitudinal questionnaire data collected among teachers in Sweden to test the direction of the relation between job insecurity and work-family conflict using cross-lagged modeling. Multiple-group comparisons were conducted to account for the skewed gender composition in the teachers' group. After controlling for baseline levels of job insecurity, work-family conflict, and four potential confounders (age, children under 12 living at home, university education, and relationship status), we found that the reciprocal relationship between job insecurity and work-family conflict over a 1-year time period fitted the data best for the men. For women, however, only the auto regression coefficients were significant. The results provide some empirical support for gender differences in the relation between job insecurity and work-family conflict. Moreover, this study partially supports theoretical assumptions suggesting that job insecurity and work-family conflict influence each other. PMID:26261909

  4. A Model for the Common Origin of Jupiter Family and Halley Type Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.; Asher, D. J.; Bailey, M. E.

    2013-02-01

    A numerical simulation of the Oort cloud is used to explain the observed orbital distributions and numbers of Jupiter-family (JF) and Halley-type (HT) short-period (SP) comets. Comets are given initial orbits with perihelion distances between 5 and 36 au, and evolve under planetary, stellar and Galactic perturbations for 4.5 Gyr. This process leads to the formation of an Oort cloud (which we define as the region of semimajor axes a > 1,000 au), and to a flux of cometary bodies from the Oort cloud returning to the planetary region at the present epoch. The results are consistent with the dynamical characteristics of SP comets and other observed cometary populations: the near-parabolic flux, Centaurs, and high-eccentricity trans-Neptunian objects. To achieve this consistency with observations, the model requires that the number of comets versus initial perihelion distance is concentrated towards the outer planetary region. Moreover, the mean physical lifetime of observable comets in the inner planetary region ( q < 2.5 au) at the present epoch should be an increasing function of the comets' initial perihelion distances. Virtually all observed HT comets and nearly half of observed JF comets come from the Oort cloud, and initially (4.5 Gyr ago) from orbits concentrated near the outer planetary region. Comets that have been in the Oort cloud also return to the Centaur (5 < q < 28 au, a < 1,000 au) and near-Neptune high-eccentricity regions. Such objects with perihelia near Neptune are hard to discover, but Centaurs with characteristics predicted by the model (e.g. large semimajor axes, above 60 au, or high inclinations, above 40°) are increasingly being found by observers. The model provides a unified picture for the origin of JF and HT comets. It predicts that the mean physical lifetime of all comets in the region q < 1.5 au is less than ˜200 revolutions.

  5. The Treatment of Night Eating Syndrome: A Review and Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Jillon S

    2014-03-01

    The treatment of night eating syndrome, a disorder characterized by evening hyperphagia, morning anorexia, and insomnia, continues to gain attention with its inclusion in the DSM-V. Known treatments for NES include pharmacological, phototherapy, weight loss and dietary, and psychological interventions, which, together with the syndrome's clinical characteristics, support a treatment guiding biobehavioral model. The biobehavioral model proposes that a genetic predisposition, coupled with stress, enhances midbrain serotonin transporter (SERT) binding, which results in lower post-synaptic serotonin, dysregulating circadian rhythms and decreasing satiety. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors should therefore decrease SERT binding, increase postsynaptic serotonin, and restore circadian function and satiety regulation. Psychological interventions may be used to decrease stress as well as address insomnia and circadian rhythm disruptions. Dietary and behavioral interventions may produce beneficial changes in satiety as well as dysregulated eating. Avenues for future treatment outcome studies, including alternative pharmacological and combination therapies, are discussed.

  6. The SKI*HI Model: A Comprehensive Model for Identification, Language Facilitation, and Family Support for Hearing Handicapped Children Through Home Management, Ages Birth to Six. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas C.; Watkins, Susan

    The SKI HI program, a home intervention model for hearing impaired infants and their families, is described. An overview of the program is provided, followed by separate sections on administrative, direct service, and support service topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): child identification and processing (statewide hearing screening model,…

  7. Developing a Parenting Training Model of Character Education for Young Learners from Poor Families by Using Transformative Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasyad, Ach.

    2015-01-01

    This research is aiming at developing a parenting training model using a character education for young learners from the poor families. The data obtained were qualitative data drawn from open answers and Focus Group Discussion. The data were analyzed by using domain analysis and taxonomy. The research findings showed that there were some problems…

  8. Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Asperger Syndrome: An Application of the Double ABCX Model of Family Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Samios, Christina; Sofronoff, Kate

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the applicability of the double ABCX model of family adjustment in explaining maternal adjustment to caring for a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-seven mothers completed questionnaires at a university clinic while their children were participating in an anxiety intervention. The children were aged between…

  9. The Teaching-Family Model and Post-Treatment Recidivism: A Critical Review of the Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that the Teaching-Family Model (TFM) approach to treating youthful offenders is not effective in reducing post-treatment recidivism. This article reviews two major studies referenced in support of this widespread perception. Data presented in one widely referenced study are treated with a Cochran-Mantel-Haensel test,…

  10. A Cognitive-Interpersonal Model of Adolescent Depression: The Impact of Family Conflict and Depressogenic Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether family conflict generates peer-related stress and subsequent depressive symptoms among adolescents. In addition, in the context of the proposed mediation model, we examine whether negative cognitive styles about the self, cause, and consequences moderate the mediational pathway between peer stress and…

  11. Martin Luther King Family Center, Chicago, Illinois: Model Programs. Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    Prepared for the White House Conference on Children (December 1970), this booklet reports on the Martin Luther King Family Center, one of 34 promising programs on childhood education. The Martin Luther King Family Center is now a privately funded, community-controlled demonstration service center with an all black staff. All of its programs are…

  12. Attachment, Family Dysfunction, Parental Alcoholism, and Interpersonal Distress in Late Adolescence: A Structural Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothersead, Philip K.; Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Wynkoop, Timothy F.

    1998-01-01

    Parental attachment was shown to be a mediating variable when family dysfunction was examined, although parental alcoholism was not a significant predictor of attachment to parents or interpersonal distress. As the level of family dysfunction increased, participants reported less parental attachment and more interpersonal distress. Implications…

  13. A Practice Model for Enhancing Effective Coping in Child Welfare Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, J. Curtis

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that stress is by necessity associated with child welfare interventions. Offers help to practitioners in reducing the kinds of stress involved in child welfare interventions by helping families build consumer-practitioner relationships, assessing family processes, generating ideas on coping with intervention-related stressors, and…

  14. Bidirectional Associations between Coparenting Relations and Family Member Anxiety: A Review and Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdandzic, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Feinberg, Mark E.; Aktar, Evin; Bogels, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Research into anxiety has largely ignored the dynamics of family systems in anxiety development. Coparenting refers to the quality of coordination between individuals responsible for the upbringing of children and links different subsystems within the family, such as the child, the marital relationship, and the parents. This review discusses the…

  15. Expanding the Family Economic Stress Model: Insights from a Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Lowe, Edward D.; Benner, Aprile D.; Chien, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The current study used a mixed-methods approach to examine how low-income mothers managed their household economies, their experiences of economic pressure, and the consequences for family and child functioning. Qualitative analyses (N = 32 families) revealed that experiences of economic pressure were associated with an inability to afford "both"…

  16. Impact of a Family Empowerment Intervention on Delinquent Behavior: A Latent Growth Model Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Wothke, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Analysis indicated that reported frequency of involvement in delinquency declined more over time for families receiving Family Empowerment Intervention (FEI) as opposed to those receiving Extended Services Intervention (ESI). Results provide support for the impact of FEI services on reported frequency of delinquent behavior over a 36-month…

  17. The Origins of Parenting Stress during the Transition to Parenthood: A New Family Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Marsha; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the origins of parenting stress, namely, tensions in the parent-child relationship and changes that occur in five family domains as men and women make the transition from life as a couple to family life. Implications for public policy are discussed. (Author/BB)

  18. Postdivorce Family Stability and Changes in Adolescents' Academic Performance: A Growth-Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2009-01-01

    Three waves of panel data from 7,897 adolescents in the National Education Longitudinal Studies have been used to investigate whether a stabilized postdivorce family environment benefits adolescents' academic performance trajectories. The analyses indicate that compared with peers who grow up in stable postdivorce families, children of divorce who…

  19. Home Visiting for At-Risk Preschoolers: A Successful Model for Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievar, M. Angela; Jacobson, A.; Dier, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program promotes school readiness by providing services directly to parents through home visitation. This study describes the outcomes of the HIPPY program for Latino immigrant families in a large Southwestern city. A quasi-experimental design compared 48 families on the program…

  20. The measurement and prevalence of an ideational model of family and economic development in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Arland; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Mitchell, Colter

    2012-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the expectation that developmental idealism has been disseminated to ordinary people and affects family behavior. Developmental idealism is a belief and value system that endorses societal and family development, views societal and family development as occurring together, and suggests that modern families are causes and consequences of societal development. We use data collected in Nepal in 2003 to examine the understandings of ordinary people and show that Nepalis can discuss ideas about development and its relationship to family life and that developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Nepal. Developmental idealism is related in predictable ways to education, work experience, rural-urban residence, and mass media exposure. Although research ascertaining the influence of developmental idealism on demographic decision-making and behavior would be valuable, we cannot evaluate this with our one-time crossectional data, but our data and theory suggest that this influence may be substantial. PMID:22963536

  1. High-Throughput Screening for Growth Inhibitors Using a Yeast Model of Familial Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Defeng; Bundrick, Mary; John, Kristen; Holte, Molly Nelson; Her, Yeng F.; Evans, Debra; Saenz, Dyana T.; Poeschla, Eric M.; Hook, Derek; Georg, Gunda; Maher, L. James

    2013-01-01

    Classical tumor suppressor genes block neoplasia by regulating cell growth and death. A remarkable puzzle is therefore presented by familial paraganglioma (PGL), a neuroendocrine cancer where the tumor suppressor genes encode subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of central metabolism. Loss of SDH initiates PGL through mechanisms that remain unclear. Could this metabolic defect provide a novel opportunity for chemotherapy of PGL? We report the results of high throughput screening to identify compounds differentially toxic to SDH mutant cells using a powerful S. cerevisiae (yeast) model of PGL. Screening more than 200,000 compounds identifies 12 compounds that are differentially toxic to SDH-mutant yeast. Interestingly, two of the agents, dequalinium and tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), are anti-malarials with the latter reported to be a glycolysis inhibitor. We show that four of the additional hits are potent inhibitors of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. Because alcohol dehydrogenase regenerates NAD+ in glycolytic cells that lack TCA cycle function, this result raises the possibility that lactate dehydrogenase, which plays the equivalent role in human cells, might be a target of interest for PGL therapy. We confirm that human cells deficient in SDH are differentially sensitive to a lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor. PMID:23451094

  2. High-throughput screening for growth inhibitors using a yeast model of familial paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Bancos, Irina; Bida, John Paul; Tian, Defeng; Bundrick, Mary; John, Kristen; Holte, Molly Nelson; Her, Yeng F; Evans, Debra; Saenz, Dyana T; Poeschla, Eric M; Hook, Derek; Georg, Gunda; Maher, L James

    2013-01-01

    Classical tumor suppressor genes block neoplasia by regulating cell growth and death. A remarkable puzzle is therefore presented by familial paraganglioma (PGL), a neuroendocrine cancer where the tumor suppressor genes encode subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of central metabolism. Loss of SDH initiates PGL through mechanisms that remain unclear. Could this metabolic defect provide a novel opportunity for chemotherapy of PGL? We report the results of high throughput screening to identify compounds differentially toxic to SDH mutant cells using a powerful S. cerevisiae (yeast) model of PGL. Screening more than 200,000 compounds identifies 12 compounds that are differentially toxic to SDH-mutant yeast. Interestingly, two of the agents, dequalinium and tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), are anti-malarials with the latter reported to be a glycolysis inhibitor. We show that four of the additional hits are potent inhibitors of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. Because alcohol dehydrogenase regenerates NAD(+) in glycolytic cells that lack TCA cycle function, this result raises the possibility that lactate dehydrogenase, which plays the equivalent role in human cells, might be a target of interest for PGL therapy. We confirm that human cells deficient in SDH are differentially sensitive to a lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor.

  3. SU (3)F gauge family model and new symmetry breaking scale from FCNC processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Shou-Shan; Liu, Zhuo; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Based on the SU (3)F gauge family symmetry model which was proposed to explain the observed mass and mixing pattern of neutrinos, we investigate the symmetry breaking, the mixing pattern in quark and lepton sectors, and the contribution of the new gauge bosons to some flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) processes at low energy. With the current data of the mass differences in the neutral pseudo-scalar P0-Pbar0 systems, we find that the SU (3)F symmetry breaking scale can be as low as 300 TeV and the mass of the lightest gauge boson be about 100 TeV. Other FCNC processes, such as the lepton flavour number violation process μ- →e-e+e- and the semi-leptonic rare decay K → π ν bar ν, contain contributions via the new gauge bosons exchanging. With the constrains obtained from P0-Pbar0 system, we estimate that the contribution of the new physics is around 10-16, far below the current experimental bounds.

