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Sample records for biocide-free antifouling paints

  1. New biocide-free anti-fouling paints are toxic.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Jenny; Eklund, Britta

    2004-09-01

    A number of new anti-fouling paints claimed to be more friendly to the environment, have entered the market since prohibition of biocide containing paints have been enforced in many areas. Leakage waters from five new anti-fouling paints were tested for toxic effects to the macro algae Ceramium tenuicorne and Ceramium strictum and to the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. A banned copper and irgarol 1051 containing anti-fouling paint was used as reference. Five of the six paints tested were toxic to all or some of the organisms after two weeks of leakage with EC50 ranging from 0.08 to around 2% leakage water and LC50 ranging from 1.1% to 88%. The toxicity of leakage water from these paints was still high after 16 weeks. We conclude that these paints contain substances toxic to common organisms in the coastal Baltic ecosystem. A silicone based paint did not exhibit toxic effects to the two organisms. We recommend that biological tests should be used to identify the most harmful products before they are released on the market.

  2. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Löschau, Margit; Krätke, Renate

    2005-11-01

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents.

  3. Bioassays and selected chemical analysis of biocide-free antifouling coatings.

    PubMed

    Watermann, B T; Daehne, B; Sievers, S; Dannenberg, R; Overbeke, J C; Klijnstra, J W; Heemken, O

    2005-09-01

    Over the years several types of biocide-free antifouling paints have entered the market. The prohibition of biocidal antifouling paints in special areas of some European countries such as Sweden, Denmark and Germany has favoured the introduction of these paints to the market. Several types of biocide-free antifouling paints were subjected to bioassays and selected chemical analysis of leachate and incorporated substances. Both non-eroding coatings (silicones, fibre coats, epoxies, polyurethane, polyvinyl) and eroding coatings (SPCs, ablative) were tested to exclude the presence of active biocides and dangerous compounds. The paints were subjected to the luminescent bacteria test and the cypris larvae settlement assay, the latter delivering information on toxicity as well as on efficacy. The following chemical analyses of selected compounds of dry-film were performed: The results of the bioassays indicated that none of the coatings analysed contained leachable biocides. Nevertheless, some products contained or leached dangerous compounds. The analyses revealed leaching of nonylphenol (up to 74.7 ng/cm2/d after 48 h) and bisphenol A (up to 2.77 ng/cm2/d after 24 h) from epoxy resins used as substitutes for antifouling paints. The heavy metal, zinc, was measured in dry paint film in quantities up to 576,000 ppm in erodable coatings, not incorporated as a biocide but to control the rate of erosion. Values for TBT in silicone elutriates were mostly below the detection limit of 0.005 mg/kg. Values for DBT ranged between <0.005 and 6.28 mg/kg, deriving from catalysts used as curing agents. Some biocide-free paints contained leachable, toxic and dangerous compounds in the dry film, some of which may act as substitutes for biocides or are incorporated as plasticizers or catalysts. Implications to environmental requirements and legislation are discussed.

  4. Copper emissions from antifouling paint on recreational vessels.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Kenneth; Diehl, Dario; Valkirs, Aldis

    2004-02-01

    Trace metals, especially copper, are commonly occurring contaminants in harbors and marinas. One source of copper to these environs is copper-based antifouling coatings used on vessel hulls. The objective of this study was to measure dissolved copper contributions from recreational vessel antifouling coatings for both passive leaching and hull cleaning activities. To accomplish this goal, three coating formulations, including hard vinyl, modified epoxy and a biocide free bottom paint were applied on fiberglass panels and placed in a harbor environment. In situ measurements of passive leaching were made using a recirculating dome system. Monthly average flux rates of dissolved copper for the hard vinyl and modified epoxy coatings were 3.7 and 4.3 microg/cm(2)/day, respectively, while flux rates for the biocide free coating was 0.2 microg/cm(2)/day. The highest passive flux rates were measured initially after cleaning activities, rapidly decreasing to a baseline rate within three days, regardless of copper-based coating formulation. Hull cleaning activities generated between 8.6 and 3.8 microg dissolved copper/cm(2)/event for the modified epoxy and hard vinyl coatings, respectively. Aggressive cleaning using an abrasive product doubled the copper emissions from the modified epoxy coating, but produced virtually no change in the much tougher hard vinyl coating. When compared on a mass basis, roughly 95% of copper is emitted during passive leaching compared to hull cleaning activities over a monthly time period for a typical 9.1 m power boat.

  5. Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?

    PubMed

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Pal, Chandan; Svensson, Carl Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-07-15

    There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5-4weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the

  6. Comparison of toxicity and release rates of Cu and Zn from anti-fouling paints leached in natural and artificial brackish seawater.

    PubMed

    Ytreberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jenny; Eklund, Britta

    2010-05-15

    Biocide-containing anti-fouling paints are regulated and approved according to the added active ingredients, such as Cu. Biocide-free paints are considered to be less environmentally damaging and do not need an approval. Zn, a common ingredient in paints with the potential of causing adverse effects has received only minor attention. Laboratory experiments were conducted in artificial brackish seawater (ASW) and natural brackish seawater (NSW) to quantify release rates of Cu and Zn from biocide-containing and biocide-free labeled eroding anti-fouling paints used on commercial vessels as well as leisure boats. In addition, organisms from three trophic levels, the crustacean Nitocra spinipes, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne and the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, were exposed to Cu and Zn to determine the toxicity of these metals. The release rate of Cu in NSW was higher from the paints for professional use (3.2-3.6 microg cm(-)(2)d(-1)) than from the biocide leaching leisure boat paint (1.1 microg cm(-)(2)d(-1)). Biocide-free paints did leach considerably more Zn (4.4-8.2 microg cm(-)(2)d(-1)) than biocide-containing leisure boat paint (3.0 microg cm(-)(2)d(-1)) and ship paints (0.7-2.0 microg cm(-)(2)d(-1)). In ASW the release rates of both metals were notably higher than in NSW for most tested paints. The macroalga was the most sensitive species to both Cu (EC(50)=6.4 microg l(-1)) and Zn (EC(50)=25 microg l(-1)) compared to the crustacean (Cu, LC(50)=2000 microg l(-1) Zn, LC(50)=890 microg l(-1)), and the bacteria (Cu, EC(50)=800 microg l(-1) and Zn, EC(50)=2000 microg l(-1)). The results suggest that the amounts of Zn and Cu leached from anti-fouling paints may attain toxic concentrations in areas with high boat density. To fully account for potential ecological risk associated with anti-fouling paints, Zn as well as active ingredients should be considered in the regulatory process.

  7. Toxicity of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats to non-target organisms representing three trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Jenny; Ytreberg, Erik; Eklund, Britta

    2010-03-01

    Leachates of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats are examined for their ecotoxicological potential. Paint leachates were produced in both 7 per thousand artificial (ASW) and natural seawater (NSW) and tested on three organisms, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. Generally, leaching in ASW produced a more toxic leachate and was up to 12 times more toxic to the organisms than was the corresponding NSW leachate. The toxicity could be explained by elevated concentrations of Cu and Zn in the ASW leachates. Of the NSW leachates, those from the ship paints were more toxic than those from leisure boat paints. The most toxic paint was the biocide-free leisure boat paint Micron Eco. This implies that substances other than added active agents (biocides) were responsible for the observed toxicity, which would not have been discovered without the use of biological tests.

  8. Antifouling biocides in discarded marine paint particles.

    PubMed

    Parks, Rachel; Donnier-Marechal, Marion; Frickers, Patricia E; Turner, Andrew; Readman, James W

    2010-08-01

    Antifouling paint fragments collected from marinas and leisure boat maintenance facilities and in the vicinity of abandoned boats have been chemically characterised. High concentrations of Cu (23-380mgg(-1)) and Zn (14-160mgg(-1)) in the samples (n=14) are consistent with the use of these metals in the principal biocidal and non-biocidal pigments in contemporary antifouling formulations. Up to about 2% and 7% of the respective metals were solvent-extractable, suggesting that organo-forms of Cu and Zn (e.g. pyrithiones) were also present. Of the organic biocides, dichlofluanid was present in most samples and at concentrations up to about 20mgg(-1). Chlorothalonil and Irgarol 1051(R) were only detected in one and four cases, respectively, and Sea Nine 211(R) was not detected in any sample. Results are discussed in terms of UK legislation regarding biocide usage and the likely effects and fate of discarded paint particles in coastal environments where boats are repaired or moored. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Antifouling paint particles (APP) are generated during the maintenance of boats and are shed from abandoned structures and grounded ships. Although they afford a highly visible, colourful reflection of contamination in the vicinity of the source, little systematic study has been undertaken regarding the distribution, composition and effects of APP in the wider marine environment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge in respect of APP, with particular emphasis on those generated by recreational boatyards. The likely biogeochemical pathways of the biocidal and non-biocidal metals in current use (mainly Cu and Zn) are addressed in light of recent research and an understanding of the more general behaviour of contaminants in marine systems. Analyses of paint fragment composites from recreational facilities in the UK reveal chemical compositions that are similar to those representing the net signal of the original formulations; significantly, dry weight concentrations of Cu and Zn of up to about 35% and 15%, respectively, are observed and, relative to ambient dusts and sediment, elevated concentrations of other trace metals, like Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Sn, occur. These metals leach more rapidly from APP than a painted surface due to the greater surface area of pigments and additives exposed to the aqueous medium. In suspension, APP are subject to greater and more rapid environmental variation (e.g. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen) than painted hulls, while settled APP represent an important source of persistent and degradable biocides to poorly circulating environments. Through diffusion and abrasion, high concentrations of contaminants are predicted in interstitial waters that may be accumulated directly by benthic invertebrates. Animals that feed non-selectively and that are exposed to or ingest paint-contaminated sediment are able to accelerate the leaching, deposition and burial of biocides and other substances, and represent an alternative vehicle for

  10. Study of erodable paint properties involved in antifouling activity.

    PubMed

    Thouvenin, M; Langlois, V; Briandet, R; Langlois, J Y; Guerin, P H; Peron, J J; Haras, D; Vallee-Rehel, K

    2003-06-01

    To produce ecological marine paints, it is necessary to understand the phenomena involved in antifouling activity. Due to the multivariable components which have to be taken into account and due to their analytical intricacy, only studies based on selected properties are conceivable. In this study, four properties have been chosen, viz. erosion, biocide release, roughness and the physicochemical characteristics of the film surface. A principal-component analysis (PCA) of the experimental data has shown that, among the selected properties, only erosion affected antifouling efficiency. A more detailed investigation of erosion by quantifying global hydration and hydrolysis of immersed paints revealed the difficulty in linking the chemical structure of binders to the final erosion properties. Biocide release from paints, quantified by chromatographic methods coupled with UV detection, was inferior to the doses stated by the paint producers. These observations allowed the conceiving of formulations with reduced amounts of active molecules. The development of erodable, biodegradable binders associated with non toxic compounds is a promising way to obtain efficient antifouling paints compatible with existing, preventive systems.

  11. Evaluation of dihydrooroidin as an antifouling additive in marine paint.

    PubMed

    Melander, Christian; Moeller, Peter D R; Ballard, T Eric; Richards, Justin J; Huigens, Robert W; Cavanagh, John

    2009-06-01

    Methods used to deter biofouling of underwater structures and marine vessels present a serious environmental issue and are both problematic and costly for government and commercial marine vessels worldwide. Current antifouling methods include compounds that are toxic to aquatic wildlife and marine ecosystems. Dihydrooroidin (DHO) was shown to completely inhibit Halomonas pacifica biofilms at 100 μM in a static biofilm inhibition assay giving precedence for the inhibition of other marine-biofilm-forming organisms. Herein we present DHO as an effective paint-based, non-cytotoxic, antifouling agent against marine biofouling processes in a marine mesocosm.

  12. Evaluation of dihydrooroidin as an antifouling additive in marine paint

    PubMed Central

    Melander, Christian; Moeller, Peter D. R.; Ballard, T. Eric; Richards, Justin J.; Huigens, Robert W.; Cavanagh, John

    2013-01-01

    Methods used to deter biofouling of underwater structures and marine vessels present a serious environmental issue and are both problematic and costly for government and commercial marine vessels worldwide. Current antifouling methods include compounds that are toxic to aquatic wildlife and marine ecosystems. Dihydrooroidin (DHO) was shown to completely inhibit Halomonas pacifica biofilms at 100 μM in a static biofilm inhibition assay giving precedence for the inhibition of other marine-biofilm-forming organisms. Herein we present DHO as an effective paint-based, non-cytotoxic, antifouling agent against marine biofouling processes in a marine mesocosm. PMID:23874076

  13. Comparative environmental assessment of biocides used in antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2002-05-01

    In response to increasing scientific evidence on the toxicity and persistence of organotin residues from antifouling paints in the aquatic environment, the use of triorganotin antifouling products was banned on boats of less than 25 m length in many countries during 1987. Alternatives to tributyltin (TBT) paint are mainly copper based coatings containing organic booster biocides to improve the efficacy of the formulation, and have been utilised on small boats for the last 10 years. With policies encouraging a total ban on TBT, it is expected that these biocides will be used to a greater extent in the future. Limited data and information are available on the environmental occurrence, fate, toxicity, and persistence of these biocides, and thus any decisions on policies regulating antifoulants cannot be fully informed. In this study, a multicriteria comparison of alternative biocides, based on a general assessment of available information in the literature, provided support for the use of the precautionary principle with respect to policies on antifouling products. This assessment was validated by a more detailed comparison of four selected biocides and TBT. Results indicate that TCMS pyridine and TCMTB demonstrate environmental characteristics similar to TBT and thus detail risk assessments are needed before their use is permitted. The widespread use of the other biocides should be allowed only after research to fill the gaps in knowledge with respect to their toxicity and persistence in aquatic environments.

  14. Influence of antifouling paint on freshwater invertebrates (Mytilidae, Chironomidae and Naididae): density, richness and composition.

    PubMed

    Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates.

  15. New analytical application for metal determination in antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Ytreberg, Erik; Lundgren, Lennart; Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Eklund, Britta

    2015-10-01

    Despite the ban of applying TBT coatings on leisure boats in the late 80s, recent studies show an ongoing spread of TBT from leisure boats, particularly during hull cleaning events. Therefore, countries in EU have adopted expensive measures to clean this wash water. A more cost-efficient measure is to focus directly on the source, i.e. identify leisure boats with high concentrations of TBT and prescribe boat owners to remove the paint. We have developed a new antifouling paint application for a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to be used for identifying boats with high area concentrations (µg/cm(2)) of Sn (indication that the hull contains TBT paint residues). Copper and zinc are also included in the application since these metals are used in the vast majority of today's paints. A blind test with up to four layers of TBT-, copper- and zinc-based paints showed good correlation between XRF-measured area concentrations and chemically analyzed concentrations. Future usage of the applications involves identification of boat hulls in particular with high Sn concentrations and also with high Cu and Zn concentrations. This method has the potential to become a useful tool in regulatory management of existence and use of toxic elements on boat hulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antifouling paint booster biocide contamination in Greek marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Albanis, T A; Lambropoulou, D A; Sakkas, V A; Konstantinou, I K

    2002-08-01

    Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to organotin compounds in antifouling products, after restrictions imposed on the use of tributyltin in 1987. In this study, the concentrations of three biocides commonly used as antifoulants, Irgarol 1051 (2-methylthio-4-tertiary-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine), dichlofluanid (N-dichlorofluoromethylthio-N',N'-dimethyl-N-phenyl sulphamide) and chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloro isophthalonitrile) were determined in sediments from ports and marinas of Greece. Piraeus (Central port, Mikrolimano and Pasalimani marinas), Thessaloniki (Central port and marina), Patras (Central port and marina), Elefsina, Igoumenitsa, Aktio and Chalkida marinas were chosen as representative study sites for comparison with previous monitoring surveys of biocides in coastal sediments from other European countries. Samples were collected at the end of one boating season (October 1999), as well before and during the 2000 boating season. All the compounds monitored were detected at most of sites and seasonal dependence of biocide concentrations were found, with maxima during the period June-September, while the winter period (December-February) lower values were encountered. The concentrations levels ranged from 3 to 690 ng/g dw (dry weight). Highest levels of the biocides were found in marinas (690, 195 and 165 ng/g dw, for Irgarol, dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil respectively) while in ports lower concentrations were observed. Antifouling paints are implicated as the likely sources of biocides since agricultural applications possibly contributed for chlorothalonil and dichlofluanid inputs in a few sampling sites.

  17. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Barrett, Mark; Brown, Murray T

    2009-01-01

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important.

  18. The development of a marine natural product-based antifouling paint.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J Grant; Boyd, Kenneth G; Armstrong, Evelyn; Jiang, Zhong; Yan, Liming; Berggren, Matz; May, Ulrika; Pisacane, Tony; Granmo, Ake; Adams, David R

    2003-04-01

    Problems with tin and copper antifouling compounds have highlighted the need to develop new environmentally friendly antifouling coatings. Bacteria isolated from living surfaces in the marine environment are a promising source of natural antifouling compounds. Four isolates were used to produce extracts that were formulated into ten water-based paints. All but one of the paints showed activity against a test panel of fouling bacteria. Five of the paints were further tested for their ability to inhibit the settlement of barnacle larvae, Balanus amphitrite, and algal spores of Ulva lactuca, and for their ability to inhibit the growth of U. lactuca. Two paints caused a significant decrease in the number of settled barnacles. One paint containing extract of Pseudomonas sp. strain NUDMB50-11, showed excellent activity in all assays. The antifouling chemicals responsible for the activity of the extract were isolated, using bioassay guided fractionation, and their chemical structures determined.

  19. Managing the Use of Copper-Based Antifouling Paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Mridula; Swain, Geoffrey W.

    2007-03-01

    Copper is the biocide of choice for present-day antifouling (AF) paints. It is also a major source of copper loading in to the marine environment and, as such, might cause local copper levels to exceed water quality criteria. The present study is multifaceted and looks into the overall impact of copper-based AF paints on copper concentrations along a 64-km stretch of the Indian River Lagoon and at Port Canaveral, Florida. This preliminary study is one of the first to outline issues and present background evidence on the current status of copper and copper-based AF usage in Florida and to address the need for management. Previous measurements of copper levels in these waters show a history of copper contamination close to marinas, boatyards, and at Port Canaveral that often exceed state and federal water quality standards. Further, we estimate that the total annual copper input into the Indian River Lagoon is between 1.7 tons/year (sailboats) and 2.1 tons/year (powerboats) from boats in 14 marinas. We estimate the copper input into Port Canaveral to be about 1.4 tons/year from seven cruise ships. A brief survey of marina operators and boat owners revealed attitudes and practices associated with AF paint usage that ranged from excellent to inferior. Management recommendations are made for a proactive approach to improving AF paint selection and application, assessing the environmental status of copper, and redefining existing management practices for sustainable AF paint usage and environmental health.

  20. Managing the use of copper-based antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mridula; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2007-03-01

    Copper is the biocide of choice for present-day antifouling (AF) paints. It is also a major source of copper loading in to the marine environment and, as such, might cause local copper levels to exceed water quality criteria. The present study is multifaceted and looks into the overall impact of copper-based AF paints on copper concentrations along a 64-km stretch of the Indian River Lagoon and at Port Canaveral, Florida. This preliminary study is one of the first to outline issues and present background evidence on the current status of copper and copper-based AF usage in Florida and to address the need for management. Previous measurements of copper levels in these waters show a history of copper contamination close to marinas, boatyards, and at Port Canaveral that often exceed state and federal water quality standards. Further, we estimate that the total annual copper input into the Indian River Lagoon is between 1.7 tons/year (sailboats) and 2.1 tons/year (powerboats) from boats in 14 marinas. We estimate the copper input into Port Canaveral to be about 1.4 tons/year from seven cruise ships. A brief survey of marina operators and boat owners revealed attitudes and practices associated with AF paint usage that ranged from excellent to inferior. Management recommendations are made for a proactive approach to improving AF paint selection and application, assessing the environmental status of copper, and redefining existing management practices for sustainable AF paint usage and environmental health.

  1. Release and detection of nanosized copper from a commercial antifouling paint.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Oranu, Ekene A; Tao, Mengya; Keller, Arturo A

    2016-10-01

    One major concern with the use of antifouling paints is the release of its biocides (mainly copper and zinc) into natural waters, where they may exhibit toxicity to non-target organisms. While many studies have quantified the release of biocides from antifouling paints, very little is known about the physicochemical state of released copper. For proper risk assessment of antifouling paints, characterization of copper released into water is necessary because the physicochemical state determines the metal's environmental fate and effects. In this study, we monitored release of different fractions of copper (dissolved, nano, and bulk) from a commercial copper-based antifouling paint. Release from painted wood and aluminum mini-bars that were submerged in natural waters was monitored for 180 days. Leachates contained both dissolved and particulate copper species. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical phase of particles in the leachate. The amount of copper released was strongly dependent on water salinity, painted surface, and paint drying time. The presence of nanosized Cu2O particles was confirmed in paint and its leachate using single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and electron microscopy. Toxicity of paint leachate to a marine phytoplankton was also evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Presence and effects of marine microbial biofilms on biocide-based antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Weinell, Claus E; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Marine microorganisms are capable of successfully colonizing toxic surfaces through the formation of biofilm structures. In this article, most of the literature reporting the presence of marine biofilms on chemically-active antifouling paints is briefly reviewed. Of special concern is the influence of the dense extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix on the release rate of the compounds involved in antifouling paint performance (i.e. active compounds and controlled-release binder molecules). A deeper understanding of these phenomena is of interest for both environmental legislators and paint formulators.

  3. ­A practical application of reduced-copper antifouling paint in marine biological research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling of experimental cages and other field apparatuses can be problematic for scientists and has traditionally been addressed using frequent manual removal (e.g., scraping, scrubbing). Recent environmental restrictions and legislative changes have driven the development of less hazardous antifouling products, making antifouling paint a potential alternative option to manual removal. Consequently, the viability of using these newly developed products as a replacement for the manual cleaning of exclusion cages was experimentally investigated. There were six treatments tested, comprising three with settlement tiles in experimental cages coated with antifouling paint, two with settlement tiles in unpainted experimental cages, and one cage-free suspended tile. The three antifouling treatments comprised two reduced-copper paints (21% Cu2O and 40% Cu2O) and one copper-free, Econea™-based paint (labeled “ecofriendly”). Antifouling paints were assessed for performance of preventing fouling of the cages and whether they elicited local effects on settlement tiles contained within them. All three paints performed well to reduce fouling of the cages during the initial six weeks of the experiment, but the efficacy of “ecofriendly” paint began to decrease during an extended deployment that lasted 14 weeks. The macro-community composition, biomass, and percent cover of settled organism on tiles within cages treated with copper-based paints (21% and 40% concentrations) were indistinguishable from tiles within the manually scrubbed cages. In contrast, settlement to tiles from the “ecofriendly” treatment was different in composition of macro-community and lower in biomass, suggesting the presence of local effects and therefore rendering it unsuitable for use in settlement experiments. The results of this study suggest that reduced-copper paints have the potential to serve as an alternative to manual maintenance, which may be useful for deployments in locations

  4. -A practical application of reduced-copper antifouling paint in marine biological research.

    PubMed

    Jerabek, Andrea S; Wall, Kara R; Stallings, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling of experimental cages and other field apparatuses can be problematic for scientists and has traditionally been addressed using frequent manual removal (e.g., scraping, scrubbing). Recent environmental restrictions and legislative changes have driven the development of less hazardous antifouling products, making antifouling paint a potential alternative option to manual removal. Consequently, the viability of using these newly developed products as a replacement for the manual cleaning of exclusion cages was experimentally investigated. There were six treatments tested, comprising three with settlement tiles in experimental cages coated with antifouling paint, two with settlement tiles in unpainted experimental cages, and one cage-free suspended tile. The three antifouling treatments comprised two reduced-copper paints (21% Cu2O and 40% Cu2O) and one copper-free, Econea (™)-based paint (labeled "ecofriendly"). Antifouling paints were assessed for performance of preventing fouling of the cages and whether they elicited local effects on settlement tiles contained within them. All three paints performed well to reduce fouling of the cages during the initial six weeks of the experiment, but the efficacy of "ecofriendly" paint began to decrease during an extended deployment that lasted 14 weeks. The macro-community composition, biomass, and percent cover of settled organism on tiles within cages treated with copper-based paints (21% and 40% concentrations) were indistinguishable from tiles within the manually scrubbed cages. In contrast, settlement to tiles from the "ecofriendly" treatment was different in composition of macro-community and lower in biomass, suggesting the presence of local effects and therefore rendering it unsuitable for use in settlement experiments. The results of this study suggest that reduced-copper paints have the potential to serve as an alternative to manual maintenance, which may be useful for deployments in locations that are

  5. Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Singh, Nimisha; Richards, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Fragments of antifouling paint and environmental geosolids have been sampled from the island of Malta and analysed for total and bioaccessible metals. Total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were two to three orders of magnitude higher in spent antifouling composites relative to respective values in background soils and road dusts. Paint fragments were visible in geosolids taken from the immediate vicinity of boat maintenance facilities and mass balance calculations, based on Ba as a paint tracer, suggested that the most contaminated soils, road dusts and boatyard dusts contained about 1%, 7% and 9%, respectively, of antifouling particles. Human bioaccessibilities of metals were evaluated in selected samples using a physiologically based extraction technique. Accessibilities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the most contaminated solids were sufficient to be cause for concern for individuals working in the boat repair industry and to the wider, local community.

  6. Evaluation of anticorrosion and antifouling paint performance after exposure under seawater Surabaya-Madura (Suramadu) bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraini, Lutviasari; Prifiharni, Siska; Priyotomo, Gadang; Sundjono, Gunawan, Hadi

    2017-03-01

    Antifouling paints are used widely to coat the underwater structures to prevent various fouling organisms. The evaluation of the performance for the two commercial anticorrosion and antifouling paints was carried out in the piles of Suramadu Bridge, East Java during 1 month exposure. The 20 cm width × 25 cm high × 0.3 cm thick specimens of mild steel were sandblasted and coated by anticorrosion and antifouling paint. Blank specimen (without exposed) were also prepared as a control. On the other hand, the 7.5 cm width × 15 cm high × 0.3 cm thick specimen bare mild steel was prepared for measure the corrosion rate throught weight loss method. The test panels containing specimens were exposure up to 1 month for immersion in splash zone and tidal zone (0, 1, 3, meters from sea level). Sea water parameters consisting of temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity and dissolved oxygen (DO) were also measured. The thickness, glossy, hardness and adhesion strength of the coating performance were carried out. The results show that both surfaces of anticorrosive paint and bare mild steel specimen covered by fouling organisms, whereas no fouling took place on the surface of antifouling paint. The corrosion rate of bare mild steel in the 0, 1, and 3 meters are 15.1;13.7 and 17.0 mpy, respectively.

  7. The corrosivity and performance evaluation of antifouling paint exposed in seawater Muara Baru Port, Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraini, L.; Prifiharni, S.; Priyotomo, G.; Sundjono

    2017-04-01

    Antifouling paints were applied on a wide range of the under seawater structures in order to protect them from the growth of fouling organisms. The performance investigation of two commercial anticorrosion and antifouling paints was conducted in Muara Baru port, Jakarta. The specimens were coated by anticorrosion and/or antifouling paint. Blank specimen (without exposed) were also prepared as a control. On the other hand, bare mild steel was prepared for measure the corrosion rate through weight loss method. The test panels containing specimens were exposed up to 3 months for immersion depths of 0, 1, 2, 3 meters from sea level. Sea water parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity and dissolved oxygen (DO) were also measured. The evaluation of coating performance was carried out such as thickness, glossy, hardness and adhesion strength. The results showed that both surfaces of anticorrosion paint and bare mild steel specimen covered by fouling organisms, whereas no fouling took place on the surface of antifouling paint. The corrosion rate of bare mild steel in the depths of 0, 1, 2, 3 meters were 12.5; 11.6; 8.3; 10.4 mpy, respectively.

  8. A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Ytreberg, Erik; Lagerström, Maria; Holmqvist, Albin; Eklund, Britta; Elwing, Hans; Dahlström, Magnus; Dahl, Peter; Dahlström, Mia

    2017-03-22

    The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel method using a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to determine the cumulative release of Cu and Zn from antifouling paints. The results showed a strong linear relationship between XRF Kα net intensities and metal concentrations, as determined by ICP-MS. The release of Cu and Zn were determined for coated panels exposed in harbors located in the Baltic Sea and in Kattegat. The field study showed salinity to have a strong impact on the release of Cu, i.e. the release increased with salinity. Contrary, the effect of salinity on Zn was not as evident. As exemplified in this work, the XRF method also makes it possible to identify the governing parameters to the release of Cu and Zn, e.g. salinity and type of paint formulation. Thus, the XRF method can be used to measure environmentally relevant releases of metallic compounds to design more efficient and optimized antifouling coatings.

  9. A new bioassay for the inspection and identification of TBT-containing antifouling paint.

    PubMed

    Gueuné, Hervé; Thouand, Gérald; Durand, Marie-José

    2009-11-01

    Since the 1960s tributyl (TBT)-based antifouling paints are widely applied to protect ship's hulls from biofouling. Due to its high toxicity to aquatic ecosystem most of the countries (28 nations in 2008) signed the AFS convention to control the use of harmful antifouling systems on ships. Nevertheless there is currently no simple method to control the presence of organotin in paint. In this study, we propose a bioassay based on the use of a recombinant bioluminescent bacteria to detect directly in paint the presence of TBT. We also propose a simple device as an inspection system to control the absence of organotin in the ship's hull paint. The presence of organotin could be revealed in less than three hours.

  10. A practical ranking system to compare toxicity of anti-fouling paints.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Jenny; Breitholtz, Magnus; Eklund, Britta

    2006-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of new anti-fouling paints, claimed to function by physical means and not by leakage of toxic substances, have been tested on two common organisms in the Baltic Sea, i.e., the red macro alga Ceramium tenuicorne and the copepod Nitocra spinipes. In order to compare the toxicity between the paints a ranking system was developed based on the EC(50)- and LC(50)-values. The results showed a wide span in toxicity with the most toxic paints ranked 160 times more toxic than the ones ranked least toxic. Also, TBT, irgarol and diuron, which have been used as active ingredients in traditional anti-fouling paints, were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the two test organisms. The results showed that the test organisms were equally sensitive to the substances as similar organisms in earlier studies. In conclusion, the ranking system presented in this study permits ranking and comparison of total toxicity of complex mixtures.

  11. Inspection method for the identification of TBT-containing antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Senda, Tetsuya; Miyata, Osamu; Kihara, Takeshi; Yamada, Yasujiro

    2003-04-01

    In order to ensure the effectiveness of the international convention which will prohibit the use of organotin compounds in antifouling paints applied to ships, it is essential to establish an inspection system to determine the presence of the prohibited compounds in the paint. In the present study, a method for the identification of organotin containing antifouling paints using a two-stage analysis process is investigated. Firstly, X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is utilized, which could be used at the place of ship surveys or port state control. Using a portable XRF instrument customized for ship inspection, analysis is automatically executed and determines whether tin is present or not. If the presence of tin is confirmed by XRF, the sample is subsequently examined at an analytical laboratory using more rigorous analytical techniques, such as gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A sampling device has been designed. It is a disc of approximately 10 mm diameter and has abrasive paper pasted to one of its flat surfaces. The device is pressed onto and then slid along a ship hull to lightly scrape off fragments of paint onto the abrasive paper. Preliminary field tests have revealed that sampling from a ship in dock yields successful collection of the paint for XRD analysis and that the resultant damage caused to the antifouling paint surface by the sampling technique was found to be negligible.

  12. Production and use of DDT containing antifouling paint resulted in high DDTs residue in three paint factory sites and two shipyard sites, China.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jia; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Lu; Wang, Jihua; Niu, Jia

    2011-06-01

    This study provides the first intensive investigation of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDT) distribution in typical paint factories and shipyards in China where DDT containing antifouling paint were mass produced and used respectively. DDTs were analyzed in soil, sludge and sediment samples collected from three major paint factories and two shipyards. The results showed that the total DDTs concentrations detected in paint factory and shipyard sites ranged from 0.06 to 8387.24 mg kg(-1). In comparison with paint factory sites, the shipyard sites were much more seriously contaminated. However, for both kinds of sites, the DDTs level was found to be largely affected by history and capacity of production and use of DDT containing antifouling paint. (DDE+DDD)/DDT ratios indicated that DDT containing antifouling paint could serve as important fresh input sources for DDTs. It can be seen that most samples in shipyards were in ranges where heavy contamination and potential ecological risk were identified.

  13. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Pollock, Heather; Brown, Murray T

    2009-01-01

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L(-1)) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca.

  14. XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats.

    PubMed

    Ytreberg, Erik; Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Lundgren, Lennart; Eklund, Britta

    2016-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 μg/cm(2) of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 μm dry film) of a TBT-paint equals ≈ 800 μg Sn/cm(2). To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now.

  15. The effect of resuspending sediment contaminated with antifouling paint particles containing Irgarol 1051 on the marine macrophyte Ulva intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, Laura E; Barry, John; Dyer, Robert A; Thomas, Kevin V

    2007-07-01

    The effect of resuspending sediment contaminated with Irgarol 1051 based antifouling paint particles on the green macroalga Ulva intestinalis was examined. U. intestinalis was also exposed to sediment spiked with Irgarol 1051. The macroalga were exposed over 21 days to the resuspension of sediments containing 61.2 mg kg(-1) of antifouling paint particles containing Irgarol 1051 that provided aqueous Irgarol 1051 concentrations of approximately 0.3 microg l(-1), Irgarol 1051 and appropriate controls. The growth response was compared with that for 'clean' sediment. Resuspension of sediment was associated with reduced growth when compared to seawater alone. Resuspension of sediment spiked with Irgarol 1051 was associated with a greater reduction in growth, with growth being significantly reduced when sediment containing antifouling paint particles was resuspended. The data suggest that the prolonged disturbance of sediments containing antifouling paint particles in marinas represents a potential and as yet unquantified hazard to photosynthetic organisms.

  16. Inputs of antifouling paint-derived dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) to a typical mariculture zone (South China): potential impact on aquafarming environment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Shen, Ru-Lang; Liang, Yan; Cheng, Hefa; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2011-12-01

    Existing evidence indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paints were an important source of DDT residues to mariculture zones. However, the magnitude of the impact on aquafarming environment has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites (designated as DDXs) were determined in harbor sediment and antifouling paint samples collected from a typical mariculture zone in South China. Compositional and concentration correlation analyses implicated the DDT-containing antifouling paints for fishing boat maintenance as an important source of DDT in the mariculture zone. The annual emission of DDXs to the study region was estimated at 0.58 tons/yr. Furthermore, a comparison of the expected DDT loadings in pelagic fish and field measurements indicated that fish feed especially trash fish was a major source of DDTs in the fish body. Nevertheless, the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints should be limited to prevent further deterioration in aquafarming environment.

  17. Accumulation of Cu and Zn in discarded antifouling paint particles by the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammon, Melanie; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-10-01

    The short-term (5 day) accumulation of Cu and Zn in different tissues of the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea, has been studied in the presence of ˜10 mg l -1 of antifouling paint particles and pre- or simultaneously contaminated algal food ( Ulva lactuca). Accumulation of Cu was observed in the head-foot, digestive gland-gonad complex and gills to extents dependent on how and when food was contaminated and administered. However, retention of Zn was only observed in the gills and only when L. littorea and U. lactuca were simultaneously exposed to paint particles. Relative to the alga, faecal material was highly enriched in Zn, suggesting that the animal is able to rapidly eliminate this metal, most likely through the formation and egestion of insoluble phosphate granules. Thus, L. littorea is a useful biomonitor of marine contamination by antifouling applications in respect of Cu but not Zn.

  18. Trace metals in antifouling paint particles and their heterogeneous contamination of coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nimisha; Turner, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Antifouling paint residues collected from the hard-standings of a marine leisure boat facility have been chemically characterised. Scanning electron microscopy revealed distinct layers, many containing oxidic particles of Cu and Zn. Quantitative analysis indicated concentrations of Cu and Zn averaging about 300 and 100 mg g(-1), respectively, and small proportions of these metals (<2%) in organometallic form as pyrithione compounds. Other trace metals present included Ag, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Sn, with maximum concentrations of about 330, 75, 1200, 780, 1800 and 25,000 microg g(-1), respectively. Estuarine sediment collected near a boatyard contained concentrations of Cu and Zn an order of magnitude greater than respective concentrations in "background" sediment, and mass balance calculations suggested that the former sample was contaminated by about 1% by weight of paint particles. Clearly, antifouling residues represent a highly significant, heterogeneous source of metallic contamination in the marine environment where boating activities occur.

  19. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts.

  20. Predicted concentrations of biocides from antifouling paints in Visakhapatnam Harbour.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Rao, K V Mohan; Ramesh, U S

    2009-02-01

    The concentrations of biocides leached from antifouling coatings are monitored in most of the developed countries. However, in India and many other developing countries, there is very little data available on the concentrations of biocides in ports and harbours. The first step was to obtain the order of magnitude levels of concentrations of biocides in the marine environment of the Visakhapatnam Harbour, and the MAM-PEC (Marine Antifoulant Model to Predict Environmental Concentrations) model was used to predict these values. The Visakhapatnam Port lies on the eastern coast of India, roughly halfway between Chennai and Kolkata, and is the largest port in India. This port is a natural harbour; the long and narrow outlet to the open sea makes it a 'poorly flushed' harbour. Predicted concentrations of tributyltin (TBT), copper, dichlofluanid, seanine, irgarol, diuron, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione were computed. The results of the computations indicate that the levels of these biocides are comparable to those in many western countries. This gives credence to the fact that persistence of TBT and some other biocides is a global problem that cannot be ignored.

  1. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn in sediment contaminated by antifouling paint residues.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Singh, Nimisha; Millard, Leigh

    2008-12-01

    The bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the principal metallic constituents of spent antifouling particles ([Cu] = 300 mg g(-1); [Zn] = 100 mg g(-1)) have been evaluated by in vitro incubations and in microcosms containing the marine deposit-feeder Arenicola marina. In mixtures of sediment and paint, metal accessibility to the protein, bovine serum albumin, a surrogate for the gutfluids of deposit feeders, increased as the proportion of paint particles in the sample decreased. This effect was attributed to solubility constraints on metal salts and complexes and resulted in estimates of bioaccessibility in paint residues ranging from about 0.3% to 1.7% for Cu and 0.2% and 2.3% for Zn. A. marina maintained in sediment-paint cores and in paint leachate accumulated Cu with accumulation factors of about 0.1% and 0.5%, respectively, suggesting that both diet and aqueous exposure contribute to the uptake of this metal. In contrast, Zn was not measurably accumulated by either exposure route, suggesting that A. marina is able to regulate this metal. Through burial and conveyor-belt feeding, A. marina also accelerated both the subduction of antifouling residues and the mobilization of metals into the interstitial and overlying waters. The findings of this study have important implications regarding the cycling of trace metals in coastal waters impacted by boating activities.

  2. Significance of antifouling paint flakes to the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in estuarine sediment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-03-01

    Recently published literature indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paint flakes were heterogeneously distributed within estuarine sediments. However, the significance of antifouling paint flakes in the fate and transport of DDT compounds and other organic pollutants in estuarine sediment is yet to be adequately addressed. To fill this knowledge gap, estuarine sediment and paint flakes from cabin and boat surfaces were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for DDT compounds. Coarse fractioned samples collected from the vicinity of boat maintenance facilities contained appreciable amounts of colorful particles, which were identified as paint flakes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest concentrations of DDXs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites) occurred in the heavy-density (>1.7 g cm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000 μm) sediments from near the boat maintenance facilities, suggesting the importance of paint flakes in the distribution pattern of "hot spots" in estuarine sediment. Moreover, the desorption rates of DDT compounds from paint flakes and the heavy-density fraction of coarse-size sediment were both extremely slow. Apparently, unevenly distributed paint flakes in sediment can artificially inflate the sorption capacity of heavy-density sediment for DDT compounds, and therefore can substantially change the environmental fate and behavior of hydrophobic organic chemicals in estuarine sediment. Finally, commonly used source diagnostic indices of DDT compounds were mostly grain-size and density dependent in sediment, as a result of the occurrence of paint flakes, which may strongly compromise the outcome of any source diagnostics efforts.

  3. Total tin and organotin speciation in historic layers of antifouling paint on leisure boat hulls.

    PubMed

    Lagerström, Maria; Strand, Jakob; Eklund, Britta; Ytreberg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Despite their ban on small vessels in 1989 in the EU, organotin compounds (OTCs) are still being released into the environment due to their presence in historic paint layers on leisure boats. 23 paint samples scraped from recreational boats from three countries around the Baltic Sea were analyzed for total tin (Sn) and OTCs. Two antifouling paint products were also subjected to the same analyses. A new method for the detection of Sn in paint flake samples was developed and found to yield more accurate results compared to four different acid digestion methods. A new method was also developed for the extraction of OTCs from ground paint flakes. This endeavor revealed that existing methods for organotin analysis of sediment may not have full recoveries of OTCs if paint flakes are present in the sample. The hull paint samples had Sn concentrations ranging from 25 to 18,000 mg/kg paint and results showed that tributyltin (TBT) was detected in all samples with concentrations as high as 4.7 g (as Sn)/kg paint. TBT was however not always the major OTC. Triphenyltin (TPhT) was abundant in many samples, especially in those originating from Finland. Several other compounds such as monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), monophenyltin (MPhT) and diphenyltin (DPhT) were also detected. These could be the result of degradation occurring on the hull or of impurities in the paint products as they were also identified in the two analyzed paint products. A linear correlation (r(2) = 0.934) was found between the total tin content and the sum of all detected OTCs. The detection of tin can therefore be used to indicate the presence of OTCs on leisure boats.

  4. Potential exposure of amateurs (consumers) through painting wood preservative and antifoulant preparations.

    PubMed

    Garrod, A N; Guiver, R; Rimmer, D A

    2000-09-01

    Data are presented for work patterns, inhalation and potential dermal exposure for amateurs painting wood preservatives to garden structures, and antifoulants to leisure boats. The results are quoted as rates of in-use product deposition or time-weighted inhaled product concentrations. Quoting data in this general and normalized form enables predictive risk assessment. The product densities were assumed to be 1.0 gml(-1). Inhalation exposure was detected in about 40% of the surveys, being about 100 times higher for wood preservatives than for antifoulants. The maximum airborne wood preservative concentration was 8.03 mg m(-3), measured over the period of painting (that is not an 8h time-weighted average value). Regarding potential dermal exposure, the processes are only broadly comparable. Most of the data appear to fall into relatively narrow distributions, with median values around 5 mg min(-1) (for preservatives) and around 16 mg min(-1) (for antifoulants). About half of the deposit on clothing was found to occur below the waist. The data comparing gloved and bare hand working indicate that even simple gloves offer a degree of protection for skin.

  5. Worldwide occurrence and effects of antifouling paint booster biocides in the aquatic environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, I K; Albanis, T A

    2004-04-01

    Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to organotin compounds in antifouling products, after restrictions imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT) in 1987. Replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. This ban has led to an increase in alternative coating products containing the above biocides. The most commonly used biocides in antifouling paints are: Irgarol 1051, diuron, Sea-nine 211, dichlofluanid, chlorothalonil, zinc pyrithione, TCMS (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl) pyridine, TCMTB [2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole], and zineb. Since 1993, several studies have demonstrated the presence of these biocides in European coastal environment as a result of their increased use. More recently, the presence of these biocides was also revealed in waters from Japan, United States, Singapore, Australia and Bermuda. This paper reviews the currently available data on the occurrence of these biocides in the aquatic environment. Some data dealing with the environmental fate, partitioning, behaviour and risk assessment of antifouling paint booster biocides are also reported in order to discuss the detected levels of contamination.

  6. Toxic effects of several types of antifouling paints in human and rat hepatic or epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, G; Delescluse, C; Pralavorio, M; Perichaud, M; Avon, M; Lafaurie, M; Rahmani, R

    1998-08-01

    Fouling is the successive development of marine organisms on immersed surfaces, a process which has heavy negative economic impacts. Several antifouling technologies, generally based on the leaching of biocides from painted surfaces, have been developed, but these biocides are toxic to the environment. Hence, we compared the toxicity of several currently used paint lixiviats in rat hepatocytes, human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Neutral Red and MTT assays. Chronic effect was tested using induction of the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity as a marker. Large variations were observed among the various cell types or the antifouling formulations, both in terms of IC50 values (from approximately 0.5 to approximately 10%, v/v) and EROD induction (from approximately 1 to 10-fold over control). These differences appear to be related to variable biocide (copper compounds, organotins, etc...) concentrations in the different paint formulations, or to the specific metabolic capabilities of the cell system used.

  7. Incorporating bioavailability into management limits for copper in sediments contaminated by antifouling paint used in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stuart L; Spadaro, David A; O'Brien, Dom

    2013-11-01

    Although now well embedded within many risk-based sediment quality guideline (SQG) frameworks, contaminant bioavailability is still often overlooked in assessment and management of contaminated sediments. To optimise management limits for metal contaminated sediments, we assess the appropriateness of a range methods for modifying SQGs based on bioavailability considerations. The impairment of reproduction of the amphipod, Melita plumulosa, and harpacticoid copepod, Nitocra spinipes, was assessed for sediments contaminated with copper from antifouling paint, located below aquaculture cages. The measurement of dilute acid-extractable copper (AE-Cu) was found to provide the most useful means for monitoring the risks posed by sediment copper and setting management limits. Acid-volatile sulfide was found to be ineffective as a SQG-modifying factor as these organisms live mostly at the more oxidised sediment water interface. SQGs normalised to %-silt/organic carbon were effective, but the benefits gained were too small to justify this approach. The effectiveness of SQGs based on AE-Cu was attributed to a small portion of the total copper being present in potentially bioavailable forms (typically<10% of the total). Much of the non-bioavailable form of copper was likely present as paint flakes in the form of copper (I) oxide, the active ingredient of the antifoulant formulation. While the concentrations of paint-associated copper are very high in some sediments, as the transformation of this form of copper to AE-Cu appears slow, monitoring and management limits should assess the more bioavailable AE-Cu forms, and further efforts be made to limit the release of paint particles into the environment.

  8. Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Émilien; Bonnet, Claudie; Lemarchand, Karine

    2009-01-01

    Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan-and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions. PMID:19742133

  9. Biofouling growth in cold estuarine waters and evaluation of some chitosan and copper anti-fouling paints.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Emilien; Bonnet, Claudie; Lemarchand, Karine

    2009-07-14

    Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan-and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions.

  10. The legal design of the international and European Union ban on tributyltin antifouling paint: direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Gipperth, Lena

    2009-02-01

    The Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (AFS Convention), which was adopted in 2001 and will come into force in September 2008, bans the use of TBT (tributyltin) antifouling paint on ships. The EU (European Union) effectively implemented the Convention on 1 January 2008 by enforcing a similar ban. Several states have national restrictions and bans in place. The regulation on TBT antifouling paint aims at checking the risk of adverse effects on marine ecosystems. The legal and political situation is, however, characterized by complex relations between different layers of legislation, the use of several different legal techniques, and levels of ambition. The international and EU bans thereby cause some indirect effects, which are only partly included in what is seen as 'the TBT issue' and so only partly assessed in the legal process of the ban. This article discusses the expediency of the existing legislation and legal strategies aimed at reducing the negative environmental effects of TBT-like toxins in marine ecosystems and indirect effects of such actions. It considers the adequacy and limits of current regulatory approaches for handling complex environmental problems, such as TBT in antifouling paint.

  11. An ecological risk assessment for the use of Irgarol 1051 as an algaecide for antifoulant paints.

    PubMed

    Hall, L W; Giddings, J M; Solomon, K R; Balcomb, R

    1999-07-01

    Irgarol 1051 is an algaecide used in copper-based antifoulant paints for controlling fouling organisms on the hulls of recreational and commercial watercraft. Paints containing this algaecide have been used in Europe since the mid-1980s. In 1998, the first antifouling paints containing Irgarol 1051 were registered for use in the U. S. To examine the risk that Irgarol may pose to aquatic ecosystems, a probabilistic ecological risk assessment was conducted using distributions of exposure and toxicity data. Exposure data for this assessment were derived from 11 monitoring studies (146 stations) conducted in marinas, estuaries, and coastal waters from 1992 to 1997 in six European countries. A comparison of 90th percentile concentrations pooled by station types across all regions showed that concentrations in marinas (316 ng/l) were higher than in estuaries and coastal waters (41 and 19 ng/l, respectively). A 90th percentile of 133 ng/l was reported for all pooled stations. Temporal trends showed that Irgarol concentrations typically peaked in early summer after launching of small boats with much lower concentrations occurring during the spring, fall, and winter. Toxicity data used for this risk assessment were derived primarily from unpublished studies submitted to regulatory agencies. Because Irgarol is a photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide, it is much more toxic to plants than animals. Toxicity values for animals (fish and invertebrates) were much greater than concentrations of Irgarol reported in the environment. Therefore, a conservative approach using a distribution of only plant toxicity data (EC50s for plant growth) was used to derive a 10th percentile of 136 ng/l. This plant toxicity benchmark of 136 ng/l was used for risk characterization. Results from probabilistic analysis showed that ecological risk from Irgarol exposure was low in estuaries, coastal areas, and various open-type marinas. However, 10% or more of the plant species in enclosed marinas with low

  12. Long-term changes in Prosobranchia (Gastropoda) abundances on the German North Sea coast: the role of the anti-fouling biocide tributyltin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehring, S.

    2000-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) has been used as a biocide in marine anti-fouling paints since the early 1970s. Due to its strong ecotoxicity and the relatively high levels in the water column as well as in port sediments on the German North Sea coast, it probably has negative ecological effects on organisms other than those targeted. An analysis of the long-term development of prosobranch stocks in the inner German Bight reveals a decrease in abundance of many species. For most species the decline cannot be attributed to TBT, but in four prosobranch species ( Buccinum undatum, Hydrobia ulvae, Littorina littorea and Nucella lapillus) significant ecological effects by TBT pollution are very probable. Although research for alternative non-TBT anti-fouling paints (e.g. biocide-free types on the basis of silicone) has been intensified, the potential threats to ecosystems and the ecotoxicological profiles of these alternatives have to be carefully evaluated.

  13. A Method for Evaluating the Efficacy of Antifouling Paints Using Mytilus galloprovincialis in the Laboratory in a Flow-Through System.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Seiji; Satuito, Cyril Glenn Perez; Katsuyama, Ichiro; Ando, Hirotomo; Seki, Yasuyuki; Senda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory test with a flow-through system was designed and its applicability for testing antifouling paints of varying efficacies was investigated. Six different formulations of antifouling paints were prepared to have increasing contents (0 to 40 wt.%) of Cu2O, which is the most commonly used antifouling substance, and each formulation of paint was coated on just one surface of every test plate. The test plates were aged for 45 days by rotating them at a speed of 10 knots inside a cylinder drum. A behavioral test was then conducted using five mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) that were pasted onto the coated surface of each aged test plate. The number of the byssus threads produced by each mussel generally decreased with increasing Cu2O content of the paint. The newly designed method was considered valid owing to the high consistency of its results with observations from the field experiment.

  14. A Method for Evaluating the Efficacy of Antifouling Paints Using Mytilus galloprovincialis in the Laboratory in a Flow-Through System

    PubMed Central

    Satuito, Cyril Glenn Perez; Katsuyama, Ichiro; Ando, Hirotomo; Seki, Yasuyuki; Senda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory test with a flow-through system was designed and its applicability for testing antifouling paints of varying efficacies was investigated. Six different formulations of antifouling paints were prepared to have increasing contents (0 to 40 wt.%) of Cu2O, which is the most commonly used antifouling substance, and each formulation of paint was coated on just one surface of every test plate. The test plates were aged for 45 days by rotating them at a speed of 10 knots inside a cylinder drum. A behavioral test was then conducted using five mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) that were pasted onto the coated surface of each aged test plate. The number of the byssus threads produced by each mussel generally decreased with increasing Cu2O content of the paint. The newly designed method was considered valid owing to the high consistency of its results with observations from the field experiment. PMID:27959916

  15. A study on the treatment of antifouling paint waste from shipyard.

    PubMed

    Song, Y C; Woo, J H; Park, S H; Kim, I S

    2005-01-01

    A study on the treatment of antifouling paint waste from shipyards, including sandblast waste and ship hull washing wastewater, was performed. The sandblast waste could be effectively detoxified by heat treatment, and the efficiency was affected by the temperature of the heating vessel and treatment time. The removal efficiency of total organotin compounds from the sandblast waste was over 99% at 1000 degrees C and treatment for 1 h. For the treatment of ship hull washing wastewater by the solvent extraction, ship diesel was a good solvent for the tributyltin (TBT) extraction, and the proper amount of solvent was about 10 mL for TBT extraction from 1L of wastewater. The extraction efficiency of TBT was significantly affected by the agitation intensity. The TBT in the wash wastewater was rapidly extracted within 1 h. The level of the TBT residual in the wastewater extracted for 1h was 2.8 microg L(-1), and this was further decreased to 0.8 after 5 h extraction.

  16. Are antifouling paint particles a continuous source of toxic chemicals to the marine environment?

    PubMed

    Soroldoni, Sanye; Abreu, Fiamma; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Duarte, Fabio Andrei; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães

    2017-05-15

    Antifouling paint particles (APPs) are generated during periodical maintenance of boat hulls. Chemical composition and toxicity (either chronic or acute) of APPs found in the sediment was evaluated using the epibenthic copepod Nitokra sp. The APPs analyzed showed the presence of high levels of metals such as Cu (234,247±268μgg(-1)), Zn (112,404±845μgg(-1)) and the booster biocide DCOIT (0.13μgg(-1)). Even at low concentrations (as from 5mgg(-1) of APPs by mass of sediment) a significantly decrease in the fecundity was observed in laboratory tests. When the sediment was disturbed in elutriate test, a LC50 of 0.14% for APPs was found. This study was the first assessment of toxicity associated with the presence of APPs in sediment to benthic organisms, and it calls attention to the need of improving regulations in boatyards and marina areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antifouling paint booster biocides (Irgarol 1051 and diuron) in marinas and ports of Bushehr, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Molaei, Saeideh; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Abedi, Ehsan

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, antifouling paint booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron were measured in ports and marinas of Bushehr, Iran. Results showed that in seawater samples taken from ports and marinas, Irgarol was found at the range of less than LOD to 63.4ngL(-1) and diuron was found to be at the range of less than LOD to 29.1ngL(-1) (in Jalali marina). 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), as a degradation product of diuron, was also analyzed and its maximum concentration was 390ngL(-1). Results for analysis of Irgarol 1051 in sediments showed a maximum concentration of 35.4ngg(-1) dry weight in Bandargah marina. A comparison between the results of this study and those of other published works showed that Irgarol and diuron pollutions in ports and marinas of Bushehr located in the Persian Gulf were less than the average of reports from other parts of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antifouling activity of macroalgal extracts on Fragilaria pinnata (Bacillariophyceae): a comparison with Diuron.

    PubMed

    Silkina, Alla; Bazes, Alexandra; Vouvé, Florence; Le Tilly, Véronique; Douzenel, Philippe; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

    2009-10-04

    The tributyltin-based products and organic biocides which are incorporated into antifouling paints have had a negative impact on the marine environment, and the ban on tributyltin-based antifouling products has urged the industry to find substitutes to prevent the development of fouling on ship hulls. Natural antifouling agents could be isolated from marine resources, providing an alternative option for the industry. The effects of different marine seaweed extracts from Sargassum muticum and Ceramium botryocarpum on the growth, pigment content and photosynthetic apparatus of the marine diatom Fragilaria pinnata were compared with those of Diuron, a biocide widely used in antifouling paints. The addition of the macroalgal extracts in the culture medium resulted in an inhibition of the growth of F. pinnata, but this inhibition was lower than that obtained with Diuron. After transfer to a biocide-free medium, F. pinnata cells previously exposed to the macroalgal extracts exhibited normal growth, in contrast to Diuron-treated cells, which died, demonstrating that the effects of the natural antifouling agents were reversible. Macroalgal extracts and Diuron-induced modifications in F. pinnata cellular pigment content. Chlorophyll a, fucoxanthin, and the xanthophyll pool, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin, were the most affected. Changes in the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied by microspectrofluorimetry, and provided a comprehensive evaluation of the inhibition of the diatom Photosystem II (PSII) by the biocides. This study confirms that natural extracts from the macroalgae studied have the potential to be used as a substitute to commercial biocides in antifouling paints.

  19. The effects of a copper-based antifouling paint on mortality and enzymatic activity of a non-target marine organism.

    PubMed

    Katranitsas, A; Castritsi-Catharios, J; Persoone, G

    2003-11-01

    Antifouling paints are used on a wide range of underwater structures in order to protect them from the development of fouling organisms. The leaching of the toxic substances from the matrix of the paint causes toxic effects not only to the fouling organisms but also on other "non-target" biota. The present study addresses the impact of the antifouling paint Flexgard VI-II on brine shrimp nauplii selected as convenient test organisms. The surface to volume (S/V) concept developed by Persoone and Castritsi-Catharios (1989) was used to determine S/V-LC50s for the test biota exposed to PVC test panels of 400-1000 mm2 surface coated with the antifouling paint in test vessels containing 20 ml seawater. Total ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase were also analyzed for coated surface areas inducing less than 50% mortality in the brine shrimp nauplii. The calculated S/V-LC50 (24 h) was 24.6 mm2/ml, which shows the high toxic character of the antifouling paint. Decreased enzymatic activities were noted in the brine shrimp nauplii exposed to test panels of 50 and 100 mm2 in 20 ml seawater. The present study indicates that the "surface to volume" concept is an interesting methodology that can be applied with both lethal and sublethal effect criteria for the determination of toxic stress from leaches of painted surfaces.

  20. Laboratory assessment of the antifouling potential of a soluble-matrix paint laced with the natural compound polygodial.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Patrick Louis; Heasman, Kevin; Jeffs, Andrew; Kuhajek, Jeanne

    2013-09-01

    Polygodial is a potent and selective inhibitor of ascidian metamorphosis that shows promise for controlling fouling by ascidians in bivalve aquaculture. The current study examined the potency of, and associated effects of seawater exposure on, a rosin-based soluble-matrix paint laced with 0.08-160 ng polygodial g(-1) wet paint matrix. Paint-coated surfaces were soaked in seawater for 0, 2, 4 or 12 weeks prior to screening for antifouling activity using a bioassay based on the nuisance ascidian Ciona savignyi Herdman. Mortality was greater (mean 50% lethal concentration: 5 ± 2 ng g(-1); mean 75% lethal concentration: 17 ± 4 ng g(-1)) and metamorphosis was inhibited (mean 50% anti-metamorphic concentration: 2 ± 0.4 ng g(-1); mean 75% anti-metamorphic concentration: 15 ± 10 ng g(-1)) in C. savignyi larvae exposed to polygodial-laced soluble-matrix paints, relative to control paints without polygodial. Soaking in seawater prior to testing reduced the efficacy of the formulation up to nearly 12-fold, but even after soaking for 12 weeks paints laced with polygodial at 160 ng g(-1) wet paint matrix prevented ⩾90% of the larvae of C. savignyi from completing metamorphosis. The outcome of this experiment provides a positive first step in evaluating the suitability of polygodial-laced soluble-matrix paints for use in aquaculture.

  1. Inhibition of marine bacteria by extracts of macroalgae: potential use for environmentally friendly antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Hellio, C; De La Broise, D; Dufossé, L; Le Gal, Y; Bourgougnon, N

    2001-09-01

    Although a total ban on the use of TBT coatings is not expected in the short term, there is a growing need for environmentally safe antifouling systems. A search for new non-toxic antifoulants has been carried out among marine macroalgae. Antifouling activity of aqueous, ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts from 30 marine algae from Brittany coast (France) was examined in vitro against 35 isolates of marine bacteria. About 20% of the extracts were found to be active. The high levels of inhibitory activities against bacteria recorded in some extracts and the absence of toxicity on the development of oyster and sea urchin larvae and to mouse fibroblast growth suggests a potential for novel active ingredients in antifouling preparations.

  2. Understanding ship-grounding impacts on a coral reef: potential effects of anti-foulant paint contamination on coral recruitment.

    PubMed

    Negri, Adrew P; Smith, Luke D; Webster, Nicole S; Heyward, Andrew J

    2002-02-01

    The 184 m cargo ship Bunga Teratai Satu collided with Sudbury Reef, part of the Great Barrier Reef and remained grounded for 12 days. The ship was re-floated only 3 days prior to the November 2000 mass coral spawning. No cargo or fuel was lost but the impact resulted in significant contamination of the reef with anti-foulant paint containing tributyltin (TBT), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Larvae of the reef-building scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to various concentrations of sediment collected from the grounding site in replicated laboratory experiments. Two experiments were performed, both of which used varying ratios of contaminated and control site sediment in seawater as treatments. In the first experiment, the influence of contaminated sediment on larval competency was examined using metamorphosis bioassays. In the second, the effect of contaminated sediment upon larval recruitment on pre-conditioned terracotta tiles was assessed. In both experiments, sediment containing 8.0 mg kg(-1) TBT, 72 mg kg(-1) Cu and 92 mg kg(-1) Zn significantly inhibited larval settlement and metamorphosis. At this level of contamination larvae survived but contracted to a spherical shape and swimming and searching behaviour ceased. At higher contamination levels, 100% mortality was recorded. These results indicate that the contamination of sediment by anti-fouling paint at Sudbury Reef has the potential to significantly reduce coral recruitment in the immediate vicinity of the site and that this contamination may threaten the recovery of the resident coral community unless the paint is removed.

  3. Environmental risks associated with booster biocides leaching from spent anti-fouling paint particles in coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Chowdhury K; Turner, Andrew; Readman, James; Frickers, Trish

    2014-12-01

    Boat maintenance facilities in coastal areas contribute a significant amount of antifouling paint particles (APP) to coastal environments. Very few studies have concentrated on the leaching of booster biocides embedded in old paint particles. Therefore, this study attempted to assess the leaching of Dichlofluanid and Irgarol 1051 from APP collected from Mayflower Marina in southwest England. They were analyzed by GC-MS. A leaching experiment revealed that a considerable amount of Dichlofluanid (ca. 24 μg/L) leached from 0.4 g/L of APP after the first hour, followed by a marked decline in the amount measured in the water over time, almost degrading after 24 h in seawater, affording less of an environmental threat to non-target organisms. Conversely, Irgarol 1051 appeared to be persistent and continuously leached from the 0.4 g/L of APP even after 10 days, yielding a concentration of 0.61 μg/L in seawater, potentially posing a significant threat to the aquatic environment through leaching from APP.

  4. Pseudoalteromonas spp. serve as initial bacterial attractants in mesocosms of coastal waters but have subsequent antifouling capacity in mesocosms and when embedded in paint.

    PubMed

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Gram, Lone

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the monoculture antifouling effect of several pigmented pseudoalteromonads was retained in in vitro mesocosm systems using natural coastal seawater and when the bacteria were embedded in paint used on surfaces submerged in coastal waters. Pseudoalteromonas piscicida survived on a steel surface and retained antifouling activity for at least 53 days in sterile seawater, whereas P. tunicata survived and had antifouling activity for only 1 week. However, during the first week, all Pseudoalteromonas strains facilitated rather than prevented bacterial attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 10(5) cells/cm(2) after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 10(6) to 10(8) cells/cm(2). However, after 53 days, seven of eight Pseudoalteromonas strains had reduced total bacterial adhesion compared to the control. P. piscicida, P. antarctica, and P. ulvae remained on the surface, at levels similar to those in the initial coating, whereas P. tunicata could not be detected. Larger fouling organisms were observed on all plates precoated with Pseudoalteromonas; however, plates coated only with sterile growth medium were dominated by a bacterial biofilm. Suspensions of a P. piscicida strain and a P. tunicata strain were incorporated into ship paints (Hempasil x3 87500 and Hempasil 77500) used on plates that were placed at the Hempel A/S test site in Jyllinge Harbor. For the first 4 months, no differences were observed between control plates and treated plates, but after 5 to 6 months, the control plates were more fouled than the plates with pseudoalteromonad-based paint. Our study demonstrates that no single laboratory assay can predict antifouling effects and that a combination of laboratory and real-life methods must be used to determine

  5. Pseudoalteromonas spp. Serve as Initial Bacterial Attractants in Mesocosms of Coastal Waters but Have Subsequent Antifouling Capacity in Mesocosms and when Embedded in Paint

    PubMed Central

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Olsen, Stefan Møller

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the monoculture antifouling effect of several pigmented pseudoalteromonads was retained in in vitro mesocosm systems using natural coastal seawater and when the bacteria were embedded in paint used on surfaces submerged in coastal waters. Pseudoalteromonas piscicida survived on a steel surface and retained antifouling activity for at least 53 days in sterile seawater, whereas P. tunicata survived and had antifouling activity for only 1 week. However, during the first week, all Pseudoalteromonas strains facilitated rather than prevented bacterial attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 105 cells/cm2 after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 106 to 108 cells/cm2. However, after 53 days, seven of eight Pseudoalteromonas strains had reduced total bacterial adhesion compared to the control. P. piscicida, P. antarctica, and P. ulvae remained on the surface, at levels similar to those in the initial coating, whereas P. tunicata could not be detected. Larger fouling organisms were observed on all plates precoated with Pseudoalteromonas; however, plates coated only with sterile growth medium were dominated by a bacterial biofilm. Suspensions of a P. piscicida strain and a P. tunicata strain were incorporated into ship paints (Hempasil x3 87500 and Hempasil 77500) used on plates that were placed at the Hempel A/S test site in Jyllinge Harbor. For the first 4 months, no differences were observed between control plates and treated plates, but after 5 to 6 months, the control plates were more fouled than the plates with pseudoalteromonad-based paint. Our study demonstrates that no single laboratory assay can predict antifouling effects and that a combination of laboratory and real-life methods must be used to determine the

  6. Marine Microcosm Experiments on Effects of Copper and Tributylin-Based Antifouling Paint Leachates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    feed water to 12 fiberglass microcosm tanks (figure 1). Each tank is 528 L in volume and measures 117 by 117 by 40 cm deep. Detailed descriptions of...open sunlight, but were h-haded with a layer of fiberglass window screen to reduce light levels in the tanks by 36 percent and to contain active...obvious shifts in abundance in an apparent response to antifouling leachate treatments. By the 24th day of the treatment phase, algal mats on the walls

  7. Leaching of hydrophobic Cu and Zn from discarded marine antifouling paint residues: evidence for transchelation of metal pyrithiones.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Luke; Turner, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of discarded antifouling paint residues ([Cu] = 288 mg g(-1); [Zn] = 96 mg g(-1)) into natural sea water has been studied over a period of 75 h. Total Cu and Zn were released according to a pseudo first-order reaction, with rate constants on the order of 0.3 and 2.5 (mg L(-1))(-1) h(-1), respectively, and final concentrations equivalent to the dissolution of about 8 and 2% of respective concentrations in the composite. Time-distributions of hydrophobic metals, determined by solid phase extraction-methanol elution, were more complex. Net release of hydrophobic Cu was greater in the absence of light than under a sequence of light-dark cycles; however, hydrophobic Zn release was not detected under the former conditions but contributed up to 50% of total aqueous Zn when light was present. These observations are interpreted in terms of the relative thermodynamic and photolytic stabilities of biocidal pyrithione complexes.

  8. Fate of Irgarol 1051, diuron and their main metabolites in two UK marine systems after restrictions in antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Gatidou, Georgia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Zhou, John L

    2007-01-01

    Two major antifouling biocides used worldwide, Irgarol 1051 and diuron, and their degradation products in Shoreham Harbour and Brighton Marina, UK were studied during 2003-2004. The highest concentrations of Irgarol 1051 were 136 and 102 ng L(-1) in water and 40 and 49 ng g(-1) dry weight in sediments for Shoreham Harbour and Brighton Marina, respectively. As the degradation product of Irgarol 1051, M1 was also widespread, with the highest concentration of 59 ng L(-1) in water and 23 ng g(-1) in sediments in Shoreham Harbour, and 37 ng L(-1) in water and 5.6 ng g(-1) in sediments in Brighton Marina. The target compounds showed enhanced concentrations during the boating season (May-July), when boats were being re-painted (January-February), and where the density of pleasure crafts was high. Overall, the concentration of Irgarol 1051 decreased significantly from late 2000 to early 2004, indicating the effectiveness of controlling its concentrations in the marine environment following restricted use. Diuron was only detected in 14% of water samples, and mostly absent from sediment samples.

  9. A new simple method with high precision for determining the toxicity of antifouling paints on brine shrimp larvae (Artemia): first results.

    PubMed

    Castritsi-Catharios, J; Bourdaniotis, N; Persoone, G

    2007-04-01

    The use of antifouling paints is the only truly effective method for the protection of underwater structures from the development of fouling organisms. In the present study, the surface to volume concept constitutes the basis for the development of a new and improved method for determining the toxicity of antifouling paints on marine organisms. Particular emphasis is placed on the attainment of a standardized uniformity of coated surfaces. Failure to control the thickness of the coat of paint in previous studies of this type, has led to inaccurate evaluation of the relative toxicity of samples. Herein, an attempt is made to solve this problem using a simple technique which gives completely uniform and smooth surfaces. The effectiveness of this technique is assessed through two series of experiments using two different types of test containers: 50 ml modified syringes and 7 ml multiwells. The results of the toxicity experiments follow a normal distribution around the average value which allows to consider these values as reliable for comparison of the level of toxic effect detected with the two types of test containers. The mean lethal concentration L(S/V)(50) in the test series conducted in the multiwells (20.38 mm(2)ml(-1)) does not differ significantly from that obtained in the test series using modified syringes (20.065 mm(2)ml(-1)). It can thus be concluded from this preliminary study that the new method and the two different ways of exposing the test organisms to the antifouling paints and their leachates gave reliable and replicable results.

  10. Copper storage in the liver of the wild mute swan (Cygnus olor). Its possible relation to pollution of harbor waters by antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Molnar, J J

    1983-12-01

    Postmortem examination of three wild mute swans (Cygnus olor) from a harbor area disclosed an unusual black discoloration of the liver. Chemical, histochemical, and microscopic studies, along with electron-probe microanalysis, showed that cytoplasmic pigment granules in the liver cells contained a copper-protein complex. Similar findings have been reported in Danish and English studies on large numbers of wild mute swans. Two control mute swans from The Bronx Zoo had negligible amounts of hepatic copper. The striking difference between the wild and the captive swans in hepatic copper content suggests that the copper in the wild swans was of environmental origin, most likely from copper-rich antifouling paint used extensively in the marine industry. Flakes of this paint may be ingested by swans searching for food in the sediment of harbor waters.

  11. Copper storage in the liver of the wild mute swan (Cygnus olor). Its possible relation to pollution of harbor waters by antifouling paints

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    Postmortem examination of three wild mute swans (Cygnus olor) from a harbor area disclosed an unusual black discoloration of the liver. Chemical, histochemical, and microscopic studies, along with electron-probe microanalysis, showed that cytoplasmic pigment granules in the liver cells contained a copper-protein complex. Similar findings have been reported in Danish and English studies on large numbers of wild mute swans. Two control mute swans from The Bronx Zoo had negligible amounts of hepatic copper. The striking difference between the wild and the captive swans in hepatic copper content suggests that the copper in the wild swans was of environmental origin, most likely from copper-rich antifouling paint used extensively in the marine industry. Flakes of this paint may be ingested by swans searching for food in the sediment of harbor waters.

  12. Forecasting models to quantify three anthropogenic stresses on coral reefs from marine recreation: anchor damage, diver contact and copper emission from antifouling paint.

    PubMed

    Saphier, Adam D; Hoffmann, Tegan C

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on damage to coral reefs from three anthropogenic stresses: the dropping of anchors and their chains, human contact, and emission of copper from antifouling paints. Forecasting models are described that quantify degradation in terms of percentage of coral cover damaged/year or increasing levels of water toxicity/year. The models utilize a Monte Carlo simulation that applies a range of values or a probability distribution to each of the numerous uncertain variables. This model has the flexibility to adapt, and become more accurate, when users input assumptions specific to their diving sites. Given our specific assumptions for a frequently visited site, anchors and their chains forecast a distribution of coral reef cover damage with a mean of 7.11%+/-4.77%, diver contact forecast a distribution of coral reef cover damage with a mean of 0.67%+/-0.38%, and antifouling paint forecast a distribution of copper level increase in the water with a mean of 0.037+/-0.014ppb. The results support recommendations for the implementation and sustained use of several specific marine recreation practices.

  13. Levels and mass burden of DDTs in sediments from fishing harbors: the importance of DDT-containing antifouling paint to the coastal environment of China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Hu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong; Xu, Weihai; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Jun

    2009-11-01

    DDT remains an important type of persistent organic pollutant (POP) in the environment of China. One of the current applications of DDT in China has been through antifouling paint for fishing ships as an active component. It has been estimated that approximately 5000 t of DDT was released into the Chinese coastal environment during the last two decades. Therefore, sediments in coastal fishing harbors of China may be the important sinks of DDT. In this study, DDT and its metabolites in 58 sediment samples from nine typical fishing harbors along the coastal line of China were characterized to assess their accumulation levels, sediment burdens, and potential ecological risks. The concentrations of DDTs ranged from 9 to 7350 ng/g dry weight, which were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of the adjacent estuarine/marine sediments. The high concentrations of DDT coupled with the lower concentrations of HCH and TOC clearly indicated a strong local DDT input, i.e., DDT-containing antifouling paint, within the fishing harbors. A significant correlation between the total DDT concentrations and p,p'-DDT concentrations further confirmed the existence of fresh DDT input. The overall burden of DDTs within the upper 10 cm sediment layer in the fishing harbors of the Pearl River Delta, southern China, was estimated to be 1.0-5.7 t, which was several times higher than the DDT accumulation in the surface sediment of the Pearl River estuary. The concentrations of DDTs in the fishing harbor sediments significantly exceeded the sediment quality guidelines on the basis of adverse biological effects. The absence or low concentrations of p,p'-DDD in aquatic organisms and human may imply that either p,p'-DDD may be less bioaccumulated by fish and human, or is biotransformed to other metabolites. A national ban of DDT as an additive to antifouling paint was implemented in 2009 in China; however, the legacy high DDT burden in the coastal fishing harbors needs further

  14. Metal contamination at recreational boatyards linked to the use of antifouling paints-investigation of soil and sediment with a field portable XRF.

    PubMed

    Lagerström, Maria; Norling, Matz; Eklund, Britta

    2016-05-01

    The application of a field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (FPXRF) to measure Cu, Zn, and Pb in soil and sediments at recreational boatyards by Lake Mälaren in Sweden was investigated. Confirmatory chemical analysis on freeze-dried samples shows that, ex situ, the FPXRF produces definitive level data for Cu and Zn and quantitative screening data for Pb, according to USEPA criteria for data quality. Good agreement was also found between the ex situ measurements and the in situ screening. At each of the two studied boatyards, >40 in situ soil measurements were carried out. Statistical differences in soil concentration based on land use were consequently found: the areas used for boat storage and maintenance were significantly higher in Cu and Zn than the areas used for car parking and transportation. The metal pollution in the boat storage areas is therefore shown to be directly linked to hull maintenance activities during which metal-containing antifouling paint particles are shed, end up on the ground, and consequently pollute the soil. In the boat storage areas, the Cu and Zn concentrations often exceeded the national guideline values for soil. In this study, they were also shown to increase with increasing age of the boatyard operation. Pb soil concentrations were only elevated at a few measurement points, reflecting the phasing out of Pb compounds from antifouling products over the past 2 decades. In the surface sediments, concentrations of Cu and Zn were 2-3 times higher compared to deeper levels. No decrease in metal concentration with time was found in the sediments, indicating that boat owners are not complying with the ban of biocide-containing paints in freshwater introduced over 20 years ago.

  15. Effects of antifouling paint components (TBTO, copper and triazine) on the early development of embryos in cod (Gadus morhua L.).

    PubMed

    Granmo, A; Ekelund, R; Sneli, J A; Berggren, M; Svavarsson, J

    2002-10-01

    To assess the risk of antifoulant use to the commercially important cod (Gadus morhua L.), fertilised cod eggs were exposed to triazine, copper and TBTO singly or combined in laboratory tests with running seawater. At the highest tested concentrations (11.5 microg Cu l(-1); 5 microg TBTO l(-1)) larval mortality was increased. The highest concentration of triazine (40 microg l(-1)) did not cause any significant mortality. Fertilised eggs that had been exposed to all the three chemicals singly for five days showed a higher buoyancy than the controls. No synergistic or antagonistic effects were indicated. Embryos/larvae exposed to 0.004-0.8 microg TBTO l(-1) did not show any changed respiration compared to the controls after hatching. It is concluded that existing known field concentrations of the three antifoulants are hardly expected to cause detectable effects on fish embryonic/larval development.

  16. Measurement of copper release rates from antifouling paint under laboratory and in situ conditions: implications for loading estimation to marine water bodies.

    PubMed

    Valkirs, Aldis O; Seligman, Peter F; Haslbeck, Elizabeth; Caso, Joaquin S

    2003-06-01

    The release of biocides, such as copper (Cu), from antifouling (AF) coatings on vessel hulls represents a significant proportion of overall Cu loading in those harbors and estuaries where substantial numbers of small craft or large vessels are berthed. Copper release rates were measured on several self-polishing, tin-free coatings and an ablative Cu reference coating applied to steel panels using three measurement methods. The panels were exposed in natural seawater in San Diego Bay, and release rates were measured both in the laboratory and field over 2 years. Results with the static (20 cm x 30 cm) panels indicated that Cu release rates were initially high (25-65 microg Cu cm(-2)day(-1)), with a large range of values between paint types. Release rates declined to substantially lower rates (8-22 microg cm(-2)day(-1)) with reduced variability within 2 months. Release rates continued to decrease over time for approximately 6 months when relatively constant release rates were observed for most coatings. Over time, relative differences in Cu release rates measured by three exposure methods decreased, with all coatings exhibiting similar behavior toward the end of the study. Lowest overall Cu release rates were observed with the self-polishing experimental paint no. 7 in static-dynamic and in situ treatments. The highest periodic release rates were measured from panels that experienced periods of both static and dynamic exposure (8.7 ms(-1) rotation). The lowest release rates were measured from panels that experienced static, constant depth exposure, and where release rates were evaluated in situ, using a novel diver-deployed measurement system. Results from this in situ technique suggests that it more closely reflects actual Cu release rates on vessel hulls measured with intact natural biofilms under ambient conditions than measurements using standardized laboratory release rate methods. In situ measurements made directly on the AF surface of vessels demonstrated

  17. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Dahms, Hans Uwe; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2017-08-28

    Marine macroalgae produce a wide variety of biologically-active metabolites that have been developed into commercial products, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic agents, and cosmetic products. Many marine algae remain clean over longer periods of time, suggesting their strong antifouling potential. Isolation of biogenic compounds and the determination of their structure could provide leads for the development of environmentally-friendly antifouling paints. Isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, lactones, steroids, terpenoids, and pyrroles. It is unclear as yet to what extent symbiotic microorganisms are involved in the synthesis of these compounds. Algal secondary metabolites have the potential to be produced commercially using genetic and metabolic engineering techniques. This review provides an overview of publications from 2010 to February 2017 about antifouling activity of green, brown, and red algae. Some researchers were focusing on antifouling compounds of brown macroalgae, while metabolites of green algae received less attention. Several studies tested antifouling activity against bacteria, microalgae and invertebrates, but in only a few studies was the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of marine macroalgae tested. Rarely, antifouling compounds from macroalgae were isolated and tested in an ecologically-relevant way.

  18. Degradation of antifouling biocides.

    PubMed

    Callow, M E; Willingham, G L

    1996-01-01

    The relative biodegradability in seawater of a number of compounds in current use in antifouling paints viz. Sea-Nine™ 211 antifoulant (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one), Irgarol(R) 1051 (2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine), diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)l-l-dimethylurea), chlorothalonil (tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) and TBTO (tributyltin oxide) was investigated. The disappearance of the each compound from seawater was monitored over 8 w by bioassay using the ship-fouling diatom Amphora coffeaeformis. The results show, that under the test conditions employed, biodegradability ranges from very readily biodegradable (Sea-Nine 211) to non-biodegradable (diuron and Irgarol 1051). The results are discussed in relation to published data on biocide degradation.

  19. Designing biomimetic antifouling surfaces.

    PubMed

    Salta, Maria; Wharton, Julian A; Stoodley, Paul; Dennington, Simon P; Goodes, Liam R; Werwinski, Stéphane; Mart, Ugar; Wood, Robert J K; Stokes, Keith R

    2010-10-28

    Marine biofouling is the accumulation of biological material on underwater surfaces, which has plagued both commercial and naval fleets. Biomimetic approaches may well provide new insights into designing and developing alternative, non-toxic, surface-active antifouling (AF) technologies. In the marine environment, all submerged surfaces are affected by the attachment of fouling organisms, such as bacteria, diatoms, algae and invertebrates, causing increased hydrodynamic drag, resulting in increased fuel consumption, and decreased speed and operational range. There are also additional expenses of dry-docking, together with increased fuel costs and corrosion, which are all important economic factors that demand the prevention of biofouling. Past solutions to AF have generally used toxic paints or coatings that have had a detrimental effect on marine life worldwide. The prohibited use of these antifoulants has led to the search for biologically inspired AF strategies. This review will explore the natural and biomimetic AF surface strategies for marine systems.

  20. Butyltin compounds in liver of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the UK prior to and following the ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints (1992-2005 & 2009).

    PubMed

    Law, Robin J; Bolam, Thi; James, David; Barry, Jon; Deaville, Rob; Reid, Robert J; Penrose, Rod; Jepson, Paul D

    2012-11-01

    Liver butyltin concentrations (monobutyl, dibutyl and tributyltin (TBT)) in harbour porpoises (n=410) have been determined during 1992-2005, and again in 2009 following a ban on the use of tributyltin-based antifouling paints on ships. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of the regulation, which was implemented during 2003-2008. Since the ban was put in place summed butyltin concentrations have declined. Also, the percentage of animals in which TBT was detected has fallen sharply, indicating the cessation of fresh inputs. In 1992, 1993 and 1995, TBT was detected in 100% of samples analysed. In 2003-2005, once the implementation of the ban had begun, this fell to 61-72%, and in 2009, following the completion of the ban, had reduced to 4.3% (i.e. in only 1 of 23 samples analysed). Thus we conclude that the ban has proved effective in reducing TBT inputs to the seas from vessels.

  1. Conceptual issues in designing a policy to phase out metal-based antifouling paints on recreational boats in San Diego Bay.

    PubMed

    Carson, Richard T; Damon, Maria; Johnson, Leigh T; Gonzalez, Jamie A

    2009-06-01

    In marine areas throughout the world where recreational boats are densely located, concentrations of copper in the water are being found to be in excess of government standards, due to the hull coatings used on these boats. Copper-based hull coatings are intended to be antifouling in that they retard the growth of algae, barnacles and tubeworms; but alternatives exist that can eliminate the harm that copper contamination does to marine organisms. A variety of policy options are available to mandate or provide economic incentives to switch to these less harmful alternatives. This paper puts forth a conceptual framework for thinking about how to design and evaluate alternative policies to transition to nontoxic boat hulls, drawing from the authors' experience designing a policy for use in San Diego Bay. Many of the issues raised are broadly applicable to environmental problems where the solution involves a large-scale replacement of durable consumer goods.

  2. Biological effects and environmental fate of antifouling substances. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental effects and eventual fate of antifouling substances used to control biofouling. Topics include toxicity studies, the effects of regulations on pollution distribution, bioaccumulation and sediment accumulation, resistant organisms, and biodeterioration of antifouling substances. Antifouling materials considered include copper, nickel, and organotin compounds. Marine fouling, cooling system fouling, and antifouling paints are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S M; Rogers, R; Rubem, A C; Da Gama, B A P; Muricy, G; Pereira, R C

    2013-08-01

    Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009), Tethya maza (p = 0.0039), Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277), and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003). These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  4. Biological effects and environmental fate of antifouling substances. January 1978-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental effects of antifouling substances used to control biofouling and their eventual fate in the biosphere. Toxicity studies, the effects of regulations on pollution distribution, bioaccumulation and sediment accumulation, resistant organisms, and biodeterioration of antifouling substances are discussed. Antifouling materials considered include copper, nickel, and organotin compounds. Marine fouling, cooling system fouling, and antifouling paints are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 152 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  5. Evaluation of Anti-fouling Materials for Optical Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    Hani R., Waldron C. and Farmer D. A. (1994) Gel-Free Paint Containing Zinc Pyrithione , Cuprous Oxide, and Carboxylic Acid. U.S. Patent 5342437, Olin Corp...2. Hani R., Waldron C. and Farmer D. A. Jr. (1992) Stabilization of Paints Containing Zinc Pyrithione and Cuprous Oxide Antifouling Agents. U.S...using ESEM. The following commercially prepared formulations provided by Magellan Co., Inc. were evaluated: 1) 10,000 ppm zinc pyrithione1,2,3 + 300 ppm

  6. Antifouling strategies: history and regulation, ecological impacts and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Dafforn, Katherine A; Lewis, John A; Johnston, Emma L

    2011-03-01

    Biofouling increases drag on marine vessels resulting in higher fuel consumption and can also facilitate the transport of harmful non-indigenous species (NIS). Antifouling technologies incorporating biocides (e.g., copper and tributyltin) have been developed to prevent settlement of organisms on vessels, but their widespread use has introduced high levels of contamination into the environment and raised concerns about their toxic effects on marine communities. The recent global ban on tributyltin (1 January 2008) and increasing regulation of copper have prompted research and development of non-toxic paints. This review synthesises existing information regarding the ecological impact of biocides in a wide range of organisms and highlights directions for the management of antifouling paints. We focus particularly on representatives of the recent past (copper and tributyltin) and present (copper and 'booster') biocides. We identify knowledge gaps in antifouling research and provide recommendations relating to the regulation and phasing-out of copper.