  4. An interconnected hierarchical model of cell death regulation by the BCL-2 family.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Chen; Kanai, Masayuki; Inoue-Yamauchi, Akane; Tu, Ho-Chou; Huang, Yafen; Ren, Decheng; Kim, Hyungjin; Takeda, Shugaku; Reyna, Denis E; Chan, Po M; Ganesan, Yogesh Tengarai; Liao, Chung-Ping; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Hsieh, James J; Cheng, Emily H

    2015-10-01

    Multidomain pro-apoptotic BAX and BAK, once activated, permeabilize mitochondria to trigger apoptosis, whereas anti-apoptotic BCL-2 members preserve mitochondrial integrity. The BH3-only molecules (BH3s) promote apoptosis by either activating BAX-BAK or inactivating anti-apoptotic members. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that NOXA is a bona fide activator BH3. Using combinatorial gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches in Bid(-/-)Bim(-/-)Puma(-/-)Noxa(-/-) and Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) cells, we have constructed an interconnected hierarchical model that accommodates and explains how the intricate interplays between the BCL-2 members dictate cellular survival versus death. BID, BIM, PUMA and NOXA directly induce stepwise, bimodal activation of BAX-BAK. BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1 inhibit both modes of BAX-BAK activation by sequestering activator BH3s and 'BH3-exposed' monomers of BAX-BAK, respectively. Furthermore, autoactivation of BAX and BAK can occur independently of activator BH3s through downregulation of BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1. Our studies lay a foundation for targeting the BCL-2 family for treating diseases with dysregulated apoptosis.

  5. Cloning and molecular modelling of pectin degrading glycosyl hydrolase of family 28 from soil metagenomic library.

    PubMed

    Sathya, T A; Jacob, Ani Methew; Khan, Mahejibin

    2014-01-01

    Western Ghats of India is recognized as one of the 12 mega diversity regions of the world and is the hot spot for unrevealed microbial diversity. To explore the diversity of polysaccharide degrading enzymes in that region, metagenomic library was constructed from forest soil of Southern Western Ghats region. Nine pectinolytic clones with the ability to degrade citrus pectin were isolated based on function based screening of the library. Sequence analysis of pg_4 clone containing revealed that it contained GH family 28 domain (pfam00295) belonging to polygalacturonase superfamily (PLN03003). Its amino acid sequence analysis showed 25-55 % identity to the other well-characterized polygalacturonases. Molecular modeling of pg_4 revealed that it comprised of three right handed-parallel β sheets, one anti-parallel β sheet and one α helix with three conserved catalytic residue D 2263, D 284-85 and H 312 at the C terminal end. The enzyme characterized was able to hydrolyze both apple and citrus pectin with K m values of 1.685 and 1.542 mg ml(-1) and retained more that 80 % of activity at pH 5-9 and temperature 20-60 °C.

  6. [Psychosis: possible model for approaching it by theoretico-clinical observation of children and their families].

    PubMed

    Marin, H R; Najt, N E

    1982-06-01

    In this work we intend to define the constitution of the psychosis in children through a methodological proposal called "genetic model". This model includes the clinical investigation about the child and his family. We have come to this research after several years of having worked as adult and child analysts of diverse pathology. Our research has an initial point, both theoretical and clinical, in the early constitution of the child's psychosis. In our daily practice as analysts we have observed that the aspects dealt with in this work were the commonest to appear, not only in the direct work with the psychotic child and with his family, but also through the task of supervising therapies carried out in hospitals and private health-service clinics in the city of La Plata. We have performed this work with the theoretical guide of Sigmund Freud and Piera Aulagnier's studies. By "genetic model" we understand all the work we have carried out from the anamnesis with the parents and clinical investigation in the child as regards the living conditions in the environment so that the child's ego could emerge. Our observation, while performing the "model" already mentioned, detected that living conditions in our middle-class children are visibly distressing, psychotic in its greatest form. Therefore, we reconsider the existence of an early symptomatology in the constitution of the child's psychosis. The symptomatology commonly found shows the following items: loss of diminution of the libidinal interest on the part of the child towards his mother mate; loss of interest about his nutrition; diminution or loss of perception of his basic needs (absence of vital force); loss of interest to communicate with the external environment; loss of smile and entertainment, within the latter: loss of vocal and corporal play. These symptoms may last for a short period of time (days, weeks) but others may last forever. Generally, they are not detected by the pediatrician or neurologist

  7. Loss of Ikbkap Causes Slow, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Familial Dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Grisela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive congenital neuropathy that is caused by a mutation in the gene for inhibitor of kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKBKAP). Although FD patients suffer from multiple neuropathies, a major debilitation that affects their quality of life is progressive blindness. To determine the requirement for Ikbkap in the developing and adult retina, we generated Ikbkap conditional knockout (CKO) mice using a TUBA1a promoter-Cre (Tα1-Cre). In the retina, Tα1-Cre expression is detected predominantly in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). At 6 months, significant loss of RGCs had occurred in the CKO retinas, with the greatest loss in the temporal retina, which is the same spatial phenotype observed in FD, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, and dominant optic atrophy. Interestingly, the melanopsin-positive RGCs were resistant to degeneration. By 9 months, signs of photoreceptor degeneration were observed, which later progressed to panretinal degeneration, including RGC and photoreceptor loss, optic nerve thinning, Müller glial activation, and disruption of layers. Taking these results together, we conclude that although Ikbkap is not required for normal development of RGCs, its loss causes a slow, progressive RGC degeneration most severely in the temporal retina, which is later followed by indirect photoreceptor loss and complete retinal disorganization. This mouse model of FD is not only useful for identifying the mechanisms mediating retinal degeneration, but also provides a model system in which to attempt to test therapeutics that may mitigate the loss of vision in FD patients. PMID:27699209

  8. Olfactory Stem Cells, a New Cellular Model for Studying Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Familial Dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Nathalie; Loriod, Béatrice; Bergon, Aurélie; Sbai, Oualid; Formisano-Tréziny, Christine; Gabert, Jean; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Nguyen, Catherine; Féron, François; Axelrod, Felicia B.; Ibrahim, El Chérif

    2010-01-01

    Background Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a hereditary neuropathy caused by mutations in the IKBKAP gene, the most common of which results in variable tissue-specific mRNA splicing with skipping of exon 20. Defective splicing is especially severe in nervous tissue, leading to incomplete development and progressive degeneration of sensory and autonomic neurons. The specificity of neuron loss in FD is poorly understood due to the lack of an appropriate model system. To better understand and modelize the molecular mechanisms of IKBKAP mRNA splicing, we collected human olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (hOE-MSC) from FD patients. hOE-MSCs have a pluripotent ability to differentiate into various cell lineages, including neurons and glial cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We confirmed IKBKAP mRNA alternative splicing in FD hOE-MSCs and identified 2 novel spliced isoforms also present in control cells. We observed a significant lower expression of both IKBKAP transcript and IKAP/hELP1 protein in FD cells resulting from the degradation of the transcript isoform skipping exon 20. We localized IKAP/hELP1 in different cell compartments, including the nucleus, which supports multiple roles for that protein. We also investigated cellular pathways altered in FD, at the genome-wide level, and confirmed that cell migration and cytoskeleton reorganization were among the processes altered in FD. Indeed, FD hOE-MSCs exhibit impaired migration compared to control cells. Moreover, we showed that kinetin improved exon 20 inclusion and restores a normal level of IKAP/hELP1 in FD hOE-MSCs. Furthermore, we were able to modify the IKBKAP splicing ratio in FD hOE-MSCs, increasing or reducing the WT (exon 20 inclusion):MU (exon 20 skipping) ratio respectively, either by producing free-floating spheres, or by inducing cells into neural differentiation. Conclusions/Significance hOE-MSCs isolated from FD patients represent a new approach for modeling FD to better understand genetic

  9. A Steric-inhibition model for regulation of nucleotide exchange via the Dock180 family of GEFs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingjian; Kinchen, Jason M; Rossman, Kent L; Grimsley, Cynthia; Hall, Matthew; Sondek, John; Hengartner, Michael O; Yajnik, Vijay; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2005-02-22

    CDM (CED-5, Dock180, Myoblast city) family members have been recently identified as novel, evolutionarily conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho-family GTPases . They regulate multiple processes, including embryonic development, cell migration, apoptotic-cell engulfment, tumor invasion, and HIV-1 infection, in diverse model systems . However, the mechanism(s) of regulation of CDM proteins has not been well understood. Here, our studies on the prototype member Dock180 reveal a steric-inhibition model for regulating the Dock180 family of GEFs. At basal state, the N-terminal SH3 domain of Dock180 binds to the distant catalytic Docker domain and negatively regulates the function of Dock180. Further studies revealed that the SH3:Docker interaction sterically blocks Rac access to the Docker domain. Interestingly, ELMO binding to the SH3 domain of Dock180 disrupted the SH3:Docker interaction, facilitated Rac access to the Docker domain, and contributed to the GEF activity of the Dock180/ELMO complex. Additional genetic rescue studies in C. elegans suggested that the regulation of the Docker-domain-mediated GEF activity by the SH3 domain and its adjoining region is evolutionarily conserved. This steric-inhibition model may be a general mechanism for regulating multiple SH3-domain-containing Dock180 family members and may have implications for a variety of biological processes.

  10. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions. PMID:21692242

  11. Increasing the delivery of health care services to migrant farm worker families through a community partnership model.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Rainer, Laura P; Simcox, Jordan B; Thomisee, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The Farm Worker Family Health Program (FWFHP) is a 13-year community partnership model designed to increase delivery of health care services for migrant farm worker families. During a yearly 2-week immersion experience, 90 students and faculty members provide health care services, including physical examinations, health screenings, health education, physical therapy, and dental care for 1,000 migrant farm workers and migrant children. Students and faculty members gain a deeper appreciation of the health and social issues that migrant farm worker families face by providing health care services in the places where migrant families live, work, and are educated. Although the model is not unique, it is significant because of its sustained history, interdisciplinary collaboration among community and academic partners, mutual trust and connections among the partners, and the way the program is tailored to meet the needs of the population served. The principles of social responsibility and leadership frame the FWFHP experience. This community partnership model can be replicated by others working with at-risk populations in low-resource settings. PMID:17553025

  12. The National Institutes of Health/National Institutes of Nursing Research intramural research program and the development of the National Institutes of Health Symptom Science Model.

    PubMed

    Cashion, Ann K; Grady, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) intramural research program conducts basic and biobehavioral symptom science research and provides training opportunities to the next generation of scientists. Recently, the NINR developed the Symptom Science Model to guide research. The model begins by identifying a complex symptom, which is then characterized into a phenotype with biological and clinical data, followed by the application of genomic and other discovery methodologies to illuminate targets for therapeutic and clinical interventions. Using the Symptom Science Model, the intramural program organizes and implements biobehavioral, symptom management, and tissue injury research. The model is also used as a framework for training and career development opportunities including on-campus trainings and research fellowship. The scientific goal of the intramural program is to enhance patient outcomes including health-related quality of life. Achieving this goal requires a long-term vision, continued resource investments, and a commitment to mentoring our next generation of scientists.

  13. Modeling the gas flux from a Jupiter-family comet nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhoff, Johannes; Huebner, Walter F.