  7. Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  8. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

  9. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Ping Gong, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet ‘hydrogel’. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris. PMID:27877456

  10. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Gong, Jian Ping

    2011-12-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris.

  11. Improved estimates of environmental copper release rates from antifouling products.

    PubMed

    Finnie, Alistair A

    2006-01-01

    The US Navy Dome method for measuring copper release rates from antifouling paint in-service on ships' hulls can be considered to be the most reliable indicator of environmental release rates. In this paper, the relationship between the apparent copper release rate and the environmental release rate is established for a number of antifouling coating types using data from a variety of available laboratory, field and calculation methods. Apart from a modified Dome method using panels, all laboratory, field and calculation methods significantly overestimate the environmental release rate of copper from antifouling coatings. The difference is greatest for self-polishing copolymer antifoulings (SPCs) and smallest for certain erodible/ablative antifoulings, where the ASTM/ISO standard and the CEPE calculation method are seen to typically overestimate environmental release rates by factors of about 10 and 4, respectively. Where ASTM/ISO or CEPE copper release rate data are used for environmental risk assessment or regulatory purposes, it is proposed that the release rate values should be divided by a correction factor to enable more reliable generic environmental risk assessments to be made. Using a conservative approach based on a realistic worst case and accounting for experimental uncertainty in the data that are currently available, proposed default correction factors for use with all paint types are 5.4 for the ASTM/ISO method and 2.9 for the CEPE calculation method. Further work is required to expand this data-set and refine the correction factors through correlation of laboratory measured and calculated copper release rates with the direct in situ environmental release rate for different antifouling paints under a range of environmental conditions.

  12. Antifouling Coatings Influence both Abundance and Community Structure of Colonizing Biofilms: a Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Mercedes; Barani, Aude; Gregori, Gérald; Bouchez, Agnès; Le Berre, Brigitte; Bressy, Christine; Blache, Yves

    2014-01-01

    When immersed in seawater, substrates are rapidly colonized by both micro- and macroorganisms. This process is responsible for important economic and ecological prejudices, particularly when related to ship hulls or aquaculture nets. Commercial antifouling coatings are supposed to reduce biofouling, i.e., micro- and macrofoulers. In this study, biofilms that primarily settled on seven different coatings (polyvinyl chloride [PVC], a fouling release coating [FRC], and five self-polishing copolymer coatings [SPC], including four commercial ones) were quantitatively studied, after 1 month of immersion in summer in the Toulon Bay (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France), by using flow cytometry (FCM), microscopy, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. FCM was used after a pretreatment to separate cells from the biofilm matrix, in order to determine densities of heterotrophic bacteria, picocyanobacteria, and pico- and nanoeukaryotes on these coatings. Among diatoms, the only microphytobenthic class identified by microscopy, Licmophora, Navicula, and Nitzschia were determined to be the dominant taxa. Overall, biocide-free coatings showed higher densities than all other coatings, except for one biocidal coating, whatever the group of microorganisms. Heterotrophic bacteria always showed the highest densities, and diatoms showed the lowest, but the relative abundances of these groups varied depending on the coating. In particular, the copper-free SPC failed to prevent diatom settlement, whereas the pyrithione-free SPC exhibited high picocyanobacterial density. These results highlight the interest in FCM for antifouling coating assessment as well as specific selection among microbial communities by antifouling coatings. PMID:24907329

  13. Environmental fate of the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione in seawater.

    PubMed

    Grunnet, Katja S; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2005-12-01

    To perform a thorough risk assessment of the new antifouling compound zinc pyrithione (ZnPT2), additional information regarding the fate of the compound is needed. The present study examined the recovery and transchelation of ZnPT2 in controlled laboratory experiments, photodegradation experiments, and a fate study in a large-scale field experiment. Chemical analyses were performed using a newly developed method for simultaneous analyses of ZnPT2 and copper pyrithione (CuPT2). Furthermore, two antifouling paints containing ZnPT2 were examined for the fate of leaching biocide. Naturally occurring ligands and metals in seawater influence the stability of ZnPT2. The presence of free Cu2+, which is present naturally in the seawater or is released from copper-containing paints, results in a partial transchelation of ZnPT2 into CuPT2. A complete transchelation of ZnPT2 into CuPT2 was observed when Cu2+ was present at an equimolar concentration in the absence of interfering ligands. When ZnPT2 was leached from antifouling paints containing both ZnPT2 and Cu2O, CuPT2 was found, with no trace of ZnPT2. Photodegradation was low in natural waters and absent from 1 m or more below the surface. The results show that ZnPT2 has a low persistence in seawater when leached from antifouling paints. However, the more stable and toxic transchelation product CuPT2 is formed, which has the potential to accumulate in the sediments and, therefore, should be included in both chemical analysis and risk assessment of ZPT2.

  14. 5,6-Dichloro-1-methylgramine, a non-toxic antifoulant derived from a marine natural product.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, M; Kon-ya, K; Miki, W

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory culture of the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite has made it possible to supply cypris larvae for antifouling assays all year round. The settlement of cyprids obtained from cultured B. amphitrite was indistinguishable from cyprids reared from field-collected barnacles. In laboratory cyprid settlement assays of extracts from marine sessile organisms, antifouling activity was expressed as the 99% inhibitory concentration (IC99), and toxicity as the 30% lethal concentration (LC30). The lipophilic extract of the marine bryozoan, Zoobotryon pellucidum, which showed promising antifouling activity, yielded 2,5,6-tribromo-1-methylgramine (TBG) by bioassay-guided isolation. The inhibitory activity of TBG was 6 times as strong as that of bis-(n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO), while its toxicity to cypris larvae was one-tenth that of TBTO. A structure-activity relationship study with 155 indole derivatives led to the discovery of the non-toxic antifoulant candidates 5,6-dichlorogramine, 5-chloro-2-methylgramine, and 5,6-dichrolo-1-methylgramine (DCMG), the latter being selected as the antifouling paint ingredient for performance evaluation tests (panel tests) following the results of a preliminary safety tests. A silicone-based antifouling paint containing 5-10% of DCMG was prepared and tested in the field; the painted surfaces remained almost barnacle-free for 1.5 years similar to silicone coatings such as Biox. Since the leaching rate of DCMG from the paint surface could be controlled by the addition of an acrylic acid-styrene copolymer (ASP), the life of the antifouling performance is expected to be improved. Thus, an extremely non-toxic silicone-based antifouling paint containing DCMG is under development.

  15. Robust, Nontoxic, Antifouling Polymer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-23

    POLYMER 2 3 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 4 5 Field of the Invention 6 The present invention is directed to a bulk material, a coating and a process... polymer of the presently disclosed 14 invention (either as a bulk material or as a coating) has a nontoxic surface which is 15 minimally attractive to the...and 9 tin and move quickly toward the use of nontoxic antifouling compounds as soon as 10 effective substitutes become available. 11 Organic polymers

  16. Differential effects of tributyltin and copper antifoulants on recruitment of non-indigenous species.

    PubMed

    Dafforn, K A; Glasby, T M; Johnston, E L

    2008-01-01

    Maritime transport is a primary vector for many marine invaders. For the past two decades, most commercial vessels have used tributyltin (TBT) antifouling (AF) paint, whereas recreational vessels have been restricted to alternatives, most commonly containing copper. Settlement plates painted with a collar of copper or TBT AF paint, and unpainted control plates, were deployed in commercial and recreational embayments in Port Jackson, Australia, and sampled photographically after 5 and 10 months. Copper enhanced early recruitment of several non-indigenous species (NIS), whereas recruitment of indigenous species was typically reduced by copper. TBT limited the recruitment of NIS for just 5 months and indigenous species, for the entire study. The results suggest that the use of toxic AF paints, and the possible accumulation of AF biocides in embayments, may be negatively affecting indigenous epibiota. Conversely, copper antifoulants on recreational vessels may be facilitating the transport and establishment of copper tolerant NIS into disturbed estuarine habitats.

  17. Studies on nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Fan, Weijie; Duan, Jizhou; Hou, Baorong

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion and growth of biofouling organisms have severe influence on the reliability, service life and environmental adaptability of marine ships. Based on the bactericidal capacity of cuprous oxide and photochemical effect of nano-additive, environment-friendly and efficient marine antifouling paints were prepared in this study. The evaluation of the antifouling paints was carried out by the laboratory method using bacteria and phytoplanktonic microorganisms as target organisms, as well as measurements with panels in shallow submergence in natural seawater. Results showed good agreement of all the tests, indicating the remarkable antifouling performance of the paints. To our knowledge, this was one of the first systematic studies on effects of nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls by measurements on bacterial inhibition, algal adhesion and growth of large organisms.

  18. Persistence of antifouling agents in the marine biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ranke, Johannes

    2002-04-01

    Risk indicators provide an interesting way to compare chemical substances with respect to the risks of their large-scaled release. The present study implies that, for antifouling agents used in commercial shipping, residence times in the marine biosphere are especially suitable to represent their inherent potential to cause exposure of organisms. A simple box model is described providing the possibility to estimate residence times in the marine biosphere from water-particle equilibrium partitioning constants and half-lives in water and sediment. Resulting residence times in the marine biosphere range from about 5 d (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) up to about 40,000 yr (copper). For an evaluation of the validity of the model, calculated values are compared with measured environmental concentrations. Remaining uncertainties are also discussed. The main purpose of the presented residence times is to serve as a basis for decisions in antifouling paint development or environmentally conscious purchasing of antifouling paints.

  19. Simultaneous determination of pyridine-triphenylborane anti-fouling agent and its degradation products in paint-waste samples using capillary zone electrophoresis with field-amplified sample injection.

    PubMed

    Kaewchuay, Netnapit; Fukushi, Keiichi; Tsuboi, Ai; Okamura, Hideo; Saito, Keiitsu; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    We proposed a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) procedure using field-amplified sample injection (FASI) for the simultaneous determination of pyridine-triphenylborane (PTPB) and its degradation products: diphenylborinic acid (DPB), phenylboronic acid (MPB), and phenol. The LODs for PTPB, DPB, MPB, and phenol were, respectively, 0.85, 0.88, 44, and 28 μg L(-1). The RSDs (n = 4) for the analytes listed above were in respective ranges of 6.2 - 14, 5.9 - 10, and 0.49 - 0.62% for the peak area, peak height, and migration time. The compounds were extracted from paint-waste samples collected from shipyards using a siliga-gel column. The extract was dissolved with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) pyridine. The samples were then analyzed using CZE, revealing respective concentrations of 0.076 - 0.53, 0.015 - 0.36, 1.7 - 22, and 1.2 - 13 μg g(-1). The proposed FASI-CZE method is a simple and promising procedure that is expected to be useful for the determination of PTPB and its degradation products in paint wastes.

  20. Antifouling marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as to their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete for OTEC plants. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6-1/2 years in seawater.

  1. Antifouling marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as the their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6 1/2 years in seawater.

  2. Oxygen-depleted surfaces: a new antifouling technology.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, J Fredrik; Haeffner, Mikael; Ericsson, Claes T; Jonsson, Per R

    2009-01-01

    A novel, non-toxic strategy to combat marine biofouling is presented. The technology is paint with additions of up to 43% of industrial protein. Through microbial degradation of the protein component, an oxygen-depleted layer rapidly forms in a 0.2 mm layer close to the paint surface. With the present paint formulations, a stable, O(2)-depleted layer can persist for 16 weeks. Barnacle larvae (cyprids) did not settle on panels where oxygen saturation was <20%, and cyprids were killed when exposed to O(2)-free water for more than 1 h. It is also shown that the O(2)-depleted layer will rapidly reform (within 15 min) after exposure to turbulent flow. Field exposure of panels for 16 weeks showed that paint with protein reduced fouling by barnacles and bryozoans by 80% and close to 100%, respectively. The results suggest that this novel technology may be developed into a non-toxic alternative to copper-based antifouling paints, especially for pleasure boats in sensitive environments. There is clearly potential for further development of the paint formulation, and a full-scale test on a boat-hull suggested that service-life under realistic operations needs to be improved.

  3. Transport and antifouling properties of papain-based antifouling coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, Rafael S.; Armelin, Elaine; Moreno-Martínez, Juan A.; Alemán, Carlos; Ferreira, Carlos A.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work is to study the antifouling performance and water uptake behaviour of coatings formulated with papain (an environmentally friendly pigment). Antifouling coatings have been formulated using rosin (natural resin) as matrix and papain adsorbed in activated carbon as pigment. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used to evaluate the behaviour of the formulated coatings in the marine environment and to calculate the apparent water coefficient of diffusion (D). FTIR and XPS analyses confirm the presence of papain adsorbed inside the activated carbon pores and the release of papain in water. Immersion tests in the Mediterranean Sea were carried out for 7 months to verify the degree of biofouling of the tested coatings. These field assays clearly indicate the excellent behaviour of papain-based antifouling coatings; the results being similar to those achieved using a commercial coating. Additionally, the EIS technique is shown to be a great tool to predict the coating diffusivity of antifouling coatings before immersion tests. Furthermore, the use of biodegradable papain as a nature-friendly antifouling agent can eliminate the negative environmental impact caused by metals and chemical biocides typically used in current commercial formulations.

  4. Paint Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Lewis Research Center (LEW) has assisted The Cleveland Museum of Art (CMA) in analyzing the museum's paintings. Because of the many layers of paint that are often involved, this is a complex process. The cross-section of a paint chip must be scanned with a microscope to determine whether a paint layer is original or a restoration. The paint samples, however, are rarely flat enough for high magnification viewing and are frequently scratched. LEW devised an automated method that produces intact, flat, polished paint cross-sections. A sophisticated microprocessor-controlled grinding and polishing machine was manually employed in preparation of exotic samples for aerospace research was a readily adaptable technique. It produced perfectly flat samples with clearly defined layers. The process has been used successfully on a number of paintings, and LEW and CMA are considering additional applications.

  5. Zebra Mussel Antifouling Activity of the Marine Natural Product Aaptamine and Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Diers, Jeffrey A.; Bowling, John J.; Duke, Stephen O.; Wahyuono, Subagus; Kelly, Michelle; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Several aaptamine derivatives were selected as potential zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) antifoulants because of the noteworthy absence of fouling observed on Aaptos sponges. Sponges of the genus Aaptos collected in Manado, Indonesia consistently produce aaptamine-type alkaloids. To date, aaptamine and its derivatives have not been carefully evaluated for their antifoulant properties. Structure–activity relationship studies were conducted using several aaptamine derivatives in a zebra mussel antifouling assay. From these data, three analogs have shown significant antifouling activity against zebra mussel attachment. Aaptamine, isoaaptamine, and the demethylated aaptamine compounds used in the zebra mussel assay produced EC50 values of 24.2, 11.6, and 18.6 μM, respectively. In addition, neither aaptamine nor isoaaptamine produced a phytotoxic response (as high as 300 μM) toward a nontarget organism, Lemna pausicostata, in a 7-day exposure. The use of these aaptamine derivatives from Aaptos sp. as potential environmentally benign antifouling alternatives to metal-based paints and preservatives is significant, not only as a possible control of fouling organisms, but also to highlight the ecological importance of these and similar biochemical defenses. PMID:16718618

  6. Painted Pickup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a six week art class project for elementary school children that lasted for six weeks. Explains that the students painted sunflowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh over the rust spots of a pickup truck. Reports that the painting served as great publicity for the art classes. (CMK)

  7. Painted Pickup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a six week art class project for elementary school children that lasted for six weeks. Explains that the students painted sunflowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh over the rust spots of a pickup truck. Reports that the painting served as great publicity for the art classes. (CMK)

  8. Painted Rhythms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastian, Duane

    1985-01-01

    In this art activity gifted students, ages 10 to 13, learn about internal and external rhythms and make a painting of an internal rhythm. The lesson can be expanded with a discussion of Kandinsky, Pollock, and other painters who have painted sound or have demonstrated rhythms. (RM)

  9. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  10. Monster Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggler, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on monsters wherein students were charged with painting an imaginary character and, in so doing, demonstrated mastery of expression, organization of space, control of paint media, and application of the elements of art. Students discovered how color and line could be used to convey expression. The media…

  11. Monster Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggler, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on monsters wherein students were charged with painting an imaginary character and, in so doing, demonstrated mastery of expression, organization of space, control of paint media, and application of the elements of art. Students discovered how color and line could be used to convey expression. The media…

  12. Exploitation of marine algae: biogenic compounds for potential antifouling applications.

    PubMed

    Bhadury, Punyasloke; Wright, Phillip C

    2004-08-01

    Marine algae are one of the largest producers of biomass in the marine environment. They produce a wide variety of chemically active metabolites in their surroundings, potentially as an aid to protect themselves against other settling organisms. These active metabolites, also known as biogenic compounds, produced by several species of marine macro- and micro-algae, have antibacterial, antialgal, antimacrofouling and antifungal properties, which are effective in the prevention of biofouling, and have other likely uses, e.g. in therapeutics. The isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to groups of fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, terpenoids, lactones, pyrroles and steroids. These biogenic compounds have the potential to be produced commercially using metabolic engineering techniques. Therefore, isolation of biogenic compounds and determination of their structure could provide leads for future development of, for example, environmentally friendly antifouling paints. This paper mainly discusses the successes of such research, and the future applications in the context of understanding the systems biology of micro-algae and cyanobacteria.

  13. Natural antifouling compounds: Effectiveness in preventing invertebrate settlement and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana R; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling represents a major economic issue regarding maritime industries and also raise important environmental concern. International legislation is restricting the use of biocidal-based antifouling (AF) coatings, and increasing efforts have been applied in the search for environmentally friendly AF agents. A wide diversity of natural AF compounds has been described for their ability to inhibit the settlement of macrofouling species. However poor information on the specific AF targets was available before the application of different molecular approaches both on invertebrate settlement strategies and bioadhesive characterization and also on the mechanistic effects of natural AF compounds. This review focuses on the relevant information about the main invertebrate macrofouler species settlement and bioadhesive mechanisms, which might help in the understanding of the reported effects, attributed to effective and non-toxic natural AF compounds towards this macrofouling species. It also aims to contribute to the elucidation of promising biotechnological strategies in the development of natural effective environmentally friendly AF paints.

  14. Space Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Developed at Goddard, this improved inorganic paint may help protect coastal bridges subject to extreme corrosion from seawater spray. Potassium silicate formulated into a thin waterbase binder that sprays easily, adheres readily, and can be heavily loaded with zinc particles to provide uniform coverage in a single coat. Stanford Research Institute has measured an annual market in excess of $2 billion in painting highway bridges, utility pipelines, nuclear reactors, and railcar hoppers. Other suitable markets include offshore drilling facilities, railroad bridges, and ships.

  15. Zwitterionic materials for antifouling membrane surface construction.

    PubMed

    He, Mingrui; Gao, Kang; Zhou, Linjie; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; Cao, Jialin; You, Xinda; Cai, Ziyi; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane separation processes are often perplexed by severe and ubiquitous membrane fouling. Zwitterionic materials, keeping electric neutrality with equivalent positive and negative charged groups, are well known for their superior antifouling properties and have been broadly utilized to construct antifouling surfaces for medical devices, biosensors and marine coatings applications. In recent years, zwitterionic materials have been more and more frequently utilized for constructing antifouling membrane surfaces. In this review, the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials as well as their biomimetic prototypes in cell membranes will be discussed, followed by the survey of common approaches to incorporate zwitterionic materials onto membrane surfaces including surface grafting, surface segregation, biomimetic adhesion, surface coating and so on. The potential applications of these antifouling membranes are also embedded. Finally, we will present a brief perspective on the future development of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Membrane fouling is a severe problem hampering the application of membrane separation technology. The properties of membrane surfaces play a critical role in membrane fouling and antifouling behavior/performance. Antifouling membrane surface construction has evolved as a hot research issue for the development of membrane processes. Zwitterionic modification of membrane surfaces has been recognized as an effective strategy to resist membrane fouling. This review summarizes the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials inspired by cell membranes as well as the popular approaches to incorporate them onto membrane surfaces. It can help form a comprehensive knowledge about the principles and methods of modifying membrane surfaces with zwitterionic materials. Finally, we propose the possible future research directions of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  16. Environmental management aspects for TBT antifouling wastes from the shipyards.

    PubMed

    Kotrikla, Anna

    2009-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT)-based antifouling paints have been successfully used for over 40 years to protect a ship's hull from biofouling. However, due to its high toxicity to marine organisms, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), in 1990, adopted a resolution recommending governments to adopt measures to eliminate antifouling paints containing TBT. High concentrations of TBT are detected in the vicinity of ports and shipyards. TBT is also usually detected in the sediment, in which it accumulates. This study reviews recent literature for the best management practices (BMPs) in order to minimize the environmental effects of TBT. The paper focuses on the evaluation of the available techniques for the removal of TBT from shipyard wastes and from the sediment. The most effective treatment methods are highlighted. BMPs include recycling of abrasive materials, use of cleaner abrasive materials, reuse of spent abrasive materials, substitution of hydroblasting by vacuum blasting or containment or ultra-high-pressure water blasting and confinement of pollution by enclosure and containment systems. The treatment of the TBT wastes by conventional biological wastewater treatment processes is probably not suitable, because the concentrations of TBT found in shipyards' wastewaters are toxic to microorganisms. Advanced technologies such as activated carbon adsorption and dissolved air flotation, in combination with filtration and coagulation-clarification, photodegradation and electrochemical treatment, are required to remove TBT. However, advanced methods should be further optimized to meet the regulatory limit of 200 ng/L. To date, only one published work examines the efficiency of incineration for the treatment of solid sandblast wastes. Regarding the treatment of sediment, land deposition of the less polluted fraction of sediment is a feasible option. Such treatment must take into account the risk of contamination of groundwater and the surroundings, and it requires

  17. Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Maréchal, Jean-Philippe; Hellio, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants) as well as the perspectives for future research directions. PMID:20087457

  18. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  19. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  20. Perspective Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Joni

    2002-01-01

    One fourth grade class studied Van Gogh by investigating his art and life on the computer, painting still lifes, then learning to draw in perspective, creating colorful images of their own bedrooms using Van Gogh's bedroom as a model. Students extended their learning by examining relevant literature and completing timelines, biographical reports,…

  1. Superhydrophobicity for antifouling microfluidic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliffe, N J; Roach, P

    2013-01-01

    Fouling of surfaces is often problematic in microfluidic devices, particularly when using protein or -enzymatic solutions. Various coating methods have been investigated to reduce the tendency for protein molecules to adsorb, mostly relying on hydrophobic surface chemistry or the antifouling ability of -polyethylene glycol. Here we present the potential use of superhydrophobic surfaces to not only reduce the amount of surface contamination but also to induce self-cleaning under flow conditions. The methodology is presented in order to prepare superhydrophobic surface coatings having micro- and nanoscale feature dimensions, as well as a step-by-step guide to quantify adsorbed protein down to nanogram levels. The fabrication of these surfaces as coatings via silica sol-gel and copper nano-hair growth is presented, which can be applied within microfluidic devices manufactured from various materials.

  2. Anti-fouling bioactive surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Zhang, Yanxia; Wang, Hongwei; Brash, John; Chen, Hong

    2011-04-01

    Bioactive surfaces refer to surfaces with immobilized bioactive molecules aimed specifically at promoting or supporting particular interactions. Such surfaces are of great importance for various biomedical and biomaterials applications. In the past few years, considerable effort has been made to create bioactive surfaces by forming specific biomolecule-modified surfaces on a non-biofouling "base" or "background". Hydrophilic and bioinert polymers have been widely used as anti-fouling layers that resist non-specific protein interactions. They can also serve as "spacers" to effectively move the immobilized biomolecule away from the surface, thus enhancing its bioactivity. In this review we summarize several successful approaches for the design and preparation of bioactive surfaces based on different types of anti-fouling/spacer materials. Some perspectives on future research in this area are also presented.

  3. Environmentally benign sol-gel antifouling and foul-releasing coatings.

    PubMed

    Detty, Michael R; Ciriminna, Rosaria; Bright, Frank V; Pagliaro, Mario

    2014-02-18

    Biofouling on ships and boats, characterized by aquatic bacteria and small organisms attaching to the hull, is an important global issue, since over 80000 tons of antifouling paint is used annually. This biofilm, which can form in as little as 48 hours depending on water temperature, increases drag on watercraft, which greatly reduces their fuel efficiency. In addition, biofouling can lead to microbially induced corrosion (MIC) due to H2S formed by the bacteria, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria. When the International Maritime Organization (IMO) international convention banned the use of effective but environmentally damaging coatings containing tributyl tin in 2008, the development of clean and effective antifouling systems became more important than ever. New nonbiocidal coatings are now in high demand. Scientists have developed new polymers, materials, and biocides, including new elastomeric coatings that they have obtained by improving the original silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) formulation patented in 1975. However, the high cost of silicones, especially of fluoropolymer-modified silicones, has generally prevented their large-scale diffusion. In 2009, traditional antifouling coatings using cuprous oxide formulated in copolymer paints still represented 95% of the global market volume of anti-fouling paints. The sol-gel nanochemistry approach to functional materials has emerged as an attractive candidate for creating low fouling surfaces due to the unique structure and properties of silica-based coatings and of hybrid inorganic-organic silicas in particular. Sol-gel formulations easily bind to all types of surfaces, such as steel, fiberglass, aluminum, and wood. In addition, they can cure at room temperature and form thin glassy coatings that are markedly different from thick silicone elastomeric foul-releasing coatings. Good to excellent performance against biofouling, low cure temperatures, enhanced and prolonged chemical and physical stability, ease of

  4. Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).

  5. 76 FR 54419 - International Anti-Fouling System Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 8 RIN 1625-AB79 International Anti-Fouling System Certificate AGENCY... vessel inspection regulations to add the International Anti-fouling System (IAFS) Certificate to the list... Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, 2001. This proposed rule would enable...

  6. 76 FR 76896 - International Anti-Fouling System Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 8 RIN 1625-AB79 International Anti-Fouling System Certificate AGENCY... regulations to add the International Anti-fouling System (IAFS) Certificate to the list of certificates a... Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, 2001. This final rule will enable recognized classification...

  7. Antifouling leaching technique for optical lenses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strahle, William J.; Perez, C. L.; Martini, Marinna A.

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of optical lenses deployed in water less than 100 m deep is significantly reduced by biofouling caused by the settlement of macrofauna, such as barnacles, hydroids, and tunicates. However, machineable porous plastic rings can be used to dispense antifoulant into the water in front of the lens to retard macrofaunal growth without obstructing the light path. Unlike coatings which can degrade the optical performance, antifouling rings do not interfere with the instrument optics. The authors have designed plastic, reusable cup-like antifouling rings to slip over the optical lenses of a transmissometer. These rings have been used for several deployments on shallow moorings in Massachusetts Bay, MA and have increased the time before fouling degrades optical characteristics

  8. Survey of four marine antifoulant constituents (copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051) in two UK estuaries.

    PubMed

    Comber, S D W; Gardner, M J; Boxall, A B A

    2002-06-01

    A field survey of antifoulant concentrations was undertaken in two UK estuaries (Hamble and Orwell) in 1998 and 1999. The two locations offered variations in physical aspects (Orwell estuary being significantly larger than the Hamble) as well as differences in boat densities (Hamble having almost twice as many vessels moored in the estuary and marinas). Samples were analysed for copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051, and were collected in summer and winter in order to identify potential seasonal variations in concentrations. The effect that different marina types (e.g. locked marina, one located in a natural inlet and pontooned ones in the open estuary) had on antifoulant concentrations were also investigated. Concentrations of the organic booster biocides, diuron and Irgarol 1051 in the marinas and estuaries were mainly influenced by leaching from antifoulant paints applied to the hulls of leisure craft, and so levels reflected the number of vessels present in the water. As a consequence significantly higher concentrations were found in marinas (up to ca. 900 ng l(-1) for diuron and 240 ng l(-1) for Irgarol 1051) compared with estuaries (up to ca. 400 ng l(-1) for diuron and 100 ng l(-1) for Irgarol 1051) and in summer compared with winter. Sediment concentrations of Irgarol 1051 and diuron were rarely detectable other than in the marinas where high concentrations were detected near slipways assumed to be derived from washed off paint chips. Dissolved concentration profiles for copper and zinc in the estuaries and marinas were different from those for the organic booster biocides partly because other sources of these metals contributed to estuarine and marina loads. In particular, riverine loads and inputs from sacrificial anodes attached to leisure craft, exhibited a major influence of estuarine levels of zinc. Consequently, only in the Hamble estuary for copper was there a clear distinction between summer (typically 3-4 microg l(-1)) and winter dissolved values

  9. Painting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  10. Affinity states of biocides determine bioavailability and release rates in marine paints.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Mia; Sjögren, Martin; Jonsson, Per R; Göransson, Ulf; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Pinori, Emiliano; Elwing, Hans; Berglin, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for the next generation marine antifouling (AF) paints is to deliver minimum amounts of biocides to the environment. The candidate AF compound medetomidine is here shown to be released at very low concentrations, ie ng ml(-1) day(-1). Moreover, the release rate of medetomidine differs substantially depending on the formulation of the paint, while inhibition of barnacle settlement is independent of release to the ambient water, ie the paint with the lowest release rate was the most effective in impeding barnacle colonisation. This highlights the critical role of chemical interactions between biocide, paint carrier and the solid/aqueous interface for release rate and AF performance. The results are discussed in the light of differential affinity states of the biocide, predicting AF activity in terms of a high surface affinity and preserved bioavailability. This may offer a general framework for the design of low-release paint systems using biocides for protection against biofouling on marine surfaces.

  11. Painted Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-29

    Saturn many cloud patterns, swept along by high-speed winds, look as if they were painted on by some eager alien artist in this image from NASA Cassini spacecraft. With no real surface features to slow them down, wind speeds on Saturn can top 1,100 mph (1,800 kph), more than four times the top speeds on Earth. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 29 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on April 4, 2014 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.8 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 68 miles (109 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18280

  12. Inhibition of coral photosynthesis by the antifouling herbicide Irgarol 1051.

    PubMed

    Owen, Richard; Knap, Anthony; Toaspern, Megan; Carbery, Kelly

    2002-07-01

    International regulation of organotin compounds for use in antifouling paints has led to the development and increased use of replacement compounds, notably the s-triazine herbicide Irgarol 1051. Little is known about the distribution of Irgarol 1051 in tropical waters. Nor has the potential impact of this triazine upon photosynthesis of endosymbiotic microalgae (zooxanthellae) in corals been assessed. In this study Irgarol 1051 was detected in marinas, harbours and coastal waters of the Florida Keys, Bermuda and St. Croix, with concentrations ranging between 3 and 294 ng 1(-1). 14C incubation experiments with isolated zooxanthellae from the common inshore coral Madracis mirabilis showed no incorporation of H14CO3- from the sea water medium after 4-8 h exposure to Irgarol 1051 concentrations as low as 63 ng 1(-1). Reduction in net photosynthesis of intact corals was found at concentrations of l00 ng 1(-1) with little or no photosynthesis at concentrations exceeding 1000 ng 1(-1) after 2-8 h exposure at all irradiances. The data suggest Irgarol 1051 to be both prevalent in tropical marine ecosystems and a potent inhibitor of coral photosynthesis at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  13. Antifouling biocides: Impairment of bivalve immune system by chlorothalonil.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Amanda da Silveira; Rola, Regina Coimbra; Rovani, Monique Tomazele; Costa, Simone Rutz da; Sandrini, Juliana Zomer

    2017-08-01

    Marine ecosystems are subjected to a variety of contaminants. Antifouling paints, for example, have been extensively used to protect ship surfaces from marine biofouling, but their toxicity has generated great concern. Thus, we evaluated the effect of the biocide chlorothalonil on the immune system of Perna perna mussels. The mussels were exposed to 0 (control), 0.1μg/L and 10μg/L of chlorothalonil for up to 96h. After 24h and 96h of exposure, the following immune-related parameters were analyzed in the hemolymph of mussels: total hemocyte count, cell adhesion, phagocytic activity, level of reactive oxygen species, cell viability and comet assay. After 24h and 96h of chlorothalonil exposure, cellular adhesion increased and the hemocyte viability reduced. Moreover, an increase in phagocytic activity was also observed after 96h of exposure to cholorothalonil. The exposure to 10μg/L of chlorothalonil for 96h reduced the air survival capacity of mussels. Total hemocyte count, ROS generation and DNA damage were not affected by the contaminant exposure. Our results indicate that chlorothalonil affected important immune responses of the bivalves, demonstrating that this biocide has effects on non-target species. This modulation of immune system reduced the health status of mussels, which could compromise their ability to survive in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Novel Non-toxic Antifouling/Fouling Release Nanocomposite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jason

    2008-03-01

    Biofouling is a significant environmental problem. Traditional solutions to this problem have involved incorporation of toxic organometallic species into the paint. This approach while effective, is harmful to the environment. The resultant ban on the use of many of these coatings has created a need for alternative systems to control marine fouling. Silicones represent the only class of polymers currently used commercially, due to their inherently low surface energy, glass transition temperature, and modulus, combined with good chemical stability and ease of application. In this talk I will present our efforts to develop a new generation of practical, non-toxic coatings that combine antifouling/fouling release characteristics with good mechanical properties, ease of application and low cost. Specifically we have been focusing on a series of fouling release coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers and nanocomposites. The PDMS copolymers are much stronger than pure PDMS yet they exhibit fouling release performance comparable and, in some cases, better than pure PDMS.

  15. Economic and environmental impacts on ports and harbors from the convention to ban harmful marine anti-fouling systems.

    PubMed

    Champ, Michael A

    2003-08-01

    The recent Diplomatic Conference held (1-5 October 2001) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London adopted the Draft Convention prepared by The Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) of IMO for the "Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems for Ships." The convention has been developed to immediately ban the use of Tributyltin (TBT) globally in anti-fouling paints to "protect the marine environment". The ban on TBT has come about because TBT has detrimental effects on non-target marine organisms. In November 1999, IMO agreed that a treaty be developed by the MEPC to ensure a ban on the application of TBT based anti-fouling paints by 1 January 2003, and a ban on the use of TBT by 1 January 2008. At the meeting surious concern was expressed by some experts for the need to identify in the treaty the necessary regulatory language for: (1) the "safe" removal, treatment, and disposal of marine anti-foulants deemed "harmful" by the treaty and (2) who is liable for the future dredging and disposal of TBT-contaminated port and harbor sediments--to also "protect the marine environment". The requirement for "safe" removal and disposal was incorporated at MEPC 46 as Article 5 in the treaty, without it shipyards complying with existing national and local discharge regulations (most have none for discharge of TBT) could inadvertently release more TBT to ports and harbors in the five-year compliance period than has been leached from ships (hulls) in the past 40 years to the same waters. Virginia is the only State in the US that regulates the discharge to below 50 ng/l (50 parts per trillion). However, the liability for the future dredging and disposal costs of TBT-contaminated port and harbor sediments has not been addressed.

  16. Development of Polymeric Coatings for Antifouling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumayan, Edward Philip

    Fouling, or the deposition of unwanted material onto a surface, is a serious problem that can impair the function of submerged structures, such as marine-going vessels and underwater equipment. Water filtration membranes are particularly susceptible to fouling due to their microstructure and high water pressure operating conditions. For this reason, there has been considerable interest in developing fouling-resistant, or "antifouling" coatings for membranes, specifically coatings that mitigate fouling propensity while maintain high water flux. Polymer coatings have garnered significant interest in antifouling literature, due to their synthetic versatility and variety, and their promising resistance to a wide range of foulants. However, antifouling research has yet to establish a consistent framework for polymer coating synthesis and fouling evaluation, making it difficult or impossible to compare previously established methodologies. To this end, this work establishes a standardized methodology for synthesizing and evaluating polymer antifouling coatings. Specifically, antifouling coatings are synthesized using a grafting-from polymerization and fouling propensity is evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Using this framework, a number of different surface functionalization strategies are compared, including grafting-to and grafting-from polymerization. A number of different surface functionalization strategies, including grafting-to and grafting-from, were investigated and the fouling performance of these films was evaluated. Primarily, sulfobetaine methacrylate, and poly(ethylene oxide) methacrylate monomers were investigated, among others. Grafting-to, while advantageous from a characterization standpoint, was ultimately limited to low grafting densities, which did not afford a significant improvement in fouling resistance. However, the higher grafting densities achievable by grafting-from did indicate improved fouling resistance. A

  17. Methane Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-07

    Why does Saturn look like it's been painted with a dark brush in this infrared image, but Dione looks untouched? Perhaps an artist with very specific tastes in palettes? The answer is methane. This image was taken in a wavelength that is absorbed by methane. Dark areas seen here on Saturn are regions with thicker clouds, where light has to travel through more methane on its way into and back out of the atmosphere. Since Dione (698 miles or 1,123 kilometers across) doesn't have an atmosphere rich in methane the way Saturn does, it does not experience similar absorption -- the sunlight simply bounces off its icy surface. Shadows of the rings are seen cast onto the planet at lower right. This view looks toward Saturn from the unilluminated side of the rings, about 0.3 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on May 27, 2015 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 728 nanometers. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18336

  18. Mixing Paints

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-17

    Nature is an artist, and this time she seems to have let her paints swirl together a bit. What the viewer might perceive to be Saturn's surface is really just the tops of its uppermost cloud layers. Everything we see is the result of fluid dynamics. Astronomers study Saturn's cloud dynamics in part to test and improve our understanding of fluid flows. Hopefully, what we learn will be useful for understanding our own atmosphere and that of other planetary bodies. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 25 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in red light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Aug. 23, 2014. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.7 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 23 degrees. Image scale is 63 miles (102 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18290

  19. Sea-nine antifoulant: an environmentally acceptable alternative to organotin antifoulants.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, A H; Willingham, G L

    2000-08-21

    This article reviews previously reported data on the performance, environmental fate, and environmental modeling of Sea-Nine 211 antifoulant (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one). Since organotins are an industry standard, the environmental fate and environmental modeling results of tributyltin (TBT) are compared to those of the Sea-Nine antifoulant for reference. Laboratory and field tests results have shown Sea-Nine antifoulant to be highly effective. Five years of commercial use has confirmed this. Sea-Nine antifoulant and TBT were compared in an environmental risk assessment to predict their effects on the environment. Sea-Nine antifoulant was degraded rapidly in the environment by microorganisms. Its half-life in aerobic and anaerobic microcosm studies was less than 1 h. TBT degraded slowly under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with half-lives ranging from 6 to 9 months. The degradation products of Sea-Nine antifoulant were ring-opened compounds with greatly reduced toxicity. TBT degraded to dibutyltin species, which were still toxic and persistent in the environment. Bioaccumulation studies in fish showed essentially no bioaccumulation of the Sea-Nine biocide. The bioaccumulation of TBT was significant, with bioconcentration factors as high as 10000. The Sea-Nine antifoulant showed no chronic or reproductive toxicity to marine species, while TBT showed a wide range of effects on growth, development, and reproduction at levels as low as 2 parts per trillion (ppt). Computer modeling using the Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) predicted maximum concentrations of Sea-Nine biocide of up to 10 ppt, far below the maximum acceptable environmental concentration (MAEC) of 630 ppt. The maximum predicted concentrations of TBT were as high as 345 ppt, far above the UK Environmental Standard in seawater of 2 ppt.

  20. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  1. Pressure Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Bencic, T.; Sullivan, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews new advances and applications of pressure sensitive paints in aerodynamic testing. Emphasis is placed on important technical aspects of pressure sensitive paint including instrumentation, data processing, and uncertainty analysis.

  2. Paint and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... paint can happen by: 1) Inhalation (breathing in dust and vapors/fumes). Painters with a lot of ... eye irritation. 3) Ingestion (swallowing paint chips and dust). Does the level of exposure (high versus low) ...

  3. Life cycle contributions of copper from vessel painting and maintenance activities.

    PubMed

    Earley, Patrick J; Swope, Brandon L; Barbeau, Katherine; Bundy, Randelle; McDonald, Janessa A; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Copper-based epoxy and ablative antifouling painted panels were exposed in natural seawater to evaluate environmental loading parameters. In situ loading factors including initial exposure, passive leaching, and surface refreshment were measured utilizing two protocols developed by the US Navy: the dome method and the in-water hull cleaning sampling method. Cleaning techniques investigated included a soft-pile carpet and a medium duty 3M(™) pad for fouling removal. Results show that the passive leach rates of copper peaked three days after both initial deployment and cleaning events (CEs), followed by a rapid decrease over about 15 days and a slow approach to asymptotic levels on approximately day 30. Additionally, copper was more bioavailable during a CE in comparison to the passive leaching that immediately followed. A paint life cycle model quantifying annual copper loading estimates for each paint and cleaning method based on a three-year cycle of painting, episodic cleaning, and passive leaching is presented.

  4. Life cycle contributions of copper from vessel painting and maintenance activities

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Patrick J.; Swope, Brandon L.; Barbeau, Katherine; Bundy, Randelle; McDonald, Janessa A.; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Copper-based epoxy and ablative antifouling painted panels were exposed in natural seawater to evaluate environmental loading parameters. In situ loading factors including initial exposure, passive leaching, and surface refreshment were measured utilizing two protocols developed by the US Navy: the dome method and the in-water hull cleaning sampling method. Cleaning techniques investigated included a soft-pile carpet and a medium duty 3M™ pad for fouling removal. Results show that the passive leach rates of copper peaked three days after both initial deployment and cleaning events (CEs), followed by a rapid decrease over about 15 days and a slow approach to asymptotic levels on approximately day 30. Additionally, copper was more bioavailable during a CE in comparison to the passive leaching that immediately followed. A paint life cycle model quantifying annual copper loading estimates for each paint and cleaning method based on a three-year cycle of painting, episodic cleaning, and passive leaching is presented. PMID:24199998

  5. I Can Paint!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kate; Bower, Robin, Ed.

    This book gives detailed information concerning the use of tools and media of paint. It aims at developing skills and knowledge that will allow young students to express themselves by painting. The book is organized into five sections with subheadings, including: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Exploring Paint As We Use..." with…

  6. Paints and Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  7. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  8. New Antifouling Platform Characterized by Single-Molecule Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Antifouling surfaces have been widely studied for their importance in medical devices and industry. Antifouling surfaces mostly achieved by methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) have shown biomolecular adsorption less than 1 ng/cm2 which was measured by surface analytical tools such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), or optical waveguide lightmode (OWL) spectroscopy. Herein, we utilize a single-molecule imaging technique (i.e., an ultimate resolution) to study antifouling properties of functionalized surfaces. We found that about 600 immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules are adsorbed. This result corresponds to ∼5 pg/cm2 adsorption, which is far below amount for the detection limit of the conventional tools. Furthermore, we developed a new antifouling platform that exhibits improved antifouling performance that shows only 78 IgG molecules adsorbed (∼0.5 pg/cm2). The antifouling platform consists of forming 1 nm TiO2 thin layer, on which peptidomimetic antifouling polymer (PMAP) is robustly anchored. The unprecedented antifouling performance can potentially revolutionize a variety of research fields such as single-molecule imaging, medical devices, biosensors, and others. PMID:24503420

  9. Field results of antifouling techniques for optical instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strahle, W.J.; Hotchkiss, F.S.; Martini, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    An anti-fouling technique is developed for the protection of optical instruments from biofouling which leaches a bromide compound into a sample chamber and pumps new water into the chamber prior to measurement. The primary advantage of using bromide is that it is less toxic than the metal-based antifoulants. The drawback of the bromide technique is also discussed.

  10. Immunotoxicity in ascidians: antifouling compounds alternative to organotins-IV. The case of zinc pyrithione.

    PubMed

    Cima, Francesca; Ballarin, Loriano

    2015-03-01

    New biocides such as the organometallic compound zinc pyrithione (ZnP) have been massively introduced by many countries in formulations of antifouling paints following the ban on tributyltin (TBT). The effects of sublethal concentrations (LC50=82.5 μM, i.e., 26.2 mg/l) on cultured haemocytes of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri have been investigated and compared with TBT. The percentage of haemocytes with amoeboid morphology and containing phagocytised yeast cells were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after exposure to 0.1 (31.7 μg/l) and 0.5 μM (158 μg/l), respectively. An antagonistic interaction in inducing cytoskeletal alterations was observed when ZnP and TBT were co-present in the exposure medium. ZnP affected only the actin component. As caused by TBT, ZnP induced apoptosis and inhibited both oxidative phosphorylation and lysosomal activities. In contrast to the case of TBT, a decrement in Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and a decrease in cytosolic Ca(2+) were detected after incubation at the highest concentration (1 μM, i.e., 317.7 μg/l) used. In comparison with other antifouling compounds, ZnP shows as much toxicity as TBT to cultured haemocytes at extremely low concentrations interfering with fundamental cell activities.

  11. The potential for translocation of marine species via small-scale disruptions to antifouling surfaces.

    PubMed

    Piola, Richard F; Johnston, Emma L

    2008-01-01

    Vessel hull fouling is a major vector for the translocation of nonindigenous species (NIS). Antifouling (AF) paints are the primary method for preventing the establishment and translocation of fouling species. However, factors such as paint age, condition and method of application can all reduce the effectiveness of these coatings. Areas of hull that escape AF treatment (through limited application or damage) constitute key areas that may be expected to receive high levels of fouling. The investigation focused on whether small-scale (mm(2) to cm(2)) areas of unprotected surface or experimental 'scrapes' provided sufficient area for the formation of fouling assemblages within otherwise undamaged AF surfaces. Recruitment of fouling taxa such as algae, spirorbids and hydroids was recorded on scrapes as narrow as 0.5 cm wide. The abundance and species richness of fouling assemblages developing on scrapes > or =1 cm often equalled or surpassed levels observed in reference assemblages totally unprotected by AF coatings. Experiments were conducted at three sites within the highly protected and isolated marine park surrounding Lady Elliott Island at the southernmost tip of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Several NIS were recorded on scrapes of AF coated surfaces at this location, with 1-cm scrapes showing the greatest species richness and abundance of NIS relative to all other treatments (including controls) at two of the three sites investigated. Slight disruptions to newly antifouled surfaces may be all that is necessary for the establishment of fouling organisms and the translocation of a wide range of invasive taxa to otherwise highly protected marine areas.

  12. Bioassays and field immersion tests: a comparison of the antifouling activity of copper-free poly(methacrylic)-based coatings containing tertiary amines and ammonium salt groups.

    PubMed

    Bressy, C; Hellio, C; Marechal, J P; Tanguy, B; Margaillan, A

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on the activity spectrum of three dimethylalkyl tertiary amines as potential active molecules and the corresponding ammonium salt-based antifouling (AF) paints. Bioassays (using marine bacteria, microalgae and barnacles) and field tests were combined to assess the AF activity of coatings. Bioassay results demonstrated that the ammonium salt-based paints did not inhibit the growth of microorganisms (except the dimethyldodecylammonium-based coatings) and that the tertiary amines were potent towards bacteria, diatoms, and barnacle larvae at non-toxic concentrations (therapeutic ratio, LC50/EC50, <1). The results from field tests indicated that the ammonium salt-based coatings inhibited the settlement of macrofouling and the dimethylhexadecylammonium-based coatings provided protection against slime in comparison with PVC blank panels. Thus, results from laboratory assays did not fully concur with the AF activity of the paints in the field trial.

  13. Coral skeletal tin and copper concentrations at Pohnpei, Micronesia: possible index for marine pollution by toxic anti-biofouling paints.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nohara, Masato; Kan, Hironobu; Edward, Ahser; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2004-06-01

    We present 40 year-long skeletal chronologies of tin (Sn) and copper (Cu) from an annually-banded coral (Porites sp.) collected from Pohnpei Island, Micronesia (western equatorial Pacific). Both the elements are present in antifouling marine paints and are released inadvertently into ambient seawater. Especially, Sn has often been used in the form of tributyltin (TBT). Based on a stepwise pretreatment examination, Sn and Cu both inside and outside the aragonite lattice of the coral skeleton show a potential for providing marine pollution indicators. High values of extra-skeletal Cu/Ca and Sn/Ca atomic ratios were found between late 1960s and late 1980s during a period of active use of TBT-based antifouling paints worldwide. However, a significant decrease in both the ratios in the beginning of 1990s can be attributed to regulation of the use of TBT on cargo ships by countries such as the USA, Japan and Australia.

  14. Searching for "environmentally-benign" antifouling biocides.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan Ting; Teo, Serena L M; Leong, Wai; Chai, Christina L L

    2014-05-26

    As the result of the ecological impacts from the use of tributyltins (TBT) in shipping, environmental legislation for the registration of chemicals for use in the environment has grown to a monumental challenge requiring product dossiers to include information on the environmental fate and behavior of any chemicals. Specifically, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, collectively known as PBT, are properties of concern in the assessment of chemicals. However, existing measurements of PBT properties are a cumbersome and expensive process, and thus not applied in the early stages of the product discovery and development. Inexpensive methods for preliminary PBT screening would minimize risks arising with the subsequent registration of products. In this article, we evaluated the PBT properties of compounds reported to possess anti-fouling properties using QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) prediction programs such as BIOWIN™ (a biodegradation probability program), KOWWIN™ (log octanol-water partition coefficient calculation program) and ECOSAR™ (Ecological Structure Activity Relationship Programme). The analyses identified some small (Mr < 400) synthetic and natural products as potential candidates for environmentally benign biocides. We aim to demonstrate that while these methods of estimation have limitations, when applied with discretion, they are powerful tools useful in the early stages of research for compound selection for further development as anti-foulants.

  15. Recruitment in the field of Balanus improvisus and Mytilus edulis in response to the antifouling cyclopeptides barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin from the marine sponge Geodia barretti.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Martin; Dahlström, Mia; Göransson, Ulf; Jonsson, Per R; Bohlin, Lars

    2004-12-01

    In this field investigation the two cyclopeptides, isolated from the marine sponge Geodia barretti Bowerbank (Geodiidae, Astrophorida), are shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of the barnacle Balanus improvisus (Cirripedia, Crustacea) and the blue mussel Mytilis edulis (Protobranchia, Lamellibranchia) when included in different marine paints. These brominated cyclopeptides, named barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin were incorporated in different non-toxic coatings. The substances were used in the concentrations 0.1 and 0.01% in all treatments. The most efficient paint was a SPC polymer. This paint, in combination with barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin, reduced the recruitment of B. improvisus by 89% (barettin, 0.1%) and by 67% (8,9-dihydrobarettin, 0.1%) as compared to control panels. For M. edulis, the reduction of recruitment was 81% with barettin (0.1%) and 72% with 8,9-dihydrobarettin (0.1%) included in the SPC paint. This indicates that the two compounds from G. barretti could provide non-toxic alternatives as additives in antifouling paints, since the heavy metal-based marine paints are to be replaced.

  16. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  17. Pollock without Paint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the author exposes her students to the world of Jackson Pollock, the artist who brings to mind dripping, meandering, splashing puddles of paint. Pollock's action paintings of the late 1940s-'50s call out for unfettered movement, fluidity, and freedom of application. Is it even possible to capture the action, rhythm and…

  18. Paint-Stirrer Submarine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique and challenging laboratory exercise called, the paint-stir-stick submarine, that keeps the students enthralled. The paint-stir-stick submarine fits beautifully with the National Science Education Standards Physical Science Content Standard B, and with the California state science standards for physical…

  19. What's Behind A Painting?

    Treesearch

    John Zasada

    2001-01-01

    In art galleries, one often studies a painting from various angles and distances, seeking to discover all that is possible about the method and style of the artist and what the artist is trying to communicate. In other words the observer is trying to detremine "what is behind the painting."

  20. Pollock without Paint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the author exposes her students to the world of Jackson Pollock, the artist who brings to mind dripping, meandering, splashing puddles of paint. Pollock's action paintings of the late 1940s-'50s call out for unfettered movement, fluidity, and freedom of application. Is it even possible to capture the action, rhythm and…

  1. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  2. Paint-Stirrer Submarine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique and challenging laboratory exercise called, the paint-stir-stick submarine, that keeps the students enthralled. The paint-stir-stick submarine fits beautifully with the National Science Education Standards Physical Science Content Standard B, and with the California state science standards for physical…

  3. Probing structure-antifouling activity relationships of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Li, Xiaosi; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Shenfu; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Qiuming; Gong, Xiong; Li, Lingyan; Zheng, Jie

    2013-07-01

    We have synthesized two different polyacrylamide polymers with amide groups (polySBAA and polyHEAA) and two corresponding polyacrylate polymers without amide groups (polySBMA and polyHEA), with particular attention to the evaluation of the effect of amide group on the hydration and antifouling ability of these systems using both computational and experimental approaches. The influence of polymer architectures of brushes, hydrogels, and nanogels, prepared by different polymerization methods, on antifouling performance is also studied. SPR and ELISA data reveal that all polymers exhibit excellent antifouling ability to repel proteins from undiluted human blood serum/plasma, and such antifouling ability can be further enhanced by presenting amide groups in polySBAA and polyHEAA as compared to polySBMA and polyHEA. The antifouling performance is positively correlated with the hydration properties. Simulations confirm that four polymers indeed have different hydration characteristics, while all presenting a strong hydration overall. Integration of amide group with pendant hydroxyl or sulfobetaine group in polymer backbones is found to increase their surface hydration of polymer chains and thus to improve their antifouling ability. Importantly, we present a proof-of-concept experiment to synthesize polySBAA nanogels, which show a switchable property between antifouling and pH-responsive functions driven by acid-base conditions, while still maintaining high stability in undiluted fetal bovine serum and minimal toxicity to cultured cells. This work provides important structural insights into how very subtle structural changes in polymers can yield great improvement in biological activity, specifically the inclusion of amide group in polymer backbone/sidechain enables to obtain antifouling materials with better performance for biomedical applications.

  4. Leaching of Cu and Zn from discarded boat paint particles into tap water and rain water.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Adam; Turner, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    We studied the leaching of copper and zinc from particles of discarded boat paint added to tap water (pH 7.3) and rain water (pH=4.7), simulating conditions encountered during the hosing or runoff of antifouling waste. Leaching rates appeared to be diffusion-controlled and were greater in rain water than in tap water and were greater for Zn than for Cu. After a period of 120h, between about 0.5% and 3% of total Cu and 5-30% of total Zn had been released to the aqueous phase. These observations suggest that Cu and Zn mobilised from fine antifouling particulates during washdown or rainfall events may be important contaminants of runoff and soils in the vicinity of boat repair facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioinspired catecholic copolymers for antifouling surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joon Hee; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Ellison, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    We report here a synthetic approach to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate)-polydopamine diblock (PMMA-PDA) and triblock (PDA-PMMA-PDA) copolymers combining mussel-inspired catecholic oxidative chemistry and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). These copolymers display very good solubility in a range of organic solvents and also a broad band photo absorbance that increases with increasing PDA content in the copolymer. Spin-cast thin films of the copolymer were stable in water and showed a sharp reduction (by up to 50%) in protein adsorption compared to those of neat PMMA. Also the peak decomposition temperature of the copolymers was up to 43°C higher than neat PMMA. The enhanced solvent processability, thermal stability and low protein adsorption characteristics of this copolymer makes it attractive for variety of applications including antifouling coatings on large surfaces such as ship hulls, buoys, and wave energy converters.

  6. Paint-Overspray Catcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus to catch paint overspray has been proposed. Overspray is an unavoidable parasitic component of spray that occurs because the flow of air or other gas in the spray must turn at the sprayed surface. Very small droplets are carried away in this turning flow, and some land on adjacent surfaces not meant to be painted. The basic principle of the paint-spray catcher is to divert the overspray into a suction system at the boundary of the area to be painted. The paint-spray catcher (see figure) would include a toroidal plenum connected through narrow throat to a nozzle that would face toward the center of the torus, which would be positioned over the center of the area to be spray-painted. The plenum would be supported by four tubes that would also serve as suction exhaust ducts. The downstream ends of the tubes (not shown in the figure) would be connected to a filter on a suction pump. The pump would be rated to provide a suction mass flow somewhat greater than that of the directed spray gas stream, so that the nozzle would take in a small excess of surrounding gas and catch nearly all of the overspray. A small raised lip at the bottom edge of the nozzle would catch paint that landed inside the nozzle. Even if the paint is directly piston pumped, the droplets entrain an air flow by time they approach the wall, so there is always a gas stream to carry the excess droplets to the side. For long-duration spraying operations, it could be desirable to include a suction-drain apparatus to prevent overflowing and dripping of paint from inside the lip. A version without an external contraction and with the throat angled downward would be a more compact version of catcher, although it might be slightly less efficient.

  7. Heat Resistant Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The racing car shown is one of many coated with an inorganic paint that protects "hot parts" of automotive vehicles. Developed and manufactured by Sperex Corporation, Gardena, California, the durable, heat-resistant paint is used on car and truck exhaust systems, firewalls, brake drums and engine manifolds. NASA technology contributed to development of the paint. Sperex was provided a technical support packa'ge detailing the research of Goddard Space Flight Center on long-life inorganic coatings. The information helped Sperex perfect its own formulations.

  8. Chromate Dermatitis from Paint

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1963-01-01

    Among 250 workers engaged on wet sandpapering of primer paint on car bodies 65 developed a contact dermatitis. The average latent period before dermatitis developed was 4·6 months: only 60% of the patients made a completely satisfactory recovery. The average duration of dermatitis was 5·3 months. Two thirds of the men used one of two barrier creams supplied, while one third used none. Routine patch testing showed that the majority was allergic to chromate. It was found that a primer paint contained zinc chromate, which had been introduced into the paint by the manufacturers shortly before the first cases occurred. Removal of chromate from the paint resulted in a prompt cessation of new cases of dermatitis. Images PMID:14046155

  9. Paint and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... with some studies showing no increased risk. An occupational health specialist or industrial hygienist may be able to ... little is known about exposure to paint during breastfeeding, but it is unlikely that typical low- level ...

  10. Stereo Painting Display Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, David

    1982-06-01

    The Spanish Surrealist artist Salvador Dali has recently perfected the art of producing two paintings which are stereo pairs. Each painting is separately quite remarkable, presenting a subject with the vivid realism and clarity for which Dali is famous. Due to the surrealistic themes of Dali's art, however, the subjects preser.ted with such naturalism only exist in his imagination. Despite this considerable obstacle to producing stereo art, Dali has managed to paint stereo pairs that display subtle differences of coloring and lighting, in addition to the essential perspective differences. These stereo paintings require a display method that will allow the viewer to experience stereo fusion, but which will not degrade the high quality of the art work. This paper gives a review of several display methods that seem promising in terms of economy, size, adjustability, and image quality.

  11. Artists Paint ... Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article features the painting "View of Toledo," based on Toledo, a very old city located on a high plateau in Spain. By the time the artist El Greco painted the picture, he had lived there for 31 years. When one looks at the picture, one will see a storm approaching and will see the city as if it were lit by a flash of lightning. What main…

  12. Robotic Paint Stripping Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    based controls are used for all F-1 a substrate materials, Inc, ding graphite-epoxy composhes. The RPSC is a fully automated plastic media blast paint...based controls are used for all F.16 substrate materials, including graphite-epoxy composites. The RPSC is a fully automated plastic media blast...control the paint stripping rate and prevent overblasting of the substrate . Four halogen lamps provide an infrared-rich light source which is reflected

  13. Artists Paint ... Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article features the painting "View of Toledo," based on Toledo, a very old city located on a high plateau in Spain. By the time the artist El Greco painted the picture, he had lived there for 31 years. When one looks at the picture, one will see a storm approaching and will see the city as if it were lit by a flash of lightning. What main…

  14. Antifouling membranes for sustainable water purification: strategies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runnan; Liu, Yanan; He, Mingrui; Su, Yanlei; Zhao, Xueting; Elimelech, Menachem; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-10-24

    One of the greatest challenges to the sustainability of modern society is an inadequate supply of clean water. Due to its energy-saving and cost-effective features, membrane technology has become an indispensable platform technology for water purification, including seawater and brackish water desalination as well as municipal or industrial wastewater treatment. However, membrane fouling, which arises from the nonspecific interaction between membrane surface and foulants, significantly impedes the efficient application of membrane technology. Preparing antifouling membranes is a fundamental strategy to deal with pervasive fouling problems from a variety of foulants. In recent years, major advancements have been made in membrane preparation techniques and in elucidating the antifouling mechanisms of membrane processes, including ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and forward osmosis. This review will first introduce the major foulants and the principal mechanisms of membrane fouling, and then highlight the development, current status and future prospects of antifouling membranes, including antifouling strategies, preparation techniques and practical applications. In particular, the strategies and mechanisms for antifouling membranes, including passive fouling resistance and fouling release, active off-surface and on-surface strategies, will be proposed and discussed extensively.

  15. Antifouling Thermoplastic Composites with Maleimide Encapsulated in Clay Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ye; Gong, Congcong; Wang, Wencai; Zhang, Liqun; Ivanov, Evgenii; Lvov, Yuri

    2017-09-06

    An antifouling ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) coating with halloysite clay nanotubes loaded with maleimide (TCPM) is prepared. Such antifoulant encapsulation allowed for extended release of TCPM and a long-lasting, efficient protection of the coated surface against marine microorganisms proliferation. Halloysite also induces the composite's anisotropy due to parallel alignment of the nanotubes. The maleimide loaded halloysite incorporated into the polymer matrix allowed for 12-month release of the bacterial inhibitor preventing fouling; it is much longer than the 2-3 month protection when TCPM is directly admixed into EVA. The antifouling properties of the EVA-halloysite nanocomposites were tested by monitoring surface adhesion and proliferation of marine V. natriegens bacteria with SEM. As compared to the composite directly doped with TCPM-antifoulant, there were much less bacteria accumulated on the EVA-halloysite-TCPM coating after a 2-month exposure to seawater. Field tests at South China Sea marine station further confirmed the formulation efficiency. The doping of 28 wt % TCPM loaded halloysite drastically enhanced material antifouling property, which promises wide applications for protective marine coating.

  16. Comparative efficiency of macroalgal extracts and booster biocides as antifouling agents to control growth of three diatom species.

    PubMed

    Silkina, Alla; Bazes, Alexandra; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    The application of 'booster biocides' Diuron, Tolylfluanid and Copper thiocyanate inbantifouling paints, used to prevent development of biofouling, needs to be monitored before assessing their impacts on the environment. An alternative approach aims to propose eco-friendly and effective antifoulants isolated from marine organisms such as seaweeds. In this study, the effects of 'booster biocides' and the ethanol and dichloromethane extracts from a brown (Sargassum muticum) and a red alga (Ceramium botryocarpum) have been compared by algal growth inhibition tests of marine diatoms. The most efficient extracts were ethanol fraction of S. muticum and C. botryocarpum extracts with growth EC(50)=4.74 and 5.3μg mL(-1) respectively, with reversible diatom growth effect. The booster biocides are more efficient EC(50)=0.52μg mL(-1), but are highly toxic. Results validate the use of macroalgal extracts as non toxic antifouling compounds, and they represent valuable environmentally friendly alternatives in comparison with currently used biocides. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Effects of Microbial Biofilms on Organotin Release by an Antifouling Paint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    of theo tribtityli-An to di-ind iionohutvittin. For all panolsi t li!r,, Ioa 1 r i - iivnifticintly increaseqd after the biof tins we!reý removed. i C...aquarium holding tanks were * conducted. After the panels were placed in the test jars the 850 ml k of seawater was changed twice weekly to prevent build...formed 6 on the panels ’by inoculations, each followed by a change of seawater’after a 24 hr filming period. These films were allowed to remain on panels

  18. Effects of Tributyltin Antifouling Paint Leachates on Pearl Harbor Organisms. Site-Specific Flowthrough Bioassay Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    panels were removed from the tanks. and the bioassay communities were allowed 2 months of recovery ( depuration ) under flowthrough conditions. All remaining...it is not known to what degree the oysters had accumulated and depurated leachates. Those results will be reported later. 5. 17 % %.- %, , - 7 - 6...those individuals may have accumulated lethal amounts of TBT over the 60-day treatment interval and were unable to depurate enough TBT to affect their

  19. Scanning Electron Microscope Observations of Marine Microorganisms on Surfaces Coated with Antifouling Paints.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Vacuum Corporation , Cherry Hill, New Jersey. The size of the pedestal upon which the plating was done per- mitted only one slide to be coated at a time...Chemical Corporation , durez plastics division, 14120 Walck Road, North Tonawanda, New Jersey. 4. CAB-O-SIL M-5 is manufactured by Cabot Corpora- tion, 125...505 is an epoxy resin with a density of 1.01 g/cc. It is manufactured by the Celanese Corporation . 4. The organotin component of this formulation is

  20. Antifouling properties of zinc oxide nanorod coatings.

    PubMed

    Al-Fori, Marwan; Dobretsov, Sergey; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, the antifouling (AF) properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod coatings were investigated using the marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the microalga Tetraselmis sp. ZnO nanorod coatings were fabricated on microscope glass substrata by a simple hydrothermal technique using two different molar concentrations (5 and 10 mM) of zinc precursors. These coatings were tested for 5 h under artificial sunlight (1060 W m(-2) or 530 W m(-2)) and in the dark (no irradiation). In the presence of light, both the ZnO nanorod coatings significantly reduced the density of Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C and Tetraselmis sp. in comparison to the control (microscope glass substratum without a ZnO coating). High mortality and low settlement of B. neritina larvae was observed on ZnO nanorod coatings subjected to light irradiation. In darkness, neither mortality nor enhanced settlement of larvae was observed. Larvae of B. neritina were not affected by Zn(2+) ions. The AF effect of the ZnO nanorod coatings was thus attributed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by photocatalysis. It was concluded that ZnO nanorod coatings effectively prevented marine micro and macrofouling in static conditions.

  1. Speciation of antifoulant organotin compounds in water

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nguyen, V.; Posey, I.J.; Eng, G.

    1984-01-01

    The fate of several antifoulant organotin compounds, Ph/sub 3/SnOH, Ph/sub 3/SnCl, and Ph/sub 3/SnOCOCH/sub 3/ in water has been investigated using IR spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography. Except for the residue resulting from the extract of aqueous Ph/sub 3/SnOCOCH/sub 3/, the IR spectrum of each residue was identical to that of the starting organotin compound. The IR spectrum of the residue obtained from the chloroform extract of aqueous Ph/sub 3/SnOCOCH/sub 3/ which has been shaken for 7 days showed the presence of Ph/sub 3/SnOH as confirmed by the presence of a small doublet around 910 and 897 cm/sup -1/. Also, the pH measurement of each of the aqueous Ph/sub 3/SnX solutions decreased with time. These results are interpreted to suggest that the organotin compounds studied ionize in aqueous media. Thin-layer chromatography results give further support to these findings. The study suggests that the X group in the compounds of the type Ph/sub 3/SnX is labile in polar solvents and that Ph/sub 3/SnOH and/or Ph/sub 3/SnX are the species formed in aqueous solution. 6 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  2. Bio-inspired Design Approached Antifouling Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, L.; Chapman, J.; Lawlor, A.; Regan, F.

    2012-04-01

    Biofouling exists as the undesirable accumulation of flora and fauna on a given substrate when immersed into an aquatic media. Its presence causes a range of deleterious effects for anyone faced in tackling the problem, which is more than often financially testing. Generally, the initial biofouling stage is stochastic and the attachment of microorganisms held fast in biofilm matrices is irreversible. Stability of the biofilm occurs when exopolymeric substances (EPS) are produced forming a protective surrounding, allowing the cohered microorganisms to colonise and thrive upon the surface. Therefore, if this initial stage of biofilm development can be prevented then it could be possible to prevent subsequent macro events that ensue. Environmental monitoring is one area that faces this challenge and forms the impetus of the work presented herein. In order to improve a monitoring device's lifetime, surface coatings with biocidal agents are applied to counteract these steps. This work shows the development of a range of novel materials, which demonstrate the ability to counteract and inhibit the initial stages of biofouling for monitoring devices. Natural bio-inspired surfaces have been developed using nano-functionalised coatings. All materials are tested in the field and positive results in reducing the biofouling challenge are demonstrated. The results from the deployment of antifouling materials, together with real-time, long-term water quality data from the test site are also shown.

  3. Toxic effects of new antifouling compounds on tunicate haemocytes I. Sea-nine 211 and chlorothalonil.

    PubMed

    Cima, Francesca; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Ballarin, Loriano

    2008-01-31

    After the definitive ban on tin-based antifouling substances, new organic compounds have recently been introduced in antifouling paint formulations, as either principal or booster biocides. In most cases, previous risk assessment of these biocides has been inadequate so that their possible effects on aquatic ecosystems is a matter of great concern. We studied the effects of two new organic biocides often associated in paint formulations, Sea-Nine 211 (4,5 dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazoline-3-one) and chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile), on haemocytes of the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri exposed for 60 min to various concentrations (from 0.1 to 10 microM) of the xenobiotics. This species had previously proved to be a good bioindicator of organotin compounds. Both compounds, at concentrations of 1 and 10 microM, altered the morphology of phagocytes, and these changes were closely related to disrupting effects on cytoskeletal components. At the same concentrations, phagocytosis, which requires cytoskeletal modifications for pseudopod formation, was severely hindered. Both compounds were able to induce apoptosis of Botryllus blood cells, probably as a consequence of severe oxidative stress related to the reported decrease of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content. In the case of Sea-Nine 211, a substantial increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and a negative effect on Ca(2+)-ATPase activity may also be involved in the activation of the cell death machinery. Cytochrome-c-oxidase was also significantly inhibited by the two biocides, indicating perturbation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Isodynamic mixtures of Sea-Nine 211 and chlorothalonil were used to evaluate the occurrence of interactions between the two compounds. Results suggest the combined action of partial additivity when cell-spreading and cytochrome-c-oxidase activity were considered, and were indicative of antagonism in the case of the GSH depletion. On the whole, our

  4. Membranes with Surface-Enhanced Antifouling Properties for Water Purification

    PubMed Central

    Shahkaramipour, Nima; Tran, Thien N.; Ramanan, Sankara; Lin, Haiqing

    2017-01-01

    Membrane technology has emerged as an attractive approach for water purification, while mitigation of fouling is key to lower membrane operating costs. This article reviews various materials with antifouling properties that can be coated or grafted onto the membrane surface to improve the antifouling properties of the membranes and thus, retain high water permeance. These materials can be separated into three categories, hydrophilic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol), polydopamine and zwitterions, hydrophobic materials, such as fluoropolymers, and amphiphilic materials. The states of water in these materials and the mechanisms for the antifouling properties are discussed. The corresponding approaches to coat or graft these materials on the membrane surface are reviewed, and the materials with promising performance are highlighted. PMID:28273869

  5. Recent development of antifouling polymers: structure, evaluation, and biomedical applications in nano/micro-structures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingyun; Li, Wenchen; Liu, Qingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Antifouling polymers have been proven to be vital to many biomedical applications such as medical implants, drug delivery, and biosensing. This review covers the major development of antifouling polymers in the last 2 decades, including the material chemistry, structural factors important to antifouling properties, and how to challenge or evaluate the antifouling performances. We then discuss the applications of antifouling polymers in nano/micro-biomedical applications in the form of nanoparticles, thin coatings for medical devices (e.g., artificial joint, catheter, wound dressing), and nano/microscale fibers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  7. Reading Through Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional data matrix symbols, which contain encoded letters and numbers, are permanently etched on items for identification. They can store up to 100 times more information than traditional bar codes. While the symbols provide several advantages over bar codes, once they are covered by paint they can no longer be read by optical scanners. Since most products are painted eventually, this presents a problem for industries relying on the symbols for identification and tracking. In 1987, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center began studying direct parts marking with matrix symbols in order to track millions of Space Shuttle parts. Advances in the technology proved that by incorporating magnetic properties into the paints, inks, and pastes used to apply the matrix symbols, the codes could be read by a magnetic scanner even after being covered with paint or other coatings. NASA received a patent for such a scanner in 1998, but the system it used for development was not portable and was too costly. A prototype was needed as a lead-in to a production model. In the summer of 2000, NASA began seeking companies to build a hand-held scanner that would detect the Read Through Paint data matrix identification marks containing magnetic materials through coatings.

  8. Experiments on Paint Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartranft, Thomas J.; Settles, Gary S.

    1998-11-01

    We seek a better understanding of the atomization of paints for purposes of limiting the environmental impact of spray painting. However, to do so one must confront both the shear and extensional rheology of mobile non-Newtonian fluids whose very composition is often complex and even unknown. A conventional Couette rheometer yields data on paint shear behavior, but no commercial instrument is available to measure the extensional viscosity, which is believed to govern ligamentary breakup in spray painting. Here a converging-flow extensional rheometer has been built for this purpose. Flow rate and orifice pressure drop are measured and related to the rheological properties of the fluid. At first, experience was gained by visualizing in this device the flow of clear aqueous solutions of both Newtonian (glycerol) and non-Newtonian (polyacrylamide) thickeners. Commercial latex and marine paints were then tested, with the goal of characterizing their extensional behavior and the hope that they might be replaceable by simpler aqueous rheological "substitute" fluids insofar as their atomization behavior is concerned. (Research supported by the US Navy via the Penn State Applied Research Laboratory.)

  9. 1. Photocopy of painting (original painting in possesion of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of painting (original painting in possesion of the family of Judge Jasper Brinton, Cairo, Egypt) Thomas Eakins, Artist 1878 SIDE AND FRONT ELEVATIONS - Brinton 1704 House, Oakland Road (Birmingham Township), Dilworthtown, Chester County, PA

  10. 9. Photocopy of painting (Painted by the architect, Mr. Lee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of painting (Painted by the architect, Mr. Lee and presented to the Rev. J.J. Roberts, Rector, 1853-1866) April 1960 EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  11. Complex shaped ZnO nano- and microstructure based polymer composites: mechanically stable and environmentally friendly coatings for potential antifouling applications.

    PubMed

    Hölken, Iris; Hoppe, Mathias; Mishra, Yogendra K; Gorb, Stanislav N; Adelung, Rainer; Baum, Martina J

    2016-03-14

    Since the prohibition of tributyltin (TBT)-based antifouling paints in 2008, the development of environmentally compatible and commercially realizable alternatives is a crucial issue. Cost effective fabrication of antifouling paints with desired physical and biocompatible features is simultaneously required and recent developments in the direction of inorganic nanomaterials could play a major role. In the present work, a solvent free polymer/particle-composite coating based on two component polythiourethane (PTU) and tetrapodal shaped ZnO (t-ZnO) nano- and microstructures has been synthesized and studied with respect to mechanical, chemical and biocompatibility properties. Furthermore, antifouling tests have been carried out in artificial seawater tanks. Four different PTU/t-ZnO composites with various t-ZnO filling fractions (0 wt%, 1 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt%) were prepared and the corresponding tensile, hardness, and pull-off test results revealed that the composite filled with 5 wt% t-ZnO exhibits the strongest mechanical properties. Surface free energy (SFE) studies using contact angle measurements showed that the SFE value decreases with an increase in t-ZnO filler amounts. The influence of t-ZnO on the polymerization reaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy measurements and thermogravimetric analysis. The immersion tests demonstrated that fouling behavior of the PTU/t-ZnO composite with a 1 wt% t-ZnO filler has been decreased in comparison to pure PTU. The composite with a 5 wt% t-ZnO filler showed almost no biofouling.

  12. Paint removal using lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Katherine; Garmire, Elsa

    1995-07-01

    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 107 in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m2 area of paint 14 mu m thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power.

  13. Paint removal using lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Garmire, E

    1995-07-20

    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 10(7) in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m(2) area of paint 14 µm thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power.

  14. VAB Flag Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-01

    On platforms suspended from the top of the 525-foot-high VAB, workers use rollers and brushes to repaint the U.S. flag on the southwest side of the Vehicle Assembly Building. The flag spans an area 209 feet by 110 feet, or about 23, 437 square feet. Each stripe is 9 feet wide and each star is 6 feet in diameter. The logo is also being painted. Known as the "meatball," the logo measures 110 feet by 132 feet, or about 12,300 square feet. The flag and logo were last painted in 1998, honoring NASA's 40th anniversary.

  15. LSST Painting Risk Evaluation Memo

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Justin E.

    2016-11-10

    The optics subsystem is required to paint the edges of optics black where possible. Due to the risks in applying the paint LSST requests a review of the impact of removing this requirement for the filters and L3.

  16. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  17. Miniature spray-painting booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fee, K. W.

    1970-01-01

    Transparent spray booth provides method for quality painting and repair of surfaces in clean room or other specialized environments. Overspray and virtually all contaminating vapor and odor can be eliminated. Touch-up painting is achieved with spray gun.

  18. For the Classroom: Fish Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Sally

    1984-01-01

    Fish painting can be used to introduce basic and advanced subject-concepts, especially with students for whom tactile skill development is of particular importance. Materials, methods, and hints are presented along with a diagram of the painting procedure. (BC)

  19. Tanjore: Mystical Painting of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tanjore (or Thanjavur or Thanlavoor) paintings are one of the most popular traditional art forms in Southern India. These ornate religious paintings involve Hindu mythology. The paintings are noted for their adornment of gold and semiprecious stones such as rubies, emeralds, and pearls. Currently, the semiprecious stones are often substituted…

  20. High pressure paint gun injuries.

    PubMed

    Booth, C M

    1977-11-19

    Despite their use for the past 20 years the dangers of injuries from high pressure paint guns are not widely known. Two cases treated incorrectly through ignorance in our casualty department resulted in amputation of digits. Paint solvents are far moe damaging than paint of grease injection. All cases should be treated urgently by an experienced surgeon as fairly extensive surgery may be needed.

  1. Tanjore: Mystical Painting of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tanjore (or Thanjavur or Thanlavoor) paintings are one of the most popular traditional art forms in Southern India. These ornate religious paintings involve Hindu mythology. The paintings are noted for their adornment of gold and semiprecious stones such as rubies, emeralds, and pearls. Currently, the semiprecious stones are often substituted…

  2. Static-Suppressing Optical Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, M. M.; Metzler, E. C.; Cleland, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electrically conductive flat black paint adheres well to magnesium, aluminum, fiberglass, and other materials. Paint absorbs stray light in optical instruments while preventing buildup of electrostatic fields and arcing. Paint consists of primer and topcoat, both containing electricallyconductive carbon-black powder. Primer two-part epoxy base, and topcoat polyurethane base.

  3. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  4. Artists Paint ... Fantasy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When he painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612), Giuseppe Arcimboldo used his imagination, and portrayed him as "Vertumnus," the Roman god of vegetation and the seasons. It's fun to find the different fruits, vegetables and flowers he used: pea-pod eyelids, a gourd for the forehead. Court painters of the time usually…

  5. Stylized Silk Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art activity inspired by a workshop "Surrounded by Silk" given by Susan Skvoe in which the students create silk paintings. Explains that the students first sketch their floral design on paper, trace the design on the silk's surface, and apply liquid dye for color. Provides an easier activity for younger students. (CMK)

  6. Artists Paint ... Fantasy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When he painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612), Giuseppe Arcimboldo used his imagination, and portrayed him as "Vertumnus," the Roman god of vegetation and the seasons. It's fun to find the different fruits, vegetables and flowers he used: pea-pod eyelids, a gourd for the forehead. Court painters of the time usually…

  7. Children and Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topal, Cathy Weisman

    This handbook demonstrates how studio art concepts may be broken down into their simplest level, thus, allowing preschool and elementary students to work with one particular concept and technique at a time. Teachers are encouraged to coordinate open-ended painting activities with major study units taking place in the classroom. The fourteen…

  8. Paint it nanoblack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2016-08-01

    Ever since our ancestors painted images on the walls of caves, artists have sought pigments to represent the 10 million tints that humans can differentiate. Now they have a new ally: researchers who are using optical design principles, nanotechnology and inspiration from nature to create deeper blacks and purer whites.

  9. Painting Patterns with Pixels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoerg, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art unit for middle school students where they created their own original pattern through the use of "ClarisWorks Paint." Discusses the procedure for the project and the evaluation used at the end of the unit. Emphasizes the importance of learning about computers. (CMK)

  10. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  11. Improved thermal paint formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Roger, F. O.; Zerlaut, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Potassium silicate-treated zinc oxide paint stabilizes pigment against ultraviolet-induced, bleachable degradation in infrared region, and permits use of ZnO as pigment in ultraviolet-stable coatings based upon polymethyl siloxane elastomers and resins. Material has low absorptance/emittance ratio.

  12. Painting Cloth with Crayons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asch, Rosalie L.

    1979-01-01

    Painting cloth with crayons is suggested as a challenging art project, especially for students who have difficulty with the complex tools and processes typical of more advanced textile work. Instructions are given for creating decorative banners with this technique. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (Author/SJL)

  13. Improved Paint Removal Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-25

    4 (Phenol)1: p1P4 ji:i Condition of Point Surface Condition of Paint: Surface 4 after 45 minutes ufter 25 minutes Ten~t Pronsidure No. I. on~ Tent ...the ,.I .- pit so high velume water flow can be used to flush the pit floor clean at I the end of each day. Installation of removable grating is also

  14. Facile modification of electrospun fibrous structures with antifouling zwitterionic hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jiamin; Zhu, Yingnan; Li, Qingsi; Pan, Chao; Zhang, Lei

    2017-09-01

    Electrospinning technology can easily produce different shaped fibrous structures, making them highly valuable to various biomedical applications. However, surface contamination of biomolecules, cells, or blood has emerged as a significant challenge to the success of electrospun devices, especially artificial blood vessels, catheters and wound dressings etc. Many efforts have been made to resist the surface non-specific biomolecules or cells adsorption, but most of them require complex pre-treatment processes, hard-to-remove metal catalysts or rigorous reaction conditions. In addition, the stability of antifouling coatings, especially in complex conditions, is still a major concern. In this work, inspired by the interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) and reinforced concrete structure, an efficient and facile strategy for modifying hydrophobic electrospun meshes and tubes with antifouling zwitterionic hydrogels has been introduced. The resulting products could efficiently resist the adhesion of proteins, cells, or even fresh whole blood. Meanwhile, they could maintain the shapes and mechanical strength of the original electrospun structures. Furthermore, the hydrogel structures could retain stable in a physiological condition for at least 3 months. This paper provided a general antifouling and hydrophilicity surface modification strategy for various fibrous structures, and could be of great value for many biomedical applications where antifouling properties are critical. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  16. Mussel-inspired antifouling coatings bearing polymer loops.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Ling; Tian, Yu; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-11-11

    This work reports the preparation of antifouling coatings bearing polymer loops using a mussel-inspired ABA triblock copolymer using a simple drop coating method. With similar end graft density, the loop-bearing surfaces show a more enhanced protein-reduction performance than the brush-bearing surfaces.

  17. Antifouling activity of secondary metabolites isolated from chinese marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Xin; Wu, Hui-Xian; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml(-1). Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml(-1) and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity.

  18. Contamination of Caribbean coastal waters by the antifouling herbicide Irgarol 1051.

    PubMed

    Carbery, Kelly; Owen, Richard; Frickers, Trish; Otero, Ernesto; Readman, James

    2006-06-01

    Irgarol 1051 is a s-triazine herbicide used in popular slime-resistant antifouling paints. It has been shown to be acutely toxic to corals, mangroves and sea grasses, inhibiting photosynthesis at low concentrations (>50 ng l(-1)). We present the first data describing the occurrence of Irgarol 1051 in coastal waters of the Northeastern Caribbean (Puerto Rico (PR) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI)). Low level contamination of coastal waters by Irgarol 1051 is reported, the herbicide being present in 85% of the 31 sites sampled. It was not detected in water from two oceanic reference sites. In general, Irgarol 1051was present at concentrations below 100 ng l(-1), although far higher concentrations were reported at three locations within Benner Bay, USVI (223-1,300 ng l(-1)). The known toxicity of Irgarol 1051 to corals and sea grasses and our findings of significant contamination of the Northeastern Caribbean marine environment by this herbicide underscore the importance of understanding, more fully, local and regional exposure of reef and sea grass habitats to Irgarol 1051 and, where necessary, implementing actions to ensure adequate protection of these important ecosystems.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of antifouling biocide Irgarol-1051 in coral reef ecosystems, Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mohammed A; Juma, Fatma S; Staehr, Peter; Dahl, Karsten; Rashid, Rashid J; Mohammed, Mohammed S; Ussi, Ali M; Ali, Hassan R

    2016-08-15

    2-methythiol-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine (Irgarol-1051) has been widely used as effective alternative antifouling paint in marine structures including ships. However, it has been causing deleterious effects to marine organisms including reef building corals. The main objective of this study was to establish baseline levels of Irgarol-1051 around coral reefs and nearby ecosystems along coastline of Zanzibar Island. The levels of Irgarol-1051 ranged from 1.35ng/L around coral reefs to 15.44ng/L around harbor with average concentration of 4.11 (mean)±0.57 (SD) ng/L. This is below Environmental Risk Limit of 24ng/L as proposed by Dutch Authorities which suggests that the contamination is not alarming especially for coral reef ecosystem health. The main possible sources of the contamination are from shipping activities. This paper provides important baseline information of Irgarol-1051 around the coral reef ecosystems within the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region and may be useful for formulation of marine conservation strategies and policies.