    1996-09-01

    Mixing ratios of sublimating gases from ices in porous bodies in the solar system are important, observable phenomena. Surface erosion and dust build-up on a comet nucleus and coma formation are processes attributable to the flux of sublimating gases. Our computer simulations focus on the gas flux from volatile, icy components in the surface layer of a porous, Jupiter-family comet in order to relate quantitatively the observed relative molecular abundances in the coma with those in the nucleus. We assume a porous body containing dust and up to four components of chemically different ices (e.g. H 2O, CO, CO 2, CH 4) and solve the mass and energy equations for the different volatiles simultaneously. The model includes inflowing and outflowing gas within the body, dust mantle build-up, depletion of the most volatile ices in outer layers, and recondensation of gases in deeper layers. The model calculations start with a homogeneously mixed body at a constant temperature and a constant mass density at aphelion of an orbit. Due to insolation and conduction the internal heat of the body increases, and as a result of sublimation of the minor, more volatile components, the initially homogeneous body differentiates into a multi-layered body. For example a dust, H 2O, CO 2, and CO ice body differentiates into a four-layer body in which the deepest layer has the original composition and the higher layers are successively more depleted of volatiles. The boundaries between the layers are sublimation fronts of the corresponding volatile phases. The depths of the sublimation fronts change with time and are on the order of tens of meters. From the calculations we obtain temperature, relative chemical abundance, porosity, and pore size distributions as a function of depth, and the gas flux into the interior and into the coma for each of the volatiles at various positions of the comet in its orbit. In this paper we explore some early steps on the way to a more comprehensive model for

  14. Considerations of Culture and Social Class for Families Facing Cancer: The Need for a New Model for Health Promotion and Psychosocial Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Catherine A.; Larkey, Linda K.; Curran, Melissa A.; Weihs, Karen L.; Badger, Terry A.; Armin, Julie; García, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a family experience, and family members often have as much, or more, difficulty in coping with cancer as does the person diagnosed with cancer. Using both family systems and sociocultural frameworks, we call for a new model of health promotion and psychosocial intervention that builds on the current understanding that family members, as well as the individuals diagnosed with cancer, are themselves survivors of cancer. We argue that considering culture, or the values, beliefs, and customs of the family, including their choice of language, is necessary to understand fully a family’s response to cancer. Likewise, acknowledging social class is necessary to understand how access to, and understanding of, otherwise available interventions for families facing cancer can be limited. Components of the model as conceptualized are discussed and provide guidance for psychosocial cancer health disparities research and the development of family-focused, strength-based, interventions. PMID:21688902

  15. The measurement and prevalence of an ideational model of family and economic development in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Arland; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Mitchell, Colter

    2012-11-01

    Developmental idealism (DI) is a system of beliefs and values that endorses modern societies and families and sees them as occurring together, with modern families as causes and consequences of societal development. This study was motivated by the belief that the population of Nepal has absorbed these ideas and that the ideas affect their family behaviour. We use data collected in Nepal in 2003 to show that Nepalis discuss ideas about development and its relationship to family life and that DI has been widely accepted. It is related in predictable ways to education, paid employment, rural-urban residence, and mass media exposure. Although it would be useful to know its influence on demographic decision-making and behaviour, we cannot evaluate this with our one-time cross-sectional survey. Our data and theory suggest that this influence may be substantial. PMID:22963536

  16. Pharmacological Modulations of the Serotonergic System in a Cell-Model of Familial Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tajeddinn, Walid; Persson, Torbjörn; Calvo-Garrido, Javier; Seed Ahmed, Mohammed; Maioli, Silvia; Vijayaraghavan, Swetha; Kazokoglu, Mehmet Selim; Parrado-Fernández, Cristina; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Francis, Paul; Winblad, Bengt; Höglund, Kina; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Aarsland, Dag

    2016-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a central role in the integrity of different brain functions. The 5-HT homeostasis is regulated by many factors, including serotonin transporter (SERT), monoamine oxidase enzyme (MAO), and several 5-HT receptors, including the 5-HT1B. There is little knowledge how the dynamics of this system is affected by the amyloid-β (Aβ) burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells transfected with the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene containing the Swedish mutations causing familial AD (APPswe), were used as a model to explore the effect of Aβ pathology on 5-HT1B and related molecules including the receptor adaptor protein (p11), SERT and MAOA gene expression, and MAOA activity after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (sertraline), and a 5-HT1B receptor antagonist. Sertraline led more than 70 fold increase of 5-HT1B gene expression (p < 0.001), an increased serotonin turnover in both APPswe and control cells and reduced intracellular serotonin levels by 75% in APPswe cells but not in controls (p > 0.05). Treatment with the 5-HT1B receptor antagonist increased SERT gene-expression in control cells but not in the APPswe cells. 5-HT and 5-HT1B antagonist treatment resulted in different p11 expression patterns in APPswe cells compared to controls. Although MAOA gene expression was not changed by APPswe overexpression, adding 5-HT lead to a significant increase in MAOA gene expression in APPswe but not control cells. These findings suggest that the sensitivity of the 5-HT1B receptor and related systems is affected by APPswe overexpression, with potential relevance for pharmacologic intervention in AD. This may at least partly explain the lack of effect of SSRIs in patients with AD and depression. PMID:27163814

  17. Midwest Child-Parent Center (CPC) PreK-3rd Grade School Reform Model: Impacts on Child and Family Outcomes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylor, Erika; Spiker, Donna; Wei, Xin; Lease, Erin; Reynolds, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This presentation reports on the goals and preliminary outcomes of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) Expansion Project, which is a PreK to 3rd grade school reform model aimed at improving the short- and long-term outcomes of participating children and families. The model provides continuous education and family support services to schools serving a…

  18. Initial Development of a Model of Care and Support for Primary School Children in Changing Familial Situations: A Hong Kong Hybrid Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an initial model for the care and support of primary school children coping with family situations and family changes. The model is built on existing counselling literature, incorporating the perceptions of teachers, children and parents on their needs for support and a small empirical study by the author on teachers'…

  19. The world studies of abuse in the family environment (WorldSAFE): a model of a multi-national study of family violence.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Laura S; Hunter, Wanda M; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Muñoz, Sergio R

    2004-06-01

    The World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment (WorldSAFE) designed and implemented a study of family violence--intimate partner violence and child abuse and neglect--using standardized methods to cover over 12,000 women in eighteen communities within five lesser-developed countries. The rationale, process and methods for developing the population-based survey are described. Standardized methods included common training of investigators and field staff, sampling strategies, eligibility criteria, instruments, data collection methods, operational definitions, analysis strategies and data management. Special features of the WorldSAFE model are described--namely an ecological conceptual framework, an extensive and broad-based dissemination strategy, and community advisory boards. The World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment (WorldSAFE) Steering Committee and principal investigators are as follows: Bhopal (India): Gandhi Medical College, S.S. Bhambal (MD) and A.K. Upadhyaya (MD). Chapel Hill (USA): University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Shrikant Bangdiwala (PhD); Wanda Hunter (MPH); Desmond K. Runyan (MD, DrPH); and Laura S. Sadowski (MD, MPH). Chennai (India): Chennai Medical College, Saradha Suresh (MD) and Shuba Kumar (PhD). Delhi (India): All India Institute of Medical Sciences, R.M. Pandey (PhD). Ismailia (Egypt): Suez Canal University Faculty of Medicine, Fatma Hassan (MD, PhD). Lucknow (India): King George's Medical College, M.K. Mitra (MD) and R.C. Ahuja (MD). Manila (the Philippines): University of the Philippines School of Medicine, Laurie Ramiro (PhD); M. Lourdes Amarillo (MS); Bernadette Madrid (MD). Nagpur (India): Government Medical College, Dipty Jain (MD). São Paulo (Brazil): Escola Paulista de Medicina, Isabel Bordin (MD) and Christine Silvestre De Paula. Temuco (Chile): Universidad de La Frontera, Sergio R. Muñoz (PhD) and Beatriz Vizcarra. Thiruvananthapuram (India) formerly Trivandrum: Government Medical College, M.K.C. Nair (MD

  20. On a family of (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models: Kinks, stability, one-loop mass shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Mateos Guilarte, J.

    2012-09-15

    In this paper we construct a one-parametric family of (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Inspired by the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models, we look at all possible extensions such that the kink second-order fluctuation operators are Schroedinger differential operators with Poeschl-Teller potential wells. In this situation, the associated spectral problem is solvable and therefore we shall succeed in analyzing the kink stability completely and in computing the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass exactly. When the parameter is a natural number, the family becomes the hierarchy for which the potential wells are reflectionless, the two first levels of the hierarchy being the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a family of scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order kink fluctuation operators involve Poeschl-Teller potential wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compute the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass with different methods.

  1. A re-formulation of generalized linear mixed models to fit family data in genetic association studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; He, Peng; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Xujing; Ghosh, Soumitra; Laud, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) is a useful tool for modeling genetic correlation among family data in genetic association studies. However, when dealing with families of varied sizes and diverse genetic relatedness, the GLMM has a special correlation structure which often makes it difficult to be specified using standard statistical software. In this study, we propose a Cholesky decomposition based re-formulation of the GLMM so that the re-formulated GLMM can be specified conveniently via “proc nlmixed” and “proc glimmix” in SAS, or OpenBUGS via R package BRugs. Performances of these procedures in fitting the re-formulated GLMM are examined through simulation studies. We also apply this re-formulated GLMM to analyze a real data set from Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC). PMID:25873936

  2. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.'s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user's behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user's behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services. PMID:27270915

  3. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.’s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user’s behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user’s behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services. PMID:27270915

  4. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.'s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user's behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user's behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services.

  5. A family of models of partially relaxed stellar systems. II. Comparison with the products of collisionless collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenti, M.; Bertin, G.; van Albada, T. S.

    2005-04-01

    N-body simulations of collisionless collapse have offered important clues for the construction of realistic stellar dynamical models of elliptical galaxies. Understanding this idealized and relatively simple process, by which stellar systems can reach partially relaxed equilibrium configurations (characterized by isotropic central regions and radially anisotropic envelopes), is a prerequisite to more ambitious attempts at constructing physically justified models of elliptical galaxies in which the problem of galaxy formation is set in the generally accepted cosmological context of hierarchical clustering. In a previous paper we have discussed the dynamical properties of a family of models of partially relaxed stellar systems (the f(ν) models), designed to incorporate the qualitative properties of the products of collisionless collapse at small and at large radii. Here we revisit the problem of incomplete violent relaxation, by making a direct comparison between the detailed properties of such family of models and those of the products of collisionless collapse found in N-body simulations that we have run for the purpose. Surprisingly, the models thus identified are able to match the simulated density distributions over nine orders of magnitude and also to provide an excellent fit to the anisotropy profiles and a good representation of the overall structure in phase space. The end-products of the simulations and the best-fitting models turn out to be characterized by a level of pressure anisotropy close to the threshold for the onset of the radial-orbit instability. The conservation of Q, a third quantity that is argued to be approximately conserved in addition to total energy and total number of particles as a basis for the construction of the f(ν) family, is discussed and tested numerically.

  6. Effects of Family-Center Empowerment Model on the Lifestyle of Heart Failure Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Kordshooli, Khadijeh Rahimi; Ghadakpoor, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent disorders in developed countries and heart failure is the major one among them. This disease is caused by numerous factors and one of the most considerable risk factors is unhealthy lifestyle. So the aim of this research was to study the effect of family-center empowerment model on the lifestyle of heart failure patients. Methods: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial on 70 heart failure patients referring to Hazrate Fatemeh heart clinic in Shiraz. After convenience sampling the patients were divided into two control and intervention groups using block randomization Method. The intervention based on family-center empowerment model was performed during 5 sessions. Research tools are lifestyle and demographic information questionnaires. Results: Both intervention and control groups were similar regarding their demographic information (P>0.001). Before the intervention on lifestyle, all measures of the two groups were equal (P>0.001) but after the intervention; statistically significant differences were reported in all dimensions of lifestyle, the total lifestyle score in the intervention group was 70.09±16.38 and in the control group -6.03±16.36 (P<0.001). Conclusion: Performing the family-center empowerment model for heart failure patients is practically possible, leading to improvement or refinement of their and their families’ lifestyle. Trial Registration Number: IRCT 2014072018468N3 PMID:26448952

  7. Predictive models of energy consumption in multi-family housing in College Station, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hikmat Hummad

    Patterns of energy consumption in apartment buildings are different than those in single-family houses. Apartment buildings have different physical characteristics, and their inhabitants have different demographic attributes. This study develops models that predict energy usage in apartment buildings in College Station. This is accomplished by analyzing and identifying the predictive variables that affect energy usage, studying the consumption patterns, and creating formulas based on combinations of these variables. According to the hypotheses and the specific research context, a cross-sectional design strategy is adopted. This choice implies analyses across variations within a sample of fourplex apartments in College Station. The data available for analysis include the monthly billing data along with the physical characteristics of the building, climate data for College Station, and occupant demographic characteristics. A simple random sampling procedure is adopted. The sample size of 176 apartments is drawn from the population in such a way that every possible sample has the same chance of being selected. Statistical methods used to interpret the data include univariate analysis (mean, standard deviation, range, and distribution of data), correlation analysis, regression analysis, and ANOVA (analyses of variance). The results show there are significant differences in cooling efficiency and actual energy consumption among different building types, but there are no significant differences in heating consumption. There are no significant differences in actual energy consumption between student and non-student groups or among ethnic groups. The findings indicate that there are significant differences in actual energy consumption among marital status groups and educational level groups. The multiple regression procedures show there is a significant relationship between normalized annual consumption and the combined variables of floor area, marital status, dead band

  8. Stress and family quality of life in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: parent gender and the double ABCX model.

    PubMed

    McStay, Rebecca L; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-12-01

    Past research has supported the utility of the Double ABCX model of family adaptation for parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). What remains unclear is the impact of family-related variables on outcomes in both mothers and fathers within the same family. We explored the potential predictors of maternal and paternal stress and family quality of life in an Australian sample of 196 parents of children with ASD aged 3-16 years. Using a cross-sectional design, parents completed questionnaires assessing factors within the Double ABCX model attributed to family adaptation. Findings provide further evidence of the negative impact of child externalising behaviours and highlight the importance of family sense of coherence on positive parental outcomes.