  20. Reprotoxicity of the Antifoulant Chlorothalonil in Ascidians: An Ecological Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Alessandra; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Chlorothalonil is a widely used biocide in antifouling paint formulation that replaces tin-based compounds after their definitive ban. Although chlorothalonil inputs into the marine environment have significantly increased in recent years, little is known about its effect on marine animals and in particular on their reproductive processes. In this line, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of chlorothalonil exposure on the gamete physiology, fertilization rate and transmissible damage to offspring in the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidians). To identify a possible mechanism of action of chlorothalonil, electrophysiological techniques were used to study the impact on oocyte membrane excitability and on the electrical events occurring at fertilization. The pre-exposure of spermatozoa and oocytes to chlorothalonil did not affect the fertilization rate but caused damage to the offspring by inducing larval malformation. The highest toxicity was observed when fertilization was performed in chlorothalonil solutions with the lowest EC50 value. In particular, it was observed that low chlorothalonil concentrations interfered with embryo development and led to abnormal larvae, whereas high concentrations arrested embryo formation. In mature oocytes, a decrease in the amplitudes of the sodium and fertilization currents was observed, suggesting an involvement of plasma membrane ion currents in the teratogenic mechanism of chlorothalonil action. The risk estimation confirmed that the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) exceeded the predicted effect concentration (PEC), thus indicating that chlorothalonil may pose a risk to aquatic species. PMID:25875759

  1. Identification of a new degradation product of the antifouling agent Irgarol 1051 in natural samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, I.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    A main degradation product of Irgarol [2-(methylthio)-4-(tert-butylamino)-6-(cyclopropylamino)-s-triazine], one of the most widely used compounds in antifouling paints, was detected at trace levels in seawater and sediment samples collected from several marinas on the Mediterranean coast. This degradation product was identified as 2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-s-triazine. The unequivocal identification of this compound in seawater samples was carried out by solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled on-line with liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). SPE was carried out by passing 150 ml of seawater sample through a cartridge containing a polymeric phase (PLRP-s), with recoveries ranging from 92 to 108% (n=5). Using LC-MS detection in positive ion mode, useful structural information was obtained by increasing the fragmentor voltage, thus permitting the unequivocal identification of this compound in natural samples. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.002 to 0.005 ??g/l. Overall, the combination of on-line SPE and LC-APCI-MS represents an important advance in environmental analysis of herbicide degradation products in seawater, since it demonstrates that trace amounts of new polar metabolites may be determined rapidly. This paper reports the LC-MS identification of the main degradation product of Irgarol in seawater and sediment samples. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of antifouling biocides contaminations in Maizuru Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Sayaka; Harino, Hiroya; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu

    2010-04-01

    The concentrations of organotin compounds in the aquatic environment of Maizuru Bay and their spatial distribution are discussed. The concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) compounds in water samples ranged from 0.001 to 0.002 microg l(-1), and monobutyltin compounds were the dominant species among the butyltin compounds. TBT concentrations in Maizuru Bay are low compared with other coastal waters of Japan. Drastic differences in TBT concentrations were not observed among the Maizuru Bay sites. Phenyltin compounds were not detected in the water samples. Concentrations of TBT and triphenyltin (TPT) in sediment from Maizuru Bay ranged, respectively, from 0.9 to 11 microg kg(-1), from 0.2 to 17 microg kg(-1) dry weight (dw). TBT concentrations in Maizuru Bay were lower than those in other coastal areas of Japan. TPT concentrations were greater than TBT concentrations in the fishing port. The concentrations of TBT and TPT in blue mussels (M. galloprovincialis) from Maizuru Bay were in the range of 2.4 to 9.3 microg kg(-1) and 0.2-13 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. A tolerable average residue level (TARL) was estimated at 74.8 microg kg(-1) from a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.25 bis(tributyltin)oxide microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). TBT concentrations detected in blue mussel samples were lower than the TARL values. The acceptable concentration of TPT, which were calculated using acceptable daily intake instead of TDI, was 127 microg kg(-1). Concentrations of TPT in blue mussel samples were also lower than the TARL. TBT compounds in blue mussel samples were at similar levels among the various sampling sites, indicating that TBT is not currently being used in ship hull paints; the ratios of degradation products of TBT and TPT were greater than those of the parent compounds. Concentrations of alternative biocides in water samples were also investigated in the bay. Although Sea-Nine 211, M1, and Pyrithiones were not detected, Diuron and Irgarol 1051 were

  3. Antifouling potential of bacteria isolated from a marine biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Wang, Ke; Su, Rongguo; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Marine microorganisms are a new source of natural antifouling compounds. In this study, two bacterial strains, Kytococcus sedentarius QDG-B506 and Bacillus cereus QDG-B509, were isolated from a marine biofilm and identified. The bacteria fermentation broth could exert inhibitory effects on the growth of Skeletonema costatum and barnacle larvae. A procedure was employed to extract and identify the antifouling compounds. Firstly, a toxicity test was conducted by graduated pH and liquid-liquid extraction to determine the optimal extraction conditions. The best extraction conditions were found to be pH 2 and 100% petroleum ether. The EC 50 value of the crude extract of K. sedentarius against the test microalgae was 236.7 ± 14.08 μg mL-1, and that of B. cereus was 290.6 ± 27.11 μg mL-1. Secondly, HLB SPE columns were used to purify the two crude extracts. After purification, the antifouling activities of the two extracts significantly increased: the EC 50 of the K. sedentarius extract against the test microalgae was 86.4 ± 3.71 μg mL-1, and that of B. cereus was 92.6 ± 1.47 μg mL-1. These results suggest that the metabolites produced by the two bacterial strains are with high antifouling activities and they should be fatty acid compounds. Lastly, GC-MS was used for the structural elucidation of the compounds. The results show that the antifouling compounds produced by the two bacterial strains are myristic, palmitic and octadecanoic acids.

  4. Bioaccessibility of trace metals in boat paint particles.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Radford, Abigail

    2010-07-01

    A ground composite of paint fragments collected from a leisure boatyard has been analysed for total and bioaccessible trace metal concentrations. The sample contained concentrations of Cu and Zn of about 1% due to their use in antifouling formulations, and significant quantities of Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb and Sn. In a simulated stomach phase (pH 2.5), bioaccessible concentrations relative to respective total concentrations ranged from paint particles during vessel maintenance or in home environments subjected to particulate track-in.

  5. Evaluation of antifouling activity of eight commercially available organic chemicals against the early foulers marine bacteria and Ulva spores.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Hari Datta; Paudel, Babita; Park, Nam-Sik; Lee, Kwang Soo; Shin, Hyun-Woung

    2007-10-01

    Environmental impacts caused by tin and copper based commercial antifouling (AF) paints were proved to be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, a search of environmental friendly AF compounds to be used in marine paint to protect the surface of maritime developmental structures from the unwanted biofouling is a burning issue of the present time. Commercially available eight organic chemicals--allyl isothiocyanate, beta-myrecene, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, citral, ethyl heptanoate, eugenol, methyl caproate, and octyl alcohol were evaluated forAF activities using both laboratory and field assays. The test chemicals were found to repel the target motile marine bacteria--Alteromonas marina, Bacillus atrophaeus, Roseobactergallaeciensis and Shewanella oneidensis and motile spores of the green alga, Ulva pertusa. The bacterial and Ulva spore repulsion activities of the test chemicals were measured by chemotaxis and agar diffusion methods respectively interestingly these test chemicals were less toxic to the test fouling species. The toxicity of the test chemicals was measured by using antibiotic assay disks against the bacteria and motility test against Ulva spores. Moreover, in field assay, all test chemicals showed a perfect performance ofAF activity showing no fouling during the experimental period of one year Such results and commercial as well as technical feasibility of the test chemicals firmly showed the possibility of using as alternatives of the existing toxic AF agents.

  6. Determination of Five Alternative Antifouling Agents Found Along the Korean Coasts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seongeon; Lee, Dongsup; Lee, Yong-Woo

    2017-07-01

      Since the ban of tri-butyl tin, other various alternative antifouling agents have been used. In this study, the contamination levels from these antifouling agents were examined in the main harbors in Korea. The sampled harbors were classified into four types and the levels of contamination from the antifouling agents were analyzed. The highest degree of contamination was found in the big harbors, followed by the fishing harbors, harbors near agricultural areas, and military and coast guard harbors. In addition, an increase in the number of ships that entered the ports significantly influenced the contamination by the antifouling agents. Correlation analysis was conducted to characterize the alternative antifouling agents. The results revealed strong correlations between the dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil, and between the chlorothalonil and TCMTB, because unlike Irgarol 1051 and SEA-NINE 211, which are used only as antifouling agents, chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and TCMTB are also used in agriculture.

  7. Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyau, Layton M.

    This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific…

  8. Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyau, Layton M.

    This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific…

  9. Persistence and metallic composition of paint particles in sediments from a tidal inlet.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, C K; Turner, Andrew; Millward, G E; Glegg, G A

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn have been determined in sediment (<500 μm) and macroscopic paint particles (>500 μm) retrieved from sections of two cores collected from a tidal inlet of the Plym estuary, southwest England. Paint particles contributed up to about 0.2% of the total mass retrieved from each section and were most abundant towards the base of the cores where, according to (210)Pb dating, deposition took place about a decade prior to sampling. Metal concentrations in the paint particles pooled from the sections were highly variable, typically spanning two orders of magnitude in each core, and were greatest for Cu and Zn (up to 460,000 and 170,000 μg g(-1), respectively) due to their use in contemporary antifouling formulations applied to boat hulls. Concentrations of metals in the sediment were, however, relatively invariant, an effect attributed to the abundance and dispersion of microscopic paint particles throughout the cores.

  10. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.35 - Painting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Painting. 1915.35 Section 1915.35 Labor Regulations... Painting. (a) Paints mixed with toxic vehicles or solvents. (1) When paints mixed with toxic vehicles or.... (2) Where brush application of paints with toxic solvents is done in confined spaces or in...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.35 - Painting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Painting. 1915.35 Section 1915.35 Labor Regulations... Painting. (a) Paints mixed with toxic vehicles or solvents. (1) When paints mixed with toxic vehicles or.... (2) Where brush application of paints with toxic solvents is done in confined spaces or in...

  13. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  14. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  15. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.35 - Painting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Painting. 1915.35 Section 1915.35 Labor Regulations... Painting. (a) Paints mixed with toxic vehicles or solvents. (1) When paints mixed with toxic vehicles or.... (2) Where brush application of paints with toxic solvents is done in confined spaces or in...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.35 - Painting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Painting. 1915.35 Section 1915.35 Labor Regulations... Painting. (a) Paints mixed with toxic vehicles or solvents. (1) When paints mixed with toxic vehicles or.... (2) Where brush application of paints with toxic solvents is done in confined spaces or in...

  18. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  19. High pressure paint gun injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, C M

    1977-01-01

    Despite their use for the past 20 years the dangers of injuries from high pressure paint guns are not widely known. Two cases treated incorrectly through ignorance in our casualty department resulted in amputation of digits. Paint solvents are far moe damaging than paint of grease injection. All cases should be treated urgently by an experienced surgeon as fairly extensive surgery may be needed. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:589172

  20. Antifouling activities of marine bacteria associated with sponge ( Sigmadocia sp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh, S.; Soniamby, A. R.; Sunjaiy Shankar, C. V.; Mary Josephine Punitha, S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the antifouling activity of bacteria associated with marine sponges. A total of eight bacterial strains were isolated from the surface of sponge Sigmadocia sp., of them, SS02, SS05 and SS06 showed inhibitory activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The extracts of these 3 strains considerably affected the extracellular polymeric substance producing ability and adhesion of biofilm-forming bacterial strains. In addition to disc diffusion assay, microalgal settlement assay was carried out with the extracts mixed with polyurethane wood polish and coated onto stainless steel coupons. The extract of strain SS05 showed strong microalgal settlement inhibitory activity. Strain SS05 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on its 16S rRNA gene. Metabolites of the bacterial strains associated with marine invertebrates promise to be developed into environment-friendly antifouling agents.

  1. Patterning and biofunctionalization of antifouling hyperbranched polyglycerol coatings.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eli; Delalat, Bahman; Vasani, Roshan; Thissen, Helmut; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate the patterned biofunctionalization of antifouling hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) coatings on silicon and glass substrates. The ultralow fouling HPG coatings afforded straightforward chemical handles for rapid bioconjugation of amine containing biomolecular species. This was achieved by sodium periodate oxidation of terminal HPG diols to yield reactive aldehyde groups. Patterned microprinting of sodium periodate and cell adhesion mediating cyclic peptides containing the RGD sequence resulted in an array of covalently immobilized bioactive signals. When incubated with mouse fibroblasts, the HPG background resisted cell attachment whereas high density cell attachment was observed on the peptide spots, resulting in high-contrast cell microarrays. We also demonstrated single-step, in situ functionalization of the HPG coatings by printing periodate and peptide concurrently. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of antifouling and functionalized HPG graft polymer coatings and establish their use in microarray applications for the first time.

  2. New Marine Antifouling Compounds from the Red Alga Laurencia sp.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Yuko; Watanabe, Mami; Ishikawa, Takafumi; Kamada, Takashi; Vairappan, Charles S; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kensuke; Ishii, Takahiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Yoshimura, Erina; Nogata, Yasuyuki; Okino, Tatsufumi

    2017-08-28

    Six new compounds, omaezol, intricatriol, hachijojimallenes A and B, debromoaplysinal, and 11,12-dihydro-3-hydroxyretinol have been isolated from four collections of Laurencia sp. These structures were determined by MS and NMR analyses. Their antifouling activities were evaluated together with eight previously known compounds isolated from the same samples. In particular, omaezol and hachijojimallene A showed potent activities (EC50 = 0.15-0.23 µg/mL) against larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

  3. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina (<10% mortality at 250 μM) and Vibrio fischeri (LC50 > 1000 μg.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

  4. Engineered antifouling microtopographies: surface pattern effects on cell distribution.

    PubMed

    Decker, Joseph T; Sheats, Julian T; Brennan, Anthony B

    2014-12-23

    Microtopography has been observed to lead to altered attachment behavior for marine fouling organisms; however, quantification of this phenomenon is lacking in the scientific literature. Here, we present quantitative measurement of the disruption of normal attachment behavior of the fouling algae Ulva linza by antifouling microtopographies. The distribution of the diatom Navicula incerta was shown to be unaffected by the presence of topography. The radial distribution function was calculated for both individual zoospores and cells as well as aggregates of zoospores from attachment data for a variety topographic configurations and at a number of different attachment densities. Additionally, the screening distance and maximum values were mapped according to the location of zoospore aggregates within a single unit cell. We found that engineered topographies decreased the distance between spore aggregates compared to that for a smooth control surface; however, the distributions for individual spores were unchanged. We also found that the local attachment site geometry affected the screening distance for aggregates of zoospores, with certain geometries decreasing screening distance and others having no measurable effect. The distribution mapping techniques developed and explored in this article have yielded important insight into the design parameters for antifouling microtopographies that can be implemented in the next generation of antifouling surfaces.

  5. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL−1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL−1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina (<10% mortality at 250 μM) and Vibrio fischeri (LC50 > 1000 μg.mL−1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents. PMID:28205590

  6. VAB Flag Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-01

    On platforms suspended from the top of the 525-foot-high VAB, workers use rollers and brushes to repaint the NASA logo on the southeast side of the Vehicle Assembly Building. Known as the "meatball," the logo measures 110 feet by 132 feet, or about 12,300 square feet. The U.S. flag is also being repainted. The flag spans an area 209 feet by 110 feet, or about 23, 437 square feet. Each stripe is 9 feet wide and each star is 6 feet in diameter. The flag and logo were last painted in 1998, honoring NASA's 40th anniversary.

  7. MC Contracting, Paint, & Roofing, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MC Contracting, Paint, & Roofing, LLC, d/b/a M.C. Painting & Contractor and M.C. Painting Group (the Company) is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978.

  8. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2011-02-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  9. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2010-07-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  10. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  11. Delving Deeper: Painting the Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Painting the Cube is commonly used in middle and high school mathematical courses as a mathematically rich problem, wherein the exposed faces of the large cubes are painted after being assembled from small unit cubes. The problem perfectly combines algebraic as well as geometrical aspects and helps students to study and understand various linear,…

  12. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  13. Determination of Organotin Structures in Antifouling Coatings by Mossbauer Spectroscopic Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-24

    are related to the molecular geometry. The Mossbauer parameters for organotin polymers used in antifouling coatings and conventional coating...In characterizing the leaching properties of antifouling coatings containing organotin compounds, it has become necessary to determine the structure...formulations containing organotin compounds have been obtained. The quadrupole splitting and rho value in these cases are sensitive to structural changes which

  14. Synthesis of chitosan capped copper oxide nanoleaves using high intensity (30kHz) ultrasound sonication and their application in antifouling coatings.

    PubMed

    Abiraman, Tamilselvan; Ramanathan, Ethirajan; Kavitha, Ganapathy; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Balasubramanian, Sengottuvelan

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of chitosan capped copper oxide nanoleaves (CCCO NLs) was carried out under three different reaction conditions viz. 1) room temperature, 2) 70°C and 3) high intensity ultrasound (30kHz) sonication method and it has been found that the high intensity ultrasound (30kHz) sonication is the best method when compared to other two methods. The advantages of the present synthetic method are: i) easy one step process, ii) lesser reaction time, iii) good yield, iv) reproducible and v) calcination is not required. The resulting chitosan capped copper oxide nanoleaves were characterized by Diffuse Reflectance UV-Visible Spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The CCCO NLs were blended with commercial paints such as polyurethane clear, polyurethane white and acrylic emulsion and applied on to three different surfaces (wood, mild steel and cement slab panels). The hydrophilicity of CCCONP coated panels was analyzed by water contact angle measurement and their antifouling behavior was investigated against three different green and marine algae viz. Arthrospira, Chlorella and Amphora. The antifouling efficiency of the CCCO NLs against the algae was found to be 78-92%.

  15. Monitoring and evaluation of the environmental dissipation of the marine antifoulant 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) in a Danish Harbor.

    PubMed

    Steen, Ruud J C A; Ariese, Freek; van Hattum, Bert; Jacobsen, Jens; Jacobson, Andrew

    2004-11-01

    The concentration of marine antifoulant 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT; the active ingredient in Sea-Nine 211 Antifouling Agent) leaching into a Danish Harbor from two painted ships was quantitated at varying distances from the ships. Sediment and suspended particulate matter were also analyzed for DCOIT. Water samples were concentrated on-site using C-18 solid phase extraction and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A strong decline in DCOIT water concentration as a function of distance from the ships was observed. The highest concentration (maximum 283 ng/l) was measured in the immediate vicinity of the ships and the concentration declined rapidly to less than the limit of detection (5 ng/l) at 400 m from the ships' surfaces. The measured decline curve was compared to that calculated using a one-dimensional model (ECoS). The comparison indicates that the primary mechanism of dissipation of DCOIT is not dilution resulting from dispersion but degradation with a rate constant in the order of 1 h(-1). Thus the field results correlate with the earlier microcosm studies demonstrating that DCOIT biodegrades rapidly in a marine environment.

  16. Turbulent boundary layer measurements over flat surfaces coated by nanostructured marine antifoulings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, Uğur Oral; Ünal, Burcu; Atlar, Mehmet

    2012-06-01

    Whilst recent developments of nanotechnology are being exploited by chemists and marine biologists to understand how the completely environmentally friendly foul release coatings can control marine biofouling and how they can be developed further, the understanding of the hydrodynamic performances of these new generation coatings is being overlooked. This paper aims to investigate the relative boundary layer, roughness and drag characteristics of some novel nanostructured coatings, which were developed through a multi-European and multi-disciplined collaborative research project AMBIO (2010), within the framework of turbulent flows over rough surfaces. Zero-pressure-gradient, turbulent boundary layer flow measurements were conducted over flat surfaces coated with several newly developed nanostructured antifouling paints, along with some classic reference surfaces and a state-of-the-art commercial coating, in the Emerson Cavitation Tunnel (ECT) of Newcastle University. A large flat plane test bed that included interchangeable flat test sections was used for the experiments. The boundary layer data were collected with the aid of a two-dimensional DANTEC Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system. These measurements provided the main hydrodynamic properties of the newly developed nanostructured coatings including local skin friction coefficients, roughness functions and Reynolds stresses. The tests and subsequent analysis indicated the exceptionally good frictional properties of all coatings tested, in particular, the drag benefit of some new nanostructured coatings in the Reynolds number range investigated. The rapidly decreasing roughness function trends of AKZO19 and AKZO20 as the ks^{ + } increases were remarkable along with the dissimilar roughness function character of all tested coatings to the well-known correlation curves warranting further research at higher Reynolds numbers. The wall similarity concept for the Reynolds stresses was only validated for the

  17. Paint by Particle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA models and supercomputing have created a colorful new view of aerosol movement. Satellites, balloon-borne instruments and ground-based devices make 30 million observations of the atmosphere each day. Yet these measurements still give an incomplete picture of the complex interactions within the membrane surrounding Earth. Enter climate models. Through mathematical experiments, modelers can move Earth forward or backward in time to create a dynamic portrait of the planet. Researchers from NASA Goddard’s Global Modeling and Assimilation Office recently ran a simulation of the atmosphere that captured how winds whip aerosols around the world. Such simulations allow scientists to better understand how these tiny particulates travel in the atmosphere and influence weather and climate. In the visualization below, covering August 2006 to April 2007, watch as dust and sea salt swirl inside cyclones, carbon bursts from fires, sulfate streams from volcanoes—and see how these aerosols paint the modeled world. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  18. The painted shoes

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Natália; Rosa Alexandre, André; Cavaca Santos, Joana; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    A previously well 4-year-old boy presented to the emergency room with progressive cyanosis, pallor and vomiting over the last 5 h. Oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry was 87–89% despite 9 L/min of supplemental oxygen. He was tachypnoeic and had a systolic heart murmur, with no other findings on clinical examination. In his medical history, there was record of a restrictive atrial septal defect, with a normal echocardiogram from 3 years before. He had no relevant family history. His shoes appeared to have been recently painted, which raised the suspicion of methaemoglobinaemia, presumptively caused by aniline-containing shoe dye. The shoes were removed promptly and his feet washed profusely. After confirming the diagnosis, methylene blue was started. The level of methaemoglobin decreased rapidly and the boy made a full recovery. PMID:26338243

  19. The painted shoes.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Natália; Rosa Alexandre, André; Cavaca Santos, Joana; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2015-09-03

    A previously well 4-year-old boy presented to the emergency room with progressive cyanosis, pallor and vomiting over the last 5 h. Oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry was 87-89% despite 9 L/min of supplemental oxygen. He was tachypnoeic and had a systolic heart murmur, with no other findings on clinical examination. In his medical history, there was record of a restrictive atrial septal defect, with a normal echocardiogram from 3 years before. He had no relevant family history. His shoes appeared to have been recently painted, which raised the suspicion of methaemoglobinaemia, presumptively caused by aniline-containing shoe dye. The shoes were removed promptly and his feet washed profusely. After confirming the diagnosis, methylene blue was started. The level of methaemoglobin decreased rapidly and the boy made a full recovery.

  20. Antifouling Activity of Synthetic Alkylpyridinium Polymers Using the Barnacle Model

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Veronica; Dragić, Ivanka; Sepčić, Kristina; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; Turk, Tom; Berne, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC50) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC50: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC50 of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L. PMID:24699112

  1. Antifouling activity of synthetic alkylpyridinium polymers using the barnacle model.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Veronica; Dragić, Ivanka; Sepčić, Kristina; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; Turk, Tom; Berne, Sabina

    2014-04-02

    Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC₅₀) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC₅₀: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC₅₀ of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L.

  2. Electrically Conductive Paints for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilligan, J. E.; Wolf, R. E.; Ray, C.

    1977-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop and test electrically conductive paint coatings for spacecraft. A wide variety of organic and inorganic coatings were formulated using conductive binders, conductive pigments, and similar approaches. Z-93, IITRI's standard specification inorganic thermal control coating, exhibits good electrical properties and is a very space-stable coating system. Several coatings based on a conductive pigment (antimony-doped tin oxide) in silicone and silicate binders offer considerable promise. Paint systems using commercially available conductive polymers also appear to be of interest, but will require substantial development. Evaluations were made based on electrical conductivity, paint physical properties, and the stability of spectral reflectance in space environment testing.

  3. 7 CFR 3201.106 - Paint removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Paint removers. 3201.106 Section 3201.106 Agriculture... Items § 3201.106 Paint removers. (a) Definition. Products formulated to loosen and remove paint from painted surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  4. Various mortars for anti-fouling purposes in marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomoka; Miura, Yoko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2014-02-20

    The antifouling properties for some mortars with steel making slags were investigated by real marine immersion tests and a unique laboratory acceleration tests with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactors. Mortars mixed with steel making slags containing abundant iron elements tended to form biofilm and also bifouling. The two kinds of biofilm formation tests were used in this study. Real immersion in marine environments and laboratory test with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactor. The former evaluated the biofouling characteristics more properly, while the latter did the biofilm formation characteristics more effectively.

  5. Various mortars for anti-fouling purposes in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomoka; Miura, Yoko; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Kuroda, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The antifouling properties for some mortars with steel making slags were investigated by real marine immersion tests and a unique laboratory acceleration tests with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactors. Mortars mixed with steel making slags containing abundant iron elements tended to form biofilm and also bifouling. The two kinds of biofilm formation tests were used in this study. Real immersion in marine environments and laboratory test with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactor. The former evaluated the biofouling characteristics more properly, while the latter did the biofilm formation characteristics more effectively.

  6. Studying Landforms through Landscape Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1981-01-01

    Using three specific works of art, the author demonstrates how a study of selected landscape paintings can be integrated into units on landforms in secondary school earth science and general science courses. (Author/SJL)

  7. Solar-absorber-selective paint research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    Research and development on thickness-sensitive and thickness-insensitive solar paints are discussed. The thickness-sensitive paints include reverse roll coated, gravure printed, and spray coated paints. The coating methods and optical properties of the thickness-sensitive paints are discussed. The thickness-insensitive solar paints include a low emittance flake such as aluminum-flake, and pigment. Durability tests are discussed, including accelerated weathering and humidity durability tests, for the thickness-sensitive coatings.

  8. Solar-absorber-selective paint research

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Research and development on thickness-sensitive and thickness-insensitive solar paints are discussed. The thickness-sensitive paints include reverse roll coated, gravure printed, and spray coated paints. The coating methods and optical properties of the thickness-sensitive paints are discussed. The thickness-insensitive solar paints include a low emittance flake such as aluminium-flake, and pigment. Durability tests are discussed, including accelerated weathering and humidity durability tests, for the thickness-sensitive coatings. (LEW)

  9. Antifouling potentials of eight deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Peng, Jiang; Ma, Chun-Feng; Nong, Xu-Hua; Bao, Jie; Zhang, Guang-Zhao; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Marine-derived microbial secondary metabolites are promising potential sources of nontoxic antifouling agents. The search for environmentally friendly and low-toxic antifouling components guided us to investigate the antifouling potentials of eight novel fungal isolates from deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea. Sixteen crude ethyl acetate extracts of the eight fungal isolates showed distinct antibacterial activity against three marine bacteria (Loktanella hongkongensis UST950701-009, Micrococcus luteus UST950701-006 and Pseudoalteromonas piscida UST010620-005), or significant antilarval activity against larval settlement of bryozoan Bugula neritina. Furthermore, the extract of Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013 displayed strong antifouling activity in a field trial lasting 4 months. By further bioassay-guided isolation, five antifouling alkaloids including brevianamide F, circumdatin F and L, notoamide C, and 5-chlorosclerotiamide were isolated from the extract of A. westerdijkiae DFFSCS013. This is the first report about the antifouling potentials of metabolites of the deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea, and the first stage towards the development of non- or low-toxic antifouling agents from deep-sea-derived fungi.

  10. Design and mechanisms of antifouling materials for surface plasmon resonance sensors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boshi; Liu, Xia; Shi, Se; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin

    2016-08-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have many possible applications, but are limited by sensor chip surface fouling, which blocks immobilization and specific binding by the recognizer elements. Therefore, there is a pressing need for the development of antifouling surfaces. In this paper, the mechanisms of antifouling materials were firstly discussed, including both theories (hydration and steric hindrance) and factors influencing antifouling effects (molecular structures and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) architectures, surface charges, molecular hydrophilicity, and grafting thickness and density). Then, the most recent advances in antifouling materials applied on SPR biosensors were systematically reviewed, together with the grafting strategies, antifouling capacity, as well as their merits and demerits. These materials included, but not limited to, zwitterionic compounds, polyethylene glycol-based, and polysaccharide-based materials. Finally, the prospective research directions in the development of SPR antifouling materials were discussed. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a powerful tool in monitoring biomolecular interactions. The principle of SPR biosensors is the conversion of refractive index change caused by molecular binding into resonant spectral shifts. However, the fouling on the surface of SPR gold chips is ubiquitous and troublesome. It limits the application of SPR biosensors by blocking recognition element immobilization and specific binding. Hence, we write this paper to review the antifouling mechanisms and the recent advances of the design of antifouling materials that can improve the accuracy and sensitivity of SPR biosensors. To our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on the antifouling materials that were applied or had potential to be applied on SPR biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrically conductive black optical paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, M. M.; Metzler, E. C.; Cleland, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    An electrically conductive flat black paint has been developed for use on the Galileo spacecraft which will orbit Jupiter in the late 1980s. The paint, designed for equipment operating in high-energy radiation fields, has multipurpose functions. Its electrical conductivity keeps differential charging of the spacecraft external surfaces and equipment to a minimum, preventing the buildup of electrostatic fields and arcing. Its flat black aspect minimizes the effects of stray light and unwanted reflectances, when used in optical instruments and on sunshades. Its blackness is suitable, also, for thermal control, when the paint is put on spacecraft surfaces. The paint has good adherence properties, as measured by tape tests, when applied properly to a surface. The electrically conductive paint which was developed has the following characteristics: an electrical resistivity of 5 x 10 to the 7th ohms per square; a visual light total reflectance of approximately 5 percent; an infrared reflectance of 0.13 measured over a spectrum from 10 to the (-5.5) power to 0.001 meter; a solar absorptivity, alpha-s, of 0.93, and a thermal emissivity, epsilon, of 0.87, resulting in an alpha-s/epsilon of 1.07. The formula for making the paint and the process for applying it are described.

  12. Overview of paint removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

  13. Mimetic marine antifouling films based on fluorine-containing polymethacrylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qianhui; Li, Hongqi; Xian, Chunying; Yang, Yihang; Song, Yanxi; Cong, Peihong

    2015-07-01

    Novel methacrylate copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl pendant side groups were synthesized by free radical polymerization of N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl methacrylamide (DMA) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFME) with α,α‧-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. A series of copolymers with different content of TFME ranging from 3% to 95% were obtained by changing the molar ratio of DMA to TFME from 25:1 to 1:25. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the copolymers, which displayed a certain degree of hardness and outstanding thermostability reflected from their high glass transition temperatures. The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals due to introduction of catechol groups as multivalent hydrogen bonding anchors. Water contact angle on the polymer films was up to 117.4°. Chemicals resistance test manifested that the polymer films possessed excellent resistance to water, salt, acid and alkali. Moreover, the polymer films displayed fair antifouling property and might be used as promising environmentally friendly marine antifouling coatings.

  14. Surface Grafted Polysarcosine as a Peptoid Antifouling Polymer Brush

    PubMed Central

    Lau, King Hang Aaron; Ren, Chunlai; Sileika, Tadas S.; Park, Sung Hyun; Szleifer, Igal; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(N-substituted glycine) “peptoids” are a class of peptidomimetic molecules receiving significant interest as engineered biomolecules. Sarcosine (i.e. poly(N-methyl glycine)) has the simplest sidechain chemical structure of this family. In this contribution, we demonstrate that surface-grafted polysarcosine (PSAR) brushes exhibit excellent resistance to non-specific protein adsorption and cell attachment. Polysarcosine was coupled to a mussel adhesive protein inspired DOPA-Lys pentapeptide, which enabled solution grafting and control of the surface chain density of the PSAR brushes. Protein adsorption was found to decrease monotonically with increasing grafted chain densities, and protein adsorption could be completely inhibited above certain critical chain densities specific to different polysarcosine chain-lengths. The dependence of protein adsorption on chain length and density was also investigated by a molecular theory. PSAR brushes at high chain length and density were shown to resist fibroblast cell attachment over a 7 wk period, as well as resist the attachment of some clinically relevant bacteria strains. The excellent antifouling performance of PSAR may be related to the highly hydrophilic character of polysarcosine, which was evident from high-pressure liquid chromatography measurements of polysarcosine and water contact angle measurements of the PSAR brushes. Peptoids have been shown to resist proteolytic degradation and polysarcosine could be produced in large quantities by N-carboxy anhydride polymerization. In summary, surface grafted polysarcosine peptoid brushes hold great promise for antifouling applications. PMID:23101930

  15. Bio-inspired strategies for designing antifouling biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Vinod B; Murthy, N Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of biomedical devices in a biological medium, biofouling, is a major cause of infection and is entirely avoidable. This mini-review will coherently present the broad range of antifouling strategies, germicidal, preventive and cleaning using one or more of biological, chemical and physical techniques. These techniques will be discussed from the point of view of their ability to inhibit protein adsorption, usually the first step that eventually leads to fouling. Many of these approaches draw their inspiration from nature, such as emulating the nitric oxide production in endothelium, use of peptoids that mimic protein repellant peptides, zwitterionic functionalities found in membrane structures, and catechol functionalities used by mussel to immobilize poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). More intriguing are the physical modifications, creation of micropatterns on the surface to control the hydration layer, making them either superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic. This has led to technologies that emulate the texture of shark skin, and the superhyprophobicity of self-cleaning textures found in lotus leaves. The mechanism of antifouling in each of these methods is described, and implementation of these ideas is illustrated with examples in a way that could be adapted to prevent infection in medical devices.

  16. Efficacy of different antifouling treatments for seawater cooling systems.

    PubMed

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

    2010-11-01

    In an industrial seawater cooling system, the effects of three different antifouling treatments, viz. sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), aliphatic amines (Mexel®432) and UV radiation, on the characteristics of the fouling formed were evaluated. For this study a portable pilot plant, as a side-stream monitoring system and seawater cooling system, was employed. The pilot plant simulated a power plant steam condenser, having four titanium tubes under different treatment patterns, where fouling progression could be monitored. The nature of the fouling obtained was chiefly inorganic, showing a clear dependence on the antifouling treatment employed. After 72 days the tubes under treatment showed a reduction in the heat transfer resistance (R) of around 70% for NaClO, 48% for aliphatic amines and 55% for UV, with respect to the untreated tube. The use of a logistic model was very useful for predicting the fouling progression and the maximum asymptotic value of the increment in the heat transfer resistance (ΔR(max)). The apparent thermal conductivity (λ) of the fouling layer showed a direct relationship with the percentage of organic matter in the collected fouling. The characteristics and mode of action of the different treatments used led to fouling with diverse physicochemical properties.

  17. Searching for “Environmentally-Benign” Antifouling Biocides

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan Ting; Teo, Serena L. M.; Leong, Wai; Chai, Christina L. L.

    2014-01-01

    As the result of the ecological impacts from the use of tributyltins (TBT) in shipping, environmental legislation for the registration of chemicals for use in the environment has grown to a monumental challenge requiring product dossiers to include information on the environmental fate and behavior of any chemicals. Specifically, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, collectively known as PBT, are properties of concern in the assessment of chemicals. However, existing measurements of PBT properties are a cumbersome and expensive process, and thus not applied in the early stages of the product discovery and development. Inexpensive methods for preliminary PBT screening would minimize risks arising with the subsequent registration of products. In this article, we evaluated the PBT properties of compounds reported to possess anti-fouling properties using QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) prediction programs such as BIOWIN™ (a biodegradation probability program), KOWWIN™ (log octanol-water partition coefficient calculation program) and ECOSAR™ (Ecological Structure Activity Relationship Programme). The analyses identified some small (Mr < 400) synthetic and natural products as potential candidates for environmentally benign biocides. We aim to demonstrate that while these methods of estimation have limitations, when applied with discretion, they are powerful tools useful in the early stages of research for compound selection for further development as anti-foulants. PMID:24865489

  18. Pioneer marine biofilms on artificial surfaces including antifouling coatings immersed in two contrasting French Mediterranean coast sites.

    PubMed

    Briand, Jean-François; Djeridi, Ikram; Jamet, Dominique; Coupé, Stéphane; Bressy, Christine; Molmeret, Maëlle; Le Berre, Brigitte; Rimet, Frédéric; Bouchez, Agnès; Blache, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Marine biofilm communities that developed on artificial substrata were investigated using molecular and microscopic approaches. Polystyrene, Teflon® and four antifouling (AF) paints were immersed for 2 weeks at two contrasting sites near Toulon on the French Mediterranean coast (Toulon military harbour and the natural protected area of Porquerolles Island). Biofilms comprising bacteria and diatoms were detected on all the coatings. The population structure as well as the densities of the microorganisms differed in terms of both sites and coatings. Lower fouling densities were observed at Porquerolles Island compared to Toulon harbour. All bacterial communities (analysed by PCR-DGGE) showed related structure, controlled both by the sites and the type of substrata. Pioneer microalgal communities were dominated by the same two diatom species, viz. Licmophora gracilis and Cylindrotheca closterium, at both sites, irrespective of the substrata involved. However, the density of diatoms followed the same trend at both sites with a significant effect of all the AF coatings compared to Teflon and polystyrene.

  19. Determination of the concentrations of alternative antifouling agents on the Korean coast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seongeon; Lee, Yong-Woo

    2016-12-15

    Since the ban on tributyltin (TBT) in 2008, dozens of alternative antifouling agents have been used instead. Unfortunately, these alternative antifouling agents contain diverse toxic components, which have contaminated the coasts. From 2006 to 2013, the concentration of chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and Irgarol 1051 were monitored continuously, and their mean concentrations increased due to the increase in maritime cargo and consequent increase in the incoming and outgoing ships in harbors. An analysis of the sampling points according to harbor type showed that the contamination was more severe in fishing and big harbors, where there are more incoming and outgoing ships. A correlation analysis indicated a high correlation between chlorothalonil and dichlofluanid. Unlike Irgarol 1051, which is only used as an antifouling agent, the other two substances are used as agricultural chemicals as well, which could explain the high correlation. This study suggests that these alternative antifouling agents should be tracked continuously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phylogenetic relationship and antifouling activity of bacterial epiphytes from the marine alga Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Egan, S; Thomas, T; Holmström, C; Kjelleberg, S

    2000-06-01

    It is widely accepted that bacterial epiphytes can inhibit the colonization of surfaces by common fouling organisms. However, little information is available regarding the diversity and properties of these antifouling bacteria. This study assessed the antifouling traits of five epiphytes of the common green alga, Ulva lactuca. All isolates were capable of preventing the settlement of invertebrate larvae and germination of algal spores. Three of the isolates also inhibited the growth of a variety of bacteria and fungi. Their phylogenetic positions were determined by 16S ribosomal subunit DNA sequencing. All isolates showed a close affiliation with the genus Pseudoalteromonas and, in particular, with the species P. tunicata. Strains of this bacterial species also display a variety of antifouling activities, suggesting that antifouling ability may be an important trait for members of this genus to be highly successful colonizers of animate surfaces and for such species to protect their host against fouling.

  1. An anti-fouling aptasensor for detection of thrombin by dual polarization interferometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Hu, Tao; Chen, Chuanxia; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

    2015-04-04

    An anti-fouling surface was designed to effectively resist nonspecific protein adsorption using dual polarization interferometry, based on which the aptasensor for detection of thrombin was fabricated according to the specific interaction between thrombin and its 15-mer aptamer.

  2. Anti-fouling Coatings of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Devices for Biological and Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbin; Chiao, Mu

    Fouling initiated by nonspecific protein adsorption is a great challenge in biomedical applications, including biosensors, bioanalytical devices, and implants. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a popular material with many attractive properties for device fabrication in the biomedical field, suffers serious fouling problems from protein adsorption due to its hydrophobic nature, which limits the practical use of PDMS-based devices. Effort has been made to develop biocompatible materials for anti-fouling coatings of PDMS. In this review, typical nonfouling materials for PDMS coatings are introduced and the associated basic anti-fouling mechanisms, including the steric repulsion mechanism and the hydration layer mechanism, are described. Understanding the relationships between the characteristics of coating materials and the accompanying anti-fouling mechanisms is critical for preparing PDMS coatings with desirable anti-fouling properties.

  3. Anti-fouling properties of microstructured surfaces bio-inspired by rice leaves and butterfly wings.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Gregory D; Theiss, Andrew; Bhushan, Bharat; Lee, Stephen C

    2014-04-01

    Material scientists often look to biology for new engineering solutions to materials science problems. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (antifouling) and lotus leaf (self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study antifouling properties of four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography and hot embossing techniques. Anti-biofouling effectiveness is determined with bioassays using Escherichia coli whilst inorganic fouling with simulated dirt particles. Antifouling data are presented to understand the role of surface geometrical features resistance to fouling. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel antifouling surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields.

  4. Microbial evaluation and deterioration of paints and paint-products.

    PubMed

    Obidi, O F; Aboaba, O O; Makanjuola, M S; Nwachukwu, S C U

    2009-09-01

    The microbial quality of materials and final products of a reputable paint industry in Lagos area were analysed. The bacterial contaminants isolated in the paint-products included Bacillus brevis, B. polymyxa, B. laterosporus, Lactobacillus gasseri, L. brevis, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. The fungal contaminants detected in the paints were mainly Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicillium citrinum. The microbial populations in the raw materials ranged from 1.0 x 10(6) - 9.5 x 10(6) cfu g(-1) for bacteria and between 1.25 x 10(4) and 6.8 x 10(4) cfu g(-1) for fungi while those present in packaging materials ranged from 3.45 x 10(6) - 7.65 x 10(6) cfu g(-1) for bacteria and 2.4 x 10(3) - 2.8 x 10(3) cfu g(-1) for fungi respectively. The bacterial populations in the fresh paint samples monitored every two weeks from the time of production ranged from 1.6 x 10(1) - 4.7 x 10(5) cfu ml(-1) while the fungal populations ranged from 1.0 x 10(1) - 5.5 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) over a ten-month study period. The optical density at 600 nm increased while transmittance, pH, specific gravity and viscosity of the paint samples decreased over the period suggesting gradual deterioration of the aesthetic qualities of the paint-products with time as indicated by the measured parameters.

  5. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    SciTech Connect

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  6. Painting in the Year 2000: A Classroom Video Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on a video series showing elementary students discovering new approaches to painting. Describes performances and questions that expand children's views on painting, including painting objects, seeing different ideas for the canvas, and exploring new paint brush forms. (CMK)

  7. Long-lasting Antifouling Coating from Multi-Armed Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Boaz; Khoo, Xiaojuan; Chaing, Homer H.; Sher, Katalina J.; Feldman, Rose G.; Lee, Jung-Jae; Irusta, Silvia; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new antifouling surface coating, based on aggregation of a short amphiphilic four-armed PEG-dopamine polymer into particles, and on surface binding by catechol chemistry. An unbroken and smooth polymeric coating layer with an average thickness of approximately 4 microns was formed on top of titanium oxide surfaces by a single step reaction. Coatings conferred excellent resistance to protein adhesion. Cell attachment was completely prevented for at least eight weeks, although the membranes themselves did not appear to be intrinsically cytotoxic. When linear PEG or four-armed PEG of higher molecular weight were used, the resulting coatings were inferior in thickness and in preventing protein adhesion. This coating method has potential applicability for biomedical devices susceptible to fouling after implantation. PMID:23855875

  8. Injectable Self-Healing Hydrogel with Antimicrobial and Antifouling Properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Yan, Bin; Yang, Jingqi; Huang, Weijuan; Chen, Lingyun; Zeng, Hongbo

    2017-03-22

    Microbial adhesion, biofilm formation and associated microbial infection are common challenges faced by implanted biomaterials (e.g., hydrogels) in bioengineering applications. In this work, an injectable self-healing hydrogel with antimicrobial and antifouling properties was prepared through self-assembly of an ABA triblock copolymer employing catechol functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG) as A block and poly{[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl] trimethylammonium iodide}(PMETA) as B block. This hydrogel exhibits excellent thermosensitivity, and can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coli (>99.8% killing efficiency) and prevent cell attachment. It can also heal autonomously from repeated damage, through mussel-inspired catechol-mediated hydrogen bonding and aromatic interactions, exhibiting great potential in bioengineering applications.

  9. Scalable antifouling reverse osmosis membranes utilizing perfluorophenyl azide photochemistry.

    PubMed

    McVerry, Brian T; Wong, Mavis C Y; Marsh, Kristofer L; Temple, James A T; Marambio-Jones, Catalina; Hoek, Eric M V; Kaner, Richard B

    2014-09-01

    We present a method to produce anti-fouling reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that maintains the process and scalability of current RO membrane manufacturing. Utilizing perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA) photochemistry, commercial reverse osmosis membranes were dipped into an aqueous solution containing PFPA-terminated poly(ethyleneglycol) species and then exposed to ultraviolet light under ambient conditions, a process that can easily be adapted to a roll-to-roll process. Successful covalent modification of commercial reverse osmosis membranes was confirmed with attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. By employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it was determined that PFPAs undergo UV-generated nitrene addition and bind to the membrane through an aziridine linkage. After modification with the PFPA-PEG derivatives, the reverse osmosis membranes exhibit high fouling-resistance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Protein antifouling and fouling-release in perfluoropolyether surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molena, Elena; Credi, Caterina; De Marco, Carmela; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano; Simeone, Giovanni

    2014-08-01

    Perfluoropolyether polymers have been described as high performance fouling-release materials for marine coatings. Moreover, they have a good potential to be exploited in the biomedical field too. In this article several perfuoropolyether photopolymers were characterized in terms of surface and mechanical properties outlining the relationship between these properties and the polymer molecular structure. In particular the anti-fouling and fouling-release performances, evaluated using Bovine Serum Albumin as testing protein, was correlated to other material properties, like a parameter considering both surface tension components γ and elastic modulus E. A good correlation between the anti-fouling/fouling-release of perfluoropolyethers and (E*γpolar)1/2 can actually be established. Our results show that perfluoropolyether photopolymers are good protein anti-fouling/fouling-release materials.

  11. Antifouling Electrospun Nanofiber Mats Functionalized with Polymer Zwitterions.

    PubMed

    Kolewe, Kristopher W; Dobosz, Kerianne M; Rieger, Katrina A; Chang, Chia-Chih; Emrick, Todd; Schiffman, Jessica D

    2016-10-06

    In this study, we exploit the excellent fouling resistance of polymer zwitterions and present electrospun nanofiber mats surface functionalized with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (polyMPC). This zwitterionic polymer coating maximizes the accessibility of the zwitterion to effectively limit biofouling on nanofiber membranes. Two facile, scalable methods yielded a coating on cellulose nanofibers: (i) a two-step sequential deposition featuring dopamine polymerization followed by the physioadsorption of polyMPC, and (ii) a one-step codeposition of polydopamine (PDA) with polyMPC. While the sequential and codeposited nanofiber mat assemblies have an equivalent average fiber diameter, hydrophilic contact angle, surface chemistry, and stability, the topography of nanofibers prepared by codeposition were smoother. Protein and microbial antifouling performance of the zwitterion modified nanofiber mats along with two controls, cellulose (unmodified) and PDA coated nanofiber mats were evaluated by dynamic protein fouling and prolonged bacterial exposure. Following 21 days of exposure to bovine serum albumin, the sequential nanofiber mats significantly resisted protein fouling, as indicated by their 95% flux recovery ratio in a water flux experiment, a 300% improvement over the cellulose nanofiber mats. When challenged with two model microbes Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus for 24 h, both zwitterion modifications demonstrated superior fouling resistance by statistically reducing microbial attachment over the two controls. This study demonstrates that, by decorating the surfaces of chemically and mechanically robust cellulose nanofiber mats with polyMPC, we can generate high performance, free-standing nanofiber mats that hold potential in applications where antifouling materials are imperative, such as tissue engineering scaffolds and water purification technologies.

  12. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  13. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  14. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  15. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  16. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  17. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  18. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  19. 40 CFR 745.65 - Lead-based paint hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead-based paint hazards. 745.65... CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Hazards § 745.65 Lead-based paint hazards. (a) Paint-lead hazard. A paint-lead hazard is any of the...

  20. 40 CFR 745.65 - Lead-based paint hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Hazards § 745.65 Lead-based paint hazards. (a) Paint-lead hazard. A paint-lead hazard is any of the... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead-based paint hazards....

  1. Drawing and Painting with Under-Threes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolbe, Ursula; Smyth, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Noting that drawing and painting offer very young children powerful ways to explore and communicate thoughts and feelings, this booklet for caregivers and teachers offers suggestions related to painting and drawing for children under 3 years. The booklet discusses what young children can do with drawing and painting materials, including exploring…

  2. Enhanced multifunctional paint for detection of radiation

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Moses, Edward Ira; Rubenchik, Alexander M.

    2017-03-07

    An enhanced multifunctional paint apparatus, systems, and methods for detecting radiation on a surface include providing scintillation particles; providing an enhance neutron absorptive material; providing a binder; combining the scintillation particles, the enhance neutron absorptive material, and the binder creating a multifunctional paint; applying the multifunctional paint to the surface; and monitoring the surface for detecting radiation.

  3. Miniature Paintings: Small Size, Big Impact!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a miniature painting project that allows students to research a master painter and then replicate the work on a smaller scale. This lesson focuses on the students' ability to learn to identify style, subject matter, themes, and content in painting through the study of historical paintings, and the application of various…

  4. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  5. Stripping Paint From Exterior Wood Surfaces

    Treesearch

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Removing paint and other film-forming finishes is a time consuming and often difficult process. In some cases, finishes need to be removed prior to repainting; for example, if the old surface is covered with severely peeled or blistered paint or if excessive paint buildup has caused cross-grain cracking. You must also remove the finish before applying a penetrating...

  6. EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

  7. Basking Behavior of Painted Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the basking postures of captive eastern painted turtles exposed to two different sources of illumination (white floor lamps and infrared heat lamps) and three types of substrates (sphagnum, rock, wood) and discusses possible ecological and evolutionary significance of these behaviors. (Author/JN)

  8. Paint the World with Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  9. Basking Behavior of Painted Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the basking postures of captive eastern painted turtles exposed to two different sources of illumination (white floor lamps and infrared heat lamps) and three types of substrates (sphagnum, rock, wood) and discusses possible ecological and evolutionary significance of these behaviors. (Author/JN)

  10. Controlling Color in Oil Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorino, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Explains how a veil control method allows secondary students to use oil paints in the classroom without difficulties of control, manageability, and clean up. Outlines how to prepare and apply oil glazes. Maintains that this method enhances students' studio skills and helps them appreciate the works of the great masters. (KM)

  11. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  12. Paint the World with Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  13. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  14. But when was it painted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstad, E.; Woll, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Munch Museum, Oslo, Norway, is dedicated to the visual works of the famous Norwegian painter Edvard Munch (1863 - 1944). Edvard Munch was a symbolist, expressionist painter and printmaker from Oslo, Norway. He was regarded as the pioneer of the amazing Expressionist movement. His art work from the late 1800's is the most well known, but his later work is gradually attracting more attention and is quite an inspiration of many of today's artists. The Munch Museum catalogue for 2008 contains about 1700 paintings of which virtually very few have a precise date. Even when the artist has written the year on the painting itself, there may be a significant uncertainty about this date, and partly due to unclear writing making it difficult to interpret the numbers. This means that other sources need to be applied to verify an accurate date. The climatologist at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute can help dating paintings of Munch. E. g. the painting "Standing Woman with Arms Folded". The painting shows a woman in front of a hill with much snow. The location is almost certainty Grimsrød on Jeløya, a property Munch began renting on March 1, 1913. Jeløya is an island at the southeastcoast of Norway near the town Moss. Jeløya has usually not so much snow because it is near by the sea and windy. The last digit in the date is unclear and has been read as both '3' and '5'. The woman in the portrait, Ingeborg Kaurin, was Munch's model up to the beginning of 1915, so both dates are possible. The year written on the painting has been read as both 1913 and 1915, and since 1974 it has usually been interpreted as 1913 (Stenersensamlingen's catalogue 1974). In the project "But when was it painted?" disclose that it could be another year. One way to reconsider when a painting was painted is to study geophysical characteristics and consider historical observations of snow. The method that is used here is to study daily meteorological snow data from this period from the

  15. [Illness caused by water-based paints?].

    PubMed

    Birkeland, G; Zahlsen, K; Aas, K

    1994-08-20

    Illness caused by the indoor environment is a challenging and complicated field to investigate. Emissions from paints may contribute to the problems. Several components of water-based paints evaporate for a long time after painting, and some of them may affect human biology. We describe one patient who has experienced symptoms caused by water-based paint. Different reaction mechanisms may be involved, and these are discussed. Components which may elicit biological effects are listed and discussed. Physicians should be aware of the possibility that a few patients may suffer from illness caused by emissions from modern paints.

  16. Toxic reaction to inhaled paint fumes.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, L.; Ince, P.; Smith, N. M.; Taylor, R.

    1989-01-01

    An acute confusional state was observed to follow heavy exposure to polyurethane gloss paint fumes in a previously healthy 60 year old man. This state remitted over a 3-day period, but was followed by transient bone marrow suppression and evidence of liver cell damage. The corroborated absence of other toxins and the temporal association of exposure to paint fumes suggest that a volatile paint component was responsible. White spirit is the major volatile solvent in polyurethane gloss paint. Ingestion of related aliphatic hydrocarbons has been reported to cause nausea, drowsiness and hepatotoxicity, but these symptoms have not previously been documented following excessive inadvertent inhalation of paint fumes. Images Figure 1 PMID:2602252

  17. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    SciTech Connect

    Calleja, E.M. de la; Cervantes, F.; Calleja, J. de la

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  18. Evaluation of low-VOC latex paints

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Fortmann, R.C.; Roache, N.F.; Lao, H.C.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that the VOC contents of all four paints are considerably lower than those of conventional latex paints. Low-VOC emissions were confirmed by small chamber emission tests. However, sigificant emissions of several aldehydes, especially formaldehyde, were detected from two of the paints. ASTM methods were used to evaluate the hiding power, scrubbability, washability, dry to touch, and yellowing index. The results indicated that one of the low-VOC paints tested showed performance equivalent or superior to that of a widely used conventional latex paint used as a control. It was concluded that low-VOC latex paint can be a viable option to replace conventional latex paints for prevention of indoor air pollution. However, paints marketed as low-VOC may still have significant emissions of some individual VOCs, and some may not have performance characteristics matching those of conventional latex paints.

  19. Evaluation of low-VOC latex paints

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Fortmann, R.C.; Roache, N.F.; Lao, H.C.

    1999-11-01

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that the VOC contents of all four paints are considerably lower than those of conventional latex paints. Low-VOC emissions were confirmed by small chamber emission tests. However, sigificant emissions of several aldehydes, especially formaldehyde, were detected from two of the paints. ASTM methods were used to evaluate the hiding power, scrubbability, washability, dry to touch, and yellowing index. The results indicated that one of the low-VOC paints tested showed performance equivalent or superior to that of a widely used conventional latex paint used as a control. It was concluded that low-VOC latex paint can be a viable option to replace conventional latex paints for prevention of indoor air pollution. However, paints marketed as low-VOC may still have significant emissions of some individual VOCs, and some may not have performance characteristics matching those of conventional latex paints.

  20. Texton-based analysis of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.; Postma, Eric O.

    2010-08-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of brushstroke structure that views the wildly overlapping brushstrokes as texture. The analysis of the painting texture is performed with the help of a texton codebook, i.e., a codebook of small prototypical textural patches. The texton codebook can be learned from a collection of paintings. Our textural analysis technique represents paintings in terms of histograms that measure the frequency by which the textons in the codebook occur in the painting (so-called texton histograms). We present experiments that show the validity and effectiveness of our technique for textural analysis on a collection of digitized high-resolution reproductions of paintings by Van Gogh and his contemporaries. As texton histograms cannot be easily be interpreted by art experts, the paper proposes to approaches to visualize the results on the textural analysis. The first approach visualizes the similarities between the histogram representations of paintings by employing a recently proposed dimensionality reduction technique, called t-SNE. We show that t-SNE reveals a clear separation of paintings created by Van Gogh and those created by other painters. In addition, the period of creation is faithfully reflected in the t-SNE visualizations. The second approach visualizes the similarities and differences between paintings by highlighting regions in a painting in which the textural structure of the painting is unusual. We illustrate the validity of this approach by means of an experiment in which we highlight regions in a painting by Monet that are not very "Van Gogh-like". Taken together, we believe the tools developed in this study are well capable of assisting for art historians in support of

  1. Characterization of terpenoids from the root of Ceriops tagal with antifouling activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-De; Yi, Rui-Zao; Lin, Yi-Ming; Feng, Dan-Qing; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Wang, Zhan-Chang

    2011-01-01

    One new dimeric diterpenoid, 8(14)-enyl-pimar-2'(3')-en-4'(18')-en-15'(16')-endolabr- 16,15,2',3'-oxoan-16-one (1) and five known terpenoids: Tagalsin C (2), Tagalsin I (3), lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol (4), 3-oxolup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (5) and 28-hydroxylup- 20(29)-en-3-one (6) were isolated from the roots of the mangrove plant Ceriops tagal. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by means of extensive NMR, IR and MS analysis. The antifouling activity against larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus were evaluated using capsaicin as a positive control. All these terpenoids exhibited antifouling activity against cyprid larvae of the barnacle without significant toxicity. The structure-activity relationship results demonstrated that the order of antifouling activity was diterpenoid (Compound 2) > triterpenoid (Compounds 4, 5 and 6) > dimeric diterpenoid (Compounds 1 and 3). The functional groups on the C-28 position of lupane triterpenoid significantly affect the antifouling activity. The diterpenoid dimmer with two identical diterpenoid subunits might display more potent antifouling activity than one with two different diterpenoid subunits. The stability test showed that Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 6 remained stable over 2-month exposure under filtered seawater.

  2. Molecular Design of Antifouling Polymer Brushes Using Sequence-Specific Peptoids

    DOE PAGES

    Lau, King Hang Aaron; Sileika, Tadas S.; Park, Sung Hyun; ...

    2014-11-26

    Material systems that can be used to flexibly and precisely define the chemical nature and molecular arrangement of a surface would be invaluable for the control of complex biointerfacial interactions. For example, progress in antifouling polymer biointerfaces that prevents nonspecific protein adsorption and cell attachment, which can significantly improve the performance of an array of biomedical and industrial applications, is hampered by a lack of chemical models to identify the molecular features conferring their properties. Poly(N-substituted glycine) “peptoids” are peptidomimetic polymers that can be conveniently synthesized with specific monomer sequences and chain lengths, and are presented as a versatile platformmore » for investigating the molecular design of antifouling polymer brushes. Zwitterionic antifouling polymer brushes have captured significant recent attention, and a targeted library of zwitterionic peptoid brushes with different charge densities, hydration, separations between charged groups, chain lengths, and grafted chain densities, is quantitatively evaluated for their antifouling properties through a range of protein adsorption and cell attachment assays. Specific zwitterionic brush designs are found to give rise to distinct but subtle differences in properties. In conclusion, the results also point to the dominant roles of the grafted chain density and chain length in determining the performance of antifouling polymer brushes.« less

  3. Molecular Understanding and Structural-Based Design of Polyacrylamides and Polyacrylates as Antifouling Materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Mingzhen; Chen, Qiang; Ma, Jie; Zheng, Jie

    2016-04-12

    Design and synthesis of highly bioinert and biocompatible antifouling materials are crucial for a broad range of biomedical and engineering applications. Among antifouling materials, polyacrylamides and polyacrylates have proved so promising because of cheap raw materials, ease of synthesis and applicability, and abundant functional groups. The strong surface hydration and the high surface packing density of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates are considered to be the key contributors to their antifouling property. In this article, we review our studies on the design and synthesis of a series of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates with different molecular structures. These polymers can be fabricated into different architectural forms (brushes, nanoparticles, nanogels, and hydrogels), all of which are highly resistant to the attachment of proteins, cells, and bacteria. We find that small structural changes in the polymers can lead to large enhancement in surface hydration and antifouling performance, both showing a positive correlation. This reveals a general design rule for effective antifouling materials. Furthermore, polyacrylamides and polyacrylates are readily functionalized with other bioactive compounds to achieve different new multifunctionalities.

  4. Evaluation of toxicity of capsaicin and zosteric acid and their potential application as antifoulants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingwei; Barrios, Carlos A; Cutright, Teresa; Zhang Newby, Bi-min

    2005-10-01

    The toxicity of two natural product antifoulants, capsaicin and zosteric acid, was evaluated using the Microtox assay and a static toxicity test. The EC50 values obtained from the Microtox assay for capsaicin and zosteric acid were 11.75 +/- 1.02 and 442 +/- 100 mg/L, respectively. The static toxicity test, conducted with freshwater organisms, yielded capsaicin EC50 values of 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 23 +/- 2.0 mg/L for P. putida and Lake Erie bacteria, respectively. Zosteric acid EC50 values were 167 +/- 3.9 and 375 +/- 10 mg/L for P. putida and Lake Erie bacteria, respectively. Tests with marine organisms resulted in capsaicin EC50 values of 6.9 +/- 0.2 and 15.6 +/- 0.4 mg/L for V. natriegens and V. parahaemolyticus, respectively; whereas zosteric acid EC50 values were 7.4 +/- 0.1 and 18 +/- 0.6 mg/L for V. natriegens and V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. These results indicate that zosteric acid is much less toxic than capsaicin and that both are substantially less toxic than the currently used antifoulants, such as TBT (EC50 < 0.01 ppb). Their effectiveness as natural antifoulants was demonstrated by preliminary attachments studies. As the aqueous antifoulant concentration increased, significant inhibition of bacteria attachment or prevention of biofilm formation was achieved. Hence, both capsaicin and zosteric acid could be attractive alternatives as new antifouling compounds.

  5. On the hydration of subnanometric antifouling organosilane adlayers: a molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Sonia; Blaszykowski, Christophe; Nolan, Robert; Thompson, Damien; Thompson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The connection between antifouling and surface hydration is a fascinating but daunting question to answer. Herein, we use molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations to gain further insight into the role of surface functionalities in the molecular-level structuration of water (surface kosmotropicity)--within and atop subnanometric organosilane adlayers that were shown in previous experimental work to display varied antifouling behavior. Our simulations support the hypothesized intimate link between surface hydration and antifouling, in particular the importance of both internal and interfacial hydrophilicity and kosmotropicity. The antifouling mechanism is also discussed in terms of surface dehydration energy and water dynamicity (lability and mobility), notably the crucial requirement for clustered water molecules to remain tightly bound for extensive periods of time--i.e. exhibit slow exchange dynamics. A substrate effect on surface hydration, which would also participate in endowing antifouling adlayers with hydrogel-like characteristics, is also proposed. In contrast, the role of adlayer flexibility, if any, is assigned a secondary role in these ultrathin structures made of short building blocks. The conclusions from this work are well in line with those previously drawn in the literature.

  6. Molecular Design of Antifouling Polymer Brushes Using Sequence-Specific Peptoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, King Hang Aaron; Sileika, Tadas S.; Park, Sung Hyun; Sousa, Ana M. L.; Burch, Patrick; Szleifer, Igal; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2014-11-26

    Material systems that can be used to flexibly and precisely define the chemical nature and molecular arrangement of a surface would be invaluable for the control of complex biointerfacial interactions. For example, progress in antifouling polymer biointerfaces that prevents nonspecific protein adsorption and cell attachment, which can significantly improve the performance of an array of biomedical and industrial applications, is hampered by a lack of chemical models to identify the molecular features conferring their properties. Poly(N-substituted glycine) “peptoids” are peptidomimetic polymers that can be conveniently synthesized with specific monomer sequences and chain lengths, and are presented as a versatile platform for investigating the molecular design of antifouling polymer brushes. Zwitterionic antifouling polymer brushes have captured significant recent attention, and a targeted library of zwitterionic peptoid brushes with different charge densities, hydration, separations between charged groups, chain lengths, and grafted chain densities, is quantitatively evaluated for their antifouling properties through a range of protein adsorption and cell attachment assays. Specific zwitterionic brush designs are found to give rise to distinct but subtle differences in properties. In conclusion, the results also point to the dominant roles of the grafted chain density and chain length in determining the performance of antifouling polymer brushes.

  7. Preparation of hydrophilic vinyl chloride copolymer hollow fiber membranes with antifouling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Sano, Rie; Ishigami, Toru; Kakihana, Yuriko; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophilic vinyl chloride copolymer hollow fiber membranes with antifouling properties were prepared from brominated vinyl chloride-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer (poly(VC-co-HEMA-Br)). The base membrane was grafted with two different zwitterionic monomers, (2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine) (MPC) and [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) (MEDSAH), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA). The effect of the grafting on the base membrane hydrophilicity and antifouling properties was investigated. For comparison of the results, the pure water permeabilities and pore sizes at the outer surfaces of the grafted hollow fiber membranes were controlled to be similar. A poly(VC-co-HEMA-Br) hollow fiber membrane with similar pure water permeability and pore size was also prepared as a control membrane. A BSA solution was used as a model fouling solution for evaluation of the antifouling properties. Grafting with zwitterionic monomers and PEGMA improved the antifouling properties compared with the control membrane. The PEGMA grafted membrane showed the best antifouling properties among the grafted membranes

  8. Industrial lead paint removal specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader as to some of the pertinent rules and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) that may effect an industrial lead paint removal project. The paper discusses a recommended schedule of procedures and preparations to be followed by the lead paint removal specification writer when analyzing the possible impact of the project on the environment, the public and workers. Implications of the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) along with hazardous waste handling, manifesting, transporting and disposal procedures are discussed with special emphasis placed as to their impact on the writer and the facility owner. As the rules and regulations are highly complex, the writer has attempted to explain the methodology currently being used in state-of-the-art industrial lead abatement specifications.

  9. Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamner, M. P.; Popernack, T. G., Jr.; Owens, L. R.; Wahls, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    New facilities and test techniques afford research aerodynamicists many opportunities to investigate complex aerodynamic phenomena. For example, NASA Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility (NTF) can hold Mach number, Reynolds number, dynamic pressure, stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure constant during testing. This is important because the wing twist associated with model construction may mask important Reynolds number effects associated with the flight vehicle. Beyond this, the NTF's ability to vary Reynolds number allows for important research into the study of boundary layer transition. The capabilities of facilities such as the NTF coupled with test techniques such as temperature sensitive paint yield data that can be applied not only to vehicle design but also to validation of computational methods. Development of Luminescent Paint Technology for acquiring pressure and temperature measurements began in the mid-1980s. While pressure sensitive luminescent paints (PSP) were being developed to acquire data for aerodynamic performance and loads, temperature sensitive luminescent paints (TSP) have been used for a much broader range of applications. For example, TSP has been used to acquire surface temperature data to determine the heating due to rotating parts in various types of mechanical systems. It has been used to determine the heating pattern(s) on circuit boards. And, it has been used in boundary layer analysis and applied to the validation of full-scale flight performance predictions. That is, data acquired on the same model can be used to develop trends from off design to full scale flight Reynolds number, e.g. to show the progression of boundary layer transition. A discussion of issues related to successfully setting-up TSP tests and using TSP systems for boundary layer studies is included in this paper, as well as results from a variety of TSP tests. TSP images included in this paper are all grey-scale so that similar to

  10. Color signatures in Amorsolo paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano, Maricor N.; Palomero, Cherry May; Cruz, Larry; Yambao, Clod Marlan Krister; Dado, Julie Mae; Salvador-Campaner, Janice May

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a two-year project aimed at capturing quantifiable color signatures of oil paintings of Fernando Amorsolo, the Philippine's first National Artists. Color signatures are found by comparing CIE xy measurements of skin color in portraits and ground, sky and foliage in landscapes. The results are compared with results of visual examination and art historical data as well as works done by Amorsolo's contemporaries and mentors.

  11. PCBs in Caulk and Paint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    were used in paints ►To enhance structural integrity ►Reduce flammability ►Increase antifungal properties  PCBs imparted heat resistance to the...closed Army ammunition plants has compromised and delayed the decontamination processes. BUILDING STRONG® Field Detection Technologies  Enzyme-linked...hours ► 100% within 48 hours The technology has been field demonstrated at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fl and Badger Army Ammunition Plant , WI. BUILDING

  12. Development of the initial diatom microfouling layer on antifouling and fouling-release surfaces in temperate and tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Molino, Paul J; Campbell, Ewan; Wetherbee, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Diatoms are a major component of the slime layers that form on artificial surfaces in marine environments. In this article, the role played by diatoms during the pioneering stages of colonization of three marine antifouling (AF) coatings, viz Intersmooth 360, Super Yacht 800 and a fouling-release (FR) coating Intersleek 700, was investigated. The study was conducted over three distinct seasons in two very different marine environments in Australia, ie temperate Williamstown, Victoria and tropical Cairns, Queensland. Diatom fouling occurred more rapidly on the FR coating Intersleek 700, compared to both biocidal AF paints. However, colonization by diatoms on all three coatings was generally slow during the 16-day study. Benthic diatoms do not subsist by floating around in the water column, rather they only gain the opportunity to colonize new surfaces when they either voluntarily release or are displaced from their benthic habitat, thereafter entering the water column where the opportunity to adhere to a new surface presents itself. However, once settled, fouling diatoms grow exponentially from the site of attachment, spreading out until they populate large areas of the surface. This mode of surface colonization correlates more with an 'infection' type, epidemiology model, a mechanism that accounts for the colonization of significant regions of the coating surface from a single fouling diatom cell, forming 'clonal patches'. This is in comparison to the bacterial colonization of the surface, which exhibits far more rapid recruitment and growth of cells on the substratum surface. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fouling diatoms may be characterized more by their ability to adhere and grow on surfaces already modified by bacterial biofilms, rather than on their strength of adhesion. Cell morphology and the ability to avoid shear may also be an important factor.

  13. The influence of antifouling practices on marine invasions.

    PubMed

    Piola, Richard F; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L

    2009-10-01

    Vessel hull-fouling is increasingly recognised as one of the major vectors for the transfer of marine non-indigenous species. For hundreds of years, copper (Cu) has been used as a primary biocide to prevent the establishment of fouling assemblages on ships' hulls. Some non-indigenous fouling taxa continue to be transferred via hull-fouling despite the presence of Cu antifouling biocides. In addition, several of these species appear to enjoy a competitive advantage over similar native taxa within metal-polluted environments. This metal tolerance may further assist their establishment and spread in new habitats. This review synthesises existing research on the links between Cu and the invasion of fouling species, and shows that, with respect to the vector of hull-fouling, tolerance to Cu has the potential to play a role in the transfer of non-indigenous fouling organisms. Also highlighted are the future directions for research into this important nexus between industry, ecology and environmental management.

  14. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    SciTech Connect

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K.

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  15. Antifouling strategies and corrosion control in cooling circuits.

    PubMed

    Cristiani, P; Perboni, G

    2014-06-01

    Biofouling and corrosion phenomena dramatically reduce the functionality of industrial cooling circuits, especially in marine environments. This study underlines the effectiveness of a low level chlorination treatment of seawater to prevent biological fouling and biocorrosion. Reported examples emphasize the reaction of chlorine with bromide, ammonia and organic compounds in seawater and the effectiveness of a treatment performed in such a way to guarantee a residual concentration lower than 3μM at the outlet of the condensers. In a brief review of antifouling strategies, alternatives to chlorination and the monitoring approach able to optimize the treatments are also reported. An integrated, on-line system based on electrochemical probes (Biox system and a linear polarization resistance probe) demonstrated to be sufficient to monitor in real time: corrosion, biofilm growth and chemical treatments based on chlorine or alternative oxidant products (chlorine dioxide, etc.). A careful electrochemical monitoring and the optimized treatments help the plant operators of industrial cooling circuits prevent the decay of the equipment performance, allowing at the same time the control of the halogenated by-products formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of antifouling surfaces to reduce bacterial attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Mary Viola

    Bacteria are exceptionally good at adhering to surfaces and forming complex structures known as biofilms. This process, known as biofouling, can cause problems for infrastructure (eg, clogging and damaging pipes), for the food industry (eg, contamination of processing surfaces and equipment, and for the medical industry (eg, contamination of indwelling medical devices). Accordingly, multiple strategies have been explored to combat biofouling, including chemical modification of surfaces, development of antibiotic coatings, and more recently, the use of engineered surface topography. When designed properly, engineered surface topographies can significantly reduce bacterial surface attachment, ultimately limiting surface colonization. In this work, we hypothesized that the morphology, size, spacing, and surface pre-treatment of topographical features should directly correlate with the size and shape of target organisms, in order to reduce biofouling. Topographical features with size and spacing from 0.25 to 2 mum were fabricated in silicone elastomer and tested against rod shaped bacteria with an average size of 0.5 x 2 mum and spherical bacteria (cocci) ranging from 0.5 - 1 μm in diameter. Antifouling properties of the different topographical features were tested in both static and flow-based assays, and under oxygen plasma-treated (hydrophilic) and untreated (hydrophobic) surface conditions. We found that surface pre-treatment universally affects the ability bacteria to attach to surfaces, while surface topography limits attachment in a manner dependent on the bacterial size/shape and the size/spacing of the topography.

  17. Nontoxic piperamides and their synthetic analogues as novel antifouling reagents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Yu; Wong, Yue Him; Han, Zhuang; Yin, Yan; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of an acetone extract from a terrestrial plant Piper betle produced four known piperamides with potent antifouling (AF) activities, as evidenced by inhibition of settlement of barnacle cypris larvae. The AF activities of the four piperamides and 15 synthesized analogues were compared and their structure-activity relationships were probed. Among the compounds, piperoleine B and 1-[1-oxo-7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-6E-heptenyl]-piperidine (MPHP) showed strong activity against settlement of cyprids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, having EC50 values of 1.1 ± 0.3 and 0.5 ± 0.2 μg ml(-1), respectively. No toxicity against zebra fish was observed following incubation with these two compounds. Besides being non-toxic, 91% of piperoleine B-treated cyprids and 84% of MPHP-treated cyprids at a concentration of 100 μM completed normal metamorphosis in recovery bioassays, indicating that the anti-settlement effect of these two compounds was reversible. Hydrolysis and photolysis experiments indicated that MPHP could be decomposed in the marine environment. It is concluded that piperamides are promising compounds for use in marine AF coatings.

  18. Combining a photocatalyst with microtopography to develop effective antifouling materials.

    PubMed

    Vucko, M J; Poole, A J; Sexton, B A; Glenn, F L; Carl, C; Whalan, S; de Nys, R

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane surfaces textured with a square-wave linear grating profile (0, 20, 200, 300 and 600 μm), and embedded with a range of photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle loadings (3.75, 7.5, 11.25 and 15 wt.%), were used to test the combined efficacy of these technologies as antifouling materials. Settlement of the fouling bryozoan species Bugula neritina was quantified in the laboratory under two intensities of UV light. The lowest settlement rates were observed on 20 μm surfaces. However, texture effects were not as critical to larval settlement as the presence of TiO2. In conjunction with UV light, TiO2 completely inhibited larval metamorphosis even at the lowest loading (3.75 wt.%) and the lowest intensity of UV light (24 W m(-2)). Recruitment of B. neritina was also quantified in field trials and showed similar results to laboratory assays. The lowest recruitment was observed on 20 and 200 μm surfaces, with recruitment being significantly lower on all surfaces containing TiO2. Therefore for B. neritina, although all TiO2 loadings were effective, 3.75 wt.% can be used as a minimum inhibitory concentration to deter larval settlement and the addition of a 20 μm texture further increases the deterrent effect.

  19. AFCATT (Anti-Fouling Chemical Additive Test Tower)

    SciTech Connect

    Philpot, E.F.; Newton, M.T.; Noble, R.T.

    1995-06-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) film-type cellular fill is the fill of choice in replacing cement asbestos board fill in existing cooling towers and in new cooling towers because of its high thermal performance, ease of installation, and low initial cost. However, PVC fill has been found to foul quickly with biological and sediment material, significantly reducing tower performance and the fill`s useful life. The Anti-Fouling Chemical Additives Test Tower (AFCATT) has been build to study accumulation rates of fouling deposits in corrugated PVC film fill and to study methods of cleaning and preventing the fouling deposits. This small mechanical draft cooling tower is located next to the Unit 4 natural draft cooling tower at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Bowen. The once-through mechanical draft tower receives hot water from the condenser and returns the cold water to the basin of the host tower. The pilot tower is divided into four chambers allowing for three different treatment programs and one control to be run simultaneously. PVC fill packs are suspended from load cells to allow the weight of the fill packs to be measured continuously. Six vendors participated in the summer 1993 test program. Each proposed different methods of cleaning the fouled fill and were given the opportunity to try their proposed method of fill cleaning. To determine the success of these different treatment programs, statistical analyses were performed on the collected data and the changes in the accumulation rates compared.

  20. Cross-linked polyelectrolyte multilayers for marine antifouling applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoying; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Teo, Serena Lay-Ming; Vancso, G Julius

    2013-07-10

    A polyionic multilayer film was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) sequential deposition followed by cross-linking under mild conditions on a substrate surface to inhibit marine fouling. A novel polyanion, featuring methyl ester groups for an easy cross-linking was used as a generic solution for stabilization of LbL films in a harsh environment. Covalent cross-linking was confirmed by FTIR and XPS spectroscopy. AFM was used to observe film morphology and its variation because of cross-linking, as well as to measure the thickness of the LbL films. Cross-linking improved the stability of the LbL film when it was immersed in artificial seawater, natural seawater, and in a polar organic solvent (DMSO). No changes in the thickness and topography of the film were observed in these media. The LbL films prevented settlement of Amphibalanus amphitrite barnacle cyprids and reduced adhesion of the benthic diatom Amphora coffeaeformis. Assay results indicated that the cross-linking process did not weaken the antifouling effect of LbL films. The high stability and low degree of fouling make these coatings potentially promising candidates in marine applications.

  1. Ultrasonic Mastering of Filter Flow and Antifouling of Renewable Resources.

    PubMed

    Radziuk, Darya; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-04-04

    Inadequate access to pure water and sanitation requires new cost-effective, ergonomic methods with less consumption of energy and chemicals, leaving the environment cleaner and sustainable. Among such methods, ultrasound is a unique means to control the physics and chemistry of complex fluids (wastewater) with excellent performance regarding mass transfer, cleaning, and disinfection. In membrane filtration processes, it overcomes diffusion limits and can accelerate the fluid flow towards the filter preventing antifouling. Here, we outline the current state of knowledge and technological design, with a focus on physicochemical strategies of ultrasound for water cleaning. We highlight important parameters of ultrasound for the delivery of a fluid flow from a technical perspective employing principles of physics and chemistry. By introducing various ultrasonic methods, involving bubbles or cavitation in combination with external fields, we show advancements in flow acceleration and mass transportation to the filter. In most cases we emphasize the main role of streaming and the impact of cavitation with a perspective to prevent and remove fouling deposits during the flow. We also elaborate on the deficiencies of present technologies and on problems to be solved to achieve a wide-spread application.

  2. Designing thermo-responsive nanocomposites with anti-fouling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya; McFarlin, Gerald; Yong, Xin; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by marine organisms that utilize active ``defense'' (such as active cilia) to prevent the biofouling of their surfaces, we use computational modeling to design synthetic gel-based composite films that provide dual ``defense'' for antifouling applications. We design a nanocomposite gel film that can be harnessed to repel a variety of particles via either a temperature change or an imposed shear. Incorporation of stiff hydrophobic posts into a gel composed of cross-linked poly(N-isoproylacrylamide) chains allows us to drastically alter the film's surface properties when gel undergoes temperature-induced volume phase transition. Depending on whether the system's temperature is below or above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the gel, the posts are hidden in the swollen gel or exposed to the external solution. We model our system using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD); we validate our model through comparisons with Flory-Rehner theory. We focus on the influence of shear and temperature on the position of the particle in the system and isolate the conditions under which adsorption of particles of different sizes to the substrate is effectively prevented.

  3. Antifouling zwitterionic hydrogel coating improves hemocompatibility of activated carbon hemoadsorbent.

    PubMed

    Cai, Nana; Li, Qingsi; Zhang, Jiamin; Xu, Tong; Zhao, Weiqiang; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Activated carbon has been widely used in hemoperfusion treatments. However, its performance has been significantly compromised by their poor hemocompatibility. In this work, we developed a novel antifouling adsorbent based on zwitterionic poly-carboxybetaine (PCB) hydrogel and powdered activated carbon (PAC) to improve hemocompatibility. We found this new adsorbent (PCB-PAC) was highly stable with negligible leakage of activated carbon debris. It could efficiently resist protein adsorption and avoid any hemolysis effect. The adsorption performance of PCB-PAC for methylene blue was not influenced in a single protein solution or even in 100% fetal bovine serum (FBS), in which pristine PAC lost 50% of its adsorption ability. The isotherms results showed that the adsorption process of PCB-PAC fitted the Langmuir isotherm well, indicating that the PAC particles were homogenously distributed in the PCB hydrogel matrix. Moreover, PCB-PAC could also adsorb bilirubin molecules bound to albumin in solution, while pristine PAC showed no discernible adsorption effect. Findings in this work hold great potential to significantly improve the performance and efficiency of current extracorporeal devices for removing toxins from blood directly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transparent antifouling material for improved operative field visibility in endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sunny, Steffi; Cheng, George; Daniel, Daniel; Lo, Peter; Ochoa, Sebastian; Howell, Caitlin; Vogel, Nicolas; Majid, Adnan; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Camera-guided instruments, such as endoscopes, have become an essential component of contemporary medicine. The 15–20 million endoscopies performed every year in the United States alone demonstrate the tremendous impact of this technology. However, doctors heavily rely on the visual feedback provided by the endoscope camera, which is routinely compromised when body fluids and fogging occlude the lens, requiring lengthy cleaning procedures that include irrigation, tissue rubbing, suction, and even temporary removal of the endoscope for external cleaning. Bronchoscopies are especially affected because they are performed on delicate tissue, in high-humidity environments with exposure to extremely adhesive biological fluids such as mucus and blood. Here, we present a repellent, liquid-infused coating on an endoscope lens capable of preventing vision loss after repeated submersions in blood and mucus. The material properties of the coating, including conformability, mechanical adhesion, transparency, oil type, and biocompatibility, were optimized in comprehensive in vitro and ex vivo studies. Extensive bronchoscopy procedures performed in vivo on porcine lungs showed significantly reduced fouling, resulting in either unnecessary or ∼10–15 times shorter and less intensive lens clearing procedures compared with an untreated endoscope. We believe that the material developed in this study opens up opportunities in the design of next-generation endoscopes that will improve visual field, display unprecedented antibacterial and antifouling properties, reduce the duration of the procedure, and enable visualization of currently unreachable parts of the body, thus offering enormous potential for disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27688761

  5. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk.

  6. Bio-inspired antifouling approaches: the quest towards non-toxic and non-biocidal materials.

    PubMed

    Nir, Sivan; Reches, Meital

    2016-06-01

    Biofouling is an undesirable process in which organisms and their by-products encrust a surface. Antifouling solutions are of great importance since biofouling has negative effects on numerous species, ecosystems, and areas including water treatment facilities, health-care systems, and marine devices. Many useful solutions have been developed in the last few decades. However, with the emergence of environmental issues, the search for new promising non-toxic materials has expanded. One approach tries to mimic natural antifouling surfaces and relies on mechanisms of action derived from nature. Since these materials are based on natural systems, they are mostly biocompatible and more efficient against complex fouling. In this review, we cover the latest advances in the field of antifouling materials. We specifically focus on biomaterials that are based on the chemical and physical behavior of biological systems.

  7. Hydrophilicity and antifouling property of membrane materials from cellulose acetate/polyethersulfone in DMAc.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghua; Chen, Fushan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, cellulose acetate (CA) was blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to endow the ultrafiltration membrane with the improved hydrophilicity and antifouling property by using N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as the solvent. The effects of blend composition and evaporation time on the mechanical strength and pure water flux were investigated. It was found that the optimal composition of the casting solution was: 18wt% (PES), 4wt% (Polyvinylpyrrolidone K30), 3wt% (CA) and 20s (Evaporation time). The characteristics of CA-PES blend membranes were investigated through the methods of contact angle goniometer, antifouling property, compatibility, thermo gravimetric analysis and SEM. The results showed that the hydrophilicity and antifouling property of CA-PES ultrafiltration membranes were enhanced in comparison with the pure PES membranes. The CA-PES membranes exhibited semi-compatibility and good thermal stability below 270°C. This study provided a potential industrial application prospect of CA-PES membranes prepared in DMAc.

  8. Ejecta production mechanisms on painted surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bariteau, Muriel; Mandeville, Jean-Claude; Schäfer, Frank

    2001-10-01

    Painted surfaces are frequently used on space vehicles, whether on satellites or on rocket bodies. A bibliographic research allows us to evaluate the painted surfaces in orbit at about 63000 m2. The observation of impacts on painted surfaces of the LDEF satellite shows that the total ejected mass is large. However, no description of hypervelocity impact tests on painted surfaces has been found in the literature. An ejecta model has been previously developed at ONERA/DESP. This model is applicable for hypervelocity impacts on homogeneous ductile targets, homogeneous brittle targets and solar cells. The objective of this work is to extend this model to the case of painted surfaces. Consequently, impact pictures on painted surfaces of LDEF were analysed and some laboratory impact tests were performed at the Ernst-Mach-Institut, in Freiburg, under an ESA contract.