  9. Challenge and Urgency in Defining Doctoral Education in Marriage and Family Therapy: Valuing Complementary Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampler, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this overview, I comment on the strong theme of the need to define and improve the quality of doctoral education in marriage and family therapy that pervades the three essays. Deficits in research training are the central concern, although the essayists take different perspectives on the nature of the research training needed. The different…

  10. [Education of women and changes in the family model in Poland].

    PubMed

    Koptas, G

    1988-05-01

    Trends in women's education in Poland for the period 1960-1986 are reviewed, with a focus on the status of women and the allocation of women's time. The author concludes that the rapid changes in women's educational status that have occurred are not matched by equally rapid changes in family behavior.

  11. The Transagency Approach: A Model for Serving Children with HIV Infection and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Geneva; Sterzin, Elaine Durkot

    1988-01-01

    Examines the socioeconomic medium for the increasing incidence of pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Discusses the genesis, composition, and mission of Project WIN, a Boston-based, transagency, case management service delivery system designed to provide a holistic response to families' children at risk for or diagnosed with HIV…

  12. A Macro- and Micro-Examination of Family Power and Love: An Exchange Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina

    1976-01-01

    Greek families were analyzed in terms of resources available to husband and wife. An important resource was the amount of spouse's love. The more husbands loved wives, and the less wives loved husbands, the more power was shared. Power sharing was not common when both spouses were college educated. (NG)

  13. Modeling the hydrologic and economic efficacy of stormwater utility credit programs for US single family residences

    EPA Science Inventory

    As regulatory pressure to reduce the environmental impact of urban stormwater intensifies, U.S. municipalities increasingly seek a dedicated source of funding for stormwater programs, such as a stormwater utility. In rare instances, single family residences are eligible for utili...

  14. Seeking to Engage "Hard-to-Reach" Families: Towards a Transferable Model of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evangelou, Maria; Coxon, Kate; Sylva, Kathy; Smith, Sally; Chan, Lydia L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory evaluation of the Peers Early Education Partnership "Room to Play", an innovative and experimental "drop-in" service seeking to attract and engage "hard-to-reach" families in one of the most deprived areas of a Midlands city. Located in a shop unit of a busy community shopping centre, it offers play and learning…

  15. Parenting Practices in Preschool Leading to Later Cognitive Competence: A Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievar, M. Angela; Moske, Amanda Kay; Johnson, Deborah Jean; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigates the effect of the early home environment on self-regulation in preschoolers, and how self-regulation relates to later school achievement, while taking into account family resources. Participants were part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and…

  16. Predictors of Coparenting Relationship Quality in African American Single Mother Families: An Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, Emma; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Nonmarital coparents, or adults who assist mothers with childrearing, play a significant role in the lives of African American single mothers and their children. Yet relatively little research has examined correlates of the quality of the coparenting relationship in these families. Using a broad ecological framework, the current study examined…

  17. Relationships between Perceptions of Personal and Family Functioning, Defensive Functioning, and Working Models of Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Steven A.; And Others

    Current psychological literature suggests that positive representations of self and others are associated with sensitivity of caregiving. This study was designed to examine the relationship among self-perceptions, perceptions of family functioning, and caregiving schemata in 618 undergraduates (437 females, 181 males) enrolled in Introductory…

  18. Parent and Family Impact of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review and Proposed Model for Intervention Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Jeffrey S.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2012-01-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be an overwhelming experience for parents and families. The pervasive and severe deficits often present in children with ASD are associated with a plethora of difficulties in caregivers, including decreased parenting efficacy, increased parenting stress, and an increase in mental and…

  19. Value of Family and Group Counseling Models where Grandparents Function as Parents to Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Ray, Shannon L.

    2010-01-01

    Those involved in circumstances in which children are raised by their grandparents often encounter serious problems that require assistance from counselors. Research suggests that grandparents and parents in these families typically experience heightened stress and psychosocial distress. Additionally, the children often encounter behavioral,…

  20. Child Care for Families Who Are Homeless: A Model of Comprehensive Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafanello, Donna

    2004-01-01

    A family, whom out of necessity due to a lack of housing, must reside in a shelter, motel, vehicle, campground, on the street, or doubled up with relatives or friends, is considered homeless. Poverty, lack of affordable housing, domestic violence, veteran status, mental illness, and addiction disorders are among the factors that contribute to…

  1. Model Programs of Early Education for Hearing-Impaired Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatty, Janice C.

    This paper describes five programs of early intervention for children with hearing impairments and their families. Programs are described according to their mission, services, and unique contribution to the field of early intervention. First, essential components of all programs are identified. These are evaluation, audiological management, parent…

  2. Individuals, Families, and Achievement: A Comprehensive Model in a Canadian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, Giselle; Beran, Tanya N.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between student academic achievement and individual child and family factors. The sample consisted of 10- to 11-year-olds (N = 2,081) from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which is a stratified random sample of 22,831 households in Canada. From scale and factor analyses,…

  3. Family Functioning and Eating Disorders among College Women: A Model of Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holston, Jill I.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the overall relationship between family functioning, self-esteem, and perfectionism and eating disorder behaviors in a sample of 437 college women. Results of the path analysis suggest significant direct and indirect effects. Discusses implications for treatment and early intervention. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/GCP)

  4. The ethical leadership challenge for effective resolution of patient and family complaints and grievances: proven methods and models.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E; Tallman, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Health care leaders and managers face the ethical leadership challenge in ensuring effective resolution of patient and family complaints and grievances. In today's society of increasing discontent about safety, quality, cost, and satisfaction, patient complaints and grievances are becoming more prevalent. Under the mandates of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act for transparency of quality and patient satisfaction scores and to be compliant with the standards from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and The Joint Commission, it is imperative that leadership ensure an ethical culture for effective resolution of patient and family complaints and grievances. This article addresses this ethical leadership challenge by providing a systematic approach with proven methods and models for effective resolution of complaints and grievances and thereby improving satisfaction, quality, safety, and cost.

  5. Bending the cost curve and increasing revenue: a family medicine model that works!

    PubMed

    Katz, Bernard J; Needham, Mark R

    2012-12-01

    This article attempts to illustrate ways in which family physician practices are able to demonstrate high value, enhanced quality, and streamlined costs, essential components of practice sustainability. Specific examples are provided to assist practices to consider questions and information that allow for skillful engagement during contract negotiations, consider increasing practice revenues by adopting practice enhancements that make sense for the location of the practice and community needs, develop workflow analyses, and review opportunities for expense reduction.

  6. Preface: Recent Advances in Modeling Multiphase Flow and Transportwith the TOUGH Family of Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2007-11-15

    A symposium on research carried out using the TOUGH family of numerical codes was held from May 15 to 17, 2006, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This special issue of the 'Vadose Zone Journal' contains revised and expanded versions of a selected set of papers presented at this symposium (TOUGH Symposium 2006; http://esd.lbl.gov/TOUGHsymposium), all of which focus on multiphase flow, including flow in the vadose zone.

  7. In silico identification and characterization of the MAPK family members of unicellular model eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Mehmet Taha; Arslanyolu, Muhittin

    2014-10-01

    The biological function and evolutionary diversity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family have mostly been studied in fungi, animals and plants, with very limited information from lower eukaryotes. This study aimed to describe the MAPKs of unicellular Tetrahymena thermophila. Eight members of the T. thermophila MAPK (TtMPK) gene family, in addition to previously reported TtMPK1, TtMPK2 and TtMPK3, were identified bioinformatically using a T. thermophila genome database. Phylogenetic analysis assigned the TtMPKs into two major groups, ERK1/2-like (TtMPK1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) as stress-responsive MAPKs for biotic and abiotic stresses, and ERK7/8-like (TtMPK4, 10, and 11) as cell-cycle-associated protein kinases for biotic factors. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the TtMPKs showed high mRNA expression at 30°C; however, only TtMPK5 and TtMPK6 showed high expression at 37°C. Osmotic shock by 100mM NaCl only increased the expression of TtMPK2, whereas 20mM NaCl reduced the expression of all MPKs to almost zero. The results suggested that T. thermophila MAPKs are among the closest representatives of the ancestors of the eukaryotic MAPK family. Although no functional characterization of MPKs was performed, this study is the first report of the genome-wide MAPK family in T. thermophila.

  8. Families in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This issue of "Emphasis" deals with families in transition, providing some model programs for the new family and some historical perspectives on how families have developed over time. Articles include: (1) "Nostalgia on the Right" (Nancy Theriot); (2) "Heart to Heart" (Nancy Harrington-MacLennan); (3) "The Media Get the Message" (Janet Alyn); (4)…

  9. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    Auxin plays key roles in a wide variety of plant activities, including embryo development, leaf formation, phototropism, fruit development and root initiation and development. Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, encoding short-lived nuclear proteins, are key regulators in the auxin transduction pathway. But how they work is still unknown. In order to conduct a systematic analysis of this gene family in Solanaceae species, a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes was carried out. Here, 26 and 27 non redundant AUX/IAAs were identified in tomato and potato, respectively. Using tomato as a model, a comprehensive overview of SlIAA gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs and cis-elements in promoter sequences. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the predicted protein sequences of 31 OsIAAs, 29 AtIAAs, 31 ZmIAAs, and 26 SlIAAs revealed that these IAAs were clustered into three major groups and ten subgroups. Among them, seven subgroups were present in both monocot and dicot species, which indicated that the major functional diversification within the IAA family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. In contrast, group C and some other subgroups seemed to be species-specific. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that 19 of the 26 SlIAA genes could be detected in all tomato organs/tissues, however, seven of them were specifically expressed in some of tomato tissues. The transcript abundance of 17 SlIAA genes were increased within a few hours when the seedlings were treated with exogenous IAA. However, those of other six SlIAAs were decreased. The results of stress treatments showed that most SIIAA family genes responded to at least one of the three stress treatments, however, they exhibited diverse expression levels under different abiotic stress conditions in tomato seedlings. SlIAA20, SlIAA21 and SlIAA22 were not significantly influenced by stress

  10. Assessing postpartum family functioning.

    PubMed

    Midmer, D; Talbot, Y

    1988-09-01

    The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals.

  11. Assessing Postpartum Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Midmer, Deana; Talbot, Yves

    1988-01-01

    The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

  12. Burnout and connectedness in the job demands-resources model: studying palliative care volunteers and their families.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Jasmine-Yan; Winefield, Anthony H; Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Metzer, Jacques C

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the role of burnout and connectedness in the job demands-resources (JD-R) model among palliative care volunteers. It was hypothesized that (a) exhaustion mediates the relationship between demands and depression, and between demands and retention; (b) cynicism mediates the relationship between resources and retention; and (c) connectedness mediates the relationship between resources and retention. Hypotheses were tested in 2 separate analyses: structural equation modeling (SEM) and path analyses. The first was based on volunteer self-reports (N = 204), while the second analysis concerned matched data from volunteers and their family members (N = 99). While strong support was found for cynicism and connectedness as mediators in both types of analyses, this was not altogether the case for exhaustion. Implications of these findings for the JD-R model and volunteer organizations are discussed.

  13. The pgip family in soybean and three other legume species: evidence for a birth-and-death model of evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) plant cell wall glycoproteins involved in plant immunity. They are typically encoded by gene families with a small number of gene copies whose evolutionary origin has been poorly investigated. Here we report the complete characterization of the full complement of the pgip family in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and the characterization of the genomic region surrounding the pgip family in four legume species. Results BAC clone and genome sequence analyses showed that the soybean genome contains two pgip loci. Each locus is composed of three clustered genes that are induced following infection with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, and remnant sequences of pgip genes. The analyzed homeologous soybean genomic regions (about 126 Kb) that include the pgip loci are strongly conserved and this conservation extends also to the genomes of the legume species Phaseolus vulgaris L., Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and Cicer arietinum L., each containing a single pgip locus. Maximum likelihood-based gene trees suggest that the genes within the pgip clusters have independently undergone tandem duplication in each species. Conclusions The paleopolyploid soybean genome contains two pgip loci comprised in large and highly conserved duplicated regions, which are also conserved in bean, M. truncatula and C. arietinum. The genomic features of these legume pgip families suggest that the forces driving the evolution of pgip genes follow the birth-and-death model, similar to that proposed for the evolution of resistance (R) genes of NBS-LRR-type. PMID:25034494

  14. A first-principles model of early evolution: emergence of gene families, species, and preferred protein folds.

    PubMed

    Zeldovich, Konstantin B; Chen, Peiqiu; Shakhnovich, Boris E; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2007-07-01

    In this work we develop a microscopic physical model of early evolution where phenotype--organism life expectancy--is directly related to genotype--the stability of its proteins in their native conformations-which can be determined exactly in the model. Simulating the model on a computer, we consistently observe the "Big Bang" scenario whereby exponential population growth ensues as soon as favorable sequence-structure combinations (precursors of stable proteins) are discovered. Upon that, random diversity of the structural space abruptly collapses into a small set of preferred proteins. We observe that protein folds remain stable and abundant in the population at timescales much greater than mutation or organism lifetime, and the distribution of the lifetimes of dominant folds in a population approximately follows a power law. The separation of evolutionary timescales between discovery of new folds and generation of new sequences gives rise to emergence of protein families and superfamilies whose sizes are power-law distributed, closely matching the same distributions for real proteins. On the population level we observe emergence of species--subpopulations that carry similar genomes. Further, we present a simple theory that relates stability of evolving proteins to the sizes of emerging genomes. Together, these results provide a microscopic first-principles picture of how first-gene families developed in the course of early evolution.

  15. A first-principles model of early evolution: emergence of gene families, species, and preferred protein folds.

    PubMed

    Zeldovich, Konstantin B; Chen, Peiqiu; Shakhnovich, Boris E; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2007-07-01

    In this work we develop a microscopic physical model of early evolution where phenotype--organism life expectancy--is directly related to genotype--the stability of its proteins in their native conformations-which can be determined exactly in the model. Simulating the model on a computer, we consistently observe the "Big Bang" scenario whereby exponential population growth ensues as soon as favorable sequence-structure combinations (precursors of stable proteins) are discovered. Upon that, random diversity of the structural space abruptly collapses into a small set of preferred proteins. We observe that protein folds remain stable and abundant in the population at timescales much greater than mutation or organism lifetime, and the distribution of the lifetimes of dominant folds in a population approximately follows a power law. The separation of evolutionary timescales between discovery of new folds and generation of new sequences gives rise to emergence of protein families and superfamilies whose sizes are power-law distributed, closely matching the same distributions for real proteins. On the population level we observe emergence of species--subpopulations that carry similar genomes. Further, we present a simple theory that relates stability of evolving proteins to the sizes of emerging genomes. Together, these results provide a microscopic first-principles picture of how first-gene families developed in the course of early evolution. PMID:17630830

  16. Genetics and Molecular Modeling of New Mutations of Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis in a Single Italian Center

    PubMed Central

    Giovannoni, Isabella; Callea, Francesco; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Torre, Giuliano; De Ville De Goyet, Jean; Francalanci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Familial intrahepatic cholestases (FICs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. Three distinct forms are described: FIC1 and FIC2, associated with low/normal GGT level in serum, which are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein and defects in ABCB11 encoding bile salt export pump protein, respectively; FIC3, linked to high GGT level, involves impaired biliary phospholipid secretion due to defects in ABCB4, encoding multidrug resistance 3 protein. Different mutations in these genes may cause either a progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) or a benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC). For the purposes of the present study we genotyped 27 children with intrahepatic cholestasis, diagnosed on either a clinical or histological basis. Two BRIC, 23 PFIC and 2 BRIC/PFIC were identified. Thirty-four different mutations were found of which 11 were novel. One was a 2Mb deletion (5’UTR- exon 18) in ATP8B1. In another case microsatellite analysis of chromosome 2, including ABCB11, showed uniparental disomy. Two cases were compound heterozygous for BRIC/PFIC2 mutations. Our results highlight the importance of the pathogenic role of novel mutations in the three genes and unusual modes of their transmission. PMID:26678486

  17. Genetics and Molecular Modeling of New Mutations of Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis in a Single Italian Center.

    PubMed

    Giovannoni, Isabella; Callea, Francesco; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Torre, Giuliano; De Ville De Goyet, Jean; Francalanci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Familial intrahepatic cholestases (FICs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. Three distinct forms are described: FIC1 and FIC2, associated with low/normal GGT level in serum, which are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein and defects in ABCB11 encoding bile salt export pump protein, respectively; FIC3, linked to high GGT level, involves impaired biliary phospholipid secretion due to defects in ABCB4, encoding multidrug resistance 3 protein. Different mutations in these genes may cause either a progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) or a benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC). For the purposes of the present study we genotyped 27 children with intrahepatic cholestasis, diagnosed on either a clinical or histological basis. Two BRIC, 23 PFIC and 2 BRIC/PFIC were identified. Thirty-four different mutations were found of which 11 were novel. One was a 2Mb deletion (5'UTR- exon 18) in ATP8B1. In another case microsatellite analysis of chromosome 2, including ABCB11, showed uniparental disomy. Two cases were compound heterozygous for BRIC/PFIC2 mutations. Our results highlight the importance of the pathogenic role of novel mutations in the three genes and unusual modes of their transmission. PMID:26678486

  18. Aetiology of anorexia nervosa: from a "psychosomatic family model" to a neuropsychiatric disorder?

    PubMed

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Seitz, Jochen; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    Eating disorders and, in particular, anorexia nervosa (AN) have morbidity and mortality rates that are among the highest of any mental disorders and are associated with significant functional impairment. More than 25 years ago, several researchers hypothesised that the prerequisite for the development of AN was a family process characterised by an overprotective and conflict-avoiding parent-child interaction. Family studies, however, suggest that AN is a complex genetic disorder that is likely expressed primarily by temperament and specific traits during childhood, including inhibition, perfectionism and harm avoidance. Recent studies have described an impaired flexibility and deficits in social cognition that are independent of body weight and the current state of the eating disorder, providing further evidence for a genetic component of AN. The physiological and psychological alterations and the increasing societal demands that occur during puberty may trigger onset. The starvation process itself is associated with severe alterations of central and peripheral metabolism, especially neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter changes, which are thought to affect the adolescent brain during the vulnerable period of neural restructuring. Long-standing malnutrition during adolescence and young adulthood associated with hormonal and neuropeptide dysfunctions may produce "biological scars" that maintain and accelerate the disorder and likely result in chronic mental disorders in adulthood as well as poor social functioning. PMID:21866370

  19. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families.

  20. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families. PMID:22515459

  1. Treatment Efficacy of Integrative Family and Systems Treatment (I-FAST) With and Without Consultation: The Role of Model Training in the Sustainability of Evidence-Based Family Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mo Yee; Hsu, Kai-Shyang; Liu, Chang; Greene, Gilbert J; Fraser, J Scott; Grove, David; Solovey, Andy; Edwards, Shivani G; Scott, Pam

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the efficacy of the Integrative Family and Systems Treatment (I-FAST) training model that seeks to support development of model expertise within the agency in the context of facilitating the sustainability of evidence-based family treatment within community mental health settings. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine treatment outcomes of I-FAST among agencies that received ongoing Consultation and agencies that received No Consultation upon completion of I-FAST training. χ (2) analyses and independent samples t test analyses showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups on clients who had achieved reliable change on Problem Severity and Functioning based on parents' assessments. Significance of this study is discussed in the context of the role of evidence-based family therapy (EBFT) training in facilitating its sustainability in community mental health settings.

  2. A family of null models to distinguish between environmental filtering and biotic interactions in functional diversity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Chalmandrier, L.; Müunkemüller, T.; Gallien, L.; de Bello, F.; Mazel, F.; Lavergne, S.; Thuiller, W.

    2014-01-01

    Questions Traditional null models used to reveal assembly processes from functional diversity patterns are not tailored for comparing different spatial and evolutionary scales. In this study, we present and explore a family of null models that can help disentangling assembly processes at their appropriate scales and thereby elucidate the ecological drivers of community assembly. Location French Alps. Methods Our approach gradually constrains null models by: (1) filtering out species not able to survive in the regional conditions in order to reduce the spatial scale, and (2) shuffling species only within lineages of different ages to reduce the evolutionary scale of the analysis. We first tested and validated this approach using simulated communities. We then applied it to study the functional diversity patterns of the leaf–height–seed strategy of plant communities in the French Alps. Results Using simulations, we found that reducing the spatial scale correctly detected a signature of competition (functional divergence) even when environmental filtering produced an overlaying signal of functional convergence. However, constraining the evolutionary scale did not change the identified functional diversity patterns. In the case study of alpine plant communities, investigating scale effects revealed that environmental filtering had a strong influence at larger spatial and evolutionary scales and that neutral processes were more important at smaller scales. In contrast to the simulation study results, decreasing the evolutionary scale tended to increase patterns of functional divergence. Conclusion We argue that the traditional null model approach can only identify a single main process at a time and suggest to rather use a family of null models to disentangle intertwined assembly processes acting across spatial and evolutionary scales. PMID:24791143

  3. No Pain, No Gain? A Resource-Based Model of Work-to-Family Enrichment and Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Work-family scholars tend to work in two largely disconnected research streams, focusing on either work-family enrichment--the positive side of the work-family interface--or work-family conflict--the negative side of this interface. The purpose of this study is to suggest a reconciliation of the two research streams by proposing and testing a…

  4. Cultural Competency Training in a New-Start Rural/Frontier Family Practice Residency Program: A Cultural Immersion Integrative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Barbara J.; Pastorino, Ray

    The Alaska Family Practice Residency (AFPR) is a graduate medical education training program for family physicians headed for rural and remote practice sites. Located in Anchorage and affiliated with the University of Washington family practice residency network, the program has an integrated curriculum aimed at preparing family physicians to…

  5. Family services for migrant and seasonal farm workers: the Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) model.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Mainster, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural employers and work supervisors strive to keep children out of worksites, but oftentimes migrating farm worker parents lack accessible or affordable options for childcare in a trusted environment. Thus, children may not have a safe, appropriate place to be while their parents are conducting agricultural work. Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) of Florida is a community development organization that creates and fosters opportunities for the children of migrant and other low-income rural families. To better understand the RCMA system, an in-depth assessment of its program was undertaken to identify both its standard and unique features. Results revealed many attributes contributing to RCMA's success. Based upon RCMA's 48-year track record, employers, agribusinesses, and communities are encouraged to adopt strategies to meet local and regional childcare needs where parents are working in agriculture.

  6. Family services for migrant and seasonal farm workers: the Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) model.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Mainster, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural employers and work supervisors strive to keep children out of worksites, but oftentimes migrating farm worker parents lack accessible or affordable options for childcare in a trusted environment. Thus, children may not have a safe, appropriate place to be while their parents are conducting agricultural work. Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) of Florida is a community development organization that creates and fosters opportunities for the children of migrant and other low-income rural families. To better understand the RCMA system, an in-depth assessment of its program was undertaken to identify both its standard and unique features. Results revealed many attributes contributing to RCMA's success. Based upon RCMA's 48-year track record, employers, agribusinesses, and communities are encouraged to adopt strategies to meet local and regional childcare needs where parents are working in agriculture. PMID:24911688

  7. Applying the Cognitive Vulnerability Model to the analysis of cognitive and family influences on children's dental fear.

    PubMed

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Negative experiences, cognitions, and family variables are involved in the etiology of child dental fear, but previous research has frequently considered them separately. This study uses the Cognitive Vulnerability Model to explore the influence of negative dental experiences and family members on children's dental anxiety. The participants were 185 children who completed a questionnaire comprising measures of dental fear and cognitive vulnerability-related perceptions. Measures were obtained for 88 of the participants' fathers and for 97 of the participants' mothers. Cognitive vulnerability perceptions had the strongest association with children's dental fear (β = 0.40), explaining 14-21% of the variance in dental fear scores beyond that explained by other variables. Furthermore, vulnerability perceptions mediated the relationship between negative dental experiences and dental fear. Children's dental fear and cognitive vulnerability perceptions were significantly associated with those of their fathers (r = 0.23 and r = 0.40, respectively) and mothers (r = 0.28 and r = 0.35, respectively). Moreover, fathers' (β = 0.24) and mothers' (β = 0.31) levels of cognitive vulnerability significantly predicted the children's levels of dental fear. The Cognitive Vulnerability Model offers a framework to understand child dental fear. Furthermore, this cognitive approach may help explain why some children develop dental fear problems after suffering a negative dental experience and how dental anxiety is passed on from parents to children.

  8. QTL mapping in outbred half-sib families using Bayesian model selection.

    PubMed

    Fang, M; Liu, J; Sun, D; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we propose a model selection method, the Bayesian composite model space approach, to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a half-sib population for continuous and binary traits. In our method, the identity-by-descent-based variance component model is used. To demonstrate the performance of this model, the method was applied to map QTL underlying production traits on BTA6 in a Chinese half-sib dairy cattle population. A total of four QTLs were detected, whereas only one QTL was identified using the traditional least square (LS) method. We also conducted two simulation experiments to validate the efficiency of our method. The results suggest that the proposed method based on a multiple-QTL model is efficient in mapping multiple QTL for an outbred half-sib population and is more powerful than the LS method based on a single-QTL model.

  9. Family Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  10. Family Arguments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  11. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  12. Task Force 1. Report of the Task Force on Patient Expectations, Core Values, Reintegration, and the New Model of Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Green, Larry A.; Graham, Robert; Bagley, Bruce; Kilo, Charles M.; Spann, Stephen J.; Bogdewic, Stephen P.; Swanson, John

    2004-01-01

    should be reliably provided in family medicine practices, and an itemization of key attributes and core values that define the specialty. It also proposed and described a New Model of family medicine for people of all ages and both genders that emphasizes patient-centered, evidence-based, whole-person care provided through a multidisciplinary team approach in settings that reduce barriers to access and use advanced information systems and other new technologies. The task force recommended a time of active experimentation to redesign the work and workplace of family physicians; the development of revised financial models for family medicine, and a national resource to provide assistance to individual practices moving to New Model practice; and cooperation with others pursuing the transformation of frontline medicine to better serve the public. CONCLUSIONS Unless there are changes in the broader health care system and within the specialty, the position of family medicine in the United States will be untenable in a 10- to 20-year time frame. Even within the constraints of today’s flawed health care system, there are major opportunities for family physicians to realize improved results for patients and economic success. A period of aggressive experimentation and redevelopment of family medicine is needed now. The future success of the discipline and its impact on public well-being depends in large measure on family medicine’s ability to rearticulate its vision and competencies in a fashion that has greater resonance with the public while substantially revising the organization and processes by which care is delivered. When accomplished, family physicians will achieve more fully the aspirations articulated by the specialty’s core values and contribute to the solution of the nation’s serious health care problems.

  13. Model for particle masses, flavor mixing, and {ital CP} violation, based on spontaneously broken discrete chiral symmetry as the origin of families

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    We construct extensions of the standard model based on the hypothesis that Higgs bosons also exhibit a family structure and that the flavor weak eigenstates in the three families are distinguished by a discrete Z{sub 6} chiral symmetry that is spontaneously broken by the Higgs sector. We study in detail at the tree level models with three Higgs doublets and with six Higgs doublets comprising two weakly coupled sets of three. In a leading approximation of S{sub 3} cyclic permutation symmetry the three-Higgs-doublet model gives a {open_quotes}democratic{close_quotes} mass matrix of rank 1, while the six-Higgs-doublet model gives either a rank-1 mass matrix or, in the case when it spontaneously violates {ital CP}, a rank-2 mass matrix corresponding to nonzero second family masses. In both models, the CKM matrix is exactly unity in the leading approximation. Allowing small explicit violations of cyclic permutation symmetry generates small first family masses in the six-Higgs-doublet model, and first and second family masses in the three-Higgs-doublet model, and gives a nontrivial CKM matrix in which the mixings of the first and second family quarks are naturally larger than mixings involving the third family. Complete numerical fits are given for both models, flavor-changing neutral current constraints are discussed in detail, and the issues of unification of couplings and neutrino masses are addressed. On a technical level, our analysis uses the theory of circulant and retrocirculant matrices, the relevant parts of which are reviewed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. The "New Family" Model: The Evolution of Group Treatment for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriedler, Maryhelen C.; Fluharty, Leslie Barnes

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of a group therapy protocol for adult survivors of incest and the theoretical model on which it is based, the learned helplessness model of depression. Learned helplessness theory supports the assumption that victims internalize trauma. Group activities were aimed at changing negative self-beliefs and at providing…

  15. Being a Deaf Role Model: Deaf People's Experiences of Working with Families and Deaf Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…

  16. Using Qualitative Data to Refine a Logic Model for the Cornell Family Development Credential Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Betsy

    2010-01-01

    Human service practitioners face challenges in communicating how their programs lead to desired outcomes. One framework for representation that is now widely used in the field of program evaluation is the program logic model. This article presents an example of how qualitative data were used to refine a logic model for the Cornell Family…

  17. A Model of Divorce Adjustment for Use in Family Service Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Ruth Griffith

    1987-01-01

    Presents a combined educationally and therapeutically oriented model of treatment to (1) control and lessen disruptive experiences associated with divorce; (2) enable individuals to improve their skill in coping with adjustment reactions to divorce; and (3) modify the pressures and response of single parenthood. Describes the model's four-session…

  18. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis of a cell line model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Kei; Zhang, Fujian; Vien, Alexis; Cashman, Neil R; Zhu, Haining

    2004-12-01

    Mutations in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been linked to a subset of familial amytrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron death. An increasing amount of evidence supports that mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis activation play a critical role in the fALS etiology, but little is known about the mechanisms by which SOD1 mutants cause the mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. In this study, we use proteomic approaches to identify the mitochondrial proteins that are altered in the presence of a fALS-causing mutant G93A-SOD1. A comprehensive characterization of mitochondrial proteins from NSC34 cells, a motor neuron-like cell line, was achieved by two independent proteomic approaches. Four hundred seventy unique proteins were identified in the mitochondrial fraction collectively, 75 of which are newly discovered proteins that previously had only been reported at the cDNA level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently used to analyze the differences between the mitochondrial proteomes of NSC34 cells expressing wild-type and G93A-SOD1. Nine and 36 protein spots displayed elevated and suppressed abundance respectively in G93A-SOD1-expressing cells. The 45 spots were identified by MS, and they include proteins involved in mitochondrial membrane transport, apoptosis, the respiratory chain, and molecular chaperones. In particular, alterations in the post-translational modifications of voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) were found, and its relevance to regulating mitochondrial membrane permeability and activation of apoptotic pathways is discussed. The potential role of other proteins in the mutant SOD1-mediated fALS is also discussed. This study has produced a short list of mitochondrial proteins that may hold the key to the mechanisms by which SOD1 mutants cause mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death. It has laid the foundation for further detailed

  19. A Priori Analyses of Three Subgrid-Scale Models for One-Parameter Families of Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, C. David; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    1998-01-01

    The decay of isotropic turbulence a compressible flow is examined by direct numerical simulation (DNS). A priori analyses of the DNS data are then performed to evaluate three subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulation (LES): a generalized Smagorinsky model (M1), a stress-similarity model (M2), and a gradient model (M3). The models exploit one-parameter second- or fourth-order filters of Pade type, which permit the cutoff wavenumber k(sub c) to be tuned independently of the grid increment (delta)x. The modeled (M) and exact (E) SGS-stresses are compared component-wise by correlation coefficients of the form C(E,M) computed over the entire three-dimensional fields. In general, M1 correlates poorly against exact stresses (C < 0.2), M3 correlates moderately well (C approx. 0.6), and M2 correlates remarkably well (0.8 < C < 1.0). Specifically, correlations C(E, M2) are high provided the grid and test filters are of the same order. Moreover, the highest correlations (C approx.= 1.0) result whenever the grid and test filters are identical (in both order and cutoff). Finally, present results reveal the exact SGS stresses obtained by grid filters of differing orders to be only moderately well correlated. Thus, in LES the model should not be specified independently of the filter.

  20. A family of analytical probabilistic models for urban stormwater management planning

    SciTech Connect

    Papa, F.; Adams, B.J.; Guo, Y.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of over fifteen years of research on the topic of analytical probabilistic models, as an alternative approach to continuous simulation, that have been derived for the performance analysis of urban runoff quantity and quality control systems. These models overcome the limitations imposed by single event modeling through the use of long term rainfall records and are significantly more computationally efficient and less cumbersome than other methods of continuous analysis. These attributes promote the comprehensive analysis of drainage system design alternatives at the screening and planning levels.

  1. Family medical leave as a resilience resource for family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers.

  2. Comparative modeling and benchmarking data sets for human histone deacetylases and sirtuin families.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Kebede, Eyob Hailu; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-02-23

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an important class of drug targets for the treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and other types of diseases. Virtual screening (VS) has become fairly effective approaches for drug discovery of novel and highly selective histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs). To facilitate the process, we constructed maximal unbiased benchmarking data sets for HDACs (MUBD-HDACs) using our recently published methods that were originally developed for building unbiased benchmarking sets for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS). The MUBD-HDACs cover all four classes including Class III (Sirtuins family) and 14 HDAC isoforms, composed of 631 inhibitors and 24609 unbiased decoys. Its ligand sets have been validated extensively as chemically diverse, while the decoy sets were shown to be property-matching with ligands and maximal unbiased in terms of "artificial enrichment" and "analogue bias". We also conducted comparative studies with DUD-E and DEKOIS 2.0 sets against HDAC2 and HDAC8 targets and demonstrate that our MUBD-HDACs are unique in that they can be applied unbiasedly to both LBVS and SBVS approaches. In addition, we defined a novel metric, i.e. NLBScore, to detect the "2D bias" and "LBVS favorable" effect within the benchmarking sets. In summary, MUBD-HDACs are the only comprehensive and maximal-unbiased benchmark data sets for HDACs (including Sirtuins) that are available so far. MUBD-HDACs are freely available at http://www.xswlab.org/ . PMID:25633490

  3. Comparative Modeling and Benchmarking Data Sets for Human Histone Deacetylases and Sirtuin Families

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Kebede, Eyob Hailu; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-01-01

    Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are an important class of drug targets for the treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and other types of diseases. Virtual screening (VS) has become fairly effective approaches for drug discovery of novel and highly selective Histone Deacetylases Inhibitors (HDACIs). To facilitate the process, we constructed the Maximal Unbiased Benchmarking Data Sets for HDACs (MUBD-HDACs) using our recently published methods that were originally developed for building unbiased benchmarking sets for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS). The MUBD-HDACs covers all 4 Classes including Class III (Sirtuins family) and 14 HDACs isoforms, composed of 631 inhibitors and 24,609 unbiased decoys. Its ligand sets have been validated extensively as chemically diverse, while the decoy sets were shown to be property-matching with ligands and maximal unbiased in terms of “artificial enrichment” and “analogue bias”. We also conducted comparative studies with DUD-E and DEKOIS 2.0 sets against HDAC2 and HDAC8 targets, and demonstrate that our MUBD-HDACs is unique in that it can be applied unbiasedly to both LBVS and SBVS approaches. In addition, we defined a novel metric, i.e. NLBScore, to detect the “2D bias” and “LBVS favorable” effect within the benchmarking sets. In summary, MUBD-HDACs is the only comprehensive and maximal-unbiased benchmark data sets for HDACs (including Sirtuins) that is available so far. MUBD-HDACs is freely available at http://www.xswlab.org/. PMID:25633490

  4. Comparative modeling and benchmarking data sets for human histone deacetylases and sirtuin families.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Kebede, Eyob Hailu; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-02-23

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an important class of drug targets for the treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and other types of diseases. Virtual screening (VS) has become fairly effective approaches for drug discovery of novel and highly selective histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs). To facilitate the process, we constructed maximal unbiased benchmarking data sets for HDACs (MUBD-HDACs) using our recently published methods that were originally developed for building unbiased benchmarking sets for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS). The MUBD-HDACs cover all four classes including Class III (Sirtuins family) and 14 HDAC isoforms, composed of 631 inhibitors and 24609 unbiased decoys. Its ligand sets have been validated extensively as chemically diverse, while the decoy sets were shown to be property-matching with ligands and maximal unbiased in terms of "artificial enrichment" and "analogue bias". We also conducted comparative studies with DUD-E and DEKOIS 2.0 sets against HDAC2 and HDAC8 targets and demonstrate that our MUBD-HDACs are unique in that they can be applied unbiasedly to both LBVS and SBVS approaches. In addition, we defined a novel metric, i.e. NLBScore, to detect the "2D bias" and "LBVS favorable" effect within the benchmarking sets. In summary, MUBD-HDACs are the only comprehensive and maximal-unbiased benchmark data sets for HDACs (including Sirtuins) that are available so far. MUBD-HDACs are freely available at http://www.xswlab.org/ .

  5. Using the synergy model of patient care in understanding the lived emergency department experiences of patients, family members and their nurses during critical illness: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Cypress, Brigitte S

    2013-01-01

    Despite many studies conducted aimed to understand and improve emergency care, research on the triad of nurses, patients, and family members looking at the lived emergency department experiences and their perspective of each from the other is notably absent. In a hermeneutic phenomenological study using van Manen's method, a sample of 10 patients, 5 family members, and 8 nurses of a nonprofit community hospital was recruited and interviewed in 2010 to 2011 to explore, understand, and describe their lived experiences during critical illness in the emergency department. The nurses perceived that addressing the patient's physiologic deficit promptly is vital in the emergency department as well as including family members as coparticipants in the care. Patients and family members perceived that communication, critical thinking, sensitivity, and caring are essential for emergency department nurses. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses' Synergy Model for Patient Care was applied in conceptualizing the findings and served as a framework in recommending practices and interventions geared toward improving competencies required in caring for critically ill patients and their families in the emergency department. The study supports recognizing the patient and family as active participants in the patient's medical care; encouraging family-member presence and creating institutional policies for patient- and family-centered care, as well as encouraging the development of ongoing programs that will recognize, enhance, and support the psychological and emotional well-being of emergency department nurses.

  6. Therapy for Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmann, Michael R.

    A family therapy model, based on a conceptualization of the family as a behavioral system whose members interact adaptively so that an optimal level of functioning is maintained within the system, is described. The divergent roots of this conceptualization are discussed briefly, as are the treatment approaches based on it. The author's model,…

  7. Assessment of extreme precipitation events over Amazon simulated by global climate models from HIGEM family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, M. D. S.; Ambrizzi, T.; Da Rocha, R.

    2015-12-01

    The increased horizontal resolution of climate models aims to improve the simulations accuracy and to understand the non-linear processes during interactions between different spatial scales within the climate system. Up to this moment, these interactions did not have a good representation on low horizontal resolution GCMs. The variations of extreme climatic events had been described and analyzed in the scientific literature. In a scenario of global warming it is necessary understanding and explaining extreme events and to know if global models may represent these events. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of the horizontal resolution in high resolution coupled and atmospheric global models of HiGEM project in simulating atmospheric patterns and processes of interaction between spatial scales. Moreover, evaluate the performance of coupled and uncoupled versions of the High-Resolution Global Environmental Model in capturing the signal of interannual and intraseasonal variability of precipitation over Amazon region. The results indicated that the grid refinement and ocean-atmosphere coupling contributes to a better representation of seasonal patterns, both precipitation and temperature, on the Amazon region. Besides, the climatic models analyzed represent better than other models (regional and global) the climatic characteristics of this region. This indicates a breakthrough in the development of high resolution climate models. Both coupled and uncoupled models capture the observed signal of the ENSO and MJO oscillations, although with reversed phase in some cases. The interannual variability analysis showed that coupled simulations intensify the impact of the ENSO in the Amazon. In the intraseasonal scale, although the simulations intensify this signal, the coupled models present larger similarities with observations than the atmospheric models for the extremes of precipitation. The simulation of ENSO in GCMs can be attributed to their high

  8. An analysis of the efficacy of serial screening for familial nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on Markov chain models.

    PubMed

    Choi, Cheuk Wai; Lee, Michael C H; Ng, Wai Tong; Law, Lai Yau; Yau, Tsz Kok; Lee, Anne W M

    2011-03-01

    Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can be improved by early detection of the disease as treatment outcome worsens with disease's progression. This can be achieved with a mass screening program using Epstein Barr virus (EBV) serology and nasopharyngoscopy. The efficacy of any screening strategy should be evaluated before putting it into practice. Such evaluation is ideally performed with simulation as time and cost often preclude the evaluation by randomized trial. This study simulated and compared the outcomes of 4 screening strategies over a period of 12 years: (A) Annual screening, (B) biennial screening, (C) triennial screening, and (D) triennial screening for participants tested EBV negative and annual screening once the participants are tested EBV positive. Progression of the disease was divided into 4 phases and calculated by applying Markov chain model. Parameters of the transition matrix and probabilities were estimated using data from previous screening results of 1,072 family members of NPC patients. The early detection rates with strategies A, B, C and D are 88, 79, 71 and 87% respectively. The 5-year overall survival with screening is 10-12% higher than that without and is the highest with strategies A and D. Strategy D, however, requires only 64% screening tests compared with strategy A and has almost identical resultant disease stage distribution to strategy A. We concluded that strategy D offered the highest efficacy for NPC screening of family members of NPC patients among the four strategies studied. PMID:21052850

  9. Assessing differential effects: Applying regression mixture models to identify variations in the influence of family resources on academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Smith, Jessalyn A.; Antaramian, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Developmental scientists frequently seek to understand effects of environmental contexts on development. Traditional analytic strategies assume similar environmental effects on all children, sometimes exploring possible moderating influences or exceptions (e.g. outliers) as a secondary step. These strategies are poorly matched to ecological models of human development which posit complex individual by environment interactions. An alternative conceptual framework is proposed that tests the hypothesis that the environment has differential (non-uniform) effects on children. A demonstration of the utility of this framework is provided by examining the effects of family resources on children’s academic outcomes in a multisite study (N=6305). Three distinctive groups of children were identified, including one group particularly resilient to influence of low levels of family resources. Predictors of group differences including parenting and child demographics are tested, the replicability of the results are examined, and findings are contrasted with those using traditional regression interaction effects. This approach is proposed as a partial solution to advance theories of the environment, social ecological systems research, and behavioral genetics in order to create well-tailored environments for children. PMID:19702393

  10. Nurses' Practice Environment and Work-Family Conflict in Relation to Burn Out: A Multilevel Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Leineweber, Constanze; Westerlund, Hugo; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Lindqvist, Rikard; Runesdotter, Sara; Tishelman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate associations between nurse work practice environment measured at department level and individual level work-family conflict on burnout, measured as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment among Swedish RNs. Methods A multilevel model was fit with the individual RN at the 1st, and the hospital department at the 2nd level using cross-sectional RN survey data from the Swedish part of RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The data analysed here is based on a national sample of 8,620 RNs from 369 departments in 53 hospitals. Results Generally, RNs reported high values of personal accomplishment and lower values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. High work-family conflict increased the risk for emotional exhaustion, but for neither depersonalization nor personal accomplishment. On department level adequate staffing and good leadership and support for nurses reduced the risk for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Personal accomplishment was statistically significantly related to staff adequacy. Conclusions The findings suggest that adequate staffing, good leadership, and support for nurses are crucial for RNs' mental health. Our findings also highlight the importance of hospital managers developing policies and practices to facilitate the successful combination of work with private life for employees. PMID:24820972

  11. Assessing differential effects: applying regression mixture models to identify variations in the influence of family resources on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, M Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Smith, Jessalyn A; Antaramian, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Developmental scientists frequently seek to understand effects of environmental contexts on development. Traditional analytic strategies assume similar environmental effects for all children, sometimes exploring possible moderating influences or exceptions (e.g., outliers) as a secondary step. These strategies are poorly matched to ecological models of human development that posit complex individual by environment interactions. An alternative conceptual framework is proposed that tests the hypothesis that the environment has differential (nonuniform) effects on children. A demonstration of the utility of this framework is provided by examining the effects of family resources on children's academic outcomes in a multisite study (N = 6,305). Three distinctive groups of children were identified, including 1 group particularly resilient to influence of low levels of family resources. Predictors of group differences including parenting and child demographics are tested, the replicability of the results are examined, and findings are contrasted with those obtained with traditional regression interaction effects. This approach is proposed as a partial solution to advance theories of the environment, social ecological systems research, and behavioral genetics to create well-tailored environments for children. PMID:19702393

  12. Gene Therapy in a Humanized Mouse Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Leads to Marked Regression of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Sadik H.; Li, Hui; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Hinderer, Christian; Bell, Peter; Marchadier, Dawn; Wilson, Aisha; Cromley, Debra; Redon, Valeska; Yu, Hongwei; Wilson, James M.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal codominant disorder caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. Homozygous FH patients (hoFH) have severe hypercholesterolemia leading to life threatening atherosclerosis in childhood and adolescence. Mice with germ line interruptions in the Ldlr and Apobec1 genes (Ldlr−/−Apobec1−/−) simulate metabolic and clinical aspects of hoFH, including atherogenesis on a chow diet. Methods/Principal Findings In this study, vectors based on adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV8) were used to deliver the gene for mouse Ldlr (mLDLR) to the livers of Ldlr−/−Apobec1−/− mice. A single intravenous injection of AAV8.mLDLR was found to significantly reduce plasma cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels in chow-fed animals at doses as low as 3×109 genome copies/mouse. Whereas Ldlr−/−Apobec1−/− mice fed a western-type diet and injected with a control AAV8.null vector experienced a further 65% progression in atherosclerosis over 2 months compared with baseline mice, Ldlr−/−Apobec1−/− mice treated with AAV8.mLDLR realized an 87% regression of atherosclerotic lesions after 3 months compared to baseline mice. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed a substantial remodeling of atherosclerotic lesions. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, the results presented herein suggest that AAV8-based gene therapy for FH may be feasible and support further development of this approach. The pre-clinical data from these studies will enable for the effective translation of gene therapy into the clinic for treatment of FH. PMID:20976059

  13. Acute inhibition of myostatin-family proteins preserves skeletal muscle in mouse models of cancer cachexia

    SciTech Connect

    Benny Klimek, Margaret E.; Aydogdu, Tufan; Link, Majik J.; Pons, Marianne; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2010-01-15

    Cachexia, progressive loss of fat and muscle mass despite adequate nutrition, is a devastating complication of cancer associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Myostatin is a potent tonic muscle growth inhibitor. We tested how myostatin inhibition might influence cancer cachexia using genetic and pharmacological approaches. First, hypermuscular myostatin null mice were injected with Lewis lung carcinoma or B16F10 melanoma cells. Myostatin null mice were more sensitive to tumor-induced cachexia, losing more absolute mass and proportionately more muscle mass than wild-type mice. Because myostatin null mice lack expression from development, however, we also sought to manipulate myostatin acutely. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A has been shown to increase muscle mass in normal and dystrophic mice by inducing the myostatin inhibitor, follistatin. Although Trichostatin A administration induced muscle growth in normal mice, it failed to preserve muscle in colon-26 cancer cachexia. Finally we sought to inhibit myostatin and related ligands by administration of the Activin receptor extracellular domain/Fc fusion protein, ACVR2B-Fc. Systemic administration of ACVR2B-Fc potently inhibited muscle wasting and protected adipose stores in both colon-26 and Lewis lung carcinoma cachexia, without affecting tumor growth. Enhanced cachexia in myostatin knockouts indicates that host-derived myostatin is not the sole mediator of muscle wasting in cancer. More importantly, skeletal muscle preservation with ACVR2B-Fc establishes that targeting myostatin-family ligands using ACVR2B-Fc or related molecules is an important and potent therapeutic avenue in cancer cachexia.

  14. Modeling structural and functional deficiencies of RBM20 familial dilated cardiomyopathy using human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wyles, Saranya P; Li, Xing; Hrstka, Sybil C; Reyes, Santiago; Oommen, Saji; Beraldi, Rosanna; Edwards, Jessica; Terzic, Andre; Olson, Timothy M; Nelson, Timothy J

    2016-01-15

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a leading cause of heart failure. In families with autosomal-dominant DCM, heterozygous missense mutations were identified in RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20), a spliceosome protein induced during early cardiogenesis. Dermal fibroblasts from two unrelated patients harboring an RBM20 R636S missense mutation were reprogrammed to human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and differentiated to beating cardiomyocytes (CMs). Stage-specific transcriptome profiling identified differentially expressed genes ranging from angiogenesis regulator to embryonic heart transcription factor as initial molecular aberrations. Furthermore, gene expression analysis for RBM20-dependent splice variants affected sarcomeric (TTN and LDB3) and calcium (Ca(2+)) handling (CAMK2D and CACNA1C) genes. Indeed, RBM20 hiPSC-CMs exhibited increased sarcomeric length (RBM20: 1.747 ± 0.238 µm versus control: 1.404 ± 0.194 µm; P < 0.0001) and decreased sarcomeric width (RBM20: 0.791 ± 0.609 µm versus control: 0.943 ± 0.166 µm; P < 0.0001). Additionally, CMs showed defective Ca(2+) handling machinery with prolonged Ca(2+) levels in the cytoplasm as measured by greater area under the curve (RBM20: 814.718 ± 94.343 AU versus control: 206.941 ± 22.417 AU; P < 0.05) and higher Ca(2+) spike amplitude (RBM20: 35.281 ± 4.060 AU versus control:18.484 ± 1.518 AU; P < 0.05). β-adrenergic stress induced with 10 µm norepinephrine demonstrated increased susceptibility to sarcomeric disorganization (RBM20: 86 ± 10.5% versus control: 40 ± 7%; P < 0.001). This study features the first hiPSC model of RBM20 familial DCM. By monitoring human cardiac disease according to stage-specific cardiogenesis, this study demonstrates RBM20 familial DCM is a developmental disorder initiated by molecular defects that pattern maladaptive cellular mechanisms of pathological cardiac remodeling. Indeed, hiPSC-CMs recapitulate RBM20 familial DCM phenotype in a dish and establish a tool

  15. A 3-3-1 model with right-handed neutrinos based on the Δ ( 27) family symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, A. E. Cárcamo; Long, H. N.; Vien, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first multiscalar singlet extension of the original 3-3-1 model with right-handed neutrinos, based on the Δ ( 27) family symmetry, supplemented by the Z4⊗ Z8⊗ Z_{14} flavor group, consistent with current low energy fermion flavor data. In the model under consideration, the light active neutrino masses are generated from a double seesaw mechanism and the observed pattern of charged fermion masses and quark mixing angles is caused by the breaking of the Δ ( 27) ⊗ Z4⊗ Z8⊗ Z_{14} discrete group at very high energy. Our model has only 14 effective free parameters, which are fitted to reproduce the experimental values of the 18 physical observables in the quark and lepton sectors. The obtained physical observables for the quark sector agree with their experimental values, whereas those for the lepton sector also do, only for the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. The normal neutrino mass hierarchy scenario of the model is disfavored by the neutrino oscillation experimental data. We find an effective Majorana neutrino mass parameter of neutrinoless double beta decay of m_{β β }= 22 meV, a leptonic Dirac CP violating phase of 34°, and a Jarlskog invariant of about 10^{-2} for the inverted neutrino mass spectrum.

  16. Early Childhood Family Education: Implementing the Minnesota Model = Education de la premiere enfance: Mise en oeuvre de modele Minnesota = La educacion de la familia y la ninez: Poner en practica el modelo de Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Helen L.

    Over a decade ago, the Minnesota state legislature funded the Council on Quality Education to create nine exemplary and experimental pilot programs to support young children and their families. One of the early models was a family-oriented, structured preschool activity that featured weekly 2-hour sessions during which parents of 4-year-olds…

  17. Family of dilatons and metrics for AdS/QCD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Alfredo; Cabrera, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    We explore some possibilities for obtaining useful metrics and dilatons for anti-de Sitter (AdS)/QCD models. As a guideline, we consider dilatons and/or metrics that on the one hand reproduce the mesonic spectrum, and that on the other hand allow us a correct implementation of chiral symmetry breaking in AdS/QCD models. We discuss two procedures: one is based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics techniques and the other considers the interpolation between some limits on dilatons and/or metrics.

  18. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  19. Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Charles W., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on the impact of learning disabilities within families, specifically families with low literacy skills. It explores the effectiveness of family literacy programs, examines the connection between the field of family literacy and learning disabilities (LD), and offers suggestions on how to work with students with…

  20. VISION: A Model of Cultural Responsiveness for Speech-Language Pathologists Working in Family Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has established knowledge and skills needed for culturally competent service delivery by speech-language pathologists. Among these are skills needed to demonstrate sensitivity to cultural and linguistic differences. The purpose of this article is to describe a model, VISION, to assist in development…

  1. A Model for Treatment in a Native American Family Service Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Ann; And Others

    Contrasting the differences between a non-Indian child abuse/neglect center with an Indian model, this report highlights the qualities of the Urban Indian Child Resource Center (CRC) in Oakland, California. The non-Indian concept of the cause of child abuse/neglect, based on the abused/neglected childhood of the parent, is compared to the Indian…

  2. University and College Counselors as Athletic Team Consultants: Using a Structural Family Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcover, Jason A.; Mettrick, Jennifer; Parcover, Cynthia A. D.; Griffin-Smith, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, university and college counselors are sought out by their institution's sports coaches for assistance in achieving team goals. Traditional sport psychology models that have the individual athlete as their primary focus are insufficient frameworks for team-level consultations. The authors believe that systemic approaches may provide…

  3. Misuse of Linear Models: Understanding Community Linkages in Family Adaptation to Unexpected Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Colleen I.; Galligan, Richard J.

    In research, the use of linear additive methods is expedient when prediction is the goal; however, when understanding is the goal, an exploration of non-linear multiplicative procedures is more appropriate. To compare the results of linear and non-linear models, data obtained from a survey of 35 bereaved mothers were compared using scattergrams,…

  4. A Gender-Moderated Model of Family Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizur, Yoel; Spivak, Amos; Ofran, Shlomit; Jacobs, Shira

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explain why adolescent girls with conduct problems (CP) are more at risk than boys to develop emotional distress (ED) in a sample composed of Israeli-born and immigrant youth from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union (n = 305, ages 14-18). We tested a structural equation model and found a very good fit to the…

  5. Towards a Unified Perspective on Human Service Delivery Systems: Application of the Teaching-Family Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernfeld, Gary A.; Blase, Karen A.; Fixsen, Dean L.

    2006-01-01

    The field of behavioral science has been marked by the development of a plethora of empirically derived client-specific technologies for treating a wide range of human problems. In contrast, there has been a relative paucity of conceptual models regarding the application of these techniques to the more complex arena of human services. Thus,…

  6. An Educational Model for Child Welfare Practice with English-Speaking Caribbean Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carten, Alma; Goodman, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    Implemented in New York City, the Child Welfare Fellowship Project is an international collaboration between social work educators in the United States and Jamaica, the West Indies, the public child welfare agency, and selected community-based agencies. This model educational program prepared selected Masters of Social Work (MSW) Fellowship…

  7. Modeling the Social Determinants of Caregiver Burden among Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Beth M.; Carle, Adam; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Ganz, Michael; Hauser-Cram, Penny; McCormick, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study described predictors of caregiver burden among parents of children with developmental disabilities. The sample, obtained from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs, included 12,225 children, aged 5 to 17 years, with a developmental disability. Structural equation modeling assessed the relationships…

  8. Stable Black Families. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E.; And Others

    This document is the final report of a study conducted to determine what factors contribute to strong Black family life and how these strong families solve problems, in order to add to the knowledge base on stable families so as to enhance practical intervention with families in need, and to identify models of self-help strategies used by stable…

  9. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  10. Asteroid families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.

    1991-01-01

    More than 100 asteroid families are presented in Williams. Several examples of cratering events are known including family numbers 150, 162, 169, and 189. These are recognizable as many small fragments adjacent to and to one side (in three dimensions) of a much larger cratered body. Family numbers 138 and 140 are adjacent in proper element space. In population they are an intermediate step between the long recognizable families and the more frequent less populated families. Family number 164 is the fifth most populous family in the belt. All members are faint and nothing is known of the physical properties.

  11. Family Quality of Life and Psychological Well-Being in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double ABCX Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, P.; Sarriá, E.; Brioso, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined family quality of life (FQOL) and psychological well-being from a multidimensional perspective. The proposed model was based on the double ABCX model, with severity of the disorder, behaviour problems, social support, sense of coherence (SOC) and coping strategies as components. Method: One hundred and eighteen…

  12. International Family, Adult, and Child Enhancement Services (FACES): a community-based comprehensive services model for refugee children in resettlement.

    PubMed

    Birman, Dina; Beehler, Sarah; Harris, Emily Merrill; Everson, Mary Lynn; Batia, Karen; Liautaud, Joan; Frazier, Stacy; Atkins, Marc; Blanton, Shanika; Buwalda, Johanna; Fogg, Louis; Cappella, Elise

    2008-01-01

    The development of evidence-based mental health interventions for refugees is complicated by the cultural and linguistic diversity of the participants, and the need to balance treatment of past traumatic experiences with ongoing support during the process of acculturation. In an effort to gather "practice-based evidence" from existing mental health services for refugees, a collaborative study of International Family, Adult, and Child Enhancement Services (FACES), a comprehensive, community-based mental health program working with refugee children, was conducted to describe the program participants and service delivery model and to assess whether participants improved over time as a function of services. Results showed that participants improved, but that the improvement was not related to dosage of services. Implications of these findings for refugee mental health services are discussed and suggestions are made for future evaluation research of mental health services with refugees.

  13. International Family, Adult, and Child Enhancement Services (FACES): a community-based comprehensive services model for refugee children in resettlement.

    PubMed

    Birman, Dina; Beehler, Sarah; Harris, Emily Merrill; Everson, Mary Lynn; Batia, Karen; Liautaud, Joan; Frazier, Stacy; Atkins, Marc; Blanton, Shanika; Buwalda, Johanna; Fogg, Louis; Cappella, Elise

    2008-01-01

    The development of evidence-based mental health interventions for refugees is complicated by the cultural and linguistic diversity of the participants, and the need to balance treatment of past traumatic experiences with ongoing support during the process of acculturation. In an effort to gather "practice-based evidence" from existing mental health services for refugees, a collaborative study of International Family, Adult, and Child Enhancement Services (FACES), a comprehensive, community-based mental health program working with refugee children, was conducted to describe the program participants and service delivery model and to assess whether participants improved over time as a function of services. Results showed that participants improved, but that the improvement was not related to dosage of services. Implications of these findings for refugee mental health services are discussed and suggestions are made for future evaluation research of mental health services with refugees. PMID:18444734

  14. Survey of the Effectiveness of Epstein's Model of Family Engagement with Special Needs Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Terri L.

    2013-01-01

    Families of children with special needs are often underrepresented in research studies regarding family engagement in education. In Delaware, the methods of engaging families in special education and the effectiveness of these methods is unknown. The basis of this project is to provide a descriptive analysis of the effectiveness of Epstein's…

  15. Assessment of extreme precipitation events over Amazon simulated by global climate models from HIGEM family.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, Maria; Ambrizzi, Tercio; da Rocha, Rosmeri

    2015-04-01

    The variations of extreme climatic events had been described and analyzed in the scientific literature. Both extremes of precipitation and temperature until now are not well represented by regional or global climate models. Additionally, it is important to characterize possible changes in extreme events. The only certainty is that the extreme events such as heat waves, floods, droughts, or storms may imply in severe societal and economical impacts, since they cause significant damage to agriculture, ecology and infrastructure, injury, and loss of life. Therefore, in a scenario of global warming it is necessary understanding and explaining extreme events and to know if global models may represent these events. The South America (SA) climate is characterized by different precipitation regimes and its variability has large influences of the large scale phenomena in the interanual (El Niño South Oscilation - ENSO) and intraseasonal (Maden Julian Oscilation - MJO) timescales. Normally, the AGCM and CGM use low horizontal resolution and present difficult in the representation of these low frequency variability phenomena. The goal of this work is to evaluate the performance of coupled and uncoupled versions of the High-Resolution Global Environmental Model, which will be denominated NUGEM (~60 Km), HiGEM (~90 km) and HadGEM (~135 km) and NUGAM (~60 Km), HiGAM (~90 Km) and HadGAM (~135 Km), respectively, in capturing the signal of interannual and intraseasonal variability of precipitation over Amazon. Basically we want discuss the impact of sea surface temperature in the annual cycle of atmospheric variables. The precipitation time-series were filtered on the interanual (period > 365 days) and intraseasonal (30-90 days) timescales using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The occurrence of extreme precipitation events were analyzed in Amazon region. The criterion for selection of extremes was based on the quartiles of rainfall anomalies in the bands of interest. Both

  16. Nox/Duox Family of NADPH Oxidases: Lessons from Knockout Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Sirokmány, Gábor; Donkó, Ágnes; Geiszt, Miklós

    2016-04-01

    Nox/Duox NADPH oxidases are now considered the primary, regulated sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These enzymes are expressed in diverse cells and tissues, and their products are essential in several physiological settings. Knockout mouse models are instrumental in identifying the physiological functions of Nox/Duox enzymes as well as in exploring the impact of their pharmacological targeting on disease progression. The currently available data from experiments on knockout animals suggest that the lack of non-phagocytic Nox/Duox enzymes often modifies the course and phenotype in many disease models. Nevertheless, as illustrated by studies on Nox4-deficient animals, the absence of Nox-derived ROS can also lead to aggravated disease manifestation, reinforcing the need for a more balanced view on the role of ROS in health and disease.

  17. Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2016-04-01

    To explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine-tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark and lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic C P violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.

  18. Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models

    DOE PAGES

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2016-04-25

    In this study, to explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine- tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark andmore » lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic CP violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.« less

  19. Computational modelling of string body interaction for the violin family and simulation of wolf notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inácio, O.; Antunes, J.; Wright, M. C. M.

    2008-02-01

    Most theoretical studies of bowed-string instruments deal with isolated strings, pinned on fixed supports. In others, the instrument body dynamics have been accounted by using extremely simplified models of the string-body interaction through the instrument bridge. Such models have, nevertheless, been instrumental to the understanding of a very common and musically undesirable phenomenon known as the wolf note—a strong beating interplay between string and body vibrations. Cellos, bad and good, are particularly prone to this problem. In previous work, a computational method that allows efficient time-domain modelling of bowed strings based on a modal approach has been introduced. This has been extended to incorporate the complex dynamics of real-life instrument bodies, and their coupling to the string motions, using experimental dynamical body data. The string is modelled using its unconstrained modes, assuming pinned-pinned boundary conditions at the tailpiece and the nut. At the intermediary bridge location, the string-body coupling is enforced using the body impulse-response or modal data, as measured at the instrument bridge. In the present paper, this computational approach is applied to a specific cello, which provided experimental wolf-behaviour data under several bowing conditions, as well as laboratory measurements of the bridge impulse responses on which the numerical simulations were based. Interesting aspects of the string-body dynamical responses are highlighted by numerical simulations and the corresponding sounds and animations produced. Finally, a qualitative (and, when possible, quantitative) comparison of the experimental and numerical results is presented.

  20. Understanding Family Interaction Patterns in Families With Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Schaber, Patricia; Blair, Kate; Jost, Ellen; Schaffer, Molly; Thurner, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the dynamic changes that occur in family interaction patterns when Alzheimer's disease is present. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 participants who have a family member with the disease. Using modified analytic induction, guided by the dimensions of the Family Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) Model, participants shared how Alzheimer's disease affected family structure, control dynamics, and intimacy among family members. Findings demonstrate that (a) families reorganize and restructure based on geographic proximity and shifting roles, act out of filial responsibility, and strive to preserve shared meanings and rituals; (b) decision making increases around care of the person with Alzheimer's disease and shifts to the primary caregiver or other family members based on their abilities; and (c) expressions of intimacy intensify while personality is preserved in the person with the disease. The Family FIRO model can inform practitioners using family-centered care with families with Alzheimer's disease.