  9. Robotic sensors for aircraft paint stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weniger, Richard J.

    1990-10-01

    Aircraft of all types need to have paint routinely removed from their outer surfaces. Any method needs to be controlled to remove all the paint and not damage the surface of the aircraft. Human operators get bored with the monotonous task of stripping paint from an aircraft and thus do not control the process very well. This type of tedious operation tends itself to robotics. A robot that strips paint from aircraft needs to have feedback as to the state of the stripping process, its location in respect to the aircraft, and the availability of stripping material. This paper describes the sensors used on the paint stripping robot being developed for the United States Air Force's Manufacturing Technology Program. Particular attention is given to the paint sensor which is the feedback element for determining the state of the stripping process.

  10. Vision-controlled paint spray optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettinger, Gary; Christian, Donald J.

    1992-04-01

    This paper is a case history of spray paint optimization system based on machine vision technology in a factory automation application. The system is implemented as an industrial control for a reciprocating electrostatic sprayer used for priming and painting of armor plate for military ground vehicles. Incoming plates are highly variable in size, shape, and orientation, and are processes in very small production lots. A laser imager is used to digitize visual cross sections of each plate one line at a time. The raster lines are then assembled into a two dimensional image and processed. The spray pattern is optimized for precise paint coverage with minimum overspray. The paint optimizer system has yielded a measured 25 percent savings in bulk paint use, resulting in less booth and equipment maintenance, reduced paint fumes in the atmosphere, and reduced waste disposal, and now has several months of successful production history.

  11. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint removal. The following methods shall not be used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint:...

  12. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint removal. The following methods shall not be used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint:...

  13. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint removal. The following methods shall not be used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint:...

  14. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint removal. The following methods shall not be used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint:...

  15. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint removal. The following methods shall not be used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint:...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the...

  1. Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-01

    The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities.

  2. The Future of Aircraft Paint Removal Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    blast, abrasives , sodium bicarbonate blast, grit blast, chemicals 8) Flash lamp, laser, C02 pellet blasting, walnut shells, glass bead blasting...presence of paint dust or residual chemicals, and can 4 cause damage to the aircraft’s surface when the abrasive cuts through the paint layers and...called beads, are propelled by compressed air against a painted surface (56:1). The beL i’s sharpened edges serve as an abrasive to shatter and dislodge

  3. THE HAZARDS OF PAINTING AND VARNISHING 1965

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Robert

    1965-01-01

    A review of paint hazards is made, giving brief descriptions of methods of application in use in 1965, of paint usage according to resin base, and of paint ingredients. The most interesting and complex of these are the resin bases, which have much in common with plastics. Reference is made to some of the many minor ingredients. The problem of keeping abreast of the possible toxic effects, so that paint manufacturers and their customers may be warned and protected, will be clear. PMID:5836564

  4. Chromate concentration bias in primer paint particles.

    PubMed

    LaPuma, P T; Fox, J M; Kimmel, E C

    2001-06-01

    Chromate-containing primer paints are used to prevent corrosion on metal surfaces. Chromate contains hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), a human carcinogen. The objective of this research was to determine if there is a bias in the fraction of chromate found in various particle sizes generated during primer painting operations. A solvent-based, aviation primer paint was sprayed using a high-volume, low-pressure spray gun. Paint particles were collected and separated by size with seven-stage cascade impactors. It was determined that particles with a mass aerodynamic diameter < 2.0 microm contained significantly less Cr6+ per dry weight of paint than particles > 2.0 microm (P < 0.001). The median concentration of Cr6+ in particles < 2.0 microm is 18 micro g of Cr/mg of dry paint and the median concentration for particles > 2.0 microm is 70 microg of Cr/mg of dry paint. The mixed paint contains 18.75% strontium chromate, which equates to a ratio of 67 microg of Cr/mg of dry paint. Particles > 2.0 microm are more likely to impact in the upper tracheobronchial regions of the lung where mucociliary clearance is relatively rapid. Additionally, chromate emissions from spraying operations may be overestimated because larger particles, which are more easily trapped on an air filter, contain more chromate than the smaller particles, which are more likely to bypass an air filter.

  5. In Situ Determination of Butyltin Release Rates from Antifouling Coatings on Navy Test Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    difference in the quantity of dibutyltin present in the leachate from the different paint systems. Measure- ments of the ABC-2 paint system on the MRYERKORD...and on a test panel show the dibutyltin component ranged from 13 to 38 percent with a mean of 28 percent for the eight samples measured. in contrast...these differences represent a dibutyltin impurity in the ABC-2 paint or some difference in the degradation of the tributyltin for the different paint

  6. The role of nano-roughness in antifouling

    SciTech Connect

    Scardino, A.J.; Zhang, H.; Cookson, D.J.; Lamb, R.N.; de Nys, R.

    2010-02-19

    Nano-engineered superhydrophobic surfaces have been investigated for potential fouling resistance properties. Integrating hydrophobic materials with nanoscale roughness generates surfaces with superhydrophobicity that have water contact angles ({theta}) >150{sup o} and concomitant low hysteresis (<10{sup o}). Three superhydrophobic coatings (SHCs) differing in their chemical composition and architecture were tested against major fouling species (Amphora sp., Ulva rigida, Polysiphonia sphaerocarpa, Bugula neritina, Amphibalanus amphitrite) in settlement assays. The SHC which had nanoscale roughness alone (SHC 3) deterred the settlement of all the tested fouling organisms, compared to selective settlement on the SHCs with nano- and micro-scale architectures. The presence of air incursions or nanobubbles at the interface of the SHCs when immersed was characterized using small angle X-ray scattering, a technique sensitive to local changes in electron density contrast resulting from partial or complete wetting of a rough interface. The coating with broad spectrum antifouling properties (SHC 3) had a noticeably larger amount of unwetted interface when immersed, likely due to the comparatively high work of adhesion (60.77 mJ m{sup -2} for SHC 3 compared to 5.78 mJ m-2 for the other two SHCs) required for creating solid/liquid interface from the solid/vapour interface. This is the first example of a non-toxic, fouling resistant surface against a broad spectrum of fouling organisms ranging from plant cells and non-motile spores, to complex invertebrate larvae with highly selective sensory mechanisms. The only physical property differentiating the immersed surfaces is the nano-architectured roughness which supports longer standing air incursions providing a novel non-toxic broad spectrum mechanism for the prevention of biofouling.

  7. Pyrithiones as antifoulants: environmental fate and loss of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Turley, Patricia A; Fenn, Robert J; Ritter, James C; Callow, Maureen E

    2005-01-01

    The environmental fate and the loss of toxicity of two important antifouling actives, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT), were investigated using a bioassay study and an outdoor microcosm study. The bioassay used inhibition of the growth of a marine diatom (Amphora coffeaeformis) to measure the toxicity of ZnPT and CuPT over time in sterile, natural, and sediment-supplemented seawater. In natural seawater and sediment-supplemented seawater in the dark and in sterile seawater exposed to light, growth inhibition was reduced at rates corresponding to the rapid degradation rates for ZnPT and CuPT measured in previous aquatic metabolism, die-away, and photolysis studies. Similarly, the bioassay results from sterile seawater in the dark were consistent with the slower degradation rates measured in abiotic hydrolysis studies. In addition to corroborating the rapid degradation of pyrithione upon exposure to light or sediment, the loss of toxicity indicated that the degradation products were not toxic at the concentrations produced from the dose, which was much higher than predicted environmental concentrations. To supplement environmental fate studies designed to elucidate single-pathway transformations, a microcosm study was conducted to integrate all of the degradation pathways. The study used two sediment and water systems, one of which was dosed during the day and the other at night. The pyrithione degraded rapidly in the water phase, with very little accumulation in the sediment. 2-Pyridine sulfonic acid (PSA) and carbon dioxide were the only detectable degradation products 30 d after dosing. Aquatic toxicity studies with PSA showed no observable effect at concentrations at least three orders of magnitude higher than those for either ZnPT or CuPT. As a result, the worst-case environmental concentration of PSA is expected to be far below the no observable effect concentration.

  8. PAINT SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OFFICE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PAINT SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OFFICE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. PROJECTING WALLS WITH INFILLED ARCHES WERE PART OF ONE PAINTING BOOTH IN ORIGINAL STRUCTURE. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Paint Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. Evaluating paint-sludge chars for adsorption of selected paint solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; Salmeen, I.T.; Kruse, C.W.; Demir, I.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Carlson, S.L.

    1996-06-01

    At Ford, a study had been carried out to investigate the technical feasibility of converting paint sludge to activated char and reusing the char in paint spray-booth water to capture paint solvents from spray-booth air. As part of the study, several chars were made from a paint sludge and six dried paints to evaluate their effectiveness as adsorbents by conducting a series of liquid-phase adsorption experiments. Three commonly-used paint solvents and p-nitrophenol were selected as adsorbates. The three paint solvents were toluene, 2-methyl-1-propanol (iso-butanol), and 2-butoxyethanol (butylcellosolve). In this paper, the results of the pyrolysis and adsorption experiments are presented along with practical implications. The primary findings include the following: (1) Black-paint chars showed substantially larger surface area and higher adsorption capacity (based on total weight) than white-paint chars which had high ash contents due to the white pigment, titanium dioxide; (2) the adsorption capacity of the paint-sludge char was between those of black-paint and white-paint chars, and was 5--20% that of a commercial activated carbon; (3) titanium dioxide in white-paint chars did not improve the chars` affinity for hydrophilic compounds such as 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-butoxyethanol; (4) coal could be added to paint sludge to improve the quality of the resulting char and to reduce ash content; and (5) the pyrolysis of paint sludge could present an attractive opportunity for reusing and recycling a waste product for pollution abatement and as a vehicle component.

  10. Antifouling effect of bioactive compounds from selected marine organisms in the Obhur Creek, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sofyani, Abdulmohsin; Marimuthu, N.; Wilson, J. Jerald; Pugazhendi, Arulazhagan; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    Three species of sponges and a tunicate were collected from Obhur creek of Jeddah coast for this bioactivity study. In order to assess the antifouling efficacy of selected marine organisms, methanolic extracts of these organisms were tested against different fouling bacterial forms and II-instar stage of the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite. Antibiosis, bioactivity and followed by multivariate analyses were carried out to check the efficacy of antifouling effect of the selected marine organisms. Principal component analysis revealed the exemplary antifouling efficacy of the sponge extracts of Stylissa sp. observed followed by Hyrtios sp. against bacterial forms in the laboratory study. De-trended correspondence analysis confirmed that the contribution of antifouling efficacy of the selected sponge extracts was observed to be more towards Bacillus sp., Vibrio sp. and Alteromonas sp. Moreover, the efficacy of Hyrtios sp. extract (20.430 μg mL-1) followed by Stylissa sp. (30.945 μg mL-1) showed higher against barnacle instar compared with other extracts in the bioactivity assay. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis under paired linkage categorized all the sponge extracts into one major cluster with 75% similarity, and one outlier tunicate. More than 80% similarity observed between Hyrtios sp. and Stylissa sp. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the contribution of major peaks found in the marine organisms were towards sulfones, sulfoxides, cyanates and ketones.

  11. The double effects of silver nanoparticles on the PVDF membrane: Surface hydrophilicity and antifouling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Hua; Shao, Xi-Sheng; Zhou, Qing; Li, Mi-Zi; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were used to endow poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane with excellent surface hydrophilicity and outstanding antifouling performance. Silver nanoparticles were successfully immobilized onto PVDF membrane surface under the presence of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The double effects of silver nanoparticles on PVDF membrane, i.e., surface hydrophilicity and anti-fouling performance, were systematically investigated. Judging from result of water static contact measurement, silver nanoparticles had provided a significant improvement in PVDF membrane surface hydrophilicity. And the possible explanation on the improvement of PVDF membrane surface hydrophilicity with silver nanoparticles was firstly proposed in this study. Membrane permeation and anti-bacterial tests were carried out to characterize the antifouling performance of PVDF membrane. Flux recovery ratio (FRR) increased about 40% after the presence of silver nanoparticles on the PVDF membrane surface, elucidating the anti-organic fouling performance of PVDF membrane was elevated by silver nanoparticles. Simultaneously, anti-bacterial test confirmed that PVDF membrane showed superior anti-biofouling activity because of silver nanoparticles. The above-mentioned results clarified that silver nanoparticles can endow PVDF membrane with both excellent surface hydrophilicity and outstanding antifouling performance in this study.

  12. Painting with Clay Van Gogh Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night" and describes a lesson where fifth- and sixth-grade students created their own version of the artwork. Explains that the students utilized four colors of Permoplast clay, using their hands and fingers as brushes and blending tools and the clay as paint. (CMK)

  13. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  14. Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

  15. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  16. Products of Chemistry: Chemistry of Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuerman, George; Bruzan, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    Presents an overview of coatings along with paint preparation labs. Provides students with information about and methods for preparing a product that is an integral part of daily life. Gives methodology which can be used to prepare oil based and water based paints. (MVL)

  17. Listening as a Basis for Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulianin, Anatoly F.

    1980-01-01

    The author, formerly a Soviet art teacher, describes his technique for combining music and painting. After teaching children the fundamentals of music technique and color, he has them experience a piece of music and paint their reactions. One of several articles in this issue on art teaching in other countries. (SJL)

  18. Lead content in household paints in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-12-15

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level.

  19. Products of Chemistry: Chemistry of Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuerman, George; Bruzan, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    Presents an overview of coatings along with paint preparation labs. Provides students with information about and methods for preparing a product that is an integral part of daily life. Gives methodology which can be used to prepare oil based and water based paints. (MVL)

  20. Experience and Art. Teaching Children to Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nancy R.

    This book presents a philosophical and pragmatic approach to the teacher's active role in fostering a developing understanding of painting in 1-11 year-old children. Cognitive processes behind children's painting are explored; each phase of imagery is seen as emerging from and building on the thought processes of the previous phase. Tasks are…

  1. Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

  2. Managing lead-based paint abatement wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, N.L.C.

    1994-12-31

    Renovation, remodeling, demolition, and surface preparation for painting, in addition to specified lead abatement, are all activities that have the potential to produce hazardous wastes if a property was painted with lead-based paint. Lead-based paint was used on residential structures until 1978, when most residential uses were banned by the Consumer Products Safety Council. Prior to the 1950s, paints for residential uses may have contained up to 50% lead by weight. Today, commercial and military paints may still contain lead and can be used on non-residential structures. The lead content of residential paints is limited to 0.06% lead (by weight) in the dried film. This paper provides an overview of some of the information needed to properly manage lead-based paint abatement wastes. The issues covered in this paper include waste classification, generator status, treatment, and land disposal restrictions. The author assumes that the reader is familiar with the provision of the Health and Safety Code and the California Code of Regulations that pertain to generation and management of hazardous wastes. Citations provided herein do not constitute an exhaustive list of all the regulations with which a generator of hazardous waste must comply.

  3. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Treesearch

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  4. Development of the primary bacterial microfouling layer on antifouling and fouling release coatings in temperate and tropical environments in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Molino, Paul J; Childs, Samantha; Eason Hubbard, Maeve R; Carey, Janet M; Burgman, Mark A; Wetherbee, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The role played by bacteria during the pioneering stages of colonisation on marine coatings was investigated over three distinct seasons in both tropical and temperate environments. Novel methods were developed to facilitate the study of the adhered bacterial population on the test coatings in their native, hydrated state. The approach eliminated destructive sample preparation techniques, including sample dehydration and/or removal from the substratum surface prior to analysis. Bacterial colonisation during initial biofilm formation was evaluated on two antifouling paints, Intersmooth 360 and Super Yacht 800, and a fouling release coating, Intersleek 700. Bacterial colonisation was quantified on all three coating surfaces. Intersleek 700 displayed the quickest colonisation by bacteria, resulting in major modification of the substratum surface within 2-4 days following immersion in the ocean. Whilst fouling accumulated more quickly on Intersleek 700, by 16 days all three coatings were fouled significantly. Bacterial fouling was correlated to both location and season, with fouling occurring at a more rapid rate at the Cairns location, as well as during the summer months, when higher water temperatures were recorded. Successful colonisation of all coatings by bacteria soon after immersion modifies the characteristics of the surfaces at the hull/water interface, and subsequent settlement by higher biofouling organisms must be moderated by these modified surfaces.

  5. Amino acid-based anti-fouling functionalization of silica nanoparticles using divinyl sulfone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanqi; Cheng, Fang; Shen, Wen; Cheng, Gang; Zhao, Jing; Peng, Wei; Qu, Jingping

    2016-08-01

    Natural amino acids are zwitterionic molecules and the good biocompatibility promises them potential candidates as anti-fouling materials. Here, we developed a new method to functionalize silica nanoparticles with a natural amino acid-based anti-fouling layer. Amino acids were covalently immobilized on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified silica nanoparticles using divinyl sulfone through a two-step reaction in aqueous solution at room temperature. The progress was monitored with NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zeta potential measurements. A library of amino acids was screened and the nonspecific protein adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) were investigated using dynamic light scattering method. The results showed that cysteine, lysine and arginine functionalized silica nanoparticles can effectively resist protein adsorption due to the zwitterionic structure. Among them, lysine functionalized silica nanoparticles had the best anti-fouling performance, which showed hydrodynamic diameter increases of only 10% after incubated in BSA solution and 20% after incubated in FBS solution for 24h. The neat aqueous modification process can conveniently create a thin zwitterionic layer on silica particles, and it has a great potential in biomolecule immobilization and biofunctional surface preparation. Zwitterionic polymer is an outstanding class of anti-fouling material; but the difficulty in synthesis is challenging its spread utilization. In this study, we developed a new method to create an amino acid-based zwitterionic layer on APTES functionalized silica nanoparticles through a two-step reaction in aqueous solution at room temperature. The surface chemistry was monitored with NMR, XPS, TEM and zeta potential measurements. With this method, a library of amino acid conjugated-silica nanoparticles was synthesized and their anti-fouling performance was evaluated using dynamic light

  6. Structural color painting by rubbing particle powder.

    PubMed

    Park, ChooJin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-09

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  7. Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, ChooJin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-01-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings. PMID:25661669

  8. Entrapment of subtilisin in ceramic sol-gel coating for antifouling applications.

    PubMed

    Regina, Viduthalai Rasheedkhan; Søhoel, Helmer; Lokanathan, Arcot Raghupathi; Bischoff, Claus; Kingshott, Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-11-01

    Enzymes with antifouling properties are of great interest in developing nontoxic antifouling coatings. A bottleneck in developing enzyme-based antifouling coatings is to immobilize the enzyme in a suitable coating matrix without compromising its activity and stability. Entrapment of enzymes in ceramics using the sol-gel method is known to have several advantages over other immobilization methods. The sol-gel method can be used to make robust coatings, and the aim of this study was to explore if sol-gel technology can be used to develop robust coatings harboring active enzymes for antifouling applications. We successfully entrapped a protease, subtilisin (Savinase, Novozymes), in a ceramic coating using a sol-gel method. The sol-gel formulation, when coated on a stainless steel surface, adhered strongly and cured at room temperature in less than 8 h. The resultant coating was smoother and less hydrophobic than stainless steel. Changes in the coating's surface structure, thickness and chemistry indicate that the coating undergoes gradual erosion in aqueous medium, which results in release of subtilisin. Subtilisin activity in the coating increased initially, and then gradually decreased. After 9 months, 13% of the initial enzyme activity remained. Compared to stainless steel, the sol-gel-coated surfaces with active subtilisin were able to reduce bacterial attachment of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by 2 orders of magnitude. Together, our results demonstrate that the sol-gel method is a promising coating technology for entrapping active enzymes, presenting an interesting avenue for enzyme-based antifouling solutions.

  9. Accuracy of Pressure Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Guille, M.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Uncertainty in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) measurement is investigated from a standpoint of system modeling. A functional relation between the imaging system output and luminescent emission from PSP is obtained based on studies of radiative energy transports in PSP and photodetector response to luminescence. This relation provides insights into physical origins of various elemental error sources and allows estimate of the total PSP measurement uncertainty contributed by the elemental errors. The elemental errors and their sensitivity coefficients in the error propagation equation are evaluated. Useful formulas are given for the minimum pressure uncertainty that PSP can possibly achieve and the upper bounds of the elemental errors to meet required pressure accuracy. An instructive example of a Joukowsky airfoil in subsonic flows is given to illustrate uncertainty estimates in PSP measurements.

  10. Accuracy of Pressure Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Guille, M.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Uncertainty in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) measurement is investigated from a standpoint of system modeling. A functional relation between the imaging system output and luminescent emission from PSP is obtained based on studies of radiative energy transports in PSP and photodetector response to luminescence. This relation provides insights into physical origins of various elemental error sources and allows estimate of the total PSP measurement uncertainty contributed by the elemental errors. The elemental errors and their sensitivity coefficients in the error propagation equation are evaluated. Useful formulas are given for the minimum pressure uncertainty that PSP can possibly achieve and the upper bounds of the elemental errors to meet required pressure accuracy. An instructive example of a Joukowsky airfoil in subsonic flows is given to illustrate uncertainty estimates in PSP measurements.

  11. Fragmentation of drying paint layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Katinka; Dombi, András; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-11-01

    Fragmentation of thin layers of drying granular materials on a frictional surface are studied both by experiments and computer simulations. Besides a qualitative description of the fragmentation phenomenon, the dependence of the average fragment size as a function of the layer thickness is thoroughly investigated. Experiments are done using a special nail polish, which forms characteristic crack structures during drying. In order to control the layer thickness, we diluted the nail polish in acetone and evaporated in a controlled manner different volumes of this solution on glass surfaces. During the evaporation process we managed to get an instable paint layer, which formed cracks as it dried out. In order to understand the obtained structures a previously developed spring-block model was implemented in a three-dimensional version. The experimental and simulation results proved to be in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. An earlier suggested scaling relation between the average fragment size and the layer thickness is reconfirmed.

  12. Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential.

    PubMed

    Greco, G; Lanero, T Svaldo; Torrassa, S; Young, R; Vassalli, M; Cavaliere, A; Rolandi, R; Pelucchi, E; Faimali, M; Davenport, J

    2013-07-06

    Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection.

  13. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  14. Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Hugo M.; Dagostim, Gracilene P.; da Silva, Arielle Mota; Tavares, Priscila; da Rosa, Luiz A. Z. C.; de Andrade, Vanessa M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thousands of chemical compounds are used in paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers). Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals present in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of painters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells of paint industry workers. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells, and the Micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. For the micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells, no significant difference was detected between the control and paint industry workers. Results: The Comet assay in epithelia buccal cells showed that the damage index (DI) and damage frequency (DF) observed in the exposed group were significantly higher relative to the control group (P≤0.05). In the same way, the Comet assay data in peripheral blood leukocytes showed that both analysis parameters (DI and DF) were significantly greater than that for the control group (P≤0.05). Conclusions: Chronic occupational exposure to paints may lead to a slightly increased risk of genetic damage among paint industry workers. PMID:22223950

  15. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  16. Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

    1964-01-01

    The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

  17. A marine bacterial adhesion microplate test using the DAPI fluorescent dye: a new method to screen antifouling agents.

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Delbarre-Ladrat, C; Ghillebaert, F; Rochet, M J; Compère, C; Combes, D

    2007-04-01

    To develop a method to screen antifouling agents against marine bacterial adhesion as a sensitive, rapid and quantitative microplate fluorescent test. Our experimental method is based on a natural biofilm formed by mono-incubation of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41 in sterile natural sea water in a 96-well polystyrene microplate. The 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dye was used to quantify adhered bacteria in each well. The total measured fluorescence in the wells was correlated with the amount of bacteria showing a detection limit of one bacterium per 5 microm(2) and quantifying 2 x 10(7) to 2 x 10(8) bacteria adhered per cm(2). The antifouling properties of three commercial surface-active agents and chlorine were tested by this method in the prevention of adhesion and also in the detachment of already adhered bacteria. The marine bacterial adhesion inhibition rate depending on the agent concentration showed a sigmoid shaped dose-response curve. This test is well adapted for a rapid and quantitative first screening of antifouling agents directly in seawater in the early steps of marine biofilm formation. In contrast to the usual screenings of antifouling products which detect a bactericidal activity, this test is more appropriate to screen antifouling agents for bacterial adhesion removal or bacterial adhesion inhibition activities. This screening test focuses on the antifouling properties of the products, especially the initial steps of marine biofilm formation.

  18. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800 Section... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based...

  19. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a...

  20. 24 CFR 598.408 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements. 598... DESIGNATIONS Post-Designation Requirements § 598.408 Lead-based paint requirements. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of...

  1. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  2. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  3. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  4. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  5. 40 CFR 745.65 - Lead-based paint hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint... that knocks against its door frame. (3) Any chewable lead-based painted surface on which there is... percent of the total surface area of deteriorated paint on an interior or exterior type of component...

  6. 40 CFR 745.65 - Lead-based paint hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint... that knocks against its door frame. (3) Any chewable lead-based painted surface on which there is... percent of the total surface area of deteriorated paint on an interior or exterior type of component...

  7. 40 CFR 745.65 - Lead-based paint hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint... that knocks against its door frame. (3) Any chewable lead-based painted surface on which there is... percent of the total surface area of deteriorated paint on an interior or exterior type of component...

  8. 24 CFR 598.408 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Lead-based paint requirements. 598... DESIGNATIONS Post-Designation Requirements § 598.408 Lead-based paint requirements. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act...

  9. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800 Section... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential...

  10. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800 Section... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential...

  11. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800 Section... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential...

  12. 24 CFR 598.408 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lead-based paint requirements. 598... DESIGNATIONS Post-Designation Requirements § 598.408 Lead-based paint requirements. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act...

  13. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800 Section... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential...

  14. 24 CFR 598.408 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements. 598... DESIGNATIONS Post-Designation Requirements § 598.408 Lead-based paint requirements. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act...

  15. Incite Their Interest with a Collaborative Painting Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative painting project that allows first- through third-grade students to work with partners to create a four-inch square of a group painting and learn the basics of mixing paints to produce lights and darks, and tints and shades. One by one, the students worked on the painting in their free time. The author kept a…

  16. 24 CFR 598.408 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements. 598... DESIGNATIONS Post-Designation Requirements § 598.408 Lead-based paint requirements. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act...

  17. Incite Their Interest with a Collaborative Painting Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative painting project that allows first- through third-grade students to work with partners to create a four-inch square of a group painting and learn the basics of mixing paints to produce lights and darks, and tints and shades. One by one, the students worked on the painting in their free time. The author kept a…

  18. [Study of Paints and Drawing Techniques of Fine Brushwork Yunlong Ripples Painting in Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Hao, Sheng-cai; Shi, Ji-long; Wang, Ji-gang; He, Qiu-ju; Qi, Xiao-kun; Zhou, Zhong; Zhou, Wen-hua

    2016-02-01

    In order to study the paints and techniques of decorative patterns of dragon among clouds and water waves, the materials based on a Qing Dynasty meticulous painting were measured by three-dimensional video microscopy, Raman microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the green clothes was firstly colored by Paris green, the decorative patterns of dragon among clouds and water waves were then painted by hematite, the edge was delineated by brass powder at last. The dark yellow area within the decorative patterns was presented due to the interaction of green and red paints. In addition, ultramarine blue was checked in the painting. According to the first synthesized time of ultramarine blue and Paris green, we can make sure the time limit of the painting finished.

  19. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Batista, Marcos Antônio Jacó; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05). All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

  20. Improvement of minimum paint film thickness for THz paint meters by multiple-regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Takashi; Iwata, Tetsuo; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2007-10-01

    We propose a numerical parameter fitting method to determine the time delay between two temporally overlapped echo pulses in terahertz (THz) tomography measurements. The method is based on multiple-regression analysis with the least-squares method and is applied to decrease the minimum paint film thickness for THz paint meters. Applying multiple-regression analysis to paint thickness measurements is five times more sensitive with regard to the minimum thickness than numerical Fourier deconvolution. We apply the proposed method to determine the optical thickness, geometrical thickness, and group refractive index of dry paint film and wet paint film. The proposed method is useful for decreasing the minimum thickness for a THz paint meter and other THz tomography measurements.

  1. Prehistoric cave painting PIXE analysis for the identification of paint ``pots''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menu, Michel; Walter, Philippe

    1992-02-01

    Prior to the advent of modern analytical techniques, the methods of producing prehistoric paintings were a subject of conjecture. We have sampled and extensively analysed prehistoric paint in several French cave sites of the Upper Paleolithic. The results indicate that, more than 12000 years ago, artists working within a restricted area utilized a number of "paint recipes" which are chronologically significant and may thus assist in dating the paintings. These recipes consist of a precise manufacturing of the different elements: pigment, extender and sometimes binder. The chemical impurities associated with the paint (here the mineral part composed of pigment + extender) may determine the "paint pot". These impurities are characteristic of the sources of the minerals. Among the different sites that we analysed, three from the most important ones are presented here: Niaux, Gargas (French Pyrenees) and Lascaux (Perigord, France).

  2. Quantitative fabrication, performance optimization and comparison of PEG and zwitterionic polymer antifouling coatings.

    PubMed

    Xing, Cheng-Mei; Meng, Fan-Ning; Quan, Miao; Ding, Kai; Dang, Yuan; Gong, Yong-Kuan

    2017-09-01

    A versatile fabrication and performance optimization strategy of PEG and zwitterionic polymer coatings is developed on the sensor chip of surface plasma resonance (SPR) instrument. A random copolymer bearing phosphorylcholine zwitterion and active ester side chains (PMEN) and carboxylic PEG coatings with comparable thicknesses were deposited on SPR sensor chips via amidation coupling on the precoated polydopamine (PDA) intermediate layer. The PMEN coating showed much stronger resistance to bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption than PEG coating at very thin thickness (∼1nm). However, the BSA resistant efficacy of PEG coating could exceed that of PMEN due to stronger steric repelling effect when the thickness increased to 1.5∼3.3nm. Interestingly, both the PEG and PMEN thick coatings (≈3.6nm) showed ultralow fouling by BSA and bovine plasma fibrinogen (Fg). Moreover, changes in the PEG end group from -OH to -COOH, protein adsorption amount could increase by 10-fold. Importantly, the optimized PMEN and PEG-OH coatings were easily duplicated on other substrates due to universal adhesion of the PDA layer, showed excellent resistance to platelet, bacteria and proteins, and no significant difference in the antifouling performances was observed. These detailed results can explain the reported discrepancy in performances between PEG and zwitterionic polymer coatings by thickness. This facile and substrate-independent coating strategy may benefit the design and manufacture of advanced antifouling biomedical devices and long circulating nanocarriers. Prevention of biofouling is one of the biggest challenges for all biomedical applications. However, it is very difficult to fabricate a highly hydrophilic antifouling coating on inert materials or large devices. In this study, PEG and zwitterion polymers, the most widely investigated polymers with best antifouling performance, are conveniently immobilized on different kinds of substrates from their aqueous solutions by

  3. Plasma-enhanced deposition of antifouling layers on silicone rubber surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan

    In food processing and medical environments, biofilms serve as potential sources of contamination, and lead to food spoilage, transmission of diseases or infections. Because of its ubiquitous and recalcitrant nature, Listeria monocytogenes biofilm is especially hard to control. Generating antimicrobial surfaces provide a method to control the bacterial attachment. The difficulty of silver deposition on polymeric surfaces has been overcome by using a unique two-step plasma-mediated method. First silicone rubber surfaces were plasma-functionalized to generate aldehyde groups. Then thin silver layers were deposited onto the functionalized surfaces according to Tollen's reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that silver particles were deposited. By exposing the silver coated surfaces to L. monocytogenes, it was demonstrated that they were bactericidal to L. monocytogenes. No viable bacteria were detected after 12 to 18 h on silver-coated silicone rubber surfaces. Another antifouling approach is to generate polyethylene glycol (PEG) thin layer instead of silver on polymer surfaces. Covalent bond of PEG structures of various molecular weights to cold-plasma-functionalized polymer surfaces, such as silicone rubber, opens up a novel way for the generation of PEG brush-like or PEG branch-like anti-fouling layers. In this study, plasma-generated surface free radicals can react efficiently with dichlorosilane right after plasma treatment. With the generation of halo-silane groups, this enables PEG molecules to be grafted onto the modified surfaces. XPS data clearly demonstrated the presence of PEG molecules on plasma-functionalized silicone rubber surfaces. AFM images showed the changed surface morphologies as a result of covalent attachment to the surface of PEG molecules. Biofilm experiment results suggest that the PEG brush-like films have the potential ability to be the next

  4. Brush-like polycarbonates containing dopamine, cations, and PEG providing a broad-spectrum, antibacterial, and antifouling surface via one-step coating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuan; Ding, Xin; Ono, Robert J; Lee, Haeshin; Hsu, Li Yang; Tong, Yen Wah; Hedrick, James; Yang, Yi Yan

    2014-11-19

    An antibacterial and antifouling surface is obtained by simple one-step immersion of a catheter surface with brush-like polycarbonates containing pendent adhesive dopamine, antifouling polyethylene glycol (PEG), and antibacterial cations. This coating demonstrates excellent antibacterial and antifouling activities against both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria, proteins, and platelets, good stability under simulated blood-flow conditions, and no toxicity.

  5. Paint for detection of radiological or chemical agents

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, Sumner Daniel

    2010-08-24

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  6. RIGGERS LOFT/PAINT SHOP/SHEET METAL SHOP, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. THE PAINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RIGGERS LOFT/PAINT SHOP/SHEET METAL SHOP, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. THE PAINT SHOP WAS LOCATED IN THE CLOSEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE SHEET METAL SHOP WAS LOCATED IN THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. THE RIGGERS LOFT WAS LOCATED IN THE PORTION OF THE BUILDING OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Riggers Loft/Paint Shop/Sheet Metal Shop, 1322 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Standard Operating Procedure for the Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Lead-in-Paint Diagnostic Test Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the preparation of stand-alone, lead paint films, prepared according to the old paint recipes. Further, this SOP describes the use of these paint films for the preparation of simulated old paints on a variety of substrates. Substrates used included wood, stee...

  8. Standard Operating Procedure for the Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Lead-in-Paint Diagnostic Test Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the preparation of stand-alone, lead paint films, prepared according to the old paint recipes. Further, this SOP describes the use of these paint films for the preparation of simulated old paints on a variety of substrates. Substrates used included wood, stee...

  9. Seven Island Painting, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Seven Island Painting, Inc. (the Company) is located in Daly City, California. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in San Francisco, California.

  10. The evaluation of GOES black paint materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Kauder, Lonny R.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the contamination effect of black paint materials on the GOES instrument performance. The GOES spacecraft materials were originally selected for their low outgassing properties. Samples of the materials were tested according to the ASTM E-595 test method to fulfill the total mass loss and collected volatile condensable materials criteria for traditional spacecraft material selection. Due to the instrument design, the cavity will experience high temperatures during operation greater than the specified temperature in the ASTM test. As a result of this high cavity temperature, normally stable paint materials on the painted surface may severely outgas even though they have passed the ASTM test. Further enhancement of the contaminant remaining on the mirror by UV irradiation is also a great consideration. This concern prompted an investigation into the outgassing characteristics of the black paints at the predicted operating temperatures.

  11. Darkness and depth in early Renaissance painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Contrast has always been appreciated as a significant factor in image quality, but it is less widely recognized that it is a key factor in the representation of depth, solidity and three-dimensionality in images in general, and in paintings in particular. This aspect of contrast was a key factor in the introduction of oil paint as a painting medium at the beginning of the fifteenth century, as a practical means of contrast enhancement. However, recent conservatorship efforts have established that the first oil paintings were not, as commonly supposed, by van Eyck in Flanders in the 1430s, but by Masolino da Panicale in Italy in the 1420s. These developments led to the use of chiaroscuro technique in various forms, all of which are techniques for enhanced shadowing.

  12. Wall Paint Exposure Assessment Model (WPEM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WPEM uses mathematical models developed from small chamber data to estimate the emissions of chemicals from oil-based (alkyd) and latex wall paint which is then combined with detailed use, workload and occupancy data to estimate user exposure.

  13. Lead-Based Paint and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Rule does not apply to total demolition of a structure. Learn about EPA recommended lead-safe practices during total demolition activities to prevent and minimize exposure to lead.

  14. The evaluation of GOES black paint materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Kauder, Lonny R.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the contamination effect of black paint materials on the GOES instrument performance. The GOES spacecraft materials were originally selected for their low outgassing properties. Samples of the materials were tested according to the ASTM E-595 test method to fulfill the total mass loss and collected volatile condensable materials criteria for traditional spacecraft material selection. Due to the instrument design, the cavity will experience high temperatures during operation greater than the specified temperature in the ASTM test. As a result of this high cavity temperature, normally stable paint materials on the painted surface may severely outgas even though they have passed the ASTM test. Further enhancement of the contaminant remaining on the mirror by UV irradiation is also a great consideration. This concern prompted an investigation into the outgassing characteristics of the black paints at the predicted operating temperatures.

  15. Pointillist Watercolor Paintings: Exploring Optical Mixing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamwi, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the pointillist painting process offering background information about technique and how it can be used in the art classroom. Explores the appropriateness of the process for elementary through secondary school students. Includes educational objectives. (CMK)

  16. Pointillist Watercolor Paintings: Exploring Optical Mixing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamwi, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the pointillist painting process offering background information about technique and how it can be used in the art classroom. Explores the appropriateness of the process for elementary through secondary school students. Includes educational objectives. (CMK)

  17. Effects Of Moisture On Zinc Orthotitanate Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, Gordon R.; Gonzalez, Charles C.; Ross, JR., Ronald g.; Wen, Liang C.; O'Donnell, Timothy

    1991-01-01

    Report presents results of tests of electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosion of zinc orthotitanate (ZOT) paint. Measured effects of temperature, humidity, and vacuum on ceramic paint. Used as temperature-control coating designed to have low and stable ratio of absorptance to emittance for heat radiation. Helps to prevent buildup of static electric charge and helps to protect electronic circuitry from potentially damaging static discharges.

  18. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Table 3. COMNAV Pearl Harbor base limits for discharges and sample results. .............. 19 Table 4. Cost comparison of paint treatment versus paint...the capacity of the system and the proportion of the food source that is converted to biomass versus the proportion used for energy. Because dead...landfarmed, composted , or captured in a filter press and landfilled. Most industrial biological treatment systems will also require air biofiltration

  19. Hand injury with paint-gun.

    PubMed

    Thakore, H K

    1985-02-01

    Paint-gun injuries are notoriously disabling, far more so than those caused by other foreign materials as they carry a high morbidity rate. Forty-three cases of high pressure injection injury due to paint-guns have been reported in the English literature. The four new cases reported here reflect the effects of injury by the epoxy resins, relatively recently introduced and widely used in heavy industry.

  20. Navy Paint Booth Conversion Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    A-i viii SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION The Navy is currently exploring the possibility of reducing the quantities of...discharged, and the paint sludge waste which is generated must be disposed of as hazardous waste. The waste minimization option that the Navy is exploring is...addition, the cost-effectiveness and feasibility of converting NSY and NADEP paint booths is explored . The emphasis, however, is on the hazardous waste

  1. Preparation of Water-Displacing Paint.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-27

    is characterized by a solids content of 50 weight percent, a minimum phthalic anhydride content of approximately 20 weight percent, and a minimum oil ...content, preferably linseed for its drying qualities, of about 25 weight 15 percent. One such silicone alkyd resin suitable for inclusion in the paint...mineral spirit suitable 6 for inclusion in the paint is Solvent G, manufactured by the AMSCO Division of Union Oil Company of California. The 1,1,1

  2. Applications of Temperature and Pressure Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tian-Shu; Sullivan, John P.

    1998-01-01

    Luminescent molecular probes imbedded in a polymer binder form a temperature or pressure paint. On excitation by light of the proper wavelength, the luminescence, which is quenched either thermally or by oxygen, is detected by a camera or photodetector. From the detected luminescent intensity, temperature and pressure can be determined. The basic photophysics, calibration, accuracy and time response of a luminescent paint is described followed by applications in low speed, transonic, supersonic and cryogenic wind tunnels and in rotating machinery.

  3. [The eye in Ion Tuculescu's paintings].

    PubMed

    Cernea, P

    2003-01-01

    The painter Ion Tuculescu was placed through his painting, in the current of the abstract expressionism. He endowed his pictural skill with a personal vision of life and people, through introduction the eye like a stylized aspect and its loading with spiritual meanings. The eye is practically in every picture of the painter, constituting a philosophy of his interior experiences and attitude given the existence. The subject painting has not figurative plans but mental impulses through the artist constitutes a new visual language.

  4. Automated Laser Paint Stripping (ALPS) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovoi, Paul

    1993-03-01

    To date, the DoD has played a major role in funding a number of paint stripping programs. Some technologies have proven less effective than contemplated. Others are still in the validation phase. Paint stripping is one of the hottest issues being addressed by the finishing industry since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated that chemical stripping using methylene chloride/phenolic type strippers be stopped. The DoD and commercial aircraft companies are hard-pressed to find an alternative. Automated laser paint stripping has been identified as a technique for removing coatings from aircraft surfaces. International Technical Associates (InTA) was awarded a Navy contract for an automated laser paint stripping system (ALPS) that will remove paint from metallic and composite substrates. For the program, which will validate laser paint stripping, InTA will design, build, test, and install a system for fighter-sized aircraft at both the Norfolk and North Island (San Diego) Aviation Depots.

  5. A quantitative approach to painting styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy (Vilson Vieira et al., 2012), representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 99 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measurements. These quantitative measures underlie revealing observations about the evolution of painting styles, specially when compared with other humanity fields already analyzed: while music evolved along a master-apprentice tradition (high dialectics) and philosophy by opposition, painting presents another pattern: constant increasing skewness, low opposition between members of the same movement and opposition peaks in the transition between movements. Differences between baroque and modern movements are also observed in the projected "painting space": while baroque paintings are presented as an overlapped cluster, the modern paintings present minor overlapping and are disposed more widely in the projection than the baroque counterparts. This finding suggests that baroque painters shared aesthetics while modern painters tend to "break rules" and develop their own style.

  6. Enhancing performance and surface antifouling properties of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes with salicylate-alumoxane nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Samaneh; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Shamsabadi, Ahmad Arabi; Habibzadeh, Setareh; Soroush, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    To improve the hydrophilicity and antifouling properties of polysulfone (PS) ultrafiltration membranes, we studied the use of salicylate-alumoxane (SA) nanoparticles as a novel hydrophilic additive. The effects of SA nanoparticles on the membrane characteristics and performance were investigated in terms of membrane structure, permeation flux, solute rejection, hydrophilicity, and antifouling ability. The new mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) possess asymmetric structures. They have smaller finger-like pores and smoother surfaces than the neat PS membranes. The embedment of SA nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and the improvement of surface hydrophilicity were investigated. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated that the pure-water flux of the new MMMs initially increases with SA nanoparticles loading followed by a decrease at high loadings. Higher BSA solution flux was achieved for the MMMs compared to the neat PS membranes. Membranes with 1 wt.% SA nanoparticles exhibit the highest flux recovery ratio of 87% and the lowest irreversible fouling of 13%.

  7. Mini-review: marine natural products and their synthetic analogs as antifouling compounds: 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Qian, Pei-Yuan; Li, Zhongrui; Xu, Ying; Li, Yongxin; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    This review covers 214 marine natural compounds and 23 of their synthetic analogs, which were discovered and/or synthesized from mid-2009 to August 2014. The antifouling (AF) compounds reported have medium to high bioactivity (with a threshold of EC(50) < 15.0 mg ml(-1)). Among these compounds, 82 natural compounds were identified as new structures. All the compounds are marine-derived, demonstrating that marine organisms are prolific and promising sources of natural products that may be developed as environmentally friendly antifoulants. However, this mini-review excludes more than 200 compounds that were also reported as AF compounds but with rather weak bioactivity during the same period. Also excluded are terrestrial-derived AF compounds reported during the last five years. A brief discussion on current challenges in AF compound research is also provided to reflect the authors' own views in terms of future research directions.

  8. Antifouling Transparent ZnO Thin Films Fabricated by Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Du, Jinlong; Yuji, Toshifumi; Miyagawa, Hayato; Ogawa, Kazufumi

    2015-09-01

    One problem with outdoor-mounted solar panels is that power generation efficiency is reduced by face plate dirt; a problem with electronic touch panels is the deterioration of screen visibility caused by finger grease stains. To solve these problems, we should fabricate antifouling surfaces which have superhydrophobic and oil-repellent properties without spoiling the transparency of the transparent substrate. In this study, an antifouling surface with both superhydrophobicity and oil-repellency was fabricated on a glass substrate by forming a fractal microstructure. The fractal microstructure was constituted of transparent silica particles 100 nm in diameter and transparent zinc-oxide columns grown on silica particles through atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition; the sample surface was coated with a chemically adsorbed monomolecular layer. Samples were obtained which had a superhydrophobic property (with a water droplet contact angle of more than 150°) and a high average transmittance of about 90% (with wavelengths ranging from 400 nm to 780 nm).

  9. Preparation and Analysis of Type II Xerogel Films with Antifouling/Foul Release Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Anastasiya

    In order to combat biofouling, xerogel coatings comprised of aminopropyl, fluorocarbon, and hydrocarbon silanes were prepared and tested for their antifouling/foul release properties against Ulva, Navicula, barnacles, and tubeworms. Many of the coatings showed settlement and removal of Ulva to be as good as or better than the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMSE) standard. Barnacle removal assays showed excellent results for some coatings while others did not fair so well. The best foul release coatings for barnacles were comprised of aminopropyl/hydrocarbon- and fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified silanes. For the majority of coatings tested, water wettability and surface energy did not play a role in the antifouling/ foul release properties of the coatings.

  10. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianghong; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Shi, Dean; Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-07-01

    Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  11. Seasonal variation of antifouling activities of marine algae from the Brittany coast (France).

    PubMed

    Hellio, Claire; Marechal, Jean-Philippe; Véron, Benoît; Bremer, Graham; Clare, Anthony S; Le Gal, Yves

    2004-01-01

    The antifouling activity of extracts (aqueous, ethanol, and dichloromethane) of 9 marine macroalgae against bacteria, fungi, diatoms, macroalgal spores, mussel phenoloxidase activity, and barnacle cypris larvae has been investigated in relation to season in bimonthly samples from the Bay of Concarneau (France). Of the extracts tested, 48.2% were active against at least one of the fouling organisms, and of these extracts, 31.2% were seasonally active with a peak of activity in summer corresponding to maximal values for water temperature, light intensity, and fouling pressure, and 17% were active throughout the year. This seasonal activity may be adaptive as it coincides with maximal fouling pressure in the Bay of Concarneau. Dichloromethane extracts of Rhodophyceae were the most active in the antifouling assays.

  12. A robust way to prepare blood-compatible and anti-fouling polyethersulfone membrane.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Wang, Rui; Li, Shuangsi; Xiang, Tao; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Functional copolymers were successfully grafted onto polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surfaces by free radical mechanism using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. The anti-coagulant and anti-fouling properties of the membranes were well controlled by changing the functional copolymer compositions. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transforminfrared (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer spectrum (XPS), water contact angles (WCAs), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were used to characterize the membranes. The results of protein adsorption, clotting times, platelet adhesion and bacteria attachment indicated that the membranes had good blood-compatibility and/or anti-fouling ability. Meanwhile, the modification didn't cause an adverse effect on the membrane permeability. This new method provides a general, robust and flexible way to adjust membrane surface performance and potentially has wide applications.

  13. Zwitterionic glycosyl modified polyethersulfone membranes with enhanced anti-fouling property and blood compatibility.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Li, Shuang-Si; Jiang, Xin; Xiang, Tao; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    In this study, novel zwitterionic glycosyl modified polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were prepared via in-situ cross-linking polymerization coupled with phase inversion technique, and the following reactions. The membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), (1)HNMR spectrum, and static water contact angles (WCAs) measurements. The modified membranes showed excellent anti-fouling property, and the flux recovery ratio could reach almost 100%. Meanwhile, the blood compatibility of the membranes was measured by protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT). The results implied that the zwitterionic glycosyl modified PES membranes had good anti-fouling property and blood compatibility.

  14. Surface anchored metal-organic frameworks as stimulus responsive antifouling coatings.

    PubMed

    Sancet, Maria Pilar Arpa; Hanke, Maximilian; Wang, Zhengbang; Bauer, Stella; Azucena, Carlos; Arslan, Hasan K; Heinle, Marita; Gliemann, Hartmut; Wöll, Christof; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2013-12-01

    Surface-anchored, crystalline and oriented metal organic frameworks (SURMOFs) have huge potential for biological applications due to their well-defined and highly-porous structure. In this work we describe a MOF-based, fully autonomous system, which combines sensing, a specific response, and the release of an antimicrobial agent. The Cu-containing SURMOF, Cu-SURMOF 2, is stable in artificial seawater and shows stimulus-responsive anti-fouling properties against marine bacteria. When Cobetia marina adheres on the SURMOF, the framework's response is lethal to the adhering microorganism. A thorough analysis reveals that this response is induced by agents secreted from the microbes after adhesion to the substrate, and includes a release of Cu ions resulting from a degradation of the SURMOF. The stimulus-responsive antifouling effect of Cu-SURMOF 2 demonstrates the first application of Cu-SURMOF 2 as autonomous system with great potential for further microbiological and cell culture applications.

  15. Novel antifouling oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate particles via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Buyukserin, Fatih; Camli, Sevket Tolga; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman; Budak, Gurer Guven

    2011-03-01

    The use of particle formulations with antifouling surface properties attracts increasing interest in several biotechnological applications. Majority of these studies utilize a poly(ethylene glycol) coating to render the corresponding surface nonrecognizable to biological macromolecules. Herein, we report a simple way to prepare novel antifouling colloids composed of oligo(ethylene glycol) backbones via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Monodisperse cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) ethyl ether methacrylate particles were characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of monomer, cross-linker and initiator on particle characteristics were investigated. More importantly, a prominent blockage of bovine serum albumin adsorption was obtained for the poly(ethylene glycol)-based sub-micron (~200 nm) particles when compared with similar-sized poly(methyl methacrylate) counterparts.

  16. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine polymer-immobilized surface by simple tyrosinase-mediated grafting for enhanced antifouling property.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ho Joon; Lee, Yunki; Phuong, Le Thi; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Kim, Eunsuk; Park, Jong Chul; Yoon, Hyunjin; Park, Ki Dong

    2017-10-01

    Introducing antifouling property to biomaterial surfaces has been considered an effective method for preventing the failure of implanted devices. In order to achieve this, the immobilization of zwitterions on biomaterial surfaces has been proven to be an excellent way of improving anti-adhesive potency. In this study, poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine), a tyramine-conjugated sulfobetaine polymer, was synthesized and simply grafted onto the surface of polyurethane via a tyrosinase-mediated reaction. Surface characterization by water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the zwitterionic polymer was successfully introduced onto the surface of polyurethane and remained stable for 7days. In vitro studies revealed that poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine)-coated surfaces dramatically reduced the adhesion of fibrinogen, platelets, fibroblasts, and S. aureus by over 90% in comparison with bare surfaces. These results proved that polyurethane surfaces grafted with poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine) via a tyrosinase-catalyzed reaction could be promising candidates for an implantable medical device with excellent bioinert abilities. Antifouling surface modification is one of the key strategy to prevent the thrombus formation or infection which occurs on the surface of biomaterial after transplantation. Although there are many methods to modify the surface have been reported, necessity of simple modification technique still exists to apply for practical applications. The purpose of this study is to modify the biomaterial's surface by simply immobilizing antifouling zwitterion polymer via enzyme tyrosinase-mediated reaction which could modify versatile substrates in mild aqueous condition within fast time period. After modification, pSBTA grafted surface becomes resistant to various biological factors including proteins, cells, and bacterias. This approach appears to be a promising method to impart antifouling property on

  17. Degradation kinetics of a potent antifouling agent, butenolide, under various environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Xu, Ying; Wang, Wenxiong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the degradation kinetics of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, under various environmental conditions. The active ingredient of the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), was used as positive control. The results showed that the degradation rate increased with increasing temperature. Half-lives of butenolide at 4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C were>64 d, 30.5 d and 3.9 d, respectively. Similar half-lives were recorded for DCOIT: >64 d at 4 °C, 27.9 d at 25 °C and 4.5d at 40 °C. Exposure to sunlight accelerated the degradation of both butenolide and DCOIT. The photolysis half-lives of butenolide and DCOIT were 5.7 d and 6.8 d, respectively, compared with 9.7 d and 14.4 d for the dark control. Biodegradation led to the fastest rate of butenolide removal from natural seawater, with a half-life of 0.5 d, while no obvious degradation was observed for DCOIT after incubation for 4 d. The biodegradative ability of natural seawater for butenolide was attributed mainly to marine bacteria. During the degradation of butenolide and DCOIT, a gradual decrease in antifouling activity was observed, as indicated by the increased settlement percentage of cypris larvae from barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Besides, increased cell growth of marine diatom Skeletonema costatum demonstrated that the toxicity of seawater decreased gradually without generation of more toxic by-products. Overall, rapid degradation of butenolide in natural seawater supported its claim as a promising candidate for commercial antifouling industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of film thickness on the antifouling performance of poly(hydroxy-functional methacrylates) grafted surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Li, Lingyan; Wang, Qiuming; Yu, Qiuming; Zheng, Jie

    2011-04-19

    The development of nonfouling biomaterials to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption and cell/bacterial adhesion is critical for many biomedical applications, such as antithrombogenic implants and biosensors. In this work, we polymerize two types of hydroxy-functional methacrylates monomers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) into polymer brushes on the gold substrate via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). We systematically examine the effect of the film thickness of polyHEMA and polyHPMA brushes on their antifouling performance in a wide range of biological media including single-protein solution, both diluted and undiluted human blood serum and plasma, and bacteria culture. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) results show a strong correlation between antifouling property and film thickness. Too thin or too thick polymer brushes lead to large protein adsorption. Surfaces with the appropriate film thickness of ∼25-45 nm for polyHPMA and ∼20-45 nm for polyHEMA can achieve almost zero protein adsorption (<0.3 ng/cm(2)) from single-protein solution and diluted human blood plasma and serum. For undiluted human blood serum and plasma, polyHEMA brushes at a film thickness of ∼20-30 nm adsorb only ∼3.0 and ∼3.5 ng/cm(2) proteins, respectively, while polyHPMA brushes at a film thickness of ∼30 nm adsorb more proteins of ∼13.5 and ∼50.0 ng/cm(2), respectively. Moreover, both polyHEMA and polyHPMA brushes with optimal film thickness exhibit very low bacteria adhesion. The excellent antifouling ability and long-term stability of polyHEMA and polyHPMA brushes make them, especially for polyHEMA, effective and stable antifouling materials for usage in blood-contacting devices.

  19. An Investigation of the Antifouling Potential of Extracts of the Periostracum of Mytilus sp.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    and inspired by marine mussel natural defence systems, will take considerable development time before application into any new product. Similarly to...the research program investigating the potential antifouling activity of extracts from the periostracum of the marine mussel Mytilus sp.. Previous...research has suggested that marine mussels utilise multi-faceted defence mechanisms to ensure their fitness does not suffer due to heavy fouling

  20. Microencapsulation of Biocides for Reduced Copper, Long-life Antifouling Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    together with Microtek produce microencapsulated DCOIT. Laboratory facilities equipped to produce from 100g – 500kg batches of microcapsules . These...FINAL REPORT Microencapsulation of Biocides for Reduced Copper, Long-life Antifouling Coatings ESTCP Project WP-0306 FEBRUARY 2007...octyl-4-isothi azolin-3-one (DCOIT) hns been microencapsulated nnd incorporated into collUllercially relevanl AF coatings. Re•ulls demon•ll’ntt long

  1. Efficient wastewater treatment by membranes through constructing tunable antifouling membrane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjuan; Su, Yanlei; Peng, Jinming; Zhao, Xueting; Jiang, Zhongyi; Dong, Yanan; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yangui; Liu, Jiazhen

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, a facile in situ approach for constructing tunable amphiphilic or hydrophilic antifouling membrane surfaces was demonstrated by exquisitely manipulating the microphase separation and surface segregation behavior of the tailor-made ternary amphiphilic block copolymers during the commonly utilized wet phase inversion membrane-formation process. Under dead-end filtration for oily wastewater treatment, the membrane with amphiphilic surface exhibited over 99.5% retention ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) without appreciable membrane fouling: the water permeation flux was slightly decreased during operation (total flux decline was 6.8%) and almost completely recovered to the initial value (flux recovery ratio was more than 99.0%) after simple hydraulic washing. While for the proteins-containing wastewater treatment, the membrane with hydrophilic surface exhibited about 52.6% COD retention ratio and superior antifouling performance: only 17.0% total flux decline and also more than 99.0% flux recovery ratio. Hopefully, the present approach can be developed as a competitive platform technology for the preparation of robust and versatile antifouling membrane, leading to the high process efficiency of wastewater treatments.

  2. First evaluation of the threat posed by antifouling biocides in the Southern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Sonia; Ansanelli, Giuliana; Parrella, Luisa; Di Landa, Giuseppe; Massanisso, Paolo; Schiavo, Simona; Minopoli, Carmine; Lanza, Bruno; Boggia, Raffaella; Aleksi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Afrim

    2014-08-01

    The CARISMA project (characterization and ecological risk analysis of antifouling biocides in the Southern Adriatic Sea) aims to appraise the quality of the Southern Adriatic Sea between Italy (Apulia region) and Albania and, in particular, the impact due to the use of biocidal antifouling coatings. Under this project, a preliminary survey at the main hot spots of contamination (e.g. ports and marinas) was conducted at the end of the nautical season in 2012. Chemical seawater analyses were complemented with ecotoxicological assays and the results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). As expected, PCA splits the Albanian and Italian ports, according to the different degrees of contamination indicated for the two countries by the experimental data, highlighting the most critical situation in one port of Apulia. In addition, in order to assess the potential adverse ecological effects posed by antifouling agents (i.e. tributyltin (TBT)-irgarol-diuron) on non-target marine organisms, hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated. The results showed a low risk posed by irgarol and diuron whereas the probability of adverse effects was high in the case of TBT.

  3. Multivalent anchoring and cross-linking of mussel-inspired antifouling surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Becherer, Tobias; Mutihac, Radu-Cristian; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Paulus, Florian; Haag, Rainer; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-08-11

    In this work, we combine nature's amazing bioadhesive catechol with the excellent bioinert synthetic macromolecule hyperbranched polyglycerol (hPG) to prepare antifouling surfaces. hPG can be functionalized by different amounts of catechol groups for multivalent anchoring and cross-linking because of its highly branched architecture. The catecholic hPGs can be immobilized on various surfaces including metal oxides, noble metals, ceramics, and polymers via simple incubation procedures. The effect of the catechol amount on the immobilization, surface morphology, stability, and antifouling performance of the coatings was studied. Both anchoring and cross-linking interactions provided by catechols can enhance the stability of the coatings. When the catechol groups on the hPG are underrepresented, the tethering of the coating is not effective; while an overrepresentation of catechol groups leads to protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Thus, only a well-balanced amount of catechols as optimized and described in this work can supply the coatings with both good stability and antifouling ability.

  4. Preparation and antifouling property of polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huihui; Xue, Jing; Qian, Bin; Chen, Huaying; Zhu, Yonggang; Lan, Minbo

    2017-02-01

    An antifouling polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate (PU-CS) was prepared by chemical grafting with N-Boc-1,3-propanediamine as a spacer. The different mass fraction of N-Boc-1,3-propanediamine was investigated to obtain PU-CS films with different CS grafting density. The surface properties of PU-CS films were comprehensively characterized. Proteins adsorption and glycosaminoglycans adhesion on films were evaluated. Moreover, inorganic salt deposition on film with highest CS grafting density (3.70 μg/cm2) was briefly investigated. The results showed that the increase of CS grafting density improved not only the hydrophilicity but the antifouling performance of films. The best antifouling film reduced the adsorption of fibrinogen (BFG), human serum albumin (HSA) and lysozyme (LYS) by 81.4%, 95.0% and 76.5%, respectively, and the adhesion of chondroitin (CS), heparin (HP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) by 70.6%, 87.4% and 81.3%, respectively. In addition, the co-adsorption of proteins and glycosaminoglycans reduced up to 86.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Changes in inorganic salt deposition after co-adsorption of proteins and glycosaminoglycans on PU-CS(3) suggested that the proteins promoted the inorganic salt deposition, while glycosaminoglycans inhibited the crystal growth. The negatively charged polysaccharides might promote the generation of smaller crystals which could be conducive to provide theoretical and practical guide to develop novel urinary stents with significant anti-encrustation properties.

  5. Improved antifouling potential of polyether sulfone polymeric membrane containing silver nanoparticles: self-cleaning membranes.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sidra; Nazar, Umair; Ali, Jafar; Ali, Qurat Ul Ain; Ahmad, Nasir M; Sarwar, Fiza; Waseem, Hassan; Jamil, Syed Umair Ullah

    2017-05-26

    A new strategy to enhance the antifouling potential of polyether sulfone (PES) membrane is presented. Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were used to prepare a mixed-matrix PES membrane by the phase inversion technique. Primarily, AgNPs synthesis was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance at 410-430 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that AgNPs were crystalline with a diameter of 21 ± 2 nm. Furthermore, PES membranes were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to confirm the incorporation of AgNPs in membranes. Hydrophilicity of the membranes was enhanced, whereas roughness, mechanical strength and biofouling were relatively reduced after embedding the AgNPs. Antibacterial potential of AgNPs was evaluated for E. coli in the disc diffusion and colony-forming unit (CFU) count method. All of the membranes were assessed for antifouling activity by filtering a control dilution (10(6) CFU/ml) of E. coli and by counting CFU. Anti-biofouling activity of the membrane was observed with different concentrations of AgNPs. Maximum reduction (66%) was observed in membrane containing 1.5% of AgNPs. The addition of antibiotic ceftriaxone enhanced the antibacterial effect of AgNPs in PES membranes. Our practicable antifouling strategy may be applied to other polymeric membranes which may pave the new way to achieve sustainable and self-cleaning membrane reactors on large scale.

  6. Universal Surface-initiated Polymerization of Antifouling Zwitterionic Brushes Using A Mussel-Mimetic Peptide Initiator

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jinghao; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    We report a universal method for the surface-initated polymerization (SIP) of a antifouling polymer brush on various classes of surfaces, including noble metals, metal oxides and inert polymers. Inspired by the versatility of mussel adhesive proteins, we synthesized a novel bifunctional tripeptide bromide (BrYKY) which combines an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiating alkyl bromide with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and lysine. Simple dip-coating of substrates with variable wetting properties and compositions, including Teflon®, in a BrYKY solution at pH 8.5 led to formation of a thin film of cross-linked BrYKY. Subsequently, we showed that the BrYKY layer initiated the ATRP of a zwitterionic monomer, sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) on all substrates, resulting in high density antifouling pSBMA brushes. Both BrYKY deposition and pSBMA grafting were unambiguously confirmed by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and goniometry. All substrates that were coated with BrYKY/pSBMA dramatically reduced bacterial adhesion for 24 h and also resisted mammalian cell adhesion for at least 4 months, demonstrating the long-term stability of the BrYKY anchoring and antifouling properties of pSBMA. The use of BrYKY as a primer and polymerization initiator has the potential to be widely employed in surface grafted polymer brush modifications for biomedical and other applications. PMID:22506651

  7. Selection of commercial hydrolytic enzymes with potential antifouling activity in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Zanaroli, Giulio; Negroni, Andrea; Calisti, Cecilia; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Fava, Fabio

    2011-12-10

    In this work, the marine antifouling potential of some commercially available hydrolytic enzymes acting on the main constituents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) involved in bacterial biofilm formation was determined. The selected protease (i.e., alpha-chymotrypsin from bovine pancreas), carbohydrase (i.e., alpha-amylase from porcine pancreas) and lipase (from porcine pancreas) exhibited remarkable hydrolytic activities towards target macromolecules typically composing EPS under a wide range of pHs (6.5-9.0 for alpha-chymotrysin and alpha-amylase; 7.0-8.5 for the lipase) and temperatures (from 10 °C to 30 °C), as well as relevant half-lives (from about 2 weeks to about 2 months), in a marine synthetic water. The activity displayed by each enzyme was poorly affected by the co-presence of the other enzymes, thus indicating their suitability to be employed in combination. None of the enzymes was able to inhibit the formation of biofilm by an actual site marine microbial community when applied singly. However, a mixture of the same enzymes reduced biofilm formation by about 90% without affecting planktonic growth of the same microbial community. This indicates that multiple hydrolytic activities are required to efficiently prevent biofilm formation by complex microbial communities, and that the mixture of enzymes selected in this study has the potential to be employed as an environmental friendly antifouling agent in marine antifouling coatings.

  8. Effect of surface compositional heterogeneities and microphase segregation of fluorinated amphiphilic copolymers on antifouling performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zeliang; Ni, Huagang; Han, Zhiyuan; Jiang, Tengfei; Xu, Yongjuan; Lu, Xiaolin; Ye, Peng

    2013-08-28

    In this paper, a series of fluorinated amphiphilic copolymers composed of 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacrylate (FMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomers were prepared, and their surface properties and antifouling performance were investigated. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human plasma fibrinogen (HFg) were used as model proteins to study protein adsorption onto the fluorinated amphiphilic surfaces. All the fluorinated amphiphilic surfaces exhibit excellent resistant performance of protein adsorption measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface compositional heterogeneities on the molecular scale play an important role in the antifouling properties. It was found that the copolymers exhibited better antifouling properties than the corresponding homopolymers did, when the percentage of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups is from 4% to 7% and the percentage of hydrophobic fluorinated moieties is from 4% to 14% on the surface. In addition, the protein molecular size scale and the pattern of microphase segregation domains on the surface strongly affect the protein adsorption behaviors. These results demonstrate the desirable protein-resistant performance from the fluorinated amphiphilic copolymers and provide deeper insight of the effect of surface compositional heterogeneity and microphase segregation on the protein adsorption behaviors.

  9. Development of an electrochemical antifouling system for seawater cooling pipelines of power plants using titanium.

    PubMed

    Wake, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Takimoto, Toshihiro; Takayanagi, Hirokazu; Ozawa, Kinichi; Kadoi, Hideo; Okochi, Mina; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-10-20

    Biofouling is the undesirable adhesion and development of microorganisms and macroorganisms in a water environment. An electrochemical antifouling system based on management of primary adhesion of microorganisms was developed employing titanium electrode for antifouling of seawater cooling pipes and marine infrastructures. The system consists of an electrochemical reaction-monitoring unit, a power control unit, and a potential/current remote monitoring and a control unit. Titanium plates and iron plates were used as the working and counter electrode, respectively. Field experiment was conducted in the seawater cooling pipeline system of a thermal power station. Four titanium electrodes with 1.0 m length and 3.0 m width were set in the seawater intake pit and current density was controlled at 50-100 mA/m(2). The electrode surface maintained clean conditions for 2 years. The average wet weight of fouling organisms on the titanium electrode surface was below 100 g/m(2) whereas the corresponding wet weight was above 10 kg/m(2) on the control surface. Using titanium as the electrode material, chlorine and hypochlorite are not generated. The developed electrochemical antifouling system provided an effective, environmentally friendly, and feasible techniques for remote operations.

  10. Surface modification of silicone for biomedical applications requiring long-term antibacterial, antifouling, and hemocompatible properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Neoh, Koon Gee; Xu, Li Qun; Wang, Rong; Kang, En-Tang; Lau, Titus; Olszyna, Dariusz Piotr; Chiong, Edmund

    2012-11-27

    Silicone has been used for peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters for several decades. However, bacteria, platelets, proteins, and other biomolecules tend to adhere to its hydrophobic surface, which may lead to PD outflow failure, serious infection, or even death. In this work, a cross-linked poly(poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate) (P(PEGDMA)) polymer layer was covalently grafted on medical-grade silicone surface to improve its antibacterial and antifouling properties. The P(PEGDMA)-grafted silicone (Silicone-g-P(PEGDMA)) substrate reduced the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Staphylococcus epidermidis , as well as 3T3 fibroblast cells by ≥90%. The antibacterial and antifouling properties were preserved after the modified substrate was aged for 30 days in phosphate buffer saline. Further immobilization of a polysulfobetaine polymer, poly((2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide) (P(DMAPS)), on the Silicone-g-P(PEGDMA) substrate via thiol-ene click reaction leads to enhanced antifouling efficacy and improved hemocompatibility with the preservation of the antibacterial property. Compared to pristine silicone, the so-obtained Silicone-g-P(PEGDMA)-P(DMAPS) substrate reduced the absorption of bovine serum albumin and bovine plasma fibrinogen by ≥80%. It also reduced the number of adherent platelets by ≥90% and significantly prolonged plasma recalcification time. The results indicate that surface grafting with P(PEGDMA) and P(DMAPS) can be potentially useful for the modification of silicone-based PD catheters for long-term applications.

  11. Periodic feedwater reversal and air sparging as antifouling strategies in reverse electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Vermaas, David A; Kunteng, Damnearn; Veerman, Joost; Saakes, Michel; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy can be generated using natural streams of seawater and river water in reverse electrodialysis (RED). The potential for electricity production of this technology is huge, but fouling of the membranes and the membrane stack reduces the potential for large scale applications. This research shows that, without any specific antifouling strategies, the power density decreases in the first 4 h of operation to 40% of the originally obtained power density. It slowly decreases further in the remaining 67 days of operation. Using antifouling strategies, a significantly higher power density can be maintained. Periodically switching the feedwaters (i.e., changing seawater for river water and vice versa) generates the highest power density in the first hours of operation, probably due to a removal of multivalent ions and organic foulants from the membrane when the electrical current reverses. In the long term, colloidal fouling is observed in the stack without treatment and the stack with periodic feedwater switching, and preferential channeling is observed in the latter. This decreases the power density further. This decrease in power density is partly reversible. Only a stack with periodic air sparging has a minimum of colloidal fouling, resulting in a higher power density in the long term. A combination of the discussed antifouling strategies, together with the use of monovalent selective membranes, is recommended to maintain a high power density in RED in short-term and long-term operations.

  12. Design and Application of The Painting Material Supply System of The Painting Robot for Steel Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Kunio; Hisayasu, Azuma; Mori, Tsunehito; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Nakashima, Yoshio

    With the increase of painting works and the decrease of skilled workers, the demand for robot painting of the large-scale steel product is rapidly increasing. But there are many technical problems in the development of the painting robot for this use. The collision between a robot and a work-piece is one of the most important problems, because the robot operates in a small space of a work-piece. Above all, the collision of the painting material supply hose with painted film on a work-piece is very serious. To avoid the hose collision, we propose an in-line type of paint supply mechanism using swivel joints. The key point in this system is the sealing performance and its durability, and we propose the piping system with compliance to strengthen the sealing performance. In this paper, the design method of this system is discussed on the basis of the analysis of the fluctuatinal elastic deformation of a O-ring in the swivel joint. We produced a prototype of the painting robot with the in-line system designed by this method. Application of this robot to the painting of ship-hull block is also discussed. Results from this application show the effectiveness of the in-line system.

  13. Characterizing PCB contamination in Painted Demolition Debris: The Painted History at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    as PCB Bulk Product Waste (i.e. no samples; waste disposed in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill). EPA requests paint and substrate samples be...OR PCB remediation waste?  EPA TSCA guidance states painted demolition debris is PCB bulk waste product and may be disposed of in a municipal solid waste  EPA

  14. Lead paint removal with high-intensity light pulses.

    PubMed

    Grapperhaus, Michael J; Schaefer, Raymond B

    2006-12-15

    This paper presents the results of an initial investigation into using high-intensity incoherent light pulses to strip paint. Measurements of light pulse characteristics, the reflectivity of different paints and initial experiments on the threshold for paint removal, and paint removal are presented, along with an approximate model consistent with experimental results. Paint removal tests include lead paint, the reduction of lead levels to below levels required for lead abatement, as well as air and light emissions measurements that are within regulatory guidelines.

  15. Comparative chromosome painting in Carnivora and Pholidota.

    PubMed

    Perelman, P L; Beklemisheva, V R; Yudkin, D V; Petrina, T N; Rozhnov, V V; Nie, W; Graphodatsky, A S

    2012-01-01

    The order of Carnivora has been very well characterized with over 50 species analyzed by chromosome painting and with painting probe sets made for 9 Carnivora species. Representatives of almost all families have been studied with few exceptions (Otariidae, Odobenidae, Nandiniidae, Prionodontidae). The patterns of chromosome evolution in Carnivora are discussed here. Overall, many Carnivora species retained karyotypes that only slightly differ from the ancestral carnivore karyotype. However, there are at least 3 families in which the ancestral carnivore karyotype has been severely rearranged - Canidae, Ursidae and Mephitidae. Here we report chromosome painting of yet another Carnivora species with a highly rearranged karyotype, Genetta pardina. Recurrent rearrangements make it difficult to define the ancestral chromosomal arrangement in several instances. Only 2 species of pangolins (Pholidota), a sister order of Carnivora, have been studied by chromosome painting. Future use of whole-genome sequencing data is discussed in the context of solving the questions that are beyond resolution of conventional banding techniques and chromosome painting.

  16. Marine anticorrosion paints based on thiouracil compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, A.B.; Nabey, A.E.

    1996-10-01

    The inhibition of marine corrosion of steel by 6-amino-2-thiouracil (1) and its derivatives 6-benzylideneamino-2-thiouracil (2) and 6-p-chlorobenzylideneamino-2-thiouracil (3) has been tested on laboratory scale using electrochemical technique which was performed on mild steel in sea water medium and on field scale through the incorporation of the compounds individually in marine paints compositions. The paint containing the compounds were applied on unprimed steel and the coated panels were tested in Alexandria Eastern Harbour water (Egypt). The electrochemical measurements indicate that both compounds (1) & (3) act as cathodic-type inhibitors, but the data of compound (2) showed neither cathodic nor anodic inhibition. The paint composition based on the soluble resin material as a sole binder and containing compound (1) showed the best corrosion protection of its steel surface tell more than 2 months followed by the paint composition containing compound (3). On the other hand, oil is not recommended with paint composition containing these compounds.

  17. Subconjunctival latex paint from occupational injury.

    PubMed

    Odhav, Ashika; Kollipara, Ramya; Teymoorian, Savak; Lord, Ron K; Lyon, David B

    2013-05-01

    Accidental eye trauma with spray guns are rare, but potentially very serious, injuries. Although it is agreed that these injuries require immediate and vigorous therapy, the specifics of such therapy are poorly defined. With latex paint sprayer injuries to hands and extremities, resulting chemical-induced inflammation, high-pressure necrosis, ischemic necrosis, and gangrene require surgical debridement and possibly, amputation. With eye injuries, treatment is directed at preservation of vision, as there is a potential risk of visual loss. There is currently no consensus on optimal treatment of ocular spray paint injuries. Here we propose a management approach to ocular spray paint injuries with a successful outcome in the case reported. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of an industrial airless spray gun injury that resulted in subconjunctival deposition of latex paint in a soft contact lens wearer. Vision was preserved with medical management consisting of irrigation and topical corticosteroids, antibiotics and cycloplegics. Although latex paint spray gun injuries to the eye are not encountered frequently in practice, this case shows that conservative medical management with no surgical intervention is effective for ocular injuries with preserved vision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Painting with polygons: a procedural watercolor engine.

    PubMed

    DiVerdi, Stephen; Krishnaswamy, Aravind; Měch, Radomír; Ito, Daichi

    2013-05-01

    Existing natural media painting simulations have produced high-quality results, but have required powerful compute hardware and have been limited to screen resolutions. Digital artists would like to be able to use watercolor-like painting tools, but at print resolutions and on lower end hardware such as laptops or even slates. We present a procedural algorithm for generating watercolor-like dynamic paint behaviors in a lightweight manner. Our goal is not to exactly duplicate watercolor painting, but to create a range of dynamic behaviors that allow users to achieve a similar style of process and result, while at the same time having a unique character of its own. Our stroke representation is vector based, allowing for rendering at arbitrary resolutions, and our procedural pigment advection algorithm is fast enough to support painting on slate devices. We demonstrate our technique in a commercially available slate application used by professional artists. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the different vector-rendering technologies available.

  19. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  20. Zwitterionic polymer functionalization of polysulfone membrane with improved antifouling property and blood compatibility by combination of ATRP and click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Tao; Lu, Ting; Xie, Yi; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Sun, Shu-Dong; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    The chemical compositions are very important for designing blood-contacting membranes with good antifouling property and blood compatibility. In this study, we propose a method combining ATRP and click chemistry to introduce zwitterionic polymer of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA), negatively charged polymers of poly(sodium methacrylate) (PNaMAA) and/or poly(sodium p-styrene sulfonate) (PNaSS), to improve the antifouling property and blood compatibility of polysulfone (PSf) membranes. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle results confirmed the successful grafting of the functional polymers. The antifouling property and blood compatibility of the modified membranes were systematically investigated. The zwitterionic polymer (PSBMA) grafted membranes showed good resistance to protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion; the negatively charged polymer (PNaSS or PNaMAA) grafted membranes showed improved blood compatibility, especially the anticoagulant property. Moreover, the PSBMA/PNaMAA modified membrane showed both antifouling property and anticoagulant property, and exhibited a synergistic effect in inhibiting blood coagulation. The functionalization of membrane surfaces by a combination of ATRP and click chemistry is demonstrated as an effective route to improve the antifouling property and blood compatibility of membranes in blood-contact. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CuSO4/H2O2-Triggered Polydopamine/Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) Coatings for Antifouling Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Hao-Nan; Du, Yong; Ma, Meng-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2017-02-07

    Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) coatings have been broadly exploited for constructing functional membrane surfaces. One-step codeposition of PDA with antifouling polymers, especially zwitterionic polymers, has been regarded as a promising strategy for fabricating antifouling membrane surfaces. However, one challenge is that the codeposition is usually a slow process over 10 h or even several days. Herein, we report that CuSO4/H2O2 is able to notably accelerate the codeposition process of PDA with poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA). In our case, PSBMA is facilely anchored to the polypropylene microporous membrane (PPMM) surfaces within 1 h with the assistance of PDA because of its strong interfacial adhesion. The PDA/PSBMA-coated PPMMs show excellent surface hydrophilicity, high water permeation flux (7506 ± 528 L/m(2)·h at 0.1 MPa), and an outstanding antifouling property. Moreover, the antifouling property is maintained after the membranes are treated with acid and alkali solutions as well as organic solvents. To recap, it provides a facile, universal, and time-saving strategy for exploiting high-efficiency and durable antifouling membrane surfaces.

  2. Preference for and Discrimination of Paintings by Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist’s style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization. PMID:23762346

  3. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  4. The actinobacterial colonization of Etruscan paintings.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70's when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches.

  5. [Disease in Velázquez' painting].

    PubMed

    Schüller Pérez, A

    2000-01-01

    A short biographical abstract of Painter Velázquez and his artistical and cultural background with relation to this own time is given. His whole work and of the court and official jobs he had has, been analysed. Together with his artistical vocation and great capacity and aptitude for painting, he felt the ambition to seek a position of nobility. A peculiar research of the pathological aspects appearing in his pictures has been made, regardless of the technical characteristics of his painting and style. For this purpose, his paintings have been classified in still lives, religious pictures, mythological pictures, portraits of royal male and female family members, portraits of ordinary people, big peoples such as Las Lanzas, Las Hilanderas and Las Meninas, etc., to conclude with the really singular group of buffoons, dwarfs, jesters and mad people. The pathological issues have been commented. A list of bibliographical references is also added.

  6. Crack opening: from colloidal systems to paintings.

    PubMed

    Léang, Marguerite; Giorgiutti-Dauphiné, Frédérique; Lee, Lay-Theng; Pauchard, Ludovic

    2017-08-30

    Shrinkage cracks are observed in many materials, particularly in paintings where great interest lies in deducing quantitative information on the material with the aim of proposing authentication methods. We present experimental measurements on the crack opening induced by the drying of colloidal layers and compare these results to the case of a pictorial layer. We propose a simple model to predict the crack width as a function of the thickness of the drying layer, based on the balance between the drying stress buildup and the shear frictional stress with the substrate. Key parameters of the model include the mechanical properties that are measured experimentally using micro-indentation testing. A good agreement between theory and experimental data for both colloidal layers and the real painting is found. These results, by comparing the shrinkage cracks in model layers and in pictorial layers, validate the method based on the use of colloidal systems to simulate and to reproduce drying cracks in paintings.

  7. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  8. Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) have been invented as alternatives to conventional organic-solvent-based pressure-sensitive paints, which are used primarily for indicating distributions of air pressure on wind-tunnel models. Typically, PSPs are sprayed onto aerodynamic models after they have been mounted in wind tunnels. When conventional organic-solvent-based PSPs are used, this practice creates a problem of removing toxic fumes from inside the wind tunnels. The use of water-based PSPs eliminates this problem. The waterbased PSPs offer high performance as pressure indicators, plus all the advantages of common water-based paints (low toxicity, low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, and easy cleanup by use of water).

  9. Analysis of mural paintings in Istria.

    PubMed

    Mazzocchin, G A; Rudello, D; Maraković, N; Marić, I

    2007-08-01

    Fragments of wall paintings from Istria, coming from the Basilica of Guran near Vodnjan, from the cemeterial Church of Saint Simeon in Guran and from the Benedictine monastery of Santa Maria Alta near Bale were studied. The analytical instrumental techniques used were Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with an EDS microanalysis detector, X Ray diffraction, FTIR infrared Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. Red and yellow pigments used in Guran and Bale have bean derived from red and yellow istrian bauxites, as already demonstrated for works from 11th to 15th century. The blue pigment found in the paintings of the Bale Chapel is a lapislazzuli blue; this fact confirms the literature data referring to the period from 11th to the 16th century. The materials and pigments used at Bale and Guran fit with the Istrian tradition and history of painting going back to the first Carolingian period.

  10. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  11. The Actinobacterial Colonization of Etruscan Paintings

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70′s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches. PMID:23486535

  12. A Generative Approach to Chinese Shanshui Painting.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weili

    2017-01-01

    The Shan Shui in the World project recreated Manhattan, New York, in the style of traditional Chinese shanshui paintings by using a generative algorithm to transform its buildings into mountains. This project revisits the ideas implicit in Chinese literati paintings of shan shui: the relationship between urban life and people's yearning for nature and between social responsibility and spiritual purity. Shan Shui in the World was made possible by the growing ubiquitousness of data and the development of data visualization techniques, especially generative art.

  13. Optimization of measurements with pressure sensitive paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Donald M.; Puram, Chith K.; Upchurch, Billy T.

    1995-01-01

    Use of luminescent paints for the measurement of global pressures on wind tunnel model surfaces requires a full understanding of the inherent accuracy of the technique. Theoretical emission of the paint luminophor follows the well known Stern-Volmer relation. Inherent in this relation are fundamental limits to achievable sensitivity and accuracy. Equations for relative error in pressure as a function of relative signal intensity (emittance), relative error in pressure as a function of pressure, and the relationship between sensitivity and pressure are derived and represented graphically.

  14. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens’s works. PMID:27101221

  15. Practical aspects of hydrophobic polycationic bactericidal "paints".

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Koushik; Rivera, Jaime J; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2008-10-01

    We previously discovered that coating solid surfaces with long-chained linear N-dodecyl,N-methyl-polyethylenimine makes them bactericidal and virucidal. In the present study, focusing on the use of this microbicidal paint to kill airborne Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, we have systematically investigated the dependence of this effect on the concentration and mode of application of the hydrophobic polycation, the number of coats, the nature of the solvent, and the presence of a dye in such paint. In addition, the latter's ability to be regenerated after use, stability upon repeated washings, and mammalian toxicity has been evaluated.

  16. Low-Speed Pressure Sensitive Paint Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Brown; Mehta, Rabindra; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A series of low speed (M less than 0.2) experiments using University of Washington Fib-07 Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) have been conducted at NASA Ames on a NACA 0012 airfoil. Significant improvements in results have been shown: PSP calibration errors of the improved data (with pressure taps as a reference) now agree with theoretical error limits. Additional measurements on the 0012 airfoil using Temperature Sensitive Paint have been made. These TSP measurements now fully quantify the impact of temporal temperature changes on model surfaces on PSP measurements. Finally, simultaneous PSP - TSP measurements have been performed, allowing in-situ temperature correction of PSP data with good results.

  17. Current Trends in Forensic Paint Examination.

    PubMed

    Ryland, S G; Jergovich, T A; Kirkbride, K P

    2006-07-01

    Paints and coatings have been recognized as a useful type of forensic evidence for several decades. During this time the materials themselves, the analytical methods used to examine them, and the legal environment surrounding the use of scientific evidence in courts have all changed. This paper is not intended to provide a comprehensive bibliography on the topic, but rather to provide a concise overview of past and current trends in the forensic examination of paints and coatings in light of these changes. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  18. Maya Blue Paint: An Ancient Nanostructured Material

    PubMed

    Jose-Yacaman; Rendon; Arenas; Serra Puche MC

    1996-07-12

    Maya blue paint was often used in Mesoamerica. The origin of its color and its resistance to acids and biocorrosion have not been fully understood. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray microanalysis studies of authentic samples show that palygorskite crystals in the paint form a superlattice that probably occurs as a result of mixing with indigo molecules. An amorphous silicate substrate contains inclusions of metal nanoparticles encapsulated in the substrate and oxide nanoparticles on the surface. The beautiful tone of the color is obtained only when both the particles and the superlattice are present.

  19. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  20. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photo from Painting California Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photo from Painting California Historical Society Original: 1868 (Painting) Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM WEST (AFTER EARTHQUAKE OF 1868) - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA