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Sample records for biocompatible gecko-inspired tissue

  1. Strong, reversible underwater adhesion via gecko-inspired hydrophobic fibers.

    PubMed

    Soltannia, Babak; Sameoto, Dan

    2014-12-24

    Strong, reversible underwater adhesion using gecko-inspired surfaces is achievable through the use of a hydrophobic structural material and does not require surface modification or suction cup effects for this adhesion to be effective. Increased surface energy can aid in dry adhesion in an air environment but strongly degrades wet adhesion via reduction of interfacial energy underwater. A direct comparison of structurally identical but chemically different mushroom shaped fibers shows that strong, reversible adhesion, even in a fully wetted, stable state, is feasible underwater if the structural material of the fibers is hydrophobic and the mating surface is not strongly hydrophilic. The exact adhesion strength will be a function of the underwater interfacial energy between surfaces and the specific failure modes of individual fibers. This underwater adhesion has been calculated to be potentially greater than the dry adhesion for specific combinations of hydrophobic surfaces.

  2. Gecko inspired carbon nanotube based thermal gap pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Thermal management has become a critical factor in designing the next generation of microprocessors. The bottleneck in design of material for efficient heat transfer from electronic units to heat sinks is to enhance heat flow across interface between two dissimilar, rough surfaces. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been shown to be promising candidates for thermal transport. However, the heat transport across the interface continues to be a challenging hurdle. In the current work we designed free standing thermal pads based on gecko-inspired carbon nanotube adhesives. The pads were made of metallic carbon nanotubes and the structure was designed such that it would allow large area of intimate contact. We showed that these adhesive pads can be used as electrical and thermal interconnects.

  3. Gecko-Inspired, Controlled Adhesion and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menguc, Yigit

    This thesis work is primarily concerned with taking inspiration from the principles of gecko-adhesion in order to control the attachment of synthetic structured adhesives. We present gecko-inspired angled elastomer micropillars with flat or round tip endings as compliant pick-and-place micromanipulators. The pillars are 35 mum in diameter, 90 mum tall, and angled at an inclination of 20°. By gently pressing the tip of a pillar to a part, the pillar adheres to it through intermolecular forces. Next, by retracting quickly, the part is picked from a given donor substrate. During transferring, the adhesion between the pillar and the part is high enough to withstand disturbances due to external forces or the weight of the part. During release of the part onto a receiver substrate, the contact area of the pillar to the part is drastically reduced by controlled vertical or shear displacement, which results in reduced adhesive forces. The maximum repeatable ratio of pick-to-release adhesive forces was measured as 39 to 1. We find that a flat tip shape and shear displacement control provide a higher pick-to-release adhesion ratio than a round tip and vertical displacement control, respectively. We present a model of forces to serve as a framework for the operation of this micromanipulator. Finally, demonstrations of pick-and-place manipulation of mum-scale silicon microplatelets and a cm-scale glass cover slip serve as proofs of concept. The compliant polymer micropillars are safe for use with fragile parts, and, due to exploiting intermolecular forces, could be effective on most materials and in air, vacuum, and liquid environments. We present a study of the self-cleaning and contamination resistance phenomena of synthetic gecko-inspired adhesives made from elastomeric polyurethane. The phenomenon of self-cleaning makes the adhesive foot of the gecko robust against dirt, and makes it effectively sticky throughout the lifetime of the material (within the molting cycles

  4. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Eason, Eric V; Christensen, David L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2015-01-06

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A(-1/4). We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A(-1/50). Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm(2) of adhesive per hand. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chary, Sathya; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly

    2013-02-01

    Geckos utilize a robust reversible adhesive to repeatedly attach and detach from a variety of vertical and inverted surfaces, using structurally anisotropic micro- and nano-scale fibrillar structures. These fibers, when suitably articulated, are able to control the real area of contact and thereby generate high-to-low van der Waals forces. Key characteristics of the natural system include highly anisotropic adhesion and shear forces for controllable attachment, a high adhesion to initial preload force ratio (μ‧) of 8-16, lack of inter-fiber self-adhesion, and operation over more than 30 000 cycles without loss of adhesion performance. A highly reusable synthetic adhesive has been developed using tilted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) half-cylinder micron-scale fibers, retaining up to 77% of the initial value over 10 000 repeated test cycles against a flat glass puck. In comparison with other gecko-inspired adhesives tested over 10 000 cycles or more thus far, this paper reports the highest value of μ‧, along with a large shear force of ˜78 kPa, approaching the 88-226 kPa range of gecko toes. The anisotropic adhesion forces are close to theoretical estimates from the Kendall peel model, quantitatively showing how lateral shearing articulation in a manner similar to the gecko may be used to obtain adhesion anisotropy with synthetic fibers using a combination of tilt angle and anisotropic fiber geometry.

  6. Gecko-inspired bidirectional double-sided adhesives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengzhi; Gu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoping

    2014-05-14

    A new concept of gecko-inspired double-sided adhesives (DSAs) is presented. The DSAs, constructed by dual-angled (i.e. angled base and angled tip) micro-pillars on both sides of the backplane substrate, are fabricated by combinations of angled etching, mould replication, tip modification, and curing bonding. Two types of DSA, symmetric and antisymmetric (i.e. pillars are patterned symmetrically or antisymmetrically relative to the backplane), are fabricated and studied in comparison with the single-sided adhesive (SSA) counterparts through both non-conformal and conformal tests. Results indicate that the DSAs show controllable and bidirectional adhesion. Combination of the two pillar-layers can either amplify (for the antisymmetric DSA, providing a remarkable and durable adhesion capacity of 25.8 ± 2.8 N cm⁻² and a high anisotropy ratio of ∼8) or counteract (for the symmetric DSA, generating almost isotropic adhesion) the adhesion capacity and anisotropic level of one SSA (capacity of 16.2 ± 1.7 N cm⁻² and anisotropy ratio of ∼6). We demonstrate that these two DSAs can be utilized as a facile fastener for two individual objects and a small-scale delivery setup, respectively, complementing the functionality of the commonly studied SSA. As such, the double-sided patterning is believed to be a new branch in the further development of biomimetic dry adhesives.

  7. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Elliot W.; Eason, Eric V.; Christensen, David L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A−1/4. We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A−1/50. Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm2 of adhesive per hand. PMID:25411404

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Gecko-inspired Fibrillar Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongkwan

    Over the last decade, geckos' remarkable ability to stick to and climb surfaces found in nature has motivated a wide range of scientific interest in engineering gecko-mimetic surface for various adhesive and high friction applications. The high adhesion and friction of its pads have been attributed to a complex array of hairy structures, which maximize surface area for van der Waals interaction between the toes and the counter-surface. While advances in micro- and nanolithography technique have allowed fabrication of increasingly sophisticated gecko mimetic surfaces, it remains a challenge to produce an adhesive as robust as that of the natural gecko pads. In order to rationally design gecko adhesives, understanding the contact behavior of fibrillar interface is critical. The first chapter of the dissertation introduces gecko adhesion and its potential applications, followed by a brief survey of gecko-inspired adhesives. Challenges that limit the performance of the current adhesives are presented. In particular, it is pointed out that almost all testing of gecko adhesives have been on clean, smooth glass, which is ideal for adhesion due to high surface energy and low roughness. Surfaces in application are more difficult to stick to, so the understanding of failure modes in low energy and rough surfaces is important. The second chapter presents a fabrication method for thermoplastic gecko adhesive to be used for a detailed study of fibrillar interfaces. Low-density polyethylene nanofibers are replicated from a silicon nanowire array fabricated by colloidal lithography and metal-catalyzed chemical etching. This process yields a highly ordered array of nanofibers over a large area with control over fiber diameter, length, and number density. The high yield and consistency of the process make it ideal for a systematic study on factors that affect adhesion and friction of gecko adhesives. The following three chapters examine parameters that affect macroscale friction of

  9. Staying sticky: contact self-cleaning of gecko-inspired adhesives.

    PubMed

    Mengüç, Yigit; Röhrig, Michael; Abusomwan, Uyiosa; Hölscher, Hendrik; Sitti, Metin

    2014-05-06

    The exceptionally adhesive foot of the gecko remains clean in dirty environments by shedding contaminants with each step. Synthetic gecko-inspired adhesives have achieved similar attachment strengths to the gecko on smooth surfaces, but the process of contact self-cleaning has yet to be effectively demonstrated. Here, we present the first gecko-inspired adhesive that has matched both the attachment strength and the contact self-cleaning performance of the gecko's foot on a smooth surface. Contact self-cleaning experiments were performed with three different sizes of mushroom-shaped elastomer microfibres and five different sizes of spherical silica contaminants. Using a load-drag-unload dry contact cleaning process similar to the loads acting on the gecko foot during locomotion, our fully contaminated synthetic gecko adhesives could recover lost adhesion at a rate comparable to that of the gecko. We observed that the relative size of contaminants to the characteristic size of the microfibres in the synthetic adhesive strongly determined how and to what degree the adhesive recovered from contamination. Our approximate model and experimental results show that the dominant mechanism of contact self-cleaning is particle rolling during the drag process. Embedding of particles between adjacent fibres was observed for particles with diameter smaller than the fibre tips, and further studied as a temporary cleaning mechanism. By incorporating contact self-cleaning capabilities, real-world applications of synthetic gecko adhesives, such as reusable tapes, clothing closures and medical adhesives, would become feasible.

  10. Staying sticky: contact self-cleaning of gecko-inspired adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Mengüç, Yiğit; Röhrig, Michael; Abusomwan, Uyiosa; Hölscher, Hendrik; Sitti, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The exceptionally adhesive foot of the gecko remains clean in dirty environments by shedding contaminants with each step. Synthetic gecko-inspired adhesives have achieved similar attachment strengths to the gecko on smooth surfaces, but the process of contact self-cleaning has yet to be effectively demonstrated. Here, we present the first gecko-inspired adhesive that has matched both the attachment strength and the contact self-cleaning performance of the gecko's foot on a smooth surface. Contact self-cleaning experiments were performed with three different sizes of mushroom-shaped elastomer microfibres and five different sizes of spherical silica contaminants. Using a load–drag–unload dry contact cleaning process similar to the loads acting on the gecko foot during locomotion, our fully contaminated synthetic gecko adhesives could recover lost adhesion at a rate comparable to that of the gecko. We observed that the relative size of contaminants to the characteristic size of the microfibres in the synthetic adhesive strongly determined how and to what degree the adhesive recovered from contamination. Our approximate model and experimental results show that the dominant mechanism of contact self-cleaning is particle rolling during the drag process. Embedding of particles between adjacent fibres was observed for particles with diameter smaller than the fibre tips, and further studied as a temporary cleaning mechanism. By incorporating contact self-cleaning capabilities, real-world applications of synthetic gecko adhesives, such as reusable tapes, clothing closures and medical adhesives, would become feasible. PMID:24554579

  11. Mechanics of load-drag-unload contact cleaning of gecko-inspired fibrillar adhesives.

    PubMed

    Abusomwan, Uyiosa A; Sitti, Metin

    2014-10-14

    Contact self-cleaning of gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives with mushroom-shaped tips has been demonstrated recently using load-drag-unload cleaning procedures similar to that of the natural animal. However, the underlying mechanics of contact cleaning has yet to be fully understood. In this work, we present a detailed experiment of contact self-cleaning that shows that rolling is the dominant mechanism of cleaning for spherical microparticle contaminants, during the load-drag-unload procedure. We also study the effect of dragging rate and normal load on the particle rolling friction. A model of spherical particle rolling on an elastomer fibrillar adhesive interface is developed and agrees well with the experimental results. This study takes us closer to determining design parameters for achieving self-cleaning fibrillar adhesives.

  12. Shear adhesion strength of thermoplastic gecko-inspired synthetic adhesive exceeds material limits.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Andrew G; Fearing, Ronald S

    2011-09-20

    Natural gecko array wearless dynamic friction has recently been reported for 30,000 cycles on a smooth substrate. Following these findings, stiff polymer gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives have been proposed for high-cycle applications such as robot feet. Here we examine the behavior of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) microfiber arrays during repeated cycles of engagement on a glass surface, with a normal preload of less than 40 kPa. We find that fiber arrays maintained 54% of the original shear stress of 300 kPa after 10,000 cycles, despite showing a marked plastic deformation of fiber tips. This deformation could be due to shear-induced plastic creep of the fiber tips from high adhesion forces, adhesive wear, or thermal effects. We hypothesize that a fundamental material limit has been reached for these fiber arrays and that future gecko synthetic adhesive designs must take into account the high adhesive forces generated to avoid damage. Although the synthetic material and natural gecko arrays have a similar elastic modulus, the synthetic material does not show the same wear-free dynamic friction as the gecko. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Tuning micropillar tapering for optimal friction performance of thermoplastic gecko-inspired adhesive.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongkwan; Chung, Yunsie; Tsao, Angela; Maboudian, Roya

    2014-05-14

    We present a fabrication method and friction testing of a gecko-inspired thermoplastic micropillar array with control over the tapering angle of the pillar sidewall. A combination of deep reactive ion etching of vertical silicon pillars and subsequent maskless chemical etching produces templates with various widths and degrees of taper, which are then replicated with low-density polyethylene. As the silicon pillars on the template are chemically etched in a bath consisting of hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, and acetic acid (HNA), the pillars are progressively thinned, then shortened. The replicated polyethylene pillar arrays exhibit a corresponding increase in friction as the stiffness is reduced with thinning and then a decrease in friction as the stiffness is again increased. The dilution of the HNA bath in water influences the tapering angle of the silicon pillars. The friction of the replicated pillars is maximized for the taper angle that maximizes the contact area at the tip which in turn is influenced by the stiffness of the tapered pillars. To provide insights on how changes in microscale geometry and contact behavior may affect friction of the pillar array, the pillars are imaged by scanning electron microscopy after friction testing, and the observed deformation behavior from shearing is related to the magnitude of the macroscale friction values. It is shown that the tapering angle critically changes the pillar compliance and the available contact area. Simple finite element modeling calculations are performed to support that the observed deformation is consistent with what is expected from a mechanical analysis. We conclude that friction can be maximized via proper pillar tapering with low stiffness that still maintains enough contact area to ensure high adhesion.

  14. Importance of loading and unloading procedures for gecko-inspired controllable adhesives.

    PubMed

    Tamelier, John; Chary, Sathya; Turner, Kimberly L

    2013-08-27

    The importance of loading and unloading procedures has been shown in a variety of different methods for biological dry adhesives, such as the fibers on the feet of the Tokay gecko, but biomimetic dry adhesives have yet to be explored in a similar manner. To date, little work has systematically varied multiple parameters to discern the influence of the testing procedure, and the effect of the approach angle remains uncertain. In this study, a synthetic adhesive is moved in 13 individual approach and retraction angles relative to a flat substrate as well as 9 different shear lengths to discern how loading and unloading procedures influence the preload, adhesion, and shear/friction forces supported. The synthetic adhesive, composed of vertical 10 μm diameter semicircular poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibers, is tested against a 4 mm diameter flat glass puck on a home-built microtribometer using both vertical approach and retraction tests and angled approach and retraction tests. The results show that near maximum adhesion and friction can be obtained for most approach and retraction angles, provided that a sufficient shear length is performed. The results also show that the reaction forces during adhesive placement can be significantly reduced by using specific approach angles, resulting for the vertical fibers in a 38-fold increase in the ratio of adhesion force to preload force, μ', when compared to that when using a vertical approach. These results can be of use to those currently researching gecko-inspired adhesives when designing their testing procedures and control algorithms for climbing and perching robots.

  15. Instantly switchable adhesion of bridged fibrillar adhesive via gecko-inspired detachment mechanism and its application to a transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Won-Gyu; Kim, Doogon; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2013-11-01

    climbing behaviour of gecko lizards. The adhesive shows strong normal attachment (~30 N cm-2) as well as easy and fast detachment within 0.5 s without involving complex dynamic mechanisms or specific stimulus-responsive materials. The fabrication of the bridged micropillars consists of replica moulding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars, transfer of the PDMS precursor to the heads of the micropillars, and inverse placement on an inert Teflon-coated surface. Owing to the spontaneous interconnections of low viscosity PDMS precursor, bridged micropillars with a uniform capping nanomembrane (~800 nm thickness) are formed over a large area. Interestingly, macroscopic adhesion in the normal direction can be immediately switched between on and off states by changing the two detachment modes of pulling and peeling, respectively. To prove the potential of the fibrillar adhesive for practical use, an automated transportation system is demonstrated for lifting and releasing a mass of stacked glass slides over 1000 cycles of attachment and detachment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Photograph of a custom-built adhesion measurement system, video snapshots showing the switchable adhesion via gecko-inspired detachment mechanism, schematic of fabricating a master mould, and a SEM image showing the thickness of the nanomembrane. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02008h

  16. Biocompatible magnetic core-shell nanocomposites for engineered magnetic tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Arco, Laura; Rodriguez, Ismael A.; Carriel, Victor; Bonhome-Espinosa, Ana B.; Campos, Fernando; Kuzhir, Pavel; Duran, Juan D. G.; Lopez-Lopez, Modesto T.

    2016-04-01

    The inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles into biopolymer matrixes enables the preparation of magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues. Here we describe a synthetic route to prepare biocompatible core-shell nanostructures consisting of a polymeric core and a magnetic shell, which are used for this purpose. We show that using a core-shell architecture is doubly advantageous. First, gravitational settling for core-shell nanocomposites is slower because of the reduction of the composite average density connected to the light polymer core. Second, the magnetic response of core-shell nanocomposites can be tuned by changing the thickness of the magnetic layer. The incorporation of the composites into biopolymer hydrogels containing cells results in magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues whose mechanical properties can be controlled by external magnetic forces. Indeed, we obtain a significant increase of the viscoelastic moduli of the engineered tissues when exposed to an external magnetic field. Because the composites are functionalized with polyethylene glycol, the prepared bio-artificial tissue-like constructs also display excellent ex vivo cell viability and proliferation. When implanted in vivo, the engineered tissues show good biocompatibility and outstanding interaction with the host tissue. Actually, they only cause a localized transitory inflammatory reaction at the implantation site, without any effect on other organs. Altogether, our results suggest that the inclusion of magnetic core-shell nanocomposites into biomaterials would enable tissue engineering of artificial substitutes whose mechanical properties could be tuned to match those of the potential target tissue. In a wider perspective, the good biocompatibility and magnetic behavior of the composites could be beneficial for many other applications.The inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles into biopolymer matrixes enables the preparation of magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues. Here we

  17. Biocompatible magnetic core-shell nanocomposites for engineered magnetic tissues.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arco, Laura; Rodriguez, Ismael A; Carriel, Victor; Bonhome-Espinosa, Ana B; Campos, Fernando; Kuzhir, Pavel; Duran, Juan D G; Lopez-Lopez, Modesto T

    2016-04-21

    The inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles into biopolymer matrixes enables the preparation of magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues. Here we describe a synthetic route to prepare biocompatible core-shell nanostructures consisting of a polymeric core and a magnetic shell, which are used for this purpose. We show that using a core-shell architecture is doubly advantageous. First, gravitational settling for core-shell nanocomposites is slower because of the reduction of the composite average density connected to the light polymer core. Second, the magnetic response of core-shell nanocomposites can be tuned by changing the thickness of the magnetic layer. The incorporation of the composites into biopolymer hydrogels containing cells results in magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues whose mechanical properties can be controlled by external magnetic forces. Indeed, we obtain a significant increase of the viscoelastic moduli of the engineered tissues when exposed to an external magnetic field. Because the composites are functionalized with polyethylene glycol, the prepared bio-artificial tissue-like constructs also display excellent ex vivo cell viability and proliferation. When implanted in vivo, the engineered tissues show good biocompatibility and outstanding interaction with the host tissue. Actually, they only cause a localized transitory inflammatory reaction at the implantation site, without any effect on other organs. Altogether, our results suggest that the inclusion of magnetic core-shell nanocomposites into biomaterials would enable tissue engineering of artificial substitutes whose mechanical properties could be tuned to match those of the potential target tissue. In a wider perspective, the good biocompatibility and magnetic behavior of the composites could be beneficial for many other applications.

  18. Biocompatibility evaluation of biodentine in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Mori, Graziela Garrido; Teixeira, Ligia Moraes; de Oliveira, Danilo Louzada; Jacomini, Larissa Menegucci; da Silva, Sindinéia Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, St-Maur-des-Fossés, France) is a new material suitable for various clinical situations in endodontics, such as perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping, and others. Because it is a new material, its properties should be analyzed before routine clinical use. Thus, this study evaluated the biocompatibility of Biodentine in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. This study was conducted on 15 male rats. Two incisions were made on the dorsal region of each animal for the introduction of 4 tubes. One tube was empty, 1 was filled with zinc oxide-eugenol cement, 1 was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate, and the last tube was filled with Biodentine. After 7, 14, and 30 days, the animals were sacrificed, and the specimens were submitted to histotechnical preparation. The histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed using light microscopy. Scores were established according to the inflammatory process and were statistically compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P < .05). The analysis of the histologic sections evidenced a nonsignificant or mild presence of inflammatory reaction in the connective tissue in contact with the empty tube and the tube containing MTA, which was different from the tube containing zinc oxide eugenol. The connective tissue was moderately inflamed at 7 days when in contact with Biodentine; however, at 14 and 30 days, the inflammatory process was mild or nonsignificant. Biodentine was biocompatible with tissue after the 14th day. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biocompatibility evaluation of alendronate paste in rat's subcutaneous tissue.

    PubMed

    Mori, Graziela Garrido; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Nunes, Daniele Clapes; Castilho, Lithiene Ribeiro; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Capaldi, Maria Luciana P Manzoli

    2009-04-01

    Alendronate is a known inhibitor of root resorption and the development of alendronate paste would enhance its utilization as intracanal medication. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the biocompatibility of experimental alendronate paste in subcutaneous tissue of rats, for utilization in teeth susceptible to root resorption. The study was conducted on 15 male rats, weighing approximately 180-200 grams. The rats' dorsal regions were submitted to one incision on the median region and, laterally to the incision, the subcutaneous tissue was raised and gently dissected for introduction of two tubes, in each rat. The tubes were sealed at one end with gutta-percha and taken as control. The tubes were filled with experimental alendronate paste. The animals were killed at 7, 15 and 45 days after surgery and the specimens were processed in laboratory. The histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. Scores were assigned to the inflammatory process and statistically compared by the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Alendronate paste promoted severe inflammation process at 7 days, with statistically significant difference compared to the control (P < 0.05%). However, at 15 days, there was a regression of inflammation and the presence of connective tissue with collagen fibers, fibroblasts and blood vessels was observed. After 45 days, it was observed the presence of well-organized connective tissue, with collagen fibers and fibroblasts, and few inflammatory cells. No statistical difference was observed between the control and experimental paste at 15 and 45 days. The experimental alendronate paste was considered biocompatible with subcutaneous tissue of rat.

  20. Building Biocompatible Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering of the Brain and Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Aurand, Emily R.; Wagner, Jennifer; Lanning, Craig; Bjugstad, Kimberly B.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering strategies employing biomaterials have made great progress in the last few decades. However, the tissues of the brain and spinal cord pose unique challenges due to a separate immune system and their nature as soft tissue. Because of this, neural tissue engineering for the brain and spinal cord may require re-establishing biocompatibility and functionality of biomaterials that have previously been successful for tissue engineering in the body. The goal of this review is to briefly describe the distinctive properties of the central nervous system, specifically the neuroimmune response, and to describe the factors which contribute to building polymer hydrogels compatible with this tissue. These factors include polymer chemistry, polymerization and degradation, and the physical and mechanical properties of the hydrogel. By understanding the necessities in making hydrogels biocompatible with tissue of the brain and spinal cord, tissue engineers can then functionalize these materials for repairing and replacing tissue in the central nervous system. PMID:24955749

  1. Biodegradable and biocompatible polymers for tissue engineering application: a review.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Fatemeh; Samiei, Mohammad; Adibkia, Khosro; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2017-03-01

    Since so many years ago, tissue damages that are caused owing to various reasons attract scientists' attention to find a practical way to treat. In this regard, many studies were conducted. Nano scientists also suggested some ways and the newest one is called tissue engineering. They use biodegradable polymers in order to replace damaged structures in tissues to make it practical. Biodegradable polymers are dominant scaffolding materials in tissue engineering field. In this review, we explained about biodegradable polymers and their application as scaffolds.

  2. Biocompatibility of a self-adhesive gutta-percha-based material in subcutaneous tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Calasans-Maia, Mônica Diuana; Novellino Alves, Adriana Terezinha Neves; de Brito Resende, Rodrigo Figueiredo; Souza, Erick Miranda; Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Fidel, Sandra Rivera; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a self-adhesive gutta-percha material and compare it with that of conventional gutta-percha. Standard quantities of bioactive gutta-percha and conventional gutta-percha were directly inserted subcutaneously into the dorsal connective tissue of 30 BALB/c mice according to ISO 10993-6. After 7, 21, and 63 days each, 10 animals were euthanized, and the materials and surrounding tissue were removed. Tissue samples were subjected to histological processing resulting in 5-μm-thick slices stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Gomori trichrome stain. A grade ranging from I-IV was used to classify the inflammatory reaction. The Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction was used to compare the grade of inflammation induced by the materials at each time point. Qualitative evaluation of biocompatibility over time was also performed. Bioactive gutta-percha was more biocompatible than conventional gutta-percha at each time interval (P < .05). Tissue exposed to bioactive gutta-percha reached "no inflammation" (grade I) at the 21-day interval, whereas it took 63 days for the conventional gutta-percha to reach the "slight inflammation" level (grade II). Bioactive gutta-percha presented good tissue reaction at all time points. It may serve as an alternative to gutta-percha in terms of biocompatibility. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biocompatible microemulsion modifies the tissue distribution of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Candido, Caroline Damico; Campos, Michel Leandro; Correa Vidigal Assumpção, Juliana Uruguay; Pestana, Kelly Chrystina; Padilha, Elias Carvalho; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    The incorporation of doxorubicin (DOX) in a microemulsion (DOX-ME) has shown beneficial consequences by reducing the cardiotoxic effects of DOX. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of DOX-ME in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST) and the heart, and compare it with that of free DOX. The distribution study was conducted with female Swiss mice with EST (n = 7 per group; 20-25 g). Animals received a single dose (10 mg/kg, i.p.) of DOX or DOX-ME 7 days after tumor inoculation. Fifteen minutes after administration, the animals were sacrificed, and the tumor and heart tissues were taken for immediate analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. No difference was observed in DOX concentration in tumor tissue between DOX and DOX-ME administration. However, the most remarkable result in this study was the statistically significant reduction in DOX concentration in heart tissue of animals given DOX-ME. Mean DOX concentration in heart tissue was 0.92 ± 0.54 ng mg(-1) for DOX-ME and 1.85 ± 0.34 ng mg(-1) for free DOX. In conclusion, DOX-ME provides a better tissue distribution profile, with a lower drug concentration in heart tissue but still comparable tumor drug concentration, which indicates that antitumor activity would not be compromised.

  4. Biocompatibility evaluation of porous ceria foams for orthopedic tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jordan P; Mound, Brittnee A; Monsalve, Adam G; Nino, Juan C; Allen, Josephine B

    2015-01-01

    Ceria ceramics have the unique ability to protect cells from free radical-induced damage, making them materials of interest for biomedical applications. To expand upon the understanding of the potential of ceria as a biomaterial, porous ceria, fabricated via direct foaming, was investigated to assess its biocompatibility and its ability to scavenge free radicals. A mouse osteoblast (7F2) cell line was cultured with the ceria foams to determine the extent of the foams' toxicity. Toxicity assessments indicate that mouse osteoblasts cultured directly on the ceria scaffold for 72 h did not show a significant (p > 0.05) increase in toxicity, but rather show comparable toxicity to cells cultured on porous 45S5 Bioglass. The in vitro inflammatory response elicited from porous ceria foams was measured as a function of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secreted from a human monocytic leukemia cell line. Results indicate that the ceria foams do not cause a significant inflammatory response, eliciting a response of 27.1 ± 7.1 pg mL(-1) of TNF-α compared to 36.3 ± 5.8 pg mL(-1) from cells on Bioglass, and 20.1 ± 2.9 pg mL(-1) from untreated cells. Finally, we report cellular toxicity in response to free radicals from tert-butyl hydroperoxide with and without foamed ceria. Our preliminary results show that the foamed ceria is able to decrease the toxic effect of induced oxidative stress. Collectively, this study demonstrates that foamed ceria scaffolds do not activate an inflammatory response, and show potential free radical scavenging ability, thus they have promise as an orthopedic biomaterial.

  5. Utilizing acid pretreatment and electrospinning to improve biocompatibility of poly(glycolic acid) for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Boland, Eugene D; Telemeco, Todd A; Simpson, David G; Wnek, Gary E; Bowlin, Gary L

    2004-10-15

    Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) has a long history as a bioresorbable polymer. Its biocompatibility is widely accepted, yet PGA is often rejected as a soft-tissue scaffold because of fibrous encapsulation. The goal of this study was to improve the soft-tissue biocompatibility of PGA by producing scaffolds composed of small-diameter fibers through electrospinning and subjecting these scaffolds to a concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCL) pretreatment. The theory is that small-diameter fibers will elicit a reduced immune response and HCl treatment will improve cellular interactions. Scaffolds were characterized in terms of fiber diameter and pore area via image-analysis software. Biocompatibility was assessed through a WST-1 cell-proliferation assay (in vitro) with the use of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat intramuscular implantations (in vivo). Fibers produced ranged in diameter from 0.22 to 0.88 microm with pore areas from 1.84 to 13.22 microm(2). The untreated scaffold composed of 0.88-microm fibers was encapsulated in vivo and supported the lowest rates of cell proliferation. On the contrary, the acid pretreated scaffold with 0.22-microm fibers was incorporated into the surrounding tissue and exhibited proliferation rates that exceeded the control populations on tissue-culture plastic. In conclusion, this study has shown the ability to improve the biocompatibility of PGA through acid pretreatment of scaffolds comprised of submicron fiber diameters.

  6. Light-guided localization within tissue using biocompatible surgical suture fiber as an optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo June; Park, Kwan Seob; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2014-09-01

    In breast-conserving surgery, an optical wire is a useful surgical guiding tool to optically locate small lesions within the breast tissue. However, the use of a long silica glass fiber as the optical wire can be burdensome to patients because of its stiffness and nonbiocompatibility. We investigate the use of a biocompatible fiber for light localization in tissue. A surgical suture with a diameter of 400 μm and a few centimeters long is employed as the biocompatible optical waveguide to transport the visible laser light to the inner tissue site. Optical location is confirmed with glow ball-like red laser illumination at the tip of the suture embedded within a fresh chicken breast tissue. Effective optical power coupling to the suture is made by using a double-cladding fiber coupler. From this preliminary result, we realize practical light localization with biopolymer waveguides.

  7. Tissue reaction to sealing materials: different view at biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The biodegradability of root canal sealers in areas other than the root canal system is crucial to the overall success rate of endodontic treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate, the cell and tissue reaction to GuttaFlow and AHPlus, both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments the materials were incubated with Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts and cell proliferation and cytotoxicity analyses were performed. Additional fluorescence-microscope stainings were carried out in order to visualize cell growth and morphology. For assessment of the tissue reaction to the materials a subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats was employed and the inflammatory response to the materials was visualized by means of general and specific histology after 6 weeks. Human gingival fibroblasts proliferation seemed to be dependent upon dental material and cultivation time. After an incubation period of 96 hrs AHPlus proved to be significantly (p < 0.002) more cytotoxic than GuttaFlow, as only a small number of fibroblasts survived on AHPlus. In vivo, GuttaFlow was surrounded by a fibrous capsule and no degradation took place, while AHPlus induced a well-vascularized granulation tissue in which the material was phagocyted by macrophages. The results of this study demonstrate that a potential cytotoxic effect of a sealing material may beneficial in order to have antibacterial properties and induce self degradation when accidentally extruded over the apical foramen. PMID:21159573

  8. Silk fibroin and polyethylene glycol-based biocompatible tissue adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Serban, Monica A.; Panilaitis, Bruce; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue sealants have emerged in recent years as strong candidates for hemostasis. A variety of formulations are currently commercially available and though they satisfy many of the markets’ needs there are still key aspects of each that need improvement. Here we present a new class of blends, based on silk fibroin and chemically active polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with strong adhesive properties. These materials are cytocompatible, crosslink within seconds via chemical reaction between thiols and maleimides present on the constituent PEGs and have the potential to further stabilize through β-sheet formation by silk. Based on the silk concentration in the final formulation, the adhesive properties of these materials are comparable or better than the current leading PEG-based sealant. In addition, the silk-PEG based materials show decreased swelling and longer degradation times. Such properties would make them suitable for applications for which the current sealants are contraindicated. PMID:21681949

  9. A biocompatible tissue scaffold produced by supercritical fluid processing for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Hee; Jung, Youngmee; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Supercritical fluids are used in various industrial fields, such as the food and medical industries, because they have beneficial physical and chemical properties and are also nonflammable and inexpensive. In particular, supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO(2)) is attractive due to its mild critical temperature, pressure values, and nontoxicity. Poly(L-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL), which is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and very elastic polymer, has been used in cartilage tissue engineering. However, organic solvents, such as chloroform or dichloromethane, are usually used for the fabrication of a PLCL scaffold through conventional methods. This leads to a cytotoxic effect and long processing time for removing solvents. To alleviate these problems, supercritical fluid processing is introduced here. In this study, we fabricated a mechano-active PLCL scaffold by supercritical fluid processing for cartilage tissue engineering, and we compared it with a scaffold made by a conventional solvent-casting method in terms of physical and biological performance. Also, to examine the optimum condition for preparing scaffolds with ScCO(2), we investigated the effects of pressure, temperature, and the depressurization rate on PLCL foaming. The PLCL scaffolds produced by supercritical fluid processing had a homogeneously interconnected porous structure, and they exhibited a narrow pore size distribution. Also, there was no cytotoxicity of the scaffolds made with ScCO(2) compared to the scaffolds made by the solvent-pressing method. The scaffolds were seeded with chondrocytes, and they were subcutaneously implanted into nude mice for up to 4 weeks. In vivo accumulation of extracellular matrix of cell-scaffold constructs demonstrated that the PLCL scaffold made with ScCO(2) formed a mature and well-developed cartilaginous tissue compared to the PLCL scaffold formed by solvent pressing. Consequently, these results indicated that the PLCL scaffolds made by supercritical fluid

  10. Improvement of mechanical properties and biocompatibility of forsterite bioceramic addressed to bone tissue engineering materials.

    PubMed

    Kharaziha, M; Fathi, M H

    2010-10-01

    This work deals with the fabrication and characterization of nanostructured forsterite bulk. This material may have better biocompatibility and mechanical properties than coarse grain forsterite for the development of bone tissue engineering materials. Nanostructured forsterite bulks were prepared by two step sintering of sol-gel derived forsterite nanopowder. Their sinterability and mechanical properties were then studied. Biocompatibility of the nanostructured forsterite bulk was also evaluated by cell attachment and proliferation experiments. In addition, the effects of ionic products from forsterite nanopowder dissolution on osteoblasts were studied. Results show that dense nanostructured forsterite bulk was prepared with hardness and fracture toughness of about 1102 Hv and 4.3 MPa m(1/2), respectively. Nanostructured forsterite was biocompatible and the MTT test confirmed that the products from forsterite nanopowder dissolution significantly promoted osteoblast proliferation within a certain concentration range. In addition, cells attached to and spread on the surface of nanostructured forsterite bulks. Mechanical properties of the nanostructured forsterite were much higher than that of hydroxyapatite. It was concluded that nanostructured forsterite is a bioactive ceramic with good biocompatibility that can be used as a bone tissue engineering material. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biocompatibility of different intracanal medications in rat bucal submucosa tissue.

    PubMed

    Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle Vedove; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the buccal tissue responses of Wistar rats to 2% chlorhexidine solution, calcium hydroxide and the association of both products. For this purpose, 30 specimens were randomly implanted in the filtrum of the four upper and lower hemiarches with a polyethylene tube containing one of the following substances: 2% chlorhexidine solution, calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine solution (test groups); calcium hydroxide and distilled water and distilled water (control groups). Ten rats each were distributed according to time interval of evaluation at 7, 15 and 30 days. The histological sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Analysis was performed with an optical microscope at x100, x200 and x400 magnifications by an expert examiner blinded to the materials. The sections were classified by scores attributed to inflammatory events and by a ranking determined according to the severity of the inflammation. The results of the inflammatory events and severity ranking were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant difference occurred among the tested materials; however, all materials showed a decreased of severity with respect to longer time intervals.

  12. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIFFERENT INTRACANAL MEDICATIONS IN RAT BUCCAL SUBMUCOSA TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle Vedove; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the buccal tissue responses of Wistar rats to 2% chlorhexidine solution, calcium hydroxide and the association of both products. For this purpose, 30 specimens were randomly implanted in the filtrum of the four upper and lower hemiarches with a polyethylene tube containing one of the following substances: 2% chlorhexidine solution, calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine solution (test groups); calcium hydroxide and distilled water and distilled water (control groups). Ten rats each were distributed according to time interval of evaluation at 7, 15 and 30 days. The histological sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Analysis was performed with an optical microscope at x100, x200 and x400 magnifications by an expert examiner blinded to the materials. The sections were classified by scores attributed to inflammatory events and by a ranking determined according to the severity of the inflammation. The results of the inflammatory events and severity ranking were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant difference occurred among the tested materials; however, all materials showed a decreased of severity with respect to longer time intervals. PMID:19089283

  13. Biocompatibility of the bacterial cellulose hydrogel in subcutaneous tissue of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pita, Pedro Celso de Castro; Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; Lira, Mariana Montenegro de Melo; Melo, Francisco de Assis Dutra; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and local sensibility reaction to bacterial cellulose hydrogel (0.8%) implanted in subcutaneous tissue of rabbits. Fifteen New Zeland rabbits were randomly allocated into three groups: T1, 7 days, T2, 21 days, and T3, 84 days. The new material was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of the ear; on the scalp over the periosteum; and on the outer and inner surfaces of the thighs, in the aponeurosis of the muscle. At 7, 21 and 84 postoperative days, the material was collected for histological study. The clinical signs, inflammatory response, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis were variables used for analysis of the biocompatibility and biological reactivity to BCH. Analyses were performed with an AXIO(r) Imager. The statistical tests were performed using the GraphPad Prism 5.0 program(r) The intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, considering the different cell types (PMN, LMN and GC), was statistically significant, with group T1 different from groups T2 and T3 (p = 0.0124 and p <0.0001, respectively) and T2 different from the T3 group (p = 0.0007). Fibrogenesis grade 1 was the most prevalent in groups T1 (55.4%) and T2 (44.6%). The formation of neovascularization in the group was identified in 84.4% of samples. Bacterial cellulose hydrogel (0.8%) is biocompatible, integrating with the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits and inducing tissue remodeling.

  14. Enhanced biocompatibility and wound healing properties of biodegradable polymer-modified allyl 2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ju; Son, Ho Sung; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Kim, Ji Hye; Choi, Samjin; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2015-06-01

    As poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a polymer with good biocompatibility and biodegradability, we created a new tissue adhesive (TA), pre-polymerized allyl 2-cyanoacrylate (PACA) mixed with PLLA in an effort to improve biocompatibility and mechanical properties in healing dermal wound tissue. We determined optimal mixing ratios of PACA and PLLA based on their bond strengths and chemical structures analyzed by the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In vitro biocompatibility of the PACA/PLLA was evaluated using direct- and indirect-contact methods according to the ISO-10993 cytotoxicity test for medical devices. The PACA/PLLA have similar or even better biocompatibility than those of commercially available cyanoacrylate (CA)-based TAs such as Dermabond® and Histoacryl®. The PACA/PLLA were not different from those exposed to Dermabond® and Histoacryl® in Raman spectra when biochemical changes of protein and DNA/RNA underlying during cell death were compared utilizing Raman spectroscopy. Histological analysis revealed that incised dermal tissues of rats treated with PACA/PLLA showed less inflammatory signs and enhanced collagen formation compared to those treated with Dermabond® or Histoacryl®. Of note, tissues treated with PACA/PLLA were stronger in the tensile strength compared to those treated with the commercially available TAs. Therefore, taking all the results into consideration, the PACA/PLLA we created might be a clinically useful TA for treating dermal wounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of biomimetic nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanan; Li, Yubao; Zuo, Yi; Li, Jihua; Ma, Sansi; Cheng, Lin

    2007-08-01

    In this study, we prepared nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide (n-HA/PA) composite scaffolds utilizing thermally induced phase inversion processing technique. The macrostructure and morphology as well as mechanical strength of the scaffolds were characterized. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow of neonatal rabbits were cultured, expanded and seeded on n-HA/PA scaffolds. The MSC/scaffold constructs were cultured for up to 7 days and the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of MSCs into osteoblastic phenotype were determined using MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I (COL I) immunohistochemical staining and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results confirm that n-HA/PA scaffolds are biocompatible and have no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the composite scaffolds, both pure n-HA/PA scaffolds and MSC/scaffold constructs were implanted in rabbit mandibles and studied histologically and microradiographically. The results show that n-HA/PA composite scaffolds exhibit good biocompatibility and extensive osteoconductivity with host bone. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs to the scaffolds dramatically enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation, especially at the initial stage after implantation. In long term (more than 12 weeks implantation), however, the pure scaffolds show as good biocompatibility and osteogenesis as the hybrid ones. All these results indicate that the scaffolds fulfill the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffold, and have the potential to be applied in orthopedic, reconstructive and maxillofacial surgery.

  16. Immunologic and tissue biocompatibility of flexible/stretchable electronics and optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Park, Gayoung; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Kim, Kwanghee; Lim, Seon Ah; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Yun-Soung; Liu, Yuhao; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Kim, Stanley S; Kim, Jong-Seon; Jung, Yei Hwan; Kim, Tae-Il; Yee, Cassian; Rogers, John A; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2014-04-01

    Recent development of flexible/stretchable integrated electronic sensors and stimulation systems has the potential to establish an important paradigm for implantable electronic devices, where shapes and mechanical properties are matched to those of biological tissues and organs. Demonstrations of tissue and immune biocompatibility are fundamental requirements for application of such kinds of electronics for long-term use in the body. Here, a comprehensive set of experiments studies biocompatibility on four representative flexible/stretchable device platforms, selected on the basis of their versatility and relevance in clinical usage. The devices include flexible silicon field effect transistors (FETs) on polyimide and stretchable silicon FETs, InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and AlInGaPAs LEDs, each on low modulus silicone substrates. Direct cytotoxicity measured by exposure of a surrogate fibroblast line and leachable toxicity by minimum essential medium extraction testing reveal that all of these devices are non-cytotoxic. In vivo immunologic and tissue biocompatibility testing in mice indicate no local inflammation or systemic immunologic responses after four weeks of subcutaneous implantation. The results show that these new classes of flexible implantable devices are suitable for introduction into clinical studies as long-term implantable electronics.

  17. Four-Dimensional Printing Hierarchy Scaffolds with Highly Biocompatible Smart Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J; Leng, Jinsong; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to four-dimensional (4D) print novel biomimetic gradient tissue scaffolds with highly biocompatible naturally derived smart polymers. The term "4D printing" refers to the inherent smart shape transformation of fabricated constructs when implanted minimally invasively for seamless and dynamic integration. For this purpose, a series of novel shape memory polymers with excellent biocompatibility and tunable shape changing effects were synthesized and cured in the presence of three-dimensional printed sacrificial molds, which were subsequently dissolved to create controllable and graded porosity within the scaffold. Surface morphology, thermal, mechanical, and biocompatible properties as well as shape memory effects of the synthesized smart polymers and resultant porous scaffolds were characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel content analysis confirmed the formation of chemical crosslinking by reacting polycaprolactone triol and castor oil with multi-isocyanate groups. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed an adjustable glass transition temperature in a range from -8°C to 35°C. Uniaxial compression testing indicated that the obtained polymers, possessing a highly crosslinked interpenetrating polymeric networks, have similar compressive modulus to polycaprolactone. Shape memory tests revealed that the smart polymers display finely tunable recovery speed and exhibit greater than 92% shape fixing at -18°C or 0°C and full shape recovery at physiological temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fabricated scaffolds revealed a graded microporous structure, which mimics the nonuniform distribution of porosity found within natural tissues. With polycaprolactone serving as a control, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation greatly increased on our novel smart polymers. The current work will significantly advance the future design and development of

  18. Four-Dimensional Printing Hierarchy Scaffolds with Highly Biocompatible Smart Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to four-dimensional (4D) print novel biomimetic gradient tissue scaffolds with highly biocompatible naturally derived smart polymers. The term “4D printing” refers to the inherent smart shape transformation of fabricated constructs when implanted minimally invasively for seamless and dynamic integration. For this purpose, a series of novel shape memory polymers with excellent biocompatibility and tunable shape changing effects were synthesized and cured in the presence of three-dimensional printed sacrificial molds, which were subsequently dissolved to create controllable and graded porosity within the scaffold. Surface morphology, thermal, mechanical, and biocompatible properties as well as shape memory effects of the synthesized smart polymers and resultant porous scaffolds were characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel content analysis confirmed the formation of chemical crosslinking by reacting polycaprolactone triol and castor oil with multi-isocyanate groups. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed an adjustable glass transition temperature in a range from −8°C to 35°C. Uniaxial compression testing indicated that the obtained polymers, possessing a highly crosslinked interpenetrating polymeric networks, have similar compressive modulus to polycaprolactone. Shape memory tests revealed that the smart polymers display finely tunable recovery speed and exhibit greater than 92% shape fixing at −18°C or 0°C and full shape recovery at physiological temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fabricated scaffolds revealed a graded microporous structure, which mimics the nonuniform distribution of porosity found within natural tissues. With polycaprolactone serving as a control, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation greatly increased on our novel smart polymers. The current work will significantly advance the future design and

  19. Tissue biocompatibility of kevlar aramid fibers and polymethylmethacrylate, composites in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J D; Mullarky, R H; Ryan, D E

    1987-01-01

    Two groups of female NZW rabbits were implanted in the paravertebral muscles with aramid (du Pont Kevlar aramid 49) fibers and aramid-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) composites for 14 and 28 days. Rabbits were killed at these times periods, necropsies performed, sites scored for gross tissue response, and tissue specimens containing the implants removed for histopathological evaluation. A mild fibrous tissue reaction was observed around all implants containing aramid fiber similar to that observed around the silicone control implant. Some foreign body giant cells were also present adjacent to the fibers. An intense necrotic inflammatory reaction was present around the positive control material (PVC Y-78). The tissue response to implantation of aramid fiber and fiber-PMMA composites indicates that aramid is a biocompatible material.

  20. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold. PMID:26380018

  1. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold.

  2. Rheological, biocompatibility and osteogenesis assessment of fish collagen scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Elango, Jeevithan; Zhang, Jingyi; Bao, Bin; Palaniyandi, Krishnamoorthy; Wang, Shujun; Wenhui, Wu; Robinson, Jeya Shakila

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to find an alternative to mammalian collagen with better osteogenesis ability. Three types of collagen scaffolds - collagen, collagen-chitosan (CCH), and collagen-hydroxyapatite (CHA) - were prepared from the cartilage of Blue shark and investigated for their physico-functional and mechanical properties in relation to biocompatibility and osteogenesis. CCH scaffold was superior with pH 4.5-4.9 and viscosity 9.7-10.9cP. Notably, addition of chitosan and HA (hydroxyapatite) improved the stiffness (11-23MPa) and degradation rate but lowered the water binding capacity and porosity of the scaffold. Interestingly, CCH scaffolds remained for 3days before complete in-vitro biodegradation. The decreased amount of viable T-cells and higher level of FAS/APO-1 were substantiated the biocompatibility properties of prepared collagen scaffolds. Osteogenesis study revealed that the addition of CH and HA in both fish and mammalian collagen scaffolds could efficiently promote osteoblast cell formation. The ALP activity was significantly high in CHA scaffold-treated osteoblast cells, which suggests an enhanced bone-healing process. Therefore, the present study concludes that the composite scaffolds prepared from fish collagen with higher stiffness, lower biodegradation rate, better biocompatible, and osteogenesis properties were suitable biomaterial for a bone tissue engineering application as an alternative to mammalian collagen scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Biocompatibility of Alloplastic Materials: Development of a Tissue Culture In Vitro Test System.

    PubMed

    Gerullis, Holger; Georgas, Evangelos; Eimer, Christoph; Goretzki, Peter E; Lammers, Bernhard J; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Boros, Mihaly; Wishahi, Mohamed; Heusch, Gerd; Otto, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Optimized biocompatibility is a major requirement for alloplastic materials currently applied in surgical approaches for hernia, incontinence, and prolapse situations. Tissue ingrowth/adherence and formation of connective tissue seem to have important influence in mesh incorporation at the implant site. In an in vitro approach we randomly investigated 7 different mesh types currently used in surgeries with various indications with regard to their adherence performance. Using a tissue culture approach, meshes were incubated with tissue representative of fibroblasts, muscle cells, and endothelial cells originating from 10 different patients. After 6 weeks, the meshes were assessed microscopically and a ranking of their adherence performance was established. Tissue culture was successful in 100% of the probes. We did not remark on interindividual differences concerning the growth and adherence performance after incubation with the different meshes in the investigated 10 patients. The ranking was consistent in all patients. In this test system, PVDF Dynamesh® (FEG Textiltechnik, Aachen, Germany) was the mesh with the best growth-in score. The test system was feasible and reproducible. Pore size seems to be a predictor of adherence performance. The test system may be a helpful tool for further investigations, and the predictive value should be assessed in further in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  4. Hydroxyapatite-magnetite-MWCNT nanocomposite as a biocompatible multifunctional drug delivery system for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Pistone, Alessandro; Iannazzo, Daniela; Panseri, Silvia; Montesi, Monica; Tampieri, Anna; Galvagno, Signorino

    2014-10-24

    New magnetic hydroxyapatite-based nanomaterials as bone-specific systems for controlled drug delivery have been synthesized. The synthesized hydroxyapatite, HA, decorated with magnetite nanoparticles by a deposition method (HA/Fe3O4) and the nanocomposite system obtained using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (HA/MWCNT/Fe3O4) as a filler for HA have been characterized by chemical and morphological analyses, and their biological behavior was investigated. The systems have also been doped with clodronate in order to combine the effect of bone biomineralization induced by hydroxyapatite-based composites with the decrease of osteoclast formation induced by the drug. An analysis of the preosteoclastic RAW264.7 cell proliferation by MTT assay confirmed the high biocompatibility of the three systems. TRAP staining of RAW 264.7 conditioned with sRAKL to induce osteoclastogenesis, cultured in the presence of the systems doped and undoped with clodronate, showed the inhibitory effect of clodronate after we counted the MNC TRAP(+)cells but only in the osteoclast formation; in particular, the system HA/Fe3O4-Clo exerted a high inhibitory effect compared to the drug alone. These results demonstrate that the synthesized nanocomposites are a biocompatible magnetic drug delivery system and can represent a useful multimodal platform for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  5. Hydroxyapatite-magnetite-MWCNT nanocomposite as a biocompatible multifunctional drug delivery system for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistone, Alessandro; Iannazzo, Daniela; Panseri, Silvia; Montesi, Monica; Tampieri, Anna; Galvagno, Signorino

    2014-10-01

    New magnetic hydroxyapatite-based nanomaterials as bone-specific systems for controlled drug delivery have been synthesized. The synthesized hydroxyapatite, HA, decorated with magnetite nanoparticles by a deposition method (HA/Fe3O4) and the nanocomposite system obtained using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (HA/MWCNT/Fe3O4) as a filler for HA have been characterized by chemical and morphological analyses, and their biological behavior was investigated. The systems have also been doped with clodronate in order to combine the effect of bone biomineralization induced by hydroxyapatite-based composites with the decrease of osteoclast formation induced by the drug. An analysis of the preosteoclastic RAW264.7 cell proliferation by MTT assay confirmed the high biocompatibility of the three systems. TRAP staining of RAW 264.7 conditioned with sRAKL to induce osteoclastogenesis, cultured in the presence of the systems doped and undoped with clodronate, showed the inhibitory effect of clodronate after we counted the MNC TRAP+cells but only in the osteoclast formation; in particular, the system HA/Fe3O4-Clo exerted a high inhibitory effect compared to the drug alone. These results demonstrate that the synthesized nanocomposites are a biocompatible magnetic drug delivery system and can represent a useful multimodal platform for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  6. A biocompatible polysaccharide hydrogel-embedded polypropylene mesh for enhanced tissue integration in rats.

    PubMed

    Abed, Aicha; Deval, Bruno; Assoul, Nabila; Bataille, Isabelle; Portes, Patrick; Louedec, Liliane; Henin, Dominique; Letourneur, Didier; Meddahi-Pellé, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Prosthetic materials are largely used in surgery and tissue engineering. However, many postoperative complications are due to poor integration of the materials, which delays the healing process. The objective of our study was to develop a synthetic scaffold that, according to histopathological and biomechanical criteria, would achieve both tolerance and efficiency. In this study, we evaluated the effect of intramuscular and subcutaneous implantation of a new hybrid mesh (HM) in rats. This HM was composed of clinical grade polypropylene mesh embedded in a polysaccharide hydrogel. Histological and biomechanical studies on the polysaccharide gel alone and on HM were performed 15 and 30 days after implantation, and then compared with two clinically used materials, porcine decellularized small intestinal submucosa and a polypropylene mesh. Results showed that the incorporation of a polypropylene mesh within the polysaccharide hydrogel led to the absence of adverse effects and better tissue organization. Thus, this new synthetic biocompatible HM with suitable properties for tissue repair appears to be a promising material for clinical applications.

  7. Tautomerizable β-ketonitrile copolymers for bone tissue engineering: Studies of biocompatibility and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lastra, M Laura; Molinuevo, M Silvina; Giussi, Juan M; Allegretti, Patricia E; Blaszczyk-Lezak, Iwona; Mijangos, Carmen; Cortizo, M Susana

    2015-06-01

    β-Ketonitrile tautomeric copolymers have demonstrated tunable hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity properties according to surrounding environment, and mechanical properties similar to those of human bone tissue. Both characteristic properties make them promising candidates as biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. Based on this knowledge we have designed two scaffolds based on β-ketonitrile tautomeric copolymers which differ in chemical composition and surface morphology. Two of them were nanostructured, using an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template, and the other two obtained by solvent casting methodology. They were used to evaluate the effect of the composition and their structural modifications on the biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and degradation properties. Our results showed that the nanostructured scaffolds exhibited higher degradation rate by macrophages than casted scaffolds (6 and 2.5% of degradation for nanostructured and casted scaffolds, respectively), a degradation rate compatible with bone regeneration times. We also demonstrated that the β-ketonitrile tautomeric based scaffolds supported osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation without cytotoxic effects, suggesting that these biomaterials could be useful in the bone tissue engineering field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tissue Reaction and Biocompatibility of Implanted Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with Silver Nanoparticles in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Vahid; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Aghbali, Amirala; Mesgariabbasi, Mehran; Janani, Maryam; Mokhtari, Hadi; Tehranchi, Pardis; Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of endodontic materials are of utmost importance. Considering the extensive applications of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in dentistry and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles, this study aimed to evaluate the subcutaneous inflammatory reaction of rat connective tissues to white MTA with and without nanosilver (NS) particles. Methods and Materials: Polyethylene tubes (1.1×8 mm) containing experimental materials (MTA and MTA+NS and empty control tubes) were implanted in subcutaneous tissues of seventy-five male rats. Animals were divided into five groups (n=15) according to the time of evaluation: group 1; after 7 days, group 2; after 15 days, group 3; after 30 days, group 4; after 60 days and group 5; after 90 days. The inflammatory reaction was graded and data was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Statistical significance was defined at 0.05. Results: Comparison of cumulative inflammatory reaction at all intervals revealed that the mean grade of inflammatory reaction to MTA, MTA+NS and control samples were 3, 2 and 2, respectively. According to the Mann-Whitney analysis there were no significant differences between MTA+NS and MTA (P=0.42). Conclusion: Incorporation of 1% nanosilver to MTA does not affect the inflammatory reaction of subcutaneous tissue in rat models. PMID:26843871

  9. Ultrashort pulse laser processing of hard tissue, dental restoration materials, and biocompatibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, A.; Strassl, M.; Beer, F.; Verhagen, L.; Wittschier, M.; Wintner, E.

    2007-07-01

    During the last few years, ultra-short laser pulses have proven their potential for application in medical tissue treatment in many ways. In hard tissue ablation, their aptitude for material ablation with negligible collateral damage provides many advantages. Especially teeth representing an anatomically and physiologically very special region with less blood circulation and lower healing rates than other tissues require most careful treatment. Hence, overheating of the pulp and induction of microcracks are some of the most problematic issues in dental preparation. Up till now it was shown by many authors that the application of picosecond or femtosecond pulses allows to perform ablation with very low damaging potential also fitting to the physiological requirements indicated. Beside the short interaction time with the irradiated matter, scanning of the ultra-short pulse trains turned out to be crucial for ablating cavities of the required quality. One main reason for this can be seen in the fact that during scanning the time period between two subsequent pulses incident on the same spot is so much extended that no heat accumulation effects occur and each pulse can be treated as a first one with respect to its local impact. Extension of this advantageous technique to biocompatible materials, i.e. in this case dental restoration materials and titanium plasma-sprayed implants, is just a matter of consequence. Recently published results on composites fit well with earlier data on dental hard tissue. In case of plaque which has to be removed from implants, it turns out that removal of at least the calcified version is harder than tissue removal. Therefore, besides ultra-short lasers, also Diode and Neodymium lasers, in cw and pulsed modes, have been studied with respect to plaque removal and sterilization. The temperature increase during laser exposure has been experimentally evaluated in parallel.

  10. Biocompatibility Evaluation of EndoSequence Root Repair Paste in the Connective Tissue of Rats.

    PubMed

    Taha, Nessrin A; Safadi, Rima A; Alwedaie, Manal S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous connective tissue response to EndoSequence root repair paste (Brasseler, Savannah, GA) compared with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Thirty-six Wistar rats each received 3 sterile tubes, containing 1 of the tested materials and control. The animals were killed 1, 3 and 6 weeks after implantation. The specimens were evaluated histologically for type of inflammation, intensity and extent of inflammatory cells, foreign body reaction, fibrous capsule thickness, perivascular fragments, calcific deposits and vascular congestion. EndoSequence provoked severe inflammation after 1 week, which was significantly different from MTA and control (P ˂ .05), with fragmented particles and foreign body reaction. MTA showed tissue-tolerance features almost comparable to control. EndoSequence was significantly more irritating than MTA and control at 1 and 3 weeks in terms of severity and extent of inflammation. After 6 weeks it displayed more biocompatible characteristics. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Flexor tendon tissue engineering: acellularization of human flexor tendons with preservation of biomechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Pridgen, Brian C; Woon, Colin Y L; Kim, Maxwell; Thorfinn, Johan; Lindsey, Derek; Pham, Hung; Chang, James

    2011-08-01

    Acellular human tendons are a candidate scaffold for tissue engineering flexor tendons of the hand. This study compared acellularization methods and their compatibility with allogeneic human cells. Human flexor tendons were pretreated with 0.1% ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) for 4  h followed by 24  h treatments of 1% Triton X-100, 1% tri(n-butyl)phosphate, or 0.1% or 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 0.1% EDTA. Outcomes were assessed histologically by hematoxylin and eosin and SYTO green fluorescent nucleic acid stains and biochemically by a QIAGEN DNeasy kit, Sircol collagen assay, and 1,9 dimethylmethylene blue glycosaminoglycan assay. Mechanical data were collected using a Materials Testing System to pull to failure tendons acellularized with 0.1% SDS. Acellularized tendons were re-seeded in a suspension of human dermal fibroblasts. Attachment of viable cells to acellularized tendon was assessed biochemically by a cell viability assay and histologically by a live/dead stain. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation. Compared with the DNA content of fresh tendons (551±212  ng DNA/mg tendon), only SDS treatments significantly decreased DNA content (1% SDS [202.8±37.4  ng DNA/mg dry weight tendon]; 0.1% SDS [189±104  ng DNA/mg tendon]). These findings were confirmed by histology. There was no decrease in glycosaminoglycans or collagen following acellularization with SDS. There was no difference in the ultimate tensile stress (55.3±19.2 [fresh] vs. 51.5±6.9 [0.1% SDS] MPa). Re-seeded tendons demonstrated attachment of viable cells to the tendon surface using a viability assay and histology. Human flexor tendons were acellularized with 0.1% SDS in 0.1% EDTA for 24  h with preservation of mechanical properties. Preservation of collagen and glycoaminoglycans and re-seeding with human cells suggest that this scaffold is biocompatible. This will provide a promising scaffold for future human flexor tendon tissue engineering studies to

  12. Biocompatibility of sealers used in apical surgery: a histological study in rat subcutaneous tissue.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Suely Aparecida; Rached, Fuad Jacob Abi; Alfredo, Edson; León, Jorge Esquiche; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of sealers used in apical surgery in rat subcutaneous tissue. Sterile polyethylene tubes were filled with the following sealers: Sealapex, Sealapex with addition of zinc oxide, Sealer 26, Sealer 26 with thicker consistency (greater powder-to-resin ratio) and White MTA. The tubes were implanted in the dorsum of male rats and after 7, 21 and 42 days, the animals were killed, obtaining 5 specimens for each sealer in each evaluation period. The lateral surface of the tube was used as negative control. The inflammatory reaction to contact with the sealers was classified as absent, mild, moderate and severe. At 7 days, all sealers caused similar inflammatory reactions in the connective tissue of the animals, with most specimens presenting a moderate to intense chronic inflammatory reaction, with presence of multinucleated giant cells. At 21 days, Sealer 26 and Sealer 26 with thicker consistency presented more intense inflammatory reaction (p=0.004), whereas after 42 days, the inflammatory reaction ranged from absent to mild with statistically similar results for both materials (p=0.08). Except for MTA, all sealers presented foreign-body granulomatous reaction at 42 days. All sealers but Sealapex presented a statistically significant decrease of the inflammatory reaction over time. In conclusion, all sealers caused moderate to severe inflammation in the earlier evaluation period. However, Sealer 26 and Sealer 26 with thicker consistency caused more intense inflammatory reactions after 21 days of contact with the tissues and no granulomatous reaction was observed for MTA at the final period of analysis.

  13. Biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanofibers for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sundaramurthi, Dhakshinamoorthy; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2013-08-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) a biodegradable polymer, was electrospun to obtain defect-free nanofibers. The structural similarity of PHBV nanofibers and the extracellular matrix in skin may present well for fibroblast cell adhesion and proliferation. The average fiber diameter of the electrospun fibers was 583 +/- 90 nm. The potential of PHBV scaffolds for human keratinocytes (HaCaT) adhesion, proliferation and gene expression were evaluated. Our results demonstrated that PHBV nanofibers favor HaCaT adhesion and proliferation. After 14 days of culture, loricrin and keratin-1 gene expression were significantly higher when compared to 3 and 7 days (p < 0.05). The expression of genes associated with T lymphocyte activation (HLA-DRB, thymosin beta 10 (h-Tim)) and IL-2 mediated lymphocyte activation genes (h-Tim, Tumour Rejection Antigen (TRA 1), nRap 2) were investigated in human lymphocyte cultured on PHBV nanofibers. T Lymphocyte activation and IL-2 mediated lymphocyte activation genes were down-regulated after 48 and 72 hours of culture. After 24, 48 and 72 hours of culture there was no inflammatory cytokines production by the cultured lymphocytes. Thus, our results confirm the biocompatibility of PHBV nanofibers and suggest that consideration can be given to the use of PHBV nanofibers for skin tissue engineering applications.

  14. Biocompatibility of biomimetic multilayered alginate-chitosan/β-TCP scaffold for osteochondral tissue.

    PubMed

    Algul, Derya; Sipahi, Hande; Aydin, Ahmet; Kelleci, Feyza; Ozdatli, Sukran; Yener, Fatma Gulgun

    2015-08-01

    Biomimetic three-layered monolithic scaffold (TLS) intended for treatment of osteochondral defects was fabricated by using freeze drying method. The multilayered material was prepared with chitosan (C) and alginate (A) polyelectrolyte complex (CA/PEC) as a cartilaginous layer, a combination of CA/PEC (60 wt%) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (40 wt%) as an intermediate layer and a combination of CA/PEC (30 wt%) and β-TCP (70 wt%) as a subchondral layer in order to mimic the inherent gradient structure of healthy osteochondral tissue. Characterization of the scaffolds was performed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis, swelling and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests. In vitro cytotoxicity assay with L929 cells and EpiDerm skin irritation test (SIT) using the EpiDerm reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) model were performed to analyze biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Characterization results showed that there were strong ionic interactions among chitosan, alginate and β-TCP and the layers showed interconnected porous structure with different swelling ratios. The relative cell viability and SIT results were greater than 70% indicating that the scaffolds are considered nontoxic according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard. All results taken together, biomimetic TLS can be considered to be suitable for osteochondral applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocompatible polypyrrole nanoparticles as a novel organic photoacoustic contrast agent for deep tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Zhengbao; Deng, Zijian; Li, Yanyan; Li, Changhui; Wang, Jinrui; Wang, Shumin; Qu, Enze; Dai, Zhifei

    2013-05-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) has emerged as a hybrid, nonionizing imaging modality because of its satisfactory spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast. Here, we demonstrate the application of a novel organic PAT contrast agent based on polypyrrole nanoparticles (PPy NPs). Monodisperse PPy NPs are ~46 nm in diameter with strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) range, which allowed visualization of PPy NP-containing agar gel embedded in chicken breast muscle at a depth of ~4.3 cm. Compared with PAT images based on the intrinsic optical contrast in mice, the PAT images acquired within 1 h after intravenous administration of PPy NPs showed the brain vasculature with greater clarity than hemoglobin in blood. Preliminary results showed no acute toxicity to the vital organs (heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys) in mice following a single imaging dose of PPy NPs. Our results indicate that PPy NPs are promising contrast agents for PAT with good biocompatibility, high spatial resolution and enhanced sensitivity.

  16. A biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability for bone tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Almeida, J Carlos; Wacha, András; Gomes, Pedro S; Alves, Luís C; Fernandes, M Helena Vaz; Salvado, Isabel M Miranda; Fernandes, M Helena R

    2016-05-01

    The increasing interest in the effect of strontium in bone tissue repair has promoted the development of bioactive materials with strontium release capability. According to literature, hybrid materials based on the system PDMS-SiO2 have been considered a plausible alternative as they present a mechanical behavior similar to the one of the human bone. The main purpose of this study was to obtain a biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability. A hybrid material, in the system PDMS-SiO2-CaO-SrO, was prepared with the incorporation of 0.05 mol of titanium per mol of SiO2. Calcium and strontium were added using the respective acetates as sources, following a sol-gel technique previously developed by the present authors. The obtained samples were characterized by FT-IR, solid-state NMR, and SAXS, and surface roughness was analyzed by 3D optical profilometry. In vitro studies were performed by immersion of the samples in Kokubo's SBF for different periods of time, in order to determine the bioactive potential of these hybrids. Surfaces of the immersed samples were observed by SEM, EDS and PIXE, showing the formation of calcium phosphate precipitates. Supernatants were analyzed by ICP, revealing the capability of the material to simultaneously fix phosphorus ions and to release calcium and strontium, in a concentration range within the values reported as suitable for the induction of the bone tissue repair. The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with MG63 osteoblastic cells, exhibiting an inductive effect on cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  17. Surface modification of polyurethane towards promoting the ex vivo cytocompatibility and in vivo biocompatibility for hypopharyngeal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhisen; Kang, Cheng; Chen, Jingjing; Ye, Dong; Qiu, Shijie; Guo, Shanshan; Zhu, Yabin

    2013-11-01

    Polymeric substrates with good biocompatibility have been widely employed to create a living construct with the complexities of tissue histology and function in the field of tissue engineering. In this study, poly(ester-urethane) (58213, NAT022) was used to be substrate due to its good physical and chemical properties. Proteins like gelatin or silk fibroin were covalently bonded on its surface using method of diamine aminolysis and glutaraldehyde crosslinking, which had been setup in our group in order to improve poly(ester-urethane)'s hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. The modification was proved by the measurements of static and dynamic contact angles and fluorescence detection. The biological properties were evaluated as in vitro cell culture and in vivo transplantation via cell number counting, morphology observation, immunohistochemistry analysis, etc. The results showed that gelatin or silk fibroin grafted membrane displayed good cytocompatibility, i.e. good proliferation and differentiation of human hypopharynx fibroblast and skeletal muscle cell though the control poly(ester-urethane) indicated low toxicity to cells and good biocompatibility, which was also verified in in vivo experiment. After poly(ester-urethane)-silk fibroin was implanted subcutaneously in rat back, it exhibited a better compatibility to peripheral tissue and faster biodegradation than the control poly(ester-urethane) did. This information supplied us valuable knowledge for poly(ester-urethane) to be used as matrix in situ hypopharynx regeneration study.

  18. In vivo biocompatibility of boron nitride nanotubes: effects on stem cell biology and tissue regeneration in planarians.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Alessandra; Rossi, Leonardo; Iacopetti, Paola; Li, Xia; Nitti, Simone; Pellegrino, Teresa; Mattoli, Virgilio; Golberg, Dmitri; Ciofani, Gianni

    2015-07-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) represent an extremely interesting class of nanomaterials, and recent findings have suggested a number of applications in the biomedical field. Anyhow, extensive biocompatibility investigations are mandatory before any further advancement toward preclinical testing. Here, we report on the effects of multiwalled BNNTs in freshwater planarians, one of the best-characterized in vivo models for developmental biology and regeneration research. Obtained results indicate that BNNTs are biocompatible in the investigated model, since they do not induce oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis, and do not show adverse effects on planarian stem cell biology and on de novo tissue regeneration. In summary, collected findings represent another important step toward BNNT realistic applications in nanomedicine.

  19. Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of calcium phosphate composite scaffolds containing simvastatin-loaded PLGA microspheres for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Xuan; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Wang, Xia; Dong, Zhao-Gang; Ma, Zhi-Yong; Li, Lei; Li, Yu-Hua; Pan, Xin; Nie, Lin

    2015-10-01

    By utilizing a modified solid/oil/water (s/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation technique, calcium phosphate composite scaffolds containing simvastatin-loaded PLGA microspheres (SIM-PLGA-CPC) were prepared in this study. We characterized the morphology, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release of SIM-loaded PLGA microspheres as well as the macrostructure, pore size, porosity and mechanical strength of the scaffolds. Rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were seeded onto SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds, and the proliferation, morphology, cell cycle and differentiation of BMSCs were investigated using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and alizarin red S staining, respectively. The results revealed that SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were biocompatible and osteogenic in vitro. To determine the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the scaffolds, both pure PLGA-CPC scaffolds and SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were implanted in rabbit femoral condyles and microradiographically and histologically investigated. SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility and could improve the efficiency of new bone formation. All these results suggested that the SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds fulfilled the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffold and possessed application potentials in orthopedic surgery. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of biocompatibility and adsorption properties of different plastics for advanced microfluidic cell and tissue culture models.

    PubMed

    van Midwoud, Paul M; Janse, Arnout; Merema, Marjolijn T; Groothuis, Geny M M; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2012-05-01

    Microfluidic technology is providing new routes toward advanced cell and tissue culture models to better understand human biology and disease. Many advanced devices have been made from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to enable experiments, for example, to study drug metabolism by use of precision-cut liver slices, that are not possible with conventional systems. However, PDMS, a silicone rubber material, is very hydrophobic and tends to exhibit significant adsorption and absorption of hydrophobic drugs and their metabolites. Although glass could be used as an alternative, thermoplastics are better from a cost and fabrication perspective. Thermoplastic polymers (plastics) allow easy surface treatment and are generally transparent and biocompatible. This study focuses on the fabrication of biocompatible microfluidic devices with low adsorption properties from the thermoplastics poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) as alternatives for PDMS devices. Thermoplastic surfaces were oxidized using UV-generated ozone or oxygen plasma to reduce adsorption of hydrophobic compounds. Surface hydrophilicity was assessed over 4 weeks by measuring the contact angle of water on the surface. The adsorption of 7-ethoxycoumarin, testosterone, and their metabolites was also determined after UV-ozone treatment. Biocompatibility was assessed by culturing human hepatoma (HepG2) cells on treated surfaces. Comparison of the adsorption properties and biocompatibility of devices in different plastics revealed that only UV-ozone-treated PC and COC devices satisfied both criteria. This paper lays an important foundation that will help researchers make informed decisions with respect to the materials they select for microfluidic cell-based culture experiments.

  1. Biocompatibility analysis of chemomechanical caries removal material Papacárie on cultured fibroblasts and subcutaneous tissue.

    PubMed

    Martins, Manoela Domingues; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Motta, Lara Jansinski; Santos, Elaine Marcilio; Pavesi, Vanessa Christina Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2009-01-01

    Chemomechanical caries removal allies an atraumatic technique with antimicrobiotic characteristics, minimizing painful stimuli and maximally preserving healthy dental structures. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of papain-based gel (Papacarie) and another caries-removing substance, Carisolv, to a nontreatment control on cultured fibroblasts in vitro and the biocompatibility in subcutaneous tissue in vivo. The cytotoxicity analysis was performed on fibroblast cultures (NIH-3T3) after 0-, 4-, 8-, and 12-hour exposure (cell viability assay) and after 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-day exposure (survival assay). In the in vivo study, the 2 compounds were introduced into polyethylene tubes that were implanted into subcutaneous tissues of rats. After 1, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days, tissue samples were examined histologically. Cell viability did not differ between the 2 experimental groups. The control group, however, showed significantly higher percentage viability. There were no differences in cell survival between the control and experimental groups. The histological analysis revealed a moderate inflammatory response at 2 and 7 days and a mild response at 15 days, becoming almost imperceptible by 30 and 60 days in both experimental groups. The 2 tested substances exhibited acceptable biocompatibilities and demonstrated similar responses in the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo implantation assay.

  2. In vivo animal histomorphometric study for evaluating biocompatibility and osteointegration of nano-hydroxyapatite as biomaterials in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Fattah, Hisham; Helmy, Yasser; El-Kholy, Bahhgat; Marie, Mona

    2010-12-01

    The coming decade will bring new and even more complex advances that will transform oral and maxillofacial surgery practice if the specialty is capable of transferring the advances of basic science into clinical practice. Such advances include those in tissue engineering and nanotechnology. Three groups of eight animals (rats), each was evaluated by grouting bone graft substitutes into 3 mm holes that were made into the anteromedialtibialmetaphyses of rats. Two different formulations varying as to the type of hydroxyapatite (HA) were used; Group 1: Nano-hydroxyapatite, Group 2: Control with HA only. Group 3: Control without any bone graft substitutes (empty defects). Animals of each of the three groups were sacrificed in groups of eight at postoperative week four. Histologic analysis revealed superior biocompatibility and osteointegration of bone graft substitutes when nanohydroxyapatite was employed. At four weeks, there was more reactive new bone formation in this group when compared to the hydroxyapatite group. The control group showed incomplete closure of the defect. This study demonstrated that nano-hydroxyapatite improves the bioactivity of bone implant and repair materials. Nanohydroxyapatite has good biocompatibility, finer mechanical properties, adjustable degradation properties, good osteointegration and offers a wide range of potential applications in the tissue engineering. Osteointegration- Nano-Hydroxyapatite- Biomaterials- Tissue engineering.

  3. The biocompatibility of carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite for bone tissue engineering studied with Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna; Kimber, James A; Borkowski, Leszek; Pawlowska, Marta; Polkowska, Izabela; Kalisz, Grzegorz; Belcarz, Anna; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Ginalska, Grazyna; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-10-01

    The spectroscopic approaches of FTIR imaging and Raman mapping were applied to the characterisation of a new carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite developed for bone tissue engineering. The composite is an artificial bone material with an apatite-forming ability for the bone repair process. Rabbit bone samples were tested with an implanted bioactive material for a period of several months. Using spectroscopic and chemometric methods, we were able to determine the presence of amides and phosphates and the distribution of lipid-rich domains in the bone tissue, providing an assessment of the composite's bioactivity. Samples were also imaged in transmission using an infrared microscope combined with a focal plane array detector. CaF2 lenses were also used on the infrared microscope to improve spectral quality by reducing scattering artefacts, improving chemometric analysis. The presence of collagen and lipids at the bone/composite interface confirmed biocompatibility and demonstrate the suitability of FTIR microscopic imaging with lenses in studying these samples. It confirmed that the composite is a very good background for collagen growth and increases collagen maturity with the time of the bone growth process. The results indicate the bioactive and biocompatible properties of this composite and demonstrate how Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging have been used as an effective tool for tissue characterisation.

  4. Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic Acid) Base Biocompatible Gel for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wing P.; Kung, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Yu-Lin; Yang, Ming-Chen; Lai, Wen-Fu Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A technique for synthesizing biocompatible hydrogels by cross-linking calcium-form poly(γ-glutamic acid), alginate sodium, and Pluronic F-127 was created, in which alginate can be cross-linked by Ca2+ from Ca–γ-PGA directly and γ-PGA molecules introduced into the alginate matrix to provide pH sensitivity and hemostasis. Mechanical properties, swelling behavior, and blood compatibility were investigated for each hydrogel compared with alginate and for γ-PGA hydrogel with the sodium form only. Adding F-127 improves mechanical properties efficiently and influences the temperature-sensitive swelling of the hydrogels but also has a minor effect on pH-sensitive swelling and promotes anticoagulation. MG-63 cells were used to test biocompatibility. Gelation occurred gradually through change in the elastic modulus as the release of calcium ions increased over time and caused ionic cross-linking, which promotes the elasticity of gel. In addition, the growth of MG-63 cells in the gel reflected nontoxicity. These results showed that this biocompatible scaffold has potential for application in bone materials. PMID:26504784

  5. Development of collagen/polydopamine complexed matrix as mechanically enhanced and highly biocompatible semi-natural tissue engineering scaffold.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Dan, Weihua; Xiong, Shanbai; Kang, Yang; Dhinakar, Arvind; Wu, Jun; Gu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    To improve the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of collagen I matrix, a novel and facile strategy was developed to modify porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) via dopamine self-polymerization followed by collagen immobilization to enhance the biological, mechanical and physicochemical properties of PADM. Mechanism study indicated that the polymerization of dopamine onto PADM surface could be regulated by controlling the amount of hydrogen bonds forming between phenol hydroxyl (COH) and nitrogen atom (NCO) within collagen fibers of PADM. The investigations of surface interactions between PDA and PADM illustrated that PDA-PADM system yielded better mechanical properties, thermal stability, surface hydrophilicity and the structural integrity of PADM was maintained after dopamine coating. Furthermore, collagen (COL) was immobilized onto the fresh PDA-PADM to fabricate the collagen-PDA-PADM (COL-PDA-PADM) complexed scaffold. The MTT assay and CLSM observation showed that COL-PDA-PADM had better biocompatibility and higher cellular attachment than pure PADM and COL-PADM without dopamine coating, thus demonstrating the efficacy of PDA as the intermediate layer. Meanwhile, the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of COL-PDA-PADM were investigated by an in vivo study. The results revealed that COL-PDA-PADM could effectively promote bFGF and VEGF expression, possibly leading to enhancing the dura repairing process. Overall, this work contributed a new insight into the development of a semi-natural tissue engineering scaffold with high biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. Obtaining scaffolds with high biocompatibility and good mechanical properties is still one of the most challenging issues in tissue engineering. To have excellent in vitro and in vivo performance, scaffolds are desired to have similar mechanical and biological properties as the natural extracellular matrix, such as collagen

  6. In vivo bone biocompatibility and degradation of porous fumarate-based polymer/alumoxane nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Amit S.; Pham, Quynh P.; Schouten, Corinne; Yeh, Tiffany; Christenson, Elizabeth M.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Jansen, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how the incorporation of surface-modified alumoxane nanoparticles into a biodegradable fumarate-based polymer affects in vivo bone biocompatibility (characterized by direct bone contact and bone ingrowth) and in vivo degradability. Porous scaffolds were fabricated from four materials: poly(propylene fumarate)/propylene fumarate-diacrylate (PPF/PF-DA) polymer alone; a macrocomposite consisting of PPF/PF-DA polymer with boehmite microparticles; a nanocomposite composed of PPF/PF-DA polymer and mechanically-reinforcing surface-modified alumoxane nanoparticles; and a low molecular weight PPF polymer alone (tested as a degradation control). Scaffolds were implanted in the lateral femoral condyle of adult goats for 12 weeks and evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. For all material groups, small amounts of bone, some soft tissue, and a few inflammatory elements were observed within the pores of scaffolds, though many pores remained empty or filled with fluid only. Direct contact between scaffolds and surrounding bone tissue was also observed in all scaffold types, though less commonly. Minimal in vivo degradation occurred during the 12 weeks of implantation in all materials. These results demonstrate that the incorporation of alumoxane nanoparticles into porous PPF/PF-DA scaffolds does not significantly alter in vivo bone biocompatibility or degradation. PMID:19191316

  7. In vivo biocompatibility of ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube/biodegradable polymer nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sitharaman, Balaji; Shi, Xinfeng; Walboomers, X Frank; Liao, Hongbing; Cuijpers, Vincent; Wilson, Lon J; Mikos, Antonios G; Jansen, John A

    2008-08-01

    Scaffolds play a pivotal role in the tissue engineering paradigm by providing temporary structural support, guiding cells to grow, assisting the transport of essential nutrients and waste products, and facilitating the formation of functional tissues and organs. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), especially ultra-short SWNTs (US-tubes), have proven useful for reinforcing synthetic polymeric scaffold materials. In this article, we report on the in vivo biocompatibility of US-tube reinforced porous biodegradable scaffolds in a rabbit model. US-tube nanocomposite scaffolds and control polymer scaffolds were implanted in rabbit femoral condyles and in subcutaneous pockets. The hard and soft tissue response was analyzed with micro-computed tomography (micro CT), histology, and histomorphometry at 4 and 12 weeks after implantation. The porous US-tube nanocomposite scaffolds exhibited favorable hard and soft tissue responses at both time points. At 12 weeks, a three-fold greater bone tissue ingrowth was seen in defects containing US-tube nanocomposite scaffolds compared to control polymer scaffolds. Additionally, the 12 week samples showed reduced inflammatory cell density and increased connective tissue organization. No significant quantitative difference in polymer degradation was observed among the various groups; qualitative differences between the two time points were consistent with expected degradation due to the progression of time. Although no conclusions can be drawn from the present study concerning the osteoinductivity of US-tube nanocomposite scaffolds, the results suggest that the presence of US-tubes may render nanocomposite scaffolds bioactive assisting osteogenesis.

  8. Biocompatible, biodegradable polymer-based, lighter than or light as water scaffolds for tissue engineering and methods for preparation and use thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurencin, Cato T. (Inventor); Pollack, Solomon R. (Inventor); Levine, Elliot (Inventor); Botchwey, Edward (Inventor); Lu, Helen H. (Inventor); Khan, Mohammed Yusuf (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering prepared from biocompatible, biodegradable polymer-based, lighter than or light as water microcarriers and designed for cell culturing in vitro in a rotating bioreactor are provided. Methods for preparation and use of these scaffolds as tissue engineering devices are also provided.

  9. Preparation and Reinforcement of Dual‐Porous Biocompatible Cellulose Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Pircher, Nicole; Fischhuber, David; Carbajal, Leticia; Strauß, Christine; Nedelec, Jean‐Marie; Kasper, Cornelia; Rosenau, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    1 Biocompatible cellulose‐based aerogels composed of nanoporous struts, which embed interconnected voids of controlled micron‐size, have been prepared employing temporary templates of fused porogens, reinforcement by interpenetrating PMMA networks and supercritical carbon dioxide drying. Different combinations of cellulose solvent (Ca(SCN)2/H2O/LiCl or [EMIm][OAc]/DMSO) and anti‐solvent (EtOH), porogen type (paraffin wax or PMMA spheres) and porogen size (various fractions in the range of 100–500 μm) as well as intensity of PMMA reinforcement have been investigated to tailor the materials for cell scaffolding applications. All aerogels exhibited an open and dual porosity (micronporosity >100 μm and nanoporosity extending to the low micrometer range). Mechanical properties of the dual‐porous aerogels under compressive stress were considerably improved by introduction of interpenetrating PMMA networks. The effect of the reinforcing polymer on attachment, spreading, and proliferation of NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells, cultivated on selected dual‐porous aerogels to pre‐evaluate their biocompatibility was similarly positive. PMID:26941565

  10. Preparation and Reinforcement of Dual-Porous Biocompatible Cellulose Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Pircher, Nicole; Fischhuber, David; Carbajal, Leticia; Strauß, Christine; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Kasper, Cornelia; Rosenau, Thomas; Liebner, Falk

    2015-09-01

    1Biocompatible cellulose-based aerogels composed of nanoporous struts, which embed interconnected voids of controlled micron-size, have been prepared employing temporary templates of fused porogens, reinforcement by interpenetrating PMMA networks and supercritical carbon dioxide drying. Different combinations of cellulose solvent (Ca(SCN)2/H2O/LiCl or [EMIm][OAc]/DMSO) and anti-solvent (EtOH), porogen type (paraffin wax or PMMA spheres) and porogen size (various fractions in the range of 100-500 μm) as well as intensity of PMMA reinforcement have been investigated to tailor the materials for cell scaffolding applications. All aerogels exhibited an open and dual porosity (micronporosity >100 μm and nanoporosity extending to the low micrometer range). Mechanical properties of the dual-porous aerogels under compressive stress were considerably improved by introduction of interpenetrating PMMA networks. The effect of the reinforcing polymer on attachment, spreading, and proliferation of NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells, cultivated on selected dual-porous aerogels to pre-evaluate their biocompatibility was similarly positive.

  11. Mineralization and biocompatibility of Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk sericin film for potential bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingying; Mandal, Namita; Shuai, Yajun; Zhou, Guanshan; Min, Sijia; Zhu, Liangjun

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mineralization of Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk sericin. Mineralization of A. pernyi sericin was performed by alternative soaking in calcium and phosphate. The inhibition of precipitation of calcium carbonate and von Kossa staining on A. pernyi sericin were tested, and the corresponding results prove that A. pernyi sericin has Ca binding activity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation shows that spherical crystals could be nucleated on the A. pernyi sericin film. These crystals were confirmed to be hydroxyapatite according to FT-IR and XRD spectra, indicating that A. pernyi sericin is capable of mineralization. In addition, cell adhesion and growth activity assay demonstrate that A. pernyi sericin shows excellent biocompatibility for the growth of MG-63 cells.

  12. Laser-based three-dimensional multiscale micropatterning of biocompatible hydrogels for customized tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Applegate, Matthew B; Coburn, Jeannine; Partlow, Benjamin P; Moreau, Jodie E; Mondia, Jessica P; Marelli, Benedetto; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2015-09-29

    Light-induced material phase transitions enable the formation of shapes and patterns from the nano- to the macroscale. From lithographic techniques that enable high-density silicon circuit integration, to laser cutting and welding, light-matter interactions are pervasive in everyday materials fabrication and transformation. These noncontact patterning techniques are ideally suited to reshape soft materials of biological relevance. We present here the use of relatively low-energy (< 2 nJ) ultrafast laser pulses to generate 2D and 3D multiscale patterns in soft silk protein hydrogels without exogenous or chemical cross-linkers. We find that high-resolution features can be generated within bulk hydrogels through nearly 1 cm of material, which is 1.5 orders of magnitude deeper than other biocompatible materials. Examples illustrating the materials, results, and the performance of the machined geometries in vitro and in vivo are presented to demonstrate the versatility of the approach.

  13. A novel crosslinking method for improved tear resistance and biocompatibility of tissue based biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tam, Hobey; Zhang, Will; Feaver, Kristen R; Parchment, Nathaniel; Sacks, Michael S; Vyavahare, Naren

    2015-10-01

    Over 300,000 heart valve replacements are performed annually to replace stenotic and regurgitant heart valves. Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs), derived from glutaraldehyde crosslinked (GLUT) porcine aortic valve leaflets or bovine pericardium are often used. However, valve failure can occur within 12-15 years due to calcification and/or progressive degeneration. In this study, we have developed a novel fabrication method that utilizes carbodiimide, neomycin trisulfate, and pentagalloyl glucose crosslinking chemistry (TRI) to better stabilize the extracellular matrix of porcine aortic valve leaflets. We demonstrate that TRI treated leaflets show similar biomechanics to GLUT crosslinked leaflets. TRI treated leaflets had better resistance to enzymatic degradation in vitro and demonstrated better tearing toughness after challenged with enzymatic degradation. When implanted subcutaneously in rats for up to 90 days, GLUT control leaflets calcified heavily while TRI treated leaflets resisted calcification, retained more ECM components, and showed better biocompatibility.

  14. A novel crosslinking method for improved tear resistance and biocompatibility of tissue based biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Hobey; Zhang, Will; Feaver, Kristen R.; Parchment, Nathaniel; Sacks, Michael S.; Vyavahare, Naren

    2015-01-01

    Over 300,000 heart valve replacements are performed annually to replace stenotic and regurgitant heart valves. Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs), derived from glutaraldehyde crosslinked (GLUT) porcine aortic valve leaflets or bovine pericardium are often used. However, valve failure can occur within 12–15 years due to calcification and/or progressive degeneration. In this study, we have developed a novel fabrication method that utilizes carbodiimide, neomycin trisulfate, and pentagalloyl glucose crosslinking chemistry (TRI) to better stabilize the extracellular matrix of porcine aortic valve leaflets. We demonstrate that TRI treated leaflets show similar biomechanics to GLUT crosslinked leaflets. TRI treated leaflets had better resistance to enzymatic degradation in vitro and demonstrated better tearing toughness after challenged with enzymatic degradation. When implanted subcutaneously in rats for up to 90 days, GLUT control leaflets calcified heavily while TRI treated leaflets resisted calcification, retained more ECM components, and showed better biocompatibility. PMID:26196535

  15. Laser-based three-dimensional multiscale micropatterning of biocompatible hydrogels for customized tissue engineering scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, Matthew B.; Coburn, Jeannine; Partlow, Benjamin P.; Moreau, Jodie E.; Mondia, Jessica P.; Marelli, Benedetto; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2015-01-01

    Light-induced material phase transitions enable the formation of shapes and patterns from the nano- to the macroscale. From lithographic techniques that enable high-density silicon circuit integration, to laser cutting and welding, light–matter interactions are pervasive in everyday materials fabrication and transformation. These noncontact patterning techniques are ideally suited to reshape soft materials of biological relevance. We present here the use of relatively low-energy (< 2 nJ) ultrafast laser pulses to generate 2D and 3D multiscale patterns in soft silk protein hydrogels without exogenous or chemical cross-linkers. We find that high-resolution features can be generated within bulk hydrogels through nearly 1 cm of material, which is 1.5 orders of magnitude deeper than other biocompatible materials. Examples illustrating the materials, results, and the performance of the machined geometries in vitro and in vivo are presented to demonstrate the versatility of the approach. PMID:26374842

  16. Fabrication and in vitro biocompatibility of biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junmin; Xu, Weijun; Yong, Xueqing; Jin, Xinxia; Zhang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    In this study, biomorphic poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds were successfully prepared using cane as a template. The porous morphology, phase, compression characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds and biomorphic PLGA scaffolds as control were investigated. The results showed that the biomorphic scaffolds preserved the original honeycomb-like architecture of cane and exhibited a bimodal porous structure. The average channel diameter and micropore size of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were 164 ± 52 μm and 13 ± 8 μm, respectively, with a porosity of 89.3 ± 1.4%. The incorporation of nHA into PLGA decreased the degree of crystallinity of PLGA, and significantly improved the compressive modulus of biomorphic scaffolds. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could better support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation than the biomorphic PLGA scaffolds. The localization depth of MC3T3-E1 cells within the channels of the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could reach approximately 400 μm. The results suggested that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were promising candidates for bone tissue engineering.

  17. In vitro biocompatibility of degradable biopolymers in cell line cultures from various ocular tissues: direct contact studies.

    PubMed

    Huhtala, A; Pohjonen, T; Salminen, L; Salminen, A; Kaarniranta, K; Uusitalo, H

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic biodegradable polymers have many potential therapeutic applications. In ophthalmology, biodegradable polymers have been used as viscoelastic agents and surgical implants. Other potential applications include controlled release of drugs and growth factors, gene therapy, and tissue engineering. In the present study, in vitro biocompatibility of three biodegradable polymers, 50:50 PDLGA, 85:15 PDLGA, and Inion GTR membrane was evaluated in comparison to tissue culture polystyrene by investigating cell proliferation and potential acute toxicity by the WST-1 cytotoxicity/cell proliferation test, the ATP test, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test. Evaluations were conducted with cell line cultures from various ocular tissues, human corneal epithelial cells (HCE), rabbit stromal fibroblasts (SIRC), bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCE), human conjunctival epithelial cells (IOBA-NHC), and human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) by direct contact studies by plating the cells on the polymer film specimens in 96-wells. The proliferation results show that cell lines from various ocular tissues attached and grew on PDLGA 50:50, PDLGA 85:15, and Inion GTR membrane. Cytotoxicity experiments with the LDH and ATP tests showed no or extremely slight toxic adverse effects. These polymers have potential to be used as scaffolds in cell transplantation devices or as surgical implants. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Diels-Alder functionalized carbon nanotubes for bone tissue engineering: in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, D.; Amaral, M.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Colaço, B.; Gama, A.; Paiva, M. C.; Gomes, P. S.; Silva, R. F.; Fernandes, M. H.

    2015-05-01

    The risk-benefit balance for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dictates their clinical fate. To take a step forward at this crossroad it is compulsory to modulate the CNT in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability via e.g. chemical functionalization. CNT membranes were functionalised combining a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction to generate cyclohexene (-C6H10) followed by a mild oxidisation to yield carboxylic acid groups (-COOH). In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblastic cells were maximized on functionalized CNT membranes (p,f-CNTs). The in vivo subcutaneously implanted materials showed a higher biological reactivity, thus inducing a slighter intense inflammatory response compared to non-functionalized CNT membranes (p-CNTs), but still showing a reduced cytotoxicity profile. Moreover, the in vivo biodegradation of CNTs was superior for p,f-CNT membranes, likely mediated by the oxidation-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) in neutrophil and macrophage inflammatory milieus. This proves the biodegradability faculty of functionalized CNTs, which potentially avoids long-term tissue accumulation and triggering of acute toxicity. On the whole, the proposed Diels-Alder functionalization accounts for the improved CNT biological response in terms of the biocompatibility and biodegradability profiles. Therefore, CNTs can be considered for use in bone tissue engineering without notable toxicological threats.The risk-benefit balance for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dictates their clinical fate. To take a step forward at this crossroad it is compulsory to modulate the CNT in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability via e.g. chemical functionalization. CNT membranes were functionalised combining a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction to generate cyclohexene (-C6H10) followed by a mild oxidisation to yield carboxylic acid groups (-COOH). In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblastic cells were maximized on functionalized CNT

  19. Polyanionic collagen membranes for guided tissue regeneration: Effect of progressive glutaraldehyde cross-linking on biocompatibility and degradation.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, D M; Leitão, R F C; Ribeiro, R A; Figueiró, S D; Sombra, A S B; Góes, J C; Brito, G A C

    2010-10-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to control periodontal tissue inflammation and to produce predictable regeneration of that part of the periodontium which has been lost as a result of periodontal disease. In guided tissue regeneration membranes function as mechanical barriers, excluding the epithelium and gingival corium from the root surface and allowing regeneration by periodontal ligament cells. This report aims to study the effect of glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking on mineralized polyanionic collagen (PAC) membranes by conducting a histological evaluation of the tissue response (biocompatibility) and by assessing the biodegradation of subcutaneous membrane implants in rats. We studied six different samples: a PAC, a PAC mineralized by alternate soaking processes for either 25 or 75 cycles (PAC 25 and PAC 75, respectively) and these films cross-linked by GA. Inflammatory infiltrate, cytokine dosage, fibrosis capsule thickness, metalloproteinase immunohistochemistry and membrane biodegradation after 1, 7, 15 and 30 days were measured. The inflammatory response was found to be more intense in membranes without cross-linking, while the fibrosis capsules became thicker in cross-linked membranes after 30 days. The membranes without cross-linking suffered intense biodegradation, while the membranes with cross-linking remained intact after 30 days. The cross-linking with GA reduced the inflammatory response and prevented degradation of the membranes over the entire course of the observation period. These membranes are thus an attractive option when the production of new bone depends on the prolonged presence of a mechanical barrier.

  20. Histological Features and Biocompatibility of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitutes in the Atrophic Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rancitelli, Davide; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Herford, Alan Scott

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix allow for a complete restoration of the atrophic ridge without invasive harvesting procedures. A maxillary reconstruction of an atrophic ridge by means of tissue substitutes and its histological features are then presented. PMID:27022489

  1. Tissue-Integratable and Biocompatible Photogelation by the Imine Crosslinking Reaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhang, Jieyuan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lin, Qiuning; Liu, Xiaolin; Bao, Chunyan; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Linyong

    2016-04-13

    A novel photogelling mechanism by the phototriggered-imine-crosslinking (PIC) reaction is demonstrated. Hyaluronic acid grafted with o-nitrobenzene, a photogenerated aldehyde group, can quickly photo-crosslink with amino-bearing polymers or proteins. Once the in situ photogelling on a wound occurs, the PIC gelling process can well integrate a hydrogel with surrounding tissue by covalent bonding, thus making it a powerful tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  2. Construction of biocompatible porous tissue scaffold from the decellularized umbilical artery.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yi; Wu, Guanghui; Wu, Man; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Velot, Emilie; Decot, Véronique; Cui, Wei; Huang, Yimin; Stoltz, Jean-Francois; Du, Jie; Li, Na

    2015-01-01

    The scaffolds prepared from the tissue decellularization conserve the porous 3-D structure and provide an optimal matrix for the tissue regeneration. Since decade, the enzymatic digestion, chemical reagent treatment and mechanical actions such as eversion and abrasion have been used to remove the cells from the intact matrix. In this study, we optimized an enzymatic method to decellularize the umbilical artery to construct a 3-D porous scaffold which is suitable for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The scaffold maintained the interconnected porous structure. It remained the similar high water content 95.3 ± 1% compared to 94.9 ± 0.6% in the intact umbilical artery (p>0.05). The decellularization process decreased the stress from 0.24 ± 0.05 mPa to 0.15 ± 0.06 mPa (p<0.05). However the decellularization did not change the strain of the artery (45 ± 15% vs. 53 ± 10%, p>0.05). When the scaffold was transplanted to the subcutaneous tissue in the wild type mice, there were less T cells appeared in the surrounding tissue which meant the decreased the immunogenicity by decellularization. This scaffold also supported the adhesion and proliferation of the MSCs. In this study, we constructed a biological compatible porous scaffold from the decellularized umbilical artery which may provide a suitable scaffold for cell-matrix interaction studies and for tissue engineering.

  3. Moisture-cured silicone-urethanes-candidate materials for tissue engineering: a biocompatibility study in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mrówka, P; Kozakiewicz, J; Jurkowska, A; Sienkiewicz, E; Przybylski, J; Lewandowski, Z; Przybylski, J; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to verify the response of human bone-derived cells (HBDCs) to moisture-cured silicone-urethanes (mcSUUs) in vitro, as the first step toward using them as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Good surgical handling, tissue cavity filling, stable mechanical properties, and potentially improved oxygen supply to cells after implantation justify the investigation of these nondegradable elastomers. A set of various mcSUUs were obtained by moisture-curing NCO-terminated prepolymers, synthesized from oligomeric siloxane diols of two different oligosiloxane chain lengths, and two different diisocyanates (MDI and IPDI), using two different NCO/OH molar ratios. Dibutyltindilaurate (DBTL) or N-dimethylethanolamine (N-met) served as catalysts. After 7 days of culture, cell number, viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were determined, and after 21 days, cell viability and collagen production were determined. Material characteristics significantly influenced the cell response. The mcSUUs prepared with DBTL (widely used in the syntheses of biomaterials) were cytotoxic. The MDI-based mcSUUs were significantly more favored by HBDCs than the IPDI-based ones in all performed tests. MDI-based material with low 2/1 NCO/OH and short chain length was the best support for cells, comparable with tissue-culture polystyrene (with ALP activity even higher). HBDCs cultured on porous scaffolds from this mcSUU produced a tissue-like structure in culture. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010.

  4. Biodegradable, Elastomeric, and Intrinsically Photoluminescent Poly(Silicon-Citrates) with high Photostability and Biocompatibility for Tissue Regeneration and Bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuzhang; Xue, Yumeng; Ma, Peter X; Chen, Xiaofeng; Lei, Bo

    2016-02-04

    Biodegradable polymer biomaterials with intrinsical photoluminescent properties have attracted much interest, due to their potential advantages for tissue regeneration and noninvasive bioimaging. However, few of current biodegradable polymers possess tunable intrinsically fluorescent properties, such as high photostability, fluorescent lifetime, and quantum field, and strong mechanical properties for meeting the requirements of biomedical applications. Here, by a facile one-step thermal polymerization, elastomeric poly(silicone-citrate) (PSC) hybrid polymers are developed with controlled biodegradability and mechanical properties, tunable inherent fluorescent emission (up to 600 nm), high photostability (beyond 180 min for UV and six months for natural light), fluorescent lifetime (near 10 ns) and quantum yield (16%-35%), high cellular biocompatibility, and minimal inflammatory response in vivo, which provide advantages over conventional fluorescent dyes, quantum dots, and current fluorescent polymers. The promising applications of PSC hybrids for cell and implants imaging in vitro and in vivo are successfully demonstrated. The development of elastomeric PSC polymer may provide a new strategy in synthesizing new inorganic-organic hybrid photo-luminescent materials for tissue regeneration and bioimaging applications.

  5. Novel chitin scaffolds derived from marine sponge Ianthella basta for tissue engineering approaches based on human mesenchymal stromal cells: Biocompatibility and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Mutsenko, Vitalii V; Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Lauterboeck, Lothar; Rogulska, Olena; Tarusin, Dmitriy N; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Schütz, Kathleen; Brüggemeier, Sophie; Gossla, Elke; Akkineni, Ashwini R; Meißner, Heike; Lode, Anja; Meschke, Stephan; Fromont, Jane; Stelling, Allison L; Tabachnik, Konstantin R; Gelinsky, Michael; Nikulin, Sergey; Rodin, Sergey; Tonevitsky, Alexander G; Petrenko, Alexander Y; Glasmacher, Birgit; Schupp, Peter J; Ehrlich, Hermann

    2017-11-01

    The extraordinary biocompatibility and mechanical properties of chitinous scaffolds from marine sponges endows these structures with unique properties that render them ideal for diverse biomedical applications. In the present work, a technological route to produce "ready-to-use" tissue-engineered products based on poriferan chitin is comprehensively investigated for the first time. Three key stages included isolation of scaffolds from the marine demosponge Ianthella basta, confirmation of their biocompatibility with human mesenchymal stromal cells, and cryopreservation of the tissue-like structures grown within these scaffolds using a slow cooling protocol. Biocompatibility of the macroporous, flat chitin scaffolds has been confirmed by cell attachment, high cell viability and the ability to differentiate into the adipogenic lineage. The viability of cells cryopreserved on chitin scaffolds was reduced by about 30% as compared to cells cryopreserved in suspension. However, the surviving cells were able to retain their differentiation potential; and this is demonstrated for the adipogenic lineage. The results suggest that chitin from the marine demosponge I. basta is a promising, highly biocompatible biomaterial for stem cell-based tissue-engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of surface texture by ion beam sputtering on implant biocompatibility and soft tissue attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives in this report were to use the ion beam sputtering technique to produce surface textures on polymers, metals, and ceramics. The morphology of the texture was altered by varying both the width and depth of the square pits which were formed by ion beam erosion. The width of the ribs separating the pits were defined by the mask used to produce the texture. The area of the surface containing pits varies as the width was changed. The biological parameters used to evaluate the biological response to the texture were: (1) fibrous capsule and inflammatory response in subcutaneous soft tissue; (2) strength of the mechanical attachment of the textured surface by the soft tissue; and (3) morphology of the epidermal layer interfacing the textured surface of percutaneous connectors. Because the sputter yield on teflon ribs was approximately an order of magnitude larger than any other material the majority of the measurements presented in the report were obtained with teflon.

  7. Biocompatible conducting chitosan/polypyrrole-alginate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sajesh, K M; Jayakumar, R; Nair, Shantikumar V; Chennazhi, K P

    2013-11-01

    A polypyrrole based conducting scaffold was developed by incorporating polypyrrole-alginate (PPy-Alg) blend with chitosan using lyophilization technique and employed this composite as a substrate for bone tissue engineering. PPy-Alg blend was developed by oxidative chemical synthesis of polypyrrole using FeCl3 as oxidizing agent and characterized. The physiochemical characterization of the scaffold was done using SEM, FT-IR along with porosity measurement, swelling and in vitro degradation studies. Surface conductivity of the scaffolds was analyzed using Scanning Electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Results from cell viability and cell proliferation with MG-63 cells using Alamar blue assay confirmed the cytocompatible nature of the developed scaffold. In vitro biomineralization ability of the scaffold was assessed and thus the effectiveness of PPy-Alg/chitosan scaffold in the field of tissue engineering was evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biocompatible, Biodegradable, and Electroactive Polyurethane-Urea Elastomers with Tunable Hydrophilicity for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Dong, Ruonan; Ge, Juan; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-30

    It remains a challenge to develop electroactive and elastic biomaterials to mimic the elasticity of soft tissue and to regulate the cell behavior during tissue regeneration. We designed and synthesized a series of novel electroactive and biodegradable polyurethane-urea (PUU) copolymers with elastomeric property by combining the properties of polyurethanes and conducting polymers. The electroactive PUU copolymers were synthesized from amine capped aniline trimer (ACAT), dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), polylactide, and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The electroactivity of the PUU copolymers were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Elasticity and Young's modulus were tailored by the polylactide segment length and ACAT content. Hydrophilicity of the copolymer films was tuned by changing DMPA content and doping of the copolymer. Cytotoxicity of the PUU copolymers was evaluated by mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. The myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts on copolymer films was also studied by analyzing the morphology of myotubes and relative gene expression during myogenic differentiation. The chemical structure, thermal properties, surface morphology, and processability of the PUU copolymers were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and solubility testing, respectively. Those biodegradable electroactive elastic PUU copolymers are promising materials for repair of soft tissues such as skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and nerve.

  9. Cytotoxicity of Cyanoacrylate-Based Tissue Adhesives and Short-Term Preclinical In Vivo Biocompatibility in Abdominal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Marta; Pérez-Köhler, Bárbara; Kühnhardt, Andreé; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Mar; San Román, Julio; Bellón, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cyanoacrylate(CA)-based tissue adhesives, although not widely used, are a feasible option to fix a mesh during abdominal hernia repair, due to its fast action and great bond strength. Their main disadvantage, toxicity, can be mitigated by increasing the length of their alkyl chain. The objective was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility in hernia repair of CAs currently used in clinical practice (Glubran(n-butyl) and Ifabond(n-hexyl)) and a longer-chain CA (OCA(n-octyl)), that has never been used in the medical field. Methods Formaldehyde release and cytotoxicity of unpolymerized(UCAs) and polymerized CAs(PCAs) were evaluated by macroscopic visual assessment, flow cytometry and Alamar Blue assays. In the preclinical evaluation, partial defects were created in the rabbit abdominal wall and repaired by fixing polypropylene prostheses using the CAs. At 14 days post-surgery, animals were euthanized for morphology, macrophage response and cell damage analyses. Results Formaldehyde release was lower as the molecular weight of the monomer increased. The longest side-chain CA(OCA) showed the highest cytotoxicity in the UCA condition. However, after polymerization, was the one that showed better behavior on most occasions. In vivo, all CAs promoted optimal mesh fixation without displacements or detachments. Seroma was evident with the use of Glubran, (four of six animals: 4/6) and Ifabond (2/6), but it was reduced with the use of OCA (1/6). Significantly greater macrophage responses were observed in groups where Glubran and Ifabond were used vs. sutures and OCA. TUNEL-positive cells were significantly higher in the Glubran and OCA groups vs. the suture group. Conclusions Although mild formaldehyde release occurred, OCA was the most cytotoxic during polymerization but the least once cured. The CAs promoted proper mesh fixation and have potential to replace traditional suturing techniques in hernia repair; the CAs exhibited good tissue

  10. Reaction of rat subcutaneous tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement: a secondary level biocompatibility test.

    PubMed

    Karanth, P; Manjunath, M K; Kuriakose, E S

    2013-01-01

    This secondary-level animal study was conducted to assess and compare the subcutaneous tissue reaction to implantation of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and white Portland cement. Polyethylene tubes filled with either freshly mixed white MTA (Group I) or white Portland cement (Group II) were implanted subcutaneously into 12 Wistar Albino rats. Each animal also received an empty polyethylene tube as the control (Group III). After 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, the implants, together with surrounding tissues were excised. Two pathologists blinded to the experimental procedure, evaluated sections taken from the biopsy specimens for the severity of the inflammatory response, calcification and the presence and thickness of fibrous capsule surrounding the implant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Cross-tabs procedure, Univariate analysis of the variance two-way and the Pearson product moment correlation to assess inter-rater variability between the two evaluators. At 7 days, there was no significant difference in the severity of inflammation between the control group, white MTA, and white Portland cement groups. In the 14 day, 21 day and 30 day test periods, control group had significantly less inflammation than white MTA and white Portland cement. There was no significant difference in the grading of inflammation between white MTA and white Portland cement. All materials exhibited thick capsule at 7 days and thin capsule by 30 days. Both white MTA and white Portland cement were not completely non-irritating at the end of 30 days as evidenced by the presence of mild inflammation. However, the presence of a thin capsule around the materials, similar to the control group, indicates good tissue tolerance. White MTA and white Portland cement seem to be materials of comparable biocompatibility.

  11. Micro- and Nanostructured Biomaterials for Sutureless Tissue Repair.

    PubMed

    Frost, Samuel J; Mawad, D; Hook, J; Lauto, Antonio

    2016-02-18

    Sutureless procedures for wound repair and closure have recently integrated nanostructured devices to improve their effectiveness and clinical outcome. This review highlights the major advances in gecko-inspired bioadhesives that relies mostly on van der Waals bonding forces. These are challenged by the moist environment of surgical settings that weaken adherence to tissue. The incorporation of nanoparticles in biomatrices and their role in tissue repair and drug delivery is also reviewed with an emphasis on procedures involving adhesives that are laser-activated. Nanostructured adhesive devices have the advantage of being minimally invasive to tissue, can seal wounds, and deliver drugs in situ. All these tasks are very difficult to accomplish by sutures or staples that are invasive to host organs and often cause scarring.

  12. Characterization of the physical properties and biocompatibility of polybenzoxazine-based aerogels for use as a novel hard-tissue scaffold.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, David A; Lu, Hongbing; Mahadik, Shruti S; Leventis, Nicholas; Yin, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The process to successfully synthesize polybenzoxazine (PBO)-based aerogels has recently been optimized; however, the biocompatibility of these materials has never been investigated. PBO is synthesized from bisphenol A and aniline, which are both precursors to many commonly used biomaterials, including polyurethane. Surface-wise these new aerogels resemble the innate extracellular matrix of bone and if these new aerogels exhibit acceptable biocompatibility, they may be used as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Here, we aimed to characterize some of the physical properties of PBO aerogels, PBO aerogels co-polymerized with resorcinol and formaldehyde (RF) and their conversion to carbon aerogel, while determining the compatibility of all of these materials towards human osteoblasts. Biocompatibility was determined with a live/dead cell cytotoxicity assay, a metabolic activity assay, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production, after incubation with PBO-based aerogels for up to 5 days. PBO aerogels co-polymerized with RF tended to have a low density, porosity and elastic modulus and provided the weakest substrate for bone cell growth. PBO-derived carbon aerogels tended to have a high density, a large porosity and improved mechanical properties and provided the best substrate for bone cell growth. These results suggest that PBO based carbon aerogels have a suitable biocompatibility towards osteoblasts and that they may be able to be used for bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  13. Fabrication of biocompatible electro-conductive silk films with natural compounds for tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakakis, Nikolaos

    In the present study electro conductive natural compounds are incorporated in silk based films, and the effects on film conductivity and dissolution are studied. Natural conducting compounds melanin and riboflavin were blended with silk to increase conductivity. Other compounds such as Fe(0) powder ferrofluid and NaCl solution also improved conductivity. Film properties and dissolution were studied for the different blends, and tuned using addition of glycerol and horseradish peroxidase cross-linking. Techniques such as electrospinning, doctor blade, spin coating, and paper-like film fabrication techniques were also explored to generate films with controlled dimensions and properties. The findings suggest that the incorporation of riboflavin along with NaCl and glycerol in silk films, along with water vapor annealing results in semiconductor films. More specifically, the two compositions of the films that exhibited highest conductivity contain 2 % w/v silk, 20 % w/v glycerol, 2 % w/v polyethylene oxide (PEO), 30 % v/v phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and 5 % w/v silk, 20 % w/v glycerol, 10 % w/v NaCl with conductivities of 5.72*10-2 S/m and 5.96*10-2 S/m at 20 °C. When silk is doped with riboflavin, NaCl, and glycerol, semiconducting behavior similar to drinking water conductivity is observed. Mass loss studies of the films included the immersion of the films for 7 days in 37° C in PBS. Film processing included samples that were heated for 2 hours in 60 °C immediately after casting, as well as those cured at room temperature. The results indicated that the heated samples provided the lowest mass loss of approximately 27 %. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the correlation between composition and processing of silk films with their conductivity. These semiconductive films have the potential to be applied in tissue engineering applications such as nerve conduits, where conductivity plays an instrumental role in tissue restoration.

  14. Degradation and biocompatibility of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhihong; Li, Yubao; Zou, Qin

    2009-04-01

    Porous scaffold containing 30 wt% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and 70 wt% polyurethane (PU) from castor oil was prepared by a foaming method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that n-HA particles disperse homogeneously in the PU matrix. The porous scaffold has not only macropores of 100-800 μm in size but also a lot of micropores on the walls of macropores. The porosity and compressive strength of scaffold are 80% and 271 kPa, respectively. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), hydrolysis and deposition partly occur on the scaffold. The biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo shows that the n-HA/PU scaffold is non-cytotoxic and degradable. The porous structure provides a good microenvironment for cell adherence, growth and proliferation. The n-HA/PU composite scaffold can be satisfied with the basic requirement for tissue engineering, and has the potential to be applied in repair and substitute of human menisci of the knee-joint and articular cartilage.

  15. Extraction and characterization of biocompatible hydroxyapatite from fresh water fish scales for tissue engineering scaffold.

    PubMed

    Panda, Niladri Nath; Pramanik, Krishna; Sukla, Lala Behari

    2014-03-01

    In bone tissue engineering, porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) is used as filling material for bone defects, augmentation, artificial bone graft and scaffold material. The present paper compares the preparation and characterization of HAp from fish scale (FS) and synthetic body fluid (SBF) solution. Thermo gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analysis of the samples have been performed. The analysis indicates that synthesized HAp consists of sub-micron HAp particle with Ca/P ratio corresponding to FS and SBF 1.62 and 1.71, respectively. MTT assay and quantitative DNA analysis show growth and proliferation of cells over the HA scaffold with the increase in time. The shape and size (morphology) of mesenchymal stem cells after 3 days show a transition from rounded shape to elongated and flattened shape expressing its spreading behavior. These results confirm that HAp bio-materials from fish scale are physico-chemically and biologically equivalent to the chemically synthesized HAp from SBF. Biological HAp, thus, possesses a great potential for conversion of industrial by-product into highly valuable compounds using simple effective and novel processes.

  16. In vitro and in vivo Biocompatibility of Alginate Dialdehyde/Gelatin Hydrogels with and without Nanoscaled Bioactive Glass for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rottensteiner, Ulrike; Sarker, Bapi; Heusinger, Dominik; Dafinova, Diana; Rath, Subha N.; Beier, Justus P.; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E.; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Arkudas, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In addition to good mechanical properties needed for three-dimensional tissue engineering, the combination of alginate dialdehyde, gelatin and nano-scaled bioactive glass (45S5) is supposed to combine excellent cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation properties, good biocompatibility and predictable degradation rates. The goal of this study was to evaluate thein vitro and in vivo biocompatibility as a first step on the way to its use as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering. In vitro evaluation showed good cell adherence and proliferation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on covalently crosslinked alginate dialdehyde-gelatin (ADA-GEL) hydrogel films with and without 0.1% nano-Bioglass®(nBG). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)- and mitochondrial activity significantly increased in both ADA-GEL and ADA-GEL-nBG groups compared to alginate. However, addition of 0.1% nBG seemed to have slight cytotoxic effect compared to ADA-GEL. In vivo implantation did not produce a significant inflammatory reaction, and ongoing degradation could be seen after four weeks. Ongoing vascularization was detected after four weeks. The good biocompatibility encourages future studies using ADA-GEL and nBG for bone tissue engineering application. PMID:28788549

  17. Hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) as scaffolds for tissue engineering application: biocompatibility assessment and effect of the sterilization process.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Castellanos, Alondra; Ocampo-García, Blanca E; Domínguez-García, Ma Victoria; Flores-Estrada, Jaime; Flores-Merino, Miriam V

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogels are suitable materials to promote cell proliferation and tissue support because of their hydrophilic nature, porous structure and sticky properties. However, hydrogel synthesis involves the addition of additives that can increase the risk of inducing cytotoxicity. Sterilization is a critical process for hydrogel clinical use as a proper scaffold for tissue engineering. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan (PEG-CH) and multi-arm PEG hydrogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization and sterilized by gamma irradiation or disinfected using 70 % ethanol. The biocompatibility assessment in human fibroblasts and hemocompatibility studies (hemolysis, platelet aggregation, morphology of mononuclear cells and viability) in peripheral blood from healthy volunteers (ex vivo), were performed. The sterilization or disinfection effect on hydrogel structures was evaluated by FT-IR spectroscopy. Results indicated that hydrogels do not induce any damage to fibroblasts, erythrocytes, platelets or mononuclear cells. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the biocompatibility after the sterilization or disinfection treatment. However, after gamma irradiation, several IR spectroscopic bands were shifted to higher or lower energies with different intensity in all hydrogels. In particular, several bands associated to carboxyl or hydroxyl groups were slightly shifted, possibly associated to scission reactions. The disinfection treatment (70 % ethanol) and γ-irradiation at 13.83 ± 0.7 kGy did not induce morphological damages and yielded sterile and biocompatible PEG hydrogels potentially useful for clinical applications.

  18. Biocompatibility evaluation of dicalcium phosphate/calcium sulfate/poly (amino acid) composite for orthopedic tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Pengzheng; Peng, Haitao; Luo, Xiaoman; Yuan, Huipin; Zhang, Juncai; Yan, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    In vitro cytocompatibility of ternary biocomposite of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and calcium sulfate (CS) containing 40 wt% poly (amino acid) (PAA) was evaluated using L929 fibroblasts and MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. Thereafter, the biocompatibility of biocomposite in vivo was investigated using an implantation in muscle and bone model. In vitro L929 and MG-63 cell culture experiments showed that the composite and PAA polymer were noncytotoxic and allowed cells to adhere and proliferate. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirmed that two kinds of cells maintained their phenotype on all of samples surfaces. Moreover, the DCP/CS/PAA composite showed higher cellular viability than that of PAA; meanwhile, the cell proliferation and ALP activity were much higher when DCP/CS had added into PAA. After implanted in muscle of rabbits for 12 weeks, the histological evaluation indicated that the composite exhibited excellent biocompatibility and no inflammatory responses were found. When implanted into bone defects of femoral condyle of rabbits, the composite was combined directly with the host bone tissue without fibrous capsule tissue, which shown good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Thus, this novel composite may have potential application in the clinical setting.

  19. Biocompatibility of two model elastin-like recombinamer-based hydrogels formed through physical or chemical crosslinking for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Fonseca, Arturo; Ramos, Teresa L; de Torre, Israel González; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Muntión, Sandra; Arias, Francisco Javier; Del Cañizo, María Consuelo; Alonso, Matilde; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; Rodríguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Biocompatibility studies, especially innate immunity induction, in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, and fibrosis, are often lacking for many novel biomaterials including recombinant protein-based ones, such as elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), and has not been extensively explored in the scientific literature, in contrast to traditional biomaterials. Herein we present the results from a set of experiments designed to elucidate the preliminary biocompatibility of two types of ELRs that are able to form extracellular matrix-like hydrogels through either physical or chemical crosslinking, both of which are intended for different applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). Initially we present in vitro cytocompatibility results obtained upon culturing HUVECs on ELR substrates, showing optimal proliferation up to 9 days. Regarding in vivo cytocompatibility, luciferase-expressing hMSCs were viable for at least 4 weeks in terms of bioluminescence emission when embedded in ELR hydrogels and injected subcutaneously into immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, both types of ELR-based hydrogels were injected subcutaneously in immunocompetent mice and serum TNFα, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were measured by ELISA, confirming the lack of inflammatory response, as also observed upon macroscopic and histological evaluation. All these findings suggest that both types of ELRs possess broad biocompatibility, thus making them very promising for TERM-related applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Vertical anisotropic microfibers for a gecko-inspired adhesive.

    PubMed

    Tamelier, John; Chary, Sathya; Turner, Kimberly L

    2012-06-12

    Geckos are able to adhere strongly and release easily from surfaces because the structurally anisotropic fibers on their toes naturally exhibit force anisotropy based on the direction of articulation. Here, semicircular fibers, with varying amounts of contact area on the two faces, are investigated to ascertain whether fiber shape can be used to gain anisotropy in shear and shear adhesion forces. Testing of 10-μm-diameter polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibers against a 4-mm-diameter flat glass puck show that shear and shear adhesion forces were two to five times greater when in-plane movement caused the flat face, rather than the curved face, of the fiber to come in contact with the glass puck. The directional adhesion and shear force anisotropy results are close to theoretical approximations using the Kendall peel model and clearly demonstrate how fiber shape may be used to influence the properties of the adhesive. This result has broad applicability, and by combining the results shown here with other current vertical and angled designs, synthetic adhesives can be further improved to behave more like their natural counterparts.

  1. Enhanced adhesion by gecko-inspired hierarchical fibrillar adhesives.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael P; Kim, Seok; Sitti, Metin

    2009-04-01

    The complex structures that allow geckos to repeatably adhere to surfaces consist of multilevel branching fibers with specialized tips. We present a novel technique for fabricating similar multilevel structures from polymer materials and demonstrate the fabrication of arrays of two- and three-level structures, wherein each level terminates in flat mushroom-type tips. Adhesion experiments are conducted on two-level fiber arrays on a 12-mm-diameter glass hemisphere, which exhibit both increased adhesion and interface toughness over one-level fiber samples and unstructured control samples. These adhesion enhancements are the result of increased surface conformation as well as increased extension during detachment.

  2. Design and fabrication of gecko-inspired adhesives.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kejia; Tian, Yu; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Puthoff, Jonathan; Autumn, Kellar; Pesika, Noshir S

    2012-04-03

    Recently, there has been significant interest in developing dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which offers several advantages compared to conventional pressure-sensitive adhesives. Specifically, gecko adhesive pads have anisotropic adhesion properties; the adhesive pads (spatulae) stick strongly when sheared in one direction but are non-adherent when sheared in the opposite direction. This anisotropy property is attributed to the complex topography of the array of fine tilted and curved columnar structures (setae) that bear the spatulae. In this study, we present an easy, scalable method, relying on conventional and unconventional techniques, to incorporate tilt in the fabrication of synthetic polymer-based dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which provides anisotropic adhesion properties. We measured the anisotropic adhesion and friction properties of samples with various tilt angles to test the validity of a nanoscale tape-peeling model of spatular function. Consistent with the peel zone model, samples with lower tilt angles yielded larger adhesion forces. The tribological properties of the synthetic arrays were highly anisotropic, reminiscent of the frictional adhesion behavior of gecko setal arrays. When a 60° tilt sample was actuated in the gripping direction, a static adhesion strength of ~1.4 N/cm(2) and a static friction strength of ~5.4 N/cm(2) were obtained. In contrast, when the dry adhesive was actuated in the releasing direction, we measured an initial repulsive normal force and negligible friction.

  3. Carbon nanotube based gecko inspired self-cleaning adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Sunny; Ge, Liehui; Ajayan, Pulickel; Ali, Dhinojwala

    2008-03-01

    Wall climbing organisms like geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without use of any viscoelastic material. The hairy structure found in gecko feet allows them to obtain intimate contact over a large area thus allowing then to adhere using van der Waals interactions. Not only high adhesion, the geometry of the hairs makes gecko feet self cleaning, thus allowing them to walk continuously without worrying about loosing adhesive strength. Such properties if mimicked synthetically could form basis of a new class of materials, which, unlike conventional adhesives would show two contradictory properties, self cleaning and high adhesion. Such materials would form essential component of applications like wall climbing robot. We tried to synthesize such material using micropatterened vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. When dealing with large areas, probability of defects in the structure increase, forming patterns instead of using uniform film of carbon nanotubes helps to inhibit crack propagation, thus gives much higher adhesive strength than a uniform film. When carbon nanotube patterns with optimized aspect ratio are used, both high adhesion and self cleaning properties are observed.

  4. Strong two-photon-induced fluorescence from photostable, biocompatible nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots for cellular and deep-tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Guo, Beidou; Rao, Ziyu; Zhang, Baohong; Gong, Jian Ru

    2013-06-12

    Bright two-photon fluorescent probes are highly desirable to be able to optically probe biological activities deep inside living organisms with larger imaging depth, minor autofluorescence background, and less photodamage. In this study, we report the biocompatible nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) as efficient two-photon fluorescent probes for cellular and deep-tissue imaging. The N-GQD was prepared by a facile solvothermal method using dimethylformamide as a solvent and nitrogen source. The two-photon absorption cross-section of N-GQD reaches 48,000 Göppert-Mayer units, which far surpasses that of the organic dyes and is comparable to that of the high performance semiconductor QDs, achieving the highest value ever reported for carbon-based nanomaterials. More importantly, a study of penetration depth in tissue phantom demonstrates that the N-GQD can achieve a large imaging depth of 1800 μm, significantly extending the fundamental two-photon imaging depth limit. In addition, the N-GQD is nontoxic to living cells and exhibits super photostability under repeated laser irradiation. The high two-photon absorption cross-section, large imaging depth, good biocompatibility, and extraordinary photostability render the N-GQD an attractive alternative probe for efficient two-photon imaging in biological and biomedical applications.

  5. Poly(ε-caprolactone)/nano fluoridated hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: in vitro degradation and biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    Johari, N; Fathi, M H; Golozar, M A; Erfani, E; Samadikuchaksaraei, A

    2012-03-01

    In this study, biodegradation and biocompatibility of novel poly(ε-caparolactone)/nano fluoridated hydroxyapatite (PCL-FHA) scaffolds were investigated. The FHA nanopowders were prepared via mechanical alloying method and had a chemical composition of Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)OH(2-x )F(x) (where x values were selected equal to 0.5 and 2.0). In order to fabricate PCL-FHA scaffolds, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt% of the FHA were added to the PCL. The PCL-FHA scaffolds were produced by the solvent casting/particulate leaching using sodium chloride particles (with diameters of 300-500 μm) as the porogen. The phase structure, microstructure and morphology of the scaffolds were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Porosity of the scaffolds was measured using the Archimedes' Principle. In vitro degradation of PCL-FHA scaffolds was studied by incubating the samples in phosphate buffered saline at 37°C and pH 7.4 for 30 days. Moreover, biocompatibility was evaluated by MTT assay after seeding and culture of osteoblast-like cells on the scaffolds. Results showed that the osteoblast-like cells attached to and proliferated on PCL-FHA and increasing the porosity of the scaffolds increased the cell viability. Also, degradation rate of scaffolds were increased with increasing the fluorine content in scaffolds composition.

  6. Long-term biocompatibility, imaging appearance and tissue effects associated with delivery of a novel radiopaque embolization bead for image-guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Karun V; Bascal, Zainab; Kilpatrick, Hugh; Ashrafi, Koorosh; Willis, Sean L; Dreher, Matthew R; Lewis, Andrew L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to undertake a comprehensive long-term biocompatibility and imaging assessment of a new intrinsically radiopaque bead (LC Bead LUMI™) for use in transarterial embolization. The sterilized device and its extracts were subjected to the raft of ISO10993 biocompatibility tests that demonstrated safety with respect to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, blood contact, irritation, sensitization, systemic toxicity and tissue reaction. Intra-arterial administration was performed in a swine model of hepatic arterial embolization in which 0.22-1 mL of sedimented bead volume was administered to the targeted lobe(s) of the liver. The beads could be visualized during the embolization procedure with fluoroscopy, DSA and single X-ray snapshot imaging modalities. CT imaging was performed before and 1 h after embolization and then again at 7, 14, 30 and 90 days. LC Bead LUMI™ could be clearly visualized in the hepatic arteries with or without administration of IV contrast and appeared more dense than soluble contrast agent. The CT density of the beads did not deteriorate during the 90 day evaluation period. The beads embolized predictably and effectively, resulting in areas devoid of contrast enhancement on CT imaging suggesting ischaemia-induced necrosis nearby the sites of occlusion. Instances of off target embolization were easily detected on imaging and confirmed pathologically. Histopathology revealed a classic foreign body response at 14 days, which resolved over time leading to fibrosis and eventual integration of the beads into the tissue, demonstrating excellent long-term tissue compatibility. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Epichlorohydrin-Cross-linked Hydroxyethyl Cellulose/Soy Protein Isolate Composite Films as Biocompatible and Biodegradable Implants for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanteng; He, Meng; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Shiqun; Li, Yinping; Gan, Li; Li, Mingming; Xu, Li; Chang, Peter R; Anderson, Debbie P; Chen, Yun

    2016-02-03

    A series of epichlorohydrin-cross-linked hydroxyethyl cellulose/soy protein isolate composite films (EHSF) was fabricated from hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) using a process involving blending, cross-linking, solution casting, and evaporation. The films were characterized with FTIR, solid-state (13)C NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. The results indicated that cross-linking interactions occurred in the inter- and intramolecules of HEC and SPI during the fabrication process. The EHSF films exhibited homogeneous structure and relative high light transmittance, indicating there was a certain degree of miscibility between HEC and SPI. The EHSF films exhibited a relative high mechanical strength in humid state and an adjustable water uptake ratio and moisture absorption ratio. Cytocompatibility, hemocompatibility and biodegradability were evaluated by a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. These results showed that the EHSF films had good biocompatibility, hemocompatibility, and anticoagulant effect. Furthermore, EHSF films could be degraded in vitro and in vivo, and the degradation rate could be controlled by adjusting the SPI content. Hence, EHSF films might have a great potential for use in the biomedical field.

  8. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro biocompatibility evaluation of porous Ta-Nb alloy for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huifeng; Li, Jing; Yang, Hailin; Liu, Chao; Ruan, Jianming

    2014-07-01

    Porous Ta-Nb alloys were fabricated using the sponge impregnation technique and the powder metallurgy technique (P/M) in combination. All porous Ta-Nb alloys displayed interconnected open cell structures with porosities around 64% and pore sizes in the range of 300-500 μm. No carbide, oxide, or intermetallic-related phases were detected by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Porous Ta-Nb alloys displayed sintering neck growth, smoother surface of the particles and more shrinkage of the micropores, with Nb contents increasing from 5% to 15%. The compressive strength and Young's modulus of the Ta-Nb alloys agreed well with the requirements of trabecular bone. The normalized compressive plateau stress and Young's modulus increased from 52.27 MPa to 85.43 MPa and from 1.850 GPa to 2.540 GPa, respectively, with Nb contents increasing from 5% to 15%. Porous Ta-Nb alloys had no cytotoxicity and possessed the excellent biocompatibility similar to porous Ta scaffolds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Translating textiles to tissue engineering: Creation and evaluation of microporous, biocompatible, degradable scaffolds using industry relevant manufacturing approaches and human adipose derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Haslauer, Carla M; Avery, Matthew R; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric scaffolds have emerged as a means of generating three-dimensional tissues, such as for the treatment of bone injuries and nonunions. In this study, a fibrous scaffold was designed using the biocompatible, degradable polymer poly-lactic acid in combination with a water dispersible sacrificial polymer, EastONE. Fibers were generated via industry relevant, facile scale-up melt-spinning techniques with an islands-in-the-sea geometry. Following removal of EastONE, a highly porous fiber remained possessing 12 longitudinal channels and pores throughout all internal and external fiber walls. Weight loss and surface area characterization confirmed the generation of highly porous fibers as observed via focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. Porous fibers were then knit into a three-dimensional scaffold and seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC). Confocal microscopy images confirmed hASC attachment to the fiber walls and proliferation throughout the knit structure. Quantification of cell-mediated calcium accretion following culture in osteogenic differentiation medium confirmed hASC differentiation throughout the porous constructs. These results suggest incorporation of a sacrificial polymer within islands-in-the-sea fibers generates a highly porous scaffold capable of supporting stem cell viability and differentiation with the potential to generate large three-dimensional constructs for bone regeneration and/or other tissue engineering applications.

  10. Translating Textiles to Tissue Engineering: Creation and Evaluation of Microporous, Biocompatible, Degradable Scaffolds Using Industry Relevant Manufacturing Approaches and Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haslauer, Carla M.; Avery, Matthew R.; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Loboa, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric scaffolds have emerged as a means of generating three-dimensional tissues, such as for the treatment of bone injuries and non-unions. In this study, a fibrous scaffold was designed using the biocompatible, degradable polymer poly-lactic acid in combination with a water dispersible sacrificial polymer, EastONE. Fibers were generated via industry relevant, facile scale-up melt-spinning techniques with an islands-in-the-sea geometry. Following removal of EastONE, a highly porous fiber remained possessing 12 longitudinal channels and pores throughout all internal and external fiber walls. Weight loss and surface area characterization confirmed the generation of highly porous fibers as observed via focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. Porous fibers were then knit into a three-dimensional scaffold and seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC). Confocal microscopy images confirmed hASC attachment to the fiber walls and proliferation throughout the knit structure. Quantification of cell-mediated calcium accretion following culture in osteogenic differentiation medium confirmed hASC differentiation throughout the porous constructs. These results suggest incorporation of a sacrificial polymer within islands-in-the-sea fibers generates a highly porous scaffold capable of supporting stem cell viability and differentiation with the potential to generate large three-dimensional constructs for bone regeneration and/or other tissue engineering applications. PMID:25229198

  11. Biocompatible Silk Noil-Based Three-Dimensional Carded-Needled Nonwoven Scaffolds Guide the Engineering of Novel Skin Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Anna; Freddi, Giuliano; Liu, Daisong; Armato, Ubaldo; Dal Prà, Ilaria

    2016-08-01

    Retracting hypertrophic scars resulting from healed burn wounds heavily impact on the patients' life quality. Biomaterial scaffolds guiding burned-out skin regeneration could suppress or lessen scar retraction. Here we report a novel silk noil-based three-dimensional (3D) nonwoven scaffold produced by carding and needling with no formic acid exposure, which might improve burn healing. Once wetted, it displays human skin-like physical features and a high biocompatibility. Human keratinocyte-like cervical carcinoma C4-I cells seeded onto the carded-needled nonwovens in vitro quickly adhered to them, grew, and actively metabolized glutamine releasing lactate. As on plastic, they released no proinflammatory IL-1β, although secreting tumor necrosis factor-alpha, an inducer of the autocrine mitogen amphiregulin in such cells. Once grafted into interscapular subcutaneous tissue of mice, carded-needled nonwovens guided the afresh assembly of a connective tissue enveloping the fibroin microfibers and filling the interposed voids within 3 months. Fibroblasts and a few poly- or mononucleated macrophages populated the engineered tissue. Besides, its extracellular matrix contained thin sparse collagen fibrils and a newly formed vascular network whose endothelin-1-expressing endothelial cells grew first on the fibroin microfibrils and later expanded into the intervening matrix. Remarkably, no infiltrates of inflammatory leukocytes and no packed collagen fibers bundles among fibroin microfibers, no fibrous capsules at the grafts periphery, and hence no foreign body response was obtained at the end of 3 months of observation. Therefore, we posit that silk noil-based 3D carded-needled nonwoven scaffolds are tools for translational medicine studies as they could guide connective tissue regeneration at deep burn wounds averting scar retraction with good functional results.

  12. Biocompatible and biodegradable ultrafine fibrillar scaffold materials for tissue engineering by facile grafting of L-lactide onto chitosan.

    PubMed

    Skotak, Maciej; Leonov, Alexei P; Larsen, Gustavo; Noriega, Sandra; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2008-07-01

    A chitosan derivative was prepared with good yields using a "one pot" approach by grafting L-lactide oligomers via ring opening polymerization. Side chains are primarily attached to hydroxyl groups located on carbons 3 and 6 of the glucosamine ring, while the amine group remains nonfunctionalized. By increasing the L-lactide to chitosan ratio, side chain length is controlled. This allows the manipulation of the biodegradation rate and hydrophilicity of the tissue engineering scaffold material. This general synthetic route renders functionalized chitosan soluble in a broad range of organic solvents, facilitating formation of ultrafine fibers via electrospinning. Cytotoxicity tests using fibroblasts (L929 cell line) performed on electrospun L-lactide modified chitosan fibers showed that the specimen with the highest molar ratio of L-lactide (1:24) investigated in this study is the most promising material for tissue engineering purposes, while less stable formulations might still find application in drug delivery vehicles.

  13. Evaluation of menstrual blood stem cells seeded in biocompatible Bombyx mori silk fibroin scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Maryam; Mohseni-Kouchesfehani, Homa; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Mobini, Sahba; Nikoo, Shohreh; Kazemnejad, Somaieh

    2014-08-01

    Recently, silk fibroin scaffolds have been introduced as novel and promising biomaterials in the field of cardiac tissue engineering. This study was designed to compare infiltration, proliferation, and cardiac differentiation potential of menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) versus bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in Bombyx mori-derived silk scaffold. Our primary data revealed that the fabricated scaffold has mechanical and physical qualities suitable for cardiac tissue engineering. The MenSCs tracking in scaffolds using immunofluorescent staining and scanning electron microscopy confirmed MenSCs attachment, penetration, and distribution within the porous scaffold matrix. Based on proliferation assay using propidium iodide DNA quantification, the significantly higher level of growth rates of both MenSCs and BMSCs was documented in scaffolds than that in two-dimensional culture (p < 0.01). The expression level of TNNT2, a bona fide cardiac differentiation marker, in BMSCs differentiated on silk scaffolds was markedly higher than those cultured in two-dimensional culture indicating the improvement of cardiac differentiation in the silk scaffolds. Furthermore, differentiated MenSCs exhibited higher expression of TNNT2 compared with induced BMSCs. It seems that silk scaffold-seeded MenSCs could be viewed as a novel, safe, natural, and accessible construct for cardiac tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials.

    PubMed

    Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Baylón, Karen; Ferrer, Inés; Serenó, Lídia; García-Romeu, Maria Luisa; Bagudanch, Isabel; Grabalosa, Jordi; Pérez-Recio, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Ortega-Lara, Wendy; Elizalde, Luis Ernesto

    2014-01-16

    In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model's theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGC25 3-0) and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  15. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    PubMed Central

    Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Baylón, Karen; Ferrer, Inés; Serenó, Lídia; Garcia-Romeu, Maria Luisa; Bagudanch, Isabel; Grabalosa, Jordi; Pérez-Recio, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Ortega-Lara, Wendy; Elizalde, Luis Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGC25 3-0) and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data. PMID:28788466

  16. Biocompatibility of RealSeal, its primer and AH Plus implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    PubMed Central

    GRECCA, Fabiana Soares; KOPPER, Patrícia Maria Poli; dos SANTOS, Régis Burmeister; FOSSATI, Anna Christina; CARRARD, Vinicius Coelho; ACASIGUA, Gerson Arison Xavier; de FIGUEIREDO, José Antônio Poli

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study tested rat connective tissue response to RealSeal, RealSeal primer or AH Plus after 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of implantation. Material and methods Thirty Wistar rats had subcutaneous sockets created on their back and received four implants each of polyethylene tubes containing one of the materials tested according to the groups: AH (AH Plus Sealer); RS (RealSeal Sealer); RP (RealSeal Primer); CG (control group – empty tube). After histological processing, sections were analyzed to identify the presence of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells, eosinophils, macrophages and giant cells, as well as fibrous capsule and abscesses, by an examiner using light microscope. Kruskal- Wallis and multiple-comparisons test were used for statistical analysis. Significance level was set at 5%. Results Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate scores significantly higher than those of the control group were observed at 14 and 60 days in AH group, and at 90 days in RS group (p<0.05). There were no differences in terms of presence of macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils or fibrosis. AH Plus group scored higher for abscesses at 7 days than after any other period (p=0.031). RP group scored higher for lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate at 14 days than at 90 days (p=0.04). Conclusion The main contribution of this study was to demonstrate that issues involved with tissue tolerance of a Resilon-containing sealer, RealSeal Sealer, cannot be attributed to its primer content. PMID:21437470

  17. Biocompatibility evaluation of electrospun aligned poly (propylene carbonate) nanofibrous scaffolds with peripheral nerve tissues and cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Zhe; Zhao, Bin; Qi, Hong-xu; Peng, Jiang; Zhang, Li; Xu, Wen-jing; Hu, Ping; Lu, Shi-bi

    2011-08-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration across large gaps is clinically challenging. Scaffold design plays a pivotal role in nerve tissue engineering. Recently, nanofibrous scaffolds have proven a suitable environment for cell attachment and proliferation due to similarities of their physical properties to natural extracellular matrix. Poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) nanofibrous scaffolds have been investigated for vascular tissue engineering. However, no reports exist of PPC nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering. This study aimed to evaluate the potential role of aligned and random PPC nanofibrous scaffolds as substrates for peripheral nerve tissue and cells in nerve tissue engineering. Aligned and random PPC nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and their chemical characterization were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured on the nanofibrous substrates for 7 days. Neurite outgrowth and Schwann-cell migration from DRG were observed and quantified using immunocytochemistry and SEM. Schwann cells derived from rat sciatic nerves were cultured in electrospun PPC scaffold-extract fluid for 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days. The viability of Schwann cells was evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethyl(thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl] tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The diameter of aligned and random fibers ranged between 800 nm and 1200 nm, and the thickness of the films was approximately 10 - 20 µm. Quantification of aligned fiber films revealed approximately 90% alignment of all fibers along the longitudinal axis. However, with random fiber films, the alignment of fibers was random through all angle bins. Rat DRG explants were grown on PPC nanofiber films for up to 1 week. On the aligned fiber films, the majority of neurite outgrowth and Schwann cell migration from the DRG extended unidirectionally, parallel to the aligned fibers. However, on the random fiber films, neurite outgrowth and

  18. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ain, Qurat Ul; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz; Nabavinia, Mahboubeh; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60±20nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA≤10wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations >10wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biocompatibility of composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity. PMID:23372592

  20. Electrical stimulation using conductive polymer polypyrrole promotes differentiation of human neural stem cells: a biocompatible platform for translational neural tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elise; Kobayashi, Nao R; Higgins, Michael J; Quigley, Anita F; Jamali, Sina; Moulton, Simon E; Kapsa, Robert M I; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2015-04-01

    Conductive polymers (CPs) are organic materials that hold great promise for biomedicine. Potential applications include in vitro or implantable electrodes for excitable cell recording and stimulation and conductive scaffolds for cell support and tissue engineering. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of electroactive CP polypyrrole (PPy) containing the anionic dopant dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) to differentiate novel clinically relevant human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Electrical stimulation of PPy(DBS) induced hNSCs to predominantly β-III Tubulin (Tuj1) expressing neurons, with lower induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressing glial cells. In addition, stimulated cultures comprised nodes or clusters of neurons with longer neurites and greater branching than unstimulated cultures. Cell clusters showed a similar spatial distribution to regions of higher conductivity on the film surface. Our findings support the use of electrical stimulation to promote neuronal induction and the biocompatibility of PPy(DBS) with hNSCs and opens up the possibility of identifying novel mechanisms of fate determination of differentiating human stem cells for advanced in vitro modeling, translational drug discovery, and regenerative medicine.

  1. Graphene nanomaterials as biocompatible and conductive scaffolds for stem cells: impact for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Menaa, Farid; Abdelghani, Adnane; Menaa, Bouzid

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the interesting intrinsic properties of graphene, a two-dimensional nanomaterial, has boosted further research and development for various types of applications from electronics to biomedicine. During the last decade, graphene and several graphene-derived materials, such as graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, activated charcoal composite, fluorinated graphenes and three-dimensional graphene foams, have been extensively explored as components of biosensors or theranostics, or to remotely control cell-substrate interfaces, because of their remarkable electro-conductivity. To date, despite the intensive progress in human stem cell research, only a few attempts to use carbon nanotechnology in the stem cell field have been reported. Interestingly, most of the recent in vitro studies indicate that graphene-based nanomaterials (i.e. mainly graphene, graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes) promote stem cell adhesion, growth, expansion and differentiation. Although cell viability in vitro is not affected, their potential nanocytoxicity (i.e. nanocompatibility and consequences of uncontrolled nanobiodegradability) in a clinical setting using humans remains unknown. Therefore, rigorous internationally standardized clinical studies in humans that would aim to assess their nanotoxicology are requested. In this paper we report and discuss the recent and pertinent findings about graphene and derivatives as valuable nanomaterials for stem cell research (i.e. culture, maintenance and differentiation) and tissue engineering, as well as for regenerative, translational and personalized medicine (e.g. bone reconstruction, neural regeneration). Also, from scarce nanotoxicological data, we also highlight the importance of functionalizing graphene-based nanomaterials to minimize the cytotoxic effects, as well as other critical safety parameters that remain important to take into consideration when developing nanobionanomaterials.

  2. Method of making biocompatible electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Wollam, John S.

    1992-01-01

    A process of improving the sensing function of biocompatible electrodes and the product so made are disclosed. The process is designed to alter the surfaces of the electrodes at their tips to provide increased surface area and therefore decreased contact resistance at the electrode-tissue interface for increased sensitivity and essentially includes rendering the tips atomically clean by exposing them to bombardment by ions of an inert gas, depositing an adhesion layer on the cleaned tips, forming a hillocked layer on the adhesion layer by increasing the temperature of the tips, and applying a biocompatible coating on the hillocked layer. The resultant biocompatible electrode is characterized by improved sensitivity, minimum voltage requirement for organ stimulation and a longer battery life for the device in which it is employed.

  3. Electrospinning of Biocompatible Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Andrew J.; Queen, Hailey A.; McCullen, Seth D.; Krause, Wendy E.

    2006-03-01

    Artificial scaffolds for growing cells can have a wide range of applications including wound coverings, supports in tissue cultures, drug delivery, and organ and tissue transplantation. Tissue engineering is a promising field which may resolve current problems with transplantation, such as rejection by the immune system and scarcity of donors. One approach to tissue engineering utilizes a biodegradable scaffold onto which cells are seeded and cultured, and ideally develop into functional tissue. The scaffold acts as an artificial extracellular matrix (ECM). Because a typical ECM contains collagen fibers with diameters of 50-500 nm, electrostatic spinning (electrospinning) was used to mimic the size and structure of these fibers. Electrospinning is a novel way of spinning a nonwoven web of fibers on the order of 100 nm, much like the web of collagen in an ECM. We are investigating the ability of several biocompatible polymers (e.g., chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol) to form defect-free nanofiber webs and are studying the influence of the zero shear rate viscosity, molecular weight, entanglement concentration, relaxation time, and solvent on the resulting fiber size and morphology.

  4. Biocompatibility of surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Method of selecting biocompatible materials for surgical implants uses fracture mechanic relationships and surface energies of candidate materials in presence of blood plasma. Technique has been used to characterize 190 materials by parameters that reflect their biocompatibility.

  5. Biocompatibility of surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Method of selecting biocompatible materials for surgical implants uses fracture mechanic relationships and surface energies of candidate materials in presence of blood plasma. Technique has been used to characterize 190 materials by parameters that reflect their biocompatibility.

  6. THE BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF MESOPOROUS SILICATES

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Sarah; Padera, Robert F.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    Micro- and nano- mesoporous silicate particles are considered potential drug delivery systems because of their ordered pore structures, large surface areas and the ease with which they can be chemically modified. However, few cytotoxicity or biocompatibility studies have been reported, especially when silicates are administered in the quantities necessary to deliver low-potency drugs. The biocompatibility of mesoporous silicates of particle sizes ~ 150 nm, ~ 800 nm and ~ 4 µm and pore sizes of 3 nm, 7 nm and 16 nm respectively are examined here. In vitro, mesoporous silicates showed a significant degree of toxicity at high concentrations with mesothelial cells. Following subcutaneous injection of silicates in rats, the amount of residual material decreased progressively over three months, with good biocompatibility on histology at all time points. In contrast, intra peritoneal and intra venous injections in mice resulted in death or euthanasia. No toxicity was seen with subcutaneous injection of the same particles in mice. Microscopic analysis of the lung tissue of the mice indicates that death may be due to thrombosis. Although local tissue reaction to mesoporous silicates was benign, they caused severe systemic toxicity. This toxicity could be mitigated by modification of the materials. PMID:18675454

  7. Biocompatibility of Intraocular Lenses.

    PubMed

    Özyol, Pelin; Özyol, Erhan; Karel, Fatih

    2017-08-01

    The performance of an intraocular lens is determined by several factors such as the surgical technique, surgical complications, intraocular lens biomaterial and design, and host reaction to the lens. The factor indicating the biocompatibility of an intraocular lens is the behavior of inflammatory and lens epithelial cells. Hence, the biocompatibility of intraocular lens materials is assessed in terms of uveal biocompatibility, based on the inflammatory foreign-body reaction of the eye against the implant, and in terms of capsular biocompatibility, determined by the relationship of the intraocular lens with residual lens epithelial cells within the capsular bag. Insufficient biocompatibility of intraocular lens materials may result in different clinical entities such as anterior capsule opacification, posterior capsule opacification, and lens epithelial cell ongrowth. Intraocular lenses are increasingly implanted much earlier in life in cases such as refractive lens exchange or pediatric intraocular lens implantation after congenital cataract surgery, and these lenses are expected to exhibit maximum performance for many decades. The materials used in intraocular lens manufacture should, therefore, ensure long-term uveal and capsular biocompatibility. In this article, we review the currently available materials used in the manufacture of intraocular lenses, especially with regard to their uveal and capsular biocompatibility, and discuss efforts to improve the biocompatibility of intraocular lenses.

  8. Biocompatibility of radiolucent breast implants.

    PubMed

    Young, V L; Lund, H; Destouet, J; Pidgeon, L; Ueda, K

    1991-09-01

    Current implants for breast augmentation containing silicone gel, saline, or both are radiopaque on mammographic examination and can totally obscure microcalcifications and soft-tissue masses. The effect of these implants on the detection of early breast cancers in patients who have undergone augmentation mammaplasty remains unproven and controversial. Implants filled with medium-chain triglycerides (peanut oil) are radiolucent on mammographic examination and allow visualization of both soft-tissue masses and microcalcifications. To investigate the biocompatibility of radiolucent implants, 10 cc of sterile, nonpyrogenic peanut oil was injected subcutaneously into rats using silicone gel as a control. Twenty-one rabbits had two 125-cc silicone shell implants inserted on either side of the chest wall. The right-sided shell was filled with 125 cc of sterile saline, and the left-sided shell was filled with 125 cc of sterile, nonpyrogenic peanut oil. Results were determined by both histologic and radiographic examination. Rats injected with peanut oil equivalent to 7 percent of their body weight rapidly absorbed the freely injected oil without detriment. Histologic examination of the lungs, liver, kidneys, and tissues adjacent to the injection sites demonstrated no abnormalities. There was no evidence of allergic, toxic, inflammatory, or neoplastic response. Eighteen of 21 rabbits survived more than 3 months. Radiographs showed the oil-filled implants to be radiolucent, whereas the saline-filled controls obscured the surrounding soft and bony tissues. Histologic examination demonstrated a fibrous capsule surrounding both types of implants. Histologic examination of the lungs, liver, and kidneys showed no significant abnormalities. These and previous studies have shown peanut oil to be biocompatible when freely injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously. This study demonstrates that a radiolucent, peanut oil-filled implant is biocompatible in animals and that

  9. Current trends in biocompatibility testing.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, C J; Bittinger, F; Wagner, M; Köhler, H; van Kooten, T G; Klein, C L; Otto, M

    1998-01-01

    Biocompatibility remains the central theme for biomaterials applications in medicine. It is generally accepted that this term means not only absence of a cytotoxic effect but also positive effects in the sense of biofunctionality, i.e. promotion of biological processes which further the intended aim of the application of a biomaterial. The national and international standards for testing regimes represent a lowest common denominator for such applications and do not necessarily ensure that optimal function will be achieved. The authors' thesis is that biocompatibility testing has scope for extensive development with respect to biofunctionality. The present paper reviews current trends in the in vitro aspects of biocompatibility testing. As well as a critical appraisal of the recent literature, future trends are also stressed, which the authors regard as essential for a meaningful integration of a modern biological approach into new developments in the material sciences. These include the application of modern techniques of cell and molecular biology, the concepts of tissue remodelling, hybrid organ development and encapsulated cell technology.

  10. Biocompatible silk step-index optical waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, Matthew B.; Perotto, Giovanni; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2015-01-01

    Biocompatible optical waveguides were constructed entirely of silk fibroin. A silk film (n=1.54) was encapsulated within a silk hydrogel (n=1.34) to form a robust and biocompatible waveguide. Such waveguides were made using only biologically and environmentally friendly materials without the use of harsh solvents. Light was coupled into the silk waveguides by direct incorporation of a glass optical fiber. These waveguides are extremely flexible, and strong enough to survive handling and manipulation. Cutback measurements showed propagation losses of approximately 2 dB/cm. The silk waveguides were found to be capable of guiding light through biological tissue. PMID:26600988

  11. Taking a deep look: modern microscopy technologies to optimize the design and functionality of biocompatible scaffolds for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Vielreicher, M; Schürmann, S; Detsch, R; Schmidt, M A; Buttgereit, A; Boccaccini, A; Friedrich, O

    2013-09-06

    This review focuses on modern nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) methods that are increasingly being used in the field of tissue engineering (TE) to image tissue non-invasively and without labelling in depths unreached by conventional microscopy techniques. With NLOM techniques, biomaterial matrices, cultured cells and their produced extracellular matrix may be visualized with high resolution. After introducing classical imaging methodologies such as µCT, MRI, optical coherence tomography, electron microscopy and conventional microscopy two-photon fluorescence (2-PF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging are described in detail (principle, power, limitations) together with their most widely used TE applications. Besides our own cell encapsulation, cell printing and collagen scaffolding systems and their NLOM imaging the most current research articles will be reviewed. These cover imaging of autofluorescence and fluorescence-labelled tissue and biomaterial structures, SHG-based quantitative morphometry of collagen I and other proteins, imaging of vascularization and online monitoring techniques in TE. Finally, some insight is given into state-of-the-art three-photon-based imaging methods (e.g. coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, third harmonic generation). This review provides an overview of the powerful and constantly evolving field of multiphoton microscopy, which is a powerful and indispensable tool for the development of artificial tissues in regenerative medicine and which is likely to gain importance also as a means for general diagnostic medical imaging.

  12. Taking a deep look: modern microscopy technologies to optimize the design and functionality of biocompatible scaffolds for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vielreicher, M.; Schürmann, S.; Detsch, R.; Schmidt, M. A.; Buttgereit, A.; Boccaccini, A.; Friedrich, O.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on modern nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) methods that are increasingly being used in the field of tissue engineering (TE) to image tissue non-invasively and without labelling in depths unreached by conventional microscopy techniques. With NLOM techniques, biomaterial matrices, cultured cells and their produced extracellular matrix may be visualized with high resolution. After introducing classical imaging methodologies such as µCT, MRI, optical coherence tomography, electron microscopy and conventional microscopy two-photon fluorescence (2-PF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging are described in detail (principle, power, limitations) together with their most widely used TE applications. Besides our own cell encapsulation, cell printing and collagen scaffolding systems and their NLOM imaging the most current research articles will be reviewed. These cover imaging of autofluorescence and fluorescence-labelled tissue and biomaterial structures, SHG-based quantitative morphometry of collagen I and other proteins, imaging of vascularization and online monitoring techniques in TE. Finally, some insight is given into state-of-the-art three-photon-based imaging methods (e.g. coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, third harmonic generation). This review provides an overview of the powerful and constantly evolving field of multiphoton microscopy, which is a powerful and indispensable tool for the development of artificial tissues in regenerative medicine and which is likely to gain importance also as a means for general diagnostic medical imaging. PMID:23864499

  13. Construction of collagen II/hyaluronate/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer scaffold for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering and preliminary analysis of its physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Qing; Huang, Bo; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhuang, Ying; Zhou, Yue

    2010-02-01

    To construct a novel scaffold for nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering, The porous type II collagen (CII)/hyaluronate (HyA)-chondroitin-6-sulfate (6-CS) scaffold was prepared using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking system. The physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of CII/HyA-CS scaffolds were evaluated. The results suggested CII/HyA-CS scaffolds have a highly porous structure (porosity: 94.8 +/- 1.5%), high water-binding capacity (79.2 +/- 2.8%) and significantly improved mechanical stability by EDC/NHS crosslinking (denaturation temperature: 74.6 +/- 1.8 and 58.1 +/- 2.6 degrees C, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked; collagenase degradation rate: 39.5 +/- 3.4 and 63.5 +/- 2.0%, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked). The CII/HyA-CS scaffolds also showed satisfactory cytocompatibility and histocompatibility as well as low immunogenicity. These results indicate CII/HyA-CS scaffolds may be an alternative material for NP tissue engineering due to the similarity of its composition and physico-chemical properties to those of the extracellular matrices (ECM) of native NP.

  14. Bioglass: A novel biocompatible innovation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vidya; Lakshmi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of materials technology has been immense, especially in the past 30 years. Ceramics has not been new to dentistry. Porcelain crowns, silica fillers in composite resins, and glass ionomer cements have already been proved to be successful. Materials used in the replacement of tissues have come a long way from being inert, to compatible, and now regenerative. When hydroxyapatite was believed to be the best biocompatible replacement material, Larry Hench developed a material using silica (glass) as the host material, incorporated with calcium and phosphorous to fuse broken bones. This material mimics bone material and stimulates the regrowth of new bone material. Thus, due to its biocompatibility and osteogenic capacity it came to be known as “bioactive glass-bioglass.” It is now encompassed, along with synthetic hydroxyapatite, in the field of biomaterials science known as “bioactive ceramics.” The aim of this article is to give a bird's-eye view, of the various uses in dentistry, of this novel, miracle material which can bond, induce osteogenesis, and also regenerate bone. PMID:23833747

  15. Biocompatibility of plasma nanostructured biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepičková Kasálková, N.; Slepička, P.; Bačáková, L.; Sajdl, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2013-07-01

    Many areas of medicine such as tissue engineering requires not only mastery of modification techniques but also thorough knowledge of the interaction of cells with solid state substrates. Plasma treatment can be used to effective modification, nanostructuring and therefore can significantly change properties of materials. In this work the biocompatibility of the plasma nanostructured biopolymers substrates was studied. Changes in surface chemical structure were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology pristine and modified samples were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface wettability was determined by goniometry from contact angle. Biocompatibility was determined by in vitro tests, the rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultivated on the pristine and plasma modified biopolymer substrates. Their adhesion, proliferation, spreading and homogeneous distribution on polymers was monitored. It was found that the plasma treatment leads to rapid decrease of contact angle for all samples. Contact angle decreased with increasing time of modification. XPS measurements showed that plasma treatment leads to changes in ratio of polar and non-polar groups. Plasma modification was accompanied by a change of surface morphology. Biological tests found that plasma treatment have positive effect on cells adhesion and proliferation cells and affects the size of cell's adhesion area. Changes in plasma power or in exposure time influences the number of adhered and proliferated cells and their distribution on biopolymer surface.

  16. Structural differences and architectural features of two different polypropylene slings (TVT-O and I-STOP) have no impact on biocompatibility and tissue reactions.

    PubMed

    Przydacz, Mikolaj; Adli, Oussama El Yazami; Mahfouz, Wally; Loutochin, Oleg; Bégin, Louis R; Corcos, Jacques

    2017-06-30

    To evaluate the impact of design features of the synthetic mid-urethral slings on tissue integrity and inflammatory responses. In total 30 female Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with type I monofilamentous, macroporous polypropylene meshes: Gynecare TVT-Obturator tape(®) (Ethicon Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Somerville, NJ, USA) and I-STOP(®) (CL Medical Inc., Lyon, France). All animal groups were sacrificed at set time intervals - 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months - and the abdominal wall was harvested with mesh strips for histological evaluation. All mesh strips appeared to be well incorporated into the abdominal wall, and no signs of shrinkage was noticed. All specimens showed a thin/delicate, loose, fibrous interface between the synthetic graft plate and abdominal wall, along with mild inflammatory reactions from 6 weeks to 12 months. Both mesh brands induced comparable, minimal foreign body reactions and integrated well into the host tissues despite differences in architectural features. TVT-O(®) and I-STOP(®) evoked similar low-grade inflammatory responses up to 12 months in this animal model. Structural differences and architectural features of polypropylene slings used in this study have had no impact on tissue integrity and inflammatory responses.

  17. In Vitro Testing of Scaffolds for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Meniscus Tissue Engineering-Introducing a New Biocompatibility Scoring System.

    PubMed

    Achatz, Felix P; Kujat, Richard; Pfeifer, Christian G; Koch, Matthias; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Zellner, Johannes

    2016-04-07

    A combination of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and scaffolds seems to be a promising approach for meniscus repair. To facilitate the search for an appropriate scaffold material a reliable and objective in vitro testing system is essential. This paper introduces a new scoring for this purpose and analyzes a hyaluronic acid (HA) gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold in combination with MSCs for tissue engineering of meniscus. The pore quality and interconnectivity of pores of a HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold were analyzed by surface photography and Berliner-Blau-BSA-solution vacuum filling. Further the two scaffold materials were vacuum-filled with human MSCs and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry after 21 days in chondrogenic media to determine cell distribution and cell survival as well as proteoglycan production, collagen type I and II content. The polyurethane scaffold showed better results than the hyaluronic acid gelatin composite scaffold, with signs of central necrosis in the HA gelatin composite scaffolds. The polyurethane scaffold showed good porosity, excellent pore interconnectivity, good cell distribution and cell survival, as well as an extensive content of proteoglycans and collagen type II. The polyurethane scaffold seems to be a promising biomaterial for a mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering approach for meniscal repair. The new score could be applied as a new standard for in vitro scaffold testing.

  18. Bladder muscular wall regeneration with autologous adipose mesenchymal stem cells on three-dimensional collagen-based tissue-engineered prepuce and biocompatible nanofibrillar scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Tourchi, Ali; Mousavian, Amir-Abbas; Rouhi, Leila; Tavangar, Seyyed Mohammad; Sabetkish, Nastaran

    2014-12-01

    Tissue-engineered prepuce scaffold (TEPS) is a collagen-rich matrix with marvelous mechanical properties, promoting in vivo and in vitro tissue regeneration. In this study, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) were used to seed TEPS for bladder wall regeneration. Its potential in comparison with other materials such as polyglycolic acid (PGA) and nanofibrous scaffolds were evaluated. Rat ADMSCs were cultured and seeded into prepared TEPS. A synthetic matrix of electrospun nanofibrous polyamide was also prepared. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) underwent bladder wall regeneration using (a) TEPS, (b) TEPS+PGA, (c) TEPS+nanofibrous scaffold, and (d) ADMSC-seeded TEPS, between bladder mucosa and seromuscular layer. Animals were followed for 30 and 90 days post implantation for evaluation of bladder wall regeneration by determining CD31/34 and SMC α-actin. Cystometric evaluation was also performed in all groups and in four separate rats as sham controls 3 months postoperatively. Histopathological analysis showed well-organized muscular wall generation in ADMSC-seeded TEPS and TEPS+three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffold without significant fibrosis after 90 days, while mild to severe fibrosis was detected in groups receiving TEPS and TEPS+PGA. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed the maintenance of CD34+, CD31+, and α-SMA in ADMSC-seeded TEPS and TEPS+3D nanofibrous scaffold with significantly higher density of CD34+ and CD31+ progenitor cells in ADMSC-seeded TEPS and TEPS+3D nanofibrous scaffold, respectively. This work has crucial functional and clinical implications, as it demonstrates the feasibility of ADMSC-seeded TEPS in enhancing the properties of TEPS in terms of bladder wall regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomimetic scaffolds based on hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid with their corresponding apatite-forming capability and biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nga, Nguyen Kim; Hoai, Tran Thanh; Viet, Pham Hung

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a facile synthesis of biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid (HAp/PDLLA) scaffolds with the use of solvent casting combined with a salt-leaching technique for bone-tissue engineering. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to observe the morphologies, pore structures of synthesized scaffolds, interactions between hydroxyapatite nanorods and poly(D,L) lactic acid, as well as the compositions of the scaffolds, respectively. Porosity of the scaffolds was determined using the liquid substitution method. Moreover, the apatite-forming capability of the scaffolds was evaluated through simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation tests, whereas the viability, attachment, and distribution of human osteoblast cells (MG 63 cell line) on the scaffolds were determined through alamarBlue assay and confocal laser microscopy after nuclear staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and actin filaments of a cytoskeleton with Oregon Green 488 phalloidin. Results showed that hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid scaffolds that mimic the structure of natural bone were successfully produced. These scaffolds possessed macropore networks with high porosity (80-84%) and mean pore sizes ranging 117-183 μm. These scaffolds demonstrated excellent apatite-forming capabilities. The rapid formation of bone-like apatites with flower-like morphology was observed after 7 days of incubation in SBFs. The scaffolds that had a high percentage (30 wt.%) of hydroxyapatite demonstrated better cell adhesion, proliferation, and distribution than those with low percentages of hydroxyapatite as the days of culture increased. This work presented an efficient route for developing biomimetic composite scaffolds, which have potential applications in bone-tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biocompatible implant surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Pattanaik, Bikash; Pawar, Sudhir; Pattanaik, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Surface plays a crucial role in biological interactions. Surface treatments have been applied to metallic biomaterials in order to improve their wear properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. A systematic review was performed on studies investigating the effects of implant surface treatments on biocompatibility. We searched the literature using PubMed, electronic databases from 1990 to 2009. Key words such as implant surface topography, surface roughness, surface treatment, surface characteristics, and surface coatings were used. The search was restricted to English language articles published from 1990 to December 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major dental implant journals was performed. When considering studies, clinical studies were preferred followed by histological human studies, animal studies, and in vitro studies. A total of 115 articles were selected after elimination: clinical studies, 24; human histomorphometric studies, 11; animal histomorphometric studies, 46; in vitro studies, 34. The following observations were made in this review: · The focus has shifted from surface roughness to surface chemistry and a combination of chemical manipulations on the porous structure. More investigations are done regarding surface coatings. · Bone response to almost all the surface treatments was favorable. · Future trend is focused on the development of osteogenic implant surfaces. Limitation of this study is that we tried to give a broader overview related to implant surface treatments. It does not give any conclusion regarding the best biocompatible implant surface treatment investigated till date. Unfortunately, the eventually selected studies were too heterogeneous for inference of data.

  1. Physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility in vitro of biphasic calcium phosphate/polyvinyl alcohol scaffolds prepared by freeze-drying method for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Nie, Lei; Chen, Dong; Suo, Jinping; Zou, Peng; Feng, Shuibin; Yang, Qi; Yang, Shuhua; Ye, Shunan

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a well developed porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold was prepared by emulsion foam freeze-drying method possessed moderate inter-connected pores and porosity. The SEM analysis showed that BCP nano-particles could disperse uniformly in the scaffolds, and the pore size, porosity, and compressive strength could be controlled by the weight ratio of BCP/PVA. The in vitro degradation and cytocompatibility of scaffolds were examined in this study. The degradation analysis showed the prepared scaffolds have a low variation of pH values (approximately 7.18-7.36) in SBF solution, and have the biodegradation rate of BCP/PVA scaffolds decreased with the increase of PVA concentration. Moreover, MTT assay indicated that the BCP/PVA porous scaffold has no negative effects on cells growth and proliferation, and the hBMSCs possessed a favorable spreading morphology on the BCP/PVA scaffold surface. The inter-connected pore structure, mechanical strength, biodegradation rate and cytocompatibility of the prepared BCP/PVA scaffold can meet essential requirements for blame bearing bone tissue engineering and regeneration.

  2. Monitoring the Contact Stress Distribution of Gecko-Inspired Adhesives Using Mechano-Sensitive Surface Coatings.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Jens W; Xue, Longjian; Erath, Johann; Drotlef, Dirk-M; Campo, Aránzazu Del; Fery, Andreas

    2016-07-20

    The contact geometry of microstructured adhesive surfaces is of high relevance for adhesion enhancement. Theoretical considerations indicate that the stress distribution in the contact zone is crucial for the detachment mechanism, but direct experimental evidence is missing so far. In this work, we propose a method that allows, for the first time, the detection of local stresses at the contact area of biomimetic adhesive microstructures during contact formation, compression and detachment. We use a mechano-sensitive polymeric layer, which turns mechanical stresses into changes of fluorescence intensity. The biomimetic surface is brought into contact with this layer in a well-defined fashion using a microcontact printer, while the contact area is monitored with fluorescence microscopy in situ. Thus, changes in stress distribution across the contact area during compression and pull-off can be visualized with a lateral resolution of 1 μm. We apply this method to study the enhanced adhesive performance of T-shaped micropillars, compared to flat punch microstructures. We find significant differences in the stress distribution of the both differing contact geometries during pull-off. In particular, we find direct evidence for the suppression of crack nucleation at the edge of T-shaped pillars, which confirms theoretical models for the superior adhesive properties of these structures.

  3. Sticking to the story: outstanding challenges in gecko-inspired adhesives.

    PubMed

    Niewiarowski, Peter H; Stark, Alyssa Y; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2016-04-01

    The natural clinging ability of geckos has inspired hundreds of studies seeking design principles that could be applied to creating synthetic adhesives with the same performance capabilities as the gecko: adhesives that use no glue, are self-cleaning and reusable, and are insensitive to a wide range of surface chemistries and roughness. Important progress has been made, and the basic mechanics of how 'hairy' adhesives work have been faithfully reproduced, advancing theory in surface science and portending diverse practical applications. However, after 15 years, no synthetic mimic can yet perform as well as a gecko and simultaneously meet of all the criteria listed above. Moreover, processes for the production of inexpensive and scalable products are still not clearly in view. Here, we discuss our perspective on some of the gaps in understanding that still remain; these gaps in our knowledge should stimulate us to turn to deeper study of the way in which free-ranging geckos stick to the variety of surfaces found in their natural environments and to a more complete analysis of the materials composing the gecko toe pads.

  4. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Takahashi, Kunio; Sato, Chiaki

    2015-12-01

    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified.

  5. [Biocompatibility of composites--literature review].

    PubMed

    Lederman, M; Sharon, E; Lipovezky-Adler, M; Smidt, A

    2015-01-01

    Composites are a large family of materials composed of polymer matrices imbedded with different types of fillers. The specific properties achievable with diverse chemical combinations provide for a wide range of implications in many industrial fields. Materials designed for medical use must not only efficiently serve the purpose of their use, but also be biocompatible to the tissues they contact and the body as a whole. Dental composites and their components have been studied intensely to assess their potential local and systemic side effects, to establish biocompatibility, in order to receive the proper conformation allowing their safe clinical use. The purpose of the following paper is to summarize several aspects of research focused on determining cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, hypersensitivity, and microbial effects of composite components, in order to ascertain in fact how biocompatible dental composite materials are. Research shows that several chemical components may be released from different types of composites, and are able to cause toxic, allergic, mutagenic and other biological effects. However, because of the small amounts applied and the unique conditions in the oral cavity, the clinical relevance of these findings is questionable. Nevertheless, caution should be taken when using these materials, to avoid possible negative outcomes. Future studies should focus on targeting most toxic components and finding biocompatible alternatives and development of materials with high polymerization efficiency in order to reduce the amount of leachable components.

  6. SURFACE CHEMISTRY INFLUENCE IMPLANT BIOCOMPATIBILITY

    PubMed Central

    Thevenot, Paul; Hu, Wenjing; Tang, Liping

    2011-01-01

    Implantable medical devices are increasingly important in the practice of modern medicine. Unfortunately, almost all medical devices suffer to a different extent from adverse reactions, including inflammation, fibrosis, thrombosis and infection. To improve the safety and function of many types of medical implants, a major need exists for development of materials that evoked desired tissue responses. Because implant-associated protein adsorption and conformational changes thereafter have been shown to promote immune reactions, rigorous research efforts have been emphasized on the engineering of surface property (physical and chemical characteristics) to reduce protein adsorption and cell interactions and subsequently improve implant biocompatibility. This brief review is aimed to summarize the past efforts and our recent knowledge about the influence of surface functionality on protein:cell:biomaterial interactions. It is our belief that detailed understandings of bioactivity of surface functionality provide an easy, economic, and specific approach for the future rational design of implantable medical devices with desired tissue reactivity and, hopefully, wound healing capability. PMID:18393890

  7. Biocompatibility and osteogenic properties of porous tantalum

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QIAN; ZHANG, HUI; LI, QIJIA; YE, LEI; GAN, HONGQUAN; LIU, YINGJIE; WANG, HUI; WANG, ZHIQIANG

    2015-01-01

    Porous tantalum has been reported to be a promising material for use in bone tissue engineering. In the present study, the biocompatibility and osteogenic properties of porous tantalum were studied in vitro and in vivo. The morphology of porous tantalum was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoblasts were cultured with porous tantalum, and cell morphology, adhesion and proliferation were investigated using optical microscopy and SEM. In addition, porous tantalum rods were implanted in rabbits, and osteogenesis was observed using laser scanning confocal microscopy and hard tissue slice examination. The osteoblasts were observed to proliferate over time and adhere to the tantalum surface and pore walls, exhibiting a variety of shapes and intercellular connections. The porous tantalum rod connected tightly with the host bone. At weeks 2 and 4 following implantation, new bone and small blood vessels were observed at the tantalum-host bone interface and pores. At week 10 after the porous tantalum implantation, new bone tissue was observed at the tantalum-host bone interface and pores. By week 12, the tantalum-host bone interface and pores were covered with new bone tissue and the bone trabeculae had matured and connected directly with the materials. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that porous tantalum is non-toxic, biocompatible and a promising material for use in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25667628

  8. There is no such thing as a biocompatible material.

    PubMed

    Williams, David F

    2014-12-01

    This Leading Opinion Paper discusses a very important matter concerning the use of a single word in biomaterials science. This might be considered as being solely concerned with semantics, but it has implications for the scientific rationale for biomaterials selection and the understanding of their performance. That word is the adjective 'biocompatible', which is often used to characterize a material property. It is argued here that biocompatibility is a perfectly acceptable term, but that it subsumes a variety of mechanisms of interaction between biomaterials and tissues or tissue components and can only be considered in the context of the characteristics of both the material and the biological host within which it placed. De facto it is a property of a system and not of a material. It follows that there can be no such thing as a biocompatible material. It is further argued that in those situations where it is considered important, or necessary, to use a descriptor of biocompatibility, as in a scientific paper, a regulatory submission or in a legal argument, the phrase 'intrinsically biocompatible system' would be the most appropriate. The rationale for this linguistic restraint is that far too often it has been assumed that some materials are 'universally biocompatible' on the basis of acceptable clinical performance in one situation, only for entirely unacceptable performance to ensue in quite different clinical circumstances.

  9. Biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kan; Ruan, Jing; Song, Hua; Zhang, Jiali; Wo, Yan; Guo, Shouwu; Cui, Daxiang

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report the effects of graphene oxides on human fibroblast cells and mice with the aim of investigating graphene oxides' biocompatibility. The graphene oxides were prepared by the modified Hummers method and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscopy. The human fibroblast cells were cultured with different doses of graphene oxides for day 1 to day 5. Thirty mice divided into three test groups (low, middle, high dose) and one control group were injected with 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 mg graphene oxides, respectively, and were raised for 1 day, 7 days, and 30 days, respectively. Results showed that the water-soluble graphene oxides were successfully prepared; graphene oxides with dose less than 20 μg/mL did not exhibit toxicity to human fibroblast cells, and the dose of more than 50 μg/mL exhibits obvious cytotoxicity such as decreasing cell adhesion, inducing cell apoptosis, entering into lysosomes, mitochondrion, endoplasm, and cell nucleus. Graphene oxides under low dose (0.1 mg) and middle dose (0.25 mg) did not exhibit obvious toxicity to mice and under high dose (0.4 mg) exhibited chronic toxicity, such as 4/9 mice death and lung granuloma formation, mainly located in lung, liver, spleen, and kidney, almost could not be cleaned by kidney. In conclusion, graphene oxides exhibit dose-dependent toxicity to cells and animals, such as inducing cell apoptosis and lung granuloma formation, and cannot be cleaned by kidney. When graphene oxides are explored for in vivo applications in animal or human body, its biocompatibility must be considered.

  10. Mechanical biocompatibility of highly deformable biomedical materials.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Edoardo; Ehret, Alexander E

    2015-08-01

    Mismatch of mechanical properties between highly deformable biomedical materials and adjacent native tissue might lead to short and long term health impairment. The capability of implants to deform at the right level, i.e. similar to the macroscopic mechanical response of the surrounding biological materials, is often associated with dissimilar microstructural deformation mechanisms. This mismatch on smaller length scales might lead to micro-injuries, cell damage, inflammation, fibrosis or necrosis. Hence, the mechanical biocompatibility of soft implants depends not only on the properties and composition of the implant material, but also on its organization, distribution and motion at one or several length scales. The challenges related to the analysis and attainment of mechanical biocompatibility are illustrated with two examples: prosthetic meshes for hernia and pelvic repair and electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering. For these material systems we describe existing methods for characterization and analysis of the non-linear response to uniaxial and multiaxial stress states, its time and history dependence, and the changes in deformation behavior associated with tissue in-growth and material resorption. We discuss the multi-scale deformation behavior of biomaterials and adjacent tissue, and indicate major interdisciplinary questions to be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic cornea: biocompatibility and optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Kaminski, Stefan; Fernandez, Viviana; Alfonso, E.; Lamar, Peggy; Lacombe, Emmanuel; Duchesne, Bernard; Dubovy, Sander; Manns, Fabrice; Rol, Pascal O.

    2002-06-01

    Purpose. Experimentally find a method to provide a safe surgical technique and an inexpensive and long lasting mesoplant for the restoration of vision in patients with bilateral corneal blindness due to ocular surface and stromal diseases. Methods. Identify the least invasive and the safest surgical technique for synthetic cornea implantation. Identify the most compatible biomaterials and the optimal shape a synthetic cornea must have to last a long time when implanted in vivo. Results. Penetrating procedures were deemed too invasive, time consuming, difficult and prone to long term complications. Therefore a non-penetrating delamination technique with central trephination was developed to preserve the integrity of Descemet's membrane and the anterior segment. Even though this approach limits the number of indications, it is acceptable since the majority of patients only have opacities in the stroma. The prosthesis was designed to fit in the removed tissue plane with its skirt fitted under the delaminated stroma. To improve retention, the trephination wall was made conical with the smallest opening on the anterior surface and a hat-shaped mesoplant was made to fit. The skirt was perforated in its perimeter to allow passage of nutrients and tissues ingrowths. To simplify the fabrication procedure, the haptic and optic were made of the same polymer. The intrastromal biocompatibility of several hydrogels was found superior to current clinically used PMMA and PTFE materials. Monobloc mesoplants made of 4 different materials were implanted in rabbits and followed weekly until extrusion occurred. Some remained optically clear allowing for fundus photography. Conclusions. Hydrogel synthetic corneas can be made to survive for periods longer than 1 year. ArF excimer laser photoablation studies are needed to determine the refractive correction potential of these mesoplants. A pilot FDA clinical trial is needed to assess the mesoplant efficacy and very long-term stability.

  12. Biocompatibility of dental amalgams.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Yurdanur; Brantley, William A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words "dental amalgam" and "toxicity" were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on the internet. Case reports were excluded from the study. Results. The literature show that mercury released from dental amalgam restorations does not contribute to systemic disease or systemic toxicological effects. No significant effects on the immune system have been demonstrated with the amounts of mercury released from dental amalgam restorations. Only very rarely have there been reported allergic reactions to mercury from amalgam restorations. No evidence supports a relationship between mercury released from dental amalgam and neurological diseases. Almost all of the declarations accessed by the internet stated by official organizations concluded that current data are not sufficient to relate various complaints and mercury release from dental amalgam. Conclusions. Available scientific data do not justify the discontinuation of amalgam use from dental practice or replacement with alternative restorative dental materials.

  13. Biocompatibility of Dental Amalgams

    PubMed Central

    Uçar, Yurdanur; Brantley, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words “dental amalgam” and “toxicity” were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on the internet. Case reports were excluded from the study. Results. The literature show that mercury released from dental amalgam restorations does not contribute to systemic disease or systemic toxicological effects. No significant effects on the immune system have been demonstrated with the amounts of mercury released from dental amalgam restorations. Only very rarely have there been reported allergic reactions to mercury from amalgam restorations. No evidence supports a relationship between mercury released from dental amalgam and neurological diseases. Almost all of the declarations accessed by the internet stated by official organizations concluded that current data are not sufficient to relate various complaints and mercury release from dental amalgam. Conclusions. Available scientific data do not justify the discontinuation of amalgam use from dental practice or replacement with alternative restorative dental materials. PMID:22145006

  14. Biocompatible nanoparticles and biopolyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, Olena

    The research presented in this manuscript encompasses a merger of two research directions: a study of aqueous nanoparticle colloids and a study of biological polyelectrolytes. The majority of biomedical applications of nanoparticles require stable aqueous colloids of nanoparticles as a starting point. A new one-step method of preparation of aqueous solutions of ultra-fine ferroelectric barium titanate nanoparticles was developed and generalized to the preparation of stable aqueous colloids of semiconductor nanoparticles. This high-energy ball milling technique is low cost, environmentally friendly, and allows for control of nanoparticle size by changing milling time. Aqueous colloids of BaTiO3 nanoparticles are stable over time, maintain ferroelectricity and can be used as second harmonic generating nanoprobes for biomedical imaging. Biopolyelectrolytes exhibit a variety of novel liquid-crystalline phases in aqueous solutions where their electrolytic nature is a driving force behind phase formation. We study medically relevant mixtures of F-actin, DNA and oppositely charged ions (such as multivalent salts and antibiotic drugs) and map out phase diagrams and laws that govern phase transitions. We combine these research directions in studies of the condensation behavior in aqueous solutions of biocompatible nanoparticles and biopolyelectrolytes.

  15. Dynamic in vivo biocompatibility of angiogenic peptide amphiphile nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Webber, Matthew J; Unger, Ronald E; Orth, Carina; Hulvat, James F; Kiehna, Sarah E; Barbeck, Mike; Rasic, Angela; Stupp, Samuel I; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2009-10-01

    Biomaterials that promote angiogenesis have great potential in regenerative medicine for rapid revascularization of damaged tissue, survival of transplanted cells, and healing of chronic wounds. Supramolecular nanofibers formed by self-assembly of a heparin-binding peptide amphiphile and heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans were evaluated here using a dorsal skinfold chamber model to dynamically monitor the interaction between the nanofiber gel and the microcirculation, representing a novel application of this model. We paired this model with a conventional subcutaneous implantation model for static histological assessment of the interactions between the gel and host tissue. In the static analysis, the heparan sulfate-containing nanofiber gels were found to persist in the tissue for up to 30 days and revealed excellent biocompatibility. Strikingly, as the nanofiber gel biodegraded, we observed the formation of a de novo vascularized connective tissue. In the dynamic experiments using the dorsal skinfold chamber, the material again demonstrated good biocompatibility, with minimal dilation of the microcirculation and only a few adherent leukocytes, monitored through intravital fluorescence microscopy. The new application of the dorsal skinfold model corroborated our findings from the traditional static histology, demonstrating the potential use of this technique to dynamically evaluate the biocompatibility of materials. The observed biocompatibility and development of new vascularized tissue using both techniques demonstrates the potential of these angiogenesis-promoting materials for a host of regenerative strategies.

  16. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA) to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10−8) and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10−4), respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration. PMID:26966555

  17. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Richard

    Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA) to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10(-8)) and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10(-4)), respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration.

  18. Biocompatibility of Bacterial Cellulose Based Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Fernando G.; Commeaux, Solene; Troncoso, Omar P.

    2012-01-01

    Some bacteria can synthesize cellulose when they are cultivated under adequate conditions. These bacteria produce a mat of cellulose on the top of the culture medium, which is formed by a three-dimensional coherent network of pure cellulose nanofibers. Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been widely used in different fields, such as the paper industry, electronics and tissue engineering due to its remarkable mechanical properties, conformability and porosity. Nanocomposites based on BC have received much attention, because of the possibility of combining the good properties of BC with other materials for specific applications. BC nanocomposites can be processed either in a static or an agitated medium. The fabrication of BC nanocomposites in static media can be carried out while keeping the original mat structure obtained after the synthesis to form the final nanocomposite or by altering the culture media with other components. The present article reviews the issue of biocompatibility of BC and BC nanocomposites. Biomedical aspects, such as surface modification for improving cell adhesion, in vitro and in vivo studies are given along with details concerning the physics of network formation and the changes that occur in the cellulose networks due to the presence of a second phase. The relevance of biocompatibility studies for the development of BC-based materials in bone, skin and cardiovascular tissue engineering is also discussed. PMID:24955750

  19. Ultraflexible organic amplifier with biocompatible gel electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Fukushima, Takanori; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Onodera, Hiroshi; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-29

    In vivo electronic monitoring systems are promising technology to obtain biosignals with high spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a biocompatible highly conductive gel composite comprising multi-walled carbon nanotube-dispersed sheet with an aqueous hydrogel. This gel composite exhibits admittance of 100 mS cm(-2) and maintains high admittance even in a low-frequency range. On implantation into a living hypodermal tissue for 4 weeks, it showed a small foreign-body reaction compared with widely used metal electrodes. Capitalizing on the multi-functional gel composite, we fabricated an ultrathin and mechanically flexible organic active matrix amplifier on a 1.2-μm-thick polyethylene-naphthalate film to amplify (amplification factor: ∼200) weak biosignals. The composite was integrated to the amplifier to realize a direct lead epicardial electrocardiography that is easily spread over an uneven heart tissue.

  20. Ultraflexible organic amplifier with biocompatible gel electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Fukushima, Takanori; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Onodera, Hiroshi; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    In vivo electronic monitoring systems are promising technology to obtain biosignals with high spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a biocompatible highly conductive gel composite comprising multi-walled carbon nanotube-dispersed sheet with an aqueous hydrogel. This gel composite exhibits admittance of 100 mS cm−2 and maintains high admittance even in a low-frequency range. On implantation into a living hypodermal tissue for 4 weeks, it showed a small foreign-body reaction compared with widely used metal electrodes. Capitalizing on the multi-functional gel composite, we fabricated an ultrathin and mechanically flexible organic active matrix amplifier on a 1.2-μm-thick polyethylene-naphthalate film to amplify (amplification factor: ∼200) weak biosignals. The composite was integrated to the amplifier to realize a direct lead epicardial electrocardiography that is easily spread over an uneven heart tissue. PMID:27125910

  1. Ultraflexible organic amplifier with biocompatible gel electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Fukushima, Takanori; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Onodera, Hiroshi; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-01

    In vivo electronic monitoring systems are promising technology to obtain biosignals with high spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a biocompatible highly conductive gel composite comprising multi-walled carbon nanotube-dispersed sheet with an aqueous hydrogel. This gel composite exhibits admittance of 100 mS cm-2 and maintains high admittance even in a low-frequency range. On implantation into a living hypodermal tissue for 4 weeks, it showed a small foreign-body reaction compared with widely used metal electrodes. Capitalizing on the multi-functional gel composite, we fabricated an ultrathin and mechanically flexible organic active matrix amplifier on a 1.2-μm-thick polyethylene-naphthalate film to amplify (amplification factor: ~200) weak biosignals. The composite was integrated to the amplifier to realize a direct lead epicardial electrocardiography that is easily spread over an uneven heart tissue.

  2. Biocompatibility of two current adhesive resins.

    PubMed

    Costa, C A; Teixeira, H M; do Nascimento, A B; Hebling, J

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of two current adhesive resins and a calcium hydroxide cement. Fifty-four polyethylene tubes were filled with these dental materials, which were hand-mixed or light-cured according to the manufacturer's directions: group 1--Clearfill Liner Bond 2 (Kuraray); group 2--Single Bond (3 M); and group 3--calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal-Dentsply). The materials were implanted into dorsal connective tissue of rats, which were killed 7, 30, and 60 days after the implantation procedure. The implant sites were excised, immersed in buffered Karnovsky's fixative, and processed using routine histological techniques. Sections of 6 microns thickness were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and assessed under light microscopy. Both adhesive resins at 7 days elicited a moderate/intense inflammatory reaction that decreased over time. Fibrous capsules surrounding the tubes were observed at 30 days. Half of the samples in groups 1 and 2 showed thin fibrous capsule formation containing macrophages, capillaries, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and collagen fibers. Connective tissue healing was observed even though many specimens exhibited a persistent inflammatory reaction mediated by macrophages and giant cells at the 60-day evaluation. Dycal allowed complete healing at 30 days with only a thin fibrous capsule. In conclusion, all experimental materials were successfully walled off by the connective tissue of the rat. However the adhesive resins may release particulates that may, in turn, induce a persistent local inflammatory reaction. Consequently, in this specific condition, these materials cannot be regarded as biocompatible. Dycal was less irritating than the adhesive resins and was better tolerated by the connective tissue.

  3. The quantification of biocompatibility: toward a new definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, Buddy

    2008-03-01

    Implantable medical devices, and the biomaterials that comprise them, form a 100B business worldwide. Medical devices save lives and/or improve the quality of life for millions. Tissue engineering also makes extensive use of biomaterials -- biomaterials are an enabling technology for tissue engineering. A central word to understanding the effectiveness of such materials and devices is biocompatibility. The word ``biocompatible'' is widely used in reference to biomaterials and medical devices and most everyone has some value understanding of its meaning. Many formal definitions have been proposed for this word, but it is still largely used in an imprecise manner. Four descriptions or definitions of biocompatibility will be reviewed: a widely adopted definition from a consensus conference, a surgeon's perspective on this word, the regulatory agency view and the factors that clearly influence biocompatibility. In this talk, the classical definition of biocompatibility will be contrasted to a newer definition embracing molecular concepts and the understanding of normal wound healing. The biological data on the in vivo healing responses of mammals to implants will be described. A strategy to improve the healing of biomaterials will be presented. It is based upon surface molecular engineering. First, non-specific protein adsorption must be inhibited. Strategies to achieve this design parameter will be presented. Then methods to deliver the specific protein signals will be addressed. Matricellular proteins such as osteopontin, thrombospondin 2 and SPARC will be introduced with an emphasis on exploiting the special reactivity of such proteins. A discussion of the influence of surface textures and porosities will also be presented. Finally a new scheme based upon macrophage phenotypic pathways will be proposed that may allow a quantitative measure of extent of biocompatibility.

  4. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials: recent update

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Newaskar, Vilas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periradicular tissues. As root-end filling materials come into contact with periradicular tissues, knowledge of the tissue response is crucial. Almost every available dental restorative material has been suggested as the root-end material of choice at a certain point in the past. This literature review on root-end filling materials will evaluate and comparatively analyse the biocompatibility and tissue response to these products, with primary focus on newly introduced materials. PMID:24010077

  5. Biocompatibility of implantable biomedical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Suping

    2008-03-01

    Biomedical devices have been broadly used to treat human disease, especially chronic diseases where pharmaceuticals are less effective. Heart valve and artificial joint are examples. Biomedical devices perform by delivering therapies such as electric stimulations, mechanical supports and biological actions. While the uses of biomedical devices are highly successful they can trigger adverse biological reactions as well. The property that medical devices perform with intended functions but not causing unacceptable adverse effects was called biocompatibility in the early time. As our understanding of biomaterial-biological interactions getting broader, biocompatibility has more meanings. In this talk, I will present some adverse biological reactions observed with implantable biomedical devices. Among them are surface fouling of implantable sensors, calcification with vascular devices, restenosis with stents, foreign particle migration and mechanical fractures of devices due to inflammation reactions. While these effects are repeatable, there are very few quantitative data and theories to define them. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce this biocompatibility concept to biophysicists to stimulate research interests at different angles. An open question is how to quantitatively understand the biocompatibility that, like many other biological processes, has not been quantified experimentally.

  6. Polymerized supramolecular assemblies and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, David F.

    2001-03-01

    The creation of durable, biomembrane-mimetic coatings for inorganic and polymeric surfaces that are biocompatible, i.e. resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, remains an important goal that is expected to impact numerous fields. It has already been shown that the physical stability of lipid bilayer vesicles can be dramatically enhanced by cross-linking polymerization of reactive lipids, such as phosphatidylcholines. Bilayers of these same lipids on clean silicon dioxide surfaces can be formed by fusion of small bilayer vesicles with the surface. Radical initiated polymerization of these supported bilayers yields a stable poly(lipid) film that is not perturbed upon exposure to surfactant. Moreover, the cross-linked bilayer film can be removed from water into air with retention of the poly(lipid) bilayer structure. These polymerized bilayer films could be repeatedly transferred from water to air to water with no obvious change in their biocompatibility. The supported bilayer films were equally resistant to non-specific protein adsorption before and after polymerization. This indicates that biocompatible nature of the phosphorylcholine head group of the lipids was not compromised by polymerization of the lipids. The ability to maintain surface biocompatibility of membranes while substantially increasing their stability would appear to extend the technological uses of supramolecular assemblies of lipids.

  7. [IN VIVO EVALUATION OF POLYCAPROLACTONE-HYDROXYAPATITE SCAFFOLD BIOCOMPATIBILITY].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Kozadaev, M N; Bogomolova, N V; Matveeva, O V; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A; Sal'kovskii, Yu E; Lyubun, G P

    2015-01-01

    Biocompatibility is one of the main and very important properties for scaffolds. The aim of the present study was to investigate cells population dynamics in vivo in the process of original polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold colonization, as well as tissue reactions to the implantation to assess the biocompatibility of the matrix. It has been found that tissue reactive changes in white rats subside completely up to the 21st day after subcutaneous polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold implantation. Matrix was actively colonized by connective tissue cells in the period from the 7th to the 21st day of the experiment. However, intensive scaffold vascularization started from the 14th day after implantation. These findings suggest a high degree of the polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold biocompatiblilitye.

  8. Stretchable biocompatible electronics by embedding electrical circuitry in biocompatible elastomers.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, Amir; Salvo, Pietro; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Stretchable and curvilinear electronics has been used recently for the fabrication of micro systems interacting with the human body. The applications range from different kinds of implantable sensors inside the body to conformable electrodes and artificial skins. One of the key parameters in biocompatible stretchable electronics is the fabrication of reliable electrical interconnects. Although very recent literature has reported on the reliability of stretchable interconnects by cyclic loading, work still needs to be done on the integration of electrical circuitry composed of rigid components and stretchable interconnects in a biological environment. In this work, the feasibility of a developed technology to fabricate simple electrical circuits with meander shaped stretchable interconnects is presented. Stretchable interconnects are 200 nm thin Au layer supported with polyimide (PI). A stretchable array of light emitting diodes (LEDs) is embedded in biocompatible elastomer using this technology platform and it features a 50% total elongation.

  9. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  10. Biocompatibility of Ti-alloys for long-term implantation.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady Gepreel, Mohamed; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    2013-04-01

    The design of new low-cost Ti-alloys with high biocompatibility for implant applications, using ubiquitous alloying elements in order to establish the strategic method for suppressing utilization of rare metals, is a challenge. To meet the demands of longer human life and implantation in younger patients, the development of novel metallic alloys for biomedical applications is aiming at providing structural materials with excellent chemical, mechanical and biological biocompatibility. It is, therefore, likely that the next generation of structural materials for replacing hard human tissue would be of those Ti-alloys that do not contain any of the cytotoxic elements, elements suspected of causing neurological disorders or elements that have allergic effect. Among the other mechanical properties, the low Young's modulus alloys have been given a special attention recently, in order to avoid the occurrence of stress shielding after implantation. Therefore, many Ti-alloys were developed consisting of biocompatible elements such as Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Ta, and showed excellent mechanical properties including low Young's modulus. However, a recent attention was directed towards the development of low cost-alloys that have a minimum amount of the high melting point and high cost rare-earth elements such as Ta, Nb, Mo, and W. This comes with substituting these metals with the common low cost, low melting point and biocompatible metals such as Fe, Mn, Sn, and Si, while keeping excellent mechanical properties without deterioration. Therefore, the investigation of mechanical and biological biocompatibility of those low-cost Ti-alloys is highly recommended now lead towards commercial alloys with excellent biocompatibility for long-term implantation.

  11. CYTOTOXICITY AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT PULP CAPPING MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Atta, Maria Teresa; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri; Sipert, Carla Renata; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    There are several studies about the cytotoxic effects of dental materials in contact with the pulp tissue, such as calcium hydroxide (CH), adhesive systems, resin composite and glass ionomer cements. The aim of this review article was to summarize and discuss the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex, some components of resin composites and adhesive systems when placed in direct or indirect contact with the pulp tissue. A large number of dental materials present cytotoxic effects when applied close or directly to the pulp, and the only material that seems to stimulate early pulp repair and dentin hard tissue barrier formation is CH. PMID:20027424

  12. In vitro biocompatibility testing of some synthetic polymers used for the achievement of nervous conduits

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, IP; Coroiu, V; Oancea, A; Lungu, M

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible synthetic polymers are largely used in the bio–medical domain, tissue engineering and in controlled release of medicines. Polymers can be used in the achievement of cardiac and vascular devices, mammary implants, eye lenses, surgical threads, nervous conduits, adhesives, blood substitutes, etc. Our study was axed on the development of cytotoxicity tests for 3 synthetic polymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl chloride. These tests targeted to determine the viability and morphology of cells (fibroblasts) that were in indirect contact with the studied polymers. Cell viability achieved for all the studied synthetic polymers allowed their frame in biocompatible material category. Cell morphology did not significantly change, thus accomplishing a new biocompatibility criterion. The degree of biocompatibility of the studied polymers varied. Polyvinyl alcohol presented the highest grade of biocompatibility and polyvinyl chloride placed itself at the lowest limit of biocompatibility. The results achieved allowed the selection of those polymers that (by enhancing their degrees of biocompatibility due to the association with various biopolymers) will be used in the development of new biocompatible materials, useful in nervous conduits manufacture. PMID:22567047

  13. In vitro biocompatibility testing of some synthetic polymers used for the achievement of nervous conduits.

    PubMed

    Mihai, R; Florescu, I P; Coroiu, V; Oancea, A; Lungu, M

    2011-08-15

    Biocompatible synthetic polymers are largely used in the bio-medical domain, tissue engineering and in controlled release of medicines. Polymers can be used in the achievement of cardiac and vascular devices, mammary implants, eye lenses, surgical threads, nervous conduits, adhesives, blood substitutes, etc. Our study was axed on the development of cytotoxicity tests for 3 synthetic polymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl chloride. These tests targeted to determine the viability and morphology of cells (fibroblasts) that were in indirect contact with the studied polymers. Cell viability achieved for all the studied synthetic polymers allowed their frame in biocompatible material category. Cell morphology did not significantly change, thus accomplishing a new biocompatibility criterion. The degree of biocompatibility of the studied polymers varied. Polyvinyl alcohol presented the highest grade of biocompatibility and polyvinyl chloride placed itself at the lowest limit of biocompatibility. The results achieved allowed the selection of those polymers that (by enhancing their degrees of biocompatibility due to the association with various biopolymers) will be used in the development of new biocompatible materials, useful in nervous conduits manufacture.

  14. The impact of contact angle on the biocompatibility of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kara L; Jones, Lyndon

    2010-06-01

    Biomaterials may be defined as artificial materials that can mimic, store, or come into close contact with living biological cells or fluids and are becoming increasingly popular in the medical, biomedical, optometric, dental, and pharmaceutical industries. Within the ophthalmic industry, the best example of a biomaterial is a contact lens, which is worn by approximately 125 million people worldwide. For biomaterials to be biocompatible, they cannot illicit any type of unfavorable response when exposed to the tissue they contact. A characteristic that significantly influences this response is that related to surface wettability, which is often determined by measuring the contact angle of the material. This article reviews the impact of contact angle on the biocompatibility of tissue engineering substrates, blood-contacting devices, dental implants, intraocular lenses, and contact lens materials.

  15. Fabrication and Biocompatibility of Electrospun Silk Biocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kai; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Kim, Ick-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Silk fibroin has attracted great interest in tissue engineering because of its outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability and minimal inflammatory reaction. In this study, two kinds of biocomposites based on regenerated silk fibroin are fabricated by electrospinning and post-treatment processes, respectively. Firstly, regenerated silk fibroin/tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) hybrid nanofibers with high hydrophilicity are prepared, which is superior for fibroblast attachment. The electrospinning process causes adjacent fibers to ‘weld’ at contact points, which can be proved by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The water contact angle of silk/tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) composites shows a sharper decrease than pure regenerated silk fibroin nanofiber, which has a great effect on the early stage of cell attachment behavior. Secondly, a novel tissue engineering scaffold material based on electrospun silk fibroin/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) biocomposites is prepared by means of an effective calcium and phosphate (Ca–P) alternate soaking method. nHA is successfully produced on regenerated silk fibroin nanofiber within several min without any pre-treatments. The osteoblastic activities of this novel nanofibrous biocomposites are also investigated by employing osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cell line. The cell functionality such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is ameliorated on mineralized silk nanofibers. All these results indicate that this silk/nHA biocomposite scaffold material may be a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24957869

  16. Bioinspired, Ultrastrong, Highly Biocompatible, and Bioactive Natural Polymer/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Kun; Cong, Huai-Ping; Yao, Hong-Bin; Mao, Li-Bo; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Marwani, Hadi M; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-09-09

    Tough and biocompatible nanocomposite films: A new type of bioinspired ultrastrong, highly biocompatible, and bioactive konjac glucomannan (KGM)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite film is fabricated on a large scale by a simple solution-casting method. Such KGM-GO composite films exhibit much enhanced mechanical properties under the strong hydrogen-bonding interactions, showing great potential in the fields of tissue engineering and food package. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The effect of temperature and humidity on adhesion of a gecko-inspired adhesive: implications for the natural system.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Klittich, Mena R; Sitti, Metin; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2016-08-02

    The adhesive system of geckos has inspired hundreds of synthetic adhesives. While this system has been used relentlessly as a source of inspiration, less work has been done in reverse, where synthetics are used to test questions and hypotheses about the natural system. Here we take such an approach. We tested shear adhesion of a mushroom-tipped synthetic gecko adhesive under conditions that produced perplexing results in the natural adhesive system. Synthetic samples were tested at two temperatures (12 °C and 32 °C) and four different humidity levels (30%, 55%, 70%, and 80% RH). Surprisingly, adhesive performance of the synthetic samples matched that of living geckos, suggesting that uncontrolled parameters in the natural system, such as surface chemistry and material changes, may not be as influential in whole-animal performance as previously thought. There was one difference, however, when comparing natural and synthetic adhesive performance. At 12 °C and 80% RH, adhesion of the synthetic structures was lower than expected based on the natural system's performance. Our approach highlights a unique opportunity for both biologists and material scientists, where new questions and hypotheses can be fueled by joint comparisons of the natural and synthetic systems, ultimately improving knowledge of both.

  18. The effect of temperature and humidity on adhesion of a gecko-inspired adhesive: implications for the natural system

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Alyssa Y.; Klittich, Mena R.; Sitti, Metin; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The adhesive system of geckos has inspired hundreds of synthetic adhesives. While this system has been used relentlessly as a source of inspiration, less work has been done in reverse, where synthetics are used to test questions and hypotheses about the natural system. Here we take such an approach. We tested shear adhesion of a mushroom-tipped synthetic gecko adhesive under conditions that produced perplexing results in the natural adhesive system. Synthetic samples were tested at two temperatures (12 °C and 32 °C) and four different humidity levels (30%, 55%, 70%, and 80% RH). Surprisingly, adhesive performance of the synthetic samples matched that of living geckos, suggesting that uncontrolled parameters in the natural system, such as surface chemistry and material changes, may not be as influential in whole-animal performance as previously thought. There was one difference, however, when comparing natural and synthetic adhesive performance. At 12 °C and 80% RH, adhesion of the synthetic structures was lower than expected based on the natural system’s performance. Our approach highlights a unique opportunity for both biologists and material scientists, where new questions and hypotheses can be fueled by joint comparisons of the natural and synthetic systems, ultimately improving knowledge of both. PMID:27480603

  19. Instantly switchable adhesion of bridged fibrillar adhesive via gecko-inspired detachment mechanism and its application to a transportation system.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won-Gyu; Kim, Doogon; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2013-12-07

    Inspired by the exceptional climbing ability of gecko lizards, artificial fibrillar adhesives have been extensively studied over the last decade both experimentally and theoretically. Therefore, a new leap towards practical uses beyond the academic horizon is timely and highly anticipated. To this end, we present a fibrillar adhesive in the form of bridged micropillars and its application to a transportation system with the detachment mechanism inspired by the climbing behaviour of gecko lizards. The adhesive shows strong normal attachment (~30 N cm(-2)) as well as easy and fast detachment within 0.5 s without involving complex dynamic mechanisms or specific stimulus-responsive materials. The fabrication of the bridged micropillars consists of replica moulding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars, transfer of the PDMS precursor to the heads of the micropillars, and inverse placement on an inert Teflon-coated surface. Owing to the spontaneous interconnections of low viscosity PDMS precursor, bridged micropillars with a uniform capping nanomembrane (~800 nm thickness) are formed over a large area. Interestingly, macroscopic adhesion in the normal direction can be immediately switched between on and off states by changing the two detachment modes of pulling and peeling, respectively. To prove the potential of the fibrillar adhesive for practical use, an automated transportation system is demonstrated for lifting and releasing a mass of stacked glass slides over 1000 cycles of attachment and detachment.

  20. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yslas, Edith I; Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F; Barbero, César A; Rivarola, Viviana A

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using l-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86°±1 to 90°±1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and in vivo evaluation of biocompatible ferrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Lopez, M. T.; Rodriguez, I. A.; Rodriguez-Arco, L.; Carriel, V.; Bonhome-Espinosa, A. B.; Campos, F.; Zubarev, A.; Duran, J. D. G.

    2017-06-01

    A hydrogel is a 3-D network of polymer chains in which water is the dispersion medium. Hydrogels have found extensive applications in the biomedical field due to their resemblance to living tissues. Furthermore, hydrogels can be endowed with exceptional properties by addition of synthetic materials. For example, magnetic field-sensitive gels, called ferrogels, are obtained by embedding magnetic particles in the polymer network. Novel living tissues with unique magnetic field-sensitive properties were recently prepared by 3-D cell culture in biocompatible ferrogels. This paper critically reviews the most recent progress and perspectives in their synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility evaluation. Optimization of ferrogels for this novel application requires low-density, strongly magnetic, multi-domain particles. Interestingly, the rheological properties of the resulting ferrogels in the absence of field were largely enhanced with respect to nonmagnetic hydrogels, which can only be explained by the additional cross-linking imparted by the embedded magnetic particles. Remarkably, rheological measurements under an applied magnetic field demonstrated that ferrogels presented reversibly tunable mechanical properties, which constitutes a unique advantage with respect to nonmagnetic hydrogels. In vivo evaluation of ferrogels showed good biocompatibility, with only some local inflammatory response, and no particle migration or damage to distant organs.

  2. Biocompatible Collagen Paramagnetic Scaffold for Controlled Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Simona; Bonfrate, Valentina; Syrgiannis, Zois; Sannino, Alessandro; Salvatore, Luca; Madaghiele, Marta; Valli, Ludovico; Giancane, Gabriele

    2015-09-14

    A porous collagen-based hydrogel scaffold was prepared in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and was characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The hybrid scaffold was then loaded with fluorescein sodium salt as a model compound. The release of the hydrosoluble species was triggered and accurately controlled by the application of an external magnetic field, as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the proposed matrix was also tested by the MTT assay performed on 3T3 cells. Cell viability was only slightly reduced when the cells were incubated in the presence of the collagen-NP hydrogel, compared to controls. The economicity of the chemical protocol used to obtain the paramagnetic scaffolds as well as their biocompatibility and the safety of the external trigger needed to induce the drug release suggest the proposed collagen paramagnetic matrices for a number of applications including tissue engeneering and drug delivery.

  3. Biocompatible bacterial cellulose membrane in dural defect repair of rat.

    PubMed

    Lima, Frederico de Melo Tavares de; Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; Andrade-da-Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira; Silva, Jaiurte Gomes Martins da; Campos Júnior, Olávio; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade

    2017-03-01

    Duraplasty is necessary in nearly 30% of all neurological surgeries. Different tissues and materials have been evaluated in dura mater repair or as dural substitutes in neurosurgery. The aim was to evaluate the biocompatibility of the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes, produced from sugarcane molasses, for dural defect repair in rats. Forty adults males Wistar rats divided into two groups: a control (ePTFE) and an experimental (BC). Bilateral frontoparietal craniectomy was performed, and a dural defect was created. The arachnoid underlying defect was disrupted with a narrow hook. The animals were observed for 120 days. There were no cases of infection, cerebrospinal fluid fistulae, delayed hemorrhages, behavior disturbances, seizures and palsies. The BC membrane showed to have suitable biocompatibility properties, was not induced immune reaction, nor chronic inflammatory response and absence of neurotoxicity signals.

  4. Curcumin/xanthan-galactomannan hydrogels: rheological analysis and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Da-Lozzo, Eneida Janiscki; Moledo, Ricardo Cambaúva Andrukaisti; Faraco, Cloris Ditzel; Ortolani-Machado, Claudia Feijó; Bresolin, Tania Mari Bellé; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira

    2013-03-01

    Curcumin, a lipophilic compound found in the plant Curcuma longa L., exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activity; however, its therapeutic use has been limited because of its low bioavailability following oral administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viscoelastic characteristics and biocompatibility of a curcumin/xanthan:galactomannan hydrogel (X:G) system after topical application on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), a system established with a view toward curcumin nasal or topical pharmaceutical applications or possible administration in cosmetics or foods. A rheological analysis indicated that incorporation of curcumin did not alter the viscoelastic characteristics of the X:G hydrogel, suggesting that there was no change in the structure of the gel network. X:G hydrogels did not induce CAM tissue injury and the curcumin/X:G hydrogel system was also highly biocompatible. We conclude that the X:G hydrogel represents a potential matrix for curcumin formulations.

  5. Biocompatible hydrogel nanocomposite with covalently embedded silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    García-Astrain, Clara; Chen, Cheng; Burón, María; Palomares, Teodoro; Eceiza, Arantxa; Fruk, Ljiljana; Corcuera, M Ángeles; Gabilondo, Nagore

    2015-04-13

    Bionanocomposite materials, combining the properties of biopolymers and nanostructured materials, are attracting interest of the wider scientific community due to their potential application in design of implants, drug delivery systems, and tissue design platforms. Herein, we report on the use of maleimide-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as cocross-linkers for the preparation of a bionanocomposite gelatin based hydrogel. Diels-Alder cycloaddition of benzotriazole maleimide (BTM) functionalized Ag NPs and furan containing gelatin in combination with additional amide coupling resulted in stable and biocompatible hybrid nanocomposite. The storage moduli values for the hydrogel are nearly three times higher than that of control hydrogel without NPs indicating a stabilizing role of the covalently bound NPs. Finally, the swelling and drug release properties of the materials as well as the biocompatibility and toxicity tests indicate the biomedical potential of this type of material.

  6. Nanostructure of biocompatible titania/hydroxyapatite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Aleksandr A.; Rodionov, Igor V.; Steinhauer, Aleksey B.; Fomina, Marina A.; Petrova, Natalia V.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.; Skaptsov, Aleksandr A.; Gribov, Andrey N.; Atkin, Vsevolod S.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes prospective composite biocompatible titania coatings modified with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and obtained on intraosseous implants fabricated from commercially pure titanium VT1-00. Consistency changes of morphological characteristics, crystalline structure, physical and mechanical properties and biocompatibility of experimental titanium implant coatings obtained by the combination of oxidation and surface modification with hydroxyapatite during induction heat treatment are defined.

  7. Enhanced Biocompatibility of Porous Nitinol

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Norman; Pulletikurthi, Chandan; Haider, Waseem

    2009-01-01

    Porous Nitinol (PNT) has found vast applications in the medical industry as interbody fusion devices, synthetic bone grafts, etc. However, the tendency of the PNT to corrode is anticipated to be greater as compared to solid nitinol since there is a larger surface area in contact with body fluids. In such cases, surface preparation is known to play a major role in a material’s biocompatibility. In an effort to check the effect of surface treatments on the in vitro corrosion properties of PNT, in this investigation, they were subjected to different surface treatments such as boiling in water, dry heating, and passivation. The localized corrosion resistance of alloys before and after each treatment was evaluated in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS) using cyclic polarization tests in accordance with ASTM F 2129-08. PMID:19956797

  8. Polycrystalline Silicon: a Biocompatibility Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Pecheva, E.; Fingarova, D.; Pramatarova, L.; Hikov, T.; Laquerriere, P.; Bouthors, Sylvie; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Montgomery, P.

    2010-01-21

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) layers were functionalized through the growth of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) on their surface. HA is the mineral component of bones and teeth and thus possesses excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on both HA-coated and un-coated poly-Si surfaces for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days and toxicity, proliferation and cell morphology were investigated. The results revealed that the poly-Si layers were bioactive and compatible with the osteoblast-like cells. Nevertheless, the HA coating improved the cell interactions with the poly-Si surfaces based on the cell affinity to the specific chemical composition of the bone-like HA and/or to the higher HA roughness.

  9. In vitro and in vivo ocular biocompatibility of electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Gisele Rodrigues; Lima, Tadeu Henrique; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Fernandes-Cunha, Gabriella Maria; Silva-Cunha, Armando; Zhao, Min; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2015-06-20

    Biocompatibility is a requirement for the development of nanofibers for ophthalmic applications. In this study, nanofibers were elaborated using poly(ε-caprolactone) via electrospinning. The ocular biocompatibility of this material was investigated. MIO-M1 and ARPE-19 cell cultures were incubated with nanofibers and cellular responses were monitored by viability and morphology. The in vitro biocompatibility revealed that the nanofibers were not cytotoxic to the ocular cells. These cells exposed to the nanofibers proliferated and formed an organized monolayer. ARPE-19 and MIO-M1 cells were capable of expressing GFAP, respectively, demonstrating their functionality. Nanofibers were inserted into the vitreous cavity of the rat's eye for 10days and the in vivo biocompatibility was investigated using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), histology and measuring the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, VEGF and iNOS) (real-time PCR). The OCT and the histological analyzes exhibited the preserved architecture of the tissues of the eye. The biomaterial did not elicit an inflammatory reaction and pro-inflammatory cytokines were not expressed by the retinal cells, and the other posterior tissues of the eye. Results from the biocompatibility studies indicated that the nanofibers exhibited a high degree of cellular biocompatibility and short-term intraocular tolerance, indicating that they might be applied as drug carrier for ophthalmic use.

  10. Biocompatibility of Subcutaneously Implanted Plant-Derived Cellulose Biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Modulevsky, Daniel J; Cuerrier, Charles M; Pelling, Andrew E

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel biomaterials which support the invasion and proliferation of living cells for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Decellularization of existing tissues have formed the basis of one major approach to producing 3D scaffolds for such purposes. In this study, we utilize the native hypanthium tissue of apples and a simple preparation methodology to create implantable cellulose scaffolds. To examine biocompatibility, scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in wild-type, immunocompetent mice (males and females; 6-9 weeks old). Following the implantation, the scaffolds were resected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and processed for histological analysis (H&E, Masson's Trichrome, anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies). Histological analysis revealed a characteristic foreign body response to the scaffold 1 week post-implantation. However, the immune response was observed to gradually disappear by 8 weeks post-implantation. By 8 weeks, there was no immune response in the surrounding dermis tissue and active fibroblast migration within the cellulose scaffold was observed. This was concomitant with the deposition of a new collagen extracellular matrix. Furthermore, active blood vessel formation within the scaffold was observed throughout the period of study indicating the pro-angiogenic properties of the native scaffolds. Finally, while the scaffolds retain much of their original shape they do undergo a slow deformation over the 8-week length of the study. Taken together, our results demonstrate that native cellulose scaffolds are biocompatible and exhibit promising potential as a surgical biomaterial.

  11. Kombucha-synthesized bacterial cellulose: preparation, characterization, and biocompatibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changlai; Li, Feng; Zhou, Xinyang; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Tianyi

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural biomaterial with unique properties suitable for tissue engineering applications, but it has not yet been used for preparing nerve conduits to repair peripheral nerve injuries. The objectives of this study were to prepare and characterize the Kampuchea-synthesized bacterial cellulose (KBC) and further evaluate the biocompatibility of KBC with peripheral nerve cells and tissues in vitro and in vivo. KBC membranes were composed of interwoven ribbons of about 20-100 nm in width, and had a high purity and the same crystallinity as that of cellulose Iα. The results from light and scanning electron microscopy, MTT assay, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR indicated that no significant differences in the morphology and cell function were observed between Schwann cells (SCs) cultured on KBC membranes and glass slips. We also fabricated a nerve conduit using KBC, which was implanted into the spatium intermusculare of rats. At 1, 3, and 6 weeks post-implantation, clinical chemistry and histochemistry showed that there were no significant differences in blood counts, serum biochemical parameters, and tissue reactions between implanted rats and sham-operated rats. Collectively, our data indicated that KBC possessed good biocompatibility with primary cultured SCs and KBC did not exert hematological and histological toxic effects on nerve tissues in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Biomechanical and biocompatibility characteristics of electrospun polymeric tracheal scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ajalloueian, Fatemeh; Lim, Mei Ling; Lemon, Greg; Haag, Johannes C; Gustafsson, Ylva; Sjöqvist, Sebastian; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Baiguera, Silvia; Bianco, Alessandra; Jungebluth, Philipp; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    The development of tracheal scaffolds fabricated based on electrospinning technique by applying different ratios of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyurethane (PU) is introduced here. Prior to clinical implantation, evaluations of biomechanical and morphological properties, as well as biocompatibility and cell adhesion verifications are required and extensively performed on each scaffold type. However, the need for bioreactors and large cell numbers may delay the verification process during the early assessment phase. Hence, we investigated the feasibility of performing biocompatibility verification using static instead of dynamic culture. We performed bioreactor seeding on 3-dimensional (3-D) tracheal scaffolds (PET/PU and PET) and correlated the quantitative and qualitative results with 2-dimensional (2-D) sheets seeded under static conditions. We found that an 8-fold reduction for 2-D static seeding density can essentially provide validation on the qualitative and quantitative evaluations for 3-D scaffolds. In vitro studies revealed that there was notably better cell attachment on PET sheets/scaffolds than with the polyblend. However, the in vivo outcomes of cell seeded PET/PU and PET scaffolds in an orthotopic transplantation model in rodents were similar. They showed that both the scaffold types satisfied biocompatibility requirements and integrated well with the adjacent tissue without any observation of necrosis within 30 days of implantation.

  13. Biocompatibility of polysebacic anhydride microparticles with chondrocytes in engineered cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Ponnurangam, Sathish; O'Connell, Grace D.; Hung, Clark T.; Somasundaran, Ponisseril

    2015-01-01

    One of main challenges in developing clinically relevant engineered cartilage is overcoming limited nutrient diffusion due to progressive elaboration of extracellular matrix at the periphery of the construct. Macro-channels have been used to decrease the nutrient path-length; however, the channels become occluded with matrix within weeks in culture, reducing nutrient diffusion. Alternatively, microparticles can be imbedded throughout the scaffold to provide localized nutrient delivery. In this study, we evaluated biocompatibility of polysebacic anhydride (PSA) polymers and the effectiveness of PSA-based microparticles for short-term delivery of nutrients in engineered cartilage. PSA-based microparticles were biocompatible with juvenile bovine chondrocytes for concentrations up to 2mg/mL; however, cytotoxicity was observed at 20mg/mL. Cytotoxicity at high concentrations is likely due to intracellular accumulation of PSA degradation products and resulting lipotoxicity. Cytotoxicity of PSA was partially reversed in the presence of bovine serum albumin. In conclusion, the findings from this study demonstrate concentration-dependent biocompatibility of PSA-based microparticles and potential application as a nutrient delivery vehicle that can be imbedded in scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:26398146

  14. Biocompatibility of crystalline opal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Silica nanoparticles are being developed as a host of biomedical and biotechnological applications. For this reason, there are more studies about biocompatibility of silica with amorphous and crystalline structure. Except hydrated silica (opal), despite is presents directly and indirectly in humans. Two sizes of crystalline opal nanoparticles were investigated in this work under criteria of toxicology. Methods In particular, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by opal nanoparticles (80 and 120 nm) were evaluated in cultured mouse cells via a set of bioassays, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Results 3T3-NIH cells were incubated for 24 and 72 h in contact with nanocrystalline opal particles, not presented significant statistically difference in the results of cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity tests of crystalline opal nanoparticles were performed by the BrdU assay on the same cultured cells for 24 h incubation. The reduction of BrdU-incorporated cells indicates that nanocrystalline opal exposure did not caused unrepairable damage DNA. Conclusions There is no relationship between that particles size and MTT reduction, as well as BrdU incorporation, such that the opal particles did not induce cytotoxic effect and genotoxicity in cultured mouse cells. PMID:23088559

  15. Biocompatible implants and methods of making and attaching the same

    DOEpatents

    Rowley, Adrian P; Laude, Lucien D; Humayun, Mark S; Weiland, James D; Lotfi, Atoosa; Markland, Jr., Francis S

    2014-10-07

    The invention provides a biocompatible silicone implant that can be securely affixed to living tissue through interaction with integral membrane proteins (integrins). A silicone article containing a laser-activated surface is utilized to make the implant. One example is an implantable prosthesis to treat blindness caused by outer retinal degenerative diseases. The device bypasses damaged photoreceptors and electrically stimulates the undamaged neurons of the retina. Electrical stimulation is achieved using a silicone microelectrode array (MEA). A safe, protein adhesive is used in attaching the MEA to the retinal surface and assist in alleviating focal pressure effects. Methods of making and attaching such implants are also provided.

  16. Mechanical biocompatibilities of titanium alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Niinomi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Young's modulus as well as tensile strength, ductility, fatigue life, fretting fatigue life, wear properties, functionalities, etc., should be adjusted to levels that are suitable for structural biomaterials used in implants that replace hard tissue. These factors may be collectively referred to as mechanical biocompatibilities. In this paper, the following are described with regard to biomedical applications of titanium alloys: the Young's modulus, wear properties, notch fatigue strength, fatigue behaviour on relation to ageing treatment, improvement of fatigue strength, fatigue crack propagation resistance and ductility by the deformation-induced martensitic transformation of the unstable beta phase, and multifunctional deformation behaviours of titanium alloys.

  17. Metallic Zinc Exhibits Optimal Biocompatibility for Bioabsorbable Endovascular Stents

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Patrick K.; Guillory, Roger J.; Shearier, Emily R.; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Bocks, Martin; Zhao, Feng; Goldman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Although corrosion resistant bare metal stents are considered generally effective, their permanent presence in a diseased artery is an increasingly recognized limitation due to the potential for long-term complications. We previously reported that metallic zinc exhibited an ideal biocorrosion rate within murine aortas, thus raising the possibility of zinc as a candidate base material for endovascular stenting applications. This study was undertaken to further assess the arterial biocompatibility of metallic zinc. Metallic zinc wires were punctured and advanced into the rat abdominal aorta lumen for up to 6.5 months. This study demonstrated that metallic zinc did not provoke responses that often contribute to restenosis. Low cell densities and neointimal tissue thickness, along with tissue regeneration within the corroding implant, point to optimal biocompatibility of corroding zinc. Furthermore, the lack of progression in neointimal tissue thickness over 6.5 months or the presence of smooth muscle cells near the zinc implant suggest that the products of zinc corrosion may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. PMID:26249616

  18. In vitro biocompatibility assessment of PHBV/Wollastonite composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Zhai, Wanying; Chang, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Biodegradable and biocompatible materials are the basis for tissue engineering. As an initial step for developing bone tissue engineering scaffolds, the in vitro biocompatibility of degradable and bioactive composites consisting of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) and wollastonite (W) was studied by culturing osteoblasts on the PHBV/W substrates, and the cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were evaluated. The results showed that the incorporation of wollastonite benefited osteoblasts adhesion and the osteoblasts cultured on the PHBV/W composite substrates spread better as compared to those on the pure PHBV after culturing for 3 h. In the prolonged incubation time, the osteoblasts cultured on the PHBV/W composite substrates revealed a higher proliferation and differentiation rate than those on the pure PHBV substrates. In addition, an increase of proliferation and differentiation rate was observed when the wollastonite content in the PHBV/W composites increased from 10 to 20 wt%. All of the results showed that the addition of wollastonite into PHBV could stimulate osteoblasts to proliferate and differentiate and the PHBV/W composites with wollastonite up to 20 wt% were more compatible than the pure PHBV materials for bone repair and bone tissue engineering.

  19. Assessment of the biocompatibility and stability of a gold nanoparticle collagen bioscaffold.

    PubMed

    Grant, Sheila A; Spradling, Claire S; Grant, Daniel N; Fox, Derek B; Jimenez, Luis; Grant, David A; Rone, Rebecca J

    2014-02-01

    Collagen has been utilized as a scaffold for tissue engineering applications due to its many advantageous properties. However, collagen in its purified state is mechanically weak and prone to rapid degradation. To mitigate these effects, collagen can be crosslinked. Although enhanced mechanical properties and stability can be achieved by crosslinking, collagen can be rendered less biocompatible either due to changes in the overall microstructure or due to the cytotoxicity of the crosslinkers. We have investigated crosslinking collagen using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to enhance mechanical properties and resistance to degradation while also maintaining its natural microstructure and biocompatibility. Rat tail type I collagen was crosslinked with AuNPs using a zero-length crosslinker, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Several characterization studies were performed including electron microscopy, collagenase assays, ROS assays, and biocompatibility assays. The results demonstrated that AuNP-collagen scaffolds had increased resistance to degradation as compared to non-AuNP-collagen while still maintaining an open microstructure. Although the biocompatibility assays showed that the collagen and AuNP-collagen scaffolds are biocompatible, the AuNP-collagen demonstrated enhanced cellularity and glycoaminoglycans (GAG) production over the collagen scaffolds. Additionally, the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) assays indicated the ability of the AuNP-collagen to reduce oxidation. Overall, the AuNP-collagen scaffolds demonstrated enhanced biocompatibility and stability over non-AuNP scaffolds.

  20. In Vitro Models in Biocompatibility Assessment for Biomedical-Grade Chitosan Derivatives in Wound Management

    PubMed Central

    Keong, Lim Chin; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2009-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of wound healing research is to find effective healing techniques that utilize the regeneration of similar tissues. This involves the modification of various wound dressing biomaterials for proper wound management. The biopolymer chitosan (β-1,4-D-glucosamine) has natural biocompatibility and biodegradability that render it suitable for wound management. By definition, a biocompatible biomaterial does not have toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability to an uncertain degree. Hence, the modified biomedical-grade of chitosan derivatives should be pre-examined in vitro in order to produce high-quality, biocompatible dressings. In vitro toxicity examinations are more favorable than those performed in vivo, as the results are more reproducible and predictive. In this paper, basic in vitro tools were used to evaluate cellular and molecular responses with regard to the biocompatibility of biomedical-grade chitosan. Three paramount experimental parameters of biocompatibility in vitro namely cytocompatibility, genotoxicity and skin pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, were generally reviewed for biomedical-grade chitosan as wound dressing. PMID:19399250

  1. Biocompatibility testing of branched and linear polyglycidol.

    PubMed

    Kainthan, Rajesh Kumar; Janzen, Johan; Levin, Elena; Devine, Dana V; Brooks, Donald E

    2006-03-01

    Polyglycidols are flexible hydrophilic polyethers that are potentially biocompatible polymers based on their similarities to the well-studied poly(ethyleneglycol). Polyglycidols can be prepared as branched or linear polymers by suitable synthetic methods. Biocompatibility testing of these polymers conducted in vitro as well as in vivo are reported here. The in vitro studies included hemocompatibility testing for effects on coagulation (PT and APTT), complement activation, red blood cell aggregation, and whole blood viscosity measurements. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments were also conducted. The results were compared with some of the common biocompatible polymers already in human use. Results from these studies show that polyglycidols are highly biocompatible. Hyperbranched polyglycidols were found to be well tolerated by mice even when injected in high doses.

  2. 75 FR 68972 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Tissue Adhesive With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... dehiscence Bench Testing, Shelf Life Testing, Animal Testing, Clinical Studies, Labeling. Adverse tissue reaction and chemical Biocompatibility Animal burns. Testing, Clinical Studies. Infection Bench Testing, Biocompatibility Animal Testing, Clinical Studies, Sterility. Applicator malfunction Bench Testing. Weak bonding...

  3. Biocompatibility of Resin-based Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Moharamzadeh, Keyvan; Brook, Ian M.; Van Noort, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Oral and mucosal adverse reactions to resin-based dental materials have been reported. Numerous studies have examined the biocompatibility of restorative dental materials and their components, and a wide range of test systems for the evaluation of the biological effects of these materials have been developed. This article reviews the biological aspects of resin-based dental materials and discusses the conventional as well as the new techniques used for biocompatibility assessment of dental materials.

  4. Tissue response: biomaterials, dental implants, and compromised osseous tissue.

    PubMed

    Babu RS, Arvind; Ogle, Orrett

    2015-04-01

    Tissue response represents an important feature in biocompatibility in implant procedures. This review article highlights the fundamental characteristics of tissue response after the implant procedure. This article also highlights the tissue response in compromised osseous conditions. Understanding the histologic events after dental implants in normal and abnormal bone reinforces the concept of case selection in dental implants.

  5. Biocompatibility of mannuronic acid-rich alginates.

    PubMed

    Klöck, G; Pfeffermann, A; Ryser, C; Gröhn, P; Kuttler, B; Hahn, H J; Zimmermann, U

    1997-05-01

    Highly purified algin preparations free of adverse contaminants with endotoxins and other mitogens recently became available by a new purification process (Klöck et al., Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 1994, 40, 638-643). An advantage of this purification protocol is that it can be applied to alginates with various ratios of mannuronic acid to guluronic acid. High mannuronic acid alginate capsules are of particular practical interest for cell transplantation and for biohybrid organs, because mannuronate-rich alginates are usually less viscous, allowing one to make gels with a higher alginate content. This will increase their stability and reduce the diffusion permeability and could therefore protect immobilized cells more efficiently against the host immune system. Here we report the biocompatibility of purified, mannuronic acid-rich alginate (68% mannuronate residues) in a series of in vitro, as well as in vivo, assays. In contrast to raw alginate extracts, the purified product showed no mitogenic activity towards murine lymphocytes in vitro. Its endotoxin content was reduced to the level of the solvent. Animal studies with these new, purified algin formulations revealed the absence of a mitogen-induced foreign body reaction, even when the purified material (after cross-linking with Ba2+ ions) is implanted into animal models with elevated macrophage activity (diabetes-prone BB/OK rat). Thus, alginate capsules with high mannuronic acid content become available for applications such as implantation. In addition to the utilization as implantable cell reactors in therapy and biotechnology, these purified algins have broad application potential as ocular fillings, tissue replacements, microencapsulated growth factors and/or interleukins or slow-release dosage forms of antibodies, surface coatings of sensors and other invasive medical devices, and in encapsulation of genetically engineered cells for gene therapy.

  6. Optimal dehydrothermal processing conditions to improve biocompatibility and durability of a weakly denatured collagen scaffold.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Akira; Shigeno, Keiji; Sato, Toshihiko; Hatayama, Takahide; Wakatsuki, Mariko; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2017-11-01

    Collagen scaffolds are essential for tissue regeneration; however, preprocessing of these scaffolds is necessary because of their poor mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal condition for preparing a collagen scaffold with biocompatibility and durability. An atelocollagen fiber suspension was made and stored at -10°C in a container that could be cooled from the bottom to provide an orientation perpendicular to the collagen fiber and facilitate cell infiltration into the scaffold. After freeze-drying the frozen suspension, various collagen scaffolds were made by dehydrothermal (DHT) treatment under different conditions (processing temperature: 120-160°C for 0-28 h). Sections of the obtained materials were embedded under the back skin of rats, and the thickness and biocompatibility of the residual scaffold were evaluated after 2 weeks. The number of foreign body giant cells was counted to evaluate biocompatibility. Although the residual scaffold was thick, excessive DHT treatment caused a strong foreign body reaction. Weak DHT treatment resulted in a collagen scaffold with good biocompatibility but with reduced thickness. Overall, these results showed the restricted optimal conditions to make a collagen scaffold with good biocompatibility and ability to maintain sufficient space for tissue regeneration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2301-2307, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. In Vivo Biocompatibility of PLGA-Polyhexylthiophene Nanofiber Scaffolds in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Anuradha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2013-01-01

    Electroactive polymers have applications in tissue engineering as a physical template for cell adhesion and carry electrical signals to improve tissue regeneration. Present study demonstrated the biocompatibility and biodegradability of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PLGA-PHT) blend electrospun scaffolds in a subcutaneous rat model. The biocompatibility of PLGA-undoped PHT, PLGA-doped PHT, and aligned PLGA-doped PHT nanofibers was evaluated and compared with random PLGA fibers. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks; the surrounding tissue along with the implant was removed to evaluate biocompatibility and biodegradability by histologic analysis and GPC, respectively. Histology results demonstrated that all scaffolds except PLGA-undoped PHT showed decrease in inflammation over time. It was observed that the aligned PLGA-doped PHT fibers elicited moderate response at 2 weeks, which further reduced to a mild response over time with well-organized tissue structure and collagen deposition. The degradation of aligned nanofibers was found to be very slow when compared to random fibers. Further, there was no reduction in the molecular weight of undoped form of PHT throughout the study. These experiments revealed the biocompatibility and biodegradability of PLGA-PHT nanofibers that potentiate it to be used as a biomaterial for various applications. PMID:23971031

  8. In vivo biocompatibility of radiation crosslinked acrylamide copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraydın, Dursun; Ünver-Saraydın, Serpil; Karadağ, Erdener; Koptagel, Emel; Güven, Olgun

    2004-04-01

    In vitro swelling and in vivo biocompatibility of radiation crosslinked acrylamide copolymers such as acrylamide/crotonic acid (AAm/CA) and acrylamide/itaconic acid (AAm/IA) were studied. The swelling kinetics of acrylamide copolymers were performed in distilled water, human serum and some simulated physiological fluids such as phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, glycine-HCl buffer, pH 1.1, physiological saline solution, and some swelling and diffusion parameters have been calculated. AAm/CA and AAm/IA hydrogels were subcutaneously implanted in rats for up to 10 weeks and the immediate short- and long-term tissue response to these implants were investigated. Histological analysis indicated that tissue reaction at the implant site progressed from an initial acute inflammatory response. No necrosis, tumorigenesis or infection was observed at the implant site up to 10 weeks. The radiation crosslinked AAm/CA and AAm/IA copolymers were found well tolerated, non-toxic and highly biocompatible. However, AAm/IA copolymer was not found to be compatible biomaterials, because one of the AAm/IA samples was disintegrated into small pieces in the rat.

  9. [The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the biocompatibility of Medpor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Ma, Xiu-lan

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the effect of ultraviolet ( UV) irradiation on the biocompatibility of Medpor. The Medpor implant, 2 mm in thickness, was divided into several pieces with the size of 1 cm x 1 cm. 12 Japanese big ear rabbits were divided into experimental (n=6) and control group (n=6). The 1 cm x 1 cm auricular cartilage defects were made in each rabbit ear. Then the defects were repaired with UV-treated Medpor implants in experimental group, and Medpor implants in control group. The levels of the total hemolytic complement (CH50) were measured 3 d hefore operation, and 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90 d after operation. The wound healing was observed. 90 d after operation, the animals were killed to get the specimens for gross observation and histologic examination. The change of CH50 level after operation was significantly different between the two groups ( P < 0.05) . The CH50 level was comparatively stable in experimental group. Compared with control group, the local inflammatory reaction was not obvious in experimental group. A great amount of tissue, including big vessels was growing into the mini-pores of Medpor, resulting a close combination between the implant and surrounding tissue. It suggests that ultraviolet irradiation can improve the biocompatibility of Medpor and promote the wound recovery.

  10. Biocompatible optical needle array for antibacterial blue light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Caio; An, Jeesoo; Humar, Matjaz; Goth, Will; Yun, Andy

    2015-03-01

    Biocompatible Optical Needle Array (BONA) is showing to be a powerful tool complementing the novel antibacterial blue light therapy. BONA is able to deliver light to deeper skin tissue layers successfully as shown in experiments. In this study, we will discuss BONA's design, mechanical and optical properties, production method, plus propose improvements to optimize it all. A special skin phantom with photosensitizer was developed in order to investigate how light is delivered inside the tissue. The phantom shows the light scattering pattern through photobleach, allowing us to determine length, thickness and spacing between needles. Other quantitative optical properties as penetration depth were determined using a different phantom (using PDMS). Mechanical properties as needle resistance were determined using one axis of a custom biaxial tensile strain device. The results led us to conclude that besides the great results, there is still room for improvements regarding tip sharpness and manufacturing time and cost, which would be solved with the enhanced fabrication method proposed.

  11. Biodegradability and biocompatibility study of poly(chitosan-g-lactic acid) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Cui, Huifei

    2012-03-14

    A biodegradable, biocompatible poly(chitosan-g-lactic acid) (PCLA) scaffold was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The PCLA scaffold was obtained by grafting lactic acid (LA) onto the amino groups on chitosan (CS) without a catalyst. The PCLA scaffolds were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biodegradabilty was determined by mass loss in vitro, and degradation in vivo as a function of feed ratio of LA/CS. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) culture experiments and histological examination were performed to evaluate the PCLA scaffolds' biocompatibility. The results indicated that PCLA was promising for tissue engineering application.

  12. Mechanical Strength and Biocompatibility of Ultrafine-Grained Commercial Purity Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Estrin, Yuri; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Lapovok, Rimma; Ng, Hoi Pang; Jo, Ji-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The effect of grain refinement of commercial purity titanium by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on its mechanical performance and bone tissue regeneration is reported. In vivo studies conducted on New Zealand white rabbits did not show an enhancement of biocompatibility of ECAP-modified titanium found earlier by in vitro testing. However, the observed combination of outstanding mechanical properties achieved by ECAP without a loss of biocompatibility suggests that this is a very promising processing route to bioimplant manufacturing. The study thus supports the expectation that commercial purity titanium modified by ECAP can be seen as an excellent candidate material for bone implants suitable for replacing conventional titanium alloy implants. PMID:23936857

  13. Evaluation of biocompatibility of polypyrrole in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xioadong; Gu, Xioasong; Yuan, Chunwai; Chen, Shujian; Zhang, Peiyun; Zhang, Tianyi; Yao, Jian; Chen, Fen; Chen, Gang

    2004-03-01

    In this study, the biocompatibility of the electrically conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) with nerve tissue was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The extraction solution of PPy powder, which was synthesized chemically, was tested for acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, pyretogen, quantitative measure of cell viability, hemolysis, allergen, and micronuclei. The PPy membrane was synthesized electrochemically on the indium tin oxide conductive borosilicate glass. The dorsal root ganglia from 1-3-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured above PPy membrane and observed by light or scanning electron microscopy. The PPy-silicone tube (PPy membrane on the inner surface of the silicone tube) also synthesized electrochemically was used to bridge across 10-mm sciatic nerve gap in rats. Twenty-four weeks after the operation to rats, the regenerated tissues were observed by electrophysiological and histological techniques. PPy extraction solution showed no evidence of acute and subacute toxicity, pyretogen, hemolysis, allergen, and mutagenesis, and the Schwann cells from the PPy extraction solution group showed better survival rate and proliferation rate as compared with the saline solution control group. The migration of the Schwann cells and the neurite extension from dorsal root ganglia on the surface of PPy membrane-coated glass was better than those of bare glass. There was only lightly inflammation during 6 months of the postoperation, when the PPy-silicone tube bridged across the gap of the transected sciatic nerve. The regeneration of nerve tissue in the PPy-silicone tube was slightly better than that in the plain silicone tube by means of electrophysiological and histological examination. The results of this study indicate that PPy has a good biocompatibility with rat peripheral nerve tissue and that PPy might be a candidate material for bridging the peripheral nerve gap.

  14. pH influences the biocompatibility of methylene blue solutions.

    PubMed

    Gusman, David Jonathan Rodrigues; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Novaes, Vivian Cristina Noronha; Matheus, Henrique Rinaldi; de Araujo, Nathália Januario; de Almeida, Juliano Milanezi

    2017-05-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of methylene blue at different pH levels through the method of implantation in subcutaneous tissue. Eighty-four sterilized polyethylene tubes were allocated in the subcutaneous tissue of 28 rats, each one receiving four tubes, set into four groups: group tube (G-T)-empty tube, fibrin group (G-F)-tube filled with fibrin sponge, group methylene blue pH 7 (G-MB/pH 7)-tube filled with fibrin sponge soaked by methylene blue (100 μg/ml) at pH 7.0, and group methylene blue pH 1 (G-MB/pH 1)-tube filled with fibrin sponge and soaked by methylene blue (100 μg/ml) at pH 1.0. After 7, 15, and 30 days, seven animals from each group were euthanized, and the tubes involved by the surrounding tissue were removed and fixed with 4% buffered formaldehyde solution. The collected pieces were processed and histological sections (4 μm) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. Scores were assigned to analysis of histopathologic parameters. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (p ≤ 0.05). At 7 and 30 days, the G-MB/pH 1 group showed no significant difference in the G-T control group, while G-MB/pH 7 had a significant increase on tissue reaction, also when compared to G-T. At 15 days, there was no statistical difference between the groups. Within the limits of this study, it is concluded that methylene blue at pH 1.0 provides better biocompatibility than at pH 7.0.

  15. Biocompatibility of Subcutaneously Implanted Plant-Derived Cellulose Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Pelling, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel biomaterials which support the invasion and proliferation of living cells for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Decellularization of existing tissues have formed the basis of one major approach to producing 3D scaffolds for such purposes. In this study, we utilize the native hypanthium tissue of apples and a simple preparation methodology to create implantable cellulose scaffolds. To examine biocompatibility, scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in wild-type, immunocompetent mice (males and females; 6–9 weeks old). Following the implantation, the scaffolds were resected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and processed for histological analysis (H&E, Masson’s Trichrome, anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies). Histological analysis revealed a characteristic foreign body response to the scaffold 1 week post-implantation. However, the immune response was observed to gradually disappear by 8 weeks post-implantation. By 8 weeks, there was no immune response in the surrounding dermis tissue and active fibroblast migration within the cellulose scaffold was observed. This was concomitant with the deposition of a new collagen extracellular matrix. Furthermore, active blood vessel formation within the scaffold was observed throughout the period of study indicating the pro-angiogenic properties of the native scaffolds. Finally, while the scaffolds retain much of their original shape they do undergo a slow deformation over the 8-week length of the study. Taken together, our results demonstrate that native cellulose scaffolds are biocompatible and exhibit promising potential as a surgical biomaterial. PMID:27328066

  16. Biocompatibility of reduced graphene oxide nanoscaffolds following acute spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Palejwala, Ali H.; Fridley, Jared S.; Mata, Javier A.; Samuel, Errol L. G.; Luerssen, Thomas G.; Perlaky, Laszlo; Kent, Thomas A.; Tour, James M.; Jea, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: Graphene has unique electrical, physical, and chemical properties that may have great potential as a bioscaffold for neuronal regeneration after spinal cord injury. These nanoscaffolds have previously been shown to be biocompatible in vitro; in the present study, we wished to evaluate its biocompatibility in an in vivo spinal cord injury model. Methods: Graphene nanoscaffolds were prepared by the mild chemical reduction of graphene oxide. Twenty Wistar rats (19 male and 1 female) underwent hemispinal cord transection at approximately the T2 level. To bridge the lesion, graphene nanoscaffolds with a hydrogel were implanted immediately after spinal cord transection. Control animals were treated with hydrogel matrix alone. Histologic evaluation was performed 3 months after the spinal cord transection to assess in vivo biocompatibility of graphene and to measure the ingrowth of tissue elements adjacent to the graphene nanoscaffold. Results: The graphene nanoscaffolds adhered well to the spinal cord tissue. There was no area of pseudocyst around the scaffolds suggestive of cytotoxicity. Instead, histological evaluation showed an ingrowth of connective tissue elements, blood vessels, neurofilaments, and Schwann cells around the graphene nanoscaffolds. Conclusions: Graphene is a nanomaterial that is biocompatible with neurons and may have significant biomedical application. It may provide a scaffold for the ingrowth of regenerating axons after spinal cord injury. PMID:27625885

  17. Biocompatible composites of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Suan, T. Nguen; Ivanova, L. P.; Korchagin, M. A.; Chaikina, M. V.; Shilko, S. V.; Pleskachevskiy, Yu. M.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical and tribotechnical characteristics of biocompatible, antifriction and extrudable composites based on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) as well as hybrid matrix "UHMWPE + PTFE" with biocompatible hydroxyapatite filler under the dry friction and boundary lubrication were investigated. A comparative analysis of effectiveness of adding the hydroxyapatite to improve the wear resistance of composites based on these two matrices was performed. It is shown that the wear intensity of nanocomposites based on the hybrid matrix is lower than that for the composites based on pure UHMWPE. Possibilities of using the composites of the polymer "UHMWPE-PTFE" mixture as a material for artificial joints implants are discussed.

  18. Biocompatibility of glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Iz, Sultan Gulce; Ertugrul, Fahinur; Eden, Ece; Gurhan, S. Ismet Deliloglu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the biocompatibility of glass ionomer cements (GICs) with and without chlorhexidine (CHX) as well as coated with varnish or not using in vitro cytotoxicity test. Materials and Methods: Biocompatibility of Fuji IX, Fuji IX with varnish, Fuji IX with 1% CHX diacetate and Fuji IX with 1% CHX diacetate with varnish was determined with in vitro cytotoxicity assay by using L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblasts. After 72 h, cell viabilities were evaluated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay to determine the effects of the cements on the mitochondrial function and microscopic images were taken by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test at a significance level of P < 0.05. 72 h after treatment, there were statistically significant differences between Fuji IX and Fuji IX-CHX (P < 0.001). In addition, the reduction of the cytotoxicity by coating the GICs with varnish was indicative and increased the cell viability ratio (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Fuji IX coated with varnish was found to be the most biocompatible one among others. Thus adding CHX significantly reduced the cell viability, it is assumed that, due to the leakage of CHX and the other components of the GICs to the cell culture medium, the cell viabilities were decreased, so it is highly recommended to use varnish not only to reduce the water loss from the GICs, but also to reduce the cytotoxicity of the GICs. PMID:24966735

  19. Biocompatibility of dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Geurtsen, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Most cast dental restorations are made from alloys or commercially pure titanium (cpTi). Many orthodontic appliances are also fabricated from metallic materials. It has been documented in vitro and in vivo that metallic dental devices release metal ions, mainly due to corrosion. Those metallic components may be locally and systemically distributed and could play a role in the etiology of oral and systemic pathological conditions. The quality and quantity of the released cations depend upon the type of alloy and various corrosion parameters. No general correlation has been observed between alloy nobility and corrosion. However, it has been documented that some Ni-based alloys, such as beryllium-containing Ni alloys, exhibit increased corrosion, specifically at low pH. Further, microparticles are abraded from metallic restorations due to wear. In sufficient quantities, released metal ions-particularly Cu, Ni, Be, and abraded microparticles-can also induce inflammation of the adjacent periodontal tissues and the oral mucosa. While there is also some in vitro evidence that the immune response can be altered by various metal ions, the role of these ions in oral inflammatory diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis is unknown. Allergic reactions due to metallic dental restorations have been documented. Ni has especially been identified as being highly allergenic. Interestingly, from 34% to 65.5% of the patients who are allergic to Ni are also allergic to Pd. Further, Pd allergy always occurrs with Ni sensitivity. In contrast, no study has been published which supports the hypothesis that dental metallic materials are mutagenic/genotoxic or might be a carcinogenic hazard to man. Taken together, very contradictory data have been documented regarding the local and systemic effects of dental casting alloys and metallic ions released from them. Therefore, it is of critical importance to elucidate the release of cations from metallic dental restorations in the oral

  20. Biocompatibility of metal injection molded versus wrought ASTM F562 (MP35N) and ASTM F1537 (CCM) cobalt alloys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Sago, Alan; West, Shari; Farina, Jeff; Eckert, John; Broadley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis between biocompatibility test results of wrought and Metal Injection Molded (MIM) ASTM F562-02 UNS R30035 (MP35N) and F1537 UNS R31538 (CCM) alloy samples that have undergone the same generic orthopedic implant's mechanical, chemical surface pre-treatment, and a designed pre-testing sample preparation method. Because the biocompatibility properties resulting from this new MIM cobalt alloy process are not well understood, we conducted tests to evaluate cytotoxicity (in vitro), hemolysis (in vitro), toxicity effects (in vivo), tissue irritation level (in vivo), and pyrogenicity count (in vitro) on such samples. We show that our developed MIM MP35N and CCM materials and treatment processes are biocompatible, and that both the MIM and wrought samples, although somewhat different in microstructure and surface, do not show significant differences in biocompatibility.

  1. Hydrophilic polymers--biocompatibility testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kejlová, K; Labský, J; Jírová, D; Bendová, H

    2005-10-01

    Biocompatibility is one of the main prerequisites for safe use of medical devices. Estimation of cytotoxicity is a part of the initial evaluation laid down in ISO standards on biological evaluation of medical devices. Hydrophilic polymers (based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate HEMA) doped by addition of selected additives with antioxidant and/or free radical scavenging potential (vitamin C and hindered amine stabilizer N-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl)methacrylamide) were tested in different in vitro systems (3T3 Balb/c cell culture and a 3D human skin model) for biocompatibility and suitability for use as wound dressings. The results of the 3T3 NRU cytotoxicity test using both the direct and indirect contact approaches and a 3D skin model modified irritation test (EpiDerm) confirmed high biocompatibility and good skin tolerance of both the basic polymers and those enriched with specific additives up to a balanced level. HEMA polymer showed a beneficial effect against cytotoxicity of an irritant (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The in vitro biocompatibility test results were confirmed by human local skin tolerance testing.

  2. Preparation of small bio-compatible microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such a hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  3. Biocompatible silk-conducting polymer composite trilayer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengel, Carly V.; Bradshaw, Nathan P.; Severt, Sean Y.; Murphy, Amanda R.; Leger, Janelle M.

    2017-05-01

    Biocompatible materials capable of controlled actuation are in high demand for use in biomedical applications such as dynamic tissue scaffolding, valves, and steerable surgical tools. Conducting polymer actuators are of interest because they operate in aqueous electrolytes at low voltages and can generate stresses similar to natural muscle. Recently, our group has demonstrated a composite material of silk and poly(pyrrole) (PPy) that is mechanically robust, made from biocompatible materials, and bends under an applied voltage when incorporated into a simple bilayer device architecture and actuated using a biologically relevant electrolyte. Here we present trilayer devices composed of two silk-PPy composite layers separated by an insulating silk layer. The trilayer architecture allows one side to expand while the other contracts, resulting in improved performance over bilayer devices. Specifically, this configuration shows a larger angle of deflection per volt applied than the analogous bilayer system, while maintaining a consistent current response throughout cycling. In addition, the overall motion of the trilayer devices is more symmetric than that of the bilayer analogs, allowing for fully reversible operation.

  4. Biocompatibility of supercritical CO2-treated titanium implants in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hill, C M; Kang, Q K; Wahl, C; Jimenez, A; Laberge, M; Drews, M; Matthews, M A; An, Y H

    2006-04-01

    Supercritical phase CO2 is a promising method for sterilizing implantable devices and tissue grafts. The goal of this study is to evaluate the biocompatibility of titanium implants sterilized by supercritical phase CO2 in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. At 5 weeks post implantation titanium implants sterilized by supercritical phase CO2 produce a soft tissue reaction that is comparable to other methods of sterilization (steam autoclave, ultraviolet light radiation, ethylene oxide gas, and radio-frequency glow-discharge), as indicated by the thickness and density of the foreign body capsule, although there were some differences on the capillary density. Overall the soft tissue response to the implants was similar among all methods of sterilization, indicating supercritical phase CO2 treatment did not compromise the biocompatibility of the titanium implant.

  5. Sutureless closure of scleral wounds in animal models by the use of laser welded biocompatible patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Pini, Roberto

    2011-03-01

    The common procedures used to seal the scleral or conjunctival injuries are based on the traditional suturing techniques, that may induce foreign body reaction during the follow up, with subsequent inflammation and distress for the patient. In this work we present an experimental study on the laser welding of biocompatible patches onto ocular tissues, for the closure of surgical or trauma wounds. The study was performed ex vivo in animal models (porcine eyes). A penetrating perforation of the ocular tissue was performed with a surgical knife. The wound walls were approximated, and a biocompatible patch was put onto the outer surface of the tissue, in order to completely cover the wound as a plaster. The patches were prepared with a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, showing high mechanical strength, good elasticity, high permeability for vapour and gases and rather low biodegradation. During preparation, Indocyanine Green (ICG) was included in the biopolymeric matrix, so that the films presented high absorption at 810 nm. Effective adhesion of the membranes to the ocular tissues was obtained by using diode laser light emitted from an 810 nm diode laser and delivered by means of a 300 μm core diameter optical fiber, to produce spots of local film/tissue adhesion, due to the photothermal effect at the interface. The result is an immediate closure of the wound, thus reducing post-operative complications due to inflammation.

  6. Thin film of biocompatible polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Ludovic; Lavalle, Philippe; Schaaf, Pierre; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Picart, Catherine

    2003-03-01

    The layer-by-layer deposition method proposed by Decher et al. (1991) is a very simple and versatile method used to build thin films. These films are of interest for bioengineering because of their unique properties and of the possible insertion of bioactive molecules. We present here the peculiar properties of a new kind of film formed with natural biopolymers, namely hyaluronan (HA)and chitosan (CHI). The films may be used as biomimetic substrates to control bacterial and cell adhesion. These polysaccharides are of particular interest because they are biodegradable, non toxic, and can be found in various tissues. Hyaluronan is also a natural ligand for a numerous type of cells through the CD44 receptor. Chitosan has already largely been used for its biological and anti-microbial properties. (CHI/HA) films were built in acidic pH at different ionic strength. The buildup was followed in situ by optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS), quartz crystal microbalance, streaming potential measurements and atomic force microscopy. The kinetics of adsorption and desorption of the polyelectrolytes depended on the ionic strength. Small islands were initially present on the surface which grew by mutual coalescence until becoming a flat film. The films were around 200 nm in thickness. These results suggest that different types of thin films constituted of polysaccharides can be built on any type of surface. These films are currently investigated toward their cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion properties.

  7. Biocompatibility and surface structure of chemically modified immunoisolating alginate-PLL capsules.

    PubMed

    Bünger, C M; Gerlach, C; Freier, T; Schmitz, K P; Pilz, M; Werner, C; Jonas, L; Schareck, W; Hopt, U T; de Vos, P

    2003-12-15

    Grafting of encapsulated living cells has the potential to cure a wide variety of diseases. Large-scale application of the technique, however, is hampered by insufficient biocompatibility of the capsules. A major factor in the biocompatibility of capsules is inadequate covering of the inflammatory poly-L-lysine (PLL) on the capsules' surface. In the present study, we investigate whether tissue responses against alginate-PLL capsules can be reduced by crosslinking the surface of the capsules with heparin or polyacrylic acid. Our transplant study in rats shows a tissue response composed of fibroblasts and macrophages on alginate-PLL-alginate and alginate-PLL-heparin capsules that was completely absent on alginate-PLL-polyacrylic acid capsules. Atomic force microscopy analyses of the capsules demonstrates that the improved biocompatibility of alginate-PLL-capsules by polyacrylic acid coating should not only be explained by a more adequate binding of PLL but also by the induction of a smoother surface. This study shows for the first time that biologic responses against capsules can be successfully deleted by chemically crosslinking biocompatible molecules on the surface of alginate-PLL capsules. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 1219-1227, 2003

  8. A review of biocompatible metal injection moulding process parameters for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, M F F A; Harun, W S W; Samykano, M; Ghani, S A C; Ghazalli, Z; Ahmad, F; Sulong, A B

    2017-09-01

    Biocompatible metals have been revolutionizing the biomedical field, predominantly in human implant applications, where these metals widely used as a substitute to or as function restoration of degenerated tissues or organs. Powder metallurgy techniques, in specific the metal injection moulding (MIM) process, have been employed for the fabrication of controlled porous structures used for dental and orthopaedic surgical implants. The porous metal implant allows bony tissue ingrowth on the implant surface, thereby enhancing fixation and recovery. This paper elaborates a systematic classification of various biocompatible metals from the aspect of MIM process as used in medical industries. In this study, three biocompatible metals are reviewed-stainless steels, cobalt alloys, and titanium alloys. The applications of MIM technology in biomedicine focusing primarily on the MIM process setting parameters discussed thoroughly. This paper should be of value to investigators who are interested in state of the art of metal powder metallurgy, particularly the MIM technology for biocompatible metal implant design and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biofabrication of a novel biomolecule-assisted reduced graphene oxide: an excellent biocompatible nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    Graphene has been shown much interest, both in academics and industry due to its extraordinary physical, chemical, and biological proprieties. It shows great promises in biotechnological and biomedical applications as an antibacterial and anticancer agent, nanocarrier, sensor, etc. However, many studies demonstrated the toxicity of graphene in several cell lines, which is an obstacle to its use in biomedical applications. In this study, to improve the biocompatibility of graphene, we used nicotinamide (NAM) as a reducing and stabilizing agent to catalyze the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The resulted smaller-sized GO (NAM-rGO) showed excellent biocompatibility with mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, evidenced by various cellular assays. Furthermore, NAM-rGO had no effect on mitochondrial membrane permeability and caspase-3 activity compared to GO. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis allowed us to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for NAM-rGO-induced biocompatibility. NAM-rGO significantly induced the expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins (TJPs) such as zona occludens-1 (Tjp1) and claudins (Cldn3) without any effect on the expression of cytoskeleton proteins. Furthermore, NAM-rGO enhances the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene, and it does this in a time-dependent manner. Overall, our study depicted the molecular mechanisms underlying NAM-rGO biocompatibility depending on upregulation of TJPs and ALP. This potential quality of graphene could be used in diverse applications including tissue regeneration and tissue engineering.

  10. Biofabrication of a novel biomolecule-assisted reduced graphene oxide: an excellent biocompatible nanomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has been shown much interest, both in academics and industry due to its extraordinary physical, chemical, and biological proprieties. It shows great promises in biotechnological and biomedical applications as an antibacterial and anticancer agent, nanocarrier, sensor, etc. However, many studies demonstrated the toxicity of graphene in several cell lines, which is an obstacle to its use in biomedical applications. In this study, to improve the biocompatibility of graphene, we used nicotinamide (NAM) as a reducing and stabilizing agent to catalyze the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The resulted smaller-sized GO (NAM-rGO) showed excellent biocompatibility with mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, evidenced by various cellular assays. Furthermore, NAM-rGO had no effect on mitochondrial membrane permeability and caspase-3 activity compared to GO. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis allowed us to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for NAM-rGO-induced biocompatibility. NAM-rGO significantly induced the expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins (TJPs) such as zona occludens-1 (Tjp1) and claudins (Cldn3) without any effect on the expression of cytoskeleton proteins. Furthermore, NAM-rGO enhances the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene, and it does this in a time-dependent manner. Overall, our study depicted the molecular mechanisms underlying NAM-rGO biocompatibility depending on upregulation of TJPs and ALP. This potential quality of graphene could be used in diverse applications including tissue regeneration and tissue engineering. PMID:27994461

  11. Physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility of alginate-polycation microcapsules designed for islet transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Susan Kimberly

    Microencapsulation represents a method for immunoprotecting transplanted therapeutic cells or tissues from graft rejection using a physical barrier. This approach is advantageous in that it eliminates the need to induce long-term immunosuppression and allows the option of transplanting non-cadaveric cell sources, such as animal cells and stem cell-derived tissues. The microcapsules that we have investigated are designed to immunoprotect islets of Langerhans (i.e. clusters of insulin-secreting cells), with the goal of treating insulin-dependent diabetes. With the aid of techniques for physicochemical analysis, this research focused on understanding which properties of the microcapsule are the most important for determining its biocompatibility. The objective of this work was to elucidate correlations between the chemical make-up, physicochemical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of alginate-based microcapsules. Our approach was based on the hypothesis that the immune response to the microcapsules is governed by, and can therefore be controlled by, specific physicochemical properties of the microcapsule and its material components. The experimental work was divided into five phases, each associated with a specific aim : (1) To prove that immunoglobulins adsorb to the surface of alginate-polycation microcapsules, and to correlate this adsorption with the microcapsule chemistry. (2) To test interlaboratory reproducibility in making biocompatible microcapsules, and evaluate the suitability of our materials and fabrication protocols for subsequent studies. (3) To determine which physicochemical properties of alginates affect the in vivo biocompatibility of their gels. (4) To determine which physiochemical properties of alginate-polycation microcapsules are most important for determining their in vivo biocompatibility (5) To determine whether a modestly immunogenic membrane hinders or helps the ability of the microcapsule to immunoprotect islet xenografts in

  12. Vertically, interconnected carbon nanowalls as biocompatible scaffolds for osteoblast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Raluca; Vizireanu, Sorin; Luculescu, Catalin; Cimpean, Anisoara; Dinescu, Gheorghe

    2016-07-01

    The response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts to vertically aligned, interconnected carbon nanowalls prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrate has been evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, viability and cell proliferation. The behavior of osteoblasts seeded on carbon nanowalls was analyzed in parallel and compared with the behavior of the cells maintained in contact with tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The results demonstrate that osteoblasts adhere and remain viable in the long term on carbon nanowalls. Moreover, on the investigated scaffold cell proliferation was significantly promoted, although to a lower extent than on TCPS. Overall, the successful culture of osteoblasts on carbon nanowalls coated substrate confirms the biocompatibility of this scaffold, which could have potential applications in the development of orthopedic biomaterials.

  13. Biodegradation and biocompatibility of a degradable chitosan vascular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiaoying; Xu, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    An instrument made by ourselves was used to fabricate biodegradable chitosan-heparin artificial vascular prosthesis with small internal diameter (2 mm) and different crosslinking degree from biodegradable chitosan, chitosan derivates and heparin. In vivo and in vitro degradation studies, inflammatory analysis and electron microscope scanning of this artificial vascular prosthesis were performed. It was observed that 50% of the prosthesis decomposed in vivo and was replaced by natural tissues. The degradation process of the chitosan-heparin artificial vascular prosthesis of small diameter could be controlled by changing the crosslinking degree. This kind of artificial vascular prosthesis shows good biocompatibility that can be controllability designed to achieve desirable in vascular replacement application. PMID:26064241

  14. Biocompatibility of phosphorylcholine coated stents in normal porcine coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, D; van der Giessen, W J; Krabbendam, S; van Vliet, E A; Verdouw, P; Serruys, P; van Beusekom, H M M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To improve the biocompatibility of stents using a phosphorylcholine coated stent as a form of biomimicry.
INTERVENTIONS—Implantation of phosphorylcholine coated (n = 20) and non-coated (n = 21) stents was performed in the coronary arteries of 25 pigs. The animals were killed after five days (n = 6), four weeks (n = 7), and 12 weeks (n = 8), and the vessels harvested for histology, scanning electron microscopy, and morphometry.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Stent performance was assessed by studying early endothelialisation, neointima formation, and vessel wall reaction to the synthetic coating.
RESULTS—Stent thrombosis did not occur in either group. Morphometry showed no significant differences between the two study groups at any time point. At five days both the coated and non-coated stents were equally well endothelialised (91% v 92%, respectively). At four and 12 weeks there was no difference in intimal thickness between the coated and non-coated stents. Up to 12 weeks postimplant the phosphorylcholine coating was still discernible in the stent strut voids, and did not appear to elicit an adverse inflammatory response.
CONCLUSION—In this animal model the phosphorylcholine coating showed excellent blood and tissue compatibility, unlike a number of other polymers tested in a similar setting. Given that the coating was present up to 12 weeks postimplant with no adverse tissue reaction, it may be a potential candidate polymer for local drug delivery.


Keywords: phosphorylcholine; stents; coatings; biocompatible materials PMID:10677417

  15. Biocompatibility of a new pulp capping cement

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Dagna, Alberto; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new pulp capping material (Biodentine, Septodont) compared with reference pulp capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) and MTA-Angelus (Angelus) by using murine odontoblast cell line and Alamar blue and MTT cytotoxicity tests. Methods The citocompatibility of murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) were evaluated at different times using a 24 Transwell culture plate by Alamar blue test and MTT assay. Results The results were significantly different among the pulp capping materials tested. Biocompatibility was significant different among materials with different composition. Conclusions Biodentine and MTA-based products show lower cytotoxicity varying from calcium hydroxide-based material which present higher citotoxicity. PMID:25002921

  16. Morphological Analysis of Biocompatibility of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells with Synthetic Polyethylene Terephthalate Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Gilevich, I V; Polyakov, I S; Porkhanov, V A; Chekhonin, V P

    2017-07-01

    We studied the properties of a tissue-engineered trachea consisting of a polyethylene terephthalate scaffold populated with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells. The tissue-engineered constructs were obtained before surgery, during the postoperative period, and during autopsy. Cytomorphological analysis during the postoperative period showed the presence of mesenchymal stem cells on the inner surface of the implant on day 3 after surgery and cells of the respiratory epithelium on day 10-14. In autopsy samples, single epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and basal cells were found. Biocompatibility of the tissue-engineered trachea with autologous mononuclear cells of the patient was demonstrated.

  17. Biocompatible Ferromagnetic Cr-Trihalide Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang

    Cr with an electronic configuration of 3d54s1 possesses the largest atomic magnetic moment (6µB) of all elements in the 3d transition metal series. Furthermore, the trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is biocompatible and is widely found in food and supplements. Here using first principles calculations combined with Monte Carlo simulations based on Ising model, we systematically study a class of 2D ferromagnetic monolayers CrX3 (X = Cl, Br, I). The feasibility of exfoliation from their layered bulk phase is confirmed by the small cleavage energy and high in-plane stiffness. Spin-polarized calculations, combined with self consistently determined Hubbard U that accounts for strong correlation energy, demonstrate that CrX3 (X =Cl, Br, I) monolayers are ferromagnetic and Cr is trivalent and carries a magnetic moment of 3µB, the resulting Cr3+ ions are biocompatible. The corresponding Curie temperatures for CrCl3 CrBr3 CrI3 are are found to 66, 86, and 107 K, respectively, which can be increased to 323, 314, 293 K by hole doping. The biocompatibility and ferromagnetism render these Cr-containing trichalcogenide monolayers unique for applications.

  18. An effective and biocompatible antibiofilm coating for central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Silva Paes Leme, Annelisa Farah; Ferreira, Aline Siqueira; Alves, Fernanda Aparecida Oliveira; de Azevedo, Bruna Martinho; de Bretas, Liza Porcaro; Farias, Rogerio Estevam; Oliveira, Murilo Gomes; Raposo, Nádia Rezende Barbosa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy and the tissue reaction of an antibiofilm coating composed of xylitol, triclosan, and polyhexamethylene biguanide. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed by a turbidimetric method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the antiadherent property of central venous catheter (CVC) fragments impregnated with an antibiofilm coating (I-CVC) in comparison with noncoated CVC (NC-CVC) fragments. Two in vivo assays using subcutaneous implantation of NC-CVC and I-CVC fragments in the dorsal area of rats were performed. The first assay comprised hematological and microbiological analysis. The second assay evaluated tissue response by examining the inflammatory reactions after 7 and 21 days. The formulation displayed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. A biofilm disaggregation with significant reduction of microorganism's adherence in I-CVC fragments was observed. In vivo antiadherence results demonstrated a reduction of early biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, mainly in an external surface of the I-CVC, in comparison with the NC-CVC. All animals displayed negative hemoculture. No significant tissue reaction was observed, indicating that the antibiofilm formulation could be considered biocompatible. The use of I-CVC could decrease the probability of development of localized or systemic infections.

  19. New injectable elastomeric biomaterials for hernia repair and their biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Skrobot, J; Zair, L; Ostrowski, M; El Fray, M

    2016-01-01

    Complications associated with implantation of polymeric hernia meshes remain a difficult surgical challenge. We report here on our work, developing for the first time, an injectable viscous material that can be converted to a solid and elastic implant in vivo, thus successfully closing herniated tissue. In this study, long-chain fatty acids were used for the preparation of telechelic macromonomers end-capped with methacrylic functionalities to provide UV curable systems possessing high biocompatibility, good mechanical strength and flexibility. Two different systems, comprising urethane and ester bonds, were synthesized from non-toxic raw materials and then subjected to UV curing after injection of viscous material into the cavity at the abdominal wall during hernioplasty in a rabbit hernia model. No additional fixation or sutures were required. The control group of animals was treated with commercially available polypropylene hernia mesh. The observation period lasted for 28 days. We show here that artificially fabricated defect was healed and no reherniation was observed in the case of the fatty acid derived materials. Importantly, the number of inflammatory cells found in the surrounding tissue was comparable to these found around the standard polypropylene mesh. No inflammatory cells were detected in connective tissues and no sign of necrosis has been observed. Collectively, our results demonstrated that new injectable and photocurable systems can be used for minimally invasive surgical protocols in repair of small hernia defects.

  20. Biocompatibility and degradation of tendon-derived scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Kyle A.; Xu, Qiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Decellularized extracellular matrix has often been used as a biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. Its function, once implanted can be crucial to determining whether a tissue engineered construct will be successful, both in terms of how the material breaks down, and how the body reacts to the material’s presence in the first place. Collagen is one of the primary components of extracellular matrix and has been used for a number of biomedical applications. Scaffolds comprised of highly aligned collagen fibrils can be fabricated directly from decellularized tendon using a slicing, stacking, and rolling technique, to create two- and three-dimensional constructs. Here, the degradation characteristics of the material are evaluated in vitro, showing that chemical crosslinking can reduce degradation while maintaining fiber structure. In vivo, non-crosslinked and crosslinked samples are implanted, and their biological response and degradation evaluated through histological sectioning, trichrome staining, and immunohistochemical staining for macrophages. Non-crosslinked samples are rapidly degraded and lose fiber morphology while crosslinked samples retain both macroscopic structure as well as fiber orientation. The cellular response of both materials is also investigated. The in vivo response demonstrates that the decellularized tendon material is biocompatible, biodegradable and can be crosslinked to maintain surface features for extended periods of time in vivo. This study provides material characteristics for the use of decellularized tendon as biomaterial for tissue engineering. PMID:26816651

  1. Biocompatibility of biomaterials - Lessons learned and considerations for the design of novel materials.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Gottfried; Galler, Kerstin M

    2017-04-01

    Biocompatibility of dental materials has gained increasing interest during recent decades. Meanwhile, legal regulations and standard test procedures are available to evaluate biocompatibility. Herein, these developments will be exemplarily outlined and some considerations for the development of novel materials will be provided. Different aspects including test selection, release of substances, barriers, tissue healing, antibacterial substances, nanoparticles and environmental aspects will be covered. The provided information is mainly based on a review of the relevant literature in international peer reviewed journals, on regulatory documents and on ISO standards. Today, a structured and systematic approach for demonstrating biocompatibility from both a scientific and regulatory point of view is based on a clinical risk assessment in an early stage of material development. This includes the analysis of eluted substances and relevant barriers like dentin or epithelium. ISO standards 14971, 10993, and 7405 specify the modes for clinical risk assessment, test selection and test performance. In contact with breached tissues, materials must not impair the healing process. Antibacterial effects should be based on timely controllable substances or on repellant surfaces. Nanoparticles are produced by intraoral grinding irrespective of the content of nanoparticles in the material, but apparently at low concentrations. Concerns regarding environmental aspects of mercury from amalgam can be met by amalgam separating devices. The status for other materials (e.g. bisphenol-A in resin composites) needs to be evaluated. Finally, the public interest for biocompatibility issues calls for a suitable strategy of risk communication. A wise use of the new tools, especially the clinical risk assessment should aim at preventing the patients, professionals and the environment from harm but should not block the development of novel materials. However, biocompatibility must always be

  2. The Biocompatibility and Bioactivity of Biodentine in Contact with Cementoblast Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-18

    a Novel Root Repair Material. J Endod 2013; 39: 478-483. [10] De Rossi A, Silva LAB, Gaton-Hernandez P, Sousa-Neto MD, Nelson-Filho P, Silva RAB...1362-9. [11] Mori GG; Teixeira LM; de Oliveira DL; Jacomini LM; da Silva SR. Biocompatibility evaluation of Biodentine in subcutaneous tissue of... Silva FW, Faccioli LH, Gaton-Hernandez PM, De Rossi A, Silva LA. Expression of Mineralization Markers during Pulp Response to Biodentine and Mineral

  3. The Biocompatibility of Porous vs Non-Porous Bone Cements: A New Methodological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oca, C.; Maluta, T.; Cavani, F.; Morbioli, G.P.; Bernardi, P.; Sbarbati, A.; Degl’Innocenti, D.; Magnan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Composite cements have been shown to be biocompatible, bioactive, with good mechanical properties and capability to bind to the bone. Despite these interesting characteristic, in vivo studies on animal models are still incomplete and ultrastructural data are lacking. The acquisition of new ultrastructural data is hampered by uncertainties in the methods of preparation of histological samples due to the use of resins that melt methacrylate present in bone cement composition. A new porous acrylic cement composed of polymethyl-metacrylate (PMMA) and β-tricalcium-phosphate (p-TCP) was developed and tested on an animal model. The cement was implanted in femurs of 8 New Zealand White rabbits, which were observed for 8 weeks before their sacrifice. Histological samples were prepared with an infiltration process of LR white resin and then the specimens were studied by X-rays, histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a control, an acrylic standard cement, commonly used in clinical procedures, was chosen. Radiographic ultrastructural and histological exams have allowed finding an excellent biocompatibility of the new porous cement. The high degree of osteointegration was demonstrated by growth of neo-created bone tissue inside the cement sample. Local or systemic toxicity signs were not detected. The present work shows that the proposed procedure for the evaluation of biocompatibility, based on the use of LR white resin allows to make a thorough and objective assessment of the biocompatibility of porous and non-porous bone cements. PMID:24998920

  4. Metallic dental material biocompatibility in osteoblastlike cells: correlation with metal ion release.

    PubMed

    Cortizo, María C; De Mele, Mónica Fernández L; Cortizo, Ana M

    2004-08-01

    Ions released from metallic dental materials used in orthodontic appliances could induce undesirable effects on cells and tissues. This study evaluates the biocompatibility of two of the most labile components of metallic dental alloys on osteoblastlike cells. The influence of protein and ions on metal dissolution properties is also investigated using different electrolyte solutions. Morphological alterations, cell growth, and differentiation of osteoblasts were assessed after exposure to pure metals (Ag, Cu, Pd, Au) and Ni-Ti alloy and correlated with the kinetics of elements released into the culture media. Results showed that Cu and Ag were the most cytotoxic elements and the other metals were biocompatible with the osteoblasts. The parameters of biocompatibility were correlated with the levels of ions detected into the culture media. Metal ions induced cell death through early mitosis arrest, apoptotic phenomena, and necrotic processes. Voltammograms showed that anions and proteins interfered in the corrosion process. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) strongly affected the electrochemical process, decreasing the oxidation rate of the metals. In conclusion, copper and silver ions showed a time-dependent low biocompatibility, which correlated with the concentration of released ions. The dissolution of the metallic materials was dependent on the composition of the simulated biological media.

  5. In vitro biocompatibility evaluations of hyperbranched polyglycerol hybrid nanostructure as a candidate for nanomedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Zarrabi, Ali; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Farokhi, Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, a detailed biocompatibility testing of a novel class of hybrid nanostructure based on hyperbranched polyglycerol and β-cyclodextrin is conducted. This highly water soluble nanostructure with size of less than 10 nm, polydispersity of less than 1.3, chemical tenability and highly branched architecture with the control over branching structure could be potentially used as a carrier in drug delivery systems. To this end, extensive studies in vitro and in vivo conditions have to be demonstrated. The in vitro studies include in vitro cytotoxicity tests; MTT and Neutral Red assay as an indicator of mitochondrial and lysosomal function, and blood biocompatibility tests such as effects on coagulation cascade, and complement activation. The results show that these hybrid nanostructures, which can be prepared in a simple reaction, are considerably biocompatible. The in vivo studies showed that the hybrid nanostructure is well tolerated by rats even in high doses of 10 mg ml(-1). After autopsy, the normal structure of liver tissue was observed; which divulges high biocompatibility and their potential applications as drug delivery and nanomedicine.

  6. The biocompatibility of calcium phosphate cements containing alendronate-loaded PLGA microparticles in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Wei; Ding, Chang-Wei; Zhang, Hao-Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The composite of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are currently widely used in bone tissue engineering. However, the properties and biocompatibility of the alendronate-loaded PLGA/CPC (APC) porous scaffolds have not been characterized. APC scaffolds were prepared by a solid/oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The morphology, porosity, and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were characterized. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from rabbit were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffolds, and the cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, cell cycle and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs were determined. The results showed that the APC scaffolds had a porosity of 67.43 ± 4.2% and pore size of 213 ± 95 µm. The compressive strength for APC was 5.79 ± 1.21 MPa, which was close to human cancellous bone. The scanning electron microscopy, cell counting kit-8 assay, flow cytometry and ALP activity revealed that the APC scaffolds had osteogenic potential on the BMSCs in vitro and exhibited excellent biocompatibility with engineered bone tissue. APC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis potential and can potentially be used for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25877763

  7. Multifunctional biocompatible coatings on magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkova, A. V.; Sorokina, O. N.; Rosenfeld, M. A.; Kovarski, A. L.

    2012-11-01

    Methods for coating formation on magnetic nanoparticles used in biology and medicine are considered. Key requirements to the coatings are formulated, namely, biocompatibility, stability, the possibility of attachment of pharmaceutical agents, and the absence of toxicity. The behaviour of nanoparticle/coating nanosystems in the body including penetration through cellular membranes and the excretion rates and routes is analyzed. Parameters characterizing the magnetic properties of these systems and their magnetic controllability are described. Factors limiting the applications of magnetically controlled nanosystems for targeted drug delivery are discussed. The bibliography includes 405 references.

  8. Biocompatibility of Intracanal Medications Based on Calcium Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Andolfatto, Carolina; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Cornélio, Ana Livia Gomes; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Faria, Gisele; Bonetti-Filho, Idomeo; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Polyethylene tubes filled with one of the medicaments were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous. After 7 and 30 days, the implants were removed and the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Morphological and quantitative analyses were carried out in the HE-stained sections. The numerical density of inflammatory cells in the capsule was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed (P ≤ 0.05). Results. At 7 days, all materials induced an inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the implants. In all groups, a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and giant cells was verified in the period of 30 days. Conclusion. These results indicate that the calcium hydroxide-based medicaments evaluated present biocompatibility similar to Calen. PMID:23320187

  9. Readability and histological biocompatibility of microchip transponders in horses.

    PubMed

    Wulf, M; Wohlsein, P; Aurich, J E; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Aurich, C

    2013-10-01

    Identification of horses by microchip transponder is mandatory within the European Union with only a few exceptions. In this study, the readability of such microchips in 428 horses with three different scanners (A, B and C) and the histological changes at the implantation site in 16 animals were assessed. Identification of microchips differed between scanners (P<0.001), and with 'side of neck' (P<0.001). Scanners A, B and C identified 93.5%, 89.7% and 100% of microchips, respectively, on the 'chip-bearing' side of the neck. From the contralateral side, scanners A, B and C identified 21.5%, 26.9% and 89.5% of transponders, respectively. Microchip readability was affected by age (P<0.001), but not by breed of horse. At necropsy, transponders were found in the subcutaneous fat (n=3), inter- or peri-muscular connective tissue (n=8), or musculature (n=5), where they were surrounded by a fibrous capsule ranging in thickness from 12.7 to 289.5 μm in 15 animals. In two animals, immature granulation tissue with attendant granulomatous inflammation, and a granulomatous myositis, surrounding the microchip were identified, respectively. Severe (n=1), moderate (n=1), and mild (n=3) lymphohistiocytic inflammation was noted within the fibrous capsule. Microchip transponders were found to be a highly reliable and biocompatible method of horse identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biocompatibility and biodegradation of polycaprolactone-sebacic acid blended gels.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Christiane L; Sanchez, Elisabete M S; Zavaglia, Cecília A C; Granja, Pedro L

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at creating biological body parts as an alternative for transplanting tissues and organs. A current new approach for such materials consists in injectable biodegradable polymers. Their major advantages are the ability to fill-in defects, easy incorporation of therapeutic agents or cells, and the possibility of minimal invasive surgical procedures. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a promising biodegradable and elastic biomaterial, with the drawback of low-degradation kinetics in vivo. In this work a biodegradable injectable gel of PCL blended with sebacic acid (SA) was prepared, to improve the degradation rate of the biomaterial. SA is known for its high degradation rate, although in high concentrations it could originate a pH decrease and thus disturb the biocompatibility of PCL. Degradation tests on phosphate buffered saline were carried out using 5% of SA on the blend and the biomaterial stability was evaluated after degradation using differential scanning calorimetry, dynamical mechanical analysis, and scanning electronic microscopy. After degradation the elastic properties of the blend decreased and the material became more crystalline and stiffer, although at a lower extent when compared with pure PCL. The blend also degraded faster with a loss of the crystalline phase on the beginning (30 days), although its thermal and mechanical properties remained comparable with those of the pure material, thus showing that it achieved the intended objectives. After cell assays the PCL-SA gel was shown to be cytocompatible and capable of maintaining high cell viability (over 90%).

  11. In vivo biocompatibility of the PLGA microparticles in parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Cantín, Mario; Miranda, Patricio; Suazo Galdames, Iván; Zavando, Daniela; Arenas, Patricia; Velásquez, Luis; Vilos, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles are used in various disorders for the controlled or sustained release of drugs, with the management of salivary gland pathologies possible using this technology. There is no record of the response to such microparticles in the glandular parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to assess the morphological changes in the parotid gland when injected with a single dose of PLGA microparticles. We used 12 adult female Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were injected into their right parotid gland with sterile vehicle solution (G1, n=4), 0.5 mg PLGA microparticles (G2, n=4), and 0.75 mg PLGA microparticles (G3, n=4); the microparticles were dissolved in a sterile vehicle solution. The intercalar and striated ducts lumen, the thickness of the acini and the histology aspect in terms of the parenchyma organization, cell morphology of acini and duct system, the presence of polymeric residues, and inflammatory response were determined at 14 days post-injection. The administration of the compound in a single dose modified some of the morphometric parameters of parenchyma (intercalar duct lumen and thickness of the glandular acini) but did not induce tissue inflammatory response, despite the visible presence of polymer waste. This suggests that PLGA microparticles are biocompatible with the parotid tissue, making it possible to use intraglandular controlled drug administration. PMID:24228103

  12. Enhanced vascular biocompatibility of decellularized xeno-/allogeneic matrices in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    van Steenberghe, M; Schubert, T; Guiot, Y; Bouzin, C; Bollen, X; Gianello, P

    2017-02-25

    Glutaraldehyde preservation is the gold standard for cardiovascular biological prosthesis. However, secondary calcifications and the absence of tissue growth remain major limitations. Our study assessed in vitro and in vivo the biocompatibility of human (fascia lata, pericardium) and porcine tissues (pericardium, peritoneum) treated with a physicochemical procedure for decellularization and non-conventional pathogens inactivation. Biopsies were performed before and after treatment to assess decellularization (HE/Dapi staining/DNA quantification/MHC I/alpha gal immunostaining) and mechanical integrity. Forty-five rats received an abdominal aortic patch of native cryopreserved tissues (n = 20), treated tissues (n = 20) or glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardium (GBP, control, n = 5). Grafts were explanted at 4 weeks and processed for HE/von Kossa staining and immunohistochemistries for lymphocytes (CD3)/macrophages (CD68) histomorphometry. 95% of decellularization was obtained for all tissues except for fascia lata (75%). Mechanical properties were slightly altered. In the in vivo model, a significant increase of CD3 and CD68 infiltrations was found in native and control implants in comparison with decellularized tissues (p < 0.05). Calcifications were found in 3 controls. Decellularized tissues were recolonized. GBP showed the most inflammatory response. This physicochemical treatment improves the biocompatibility of selected xeno/allogeneic tissues in comparison with their respective native cryopreserved tissues and with GBP. Incomplete decellularization is associated with a significantly higher inflammatory response. Our treatment is a promising tool in the field of tissue decellularization and tissue banking.

  13. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the Indian Portland cement with potential for use in dentistry: An animal study

    PubMed Central

    Mangala, M G; Chandra, S M Sharath; Bhavle, Radhika M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study evaluated the biocompatibility of the Indian Portland cement with potential for use in dentistry. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in Swiss albino mice, by implanting the Indian Portland cement pellets subcutaneously. After 1, 3, and 6 weeks the tissue specimens were prepared for histological examination. Results: The histological analysis showed moderate to severe inflammation at 1 week. The inflammation gradually decreased by 6 weeks, with most of the specimens showing the absence of inflammatory reaction. Conclusions: According to these experimental conditions, the tested Indian Portland cement was biocompatible. PMID:26752835

  14. Polyurethane biocompatible silver bionanocomposites for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, D.; Macocinschi, D.; Paslaru, E.; Munteanu, B. S.; Dumitriu, R. P.; Lungu, M.; Vasile, C.

    2014-11-01

    Bionanocomposite membranes based on polyurethane (PU), extracellular matrix (EM), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by applying both solvent casting method and electrospinning/electrospraying method. PU-EM-Ag compositions were electrospun/electrosprayed onto PU membrane to realize improved biocompatible biomaterials. Surface morphological characteristics and wettability properties were investigated by SEM and AFM techniques and water contact angle measurements. Water contact angle depends on surface chemistry and the two methods employed for preparation of biomembranes as well as roughness of the membrane surfaces. Rheological study brings information on electrospinability of the polymer solutions/dispersions. Silver nanoparticles greatly influence the electrospinability of the polymer dispersions because of the increase in dynamic viscosity with the increasing silver content. Native PU and PU incorporated with low contents of AgNPs less than 0.3 % show high cell proliferation and good biocompatibility. The electrospun PU-EM-Ag nanobiocomposite membranes bring the advantage of using of low amounts of bioactive and biocidal components. The obtained silver nanobiocomposite membranes possess good bioactivity and non-cytotoxicity necessary for biomedical device applications. The obtained nanobiocomposite membranes are expected to find application for medical devices such as urinary catheters, wound dressings, etc.

  15. Corrosion and biocompatibility of orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Widu, F; Drescher, D; Junker, R; Bourauel, C

    1999-05-01

    With the increasing number of orthodontic treatments using devices containing nickel and the growing prevalence of nickel allergy in the average population, biocompatibility studies of these devices have become a topic of major interest. The corrosion behavior of orthodontic wires is a decisive factor determining their biocompatibility. Therefore four nickel-titanium guiding arches, a titanium-molybdenum and a stainless steel wire were analyzed for corrosion behavior under realistic conditions. Pure potentiostatic, pure mechanical and combined potentiostatic and mechanical stresses were applied to the specimens. Subsequently, the surfaces of the wires were investigated employing atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nickel loss was measured with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results yield information about the relative corrosion tendency of the wires under in vitro conditions. The wires examined can be classified into two groups, one with a high and a second group with a low tendency towards corrosion, that is American Orthodontics Memory wire as well as GAC Neo Sentalloy and Ormco Ni-Ti as well as Unitek Nitinol respectively. Although corrosion behavior under clinical conditions can not be directly derived from these results, analyses of wires after clinical usage indicate that changes of wire surfaces might show the same characteristics under in vitro conditions.

  16. Biocompatible gradient ceramic coatings for metal implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkany, Josif P.; Sichka, Mikhail J.; Potapchuk, Anatolij M.; Lemko, Ivan S.; Pintye, Josif L.

    2001-08-01

    For the acceleration of the osteointegration processes of the metals implants we deposit on their surface the biokompotible ceramic coatings on the basis of hydroxyapatite. However such coatings have a certain deficiency connected with the absence of the necessary strength characteristics for a such kind of the implant. That's why it actual to create the coatings having beside biological compatibility the necessary strength and springy- elastic properties. We have developed the method of the receiving of the new biocompatible coatings with gradient structure over width on the titanium substrate. The essence of the developed method is in plasma coatings deposition within beforehand given supply of the powder consisting of two components (oxyde aluminum and hydroxyapatite) in the process of the deposition. It's showed that the received gradient coatings are the mixture of the crystals Al2O3 and HA, the concentrations of which change over the width. The topological investigation of the surface and the coating cross-sections was performed from which the chemical composition distribution over width was studied and found the absense of the chemical interaktion between Al2O3 and HA. By regulation of the distribution of the initial components over the coating widths it is possible to set the phase comsposition and crystal sizes in the biocompatible coatings. In the process of etching in the solutions imitating the physiological ones it is found the formation of the pores having dendritic structure. The performed investigations show the possibility of the usage of the developed coatings in medicine particularly in stomatolgoy.

  17. Research on dialyzers with improved biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, A

    1986-01-01

    Until now cellulosic membranes, especially Cuprophan, are still widely applied in the treatment of uremic patients. The success of this type of membrane for routine hemodialysis is related to a number of very useful properties with respect to performance, handling and biocompatibility. However, during dialysis Cuprophan membranes induce transient leucopenia which is closely connected with incidentally occurring pulmonary disfunction. These phenomena are thought to be complement mediated and Cuprophan has been recognized as an activator of complement. Synthetic membranes, such as PAN and PMMA show less complement activation than their cellulosic counterparts. Nevertheless these synthetic membranes cannot meet the performance quality of Cuprophan for routine dialysis and therefore dialyzers with synthetic membranes need special precaution to prevent excessive ultrafiltration. Consequently, research has been focussed on the development of a new cellulose-based dialyzer in which excellent performance suitable for routine dialysis is combined with improved biocompatibility. Two different approaches have been followed for the realization of this objective: The application of thinner membranes and The application of modified cellulose.

  18. Biocompatible Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids: Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Badve, Sunil V.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Wiggins, Kathryn; Johnson, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a preferred home dialysis modality and has a number of added advantages including improved initial patient survival and cost effectiveness over haemodialysis. Despite these benefits, uptake of PD remains relatively low, especially in developed countries. Wider implementation of PD is compromised by higher technique failure from infections (e.g., PD peritonitis) and ultrafiltration failure. These are inevitable consequences of peritoneal injury, which is thought to result primarily from continuous exposure to PD fluids that are characterised by their “unphysiologic” composition. In order to overcome these barriers, a number of more biocompatible PD fluids, with neutral pH, low glucose degradation product content, and bicarbonate buffer have been manufactured over the past two decades. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated their benefit in terms of improvement in host cell defence, peritoneal membrane integrity, and cytokine profile. This paper aims to review randomised controlled trials assessing the use of biocompatible PD fluids and their effect on clinical outcomes. PMID:23251801

  19. Colloidal synthesis of biocompatible iron disulphide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cruz, J; Nuñez-Anita, R E; Mayén-Hernández, S A; Martínez-Alvarez, O; Acosta-Torres, L S; de la Fuente-Hernández, J; Campos-González, E; Vega-González, M; Arenas-Arrocena, M C

    2017-08-06

    The aim of this research was to synthesis biocompatible iron disulphide nanocrystals at different reaction temperatures using the colloidal synthesis methodology. Synthesis was conducted at the 220-240 °C range of reaction temperatures at intervals of 5 °C in an inert argon atmosphere. The toxicity of iron disulphide nanocrystals was evaluated in vitro using mouse fibroblast cell line. Two complementary assays were conducted: the first to evaluate cell viability of the fibroblast via an MTT assay and the second to determine the preservation of fibroblast nuclei integrity through DAPI staining, which labels nuclear DNA in fluorescence microscopes. Through TEM and HRTEM, we observed a cubic morphology of pyrite iron disulphide nanocrystals ranging in sizes 25-50 nm (225 °C), 50-70 nm (230 °C) and >70 nm (235 °C). Through X-ray diffraction, we observed a mixture of pyrite and pyrrohotite in the samples synthesized at 225 °C and 240 °C, showing the best photocatalytic activity at 80% and 65%, respectively, for the degradation of methylene blue after 120 minutes. In all experimental groups, iron disulphide nanocrystals were biocompatible, i.e. no statistically significant differences were observed between experimental groups as shown in a one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Based on all of these results, we recommend non-cytotoxic semiconductor iron sulphide nanocrystals for biomedical applications.

  20. Biocompatible, hyaluronic acid modified silicone elastomers.

    PubMed

    Alauzun, Johan G; Young, Stuart; D'Souza, Renita; Liu, Lina; Brook, Michael A; Sheardown, Heather D

    2010-05-01

    Although silicones possess many useful properties as biomaterials, their hydrophobicity can be problematic. To a degree, this issue can be addressed by surface modification with hydrophilic polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol), but the resulting structures are usually not conducive to cell growth. In the present work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of covalently linked hyaluronic acid (HA) (35 kDa) to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer surfaces. HA is of interest because of its known biological properties; its presence on a surface was expected to improve the biocompatibility of silicone materials for a wide range of bioapplications. HA was introduced with a coupling agent in two steps from high-density, tosyl-modified, poly(ethylene glycol) tethered silicone surfaces. All materials synthesized were characterized by water contact angle, ATR-FTIR, XPS and (13)C solid state NMR spectroscopy. Biological interactions with these modified silicone surfaces were assessed by examining interactions with fibrinogen as a model protein as well as determining the in vitro response of fibroblast (3T3) and human corneal epithelial cells relative to unmodified poly(dimethylsiloxane) controls. The results suggest that HA modification significantly enhances cell interactions while decreasing protein adsorption and may therefore be effective for improving biocompatibility of PDMS and other materials.

  1. Antimicrobial and biocompatible properties of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Ul-Islam, M; Shehzad, A; Khan, S; Khattak, W A; Ullah, M W; Park, J K

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of drug-resistant characteristics in pathogenic viral, bacterial, and fungal species and the consequent spread of infectious diseases are currently receiving serious attention. Indeed, there is a pressing demand to explore novel materials and develop new strategies that can address these issues of serious concern. Nanomaterials are currently proving to be the most capable therapeutic agents to cope with such hazards. The exceptional physiochemical properties and impressive antimicrobial capabilities of nanoparticles have provoked their utilization in biomedical fields. Nanomaterials of both organic and inorganic nature have shown the capabilities of disrupting microbial cells through different mechanisms. Along with the direct influence on the microbial cell membrane, DNA and proteins, these nanomaterials produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cell components and viruses. Currently, a serious hazard associated with these antimicrobial nanomaterials is their toxicity to human and animal cells. Extensive studies have reported the dose, time, and cell-dependent toxicology of various nanomaterials, and some have shown excellent biocompatible properties. Nevertheless, there is still debate regarding the use of nanomaterials for medical applications. Therefore, in this review, the antimicrobial activities of various nanomaterials with details of their acting mechanisms were compiled. The relative toxic and biocompatible behavior of nanomaterials emphasized in this study provides information pertaining to their practical applicability in medical fields.

  2. Biomimetic synthesis and biocompatibility evaluation of carbonated apatites template-mediated by heparin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi; Sun, Yuhua; Chen, Xiaofang; Zhu, Peizhi; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-07-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of carbonated apatites with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the broadening application of apatites for bone tissue engineering. Most researchers were interested in collagen or gelatin-based templates for synthesis of apatite minerals. Inspired by recent findings about the important role of polysaccharides in bone biomineralization, here we reported that heparin, a mucopolysaccharide, was used to synthesize carbonated apatites in vitro. The results indicated that the Ca/P ratio, carbon content, crystallinity and morphology of the apatites varied depending on the heparin concentration and the initial pH value. The morphology of apatite changed from flake-shaped to needle-shaped, and the degree of crystallinity decreased with the increasing of heparin concentration. Biocompatibility of the apatites was tested by proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results suggested that carbonated apatites synthesized in the presence of heparin were more favorable to the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with traditional method. In summary, the heparin concentration and the initial pH value play a key role in the chemical constitution and morphology, as well as biological properties of apatites. These biocompatible nano-apatite crystals hold great potential to be applied as bioactive materials for bone tissue engineering.

  3. Keratose/poly (vinyl alcohol) blended nanofibers: Fabrication and biocompatibility assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju; Hao, Shilei; Luo, Tiantian; Zhou, Tao; Yang, Xin; Wang, Bochu

    2017-03-01

    Increasing interest in using keratin-based materials for biomedical application has prompted the development of keratin/PVA nanofibers. To date, several kinds of keratins (including wool, feather, and human hair reductive keratins)/PVA blended nanofibers have been fabricated but limited to the in vitro studies. However, few studies focused on the in vivo biocompatibility test of keratin/PVA nanofibers. Herein, the keratose (oxidative keratin)/PVA nanofiber, a novel type of keratin/PVA nanofiber, was fabricated with an electrospinning technique. The obtained nanofibers possess uniform fibrous structure, suitable hydrophilicity and mechanical properties, which could be affected by the mass ratio of keratose to PVA. Furthermore, the biocompatibility tests of keratose/PVA nanofibers have been performed by subcutaneous implantation into SD rats. H&E staining and Masson's trichrome staining revealed that the implants were highly compatible with body tissue, and no acute toxic effects as well as no tissue damage were observed. The implants were fully degraded within four weeks. Beyond this, the analysis of proinflammatory cytokines in rat serum indicated that the implants induced normal immune response and had no immunogenicity. These results demonstrate that keratose/PVA nanofibers have the potential for biomedical applications due to the favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Size-engineered biocompatible polymeric nanophotosensitizer for locoregional photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keunsoo; Park, Solji; Lee, Yong-Deok; Kang, Chi Soo; Kim, Hyun Jun; Park, Hyeonjong; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Jungahn; Park, Chong Rae; Kim, Sehoon

    2016-08-01

    Current approaches in use of water-insoluble photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer often demand a nano-delivery system. Here, we report a photosensitizer-loaded biocompatible nano-delivery formulation (PPaN-20) whose size was engineered to ca. 20nm to offer improved cell/tissue penetration and efficient generation of cytotoxic singlet oxygen. PPaN-20 was fabricated through the physical assembly of all biocompatible constituents: pyropheophorbide-a (PPa, water-insoluble photosensitizer), polycaprolactone (PCL, hydrophobic/biodegradable polymer), and Pluronic F-68 (clinically approved polymeric surfactant). Repeated microemulsification/evaporation method resulted in a fine colloidal dispersion of PPaN-20 in water, where the particulate PCL matrix containing well-dispersed PPa molecules inside was stabilized by the Pluronic corona. Compared to a control sample of large-sized nanoparticles (PPaN-200) prepared by a conventional solvent displacement method, PPaN-20 revealed optimal singlet oxygen generation and efficient cellular uptake by virtue of the suitably engineered size and constitution, leading to high in vitro phototoxicity against cancer cells. Upon administration to tumor-bearing mice by peritumoral route, PPaN-20 showed efficient tumor accumulation by the enhanced cell/tissue penetration evidenced by in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging. The in vivo PDT treatment with peritumorally administrated PPaN-20 showed significantly enhanced suppression of tumor growth compared to the control group, demonstrating great potential as a biocompatible photosensitizing agent for locoregional PDT treatment of cancer.

  5. Enhanced biocompatibility and osseointegration of calcium titanate coating on titanium screws in rabbit femur.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Li; He, Rong-Zhen; Tu, Bin; Cao, Xu; He, Jin-Shen; Xia, Han-Song; Liang, Chi; Zou, Min; Wu, Song; Wu, Zhen-Jun; Xiong, Kun

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the biocompatibility of calcium titanate (CaTiO3) coating prepared by a simplified technique in an attempt to assess the potential of CaTiO3 coating as an alternative to current implant coating materials. CaTiO3-coated titanium screws were implanted with hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated or uncoated titanium screws into medial and lateral femoral condyles of 48 New Zealand white rabbits. Imaging, histomorphometric and biomechanical analyses were employed to evaluate the osseointegration and biocompatibility 12 weeks after the implantation. Histology and scanning electron microscopy revealed that bone tissues surrounding the screws coated with CaTiO3 were fully regenerated and they were also well integrated with the screws. An interfacial fibrous membrane layer, which was found in the HA coating group, was not noticeable between the bone tissues and CaTiO3-coated screws. X-ray imaging analysis showed in the CaTiO3 coating group, there was a dense and tight binding between implants and the bone tissues; no radiation translucent zone was found surrounding the implants as well as no detachment of the coating and femoral condyle fracture. In contrast, uncoated screws exhibited a fibrous membrane layer, as evidenced by the detection of a radiation translucent zone between the implants and the bone tissues. Additionally, biomechanical testing revealed that the binding strength of CaTiO3 coating with bone tissues was significantly higher than that of uncoated titanium screws, and was comparable to that of HA coating. The study demonstrated that CaTiO3 coating in situ to titanium screws possesses great biocompatibility and osseointegration comparable to HA coating.

  6. Biocompatibility and biomineralization assessment of bioceramic-, epoxy-, and calcium hydroxide-based sealers.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Carlos Roberto Emerenciano; Valentim, Diego; Marques, Vanessa Abreu Sanches; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Dezan-Junior, Eloi

    2016-06-14

    Obturation of the root canal system aims to fill empty spaces, promoting hermetic sealing and preventing bacterial activity in periapical tissues. This should provide optimal conditions for repair, stimulating the process of biomineralization. An endodontic sealer should be biocompatible once it is in direct contact with periapical tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue response to implanted polyethylene tubes filled with Smartpaste Bio, Acroseal, and Sealapex and investigate mineralization ability of these endodontic sealers. Forty Wistar rats were assigned to the three sealers groups and control group, (n = 10 animals/group) and received subcutaneous implants containing the test sealers, and the control group were implanted with empty tubes. After days 7, 15, 30, and 60, animals were euthanized and polyethylene tubes were removed with the surrounding tissues. Inflammatory infiltrate and thickness of the fibrous capsule were histologically evaluated. Mineralization was analyzed by Von Kossa staining and polarized light. Data were tabulated and analyzed via Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. All tested materials induced a moderate inflammatory reaction in the initial periods. Smartpaste Bio induced the mildest inflammatory reactions after day 15. No difference was observed among groups after days 30 or 60. Von Kossa-positive staining and birefringent structures observed under polarized light revealed a larger mineralization area in Sealapex-treated animals followed by Smartpaste Bio-treated animals. At the end of the experiment, all tested sealers were found to be biocompatible. All sealers induced biomineralization, except Acroseal, which induced a mild tissue reaction.

  7. Research on the preparation, biocompatibility and bioactivity of magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite composite material.

    PubMed

    Linsheng, Li; Guoxiang, Lin; Lihui, Li

    2016-08-12

    In this paper, magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite composite material was prepared by electrophoretic deposition method. The optimal process parameters of electrophoretic deposition were HA suspension concentration of 0.02 kg/L, aging time of 10 days and voltage of 60 V. Animal experiment and SBF immersion experiment were used to test the biocompatibility and bioactivity of this material respectively. The SD rats were divided into control group and implant group. The implant surrounding tissue was taken to do tissue biopsy, HE dyed and organizational analysis after a certain amount of time in the SD rat body. The biological composite material was soaked in SBF solution under homeothermic condition. After 40 days, the bioactivity of the biological composite material was evaluated by testing the growth ability of apatite on composite material. The experiment results showed that magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite material was successfully prepared by electrophoretic deposition method. Tissue hyperplasia, connective tissue and new blood vessels appeared in the implant surrounding soft tissue. No infiltration of inflammatory cells of lymphocytes and megakaryocytes around the implant was found. After soaked in SBF solution, a layer bone-like apatite was found on the surface of magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite material. The magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite biological composite material could promot calcium deposition and induce bone-like apatite formation with no cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility and bioactivity.

  8. Biocompatibility evaluation of a thermoplastic rubber for wireless telemetric intracranial pressure sensor coating

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Charif, Andrea C.; Puskas, Judit E.; Phillips, Hannah; Shanahan, Kaitlyn J.; Garsed, Jessica; Fleischman, Aaron; Goldman, Ken; Luebbers, Matthew T.; Dombrowski, Stephen M.; Luciano, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the biocompatibility of the experimental thermoplastic rubber Arbomatrix™ that will be used as the protective coating on a novel intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor silicon chip. Arbomatrix™ was benchmarked against biocompatible commercial silicone rubber shunt tubing in the brain via a rat model with 60-day implant duration. A bare silicon chip was also implanted. The results showed similar cellular distribution in the brain-implant boundary and surrounding tissues. Quantitative analysis of neuron and glia density did not show significant difference between implants. Through histological and immunohistochemical evaluation we conclude that Arbomatrix™ is well tolerated by the brain. Due to its exceptional barrier properties Arbomatrix™ has already been shown to be an excellent protective coating for new ICP monitoring chip. PMID:25688030

  9. Biocompatible thin film coatings fabricated using the electrostatic self-assembly process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youxiong; Du, Weiwei; Spillman, William B., Jr.; Claus, Richard O.

    2001-05-01

    Biomaterials are substances that are produced synthetically or biologically for use in the medical and the other fields. The use of biomaterials to interface with living systems, such as fluids, cells, and tissues of the body, has played an increasingly important role in medicine and pharmaceutics. In particular, the design of biocompatible synthetic surfaces to control the interaction between a living system and an implanted material remains the major theme for biomaterial applications in medicine. The novel and low-cost electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) technique provides an effective approach to incorporate various biomaterials on substrate surfaces, and gives greater opportunity to develop unique biocompatible materials with well-controlled interfaces between the living system and the implanted materia. This paper presents the design, synthesis, and characterization of multilayer thin films fabricated layer-by-layer by the ESA process using ceramics, polymers and functionalized fullerenes as candidate biomaterials.

  10. Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Electrodes for Neural Interfaces: In vivo Biocompatibility Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, María; Taylor, Andrew; Fjorback, Morten; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian P.

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDD) electrodes have recently attracted attention as materials for neural electrodes due to their superior physical and electrochemical properties, however their biocompatibility remains largely unexplored. In this work, we aim to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of BDD electrodes in relation to conventional titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. High quality BDD films were synthesized on electrodes intended for use as an implantable neurostimulation device. After implantation for 2 and 4 weeks, tissue sections adjacent to the electrodes were obtained for histological analysis. Both types of implants were contained in a thin fibrous encapsulation layer, the thickness of which decreased with time. Although the level of neovascularization around the implants was similar, BDD electrodes elicited significantly thinner fibrous capsules and a milder inflammatory reaction at both time points. These results suggest that BDD films may constitute an appropriate material to support stable performance of implantable neural electrodes over time. PMID:27013949

  11. Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Electrodes for Neural Interfaces: In vivo Biocompatibility Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, María; Taylor, Andrew; Fjorback, Morten; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian P

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDD) electrodes have recently attracted attention as materials for neural electrodes due to their superior physical and electrochemical properties, however their biocompatibility remains largely unexplored. In this work, we aim to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of BDD electrodes in relation to conventional titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. High quality BDD films were synthesized on electrodes intended for use as an implantable neurostimulation device. After implantation for 2 and 4 weeks, tissue sections adjacent to the electrodes were obtained for histological analysis. Both types of implants were contained in a thin fibrous encapsulation layer, the thickness of which decreased with time. Although the level of neovascularization around the implants was similar, BDD electrodes elicited significantly thinner fibrous capsules and a milder inflammatory reaction at both time points. These results suggest that BDD films may constitute an appropriate material to support stable performance of implantable neural electrodes over time.

  12. 3D Printing Biocompatible Polyurethane/Poly(lactic acid)/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites: Anisotropic Properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiyi; Mangadlao, Joey Dacula; Wallat, Jaqueline; De Leon, Al; Pokorski, Jonathan K; Advincula, Rigoberto C

    2017-02-01

    Blending thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a proven method to achieve a much more mechanically robust material, whereas the addition of graphene oxide (GO) is increasingly applied in polymer nanocomposites to tailor further their properties. On the other hand, additive manufacturing has high flexibility of structure design which can significantly expand the application of materials in many fields. This study demonstrates the fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing of TPU/PLA/GO nanocomposites and its potential application as biocompatible materials. Nanocomposites are prepared by solvent-based mixing process and extruded into filaments for FDM printing. The addition of GO largely enhanced the mechanical property and thermal stability of the nanocomposites. Interestingly, we found that the mechanical response is highly dependent on printing orientation. Furthermore, the 3D printed nanocomposites exhibit good biocompatibility with NIH3T3 cells, indicating promise as biomaterials scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

  13. Chitin and carbon nanotube composites as biocompatible scaffolds for neuron growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nandita; Chen, Jinhu; Koziol, Krzysztof K.; Hallam, Keith R.; Janas, Dawid; Patil, Avinash J.; Strachan, Ally; G. Hanley, Jonathan; Rahatekar, Sameer S.

    2016-04-01

    The design of biocompatible implants for neuron repair/regeneration ideally requires high cell adhesion as well as good electrical conductivity. Here, we have shown that plasma-treated chitin carbon nanotube composite scaffolds show very good neuron adhesion as well as support of synaptic function of neurons. The addition of carbon nanotubes to a chitin biopolymer improved the electrical conductivity and the assisted oxygen plasma treatment introduced more oxygen species onto the chitin nanotube scaffold surface. Neuron viability experiments showed excellent neuron attachment onto plasma-treated chitin nanotube composite scaffolds. The support of synaptic function was evident on chitin/nanotube composites, as confirmed by PSD-95 staining. The biocompatible and electrically-conducting chitin nanotube composite scaffold prepared in this study can be used for in vitro tissue engineering of neurons and, potentially, as an implantable electrode for stimulation and repair of neurons.

  14. Biocompatible nanomaterials based on dendrimers, hydrogels and hydrogel nanocomposites for use in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoa Nguyen, Cuu; Quyen Tran, Ngoc; Phuong Nguyen, Thi; Hai Nguyen, Dai

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, biopolymer-based nanomaterials have been developed to overcome the limitations of other macro- and micro- synthetic materials as well as the ever increasing demand for the new materials in nanotechnology, biotechnology, biomedicine and others. Owning to their high stability, biodegradability, low toxicity, and biocompatibility, biopolymer-based nanomaterials hold great promise for various biomedical applications. The pursuit of this review is to briefly describe our recent studies regarding biocompatible biopolymer-based nanomaterials, particularly in the form of dendrimers, hydrogels, and hydrogel composites along with the synthetic and modification approaches for the utilization in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and biomedical implants. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies for the toxicity evaluation are also discussed.

  15. Biocompatibility evaluation of a thermoplastic rubber for wireless telemetric intracranial pressure sensor coating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Charif, Andrea C; Puskas, Judit E; Phillips, Hannah; Shanahan, Kaitlyn J; Garsed, Jessica; Fleischman, Aaron; Goldman, Ken; Roy, Shuvo; Luebbers, Matthew T; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Luciano, Mark G

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the biocompatibility of the experimental thermoplastic rubber Arbomatrix(™) that will be used as the protective coating on a novel intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor silicon chip. Arbomatrix(™) was benchmarked against biocompatible commercial silicone rubber shunt tubing in the brain via a rat model with 60-day implant duration. A bare silicon chip was also implanted. The results showed similar cellular distribution in the brain-implant boundary and surrounding tissues. Quantitative analysis of neuron and glia density did not show significant difference between implants. Through histological and immunohistochemical evaluation we conclude that Arbomatrix(™) is well tolerated by the brain. Due to its exceptional barrier properties Arbomatrix(™) has already been shown to be an excellent protective coating for new ICP monitoring chip.

  16. A Review of the Biocompatibility of Implantable Devices: Current Challenges to Overcome Foreign Body Response

    PubMed Central

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Bhardwaj, Upkar; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Burgess, Diane J.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a variety of devices (drug-eluting stents, artificial organs, biosensors, catheters, scaffolds for tissue engineering, heart valves, etc.) have been developed for implantation into patients. However, when such devices are implanted into the body, the body can react to these in a number of different ways. These reactions can result in an unexpected risk for patients. Therefore, it is important to assess and optimize the biocompatibility of implantable devices. To date, numerous strategies have been investigated to overcome body reactions induced by the implantation of devices. This review focuses on the foreign body response and the approaches that have been taken to overcome this. The biological response following device implantation and the methods for biocompatibility evaluation are summarized. Then the risks of implantable devices and the challenges to overcome these problems are introduced. Specifically, the challenges used to overcome the functional loss of glucose sensors, restenosis after stent implantation, and calcification induced by implantable devices are discussed. PMID:19885290

  17. [Electrochemical properties of biocompatible material hardness modifications on titanium and steel under mechanical loads].

    PubMed

    Braun, W; Walter, U; Holbein, R; Thull, R

    2005-04-01

    Friction corrosion may appear between different implant components or between implant and hard tissue. The sliding micro movements induce fretting wear corrosion and have been recently reported as a cause of joint prostheses failure. A surface coating is desirable, that retains the mechanical properties of the substrate, offers good biocompatibility and improves the fretting corrosion resistance. In this study it could be demonstrated that tantalum and niobium coatings fulfill the requirements. On titanium substrates the coating decreases the abrasion against PMMA, an orthopedic relevant material. Furthermore, in the case of medical steel substrates the biocompatibility and the corrosion properties are improved. The better abrasion-resistance is minimizing the release of allergological critical particles like nickel and chromium.

  18. Effect of biocompatible polymers on the structural integrity of lipid bilayers under external stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Kausik, Ravinath; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Han, Song-I.; Marks, Jeremy; Lee, Ka Yee

    2010-03-01

    Cell membrane dysfunction due to loss of structural integrity is the pathology of tissue death in trauma and common diseases. It is now established that certain biocompatible polymers, such as Poloxamer 188, Poloxamine 1107 and polyethylene glycol (PEG), are effective in sealing of injured cell membranes, and able to prevent acute necrosis. Despite these broad applications of these polymers for human health, the fundamental mechanisms by which these polymers interact with cell membranes are still under debate. Here, the effects of a group of biocompatible polymers on phospholipid membrane integrity under osmotic and oxidative stress were explored using giant unilamellar vesicles as model cell membranes. Our results suggest that the adsorption of the polymers on the membrane surface is responsible for the cell membrane resealing process due to its capability of slowing down the surface hydration dynamics.

  19. Chitin and carbon nanotube composites as biocompatible scaffolds for neuron growth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nandita; Chen, Jinhu; Koziol, Krzysztof K; Hallam, Keith R; Janas, Dawid; Patil, Avinash J; Strachan, Ally; G Hanley, Jonathan; Rahatekar, Sameer S

    2016-04-21

    The design of biocompatible implants for neuron repair/regeneration ideally requires high cell adhesion as well as good electrical conductivity. Here, we have shown that plasma-treated chitin carbon nanotube composite scaffolds show very good neuron adhesion as well as support of synaptic function of neurons. The addition of carbon nanotubes to a chitin biopolymer improved the electrical conductivity and the assisted oxygen plasma treatment introduced more oxygen species onto the chitin nanotube scaffold surface. Neuron viability experiments showed excellent neuron attachment onto plasma-treated chitin nanotube composite scaffolds. The support of synaptic function was evident on chitin/nanotube composites, as confirmed by PSD-95 staining. The biocompatible and electrically-conducting chitin nanotube composite scaffold prepared in this study can be used for in vitro tissue engineering of neurons and, potentially, as an implantable electrode for stimulation and repair of neurons.

  20. Development of a hydrophobic polymer composition with improved biocompatibility for making foldable intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, R. S.; Chauhan, R.; Kapoor, K.; Niyogi, U. K.

    2014-05-01

    A hydrophobic composition for foldable intraocular lenses was developed by copolymerizing phenyl ethyl acrylate, phenyl ethyl methacrylate and butanediol diacrylate by gamma irradiation. Aqueous solution of heparin, a biocompatibilizer absorbed in hydroxyethyl methacrylate was added to the monomer mixture before irradiation to impart desired level of hydrophilicity and improved biocompatibility to the hydrophobic composition. Ketorolac tromethamine, an anti-inflammatory agent and L-glutathione, an antioxidant were added to the composition as functional additive for exhibiting improved performance while in use. Concentrations of monomers, biocompatibilizer and functional additives were optimized to develop an advanced material for foldable intraocular lenses. Transmittance, refractive index, Abbe number, hardness, tensile strength, flexibility and foldability were studied on the final composition. Scanning electron microscopic study, differential scanning calorimetric analysis, leachability and viscometry confirmed the permanent incorporation of additives into the polymer. Results of haemocompatibility, tissue implantation and cytotoxicity confirm that the biocompatibility of the base polymer was improved by incorporation of heparin.

  1. In vitro calcification and in vivo biocompatibility of the cross-linked polypentapeptide of elastin

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.A.; Lemons, J.E.; Prasad, K.U.; Urry, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    The in vitro calcifiability and molecular weight dependence of calcification of the polypentapeptide, (L X Val1-L X Pro2-Gly3-L X Val4-Gly5)n, which had been gamma-irradiation cross-linked have been determined when exposed to dialyzates of normal, nonaugmented fetal bovine serum. The material was found to calcify: calcifiability was found to be highly molecular weight dependent and to be most favored when the highest molecular weight polymers (n approximately equal to 240) had been used for cross-linking. The in vivo biocompatibility, biodegradability, and calcifiability of the gamma-irradiation cross-linked polypentapeptide were examined in rabbits in both soft and hard tissue sites. The material was found to be biocompatible irrespective of its physical form and to be biodegradable but with n of 200 or less it was not shown to calcify or ossify in the rabbit tibial nonunion model.

  2. BSA-directed synthesis of CuS nanoparticles as a biocompatible photothermal agent for tumor ablation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai; Fu, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yu, Chunshui; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Shao-Kai

    2015-08-07

    Photothermal therapy as a physical therapeutic approach has greatly attracted research interest due to its negligible systemic effects. Among the various photothermal agents, CuS nanoparticles have been widely used due to their easy preparation, low cost, high stability and strong absorption in the NIR region. However, the ambiguous biotoxicity of CuS nanoparticles limited their bio-application. So it is highly desirable to develop biocompatible CuS photothermal agents with the potential of clinical translation. Herein, we report a novel method to synthesize biocompatible CuS nanoparticles for photothermal therapy using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a template via mimicking biomaterialization processes. Owing to the inherent biocompatibility of BSA, the toxicity assays in vitro and in vivo showed that BSA-CuS nanoparticles possessed good biocompatibility. In vitro and in vivo photothermal therapies were performed and good results were obtained. The bulk of the HeLa cells treated with BSA-CuS nanoparticles under laser irradiation (808 nm) were killed, and the tumor tissues of mice were also successfully eliminated without causing any obvious systemic damage. In summary, a novel strategy for the synthesis of CuS nanoparticles was developed using BSA as the template, and the excellent biocompatibility and efficient photothermal therapy effects of BSA-CuS nanoparticles show great potential as an ideal photothermal agent for cancer treatment.

  3. Changes in hemostasis during pediatric heart surgery: impact of a biocompatible heparin-coated perfusion system.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eva; Andréasson, Svenerik; Bengtsson, Anders; Berggren, Håkan; Ekroth, Rolf; Larsson, Lars E; Ouchterlony, John

    2004-03-01

    This study describes the response in hemostasis during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children (<== 10 kg) and tests the hypothesis that the use of a biocompatible perfusion system, in comparison with a conventional system, causes less hemostatic activation. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study. Forty consecutive children <== 10 kg were included and divided into two groups: group bioc. (n = 19) treated with a fully heparin-coated system, centrifugal pump, and a closed circuit, and group conv. (n = 21) treated with an uncoated system, roller pump, and a hard shell venous reservoir. Concentrations of plasma thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA ag), and the complex consisting of tissue plasminogen activator and its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (t-PA-PAI-1) were measured. The biochemical variables measured increased significantly in both groups during the study period. There was less activation of fibrinolysis during cardiopulmonary bypass (t-PA ag: p = 0.009) in patients treated with the biocompatible perfusion system than in patients treated with the conventional system. A trend in favor of the biocompatible system based on the D-dimer and TAT data (p = 0.07 for both measurements) was observed but no significant intergroup differences regarding these variables or t-PA-PAI-1 were found. Open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in children (<== 10 kg) causes transient activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. This study demonstrates that the use of a biocompatible perfusion system results in a lower extent of activation of fibrinolysis during CPB than the use of a conventional system.

  4. Influence of packing density and surface roughness of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes on adhesive properties of gecko-inspired mimetics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingan; Zhong, Guofang; Oppenheimer, Pola Goldberg; Zhang, Can; Tornatzky, Hans; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

    2015-02-18

    We have systematically studied the macroscopic adhesive properties of vertically aligned nanotube arrays with various packing density and roughness. Using a tensile setup in shear and normal adhesion, we find that there exists a maximum packing density for nanotube arrays to have adhesive properties. Too highly packed tubes do not offer intertube space for tube bending and side-wall contact to surfaces, thus exhibiting no adhesive properties. Likewise, we also show that the surface roughness of the arrays strongly influences the adhesion properties and the reusability of the tubes. Increasing the surface roughness of the array strengthens the adhesion in the normal direction, but weakens it in the shear direction. Altogether, these results allow progress toward mimicking the gecko's vertical mobility.

  5. Titanium nanostructural surface processing for improved biocompatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-C.; Lee, S.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Shyng, Y.-C.; Ou, K.-L.

    2006-10-23

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incident x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to evaluate the effect of titanium hydride on the formation of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} on Ti during anodization. Nano-titanium-hydride was formed cathodically before anodizing and served as a sacrificial nanoprecipitate during anodization. Surface oxidation occurred and a multinanoporous structure formed after cathodic pretreatments followed by anodization treatment. The sacrificial nanoprecipitate is directly dissolved and the Ti transformed to nanoporous TiO{sub 2} by anodization. The formation of sacrificial nanoprecipitates by cathodic pretreatment and of the multinanostructure by anodization is believed to improve biocompatibility, thereby promoting osseointegration.

  6. Si-based Nanoparticles: a biocompatibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivolta, I.; Lettiero, B.; Panariti, A.; D'Amato, R.; Maurice, V.; Falconieri, M.; Herlein, N.; Borsella, E.; Miserocchi, G.

    2010-10-01

    Exposure to silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) may occur in professional working conditions or for people undergoing a diagnostic screening test. Despite the fact that silicon is known as a non-toxic material, in the first case the risk is mostly related to the inhalation of nanoparticles, thus the most likely route of entry is across the lung alveolar epithelium. In the case of diagnostic imaging, nanoparticles are usually injected intravenously and Si-NPs could impact on the endothelial wall. In our study we investigated the interaction between selected Si-based NPs and an epithelial lung cell line. Our data showed that, despite the overall silicon biocompatibility, however accurate studies of the potential toxicity induced by the nanostructure and engineered surface characteristics need to be accurately investigated before Si nanoparticles can be safely used for in vivo applications as bio-imaging, cell staining and drug delivery.

  7. Phosphorylcholine-Based Zwitterionic Biocompatible Thermogel.

    PubMed

    Ko, Du Young; Patel, Madhumita; Jung, Bo Kyoeng; Park, Jin Hye; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2015-12-14

    Zwitterionic polymers have been investigated as surface-coating materials due to their low protein adsorption properties, which reduce immunogenicity, biofouling, and bacterial adsorption of coated materials. Most zwitterionic polymers, reported so far, are based on (meth)acrylate polymers which can induce toxicity by residual monomers or amines produced by degradation. Here, we report a new zwitterionic polymer consisting of phosphorylcholine (PC) and biocompatible poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) as a new thermogelling material. The PC-PPG-PC polymer aqueous solution undergoes unique multiple sol-gel transitions as the temperature increases. A heat-induced unimer-to-micelle transition, changes in ionic interactions, and dehydration of PPG are involved in the sol-gel transitions. Based on the broad gel window and low protein adsorption properties, the PC-PPG-PC thermogel is proved for sustained delivery of protein drugs and stem cells over 1 week.

  8. Jet blown PTFE for control of biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibner, Evan Scott

    The development of fully hemocompatible cardiovascular biomaterials will have a major impact on the practice of modern medicine. Current artificial surfaces, unlike native vascular surfaces, are not able to control clot and thrombus formation. Protein interactions are an important component in hemocompatibility and can result in decreased patency due to thrombus formation or surface passivation which can improve endothelization. It is believed that controlling these properties, specifically the nanometer sizes of the fibers on the material's surface, will allow for better control of biological responses. The biocompatibility of Teflon, a widely used polymer for vascular grafts, would be improved with nanostructured control of surface features. Due to the difficultly in processing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), it has not been possible to create nanofibrous PTFE surfaces. The novel technique of Jet Blowing allows for the formation of nanostructured PTFE (nPTFE). A systematic investigation into controlling polymer properties by varying the processing conditions of temperature, pressure, and gas used in the Jet Blowing allows for an increased understanding of the effects of plasticization on the material's properties. This fundamental understanding of the material science behind the Jet Blowing process has enabled control of the micro and nanoscale structure of nPTFE. While protein adsorption, a key component of biocompatibility, has been widely studied, it is not fully understood. Major problems in the field of biomaterials include a lack of standard protocols to measure biocompatibility, and inconstant literature on protein adsorption. A reproducible protocol for measuring protein adsorption onto superhydrophobic surfaces (ePTFE and nPTFE) has been developed. Both degassing of PBS buffer solutions and evacuation of the air around the expanded PTFE (ePTFE) prior to contact with protein solutions are essential. Protein adsorption experiments show a four

  9. Solution behavior of PEO : the ultimate biocompatible polymer.

    SciTech Connect

    Curro, John G.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile

    2004-11-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) is the quintessential biocompatible polymer. Due to its ability to form hydrogen bonds, it is soluble in water, and yet is uncharged and relatively inert. It is being investigated for use in a wide range of biomedical and biotechnical applications, including the prevention of protein adhesion (biofouling), controlled drug delivery, and tissue scaffolds. PEO has also been proposed for use in novel polymer hydrogel nanocomposites with superior mechanical properties. However, the phase behavior of PEO in water is highly anomalous and is not addressed by current theories of polymer solutions. The effective interactions between PEO and water are very concentration dependent, unlike other polymer/solvent systems, due to water-water and water-PEO hydrogen bonds. An understanding of this anomalous behavior requires a careful examination of PEO liquids and solutions on the molecular level. We performed massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations and self-consistent Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model (PRISM) calculations on PEO liquids. We also initiated MD studies on PEO/water solutions with and without an applied electric field. This work is summarized in three parts devoted to: (1) A comparison of MD simulations, theory and experiment on PEO liquids; (2) The implementation of water potentials into the LAMMPS MD code; and (3) A theoretical analysis of the effect of an applied electric field on the phase diagram of polymer solutions.

  10. Initial biocompatibility of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane films with different wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasteva, N. A.; Toromanov, G.; Hristova, K. T.; Radeva, E. I.; Pecheva, E. V.; Dimitrova, R. P.; Altankov, G. P.; Pramatarova, L. D.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the relationships between material surface properties, behaviour of adsorbed proteins and cellular responses is essential to design optimal material surfaces for tissue engineering. In this study we modify thin layers of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDS) by ammonia treatment in order to increase surface wettability and the corresponding biological response. The physico-chemical properties of the polymer films were characterized by contact angle (CA) measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used as model system for the initial biocompatibility studies following their behavior upon preadsorption of polymer films with three adhesive proteins: fibronectin (FN), fibrinogen (FG) and vitronectin (VN). Adhesive interaction of HUVEC was evaluated after 2 hours by analyzing the overall cell morphology, and the organization of focal adhesion contacts and actin cytoskeleton. We have found similar good cellular response on FN and FG coated polymer films, with better pronounced vinculin expression on FN samples while. Conversely, on VN coated surfaces the wettability influenced significantly initial celular interaction spreading. The results obtained suggested that ammonia plasma treatment can modulate the biological activity of the adsorbed protein s on PPHMDS surfaces and thus to influence the interaction with endothelial cells.

  11. Biocompatibility of natural latex implanted into dental alveolus of rats.

    PubMed

    Balabanian, Cláudia A C A; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; Lamano-Carvalho, Teresa L; Lacerda, Suzie A; Brentegani, Luiz G

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated the biocompatibility of a biopolymer based on vegetable latex extracted from the Hevea brasiliensis rubber tree, implanted into the bony alveolar cavity after dental extraction in rats. A granule of latex (area = 0.25 +/- 0.04 mm(2)) was implanted inside the alveolus immediately after extraction of the upper right incisor, and the animals were sacrificed 7, 21 and 42 days after the procedure. The hemi-maxillas were decalcified and processed for embedding in paraffin to obtain semi-serial longitudinal sections 5 mum thick, and then stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The latex granule was observed in the cervical third of the alveolus without any foreign body reaction, or persistence of the initial acute inflammatory reaction. Bone repair in the areas adjacent to the material was quantified, and a decrease was noted in the thickness of the fibrous capsule surrounding the implants from 92.8 +/- 9.3 microm on day 7 to 9.4 +/- 1.8 microm on day 42 (ANOVA, P = 0.01). The quantitative data confirmed acceleration of bone formation (statistically significant at 5%) in parallel with a decrease of connective tissue in the areas around the implants. These results show that the tested material is biologically compatible, and progressively integrated into the alveolar bone, simultaneously accelerating bone formation and playing an important role in the healing process.

  12. Mechanical properties, structure, bioadhesion, and biocompatibility of pectin hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Markov, Pavel A; Krachkovsky, Nikita S; Durnev, Eugene A; Martinson, Ekaterina A; Litvinets, Sergey G; Popov, Sergey V

    2017-09-01

    The surface structure, biocompatibility, textural, and adhesive properties of calcium hydrogels derived from 1, 2, and 4% solutions of apple pectin were examined in this study. An increase in the pectin concentration in hydrogels was shown to improve their stability toward elastic and plastic deformation. The elasticity of pectin hydrogels, measured as Young's modulus, ranged from 6 to 100 kPa. The mechanical properties of the pectin hydrogels were shown to correspond to those of soft tissues. The characterization of surface roughness in terms of the roughness profile (Ra) and the root-mean-square deviation of the roughness profile (Rq) indicated an increased roughness profile for hydrogels depending on their pectin concentration. The adhesion of AU2% and AU4% hydrogels to the serosa abdominal wall, liver, and colon was higher than that of the AU1% hydrogel. The adhesion of macrophages and the non-specific adsorption of blood plasma proteins were found to increase as the pectin concentration in the hydrogels increased. The rate of degradation of all hydrogels was higher in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) than that in DMEM and a fibroblast cell monolayer. The pectin hydrogel was also found to have a low cytotoxicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2572-2581, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Controlled evacuation using the biocompatible and energy efficient microfluidic ejector.

    PubMed

    Lad, V N; Ralekar, Swati

    2016-10-01

    Development of controlled vacuum is having many applications in the realm of biotechnology, cell transfer, gene therapy, biomedical engineering and other engineering activities involving separation or chemical reactions. Here we show the controlled vacuum generation through a biocompatible, energy efficient, low-cost and flexible miniature device. We have designed and fabricated microfluidic devices from polydimethylsiloxane which are capable of producing vacuum at a highly controlled rate by using water as a motive fluid. Scrupulous removal of infected fluid/body fluid from the internal hemorrhage affected parts during surgical operations, gene manipulation, cell sorting, and other biomedical activities require complete isolation of the delicate cells or tissues adjacent to the targeted location. We demonstrate the potential of the miniature device to obtain controlled evacuation without the use of highly pressurized motive fluids. Water has been used as a motive liquid to eject vapor and liquid at ambient conditions through the microfluidic devices prepared using a low-cost fabrication method. The proposed miniature device may find applications in vacuum generation especially where the controlled rate of evacuation, and limited vacuum generation are of utmost importance in order to precisely protect the cells in the nearby region of the targeted evacuated area.

  14. Performance and Biocompatibility of Extremely Tough Alginate/Polyacrylamide Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Max; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Mehta, Manav; Johnson, Chris; Arany, Praveen; Suo, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Although hydrogels now see widespread use in a host of applications, low fracture toughness and brittleness have limited their more broad use. As a recently described interpenetrating network (IPN) of alginate and polyacrylamide demonstrated a fracture toughness of ∼9000 J/m2, we sought to explore the biocompatibility and maintenance of mechanical properties of these hydrogels in cell culture and in vivo conditions. These hydrogels can sustain a compressive strain of over 90% with minimal loss of Young's Modulus as well as minimal swelling for up to 50 days of soaking in culture conditions. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells exposed to the IPN gel-conditioned media maintain high viability, and although cells exposed to conditioned media demonstrate slight reductions in proliferation and metabolic activity (WST assay), these effects are abrogated in a dose-dependent manner. Implantation of these IPN hydrogels into subcutaneous tissue of rats for 8 weeks led to mild fibrotic encapsulation and minimal inflammatory response. These results suggest the further exploration of extremely tough alginate/PAAM IPN hydrogels as biomaterials. PMID:23896005

  15. In vitro biocompatibility of schwann cells on surfaces of biocompatible polymeric electrospun fibrous and solution-cast film scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sangsanoh, Pakakrong; Waleetorncheepsawat, Suchada; Suwantong, Orawan; Wutticharoenmongkol, Patcharaporn; Weeranantanapan, Oratai; Chuenjitbuntaworn, Boontharika; Cheepsunthorn, Poonlarp; Pavasant, Prasit; Supaphol, Pitt

    2007-05-01

    The in vitro responses of Schwann cells (RT4-D6P2T, a schwannoma cell line derived from a chemically induced rat peripheral neurotumor) on various types of electrospun fibrous scaffolds of some commercially available biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, i.e., poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), and chitosan (CS), were reported in comparison with those of the cells on corresponding solution-cast film scaffolds as well as on a tissue-culture polystyrene plate (TCPS), used as the positive control. At 24 h after cell seeding, the viability of the attached cells on the various substrates could be ranked as follows: PCL film > TCPS > PCL fibrous > PLLA fibrous > PHBV film > CS fibrous approximately CS film approximately PLLA film > PHB film > PHBV fibrous > PHB fibrous. At day 3 of cell culture, the viability of the proliferated cells on the various substrates could be ranked as follows: TCPS > PHBV film > PLLA film > PCL film > PLLA fibrous > PHB film approximately PCL fibrous > CS fibrous > CS film > PHB fibrous > PHBV fibrous. At approximately 8 h after cell seeding, the cells on the flat surfaces of all of the film scaffolds and that of the PCL nanofibrous scaffold appeared in their characteristic spindle shape, while those on the surfaces of the PHB, PHBV, and PLLA macrofibrous scaffolds also appeared in their characteristic spindle shape, but with the cells being able to penetrate to the inner side of the scaffolds.

  16. Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciane Madureira; Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Magno, Lais Nogueira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Peixoto, Nei; Mrué, Fátima; Melo-Reis, Paulo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Pablo José

    2014-09-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines.

  17. Influence of Electropolishing and Magnetoelectropolishing on Corrosion and Biocompatibility of Titanium Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zia ur; Pompa, Luis; Haider, Waseem

    2014-11-01

    Titanium alloys are playing a vital role in the field of biomaterials due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. These alloys enhance the quality and longevity of human life by replacing or treating various parts of the body. However, as these materials are in constant contact with the aggressive body fluids, corrosion of these alloys leads to metal ions release. These ions leach to the adjacent tissues and result in adverse biological reactions and mechanical failure of implant. Surface modifications are used to improve corrosion resistance and biological activity without changing their bulk properties. In this investigation, electropolishing and magnetoelectropolishing were carried out on commercially pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, and Ti6Al4V-ELI. These surface modifications are known to effect surface charge, chemistry, morphology; wettability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility of these materials. In vitro cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted in phosphate buffer saline in compliance with ASTM standard F-2129-12. The surface morphology, roughness, and wettability of these alloys were studied using scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and contact angle meter, respectively. Moreover, biocompatibility of titanium alloys was assessed by growing MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells on them.

  18. Biocompatibility and osteoconduction of macroporous silk fibroin implants in cortical defects in sheep.

    PubMed

    Uebersax, Lorenz; Apfel, Tanja; Nuss, Katja M R; Vogt, Rainer; Kim, Hyoen Yoo; Meinel, Lorenz; Kaplan, David L; Auer, Joerg A; Merkle, Hans P; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2013-09-01

    The goal of the presented study was to compare the biocompatibility and cellular responses to porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds produced in a water-based (UPW) or a solvent based process (HFIP) using two different SF sources. For that reason, four different SF scaffolds were implanted (n=6) into drill hole defects in the cancellous bone of the sheep tibia and humerus. The scaffolds were evaluated histologically for biocompatibility, cell-material interaction, and cellular ingrowth. New bone formation was observed macroscopically and histologically at 8 weeks after implantation. For semiquantitative evaluation, the investigated parameters were scored and statistically analyzed (factorial ANOVA). All implants showed good biocompatibility as evident by low infiltration of inflammatory cells and the absent encapsulation of the scaffolds in connective tissue. Multinuclear foreign body giant cells (MFGCs) and macrophages were present in all parts of the scaffold at the material surface and actively degrading the SF material. Cell ingrowth and vascularization were uniform across the scaffold. However, in HFIP scaffolds, local regions of void pores were present throughout the scaffold, probably due to the low pore interconnectivity in this scaffold type in contrast to UPW scaffolds. The amount of newly formed bone was very low in both scaffold types but was more abundant in the periphery than in the center of the scaffolds and for HFIP scaffolds mainly restricted to single pores.

  19. In vivo biocompatibility and biodegradation of a novel thin and mechanically stable collagen scaffold.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Held, Manuel; Knoeller, Tabea; Stachon, Susanne; Schmidt, Timo; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Just, Lothar

    2014-04-01

    The demand for scaffolds comprised of natural materials such as collagen has increased in recent years. However, many scaffolds rely on chemical or physical modifications in order to comply with the necessary requirements for biomedical engineering. We evaluated the in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradation of a novel, thin, mechanically stable, and chemically non-crosslinked collagen cell carrier (CCC). CCC was implanted subcutaneously into 25 adult Lewis rats and biopsies were taken on days 7, 14, 21, 42, and 84 after surgery. For histological analysis, paraffin sections of implanted skin were immunolabeled for CD68 and stained by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson-Goldner's trichrome method. Macroscopic analysis of skin surface during wound healing process showed a normal physiological reaction. Biodegradation of CCC was completed 42 days after subcutaneous implantation. Histological evaluation revealed no evidence of encapsulation, scar formation, or long-term vascularization and inflammation. The collagen type I based biomaterial demonstrated a high in vivo biocompatibility, low irritability, complete resorption, and replacement by autologous tissue. The in vivo biocompatibility and degradation behavior encourage for further evaluation of CCC in surgical applications and regenerative medicine.

  20. Enhanced biocompatibility and adhesive properties of modified allyl 2-cyanoacrylate-based elastic bio-glues.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin Ik; Kim, Ji Hye

    2015-09-01

    Despite cyanoacrylate's numerous advantages such as good cosmetic results and fast application for first aid, drawbacks such as brittleness and local tissue toxicity have limited their applicability. In this study, to improve both the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of cyanoacrylate, allyl 2-cyanoacrylate (AC) was pre-polymerized and mixed with poly(L-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL, 50:50) as biodegradable elastomer. For various properties of pre-polymerized AC (PAC)/PLCL mixtures, bond strength, elasticity of flexure test as bending recovery, cell viability, and in vivo test using rat were conducted and enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility were confirmed. Especially, optimal condition for pre-polymerization of AC was determined to 150°C for 40min through cytotoxicity test. Bond strength of PAC/PLCL mixture was decreased (over 10 times) with increasing of PLCL. On the other hand, biocompatibility and flexibility were improved than commercial bio-glue. Optimal PAC/PLCL composition (4g/20mg) was determined through these tests. Furthermore, harmful side effects and infection were not observed by in vivo wound healing test. These results indicate that PAC/PLCL materials can be used widely as advanced bio-glues in various fields.

  1. Influence of surface modification on corrosion and biocompatibility of titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zia Ur

    Titanium alloys are playing a vital role in the field of biomaterials due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. These alloys enhance the quality and longevity of human life by replacing or treating various parts of the body. However, as these materials are in constant contact with the aggressive body fluids, corrosion leads to metal ions dissolution. These ions leach to the adjacent tissues and causes adverse reactions. Surface modifications are used to improve corrosion resistance and biological activity without changing their bulk properties. In this investigation, electropolishing, magnetoelectropolishing, titanium coating and hydroxiapatitecoating were carried out on commercially pure titanium (CPTi), Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V-ELI (Extra Low Interstitials). These surface modifications are known to effect surface charge, chemistry, morphology; wettability, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of these materials. In vitro cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted in phosphate buffer saline in compliance with ASTM standard. The surface morphology, roughness and wettability of these alloys were studied using scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and contact angle meter, respectively. Moreover, biocompatibility of titanium alloys was assessed by growing MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells on their surfaces

  2. Nanoscale silver depositions inhibit microbial colonization and improve biocompatibility of titanium abutments.

    PubMed

    Kheur, Supriya; Singh, Nimisha; Bodas, Dhananjay; Rauch, Jean-Yves; Jambhekar, Shantanu; Kheur, Mohit; Rajwade, Jyutika

    2017-07-29

    Although titanium dental implants are biocompatible, exhibit excellent corrosion resistance and high mechanical resistance, the material fails in providing resistance to infection because it exhibits poor antimicrobial activity. To address these issues, we deposited silver onto titanium abutments (Grade 5 titanium discs) using direct current (DC) sputtering and assessed the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of the modified implant material. Atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to investigate the concentration and elemental composition of the deposited silver. As expected, silver deposited using DC plasma was uniform and good control over the deposition could be achieved by varying the sputtering time. Moderate biocompatible responses (up to 69% viability) were observed in primary human gingival fibroblast cells incubated in the presence of Ti sputtered with Ag for 5min. Silver deposited titanium (Ti-Ag) showed excellent antibacterial effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus mutans at a very low concentration (Ag content 1.2 and 2.1μg/mm(2)). However, higher concentration of silver (6μg/mm(2)) was required to achieve a reduction in cell viability of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The silver sputtered Ti abutments could maintain a long-term antibacterial activity as evidenced by the release of silver up to 22days in simulated body fluid. Our study illustrates that silver deposited titanium is indeed a promising candidate for soft tissue integration on dental abutments and prevents initial microbial adhesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Feather keratin hydrogel for wound repair: Preparation, healing effect and biocompatibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju; Hao, Shilei; Luo, Tiantian; Cheng, Zhongjun; Li, Wenfeng; Gao, Feiyan; Guo, Tingwang; Gong, Yuhua; Wang, Bochu

    2017-01-01

    Keratins are highly attractive for wound healing due to their inherent bioactivity, biocompatibility and physical properties. However, nearly all wound healing studies have focused on human hair keratins, and the wound-repair effects and in vivo biocompatibilities of feather keratins are not clear. Feather keratins are derived from chicken feathers, which are considered to be the major waste in the poultry industry, and the quality of feather keratin is easier to control than that of human hair keratin due to human hair perming and colouring-dyeing. Thus, we extracted keratins from chicken feathers, and a feather keratin hydrogel was then prepared and used to test the in vivo wound-healing properties and biocompatibility. The results indicated that feather keratins displayed wound-healing and biodegradation properties similar to those of human hair keratins and were also highly compatible with those of the tissue and devoid of immunogenicity and systematic toxicity. Collectively, these results suggested that feather keratin hydrogel could be used for biomedical applications, particularly effective wound healing.

  4. Physiological saline is not a biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Heimbürger, O; Qureshi, A R; Waniewski, J; Bergström, J; Lindholm, B

    1999-02-01

    cavity may increase the peritoneal lymphatic flow; 2) The significant (apparent) increase in IPV shortly after infusion may suggest increased RISA binding to peritoneal tissues (which may be related to the damage of the tissues, and results in overestimation of the peritoneal fluid absorption rate); 3) Saline is not a biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solution, and should therefore not be used as a control or flush solution.

  5. [Evaluation of biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds fabricated by electron beam melting].

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Zhao, B J; Yan, R Z; Wang, C; Luo, C C; Hu, M

    2016-11-09

    Objective: To investigate the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds fabricated by electron beam melting(EBM). Methods: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSC) co-cultured with Ti-6Al-4V specimens fabricated with EBM was prepared as experimental group and the regular cells culture was employed as control. The biocompatibility was detected using CCK-8 and cytoskeleton staining. The osteogenic differentiation ability was assessed using mineralization nodule formation. A 24 mm defect was created on the right mandibular body in 12 beagles. The mandibular defects were repaired with Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds mesh fabricated by EBM. General observation, CT and histology examination was carried out to evaluated the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds in vivo. Results: CCK-8 result showed the A values of the two groups had no significant difference(P >0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Cytoskeletal staining showed that cells were fully stretched out and grew well on T-i6Al-4V specimen. The actin fibers were arranged in parallel and stained uniformly with fluorescent. After osteogenic culture, the quantity of the nodule formation of the experimental group and control group were 5.7±0.7 and 5.1 ± 0.6, respectively(P>0.05). All animals had tolerated the surgery and healed well. CT examination showed that Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds mesh had good retention with surrounding bone and the continuity of mandible was restored. Histological examination showed that no inflammation reaction or toxity was caused in the soft tissue surrounding the scaffolds and in the liver and kidney after implantation. Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds had good retention with surrounding bone. Conclusions: Ti-6Al-4V fabricated with electron beam melting has good biocompatibility.

  6. In Vitro Study of Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Magnesium Nanomaterials for Biodegradable Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavi, Manishi

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) has a great potential to be used as a next generation implant material for orthopedic applications due to its mechanical and osseointegration properties. However, surface characteristics, biocompatibility and toxicity of the released corrosion products, in the form of magnesium oxide (MgO) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg (OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), at the junction of implants, and their surrounding tissues is not completely understood. Therefore, our goal was to identify in vitro biocompatibility, and toxicity of magnesium nanomaterials in osteoblast cells to mimic the in vivo environment for biodegradable implants. We hypothesized that the release of hydroxide ion (OH-) from MgO/ Mg(OH) 2 NPs will increase the corrosion behavior of these particles in osteoblast cells, and will introduce cytotoxicity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize MgO/ Mg(OH)2 NPs in osteoblast cells, and to develop an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system to measure the biocompatibility and toxicity of these particles in osteoblast cells. The corrosion behavior of the samples was analyzed through immersion test. The morphological characterization and element distribution of the surface corrosion products of the samples was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), respectively. Cell viability and cytotoxicity of the samples was studied by live-dead assay. With ECIS system, biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the samples was analyzed. Results shows that less than or equal to 1 mM concentrations of MgO/ Mg(OH) 2 NPs has negligible toxic effects on osteoblast cells. Therefore, this study provides a foundational knowledge for an acceptable range of these corrosion products that might release from the magnesium-based implants in the physiological environment, in order to understand the implant degradation for future in vivo study.

  7. Ceramic scaffolds produced by computer-assisted 3D printing and sintering: characterization and biocompatibility investigations.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Patrick H; Seitz, Hermann; Warnke, Frauke; Becker, Stephan T; Sivananthan, Sureshan; Sherry, Eugene; Liu, Qin; Wiltfang, Jörg; Douglas, Timothy

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) are two very common ceramic materials for bone replacement. However, in general HAP and TCP scaffolds are not tailored to the exact dimensions of the defect site and are mainly used as granules or beads. Some scaffolds are available as ordinary blocks, but cannot be customized for individual perfect fit. Using computer-assisted 3D printing, an emerging rapid prototyping technique, individual three-dimensional ceramic scaffolds can be built up from TCP or HAP powder layer by layer with subsequent sintering. These scaffolds have precise dimensions and highly defined and regular internal characteristics such as pore size. External shape and internal characteristics such as pore size can be fabricated using Computer Assisted Design (CAD) based on individual patient data. Thus, these scaffolds could be designed as perfect fit replacements to reconstruct the patient's skeleton. Before their use as bone replacement materials in vivo, in vitro testing of these scaffolds is necessary. In this study, the behavior of human osteoblasts on HAP and TCP scaffolds was investigated. The commonly used bone replacement material BioOss(R) served as control. Biocompatibility was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy after staining for cell vitality with fluorescin diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) and the MTT, LDH, and WST biocompatibility tests. Both versions were colonised by human osteoblasts, however more cells were seen on HAP scaffolds than TCP scaffolds. Cell vitality staining and MTT, LDH, and WST tests showed superior biocompatibility of HAP scaffolds to BioOss, while BioOss was more compatible than TCP. Further experiments are necessary to determine biocompatibility in vivo. Future modifications of 3D printed scaffolds offer advantageous features for Tissue Engineering. The integration of channels could allow for vascular and nerve ingrowth into the scaffold. Also the complex shapes

  8. In vivo biocompatibility of Resilon compared with gutta-percha in a pre-clinical model

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Miguel; Marques, Rodrigo F; Lopes, Maria Francelina; Cabrita, António S; Santos, João Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo biocompatibility of Resilon, compared with gutta-percha, at short and long-term following implantation in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were implanted subcutaneously with either Resilon or gutta-percha or were sham controls. Tissues were harvested at 8 days or 60 days after implantation and were evaluated histologically for inflammation and fibrous encapsulation. The severity of histologic injury, scored on a scale of 0-4 and quantitative analysis of the capsule wall thickness were determined for statistical analysis. Data were analyzed by Student t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-Whitney's tests as appropriate. A value of P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: No behavioral changes or visible signs of physical impairment were observed at 8 days or 60 days post-implantation. Histopathologic observation of the implanted sites at each time-point showed that both Resilon and gutta-percha implants induced foreign body reaction, showing minimal to mild inflammatory reactions in most cases, which diminished significantly with time. Compared with gutta-percha, the capsule wall was thinner (P < 0.05) after Resilon implantation at day 8 and significantly (P = 0.01) thicker at day 60. In addition, capsule wall thickness showed a trend to increase with time after implantation in the Resilon groups (P < 0.05), opposed to the significant decrease (P = 0.016) observed after implantation in the gutta-percha groups, suggesting lesser long-term biocompatibility of Resilon. Conclusion: Our findings validate Resilon as an in vivo biocompatible material. However, our data suggest that long-term biocompatibility of Resilon, despite validated, is inferior to that of gutta-percha control. PMID:24348625

  9. Biocompatibility of chemically cross-linked gelatin hydrogels for ophthalmic use.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2010-06-01

    Biocompatibility is a major requirement for the development of functional biomaterials for ophthalmic applications. In this study, we investigated the effect of cross-linker functionality on ocular biocompatibility of chemically modified gelatin hydrogels. The test materials were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GTA) or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC), and were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Primary rat iris pigment epithelial cultures were incubated with various gelatin discs for 2 days, and the cellular responses were monitored by cell proliferation, viability, and pro-inflammatory gene and cytokine expression. The results demonstrated that the cells exposed to EDC cross-linked gelatins had relatively lower lactate dehydrogenase activity, cytotoxicity, and interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels than did those to GTA treated samples. In addition, the gelatin implants were inserted in the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes for 12 weeks and characterized by clinical observations and scanning electron microscopy studies. The EDC cross-linked gelatin hydrogels exhibited good biocompatibility and were well tolerated without causing toxicity and adverse effects. However, a significant inflammatory reaction was elicited by the presence of GTA treated materials. It was noted that, despite its biocompatibility, the potential application of non-cross-linked gelatin for local delivery of cell and drug therapeutics would be limited due to rapid dissolution in aqueous environments. In conclusion, these findings suggest ocular cell/tissue response to changes in cross-linker properties. In comparison to GTA treatment, the EDC cross-linking is more suitable for preparation of chemically modified gelatin hydrogels for ophthalmic use.

  10. A new strategy for the decellularisation of large equine tendons as biocompatible tendon substitutes.

    PubMed

    Bottagisio, M; Pellegata, A F; Boschetti, F; Ferroni, M; Moretti, M; Lovati, A B

    2016-07-08

    Tendon ruptures and/or large losses remain to be a great clinical challenge and often require full replacement of the damaged tissue. The use of auto- and allografts or engineered scaffolds is an established approach to restore severe tendon injuries. However, these grafts are commonly related to scarce biocompatibility, site morbidity, chronic inflammation and poor biomechanical properties. Recently, the decellularisation techniques of allo- or xenografts using specific detergents have been studied and have been found to generate biocompatible substitutes that resemble the native tissue. This study aims to identify a novel decellularisation protocol for large equine tendons that would produce an extracellular matrix scaffold suitable for the regeneration of injured tendons in humans. Specifically, equine tendons were treated either with tri (n-butyl) phosphate alone, or associated to multiple concentrations of peracetic acid (1, 3 and 5 %), which has never before been tested in vitro.Samples were then analysed by histology and with biochemical, biomechanical, and cytotoxicity tests. The best decellularisation protocol, resulting from these examinations, was selected and the chosen scaffold was re-seeded with murine fibroblasts. Resulting grafts were tested for cell viability, histologic analysis, DNA and collagen content. The results identified 1 % tri (n-butyl) phosphate combined with 3 % peracetic acid as the most suitable decellularised matrix in terms of biochemical and biomechanical properties. Moreover, the non-cytotoxic nature of the decellularised matrix allowed for good fibroblast reseeding, thus demonstrating a biocompatible matrix that will be suitable for tendon tissue engineering and hopefully as substitutes in severe tendon damages.

  11. Biocompatibility evaluation of densified bacterial nanocellulose hydrogel as an implant material for auricular cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Martínez Ávila, Héctor; Schwarz, Silke; Feldmann, Eva-Maria; Mantas, Athanasios; von Bomhard, Achim; Gatenholm, Paul; Rotter, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), synthesized by the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus, is composed of highly hydrated fibrils (99 % water) with high mechanical strength. These exceptional material properties make BNC a novel biomaterial for many potential medical and tissue engineering applications. Recently, BNC with cellulose content of 15 % has been proposed as an implant material for auricular cartilage replacement, since it matches the mechanical requirements of human auricular cartilage. This study investigates the biocompatibility of BNC with increased cellulose content (17 %) to evaluate its response in vitro and in vivo. Cylindrical BNC structures (Ø48 × 20 mm) were produced, purified in a built-in house perfusion system, and compressed to increase the cellulose content in BNC hydrogels. The reduction of endotoxicity of the material was quantified by bacterial endotoxin analysis throughout the purification process. Afterward, the biocompatibility of the purified BNC hydrogels with cellulose content of 17 % was assessed in vitro and in vivo, according to standards set forth in ISO 10993. The endotoxin content in non-purified BNC (2,390 endotoxin units (EU)/ml) was reduced to 0.10 EU/ml after the purification process, level well below the endotoxin threshold set for medical devices. Furthermore, the biocompatibility tests demonstrated that densified BNC hydrogels are non-cytotoxic and cause a minimal foreign body response. In support with our previous findings, this study concludes that BNC with increased cellulose content of 17 % is a promising non-resorbable biomaterial for auricular cartilage tissue engineering, due to its similarity with auricular cartilage in terms of mechanical strength and host tissue response.

  12. Ocular Biocompatibility of Nitinol Intraocular Clips

    PubMed Central

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Erlanger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the tolerance and biocompatibility of a preformed nitinol intraocular clip in an animal model after anterior segment surgery. Methods. Yucatan mini-pigs were used. A 30-gauge prototype injector was used to attach a shape memory nitinol clip to the iris of five pigs. Another five eyes received conventional polypropylene suture with a modified Seipser slip knot. The authors compared the surgical time of each technique. All eyes underwent standard full-field electroretinogram at baseline and 8 weeks after surgery. The animals were euthanized and eyes collected for histologic analysis after 70 days (10 weeks) postsurgery. The corneal thickness, corneal endothelial cell counts, specular microscopy parameters, retina cell counts, and electroretinogram parameters were compared between the groups. A two sample t-test for means and a P value of 0.05 were use for assessing statistical differences between measurements. Results. The injection of the nitinol clip was 15 times faster than conventional suturing. There were no statistical differences between the groups for corneal thickness, endothelial cell counts, specular microscopy parameters, retina cell counts, and electroretinogram measurements. Conclusions. The nitinol clip prototype is well tolerated and showed no evidence of toxicity in the short-term. The injectable delivery system was faster and technically less challenging than conventional suture techniques. PMID:22064995

  13. Evaluation of iron oxide nanoparticle biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Hanini, Amel; Schmitt, Alain; Kacem, Kamel; Chau, François; Ammar, Souad; Gavard, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting field of investigation for the development of new treatments for many human diseases. However, it is necessary to assess the biocompatibility of nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo before considering clinical applications. Our characterization of polyol-produced maghemite γ-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles showed high structural quality. The particles showed a homogeneous spherical size around 10 nm and could form aggregates depending on the dispersion conditions. Such nanoparticles were efficiently taken up in vitro by human endothelial cells, which represent the first biological barrier to nanoparticles in vivo. However, γ-Fe(2)O(3) can cause cell death within 24 hours of exposure, most likely through oxidative stress. Further in vivo exploration suggests that although γ-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles are rapidly cleared through the urine, they can lead to toxicity in the liver, kidneys and lungs, while the brain and heart remain unaffected. In conclusion, γ-Fe(2)O(3) could exhibit harmful properties and therefore surface coating, cellular targeting, and local exposure should be considered before developing clinical applications.

  14. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of two polyepoxy matrices: DGEBA-DDM and DGEBA-IPD.

    PubMed

    Berruet, R; Vinard, E; Calle, A; Tighzert, H L; Chabert, B; Magloire, H; Eloy, R

    1987-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of materials for orthopaedic and odontologic surgical use. The products used were obtained by polycondensation of a diepoxy resin (DGEBA) with two curing agents (DDM or IPD). The materials present a slight swelling in liquid medium and their thermomechanical properties are hardly affected after 12 month implantation. The absence of molecular desorption in isotonic liquid and human serum confirms their hydrolytic stability and thus their inertia. These materials do not give rise to an intolerance reaction by neighbouring tissues during implantation time (1 d to 12 month).

  15. Biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite scaffolds processed by lithography-based additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Tesavibul, Passakorn; Chantaweroad, Surapol; Laohaprapanon, Apinya; Channasanon, Somruethai; Uppanan, Paweena; Tanodekaew, Siriporn; Chalermkarnnon, Prasert; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications by using lithography-based additive manufacturing techniques has been introduced due to the abilities to control porous structures with suitable resolutions. In this research, the use of hydroxyapatite cellular structures, which are processed by lithography-based additive manufacturing machine, as a bone tissue engineering scaffold was investigated. The utilization of digital light processing system for additive manufacturing machine in laboratory scale was performed in order to fabricate the hydroxyapatite scaffold, of which biocompatibilities were eventually evaluated by direct contact and cell-culturing tests. In addition, the density and compressive strength of the scaffolds were also characterized. The results show that the hydroxyapatite scaffold at 77% of porosity with 91% of theoretical density and 0.36 MPa of the compressive strength are able to be processed. In comparison with a conventionally sintered hydroxyapatite, the scaffold did not present any cytotoxic signs while the viability of cells at 95.1% was reported. After 14 days of cell-culturing tests, the scaffold was able to be attached by pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) leading to cell proliferation and differentiation. The hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering was able to be processed by the lithography-based additive manufacturing machine while the biocompatibilities were also confirmed.

  16. Enhanced Biocompatibility in Anodic TaO x Nanotube Arrays.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Jin; Twan, Sheng-Chen; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Huang, Her-Hsiung; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Wang, Chien-Ying; Lan, Ming-Ying; Lee, Sheng-Wei

    2017-10-03

    This study first investigates the biocompatibility of self-organized TaO x nanotube arrays with different nanotube diameters fabricated by electrochemical anodization. All as-anodized TaO x nanotubes were identified to be an amorphous phase. The transition in surface wettability with TaO x nanotube diameters can be explained based on Wenzel's model in terms of geometric roughness. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation further indicates that fibroblast cells exhibit an obvious wettability-dependent behavior on the TaO x nanotubes. The 35-nm-diameter TaO x nanotube arrays reveal the highest biocompatibility among all samples. This enhancement could be attributed to highly dense focal points provided by TaO x nanotubes due to higher surface hydrophilicity. This work demonstrates that the biocompatibility in Ta can be improved by forming TaO x nanotube arrays on the surface with appropriate nanotube diameter and geometric roughness.

  17. Vectorization of copper complexes via biocompatible and biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courant, T.; Roullin, V. G.; Cadiou, C.; Delavoie, F.; Molinari, M.; Andry, M. C.; Gafa, V.; Chuburu, F.

    2010-04-01

    A double emulsion-solvent diffusion approach with fully biocompatible materials was used to encapsulate copper complexes within biodegradable nanoparticles, for which the release kinetics profiles have highlighted their potential use for a prolonged circulating administration.

  18. Vectorization of copper complexes via biocompatible and biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Courant, T; Roullin, V G; Cadiou, C; Delavoie, F; Molinari, M; Andry, M C; Gafa, V; Chuburu, F

    2010-04-23

    A double emulsion-solvent diffusion approach with fully biocompatible materials was used to encapsulate copper complexes within biodegradable nanoparticles, for which the release kinetics profiles have highlighted their potential use for a prolonged circulating administration.

  19. Sculpting with light: Light/matter interactions in biocompatible polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Matthew B.

    When light interacts with matter either the light or the material can be changed. This dissertation focuses on light/matter interaction in silk fibroin and its utility for biomedical applications. Silk, a natural biocompatible, biodegradable polymer, has a large 3-photon absorption cross-section which allows modest peak intensity light to cause significant multiphoton absorption. This absorption allows voids to be formed with three dimensional control within soft, transparent silk hydrogels. A theoretical model of the void formation process is developed to allow the size of the voids to be predicted for a range of laser and sample parameters. Arbitrary 3D patterns are created in silk gels that allow cells to penetrate into the bulk of the gel both in vitro and in vivo. To explore how silk can be used to alter light, the creation of step-index optical waveguides, formed by encapsulating a silk film within a silk hydrogel, is described. These waveguides allow light to be delivered to targets through several centimeters of highly scattering biological tissue. Finally, the interaction of light with riboflavin is used to photocrosslink silk to form solid structures, rather than voids. The mechanism of crosslinking to be driven by radicalized tyrosine residues resulting in the formation of dityrosine bonds which lead to the gelation of a liquid silk solution. Riboflavin is a versatile photoinitiator and can be used to crosslink collagen as well as silk, which allows silk to be crosslinked directly to corneal collagen. When applied to the eye, an artificial corneal layer is formed which has the potential to treat various corneal diseases and allow for risk-free laser vision correction. These studies show the versatility of light-based processing of silk for a wide variety of medical applications.

  20. Synthesis, Biodegradability, and Biocompatibility of Lysine Diisocyanate–Glucose Polymers

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIAN-YING; BECKMAN, ERIC J.; HU, JING; YANG, GUO-GUANG; AGARWAL, SUDHA; HOLLINGER, JEFFREY O.

    2016-01-01

    The success of a tissue-engineering application depends on the use of suitable biomaterials that degrade in a timely manner and induce the least immunogenicity in the host. With this purpose in mind, we have attempted to synthesize a novel nontoxic biodegradable lysine diisocyanate (LDI)-and glucose-based polymer via polymerization of highly purified LDI with glucose and its subsequent hydration to form a spongy matrix. The LDI–glucose polymer was degradable in aqueous solutions at 37, 22, and 4°C, and yielded lysine and glucose as breakdown products. The degradation products of the LDI–glucose polymer did not significantly affect the pH of the solution. The physical properties of the polymer were found to be adequate for supporting cell growth in vitro, as evidenced by the fact that rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) attached to the polymer matrix, remained viable on its surface, and formed multilayered confluent cultures with retention of their phenotype over a period of 2 to 4 weeks. These observations suggest that the LDI–glucose polymer and its degradation products were nontoxic in vitro. Further examination in vivo over 8 weeks revealed that subcutaneous implantation of hydrated matrix degraded in vivo three times faster than in vitro. The implanted polymer was not immunogenic and did not induce antibody responses in the host. Histological analysis of the implanted polymer showed that LDI–glucose polymer induced a minimal foreign body reaction, with formation of a capsule around the degrading polymer. The results suggest that biodegradable peptide-based polymers can be synthesized, and may potentially find their way into biomedical applications because of their biodegradability and biocompatibility. PMID:12459056

  1. Biocompatibility and setting time of CPM-MTA and white Portland cement clinker with or without calcium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Kato, Marcia Magro; Assis, Gerson Francisco de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Bernardineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Bramante, Alexandre Silva

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and the setting time of Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA-CPM. Twenty-four mice (Rattus norvegicus) received subcutaneously polyethylene tubes filled with Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA. After 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation, the animals were killed and specimens were prepared for microscopic analysis. For evaluation of the setting time, each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles weighing 113.5 g and 456.5 g, according to the ASTM specification Number C266-08 guideline. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test for setting time and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn test for biocompatibility at 5% significance level. Histologic observation showed no statistically significant difference of biocompatibility (p>0.05) among the materials in the subcutaneous tissues. For the setting time, clinker without calcium sulfate showed the shortest initial and final setting times (6.18 s/21.48 s), followed by clinker with 2% calcium sulfate (9.22 s/25.33 s), clinker with 5% calcium sulfate (10.06 s/42.46 s) and MTA (15.01 s/42.46 s). All the tested materials showed biocompatibility and the calcium sulfate absence shortened the initial and final setting times of the white Portland cement clinker.

  2. Biocompatibility and setting time of CPM-MTA and white Portland cement clinker with or without calcium sulfate

    PubMed Central

    BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; KATO, Marcia Magro; de ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; BERNARDINELI, Norberti; de MORAES, Ivaldo Gomes; GARCIA, Roberto Brandão; ORDINOLA-ZAPATA, Ronald; BRAMANTE, Alexandre Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biocompatibility and the setting time of Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA-CPM. Material and Methods: Twenty-four mice (Rattus norvegicus) received subcutaneously polyethylene tubes filled with Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA. After 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation, the animals were killed and specimens were prepared for microscopic analysis. For evaluation of the setting time, each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles weighing 113.5 g and 456.5 g, according to the ASTM specification Number C266-08 guideline. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test for setting time and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn test for biocompatibility at 5% significance level. Results: Histologic observation showed no statistically significant difference of biocompatibility (p>0.05) among the materials in the subcutaneous tissues. For the setting time, clinker without calcium sulfate showed the shortest initial and final setting times (6.18 s/21.48 s), followed by clinker with 2% calcium sulfate (9.22 s/25.33 s), clinker with 5% calcium sulfate (10.06 s/42.46 s) and MTA (15.01 s/42.46 s). Conclusions: All the tested materials showed biocompatibility and the calcium sulfate absence shortened the initial and final setting times of the white Portland cement clinker. PMID:23559109

  3. A novel method to in vitro evaluate biocompatibility of nanoscaled scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Tianxiao; Yu, Bo; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Watari, Fumio

    2016-09-01

    This study provided a new method to in vitro evaluate the biocompatibility of nanoscaled scaffolds for tissue engineering with neutrophils other than ordinary cell culture. The neutrophils were separated from human peripheral blood of healthy subjects. In vitro degradation product of nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC), nanohydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactic acid) (nHACP), and nHACP reinforced by chitin fibers (nHACP/CF) in the D-Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (D-HBSS) was used as the testing solution, which was thereafter mixed with the neutrophils. It was shown that the cell survival rate in the testing solutions had no significant difference from that in the D-HBSS (control). However, from both gene and protein expression levels, the lactate dehydrogenase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha of the neutrophils in the nHACP/CF testing solution were found lowest during the whole testing period; the main reasons of which might be that the calcium release rate of the scaffold was slowest and that the pH value of its degradation solution was nearest to that of human body. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that most inflammation reactions happened for nHAC and poly (L-lactic acid) groups, while the least inflammation reactions happened for nHACP/CF group in the subcutaneous dorsum of mice at 2 weeks after the surgery, which confirmed the in vitro findings. These results indicated that the pH value and the certain metal iron concentration of the nanoscaled scaffold degradation solution should be two important factors that significantly affect its biocompatibility. This study provides a simple and effective biocompatibility test method for biodegradable nanoscaled tissue engineering scaffolds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2117-2125, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of stability and biocompatibility of PHEMA-PMMA keratoprosthesis by penetrating keratoplasty in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yawon

    2016-01-01

    Artificial corneas have been developed as an alternative to natural donor tissue to replace damaged or diseased corneas. This study was conducted to evaluate the stability and biocompatibility of PHEMA-PMMA [poly (2-hydroxyl methacrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate)] keratoprostheses in rabbits following penetrating keratoplasty. Sixteen male New Zealand White rabbits aged 16 weeks were divided into three groups. Group I and group II contained six rabbits each, while the control group had four rabbits. Experimental surgery was conducted under general anesthesia. The cornea was penetrated using an 8 mm diameter biopsy punch. In group I (core 5 mm & skirt 3 mm) and group II (core 6 mm & skirt 2 mm), the keratoprosthesis was placed into the recipient full thickness bed and sutured into position with double-layer continuous. In the control group, corneal transplantation using normal allogenic corneal tissue was performed with the same suture method. After four and eight weeks, keratoprosthesis devices were evaluated by histopathological analysis of gross lesions. Post-operative complications were observed, such as extrusion and infection in experimental groups. Most corneas were maintained in the defect site by double-layer continuous suture materials for 4 weeks and kept good light transmission. However, most artificial cornea were extruded before 8 weeks. Overall, combined PHEMA and PMMA appears to have sufficient advantages for production of artificial corneas because of its optical transparency, flexibility and other mechanical features. However, the stability and biocompatibility were not sufficient to enable application in humans and animals at the present time using penetrating keratoplasty. Further studies are essential to improve the stability and biocompatibility with or without other types of keratoplasty. PMID:28053610

  5. Nanospearing - Biomolecule Delivery and Its Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dong; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng; Carnahan, David; Chiles, Thomas C.

    stimulation in as robust a manner as cells left untreated. Our study suggests the biocompatibility of the nanospearing procedure and PECVD nanotubes under the proposed spearing conditions with regard to the humoral component of the immune system, therefore, reducing concerns that surround in vivo applications of CNTs.

  6. Biocompatible hemodialysis membranes for acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Lau, J; Jaber, B L

    2008-01-23

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Some studies have reported a survival advantage among patients dialyzed with biocompatible membranes (BCM) compared to bioincompatible membranes (BICM). These findings were not consistently observed in subsequent studies. To ascertain whether the use of BCM confers an advantage in either survival or recovery of renal function over the use of BICM in adult patients with ARF requiring intermittent hemodialysis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (from 1966), EMBASE (from 1980), the Mexican Index of Latin American Biomedical Journals IMBIOMED (from 1990), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database LILACS (from 1982), and reference lists of articles. Search date: January 2007 Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the use of a BCM with a BICM in patients > 18 years of age with ARF requiring intermittent hemodialysis. Two authors extracted the data independently. Cellulose-derived dialysis membranes were classified as BICM, and synthetic dialyzers were considered as BCM. The main outcomes were all-cause mortality and recovery of renal function by type of dialyzer. We further explored these outcomes according to the flux properties (high-flux or low-flux) of each of these dialyzers. A meta-analysis was conducted by combining data using a random-effects model. Ten studies were included in the primary analysis of mortality, with a total of 1100 patients. None of the pooled risk ratios (RRs) reached statistical significance. The pooled RR for mortality was 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.07). The overall RR for recovery of renal function, which was inclusive of 1038 patients from nine studies, was 1.09 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.31). The pooled RR for mortality by dialyzer flux property was 1.05 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.37). The pooled RR for recovery of renal function by flux

  7. Biocompatible hemodialysis membranes for acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Lau, J; Jaber, B L

    2005-04-18

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Some trials have reported a survival advantage among patients dialyzed with biocompatible membranes (BCM) compared to bioincompatible membranes (BICM). These findings were not consistently observed in subsequent studies. To ascertain whether the use of BCM confers an advantage in either survival or recovery of renal function over the use of BICM in adult patients with ARF requiring intermittent hemodialysis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, in The Cochrane Library - Issue 1, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2004), EMBASE (1980 to January 2004), the Mexican Index of Latin American Biomedical Journals IMBIOMED (1990 to January 2004), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database LILACS (1982 to January 2004), and reference lists of articles. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the use of a BCM with a BICM in patients > 18 years of age with ARF requiring intermittent hemodialysis. Two authors extracted the data independently. Cellulose-derived dialysis membranes were classified as BICM, and synthetic dialyzers were considered as BCM. The main outcomes were all-cause mortality and recovery of renal function by type of dialyzer. We further explored these outcomes according to the flux properties (high-flux or low-flux) of each of these dialyzers. A meta-analysis was conducted by combining data using a random-effects model. Nine studies were included in the primary analysis of mortality, with a total of 1062 patients. None of the pooled RR's reached statistical significance. The pooled relative risk (RR) for mortality was 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.81 to 1.07). The overall RR for recovery of renal function, inclusive of 1038 patients from nine studies was 1.09 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.31). The pooled RR for mortality by dialyzer flux property was 1.03 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.30). The RR for recovery of

  8. Biocompatible Optically Transparent MEMS for Micromechanical Stimulation and Multimodal Imaging of Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Fior, Raffaella; Kwok, Jeanie; Malfatti, Francesca; Sbaizero, Orfeo; Lal, Ratnesh

    2015-08-01

    Cells and tissues in our body are continuously subjected to mechanical stress. Mechanical stimuli, such as tensile and contractile forces, and shear stress, elicit cellular responses, including gene and protein alterations that determine key behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and adhesion. Several tools and techniques have been developed to study these mechanobiological phenomena, including micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS provide a platform for nano-to-microscale mechanical stimulation of biological samples and quantitative analysis of their biomechanical responses. However, current devices are limited in their capability to perform single cell micromechanical stimulations as well as correlating their structural phenotype by imaging techniques simultaneously. In this study, a biocompatible and optically transparent MEMS for single cell mechanobiological studies is reported. A silicon nitride microfabricated device is designed to perform uniaxial tensile deformation of single cells and tissue. Optical transparency and open architecture of the device allows coupling of the MEMS to structural and biophysical assays, including optical microscopy techniques and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We demonstrate the design, fabrication, testing, biocompatibility and multimodal imaging with optical and AFM techniques, providing a proof-of-concept for a multimodal MEMS. The integrated multimodal system would allow simultaneous controlled mechanical stimulation of single cells and correlate cellular response.

  9. Evaluation of biocompatibility and degradation of chitosan nanofiber membrane crosslinked with genipin.

    PubMed

    Bavariya, Ankit J; Andrew Norowski, P; Mark Anderson, K; Adatrow, Pradeep C; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Stein, Sidney H; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2014-07-01

    Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide, has demonstrated potential as a degradable biocompatible guided bone regeneration membrane. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility and degradation of chitosan nanofiber membranes, with and without genipin crosslinking as compared with a commercial collagen membrane in rat model. Chitosan nanofiber membranes, with and without genipin crosslinking, and collagen membrane (control) were implanted subcutaneously in the backs of 30 rats. The membranes were analyzed histologically at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. Sections were viewed and graded by a blinded pathologist using a 4-point scoring system (0 = absent, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe) to determine the tissue reaction to the membranes and to observe membrane degradation. There was no statistically significant difference in histological scores among chitosan and collagen membranes at different time points. Absence or minimal inflammation was observed in 57-74% of the membranes across all groups. Most chitosan membranes persisted for 16-20 weeks, whereas most collagen membranes disappeared by resorption at 12-16 weeks. The general tissue response to chitosan nanofiber membranes with and without genipin crosslinking, was similar to that of control commercial collagen membrane. However, the chitosan membranes exhibited slower degradation rates than collagen membranes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The electrochemical behavior of metallic implant materials as an indicator of their biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Zitter, H; Plenk, H

    1987-07-01

    This study introduces a simple in vitro arrangement to measure current densities of implant metals. The in vivo condition of a metallic implant lying in tissues exhibiting different redox potentials is simulated in so-called straddle tests by applying a constant potential difference of 250 mV in saline containing the stable, fast-reacting redox system K4Fe(CN)6/K3Fe(CN)6. From a variety of corrosion-resistant implant metals and alloys, gold showed the highest current densities, followed by the stainless steel, the cobalt-based alloy, and the TiAIV-alloy. The pure metals titanium, niobium, and tantalum showed the lowest values. This can be explained by the stable oxide layer on these base metals, preventing an exchange of electrons and thus any redox reaction. This rating of metallic implant materials based on in vitro measurements of current densities is in good accordance with their biocompatibility rating reported from in vivo experiences. It seems that simple and cheap electrochemical tests allow an even more precise differentiation of the suitability of metallic materials for implant purposes than most of the conventional implantation tests, considering that biocompatibility is not only determined by corrosion products, but also by exchange currents and reaction products of redox processes involving tissue compounds.

  11. Biocompatibility studies of natural rubber latex from different tree clones and collection methods.

    PubMed

    Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Furtado, Edson Luiz; Rossetto, Victor José Vieira; Graeff, Carlos F O

    2014-02-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) has several features that make it an excellent biomaterial to promote the growth and repair of tissues, skin and bones. Most of the research with NRL membranes uses a mixture of different clones and chemical preservatives in the collection process. In this study, we compared five clones that produce NRL, seeking to identify their differences in biocompatibility. The clones studied were RRIM 600, PB 235, GT1, PR 255 and IAN 873 commonly found in plantations in Brazil. We did also study the effect of ammonia used during latex collection. NRL membranes were prepared aseptically and sterilized. In the in vitro tests, the membranes remained in direct contact with mouse fibroblasts cells for three periods, 24, 48 and 72 h. In the in vivo tests, the membranes were implanted subcutaneously in rabbits. The results indicated the biocompatibility of the membranes obtained from all clones. Membranes from the clones RRIM 600 and IAN 873 induced greater cell proliferation, suggesting greater bioactivity. It was found that the membranes made from latex that was in contact with ammonia during collection, showed cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in cultures, as well as necrosis, and increased inflammatory cells in the rabbit's tissues close to the implant.

  12. Biocompatible optically transparent MEMS for micromechanical stimulation and multimodal imaging of living cells

    PubMed Central

    Fior, Raffaella; Kwok, Jeanie; Malfatti, Francesca; Sbaizero, Orfeo; Lal, Ratnesh

    2015-01-01

    Cells and tissues in our body are continuously subjected to mechanical stress. Mechanical stimuli, such as tensile and contractile forces, and shear stress, elicit cellular responses, including gene and protein alterations that determine key behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and adhesion. Several tools and techniques have been developed to study these mechanobiological phenomena, including micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS provide a platform for nano-to-microscale mechanical stimulation of biological samples and quantitative analysis of their biomechanical responses. However, current devices are limited in their capability to perform single cell micromechanical stimulations as well as correlating their structural phenotype by imaging techniques simultaneously. In this study, a biocompatible and optically transparent MEMS for single cell mechanobiological studies is reported. A silicon nitride microfabricated device is designed to perform uniaxial tensile deformation of single cells and tissue. Optical transparency and open architecture of the device allows coupling of the MEMS to structural and biophysical assays, including optical microscopy techniques and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We demonstrate the design, fabrication, testing, biocompatibility and multimodal imaging with optical and AFM techniques, providing a proof-of-concept for a multimodal MEMS. The integrated multimodal system would allow simultaneous controlled mechanical stimulation of single cells and correlate cellular response. PMID:25549773

  13. Biocompatibility of corrosion-resistant zeolite coatings for titanium alloy biomedical implants.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Rajwant S; Beving, Derek E; Zanello, Laura P; Yan, Yushan

    2009-10-01

    Titanium alloy, Ti6Al4V, is widely used in dental and orthopedic implants. Despite its excellent biocompatibility, Ti6Al4V releases toxic Al and V ions into the surrounding tissue after implantation. In addition, the elastic modulus of Ti6Al4V ( approximately 110GPa) is significantly higher than that of bone (10-40GPa), leading to a modulus mismatch and consequently implant loosening and deosteointegration. Zeolite coatings are proposed to prevent the release of the toxic ions into human tissue and enhance osteointegration by matching the mechanical properties of bone. Zeolite MFI coatings are successfully synthesized on commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V for the first time. The coating shows excellent adhesion by incorporating titanium from the substrate within the zeolite framework. Higher corrosion resistance than the bare titanium alloy is observed in 0.856M NaCl solution at pHs of 7.0 and 1.0. Zeolite coatings eliminate the release of cytotoxic Al and V ions over a 7 day period. Pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells show higher adhesion and cell proliferation on the three-dimensional zeolite microstructure surface compared with a two-dimensional glass surface, indicating that the zeolite coatings are highly biocompatible.

  14. Manufacture of a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with excellent biocompatibility and space maintenance ability.

    PubMed

    Nakada, A; Shigeno, K; Sato, T; Kobayashi, T; Wakatsuki, M; Uji, M; Nakamura, T

    2013-08-01

    Although collagen scaffolds have been used for regenerative medicine, they have insufficient mechanical strength. We made a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold from a collagen fiber suspension (physiological pH 7.4) through a process of freeze drying and denaturation with heat under low pressure (1 × 10(-1) Pa). Heat treatment formed cross-links between the collagen fibers, providing the scaffold with sufficient mechanical strength to maintain the space for tissue regeneration in vivo. The scaffold was embedded under the back skin of a rat, and biocompatibility and space maintenance ability were examined after 2 weeks. These were evaluated by using the ratio of foreign body giant cells and thickness of the residual scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with moderate biocompatibility and space maintenance ability was made by freezing at -10 °C, followed by denaturation at 140 °C for 6 h. In addition, the direction of the collagen fibers in the scaffold was adjusted by cooling the suspension only from the bottom of the container. This process increased the ratio of cells that infiltrated into the scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold thus made can be used for tissue regeneration or delivery of cells or proteins to a target site.

  15. Fabrication of Biocompatible Potassium Sodium Niobate Piezoelectric Ceramic as an Electroactive Implant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yu, Zunxiong; Pang, Jinshan; Yu, Peng; Tan, Guoxin; Ning, Chengyun

    2017-03-26

    The discovery of piezoelectricity in natural bone has attracted extensive research in emulating biological electricity for various tissue regeneration. Here, we carried out experiments to build biocompatible potassium sodium niobate (KNN) ceramics. Then, influence substrate surface charges on bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein adsorption and cell proliferation on KNN ceramics surfaces was investigated. KNN ceramics with piezoelectric constant of ~93 pC/N and relative density of ~93% were fabricated. The adsorption of protein on the positive surfaces (Ps) and negative surfaces (Ns) of KNN ceramics with piezoelectric constant of ~93 pC/N showed greater protein adsorption capacity than that on non-polarized surfaces (NPs). Biocompatibility of KNN ceramics was verified through cell culturing and live/dead cell staining of MC3T3. The cells experiment showed enhanced cell growth on the positive surfaces (Ps) and negative surfaces (Ns) compared to non-polarized surfaces (NPs). These results revealed that KNN ceramics had great potential to be used to understand the effect of surface potential on cells processes and would benefit future research in designing piezoelectric materials for tissue regeneration.

  16. Fabrication of Biocompatible Potassium Sodium Niobate Piezoelectric Ceramic as an Electroactive Implant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Yu, Zunxiong; Pang, Jinshan; Yu, Peng; Tan, Guoxin; Ning, Chengyun

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of piezoelectricity in natural bone has attracted extensive research in emulating biological electricity for various tissue regeneration. Here, we carried out experiments to build biocompatible potassium sodium niobate (KNN) ceramics. Then, influence substrate surface charges on bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein adsorption and cell proliferation on KNN ceramics surfaces was investigated. KNN ceramics with piezoelectric constant of ~93 pC/N and relative density of ~93% were fabricated. The adsorption of protein on the positive surfaces (Ps) and negative surfaces (Ns) of KNN ceramics with piezoelectric constant of ~93 pC/N showed greater protein adsorption capacity than that on non-polarized surfaces (NPs). Biocompatibility of KNN ceramics was verified through cell culturing and live/dead cell staining of MC3T3. The cells experiment showed enhanced cell growth on the positive surfaces (Ps) and negative surfaces (Ns) compared to non-polarized surfaces (NPs). These results revealed that KNN ceramics had great potential to be used to understand the effect of surface potential on cells processes and would benefit future research in designing piezoelectric materials for tissue regeneration. PMID:28772704

  17. [Synthetic biocompatible degradable material for juvenile bone cyst treatment].

    PubMed

    Gál, P; Ondrus, S; Skvaril, J; Straka, M; Jochymek, J; Plánka, L

    2009-12-01

    Owing to advances in operative techniques and biotechnology, bone replacement biocompatible materials have recently come into focus for orthopaedic and trauma surgeons. Bone lytic lesions, such as tumorous bone defects, diseases simulating cancer, chronic inflammatory lesions or skeletal injuries, often require stabilisation of the skeleton and treatment of the bone affected. Juvenile bone cysts are benign lytic lesions posing a threat to bone compactness in childhood. They are benign, fluid containing bone cavities, lined with a membrane consisting of thin vascularised connective tissue with scattered osteoclast-like cells. These cysts are usually diagnosed between; five and twenty years of age outside this age range their occurrence is rare. The group comprised the patients treated for juvenile bone cysts at the Department of Paediatric Surgery, Orthopaedics and Traumatology between 2001 and 2007. In the 2001-2003 period, 24 patients were treated with Depo-Medrol. Between January 2005 and December 2007, 31 patients with the same diagnosis were treated by minimally invasive application of chronOs Inject. The aim of the study was to compare these two methods of juvenile cyst therapy, i.e., the most widely used method of repetitive Depo-Medrol applications against the novel method based on filling the cyst with chronOs Inject, a synthetic biocompatible resorbable material. An alternative hypothesis assumed that the new method would result in fewer necessary operations in patients with juvenile cyst and better treatment outcomes, as evaluated by Neer's criteria for bone cyst therapy. A total of 20 surgical interventions were performed in 18 patients treated by chronOs Inject and 100% cyst healing without necessity of additional surgery was achieved. Of the 24 patients treated with Depo-Medrol, 12 patients (50%) showed cyst healing wit no further surgery required. A total of 69 applications were needed. An impetus to introduce the novel method of juvenile cyst

  18. Flexible and Highly Biocompatible Nanofiber-Based Electrodes for Neural Surface Interfacing.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Nyoung; Kim, Han-Jun; Lee, Yi Jae; Heo, Min; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Donghyun; Do, Sun Hee; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kwon, Il Keun

    2017-03-28

    Polyimide (PI)-based electrodes have been widely used as flexible biosensors in implantable device applications for recording biological signals. However, the long-term quality of neural signals obtained from PI-based nerve electrodes tends to decrease due to nerve damage by neural tissue compression, mechanical mismatch, and insufficient fluid exchange between the neural tissue and electrodes. Here, we resolve these problems with a developed PI nanofiber (NF)-based nerve electrode for stable neural signal recording, which can be fabricated via electrospinning and inkjet printing. We demonstrate an NF-based nerve electrode that can be simply fabricated and easily applied due to its high permeability, flexibility, and biocompatibility. Furthermore, the electrode can record stable neural signals for extended periods of time, resulting in decreased mechanical mismatch, neural compression, and contact area. NF-based electrodes with highly flexible and body-fluid-permeable properties could enable future neural interfacing applications.

  19. Biocompatibility of a functionally graded bioceramic coating made by wide-band laser cladding.

    PubMed

    Weidong, Zhu; Qibin, Liu; Min, Zheng; Xudong, Wang

    2008-11-01

    The application of plasma spray is the most popular method by which a metal-bioceramic surface composite can be prepared for the repair of biological hard-tissue, but this method has disadvantages. These disadvantages include poor coating-to-substrate adhesion, low mechanical strength, and brittleness of the coating. In the investigation described in this article, a gradient bioceramic coating was prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy surface using a gradient composite design and wide-band laser cladding techniques. Using a trilayer-structure composed of a substratum, an alloy and bioceramics, the coating was chemically and metallurgically bonded with the substratum. The coating, which contains beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite, showed favorable biocompatibility with the bone tissue and promoted in vivo osteogenesis.

  20. Tissue engineering for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sujata K

    2010-12-01

    Tissue engineering is increasingly being recognized as a beneficial means for lessening the global disease burden. One strategy of tissue engineering is to replace lost tissues or organs with polymeric scaffolds that contain specialized populations of living cells, with the goal of regenerating tissues to restore normal function. Typical constructs for tissue engineering employ biocompatible and degradable polymers, along with organ-specific and tissue-specific cells. Once implanted, the construct guides the growth and development of new tissues; the polymer scaffold degrades away to be replaced by healthy functioning tissue. The ideal biomaterial for tissue engineering not only defends against disease and supports weakened tissues or organs, it also provides the elements required for healing and repair, stimulates the body's intrinsic immunological and regenerative capacities, and seamlessly interacts with the living body. Tissue engineering has been investigated for virtually every organ system in the human body. This review describes the potential of tissue engineering to alleviate disease, as well as the latest advances in tissue regeneration. The discussion focuses on three specific clinical applications of tissue engineering: cardiac tissue regeneration for treatment of heart failure; nerve regeneration for treatment of stroke; and lung regeneration for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The effect of native silk fibroin powder on the physical properties and biocompatibility of biomedical polyurethane membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Feng, Jinqi; Wang, Na; Xu, Weilin; Yang, Hongjun

    2017-04-01

    Naturally derived fibers such as silk fibroin can potentially enhance the biocompatibility of currently used biomaterials. This study investigated the physical properties of native silk fibroin powder and its effect on the biocompatibility of biomedical polyurethane. Native silk fibroin powder with an average diameter of 3 µm was prepared on a purpose-built machine. A simple method of phase inversion was used to produce biomedical polyurethane/native silk fibroin powder hybrid membranes at different blend ratios by immersing a biomedical polyurethane/native silk fibroin powder solution in deionized water at room temperature. The physical properties of the membranes including morphology, hydrophilicity, roughness, porosity, and compressive modulus were characterized, and in vitro biocompatibility was evaluated by seeding the human umbilical vein endothelial cells on the top surface. Native silk fibroin powder had a concentration-dependent effect on the number and morphology of human umbilical vein endothelial cells growing on the membranes; cell number increased as native silk fibroin powder content in the biomedical polyurethane/native silk fibroin powder hybrid membrane was increased from 0% to 50%, and cell morphology changed from spindle-shaped to cobblestone-like as the native silk fibroin powder content was increased from 0% to 70%. The latter change was related to the physical characteristics of the membrane, including hydrophilicity, roughness, and mechanical properties. The in vivo biocompatibility of the native silk fibroin powder-modified biomedical polyurethane membrane was evaluated in a rat model; the histological analysis revealed no systemic toxicity. These results indicate that the biomedical polyurethane/native silk fibroin powder hybrid membrane has superior in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility relative to 100% biomedical polyurethane membranes and thus has potential applications in the fabrication of small-diameter vascular grafts and in

  2. Preparation of a biocompatible magnetic film from an aqueous ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albornoz, Cecilia; Jacobo, Silvia E.

    2006-10-01

    Very promising nanoparticles for biomedical applications or in medical drug targeting are superparamagnetic nanoparticles based on a core consisting of iron oxides (SPION) that can be targeted through external magnets. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a unique synthetic biocompatible polymer that can be chemically cross-linked to form a gel. Biotechnology applications of magnetic gels include biosensors, targeted drug delivery, artificial muscles and magnetic buckles. These gels are produced by incorporating magnetic materials in the polymer composites. In this paper we report the synthesis of an aqueous ferrofluid and the preparation of a biocompatible magnetic gel with polyvinyl alcohol and glutharaldehyde (GTA). HClO 4 was used to induce the peptization since this kind of ferrofluid does not have surfactant. The magnetic gel was dried to generate a biocompatible film.

  3. Biocompatibility correlation of polymeric materials using human osteosarcoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geckeler, K. E.; Wacker, Roland; Aicher, Wilhelm K.

    Metal implants are the preferred materials to generate articular prostheses, plates, or bone pegs in orthopedic surgery. Although titanium and titanium alloys show a relatively good biocompatibility, clinical experience revealed that coating of the metallic implant surface may increase the biocompatibility. In a search for optimum bone implant surfaces, we determined polarity and contact angle parameters of a variety of polymers and substances and correlated the findings in a biocompatibility assay using an in vitro bone cell model. We report that an optimum adherence of SAOS-2 cells to such surfaces and a good vitality for polymers are characterized by water-based contact angles of 80° and 20° for advancing and receding probes, respectively.

  4. Developmental biology and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Marga, Francoise; Neagu, Adrian; Kosztin, Ioan; Forgacs, Gabor

    2007-12-01

    Morphogenesis implies the controlled spatial organization of cells that gives rise to tissues and organs in early embryonic development. While morphogenesis is under strict genetic control, the formation of specialized biological structures of specific shape hinges on physical processes. Tissue engineering (TE) aims at reproducing morphogenesis in the laboratory, i.e., in vitro, to fabricate replacement organs for regenerative medicine. The classical approach to generate tissues/organs is by seeding and expanding cells in appropriately shaped biocompatible scaffolds, in the hope that the maturation process will result in the desired structure. To accomplish this goal more naturally and efficiently, we set up and implemented a novel TE method that is based on principles of developmental biology and employs bioprinting, the automated delivery of cellular composites into a three-dimensional (3D) biocompatible environment. The novel technology relies on the concept of tissue liquidity according to which multicellular aggregates composed of adhesive and motile cells behave in analogy with liquids: in particular, they fuse. We emphasize the major role played by tissue fusion in the embryo and explain how the parameters (surface tension, viscosity) that govern tissue fusion can be used both experimentally and theoretically to control and simulate the self-assembly of cellular spheroids into 3D living structures. The experimentally observed postprinting shape evolution of tube- and sheet-like constructs is presented. Computer simulations, based on a liquid model, support the idea that tissue liquidity may provide a mechanism for in vitro organ building.

  5. Biocompatibility and anti-microbiological activity characterization of novel coatings for dental implants: A primer for non-biologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsees, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    With regard to biocompatibility, the cardinal requirement for dental implants and other medical devices that are in long-term contact with tissue is that the material does not cause any adverse effect to the patient. To warrant stability and function of the implant, proper osseointegration is a further prerequisite. Cells interact with the implant surface as the interface between bulk material and biological tissue. Whereas structuring, deposition of a thin film or other modifications of the surface are crucial parameters in determining favorable adhesion of cells, corrosion of metal surfaces and release of ions can affect cell viability. Both parameters are usually tested using in vitro cytotoxicity and adhesion assays with bone or fibroblasts cells. For bioactive surface modifications, further tests should be considered for biocompatibility evaluation. Depending on the type of modification, this may include analysis of specific cell functions or the determination of antimicrobial activities. The latter is of special importance as bacteria and yeast present in the oral cavity can be introduced during the implantation process and this may lead to chronic infections and implant failure. An antimicrobial coating of the implant is a way to avoid that. This review describes the essential biocompatibility assays for evaluation of new implant materials required by ISO 10993 and also gives an overview on recent test methods for specific coatings of dental implants.

  6. Biocompatible multilayer capsules engineered with a graphene oxide derivative: synthesis, characterization and cellular uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Mercato, Loretta L.; Guerra, Flora; Lazzari, Gianpiero; Nobile, Concetta; Bucci, Cecilia; Rinaldi, Rosaria

    2016-03-01

    Graphene-based capsules have strong potential for a number of applications, including drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, sensors, catalysis and reactors. The ability to integrate graphene into carrier systems with three-dimensional (3D) geometry may open new perspectives both for fundamental tests of graphene mechanics and for novel (bio)technological applications. However, the assembly of 3D complexes from graphene or its derivatives is challenging because of its poor stability under biological conditions. In this work, we attempted to integrate a layer of graphene oxide derivative into the shell of biodegradable capsules by exploiting a facile layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol. As a first step we optimized the LbL protocol to obtain colloidal suspensions of isolated capsules embedding the graphene oxide derivative. As a following step, we investigated in detail the morphological properties of the hybrid capsules, and how the graphene oxide derivative layer influences the porosity and the robustness of the multilayer composite shells. Finally, we verified the uptake of the capsules modified with the GO derivative by two cell lines and studied their intracellular localization and biocompatibility. As compared to pristine capsules, the graphene-modified capsules possess reduced porosity, reduced shell thickness and a higher stability against osmotic pressure. They show remarkable biocompatibility towards the tested cells and long-term colloidal stability and dispersion. By combining the excellent mechanical properties of a graphene oxide derivative with the high versatility of the LbL method, robust and flexible biocompatible polymeric capsules with novel characteristics have been fabricated.Graphene-based capsules have strong potential for a number of applications, including drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, sensors, catalysis and reactors. The ability to integrate graphene into carrier systems with three-dimensional (3D) geometry may open new perspectives

  7. Biocompatible fluorescent organic nanoparticles derived from glucose and polyethylenimine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiqi; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Yang, Bin; Yang, Yang; Chen, Qiaomei; Wei, Yen

    2014-11-01

    Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) were facilely prepared from polyethylenimine and glucose at mild reaction condition, and further utilized for cell imaging with various fluorescent wavelengths. The as-prepared PEI-Glu FONs were fully characterized by a series of techniques including 1H NMR spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, UV-vis absorption spectrum, and fluorescence spectra. Such FONs were demonstrated with intense fluorescence and high water dispersibility. Biocompatibility evaluation and cell uptake behavior of these FONs were further investigated, which proved excellent biocompatibility and made them promising for cell imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Study on biocompatibility of MIM 316L stainless steel].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohui; Zhu, Shaihong; Li, Yiming; Zhao, Yanzhong; Zhou, Kechao; Huang, Boyun

    2007-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility of metal powder injection molding (MIM) 316L stainless steel. The percentage of S-period cells was detected by flow cytometry after L929 cells being incubated with extraction of MIM 316L stainless steel, and titanium implant materials for clinical application were used as control. In addition, both materials were implanted in animals and the histopathological evaluations were carried out. The statistical analyses show that there are no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05), which demonstrate that MIM 316L stainless steel has good biocompatibility.

  9. Biocompatibility of cross-linked hyaluronate (Gel-200) for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M; Yoshioka, K; Urano, K; Tanaka, Y; Hatanaka, T; Nii, A

    2014-11-01

    To compare the biocompatibility and immunogenicity of two intra-articular hyaluronan formulations, Gel-200 (Gel-One(®)) and hylan G-F 20 (Synvisc(®) series). A comparison of the biocompatibility of Gel-200 and hylan G-F 20 was made using a rat subcutaneous air pouch model and the knee joint of normal rabbits. Immunogenicity was evaluated using a homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay in guinea pigs. In the air pouch model in rats, characteristic fibrous belts formed in the subcutaneous tissue. Injection of hylan G-F 20 into the air pouch induced granulomatous nodules primarily composed of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, and eosinophils accompanied with the test material in the center of the nodules in the fibrous belt. Furthermore, the thickness of the fibrous belt in the hylan G-F 20 group increased significantly compared to the saline group. Injection of Gel-200 into the air pouch induced neither granulomatous inflammation nor significant thickening of fibrous belt, while foamy macrophages containing the test material were observed. Intra-articular injection of hylan G-F 20 into the rabbit knee joints induced granulomatous inflammation, eosinophil infiltration, and significant increase in the number of cells in the synovial fluid, while these findings were absent in the Gel-200 group. In the immunogenicity assay, hylan G-F 20 induced a positive PCA reaction, but the Gel-200 did not. Gel-200 showed more favorable biocompatibility and less immunogenicity compared to hylan G-F 20. Gel-200 is expected to be a single injection hyaluronan product with less safety concerns for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate and three new endodontic cements: An animal study

    PubMed Central

    Aminozarbian, Mohammad-Ghasem; Barati, Masoud; Salehi, Iman; Mousavi, Seyed Behrouz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Introducing new endodontic cements should await comprehensive investigations and new formulations have to be tested in vivo before applying in human beings. So, the purpose of this study was to compare the biocompatibility of new endodontic cements, calcium aluminate α-aluminate cement (CAAC), calcium aluminate α-aluminate plus cement (CAAC plus), and a mixture of wollastonite and CAAC cement (WOLCA) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 7, 14, and 30 experimental days. Sterile polyethylene tubes were filled with MTA, CAAC, CAAC Plus, and WOLCA cement and implanted subcutaneously. Empty tubes were implanted as negative control. After the experimental periods, animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdosing. The occurrence of inflammatory responses was scored according to the previously established scores. Data were statistically analyzed using Friedman, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests. The level of significance was 5% (P<0.05). Results: There was a statistically significant difference between experimental and negative control sites in each group (P<0.05). CAAC Plus showed the highest mean scores of inflammation, compared with MTA, CAAC, and WOLCA cement sits at the end of all periods (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between inflammatory scores of each site in different experimental groups, except CAAC plus sites, in which inflammation increased significantly with time (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of the current study, biocompatibility of CAAC and WOLCA cement were comparable with that of MTA, but CAAC Plus induced an inflammatory response higher than MTA, therefore is not biocompatible. PMID:22363364

  11. Synthesis, physiochemical characterization, and biocompatibility of a chitosan/dextran-based hydrogel for postsurgical adhesion prevention.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Jaydee D; Roxburgh, Marina; Shi, Zheng; Liu, Liqi; McConnell, Michelle; Williams, Gail; Evans, Natasha; Hanton, Lyall R; Simpson, Jim; Moratti, Stephen C; Robinson, Brian H; Wormald, Peter J; Robinson, Simon

    2014-12-01

    An amine-functionalized succinyl chitosan and an oxidized dextran were synthesized and mixed in aqueous solution to form an in situ chitosan/dextran injectable, surgical hydrogel for adhesion prevention. Rheological characterization showed that the rate of gelation and moduli were tunable based on amine and aldehyde levels, as well as polymer concentrations. The CD hydrogels have been shown to be effective post-operative aids in prevention of adhesions in ear, nose, and throat surgeries and abdominal surgeries in vivo. In vitro biocompatibility testing was performed on CD hydrogels containing one of two oxidized dextrans, an 80 % oxidized (CD-100) or 25 % (CD-25) oxidized dextran. However, the CD-100 hydrogel showed moderate cytotoxicity in vitro to Vero cells. SC component of the CD hydrogel, however, showed no cytotoxic effect. In order to increase the biocompatibility of the hydrogel, a lower aldehyde level hydrogel was developed. CD-25 was found to be non-cytotoxic to L929 fibroblasts. The in vivo pro-inflammatory response of the CD-25 hydrogel, after intraperitoneal injection in BALB/c mice, was also determined by measuring serum TNF-α levels and by histological analysis of tissues. TNF-α levels were similar in mice injected with CD-25 hydrogel as compared to the negative saline injected control; and were significantly different (P < 0.05) as compared to the positive, lipopolysaccharide, injected control. Histological examination revealed no inflammation seen in CD hydrogel injected mice. The results of these in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate the biocompatibility of the CD hydrogel as a post-operative aid for adhesion prevention.

  12. In vitro biocompatibility of a novel membrane of the composite poly(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Márcio M; de Oliveira, Paulo T; Gimenes, Rossano; Zaghete, Maria A; Bertolini, Márcio J; Rosa, Adalberto L

    2006-11-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the in vitro biocompatibility of a novel membrane of the composite poly(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate (P(VDF-TrFE)/BT). Osteoblastic cells were obtained from human alveolar bone fragments and cultured under standard osteogenic condition until subconfluence. First passaged cells were cultured on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE--control) membranes in 24-well plates. Cell adhesion and spreading were evaluated at 30 min, and 4 and 24 h. For proliferation assay, cells were cultured for 1, 7, and 10 days. Cell viability was detected by trypan blue at 7 and 10 days. Total protein content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured at 7, 14, and 21 days. Cultures were stained with Alizarin red at 21 days, for detection of mineralized matrix. Data were compared by ANOVA and Student t test. Cell attachment (p = 0.001), cell number (p = 0.001), and ALP activity (p = 0.0001) were greater on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT. Additionally, doubling time was greater on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT (p = 0.03), indicating a decreased proliferation rate. Bone-like nodule formation took place only on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT. The present results showed that both membranes are biocompatible. However, P(VDF-TrFE)/BT presented a better in vitro biocompatibility and allowed bone-like nodule formation. Therefore, P(VDF-TrFE)/BT could be an alternative membrane to be used in guided tissue regeneration.

  13. Biocompatible multilayer capsules engineered with a graphene oxide derivative: synthesis, characterization and cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    del Mercato, Loretta L; Guerra, Flora; Lazzari, Gianpiero; Nobile, Concetta; Bucci, Cecilia; Rinaldi, Rosaria

    2016-04-14

    Graphene-based capsules have strong potential for a number of applications, including drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, sensors, catalysis and reactors. The ability to integrate graphene into carrier systems with three-dimensional (3D) geometry may open new perspectives both for fundamental tests of graphene mechanics and for novel (bio)technological applications. However, the assembly of 3D complexes from graphene or its derivatives is challenging because of its poor stability under biological conditions. In this work, we attempted to integrate a layer of graphene oxide derivative into the shell of biodegradable capsules by exploiting a facile layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol. As a first step we optimized the LbL protocol to obtain colloidal suspensions of isolated capsules embedding the graphene oxide derivative. As a following step, we investigated in detail the morphological properties of the hybrid capsules, and how the graphene oxide derivative layer influences the porosity and the robustness of the multilayer composite shells. Finally, we verified the uptake of the capsules modified with the GO derivative by two cell lines and studied their intracellular localization and biocompatibility. As compared to pristine capsules, the graphene-modified capsules possess reduced porosity, reduced shell thickness and a higher stability against osmotic pressure. They show remarkable biocompatibility towards the tested cells and long-term colloidal stability and dispersion. By combining the excellent mechanical properties of a graphene oxide derivative with the high versatility of the LbL method, robust and flexible biocompatible polymeric capsules with novel characteristics have been fabricated.

  14. Amplifying the Red-Emission of Upconverting Nanoparticles for Biocompatible Clinically Used Prodrug-Induced Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, Amol; Wu, Xiang; Tokatli-Apollon, Amira; El-Rifai, Mahmoud; Lee, Hyungseok; Zhang, Yuanwei; Wang, Chao; Liu, Zhuang; Chan, Emory M.; Duan, Chunying; Han, Gang

    2014-09-25

    A class of biocompatible upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) with largely amplified red-emissions was developed. The optimal UCNP shows a high absolute upconversion quantum yield of 3.2% in red-emission, which is 15-fold stronger than the known optimal β-phase core/shell UCNPs. When conjugated to aminolevulinic acid, a clinically used photodynamic therapy (PDT) prodrug, significant PDT effect in tumor was demonstrated in a deep-tissue (>1.2 cm) setting in vivo at a biocompatible laser power density. Furthermore, we show that our UCNP–PDT system with NIR irradiation outperforms clinically used red light irradiation in a deep tumor setting in vivo. This study marks a major step forward in photodynamic therapy utilizing UCNPs to effectively access deep-set tumors.Lastly, it also provides an opportunity for the wide application of upconverting red radiation in photonics and biophotonics.

  15. Biocompatibility of subretinal parylene-based Ti/Pt microelectrode array in rabbit for further artificial vision studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weihong; Wang, Xuqian; Zhao, Chan; Yang, Zhikun; Dai, Rongping; Dong, Fangtian

    2009-03-27

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of subretinal implanted parylene-based Ti/Pt microelectrode arrays (MEA). Eyes were enucleated 3 months after MEAs were implanted into the subretinal space of rabbits. Morphological changes of the retinas were investigated by H&E staining. Immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein and opsin were performed to evaluate changes in Muller cells and photoreceptors in the retinas. Retina tissue around the array remained intact. Photoreceptor degeneration and glial cell activation were observed in the retina overlaying the MEA implant. However, the cells in the inner retinal layers were preserved. Photoreceptor degeneration and glial cell activation at the MEA-retina interface are expected to be a normal reaction to implantation. Material used in this experiment has good biocompatibility within the subretinal environment and is expected to be promising in the further retinal prosthesis studies.

  16. Amplifying the Red-Emission of Upconverting Nanoparticles for Biocompatible Clinically Used Prodrug-Induced Photodynamic Therapy

    DOE PAGES

    Punjabi, Amol; Wu, Xiang; Tokatli-Apollon, Amira; ...

    2014-09-25

    A class of biocompatible upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) with largely amplified red-emissions was developed. The optimal UCNP shows a high absolute upconversion quantum yield of 3.2% in red-emission, which is 15-fold stronger than the known optimal β-phase core/shell UCNPs. When conjugated to aminolevulinic acid, a clinically used photodynamic therapy (PDT) prodrug, significant PDT effect in tumor was demonstrated in a deep-tissue (>1.2 cm) setting in vivo at a biocompatible laser power density. Furthermore, we show that our UCNP–PDT system with NIR irradiation outperforms clinically used red light irradiation in a deep tumor setting in vivo. This study marks a major stepmore » forward in photodynamic therapy utilizing UCNPs to effectively access deep-set tumors.Lastly, it also provides an opportunity for the wide application of upconverting red radiation in photonics and biophotonics.« less

  17. Biocompatible nanofiber matrices for the engineering of a dermal substitute for skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, J; Ramakrishna, S

    2005-01-01

    Natural and synthetic biodegradable nanofibers are extensively used for biomedical applications and tissue engineering. Biocompatibility and a well-established safety profile for polycaprolactone (PCL) and collagen represent a favorable matrix for preparing a dermal substitute for engineering skin. Collagen synthesized by fibroblasts is a good surface active agent and demonstrates its ability to penetrate a lipid-free interface. During granulation tissue formation, fibronectin provides a temporary substratum for migration and proliferation of cells and provides a template for collagen deposition, which increases stiffness and tensile strength of this healing tissues. The objective of this study was to fabricate nanofiber matrices from novel biodegradable PCL and collagen to mimic natural extracellular matrix (ECM) and to examine the cell behavior, cell attachment, and interaction between cells and nanofiber matrices. Collagen nanofiber matrices show a significant (p < 0.001) level of fibroblast proliferation and increase up to 54% compared with control tissue culture plate (TCP) after 72 h. The present investigation shows that PCL-coated collagen matrices are suitable for fibroblast growth, proliferation, and migration inside the matrices. This novel biodegradable PCL and collagen nanofiber matrices support the attachment and proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and might have potential in tissue engineering as a dermal substitute for skin regeneration.

  18. Multiphoton crosslinking for biocompatible 3D printing of type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Bell, Alex; Kofron, Matthew; Nistor, Vasile

    2015-09-03

    Multiphoton fabrication is a powerful technique for three-dimensional (3D) printing of structures at the microscale. Many polymers and proteins have been successfully structured and patterned using this method. Type I collagen comprises a large part of the extracellular matrix for most tissue types and is a widely used cellular scaffold material for tissue engineering. Current methods for creating collagen tissue scaffolds do not allow control of local geometry on a cellular scale. This means the environment experienced by cells may be made up of the native material but unrelated to native cellular-scale structure. In this study, we present a novel method to allow multiphoton crosslinking of type I collagen with flavin mononucleotide photosensitizer. The method detailed allows full 3D printing of crosslinked structures made from unmodified type I collagen and uses only demonstrated biocompatible materials. Resolution of 1 μm for both standing lines and high-aspect ratio gaps between structures is demonstrated and complex 3D structures are fabricated. This study demonstrates a means for 3D printing with one of the most widely used tissue scaffold materials. High-resolution, 3D control of the fabrication of collagen scaffolds will facilitate higher fidelity recreation of the native extracellular environment for engineered tissues.

  19. Myocardial tissue engineering using electrospun nanofiber composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2016-01-01

    Emerging trends for cardiac tissue engineering are focused on increasing the biocompatibility and tissue regeneration ability of artificial heart tissue by incorporating various cell sources and bioactive molecules. Although primary cardiomyocytes can be successfully implanted, clinical applications are restricted due to their low survival rates and poor proliferation. To develop successful cardiovascular tissue regeneration systems, new technologies must be introduced to improve myocardial regeneration. Electrospinning is a simple, versatile technique for fabricating nanofibers. Here, we discuss various biodegradable polymers (natural, synthetic, and combinatorial polymers) that can be used for fiber fabrication. We also describe a series of fiber modification methods that can increase cell survival, proliferation, and migration and provide supporting mechanical properties by mimicking micro-environment structures, such as the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, the applications and types of nanofiber-based scaffolds for myocardial regeneration are described. Finally, fusion research methods combined with stem cells and scaffolds to improve biocompatibility are discussed.

  20. Preparation, fabrication and biocompatibility of novel injectable temperature-sensitive chitosan/glycerophosphate/collagen hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Song, Kedong; Qiao, Mo; Liu, Tianqing; Jiang, Bo; Macedo, Hugo M; Ma, Xuehu; Cui, Zhanfeng

    2010-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel type of injectable temperature-sensitive chitosan/glycerophosphate/collagen (C/GP/Co) hydrogel that possesses great biocompatibility for the culture of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. The C/GP/Co hydrogel is prepared by mixing 2.2% (v/v) chitosan with 50% (w/w) β-glycerophosphate at different proportions and afterwards adding 2 mg/ml of collagen. The gelation time of the prepared solution at 37°C was found to be of around 12 min. The inner structure of the hydrogel presented a porous spongy structure, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the osmolality of the medium in contact with the hydrogel was in the range of 310-330 mmol kg(-1). These analyses have shown that the C/GP/Co hydrogels are structurally feasible for cell culture, while their biocompatibility was further examined. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded into the developed C/GP and C/GP/Co hydrogels (The ratios of C/GP and C/GP/Co were 5:1 and 5:1:6, respectively), and the cellular growth was periodically observed under an inverted microscope. The proliferation of ADSCs was detected using cck-8 kits, while cell apoptosis was determined by a Live/Dead Viability/Cytotoxicity kit. After 7 days of culture, cells within the C/GP/Co hydrogels displayed a typical adherent cell morphology and good proliferation with very high cellular viability. It was thus demonstrated that the novel C/GP/Co hydrogel herein described possess excellent cellular compatibility, representing a new alternative as a scaffold for tissue engineering, with the added advantage of being a gel at the body's temperature that turns liquid at room temperature.

  1. Biocompatibility of atomic layer-deposited alumina thin films.

    PubMed

    Finch, Dudley S; Oreskovic, Tammy; Ramadurai, Krishna; Herrmann, Cari F; George, Steven M; Mahajan, Roop L

    2008-10-01

    Presented in this paper is a study of the biocompatibility of an atomic layer-deposited (ALD) alumina (Al2O3) thin film and an ALD hydrophobic coating on standard glass cover slips. The pure ALD alumina coating exhibited a water contact angle of 55 degrees +/- 5 degrees attributed, in part, to a high concentration of -OH groups on the surface. In contrast, the hydrophobic coating (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydro-octyl-methyl-bis(dimethylamino)silane) had a water contact angle of 108 degrees +/- 2 degrees. Observations using differential interference contrast microscopy on human coronary artery smooth muscle cells showed normal cell proliferation on both the ALD alumina and hydrophobic coatings when compared to cells grown on control substrates. These observations suggested good biocompatibility over a period of 7 days in vitro. Using a colorimetric assay technique to assess cell viability, the cellular response between the three substrates can be differentiated to show that the ALD alumina coating is more biocompatible and that the hydrophobic coating is less biocompatible when compared to the control. These results suggest that patterning a substrate with hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups can control cell growth. This patterning can further enhance the known advantages of ALD alumina, such as conformality and excellent dielectric properties for bio-micro electro mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) in sensors, actuators, and microfluidics devices.

  2. Glucose-responsive hydrogel electrode for biocompatible glucose transistor

    PubMed Central

    Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we propose a highly sensitive and biocompatible glucose sensor using a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET) with a functionalized hydrogel. The principle of the FET device contributes to the easy detection of ionic charges with high sensitivity, and the hydrogel coated on the electrode enables the specific detection of glucose with biocompatibility. The copolymerized hydrogel on the Au gate electrode of the FET device is optimized by controlling the mixture ratio of biocompatible 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as the main monomer and vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as a glucose-responsive monomer. The gate surface potential of the hydrogel FETs shifts in the negative direction with increasing glucose concentration from 10 μM to 40 mM, which results from the increase in the negative charges on the basis of the diol-binding of PBA derivatives with glucose molecules in the hydrogel. Moreover, the hydrogel coated on the gate suppresses the signal noise caused by the nonspecific adsorption of proteins such as albumin. The hydrogel FET can serve as a highly sensitive and biocompatible glucose sensor in in vivo or ex vivo applications such as eye contact lenses and sheets adhering to the skin. PMID:28179956

  3. Natural polysaccharide functionalized gold nanoparticles as biocompatible drug delivery carrier.

    PubMed

    Pooja, Deep; Panyaram, Sravani; Kulhari, Hitesh; Reddy, Bharathi; Rachamalla, Shyam S; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-09-01

    Biocompatibility is one of the major concerns with inorganic nanoparticles for their applications as drug delivery system. Natural compounds such as sugars, hydrocolloids and plant extracts have shown potential for the green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles. In this study, we report the synthesis of gum karaya (GK) stabilized gold nanoparticles (GKNP) and the application of prepared nanoparticles in the delivery of anticancer drugs. GKNP were characterized using different analytical techniques. GKNP exhibited high biocompatibility during cell survival study against CHO normal ovary cells and A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells and during hemolytic toxicity studies. Gemcitabine hydrochloride (GEM), an anticancer drug, was loaded on the surface of nanoparticles with 19.2% drug loading efficiency. GEM loaded nanoparticles (GEM-GNP) showed better inhibition of growth of cancer cells in anti-proliferation and clonogenic assays than native GEM. This effect was correlated with higher reactive oxygen species generation by GEM-GNP in A549 cells than native GEM. In summary, GK has significant potential in the synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles that could be used as prospective drug delivery carrier for anticancer drugs.

  4. Glucose-responsive hydrogel electrode for biocompatible glucose transistor.

    PubMed

    Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a highly sensitive and biocompatible glucose sensor using a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET) with a functionalized hydrogel. The principle of the FET device contributes to the easy detection of ionic charges with high sensitivity, and the hydrogel coated on the electrode enables the specific detection of glucose with biocompatibility. The copolymerized hydrogel on the Au gate electrode of the FET device is optimized by controlling the mixture ratio of biocompatible 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as the main monomer and vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as a glucose-responsive monomer. The gate surface potential of the hydrogel FETs shifts in the negative direction with increasing glucose concentration from 10 μM to 40 mM, which results from the increase in the negative charges on the basis of the diol-binding of PBA derivatives with glucose molecules in the hydrogel. Moreover, the hydrogel coated on the gate suppresses the signal noise caused by the nonspecific adsorption of proteins such as albumin. The hydrogel FET can serve as a highly sensitive and biocompatible glucose sensor in in vivo or ex vivo applications such as eye contact lenses and sheets adhering to the skin.

  5. Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-05-27

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications.

  6. The use of biocompatible dialysis membranes in acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Himmelfarb, J; Hakim, R M

    1997-04-01

    The interactions between blood and the dialysis membrane, aside from solute clearance, can be referred to as biocompatibility. It has increasingly been recognized that significant side effects may occur as a result of interactions of blood with the dialysis membrane itself. The use of unmodified cellulosic hemodialysis membranes results in potent activation of the alternative pathway of complement, and numerous investigators have now carefully defined the membrane characteristics that contribute to complement activation, adsorption, and clearance. Complement-dependent granulocyte activation during hemodialysis causes neutrophil degranulation and protease release, the production of reactive oxygen species, and modulation of granulocyte cell adhesion molecules. Recently, a number of experimental studies in animal models suggest that complement and granulocyte activation during hemodialysis could contribute to the prolongation of acute renal failure. Based on the hypothesis that hemodialysis with complement and granulocyte-activating membranes could contribute to the prolongation of acute renal failure and increased mortality, several recent prospective randomized clinical trials examining the role of membrane biocompatibility in the treatment of acute renal failure have been reported. Although not unanimous in their conclusions, most studies suggest that hemodialysis with more biocompatible membranes in patients with acute renal failure leads to a more rapid return of renal function and a lower morbidity and mortality. Thus, hemodialysis membrane biocompatibility may be an important contributor to the outcome of patients with acute renal failure who require dialysis.

  7. Fullerenol-based electroactive artificial muscles utilizing biocompatible polyetherimide.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Mahendran; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2011-03-22

    Two essential functional requirements for electroactive artificial muscles, which can be used for biomedical active devices, are biocompatibility and sufficient range of motion. Fullerenol nanoparticles and their derivatives have been validated as potential candidates to be used for nanobiomaterials and biomedical applications because of their excellent proton conductivity, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility. We developed fullerenol-based electroactive artificial muscles utilizing biocompatible polyetherimide. By using a solvent recasting method, present ionic networking membranes have been successfully synthesized with homogeneous dispersion of polyhydroxylated fullerene (PHF) nanoparticles into a sulfonated polyetherimide (SPEI) matrix. In comparison with pure SPEI membranes, the PHF-SPEI nanocomposite membranes show much higher water uptake and proton conductivity, which are both essential characteristics for high-performance ionic polymer actuators. The developed PHF-SPEI actuator shows over three times larger motion ranges and two times higher blocking forces than the pure SPEI actuator. The excellent biocompatibility of PHF and SPEI makes these actuators promising candidate materials for biomedical devices such as active stents and catheters.

  8. Biocompatibility of Bletilla striata Microspheres as a Novel Embolic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Luo, ShiHua; Song, SongLin; Zheng, ChuanSheng; Wang, Yong; Xia, XiangWen; Liang, Bin; Feng, GanSheng

    2015-01-01

    We have prepared Chinese traditional herb Bletilla striata into microspheres as a novel embolic agent for decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Bletilla striata microspheres (BSMs). After a thermal test of BSMs in vitro, the cell biocompatibility of BSMs was investigated in mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells using the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. In addition, blood biocompatibility was evaluated. In vivo intramuscular implantation and renal artery embolization in rabbits with BSMs were used to examine the inflammatory response. The experimental rabbits did not develop any fever symptoms after injection of BSMs, and BSMs exhibited no cytotoxicity in cultured mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Additionally, BSMs exhibited high compatibility with red blood cells and no hemolysis activity. Intramuscular implantation with BSMs resulted in a gradually lessened mild inflammatory reaction that disappeared after eight weeks. The occlusion of small renal vessels was associated with a mild perivascular inflammatory reaction without significant renal and liver function damage. In conclusion, we believe that BSMs exhibit high biocompatibility and are a promising embolic agent. PMID:26472985

  9. Injectable biodegradable materials for orthopedic tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Temenoff, J S; Mikos, A G

    2000-12-01

    The large number of orthopedic procedures performed each year, including many performed arthroscopically, have led to great interest in injectable biodegradable materials for regeneration of bone and cartilage. A variety of materials have been developed for these applications, including ceramics, naturally derived substances and synthetic polymers. These materials demonstrate overall biocompatibility and appropriate mechanical properties, as well as promote tissue formation, thus providing an important step towards minimally invasive orthopedic procedures. This review provides a comparison of these materials based on mechanical properties, biocompatibility and regeneration efficacy. Advantages and disadvantages of each material are explained and design criteria for injectable biodegradable systems are provided.

  10. Biocompatible hollow polymeric particles produced by a mild solvent- and template free strategy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velázquez, Eustolia; Taboada, Pablo; Alatorre-Meda, Manuel

    2017-08-31

    Macroscopic hollow polymeric particles are attractive materials for various applications such as surgery, food industry, agriculture, etc. However, protocols reporting their synthesis have hitherto made use of organic solvents and/or sacrificial templates, compromising the encapsulation of different bioactive compounds and the process yield. Here, millimeter-size, hollow polymeric particles were synthesized, for the first time, in a solvent- and template free manner onto superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The particles were produced upon assembly and double superficial crosslinking of liquid droplets of DNA and methacrylamide chitosan aqueous solutions (CH:MA), leading to liquid-core particles with a hardened hydrogel shell. The particles displayed appealing physical and biological properties. The millimeter-size hydrogel shell, resulting from the double ionic/covalent crosslinking of CH:MA, endowed the hollow particles with softness to the touch and an outstanding structural stability against manipulation by hand and with forceps. Meanwhile, the liquid DNA core guaranteed a biocompatible cell encapsulation followed by a superior release and proliferation of viable cells, as compared to solid CH:MA particles prepared as a blank. Particles with these characteristics show promise for surgical protocols practiced in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, where manipulable and biocompatible synthetic implants are often needed to supply living cells and other sensitive bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone substitute biomedical material of multi-(amino acid) copolymer: in vitro degradation and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Yan, Yonggang; Wei, Jie; Ma, Jian; Gong, Min; Luo, Xiaoman; Zhang, Yunfei

    2011-11-01

    Degradable polymers with good mechanical strength as bone repair biomaterials have been paid more attention in biomedical application. In this study, a multi-(amino acid) copolymer consisting of 6-aminocaproic acid and five natural amino acids was prepared by a reaction of acid-catalyzed condensation. The results revealed that the copolymer could be slowly degradable in Tris-HCl solution, and lost its initial weight of 31.9 wt% after immersion for 12 weeks, and the changes of pH value of Tris-HCl solution were in range from 6.9 to 7.4 during soaking. The compressive strength of the copolymer decreased from 107 to 68 MPa after immersion for 12 weeks. The proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cells on the copolymer significantly increased with time, and the cells with normal phenotype extended and spread well on the copolymer surfaces. When the copolymer was implanted in muscle and bone defects of femoral cortex of dogs for 12 weeks, the histological evaluation confirmed that the copolymer exhibited excellent biocompatibility and more effective osteogenesis in vivo. When implanted into cortical bone defects of dogs, the copolymer could be combined directly with the natural bone without fibrous capsule tissue between implants and host bone. The results indicated that the multi-(amino acid) copolymer with sufficient strength, good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity had clinical potential for load-bearing bone repair or substitution.

  12. Biocompatibility of Portland Cement Modified with Titanium Oxide and Calcium Chloride in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Hoshyari, Narjes; Labbaf, Hossein; Jalayer Naderi, Nooshin; Kazemi, Ali; Bastami, Farshid; Koopaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of two modified formulations of Portland cement (PC) mixed with either titanium oxide or both titanium oxide and calcium chloride. Methods and Materials: Polyethylene tubes were filled with modified PCs or Angelus MTA as the control; the tubes were then implanted in 28 Wistar rats subcutaneously. One tube was left empty as a negative control in each rat. Histologic samples were taken after 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. Sections were assessed histologically for inflammatory responses and presence of fibrous capsule and granulation tissue formation. Data were analyzed using the Fisher’s exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Result: PC mixed with titanium oxide showed the highest mean scores of inflammation compared with others. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean inflammatory grades between all groups in each of the understudy time intervals. Conclusion: The results showed favorable biocompatibility of these modified PC mixed with calcium chloride and titanium oxide. PMID:27141221

  13. Mechanical performance of a biocompatible biocide soda-lime glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    López-Esteban, S; Bartolomé, J F; Dí Az, L A; Esteban-Tejeda, L; Prado, C; López-Piriz, R; Torrecillas, R; Moya, J S

    2014-06-01

    A biocompatible soda-lime glass-ceramic in the SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-B2O3 system containing combeite and nepheline as crystalline phases, has been obtained at 750°C by two different routes: (i) pressureless sintering and (ii) Spark Plasma Sintering. The SPS glass-ceramic showed a bending strength, Weibull modulus, and toughness similar values to the cortical human bone. This material had a fatigue limit slightly superior to cortical bone and at least two times higher than commercial dental glass-ceramics and dentine. The in vitro studies indicate that soda-lime glass-ceramic is fully biocompatible. The in vivo studies in beagle jaws showed that implanted SPS rods presented no inflammatory changes in soft tissues surrounding implants in any of the 10 different cases after four months implantation. The radiological analysis indicates no signs of osseointegration lack around implants. Moreover, the biocide activity of SPS glass-ceramic versus Escherichia coli, was found to be >4log indicating that it prevents implant infections. Because of this, the SPS new glass-ceramic is particularly promising for dental applications (inlay, crowns, etc). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biocompatible CuS-based nanoplatforms for efficient photothermal therapy and chemotherapy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shuwen; He, Yuanyuan; Er, Murat; Sheng, Yuanzhi; Gu, Yueqing; Chen, Haiyan

    2017-02-28

    Near-infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy (PTT) is a new approach to ablate cancer without affecting normal tissues. A pivotal concern of PPT is to develop photo-responsive agents with high biocompatibility as well as effective photothermal conversion efficiency. Copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles prepared are characterized by their low synthesis cost, wide NIR absorption range, good biocompatibility and favorable NIR photothermal conversion efficiency. CuS nanoparticles were then coated with mesoporous silicon dioxide (SiO2) by the Stober method, and further loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The nanocomposites obtained were named CuS@MSN-DOX. The infrared thermal imaging of CuS@MSN-DOX demonstrated its favorable photothermal efficacy. The potential of CuS@MSN-DOX utilized as a multifunctional platform for combined PPT and chemotherapy was exploited both at the cell level and in a mice model. The result demonstrated that CuS@MSN-DOX was endowed with the synergistic effect of chemo-photothermal therapy, which confirmed that it is a promising candidate for combined therapy of cancer.

  15. Physical Cross-Linking Starch-Based Zwitterionic Hydrogel Exhibiting Excellent Biocompatibility, Protein Resistance, and Biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yabin; Wang, Qiangsong; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Boguang; Ji, Feng; Dong, Dianyu; Gao, Lina; Cui, Yuanlu; Yao, Fanglian

    2016-06-22

    In this work, a novel starch-based zwitterionic copolymer, starch-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (ST-g-PSBMA), was synthesized via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Starch, which formed the main chain, can be degraded completely in vivo, and the pendent segments of PSBMA endowed the copolymer with excellent protein resistance properties. This ST-g-PSBMA copolymer could self-assemble into a physical hydrogel in normal saline, and studies of the formation mechanism indicated that the generation of the physical hydrogel was driven by electrostatic interactions between PSBMA segments. The obtained hydrogels were subjected to detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy, swelling ratio, protein resistance, and rheology tests. Toxicity and hemolysis analysis demonstrated that the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels possess excellent biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Moreover, the cytokine secretion assays (IL-6, TNF-α, and NO) confirmed that ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels had low potential to trigger the activation of macrophages and were suitable for in vivo biomedical applications. On the basis of these in vitro results, the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels were implanted in SD rats. The tissue responses to hydrogel implantation and the hydrogel degradation in vivo were determined by histological analysis (Hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson, and Masson's Trichrome stains). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the physical cross-linking, starch-based zwitterionic hydrogels possess excellent protein resistance, low macrophage-activation properties, and good biocompatibility, and they are a promising candidate for an in vivo biomedical application platform.

  16. Biocompatible polyhydroxyalkanoates/bacterial cellulose composites: Preparation, characterization, and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chiulan, Ioana; Mihaela Panaitescu, Denis; Nicoleta Frone, Adriana; Teodorescu, Mircea; Andi Nicolae, Cristian; Căşărică, Angela; Tofan, Vlad; Sălăgeanu, Aurora

    2016-10-01

    Biocompatible composites play a critical role as scaffolds in tissue engineering. Novel biocomposites made from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and bacterial cellulose (BC) in different concentrations were prepared by solution casting and their thermal and mechanical behavior as well as biocompatibility was characterized. BC addition increased the thermal stability of the polymer matrix as evidenced by thermogravimetric analysis. The crystallinity of PHB and the crystallization temperature decreased with the addition of BC and PHA, thus increasing the processing window. BC in small concentration determined an increase in the mechanical properties due to a concerted action of PHA and filler. Good cells attachment and proliferation were observed for all the biocomposites. By the addition of PHA (more hydrophobic than the matrix) and various amounts of BC (highly hydrophilic), surface properties and cell attachment can be controlled. Cytocompatibility studies using L929 cell line revealed that this material is suitable for biomedical applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2576-2584, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. In vivo biocompatibility of porous silicon biomaterials for drug delivery to the heart.

    PubMed

    Tölli, Marja A; Ferreira, Mónica P A; Kinnunen, Sini M; Rysä, Jaana; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Szabó, Zoltán; Serpi, Raisa E; Ohukainen, Pauli J; Välimäki, Mika J; Correia, Alexandra M R; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Ruskoaho, Heikki J; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is the irreversible necrosis of heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia, which is an increasing problem in terms of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs worldwide. Along with the idea to develop nanocarriers that efficiently deliver therapeutic agents to target the heart, in this study, we aimed to test the in vivo biocompatibility of different sizes of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) microparticles and thermally oxidized porous silicon (TOPSi) micro and nanoparticles in the heart tissue. Despite the absence or low cytotoxicity, both particle types showed good in vivo biocompatibility, with no influence on hematological parameters and no considerable changes in cardiac function before and after MI. The local injection of THCPSi microparticles into the myocardium led to significant higher activation of inflammatory cytokine and fibrosis promoting genes compared to TOPSi micro and nanoparticles; however, both particles showed no significant effect on myocardial fibrosis at one week post-injection. Our results suggest that THCPSi and TOPSi micro and nanoparticles could be applied for cardiac delivery of therapeutic agents in the future, and the PSi biomaterials might serve as a promising platform for the specific treatment of heart diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and biocompatibility of a biodegradable and functionalizable thermo-sensitive hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Mantosh K.; Gao, Jin; Stowell, Chelsea E. T.; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Injectable thermal gels are a useful tool for drug delivery and tissue engineering. However, most thermal gels do not solidify rapidly at body temperature (37°C). We addressed this by synthesizing a thermo-sensitive, rapidly biodegrading hydrogel. Our hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(propanol serinate hexamethylene urethane) (EPSHU), is an ABA block copolymer comprising A, methoxy poly ethylene glycol group and B, poly (propanol L-serinate hexamethylene urethane). EPSHU was characterized by gel permeation chromatography for molecular weight and 1H NMR and Fourier transformed infrared for structure. Rheological studies measured the phase transition temperature. In vitro degradation in cholesterol esterase and in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) was tracked using the average molecular weight measured by gel permeation chromatography. LIVE/DEAD and resazurin reduction assays performed on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts exposed to EPSHU extracts demonstrated no cytotoxicity. Subcutaneous implantation into BALB/cJ mice indicated good biocompatibility in vivo. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of EPSHU together make it a promising candidate for drug delivery applications that demand carrier gel degradation within months. PMID:26814023

  19. Biocompatibility of collagen membranes crosslinked with glutaraldehyde or diphenylphosphoryl azide: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Marinucci, Lorella; Lilli, Cinzia; Guerra, Mario; Belcastro, Salvatore; Becchetti, Ennio; Stabellini, Giordano; Calvi, Edoardo M; Locci, Paola

    2003-11-01

    Crosslinking of collagen biomaterials increases their resistance to degradation in vivo. Glutaraldehyde (GA) is normally used to crosslink collagen biomaterial, but is often cytotoxic. Diphenylphosphoryl azide (DPPA) has recently been proposed as reagent, but little is known about its effects on cell behavior. In this study, we determined which collagen membrane was the most biocompatible: Paroguide which is crosslinked with DPPA and contains chondroitin sulfate; Opocrin which is crosslinked with DPPA; Biomed Extend which is crosslinked with GA; and Bio-Gide which is left untreated. Cell proliferation and extracellular matrix macromolecule deposition were evaluated in human fibroblasts cultured on the membranes. The GA-crosslinked Biomed Extend membrane and the not-crosslinked Bio-Gide membrane reduced cell growth and collagen secretion compared with DPPA-crosslinked biomembranes. When Paroguide and Opocrin were compared, better results were obtained with Paroguide. The greatest amount of transforming growth factor beta1, a growth factor involved in extracellular matrix macromolecule accumulation and in tissue regeneration, was produced by cells cultured on Paroguide, with Opocrin second. Our data suggest that the DPPA method is more biocompatible than the GA for crosslinking collagen biomaterials and that membranes made of collagen plus chondroitin sulfate are better than membranes made of pure collagen.

  20. Designing of macroporous biocompatible cryogels of PVA-haemoglobin and their water sorption study.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, A K; Saini, Rajesh

    2009-10-01

    Macroporous polymeric materials are three-dimensional porous architectures having enormous utility in the areas of biomedical, biotechnological and separation sciences. Thus realizing the crucial role of macroporous polymeric materials in tissue engineering and allied fields the present paper discusses synthesis, characterization, and blood compatibility study of macroporous cryogels of PVA and haemoglobin. Biocompatible spongy and porous hydrogels of polyvinyl alcohol-haemoglobin have been synthesized by repeated freezing-thawing method and characterized by Infrared (FTIR), and ESEM techniques. The FTIR analysis of prepared cryogels indicated that haemoglobin was introduced into the cryogel possibly via hydrogen bonds formed amongst hydroxyl groups and amino groups present in PVA and haemoglobin, respectively. The 'cryogels' were evaluated for their water uptake potentials and influence of various factors such as chemical architecture of the spongy hydrogels, pH and temperature of the swelling bath were investigated on the degree of water sorption by the cryogels. The hydrogels were also swollen in salt solutions and various simulated biological fluids. The effect of drying temperature on its water sorption capacity was also studied. The biocompatibility of the prepared cryogels was judged by in vitro methods of blood-clot formation, percent haemolysis and protein (BSA) adsorption.

  1. Semifluorinated symmetrical diethers for intraocular use: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Dnkelmann, S; Geister, U; Röhlke, W; Meinert, H; Northoff, H

    2001-01-01

    Semifluorinated symmetrical diethers were synthesized using the William ether synthesis. These diethers should have similar properties to perfluorocarbons as are chemical inertness and high oxygen solubility, but in contrast a considerably lower density. With their lower density the damaging of the choroidal tissue of the eye observed with perfluorocarbons should be avoided. The synthesized diethers are inert compounds being stable against nucleophiles, oxidiziers and strong bases. Their density is in the range of 1.1-1.2 g/cm3. Besides the physical and chemical tests we conducted several in vitro biocompatibility tests. The tests comprised induction of hemolysis, the generation of C3a complement, the influence on the production of interleukin1beta, the influence on cell proliferation of a Raji and a Hela cell line (3H-Thymidine uptake) and finally the direct cytotoxic effect on these cell lines. All tested symmetrical diethers were positive in one or more tests and can be expected to be incompatible in vivo. Especially the "short" semifluorinated diethers [(CF3CH2O)2(CH2)3-6] showed a nearly total inhibition of cell proliferation or interleukin1beta release. Further variation of the compounds will be necessary to generate better biocompatible derivates.

  2. Preparation of immunogen-reduced and biocompatible extracellular matrices from porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Mee; Park, Sung-Min; Yang, Se-Ran; Hong, Seok-Ho; Woo, Heung-Myong

    2013-02-01

    Decellularized biologic matrices are plausible biomedical materials for the bioengineering in liver transplantation. However, one of the concerns for safe medical application is the lack of objective assessment of the immunogen within the materials and the in vivo immune responses to the matrices. The purpose of this study was the production of immunogen-reduced and biocompatible matrices from porcine liver. In the present study, 0.1% SDS solution was effective for removing DNA fragments and sequences encoding possible immunogenic and viral antigens within the matrices. The PCR analysis showed that galactose-α-1,3 galactose β-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (1,3 gal), swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), and porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) were completely removed in the matrices. Collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were preserved over 63%-71%, respectively, compared to those of native liver. The implanted decellularized tissues showed minimal host responses and naturally degraded within 10 weeks. In this study, we produced immunogen-reduced and biocompatible extracellular matrices from porcine liver. Although future investigations would be required to determine the mechanism of the host reaction, this study could provide useful information of porcine liver-derived biologic matrices for liver researches.

  3. Preparation and biocompatibility of grafted functional β-cyclodextrin copolymers from the surface of PET films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Hongwen; Zhang, Weiwei; Tu, Shanshan

    2014-08-01

    The hydrophobic inert surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film has limited its practical bioapplications, in which case, better biocompatibility should be achieved by surface modification. In this work, the copolymer of functional β-cyclodextrin derivatives and styrene grafted surfaces was prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on initiator-immobilized PET. The structures, composition, properties, and surface morphology of the modified PET films were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurement, and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that the surface of PET films was covered by a thick targeted copolymer layer, and the hydrophobic surface of PET was changed into an amphiphilic surface. The copolymer-grafted surfaces were also shown good biocompatibility on which SGC-7901 A549 and A549/DDP cells readily attached and proliferated, demonstrating that the functional copolymer-grafted PET films could be a promising alternative to biomaterials especially for tissue engineering.

  4. Biocompatibility of poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline) brush surfaces for adherent lung cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tait, Angela; Fisher, Adam L; Hartland, Tom; Smart, David; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Hill, Martyn; Swindle, Emily J; Grossel, Martin; Davies, Donna E

    2015-08-01

    Development of synthetic surfaces that are highly reproducible and biocompatible for in vitro cell culture offers potential for development of improved models for studies of cellular physiology and pathology. They may also be useful in tissue engineering by removal of the need for biologically-derived components such as extracellular matrix proteins. We synthesised four types of 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline polymers ranging from the hydrophilic poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) to the hydrophobic poly(2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline). The polymers were terminated using amine-functionalised glass coverslips, enabling the synthetic procedure to be reproducible and scaleable. The polymer-coated glass slides were tested for biocompatibility using human epithelial (16HBE14o-) and fibroblastic (MRC5) cell lines. Differences in adhesion and motility of the two cell types was observed, with the poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) polymer equally supporting the growth of both cell types, whereas poly(2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline) showed selectivity for fibroblast growth. In summary, 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline polymers may be a useful tool for building in vitro model cell culture models with preferential adhesion of specific cell types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Materials composed of the Drosophila Hox protein Ultrabithorax are biocompatible and nonimmunogenic.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jan L; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M; Wang, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Howell, David W; Pellois, Jean-Philippe; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Bondos, Sarah E

    2015-04-01

    Although the in vivo function of the Drosophila melanogaster Hox protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is to regulate transcription, in vitro Ubx hierarchically self-assembles to form nanoscale to macroscale materials. The morphology, mechanical properties, and functionality (via protein chimeras) of Ubx materials are all easily engineered. Ubx materials are also compatible with cells in culture. These properties make Ubx attractive as a potential tissue engineering scaffold, but to be used as such they must be biocompatible and nonimmunogenic. In this study, we assess whether Ubx materials are suitable for in vivo applications. When implanted into mice, Ubx fibers attracted few immune cells to the implant area. Sera from mice implanted with Ubx contain little to no antibodies capable of recognizing Ubx. Furthermore, Ubx fibers cultured with macrophages in vitro did not lyse or activate the macrophages, as measured by TNF-α and NO secretion. Finally, Ubx fibers do not cause hemolysis when incubated with human red blood cells. The minimal effects observed are comparable with those induced by biomaterials used successfully in vivo. We conclude Ubx materials are biocompatible and nonimmunogenic.

  6. L-cysteine: a biocompatible, breathable and beneficial coating for graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Mu, Li; Gao, Yue; Hu, Xiangang

    2015-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been employed in various fields, and its ecological and health risks have attracted much attention. A small and inexpensive biomolecule, L-cysteine, was covalently immobilized onto GO to form L-cysteine-GO (CysGO) as a thio-functionalized nanosheet of 1.4 nm in thickness. Both the d-spacing and crystallinity of CysGO were observed to be lower than those of GO, whereas the D and G peaks remained similar to those of GO. CysGO exhibited remarkable uptake in vivo: no tissue defects, malformation, death or significant hatching delay were observed in zebrafish embryos. Significant DNA damage, decreased Na+/K+-ATPase activity and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were not observed for CysGO. As a nonspecific activity linked to nanotoxicology, the unpaired electron spinning intensity of CysGO was approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that of GO. Oxygen microsensor analysis showed that the hypoxic and normoxic environments resulting from the presence of GO and CysGO envelopment, respectively, contributed to the difference in biocompatibility. CysGO also protected embryos from arsenic poisoning. Thus, CysGO has the advantageous properties of GO, exhibits excellent biocompatibility, acts as a breathable coating and antidote, and is suitable for various applications.

  7. [An experimental study on biocompatibility of Bio-oss collagen with cultured bone marrow stromal cells].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhong-Chen; Shu, Rong; Xie, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Yin, De-Min

    2008-04-01

    To study the biocompatibility of Bio-oss collagen with cultured bone marrow stromal cells. The bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of rhesus monkey were cultured with Bio-oss collagen in vitro. Cell attachment was observed with laser confocal microscope. Cell proliferation rates were assessed with MTT assay. ALP activity was also detected. The data was statistically analyzed with SAS6.12 software package for Student's t test. The rhesus BMSCs could attach to the surface of Bio-oss collagen. In cell proliferation rates, there was no significant difference between the control group and experimental group at 2-day and 5-day(P>0.05). However, at 8-day, the difference was significant (P<0.05). For ALP activity, there was no significant difference among different time point (P>0.05). The Bio-oss collagen has good biocompatibility with rhesus BMSCs, and could be used to repair periodontal bone defects as a biomaterial in tissue engineering.

  8. Surface, corrosion and biocompatibility aspects of Nitinol as an implant material.

    PubMed

    Shabalovskaya, Svetlana A

    2002-01-01

    The present review surveys studies on physical-chemical properties and biological response of living tissues to NiTi (Nitinol) carried out recently, aiming at an understanding of the place of this material among the implant alloys in use. Advantages of shape memory and superelasticity are analyzed in respect to functionality of implants in the body. Various approaches to surface treatment, sterilization procedures, and resulting surface conditions are analyzed. A review of corrosion studies conducted both on wrought and as-cast alloys using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic techniques in various corrosive media and in actual body fluids is also given. The parameters of localized and galvanic corrosion are presented. The corrosion behavior is analyzed with respect to alloy composition, phase state, surface treatment, and strain and compared to that of conventional implant alloys. Biocompatibility of porous Nitinol, Ni release and its effect on living cells are analyzed based on understanding of the surface conditions and corrosion behavior. Additionally, the paper offers a brief overview of the comparative toxicity of metals, components of commonly used medical alloys, indicating that the biocompatibility profile of Nitinol is conducive to present in vivo applications.

  9. Serum albumin-protamine conjugate for biocompatible platform for targeted delivery of therapeutic macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Absar, Shahriar; Nahar, Kamrun; Choi, Suna; Ahsan, Fakhrul; Yang, Victor C; Kwon, Young M

    2014-08-01

    A well-defined, one-to-one conjugate between human serum albumin (HSA) and protamine was synthesized and characterized as a biocompatible carrier for macromolecules. In circulation, the conjugate will camouflage drug molecules upon complex formation, while liberating free drug at the desired location using a triggering mechanism. The N-terminus of protamine was thiolated and conjugated with the unpaired Cysteine-34 of HSA, and was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the conjugate was 70.8 kDa, confirming one-to-one conjugation between HSA (66.6 KDa) and protamine (4200 Da). Superimposed fluorescence spectra of native HSA and HSA-protamine conjugate indicated no conformational change around the Trp-214. The conjugate had marked reduction in hemolytic and cytotoxic properties compared to protamine. When therapeutic potential was tested using tissue plasminogen activator as a model drug, HSA-protamine conjugate suppressed the enzymatic activity by 65%, which was fully recovered by a triggering agent, heparin. The construct showed binding characteristics with activated platelets upon conjugation with a targeting peptide, demonstrating flexibility to introduce suitable homing moiety on the surface. The camouflaged construct retained triggered release property in human plasma condition. Overall, the conjugate has a good potential to serve as a biocompatible platform for macromolecular drugs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of pectin and chitosan cryogels for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, Mariya V; Markov, Pavel A; Durnev, Eugene A; Kurek, Denis V; Popov, Sergey V; Varlamov, Valery P

    2017-02-01

    Today, there is a need for the development of biomaterials with novel properties for biomedical purposes. The biocompatibility of materials is a key factor in determining its possible use in biomedicine. In this study, composite cryogels were obtained based on pectin and chitosan using ionic cryotropic gelation. For cryogel preparation, apple pectin (AP), Heracleum L. pectin (HP), and chitosan samples with different physical and chemical characteristics were used. The properties of pectin-chitosan cryogels were found to depend on the structural features and physicochemical characteristics of the pectin and chitosan within them. The addition of chitosan to cryogels can increase their mechanical strength, cause change in surface morphology, increase the degradation time, and enhance adhesion to biological tissues. Cryogels based on AP were less immunogenic when compared with cryogels from HP. Cryogels based on AP and HP were hemocompatible and the percentage of red blood cells hemolysis was less than 5%. Unlike cryogels based on HP, which exhibited moderate cytotoxicity, cryogels based on AP exhibited light cytotoxicity. Based on the results of low immunogenicity, light cytotoxicity data as well as a low level of hemolysis of composite cryogels based on AP and chitosan are biocompatible and can potentially be used in biomedicine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 547-556, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Carbon-Coated Gold Nanorods: A Facile Route to Biocompatible Materials for Photothermal Applications.

    PubMed

    Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Chen, Chuyang; Liu, Minsu; Wang, Xiaochun; Yang, Jia Lin; Taylor, Robert Allen; Jiang, Xuchuan; Yu, Aibing

    2015-11-25

    Gold nanorods and their core-shell nanocomposites have been widely studied because of their well-defined anisotropy and unique optical properties and applications. This study demonstrates a facile hydrothermal synthesis strategy for generating carbon coating on gold nanorods (AuNRs@C) under mild conditions (<200 °C), where the carbon shell is composed of polymerized sugar molecules (glucose). The structure and composition of the produced core-shell nanocomposites were characterized using advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The functional properties, particularly the photothermal and biocompatibility properties of the produced AuNRs@C, were quantified to assess their potential in photothermal hyperthermia. These AuNRs@C were tested in vitro (under representative treatment conditions) using near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. It was found that the AuNRs produced here exhibit exemplary heat generation capability. Temperature changes of 10.5, 9, and 8 °C for AuNRs@C were observed with carbon shell thicknesses of 10, 17, and 25 nm, respectively, at a concentration of 50 μM, after 600 s of irradiation with a laser power of 0.17 W/cm(2). In addition, the synthesized AuNRs@C also exhibit good biocompatibility toward two soft tissue sarcoma cell lines (HT1080, a fibrosarcoma; and GCT, a fibrous histiocytoma). The cell viability study shows that AuNRs@C (at a concentration of <0.1 mg/mL) core-shell particles induce significantly lower cytotoxicity on both HT1080 and GCT cell lines, as compared with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped AuNRs. Furthermore, similar to PEG-modified AuNRs, they are also safe to both HT1080 and GCT cell lines. This biocompatibility results from a surface full of -OH or -COH groups, which are suitable for linking and are nontoxic Therefore, the AuNRs@C represent a viable alternative to PEG-coated AuNRs for facile synthesis and improved photothermal conversion. Overall, these findings open up a new class of carbon

  12. Effects of peritoneal dialysis fluid biocompatibility on baroreflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    John, S G; Selby, N M; McIntyre, C W

    2008-04-01

    Conventional low biocompatibility peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid composition has been driven by manufacturing expediency and cost limitations. PD is associated with significant acute changes in cardiovascular functional parameters, at least in part influenced by fluid composition. Short-term control of blood pressure (BP) is under control of the baroreflex arc. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PD fluid biocompatibility on baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). We studied 10 non-diabetic established continuous ambulatory PD patients, in a randomized crossover trial comparing conventional and biocompatible PD fluids. Systemic hemodynamics were continuously monitored using digital pulse-wave analysis. Plasma glucose and insulin were assessed during treatment with both 1.36% and 3.86% glucose-containing fluids. BRS was calculated offline from continuous BP and interbeat interval data. BRS was significantly higher with conventional PD fluid during both 1.36% (P<0.001) and 3.86% (P<0.001) dwells. Systolic BP was higher; heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were lower; and total peripheral resistance increased during exposure to either fluid. There were significant differences between fluids with respect to the magnitude of these responses. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and ultrafiltration volumes were significantly higher during the 3.86% dwell than the 1.36% dwell, but there were no differences between standard and biocompatible fluids. We have demonstrated for the first time that PD fluid biocompatibility rapidly affects BRS. These changes occur against a background of cardiovascular variability, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism and, more importantly, the consequences of these findings.

  13. Effects of Biocompatible versus Standard Fluid on Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Fiona G.; Clarke, Margaret; Boudville, Neil; Elias, Tony J.; Foo, Marjorie W.Y.; Jones, Bernard; Kulkarni, Hemant; Langham, Robyn; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan; Schollum, John; Suranyi, Michael; Tan, Seng H.; Voss, David

    2012-01-01

    The clinical benefits of using “biocompatible” neutral pH solutions containing low levels of glucose degradation products for peritoneal dialysis compared with standard solutions are uncertain. In this multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, we randomly assigned 185 incident adult peritoneal dialysis patients with residual renal function to use either biocompatible or conventional solution for 2 years. The primary outcome measure was slope of renal function decline. Secondary outcome measures comprised time to anuria, fluid volume status, peritonitis-free survival, technique survival, patient survival, and adverse events. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in the rate of decline of renal function between the two groups as measured by the slopes of GFR: −0.22 and −0.28 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month (P=0.17) in the first year in the biocompatible and conventional groups, respectively, and, −0.09 and −0.10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month (P=0.9) in the second year. The biocompatible group exhibited significantly longer times to anuria (P=0.009) and to the first peritonitis episode (P=0.01). This group also had fewer patients develop peritonitis (30% versus 49%) and had lower rates of peritonitis (0.30 versus 0.49 episodes per year, P=0.01). In conclusion, this trial does not support a role for biocompatible fluid in slowing the rate of GFR decline, but it does suggest that biocompatible fluid may delay the onset of anuria and reduce the incidence of peritonitis compared with conventional fluid in peritoneal dialysis. PMID:22440906

  14. Phospholipid stabilized gold nanorods: towards improved colloidal stability and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Thomas, Neethu; Sudhakar, Swathi; Chadha, Anju; Mani, Ethayaraja

    2017-07-19

    Biocompatible and colloidally stable gold nanorods (GNRs) with well-defined plasmonic properties are essential for biomedical and theranostic applications. The as-synthesized GNRs using the seed-mediated method are stabilized by the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which is known for its cytotoxicity in many cell lines. Biocompatible GNRs synthesized using known protocols exhibit some extent of cytotoxicity and colloidal instability because of the incomplete removal of CTAB. We report a facile method for the efficient removal of CTAB molecules with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) phospholipid molecules, which are naturally present in cell membranes. The kinetics of the ligand exchange process is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and corroborated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. From colloidal stability studies using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, the optimal lipid concentration and duration required for the successful ligand exchange of CTAB by DMPC are reported. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the surface concentration of DMPC on colloidally stable GNRs is found to be approximately 9 molecules per nm(2). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays show that the surface-modified DMPC-GNRs have significantly better biocompatibility than those of CTAB-GNRs. Studies on the ligand exchange, colloidal stability and biocompatibility of DMPC-GNRs with aspect ratios ranging from 2.2 to 4.2 demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method. The results provide insights into the important factors to be considered while designing biocompatible GNRs suitable for applications in nanomedicine.

  15. Enhanced biocompatibility of neural probes by integrating microstructures and delivering anti-inflammatory agents via microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Kim, Eric; Meggo, Anika; Gandhi, Sachin; Luo, Hao; Kallakuri, Srinivas; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Biocompatibility is a major issue for chronic neural implants, involving inflammatory and wound healing responses of neurons and glial cells. To enhance biocompatibility, we developed silicon-parylene hybrid neural probes with open architecture electrodes, microfluidic channels and a reservoir for drug delivery to suppress tissue responses. Approach. We chronically implanted our neural probes in the rat auditory cortex and investigated (1) whether open architecture electrode reduces inflammatory reaction by measuring glial responses; and (2) whether delivery of antibiotic minocycline reduces inflammatory and tissue reaction. Four weeks after implantation, immunostaining for glial fibrillary acid protein (astrocyte marker) and ionizing calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (macrophages/microglia cell marker) were conducted to identify immunoreactive astrocyte and microglial cells, and to determine the extent of astrocytes and microglial cell reaction/activation. A comparison was made between using traditional solid-surface electrodes and newly-designed electrodes with open architecture, as well as between deliveries of minocycline and artificial cerebral-spinal fluid diffused through microfluidic channels. Main results. The new probes with integrated micro-structures induced minimal tissue reaction compared to traditional electrodes at 4 weeks after implantation. Microcycline delivered through integrated microfluidic channels reduced tissue response as indicated by decreased microglial reaction around the neural probes implanted. Significance. The new design will help enhance the long-term stability of the implantable devices.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanocrystals and histologic evaluation of their biocompatibility by means of intraosseous implants.

    PubMed

    Sousa, C J A; Pereira, M C; Almeida, R J; Loyola, A M; Silva, A C A; Dantas, N O

    2014-05-01

    To synthesize and characterize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals and assess their biological properties for applications in dentistry, particularly in endodontics, by means of intraosseous implants. ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized and characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Ten guinea pigs were divided into two groups representing experimental periods of 4 and 12 weeks and received implants on both sides of the mandible in the region of the symphysis. The connective tissue response along the lateral wall outside the cup served as the negative control. The animals were euthanized at the end of each observation period and prepared for routine histological examinations which evaluated inflammatory response and material biocompatibility. ZnO nanocrystals were highly pure, crystalline, and averaged 21 nm in size. After 12 weeks, tissue analysis revealed the presence of a thin layer of connective tissue with some giant cells between the implanted material and underlying bone tissue. While signs of mild inflammation could be seen, bone resorption and remodeling were not apparent. ZnO nanocrystals were biocompatible, well tolerated and allowed new bone formation and bone remodelling. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Simple Replica Micromolding of Biocompatible Styrenic Elastomers†

    PubMed Central

    Bielawski, Kevin S.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.; Jenkel, Colin F.; Vogt, Bryan D.; Posner, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a simple solvent-assisted micromolding technique for the fabrication of high-fidelity styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) microfluidic devices with high polystyrene (PS) content (42 wt% PS). SEBS triblock copolymers are styrenic thermoplastic elastomers that exhibit both glassy thermoplastic and elastomeric properties resulting from their respective hard PS and rubbery ethylene/butylene fractions. The PS fraction gives SEBS microdevices many of the appealing properties of pure PS devices, while the elastomeric fraction simplifies fabrication of the devices, similar to PDMS. SEBS42 devices have wettable, stable surfaces (both contact angle and zeta potential) that support cell attachment and proliferation consistent with tissue culture dish substrates, do not adsorb hydrophobic molecules, and have high bond strength to wide range of substrates (glass, PS, SEBS). Furthermore, SEBS42 devices are mechanically robust, thermally stable, as well as exhibit low auto-fluorescence and high transmissivity. We characterize SEBS42 surface properties by contact angle measurements, cell culture studies, zeta potential measurements, and the adsorption of hydrophobic molecules. The PS surface composition of SEBS microdevices cast on different substrates is determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The attractive SEBS42 material properties, coupled with the simple fabrication method, make SEBS42 a quality substrate for microfluidic applications where the properties of PS are desired but the ease of PDMS micromolding is favoured. PMID:23670166

  18. Dendronized polyaniline nanotubes for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Moura, Renata Mendes; de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar

    2011-05-01

    Today, nanobiomaterials represent a very important class of biomaterials because they differ dramatically in their bulk precursors. The properties of these materials are determined by the size and morphology, thus creating a fascinating line in their physicochemical properties. Polyaniline nanotubes (PANINTs) are one of the most promising nanobiomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering applications due to their electroactive properties. The biocompatibility and low hydrophilic properties of PANINTs can be improved by their functionalization with the highly hydrophilic polyglycerol dendrimers (PGLDs). Hydrophilicity plays a fundamental role in tissue regeneration and fundamental forces that govern the process of cell adhesion and proliferation. In this work, the biocompatible properties and cardiomyocyte proliferation onto PANINTs modified by PGLD are described. PGLDs were immobilized onto PANINTs via surface-initiated anionic ring-opening polymerization of glycidol. The microstructure and morphology of PGLD-PANINTs was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The cardiac cell growth on the PGLD-PANINTs was investigated. The PGLD-coated PANINTs showed noncytotoxic effects to Chinese hamster ovary cells. It was observed that the application of microcurrent stimulates the differentiation of cardiac cells cultured on PGLD-PANINTs scaffolds. The electroactive and biocompatible results of PGLD-PANINTs observed in this work demonstrate the potential of this nanobiomaterial for the culture of cardiac cells and open the possibility of using this material as a biocompatible electroactive three-dimensional matrix in cardiac tissue engineering.

  19. Polymeric electrospun scaffolds: neuregulin encapsulation and biocompatibility studies in a model of myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Simón-Yarza, Teresa; Rossi, Angela; Heffels, Karl-Heinz; Prósper, Felipe; Groll, Jürgen; Blanco-Prieto, Maria J

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease represents one of the major health challenges in modern times and is the number one cause of death globally. Thus, numerous studies are under way to identify effective cell- and/or growth factor (GF)-based therapies for repairing damaged cardiac tissue. In this regard, improving the engraftment or survival of regenerative cells and prolonging GF exposure have become fundamental goals in advancing these therapeutic approaches. Biomaterials have emerged as innovative scaffolds for the delivery of both cells and proteins in tissue engineering applications. In the present study, electrospinning was used to generate smooth homogenous polymeric fibers, which consisted of a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) polymer blend encapsulating the cardioactive GF, Neuregulin-1 (Nrg). We evaluated the biocompatibility and degradation of this Nrg-containing biomaterial in a rat model of myocardial ischemia. Histological analysis revealed the presence of an initial acute inflammatory response after implantation, which was followed by a chronic inflammatory phase, characterized by the presence of giant cells. Notably, the scaffold remained in the heart after 3 months. Furthermore, an increase in the M2:M1 macrophage ratio following implantation suggested the induction of constructive tissue remodeling. Taken together, the combination of Nrg-encapsulating scaffolds with cells capable of inducing cardiac regeneration could represent an ambitious and promising therapeutic strategy for repairing diseased or damaged myocardial tissue.

  20. Plasma treatment for improving cell biocompatibility of a biodegradable polymer scaffold for vascular graft applications.

    PubMed

    Valence, Sarra de; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Chaabane, Chiraz; Gurny, Robert; Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Walpoth, Beat H; Möller, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable synthetic scaffolds are being evaluated by many groups for the application of vascular tissue engineering. In addition to the choice of the material and the structure of the scaffold, tailoring the surface properties can have an important effect on promoting adequate tissue regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an increased hydrophilicity of a polycaprolactone vascular graft by treatment with a cold air plasma. To this end, treated and untreated scaffolds were characterized, evaluated in vitro with smooth muscle cells, and implanted in vivo in the rat model for 3 weeks, both in the subcutaneous location and as an aortic replacement. The plasma treatment significantly increased the hydrophilicity of the scaffold, with complete wetting after a treatment of 60 sec, but did not change fiber morphology or mechanical properties. Smooth muscle cells cultured on plasma treated patches adopt a spread out morphology compared to a small, rounded morphology on untreated patches. Subcutaneous implantation revealed a low foreign body reaction for both types of scaffolds and a more extended and dense cellular infiltrate in the plasma treated scaffolds. In the vascular position, the plasma treatment induced a better cellularization of the graft wall, while it did not affect endothelialization rate or intimal hyperplasia. Plasma treatment is therefore an accessible tool to easily increase the biocompatibility of a scaffold and accelerate tissue regeneration without compromising mechanical strength, which are valuable advantages for vascular tissue engineering.

  1. Influence of polysaccharide composition on the biocompatibility of pullulan/dextran-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Abed, Aicha; Assoul, Nabila; Ba, Maguette; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohamed; Portes, Patrick; Louedec, Liliane; Flaud, Patrice; Bataille, Isabelle; Letourneur, Didier; Meddahi-Pellé, Anne

    2011-03-01

    The implantation of a biomaterial for tissue engineering requires the presence of a suitable scaffold on which the tissue repair and regeneration will take place. Polymers have been frequently used for that purpose because they show similar properties to that of the natural extracellular matrix. Scaffold properties and biocompatibility are modulated by the composition of the polymers used. In this work four polysaccharide-based hydrogels (PSH) made of dextran and pullulan were synthesized. Their in vitro properties were determined and then tested in vivo in a rat model. As pullulan concentration increased in dextran hydrogels, the glass transition temperature and the maximum modulus decreased. In vitro degradation studies for 30 days demonstrated no significant degradation of PSH except for 100% pullulan hydrogel. In vivo tissue response evaluated 30 days after PSH subcutaneous implantation in rats indicated that all PSH were surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Adding pullulan to dextran induced an increased inflammatory reaction compared to PSH-D(100% dextran) or PSH-D(75)P(25)(75% dextran). This in vitro and in vivo data can be used in the design of hydrogels appropriate for tissue engineering applications.

  2. Fine grained osseointegrative coating improves biocompatibility of PEEK in heterotopic sheep model

    PubMed Central

    Verleye, Gino B.M.; Smeets, Dirk; Van Hauwermeiren, Hadewych Y.R.; Loeckx, Dirk; Willems, Karel; Siau, Vincent G.M.G.G.B.; Lauweryns, Philippe J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) materials already have been used successfully in orthopedic and especially spine surgery. PEEK is radiolucent and comparable with bone regarding elasticity. However, PEEK is inert and the adhesion of PEEK implants to bone tissue proceeds slowly because of their relatively low biocompatibility. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of titanium and CaP coating on the adhesion of bone tissue. Material and Methods Six adult sheep (body weight 57.6 ± 3.9 kg) were included in this study. Three different types of cylindrical dowels (12 mm length x 8 mm diameter) were implanted in long bones (tibia and femur): PEEK dowels without coating (the control group), and PEEK dowels with a nanocoating of calcium phosphate (CaP group) or titanium (titanium group). Animals were sacrificed after 6, 12 and 26 weeks. Dowels were explanted for micro CT and histology. Results Bone implant contact (BIC) ratio was significantly higher in the titanium versus control groups in the 6 to 12 weeks period (p = 0.03). The ratio between bone volume and tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly higher in titanium versus control in the 6 to 12 weeks period (p = 0.02). A significant correlation between BIC and BV/TV was seen (r = 0.85, p < 0.05). Conclusion Coating of PEEK dowels with a nanocoating of titanium has beneficial effects on adhesion of bone tissue. PMID:26273553

  3. Fine grained osseointegrative coating improves biocompatibility of PEEK in heterotopic sheep model.

    PubMed

    Meers, Caroline M F; Verleye, Gino B M; Smeets, Dirk; Van Hauwermeiren, Hadewych Y R; Loeckx, Dirk; Willems, Karel; Siau, Vincent G M G G B; Lauweryns, Philippe J M E

    2015-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) materials already have been used successfully in orthopedic and especially spine surgery. PEEK is radiolucent and comparable with bone regarding elasticity. However, PEEK is inert and the adhesion of PEEK implants to bone tissue proceeds slowly because of their relatively low biocompatibility. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of titanium and CaP coating on the adhesion of bone tissue. Six adult sheep (body weight 57.6 ± 3.9 kg) were included in this study. Three different types of cylindrical dowels (12 mm length x 8 mm diameter) were implanted in long bones (tibia and femur): PEEK dowels without coating (the control group), and PEEK dowels with a nanocoating of calcium phosphate (CaP group) or titanium (titanium group). Animals were sacrificed after 6, 12 and 26 weeks. Dowels were explanted for micro CT and histology. Bone implant contact (BIC) ratio was significantly higher in the titanium versus control groups in the 6 to 12 weeks period (p = 0.03). The ratio between bone volume and tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly higher in titanium versus control in the 6 to 12 weeks period (p = 0.02). A significant correlation between BIC and BV/TV was seen (r = 0.85, p < 0.05). Coating of PEEK dowels with a nanocoating of titanium has beneficial effects on adhesion of bone tissue.

  4. Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of chitin dihexanoate--A new biocompatible chitin derivative--In comparison to chitin dibutyrate.

    PubMed

    Skołucka-Szary, Karolina; Ramięga, Aleksandra; Piaskowska, Wanda; Janicki, Bartosz; Grala, Magdalena; Rieske, Piotr; Bartczak, Zbigniew; Piaskowski, Sylwester

    2016-03-01

    Chitin dihexanoate (DHCH) is the novel biocompatible and technologically friendly highly substituted chitin diester. Here we described optimization of DHCH and chitin dibutyrate (dibutyryl chitin, DBC) synthesis conditions (temperature and reaction time) to obtain desired polymers with high reaction yield, high substitution degree (close to 2) and appropriately high molecular weights. A two-step procedure, employing acidic anhydrides (hexanoic or butyric anhydride) as the acylation agent and methanesulfonic acid both as the catalyst and the reaction medium, was applied. Chemical structures of DBC and DHCH were confirmed by NMR ((1)H and (13)C) and IR investigations. Mechanical properties, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and biocompatibility (Neutral red uptake assay, Skin Sensitization and Irritation Tests) were assessed. Both polymers proved highly biocompatible (non-cytotoxic in vitro, non-irritating and non-allergic to skin) and soluble in several organic solvents (dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, ethanol and others). It is worth emphasizing that DHCH and DBC can be easily processed by solvent casting method and the salt-leaching method, what gives the opportunity to prepare highly porous structures, which can be further successfully applied as the material for wound dressings and scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  5. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder for oral bone defects treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Saqaei, Mahboobe; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Edris, Hossein; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat

    2015-11-01

    Bone defects which emerge around dental implants are often seen when implants are placed in areas with insufficient alveolar bone, in extraction sockets, or around failing implants. Bone regeneration in above-mentioned defects using of bone grafts or bone substitutes may cure the long-term prognoses of dental implants. Biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteogenic properties are key factors affecting the applications of a bone substitute. This study was aimed at preparation, characterization, biocompatibility and bioactivity evaluation of the bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder as a desired candidate for oral bone defect treatments. Nanocomposite powders containing 58S bioactive glass and different amounts of forsterite nanopowder were synthesized in situ by sol-gel technique. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite powders and their cytotoxicity assessment was performed via MTT test. Bioactivity assessment was done by immersing the prepared powder in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Results showed that nanocomposite powders containing forsterite with crystallite size of 20-50nm were successfully fabricated by calcination at 600°C. The prepared bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders revealed high in vitro biocompatibility; besides, the nanocomposite containing 20wt.% forsterite showed a substantial increase in the cell viability compared with control groups. During immersion in SBF, the formation of apatite layer confirmed the bioactivity of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders. According to the results, the fabricated nanocomposite powders can be introduced as a promising candidate for oral bone imperfection treatments and hard tissue mend. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biocompatible KMnF3 nanoparticular contrast agent with proper plasma retention time for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-jun; Song, Xiao-xia; Xu, Xian-zhu; Tang, Qun

    2014-04-01

    Nanoparticular MRI contrast agents are rapidly becoming suitable for use in clinical diagnosis. An ideal nanoparticular contrast agent should be endowed with high relaxivity, biocompatibility, proper plasma retention time, and tissue-specific or tumor-targeting imaging. Herein we introduce PEGylated KMnF3 nanoparticles as a new type of T1 contrast agent. Studies showed that the nanoparticular contrast agent revealed high bio-stability with bovine serum albumin in PBS buffer solution, and presented excellent biocompatibility (low cytotoxicity, undetectable hemolysis and hemagglutination). Meanwhile the new contrast agent possessed proper plasma retention time (circulation half-life t1/2 is approximately 2 h) in the body of the administrated mice. It can be delivered into brain vessels and maintained there for hours, and is mostly cleared from the body within 48 h, as demonstrated by time-resolved MRI and Mn-biodistribution analysis. Those distinguishing features make it suitable to obtain contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance angiography. Moreover, through the process of passive targeting delivery, the T1 contrast agent clearly illuminates a brain tumor (glioma) with high contrast image and defined shape. This study demonstrates that PEGylated KMnF3 nanoparticles represent a promising biocompatible vascular contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography and can potentially be further developed into an active targeted tumor MRI contrast agent.

  7. Biocompatible and freestanding anatase TiO2 nanomembrane with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Menglin; Huang, Gaoshan; Qiao, Yuqin; Wang, Jiao; Liu, Zhaoqian; Liu, Xuanyong; Mei, Yongfeng

    2013-08-01

    Biocompatible and freestanding TiO2 nanotube membranes with improved photocatalytic activity were fabricated through a water-vapour-assisted annealing treatment at relatively low temperatures. Photoluminescence results and structure characterization prove that the obtained TiO2 nanotube membranes not only possess an enhanced anatase crystallinity from water molecule-intermediated dissolution-precipitation reactions, but are also covered with abundant hydroxyl groups which are hardly influenced by external disturbances. The anatase crystallinity, the superficial hydroxyl groups and the nanotubular morphology of the membrane treated with water vapour thus lead to enhancement in photocatalytic activity. This new approach is simple and time-saving, opening up new opportunities in various areas, including tissue-engineering, watersplitting, dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysis.

  8. Biocompatibility of a genetically encoded calcium indicator in a transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Direnberger, Stephan; Mues, Marsilius; Micale, Vincenzo; Wotjak, Carsten T; Dietzel, Steffen; Schubert, Michael; Scharr, Andreas; Hassan, Sami; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Biel, Martin; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Griesbeck, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Engineering efforts of genetically encoded calcium indicators predominantly focused on enhancing fluorescence changes, but how indicator expression affects the physiology of host organisms is often overlooked. Here, we demonstrate biocompatibility and widespread functional expression of the genetically encoded calcium indicator TN-XXL in a transgenic mouse model. To validate the model and characterize potential effects of indicator expression we assessed both indicator function and a variety of host parameters, such as anatomy, physiology, behaviour and gene expression profiles in these mice. We also demonstrate the usefulness of primary cells and organ explants prepared from these mice for imaging applications. Although we find mild signatures of indicator expression that may be further reduced in future sensor generations, the 'green' indicator mice generated provide a well-characterized resource of primary cells and tissues for in vitro and in vivo calcium imaging applications.

  9. Silkworm Gut Fiber of Bombyx mori as an Implantable and Biocompatible Light-Diffusing Fiber.

    PubMed

    Cenis, Jose Luis; Aznar-Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, Antonio Abel; Rojo, Marta; Muñoz, Juan; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Arenas, Aurelio

    2016-07-16

    This work describes a new approach to the delivery of light in deeper tissues, through a silk filament that is implantable, biocompatible, and biodegradable. In the present work, silkworm gut fibers (SGFs) of Bombyx mori L., are made by stretching the silk glands. Morphological, structural, and optical properties of the fibers have been characterized and the stimulatory effect of red laser light diffused from the fiber was assayed in fibroblast cultures. SGFs are formed by silk fibroin (SF) mainly in a β-sheet conformation, a stable and non-soluble state in water or biological fluids. The fibers showed a high degree of transparency to visible and infrared radiation. Using a red laser (λ = 650 nm) as source, the light was efficiently diffused along the fiber wall, promoting a significant increment in the cell metabolism 5 h after the irradiation. SGFs have shown their excellent properties as light-diffusing optical fibers with a stimulatory effect on cells.

  10. Biocompatibility and biofilm inhibition of N,N-hexyl,methyl-polyethylenimine bonded to Boston Keratoprosthesis materials

    PubMed Central

    Behlau, Irmgard; Mukherjee, Koushik; Todani, Amit; Tisdale, Ann S.; Cade, Fabiano; Wang, Liqiang; Leonard, Elizabeth M.; Zakka, Fouad R.; Gilmore, Michael S.; Jakobiec, Frederick A.; Dohlman, Claes H.; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    The biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of N,N-hexyl,methyl-polyethylenimine (HMPEI) covalently attached to the Boston Keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) materials was evaluated. By means of confocal and electron microscopies, we observed that HMPEI-derivatized materials exert an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates, as compared to the parent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and titanium. There was no additional corneal epithelial cell cytotoxicity of HMPEI-coated PMMA compared to that of control PMMA in tissue cultures in vitro. Likewise, no toxicity or adverse reactivity was detected with HMPEI-derivatized PMMA or titanium compared to those of the control materials after intrastromal or anterior chamber implantation in rabbits in vivo. PMID:21903257

  11. Simple and biocompatible micropatterning of multiple cell types on a polymer substrate by using ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Tae; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak; Nho, Young-Chang

    2010-12-07

    A noncytotoxic procedure for the spatial organization of multiple cell types remains as a major challenge in tissue engineering. In this study, a simple and biocompatible micropatterning method of multiple cell types on a polymer surface is developed by using ion implantation. The cell-resistant Pluronic surface can be converted into a cell-adhesive one by ion implantation. In addition, cells show different behaviors on the ion-implanted Pluronic surface. Thus this process enables the micropatterning of two different cell types on a polymer substrate. The micropatterns of the Pluronic were formed on a polystyrene surface. Primary cells adhered to the spaces of the bare polystyrene regions separated by the implanted Pluronic patterns. Secondary cells then adhered onto the implanted Pluronic patterns, resulting in micropatterns of two different cells on the polystyrene surface.

  12. Silkworm Gut Fiber of Bombyx mori as an Implantable and Biocompatible Light-Diffusing Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Cenis, Jose Luis; Aznar-Cervantes, Salvador D.; Lozano-Pérez, Antonio Abel; Rojo, Marta; Muñoz, Juan; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Arenas, Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a new approach to the delivery of light in deeper tissues, through a silk filament that is implantable, biocompatible, and biodegradable. In the present work, silkworm gut fibers (SGFs) of Bombyx mori L., are made by stretching the silk glands. Morphological, structural, and optical properties of the fibers have been characterized and the stimulatory effect of red laser light diffused from the fiber was assayed in fibroblast cultures. SGFs are formed by silk fibroin (SF) mainly in a β-sheet conformation, a stable and non-soluble state in water or biological fluids. The fibers showed a high degree of transparency to visible and infrared radiation. Using a red laser (λ = 650 nm) as source, the light was efficiently diffused along the fiber wall, promoting a significant increment in the cell metabolism 5 h after the irradiation. SGFs have shown their excellent properties as light-diffusing optical fibers with a stimulatory effect on cells. PMID:27438824

  13. Biocompatibility of surface treated pure titanium and titanium alloy by in vivo and in vitro test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Ho; Yoon, Dong-Joo; Won, Dae-Hee; Bae, Tae-Sung; Watari, Fumio

    2003-02-01

    In the present study, commercial pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens with and without alkali and heat treatments were implanted in the abdominal connective tissue of mice. Conventional stainless steel 316L was also implanted for comparison. After three months, their biocompatibility was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Surface structural changes of specimens due to the alkali treatment and soaking in Hank's solution were analyzed by XRD, SEM, XPS and AES. An apatite layer, which accelerates the connection with bone, was formed more easily on the alkali treated specimens than the non-treated specimens. The number of macrophages, which is known to increase as the inflammatory reaction proceeds, was much lower for the alkali and heat treated specimens than for the others. The average thickness of the fibrous capsule formed around the implant was much thinner for the alkali and heat treated specimens than for the others.

  14. Optimizing and evaluating the biocompatibility of fiber composites with calcium phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    Suchý, Tomáš; Balík, Karel; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Sochor, Miroslav; Lapčíková, Monika; Sedláček, Radek

    2011-10-01

    Composite materials based on a polyamide fabric (aramid) and a polydymethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix were designed for application in bone surgery. In order to increase the bioactivity, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 vol.% of nano/micro hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were added. We studied the effect of the additives on the biocompatibility of the composite. It appears that nano additives have a more favorable effect on mechanical properties than microparticles. 15 vol.% of nano hydroxyapatite additive is an optimum amount for final application of the composites as substitutes for bone tissue: in this case both the mechanical properties and the biological properties are optimized without distinct changes in the inner structure of the composite.

  15. Buckling Instability of Dielectric Elastomeric Plates for Soft, Bio-Compatible Microfluidic Pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakol, Behrouz; Bozlar, Michael; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Punckt, Christian; Stone, Howard A.; Aksay, Ilhan; Holmes, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    Dielectric elastomers are well-known for their superior stretchability and permittivity. A fully-clamped thin elastomer will buckle when it is compressed by applying sufficient electric potentials to its sides. When embedded within soft, silicone rubbers, these advanced materials can provide a means for a bio-compatible pumping mechanism that can be used to inject bio-fluids with desired flow rates into microfluidic devices, tissues, and organs of interest. We have incorporated a dielectric film that is sandwiched between two thin, flexible, solid electrodes into a microfluidic device and utilized a voltage-induced out-of-plane buckling instability for pumping of fluids. We experimentally quantify the voltage-induced plate buckling and measure the fluid flow rate when the structure is embedded in a microchannel. Additionally, we offer an analytical prediction that uses plate buckling theory to estimate the flow rate as a function of applied voltage.

  16. Blends of Thermoplastic Polyurethane and Polydimethylsiloxane Rubber: Assessment of Biocompatibility and Suture Holding Strength of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Parameswar, Ramesh; Nando, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, a compatibilized blend of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is prepared by using copolymer of ethylene and methyl acrylate (EMA) as a reactive compatibilizer. Detailed in vitro biocompatibility studies were carried out for this compatibilized blend and the material was found noncytotoxic towards L929 mouse fibroblast subcutaneous connective tissue cell line. Microporosity was created on the surface of membranes prepared from the blend material by adopting the crazing mechanism. Cell proliferation and growth studies on the membranes surface showed that the microporous surface favoured ingrowth of the cells compared with a nonmicroporous surface. Suture holding strength studies indicate that the microporous membranes have enough strength to withstand the cutting and tearing forces through the suture hole. This blend material could be evaluated further to find its suitability in various implant applications. PMID:24454376

  17. Blends of thermoplastic polyurethane and polydimethylsiloxane rubber: assessment of biocompatibility and suture holding strength of membranes.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Krishna Prasad; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Parameswar, Ramesh; Nando, G B

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, a compatibilized blend of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is prepared by using copolymer of ethylene and methyl acrylate (EMA) as a reactive compatibilizer. Detailed in vitro biocompatibility studies were carried out for this compatibilized blend and the material was found noncytotoxic towards L929 mouse fibroblast subcutaneous connective tissue cell line. Microporosity was created on the surface of membranes prepared from the blend material by adopting the crazing mechanism. Cell proliferation and growth studies on the membranes surface showed that the microporous surface favoured ingrowth of the cells compared with a nonmicroporous surface. Suture holding strength studies indicate that the microporous membranes have enough strength to withstand the cutting and tearing forces through the suture hole. This blend material could be evaluated further to find its suitability in various implant applications.

  18. "Green" electronics: biodegradable and biocompatible materials and devices for sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai

    2014-01-21

    "Green" electronics represents not only a novel scientific term but also an emerging area of research aimed at identifying compounds of natural origin and establishing economically efficient routes for the production of synthetic materials that have applicability in environmentally safe (biodegradable) and/or biocompatible devices. The ultimate goal of this research is to create paths for the production of human- and environmentally friendly electronics in general and the integration of such electronic circuits with living tissue in particular. Researching into the emerging class of "green" electronics may help fulfill not only the original promise of organic electronics that is to deliver low-cost and energy efficient materials and devices but also achieve unimaginable functionalities for electronics, for example benign integration into life and environment. This Review will highlight recent research advancements in this emerging group of materials and their integration in unconventional organic electronic devices.

  19. [Research on biocompatibility and in vivo degradation of biodegradable chest wall prosthesis materials in experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiyun; Xu, Zhifei; Qin, Xiong

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and in vivo degradation of novel chest wall prosthesis materials and provide some data for their clinical application. According to the standard for the biological evaluation of the medical devices, several tests were performed to evaluate the tissue toxic effects induced by polydioxanone (Group A), chitosan (Group B), and hydroxyapitite/collagen (Group C), which were tested as component materials of the chest wall prosthesis. In the hemolysis test, 0.2 ml of the anticoagulant rabbit blood was added to the component materials and the normal saline (negative control) and to the distilled water (positive control). Five samples were made in each group. Absorbency was measured and the hemolysis rate was determined. In the acute systemic toxicity test, 20 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (Groups A, B and C, and the normal saline group, n=5). The leaching liquid (50 ml/kg) was injected through the caudal vein, which was observed at 24, 48 and 72 hours. In the pyrogen test, 12 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups (Groups A, B, C and the normal saline group, n=3) the leaching liquid(10 ml/kg) was injected through the ear vein, and the body temperature was recorded within 3 hours. In the in vivo degradable test, the component materials (10 mm x 10 mm) were implanted in 12 rabbits at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 weeks, respectively, after operation. Two rabbits were sacrificed for the macroscopic and the microscopic examinations. The chest wall component materials had no hemolytic reaction, no acute systemic toxicity, and no pyrogen reaction. The results demonstrated that the implanted materials had only a mild inflammatory reaction during the early days of the grafting, which subsided gradually. There was no tissue denaturation, necrosis or pathological hyperplasia when the prosthesis materials were degraded. The degradable materials of the chest wall prosthesis have a good biocompatibility and a great biological safety though their

  20. Preparation, physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of PBLG/PLGA/bioglass composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ning; Qian, Junmin; Wang, Jinlei; Ji, Chuanlei; Xu, Weijun; Wang, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    In this study, novel poly(γ-benzyl l-glutamate)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/bioglass (PBLG/PLGA/BG) composite scaffolds with different weight ratios were fabricated using a negative NaCl-templating method. The morphology, compression modulus and degradation kinetics of the scaffolds were characterized. The results showed that the PBLG/PLGA/BG composite scaffolds with a weight ratio of 5:5:1, namely PBLG5PLGA5BG composite scaffolds, displayed a pore size range of 50-500μm, high compressive modulus (566.6±8.8kPa), suitable glass transition temperature (46.8±0.2°C) and low degradation rate (>8weeks). The in vitro biocompatibility of the scaffolds was evaluated with MC3T3-E1 cells by live-dead staining, MTT and ALP activity assays. The obtained results indicated that the PBLG5PLGA5BG composite scaffolds were more conducive to the adhesion, proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells than PBLG and PBLG/PLGA composite scaffolds. The in vivo biocompatibility of the scaffolds was evaluated in both SD rat subcutaneous model and rabbit tibia defect model. The results of H&E, Masson's trichrome and CD34 staining assays demonstrated that the PBLG5PLGA5BG composite scaffolds allowed the ingrowth of tissue and microvessels more effectively than PBLG/PLGA composite scaffolds. The results of digital radiography confirmed that the PBLG5PLGA5BG composite scaffolds significantly improved in vivo osteogenesis. Collectively, the PBLG5PLGA5BG composite scaffolds could be a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biocompatibility of electrospun halloysite nanotube-doped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ruiling; Cao, Xueyan; Shen, Mingwu; Guo, Rui; Yu, Jianyong; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid nanofiber systems have generated great interest in the area of tissue engineering and drug delivery. In this study, halloysite nanotube (HNT)-doped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning and the influence of the incorporation of HNTs within PLGA nanofibers on their in vitro biocompatibility was investigated. The morphology, mechanical and thermal properties of the composite nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile test, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The adhesion and proliferation of mouse fibroblast cells cultured on both PLGA and HNT-doped PLGA fibrous scaffolds were compared through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay of cell viability and SEM observation of cell morphology. We show that the morphology of the PLGA nanofibers does not appreciably change with the incorporation of HNTs, except that the mean diameter of the fibers increased with the increase of HNT incorporation in the composite. More importantly, the mechanical properties of the nanofibers were greatly improved. Similar to electrospun PLGA nanofibers, HNT-doped PLGA nanofibers were able to promote cell attachment and proliferation, suggesting that the incorporation of HNTs within PLGA nanofibers does not compromise the biocompatibility of the PLGA nanofibers. In addition, we show that HNT-doped PLGA scaffolds allow more protein adsorption than those without HNTs, which may provide sufficient nutrition for cell growth and proliferation. The developed electrospun HNT-doped composite fibrous scaffold may find applications in tissue engineering and pharmaceutical sciences.

  2. Effect of surfactant types on the biocompatibility of electrospun HAp/PHBV composite nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Suslu, A; Albayrak, A Z; Urkmez, A S; Bayir, E; Cocen, U

    2014-12-01

    Bone tissue engineering literature conveys investigations regarding biodegradable polymers where bioactive inorganic materials are added either before or after electrospinning process. The goal is to mimic the composition of bone and enhance the biocompatibility of the materials. Yet, most polymeric materials are hydrophobic in nature; therefore, their surfaces are not favorable for human cellular adhesion. In this sense, modifications of the hydrophobic surface of electrospun polymer fibers with hydrophilic and bioactive nanoparticles are beneficial. In this work, dispersion of hydroxyapatite (HAp), which is similar to the mineral component of natural bone, within biodegradable and biocompatible polymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) with the aid of a surfactant has been investigated. Non-ionic TWEEN20 and 12-hydroxysteric acid (HSA), cationic dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) and anionic sodium deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants were used for comparison in order to prepare stable and homogenous nanocomposite suspensions of HAp/PHBV for the electrospinning process. Continuous and uniform composite nanofibers were generated successfully within a diameter range of 400-1,000 nm by the mediation of all surfactant types. Results showed that incorporation of HAp and any of the surfactant types strongly activates the precipitation rate of the apatite-like particles and decreases percent crystallinity of the HAp/PHBV mats. Mineralization was greatly enhanced on the fibers produced by using DTAB, HSA, and especially SDS on where also osteoblastic metabolic activity was similarly increased. The produced HAp/PHBV nanofibrous composite scaffolds would be a promising candidate as an osteoconductive bioceramic/polymer composite material for tissue engineering applications.

  3. Evaluation of the Biocompatibility of Silicone Gel Implants – Histomorphometric Study

    PubMed Central

    França, Diurianne Caroline Campos; de Castro, Alvimar Lima; Soubhia, Ana Maria Pires; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Ávila

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Breast implants are medical devices that are used to augment breast size or to reconstruct the breast following mastectomy or to correct a congenital abnormality. Breast implants consist of a silicone outer shell and a filler (most commonly silicone gel or saline). Approximately 5 to 10 million women worldwide have breast implants. Histomorphometric study to evaluate the biological tissue compatibility of silicone implants suitable for plastic surgery and the adverse effects and risks of this material. Thirty Wistar white rats received subcutaneous implants and the revestiment of silicone gel Silimed ®®, and randomized into six groups of five animals each, according to the type of implanted material and the time of sacrifice. Eight areas of 60.11mm2 corresponding to the obtained surgical pieces were analyzed, counting mesenchymal cells, eosinophils, and foreign body giant cells, observing an acceptable biocompatibility in all implants, for subsequent statistical analysis by Tukey test. Silicone gel showed inflammation slightly greater than for other groups, with tissue reactions varying from light to moderate, whose result was the formation of a fibrous capsule around the material, recognized by the organism as a foreign body. Despite frequent local complications and adverse outcomes, this research showed that the silicone and top layer presented an acceptable chronic inflammatory reaction, which did not significantly differ from the control group. In general, it is possible to affirm that silicone gel had acceptable levels of biocompatibility, confirmed the rare presence of foreign body giant cells, and when of the rupture, formed a fibrous capsule around the material, separating the material of the organism. PMID:24039333

  4. Method for making a bio-compatible scaffold

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Stuecker, John N.; Dellinger, Jennifer G.; Jamison, Russell D.

    2006-01-31

    A method for forming a three-dimensional, biocompatible, porous scaffold structure using a solid freeform fabrication technique (referred to herein as robocasting) that can be used as a medical implant into a living organism, such as a human or other mammal. Imaging technology and analysis is first used to determine the three-dimensional design required for the medical implant, such as a bone implant or graft, fashioned as a three-dimensional, biocompatible scaffold structure. The robocasting technique is used to either directly produce the three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure or to produce an over-sized three-dimensional, porous scaffold lattice which can be machined to produce the designed three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure for implantation.

  5. Magnesium-based composites with improved in vitro surface biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Zhiguang; Duszczyk, Jurek

    2010-01-01

    In this study, bioactive glass (BG, 45S5) particles were added to a biodegradable magnesium alloy (ZK30) through a semi-solid high-pressure casting process in order to improve the surface biocompatibility of the biomaterial and potentially its bioactivity. The observation of the as-cast microstructures of ZK30-BG composites indicated homogeneous dispersion of BG particles in the matrix. SEM, EDX and EPMA showed the retention of the morphological characteristics and composition of BG particles in the as-cast composite materials. In vitro tests in a cell culture medium confirmed that the composites indeed possessed an enhanced ability to induce the deposition of a bone-like apatite layer on the surface, indicating an improved surface biocompatibility as compared with the matrix alloy. PMID:20922559

  6. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Farquar, G; Leif, R

    2009-07-15

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds have been used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres were produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  7. Structure-property relationships and biocompatibility of carbohydrate crosslinked polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Archana; Mehta, Jayen; Thakore, Sonal

    2014-09-22

    Biocompatible and biodegradable polyurethanes (PUs) based on castor oil and polypropylene glycols (PPGs) were prepared using various carbohydrate crosslinkers: monosaccharide (glucose), disaccharide (sucrose) and polysaccharides (starch and cellulose). The mechanical and thermal properties were investigated and interpreted on the basis of SEM study. The advantage of incorporating various carbohydrates is to have tunable mechanical properties and biodegradability due to variety in their structure. The glass transition temperature and sorption behavior were dominated by the type of polyol than by the type of crosslinker. All the PUs were observed to be biodegradable as well as non-cytotoxic as revealed by MTT assay in normal lung cell line L132. The study supports the suitability of carbohydrates as important components of biocompatible PUs for development of biomedical devices.

  8. Biocompatibility of transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Tharajak, Jirasak; Li, Yuncang; Berndt, Christopher C.; Wen, Cuie; Wang, James

    2014-07-01

    Transition metals of copper, zinc, manganese, and nickel were substituted into cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a sol-gel route using citric acid as a chelating agent. The microstructure and elemental compositions of the nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The particle size of the nanoparticles was investigated using particle size analyzer, and the zeta potentials were measured using zeta potential analyzer. The phase components of the synthesized transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were studied using Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the nanoparticles was assessed using osteoblast-like cells. Results indicated that the substitution of transition metals strongly influences the physical, chemical properties, and biocompatibility of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  9. Soluble eggshell membrane protein: preparation, characterization and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Yi, Feng; Guo, Zhao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Xia; Yu, Jian; Li, Qiang

    2004-08-01

    The preparation, characterization and biocompatibility of soluble eggshell membrane (SEP) are reported. The dissolution process, which is the key step of the preparation of SEP, has been followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the changes of the surfaces and thickness of the eggshell membrane (ESM). The composition of SEP has been investigated by amino acid analysis and elemental analysis. Based on the fact that SEP losses significantly cystine, and that SEP has a higher content of sulfur, an assumption involving combination with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (the reagent used for reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds) following the cleavage of the original disulfide bonds has been proposed, which explains the solubility of SEP. The thermal and surface properties have been studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and contact angle measurement. The biocompatibility of SEP, as demonstrated by cell culture of NIH3T3, is comparable to collagen type I and superior to raw ESM either inside or outside surface.

  10. Biocompatibility evaluation of nano hydroxyapatite-starch biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Meskinfam, M; Sadjadi, M A S; Jazdarreh, H; Zare, K

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) in the presence of starch matrix via a biomimetic process for in vitro biocompatibility evaluation. Characterization of the samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The Size and morphology of the nHAp samples were determined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results show that, the shape and morphology of nHAp is influenced by the presence of starch as a template agent. It leads to formation of rod-like nHAp. Cell culture and MTT assays were performed for in vitro biocompatibility. They show that n-HAp can affect the proliferation of cells and the n-HAp/starch biocomposites have no negative effect on the cell morphology, viability and proliferation.

  11. Recent advances in biocompatible semiconductor nanocrystals for immunobiological applications.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Sitansu Sekhar; Kim, Min Jik; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Yi, Dong Kee

    2017-08-25

    Quantum confinement in inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals produces brightly luminescent nanoparticles endowed with unique photo-physical properties, such as tunable optical properties. These have found widespread applications in nanotechnology. The ability to render such nanostructures biocompatible, while maintaining their tunable radiation in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, renders them appropriate for bio-applications. Promising in vitro and in vivo diagnostic applications have been demonstrated, such as fluorescence-based detection of biological interactions, single molecule tracking, multiplexing and immunoassaying. In particular, these fluorescent inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals, generally known as quantum dots, have the potential of remarkable immunobiological applications. This review focuses on the current status of biocompatible quantum dots and their applications in immunobiology - immunosensing, immunofluorescent imaging and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acoustic properties of some biocompatible polymers at body temperature.

    PubMed

    Guess, J F; Campbell, J S

    1995-01-01

    In response to the many invasive applications of ultrasound which are developing, the acoustic properties of several aliphatic and aromatic polyurethanes and Polyether block amide (PEBA) copolymers are presented. These polymers were reported by their manufacturers as being biocompatible and are possibly suitable for short-term implantation in humans. Speed and attenuation of sound are measured at 37 degrees C as a function of frequency by use of a Fourier-transform method. These properties are reported in tabular and graphic form.

  13. Hydration Status of Patients Dialyzed with Biocompatible Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids.

    PubMed

    Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Chmielewski, Michał; Dudziak, Maria; Ryta, Alicja; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatible fluids for peritoneal dialysis (PD) have been introduced to improve dialysis and patient outcome in end-stage renal disease. However, their impact on hydration status (HS), residual renal function (RRF), and dialysis adequacy has been a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a biocompatible dialysis fluid on the HS of prevalent PD patients. ♦ The study population consisted of 18 prevalent PD subjects, treated with standard dialysis fluids. At baseline, 9 patients were switched to a biocompatible solution, low in glucose degradation products (GDPs) (Balance; Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany). Hydration status was assessed through clinical evaluation, laboratory parameters, echocardiography, and bioimpedance spectroscopy over a 24-month observation period. ♦ During the study period, urine volume decreased similarly in both groups. At the end of the evaluation, there were also no differences in clinical (body weight, edema, blood pressure), laboratory (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, NTproBNP), or echocardiography determinants of HS. However, dialysis ultrafiltration decreased in the low-GDP group and, at the end of the study, equaled 929 ± 404 mL, compared with 1,317 ± 363 mL in the standard-fluid subjects (p = 0.06). Hydration status assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy was +3.64 ± 2.08 L in the low-GDP patients and +1.47 ± 1.61 L in the controls (p = 0.03). ♦ The use of a low-GDP biocompatible dialysis fluid was associated with a tendency to overhydration, probably due to diminished ultrafiltration in prevalent PD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  14. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-mediated synthesis of biocompatible graphene.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Woong Han, Jae; Kim, Eunsu; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-10-03

    Graphene is the 2D form of carbon that exists as a single layer of atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice and has attracted great interest in the last decade in view of its physical, chemical, electrical, elastic, thermal, and biocompatible properties. The objective of this study was to synthesize an environmentally friendly and simple methodology for the preparation of graphene using a recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The successful reduction of GO to graphene was confirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy, and FT-IR. DLS and SEM were employed to demonstrate the particle size and surface morphology of GO and EGFP-rGO. The results from Raman spectroscopy suggest the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups from the surface of GO and formation of graphene with defects. The biocompatibility analysis of GO and EGFP-rGO in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells suggests that GO induces significant concentration-dependent cell toxicity in HEK cells, whereas graphene exerts no adverse effects on HEK cells even at a higher concentration (100 μg/mL). Altogether, our findings suggest that recombinant EGFP can be used as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the preparation of biocompatible graphene. The novelty and originality of this work is that it describes a safe, simple, and environmentally friendly method for the production of graphene using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein. Furthermore, the synthesized graphene shows excellent biocompatibility with HEK cells; therefore, biologically synthesized graphene can be used for biomedical applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and novel report describing the synthesis of graphene using recombinant EGFP.

  15. In vitro Biocompatibility of New Silver(I) Coordination Compound Coated-Surfaces for Dental Implant Applications

    PubMed Central

    Brunetto, Priscilla S.; Slenters, Tünde Vig; Fromm, Katharina M.

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm formation on implant materials causes a common problem: resistance to aggressive pharmacological agents as well as host defenses. Therefore, to reduce bacterial adhesion to implant surfaces we propose to use silver(I) coordination networks as it is known that silver is the most powerful antimicrobial inorganic agent. As a model surface, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold Au(111) was used to permit permanent attachment of our silver(I) coordination networks. The surface coatings showed typical nano-structured surfaces with a good biocompatibility for soft-tissue integration with fibroblast cells.

  16. The mechanical characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of poly(glycerol sebacate)-bioglass elastomeric composites.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shu-Ling; Cook, Wayne D; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qi-Zhi

    2010-11-01

    Biodegradable elastomeric materials have gained much recent attention in the field of soft tissue engineering. Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is one of a new family of elastomers which are promising candidates used for soft tissue engineering. However, PGS has a limited range of mechanical properties and has drawbacks, such as cytotoxicity caused by the acidic degradation products of very soft PGS and degradation kinetics that are too fast in vivo to provide sufficient mechanical support to the tissue. However, the development of PGS/based elastomeric composites containing alkaline bioactive fillers could be a method for addressing these drawbacks and thus may pave the way towards wide clinical applications. In this study, we synthesized a new PGS composite system consisting of a micron-sized Bioglass filler. In addition to much improved cytocompatibility, the PGS/Bioglass composites demonstrated three remarkable mechanical properties. First, contrary to previous reports, the addition of microsized Bioglass increases the elongation at break from 160 to 550%, while enhancing the Young's modulus of the composites by up to a factor of four. Second, the modulus of the PGS/Bioglass composites drops abruptly in a physiological environment (culture medium), and the level of drop can be tuned such that the addition of Bioglass does not harden the composite in vivo and thus the desired compliance required for soft tissue engineering are maintained. Third, after the abrupt drop in modulus, the composites exhibited mechanical stability over an extended period. This latter observation is an important feature of the new composites, because they can provide reliable mechanical support to damaged tissues during the lag phase of the healing process. These mechanical properties, together with improved biocompatibility, make this family of composites better candidates than plastic and related composite biomaterials for the applications of tissue engineering.

  17. Biocompatibility of Chitosan Carriers with Application in Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Susana; Dionísio, Marita; Remuñán López, Carmen; Grenha, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan is one of the most used polysaccharides in the design of drug delivery strategies for administration of either biomacromolecules or low molecular weight drugs. For these purposes, it is frequently used as matrix forming material in both nano and micron-sized particles. In addition to its interesting physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which include high mucoadhesion and a great capacity to produce drug delivery systems, ensuring the biocompatibility of the drug delivery vehicles is a highly relevant issue. Nevertheless, this subject is not addressed as frequently as desired and even though the application of chitosan carriers has been widely explored, the demonstration of systems biocompatibility is still in its infancy. In this review, addressing the biocompatibility of chitosan carriers with application in drug delivery is discussed and the methods used in vitro and in vivo, exploring the effect of different variables, are described. We further provide a discussion on the pros and cons of used methodologies, as well as on the difficulties arising from the absence of standardization of procedures. PMID:24955636

  18. Biocompatible Pressure Sensing Skins for Minimally Invasive Surgical Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Arabagi, Veaceslav; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Gosline, Andrew H.; Wood, Robert J.; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents 800-μm thick, biocompatible sensing skins composed of arrays of pressure sensors. The arrays can be configured to conform to the surface of medical instruments so as to act as disposable sensing skins. In particular, the fabrication of cylindrical geometries is considered here for use on endoscopes. The sensing technology is based on polydimethylsiloxane synthetic silicone encapsulated microchannels filled with a biocompatible salt-saturated glycerol solution, functioning as the conductive medium. A multi-layer manufacturing approach is introduced that enables stacking sensing microchannels, mechanical stress concentration features, and electrical routing via flexcircuits in a thickness of less than 1 mm. The proposed approach is inexpensive and does not require clean room tools or techniques. The mechanical stress concentration features are implemented using a patterned copper layer that serves to improve sensing range and sensitivity. Sensor performance is demonstrated experimentally using a sensing skin mounted on a neuroendoscope insertion cannula and is shown to outperform previously developed non-biocompatible sensors. PMID:27642266

  19. A Comparative Biocompatibility Analysis of Ternary Nitinol Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Waseem; Munroe, Norman; Pulletikurthi, Chandan; Singh Gill, Puneet K.; Amruthaluri, Sushma

    2009-01-01

    Nitinol alloys are rapidly being utilized as the material of choice in a variety of applications in the medical industry. It has been used for self-expanding stents, graft support systems, and various other devices for minimally invasive interventional and endoscopic procedures. However, the biocompatibility of this alloy remains a concern to many practitioners in the industry due to nickel sensitivity experienced by many patients. In recent times, several new Nitinol alloys have been introduced with the addition of a ternary element. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of information concerning the biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of these alloys. This study compared the biocompatibility of two ternary Nitinol alloys prepared by powder metallurgy (PM) and arc melting (AM) and critically assessed the influence of the ternary element. ASTM F 2129-08 cyclic polarization in vitro corrosion tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The growth of endothelial cells on NiTi was examined using optical microscopy. PMID:19956791

  20. Biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for regenerative endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Setzer, Frank C.; Trope, Martin; Karabucak, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for potential use in revascularization or pulp regeneration was evaluated. Materials and Methods One resilient lyophilized collagen scaffold (COLL), releasing metronidazole and clindamycin, was compared to an experimental injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold (PLGA), releasing clindamycin. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were seeded at densities of 1.0 × 104, 2.5 × 104, and 5.0 × 104. The cells were investigated by light microscopy (cell morphology), MTT assay (cell proliferation) and a cytokine (IL-8) ELISA test (biocompatibility). Results Under microscope, the morphology of cells coincubated for 7 days with the scaffolds appeared healthy with COLL. Cells in contact with PLGA showed signs of degeneration and apoptosis. MTT assay showed that at 5.0 × 104 hDPSCs, COLL demonstrated significantly higher cell proliferation rates than cells in media only (control, p < 0.01) or cells co-incubated with PLGA (p < 0.01). In ELISA test, no significant differences were observed between cells with media only and COLL at 1, 3, and 6 days. Cells incubated with PLGA expressed significantly higher IL-8 than the control at all time points (p < 0.01) and compared to COLL after 1 and 3 days (p < 0.01). Conclusions The COLL showed superior biocompatibility and thus may be suitable for endodontic regeneration purposes. PMID:27200277

  1. Biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Leong, Dephne Jack Xin; Setzer, Frank C; Trope, Martin; Karabucak, Bekir

    2016-05-01

    The biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for potential use in revascularization or pulp regeneration was evaluated. One resilient lyophilized collagen scaffold (COLL), releasing metronidazole and clindamycin, was compared to an experimental injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold (PLGA), releasing clindamycin. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were seeded at densities of 1.0 × 10(4), 2.5 × 10(4), and 5.0 × 10(4). The cells were investigated by light microscopy (cell morphology), MTT assay (cell proliferation) and a cytokine (IL-8) ELISA test (biocompatibility). Under microscope, the morphology of cells coincubated for 7 days with the scaffolds appeared healthy with COLL. Cells in contact with PLGA showed signs of degeneration and apoptosis. MTT assay showed that at 5.0 × 10(4) hDPSCs, COLL demonstrated significantly higher cell proliferation rates than cells in media only (control, p < 0.01) or cells co-incubated with PLGA (p < 0.01). In ELISA test, no significant differences were observed between cells with media only and COLL at 1, 3, and 6 days. Cells incubated with PLGA expressed significantly higher IL-8 than the control at all time points (p < 0.01) and compared to COLL after 1 and 3 days (p < 0.01). The COLL showed superior biocompatibility and thus may be suitable for endodontic regeneration purposes.

  2. Biocompatible Pressure Sensing Skins for Minimally Invasive Surgical Instruments.

    PubMed

    Arabagi, Veaceslav; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Gosline, Andrew H; Wood, Robert J; Dupont, Pierre E

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents 800-μm thick, biocompatible sensing skins composed of arrays of pressure sensors. The arrays can be configured to conform to the surface of medical instruments so as to act as disposable sensing skins. In particular, the fabrication of cylindrical geometries is considered here for use on endoscopes. The sensing technology is based on polydimethylsiloxane synthetic silicone encapsulated microchannels filled with a biocompatible salt-saturated glycerol solution, functioning as the conductive medium. A multi-layer manufacturing approach is introduced that enables stacking sensing microchannels, mechanical stress concentration features, and electrical routing via flexcircuits in a thickness of less than 1 mm. The proposed approach is inexpensive and does not require clean room tools or techniques. The mechanical stress concentration features are implemented using a patterned copper layer that serves to improve sensing range and sensitivity. Sensor performance is demonstrated experimentally using a sensing skin mounted on a neuroendoscope insertion cannula and is shown to outperform previously developed non-biocompatible sensors.

  3. In vitro biocompatibility of EPM and EPDM rubbers.

    PubMed

    Mast, F; Hoschtitzky, J A; Van Blitterswijk, C A; Huysmans, H A

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of two EPDM rubbers (K 778 and K 4802) and one EPM rubber (K 740) was tested using human fibroblasts. The modulus of elasticity of each rubber was varied by exposure to different amounts of electron-beam radiation (0, 5 and 10 Mrad). The short-term in vitro toxicity was tested by culturing cells on polymer films. The long-term effect of ageing was simulated by growing fibroblasts in nutrient media prepared from extracts of heat-exposed materials. Cell cultures were studied both quantitatively and (ultra) structurally. Growth curves obtained in the toxicity test did not differ significantly from control values at any day of observation, and also showed that electron-beam radiation did not alter the biocompatibility. The same results were found for all but one material in the artificial ageing test. The number of cells in the K4802/10 Mrad extraction medium was decreased. Ultrastructurally no gross deviations from normal morphology were observed, either in the direct contact test or in the artificial ageing test. The most characteristic feature was a somewhat dilated endoplasmic reticulum. In summary, the in vitro biocompatibility of EPDM-rubbers as observed in this study is satisfactory and motivates further investigation of their biocompatibility in animal experiments.

  4. Development of meniscus substitutes using a mixture of biocompatible polymers and extra cellular matrix components by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    López-Calzada, G; Hernandez-Martínez, A R; Cruz-Soto, M; Ramírez-Cardona, M; Rangel, D; Molina, G A; Luna-Barcenas, G; Estevez, M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the significant advances in the meniscus tissue engineering field, it is difficult to recreate the complex structure and organization of the collagenous matrix of the meniscus. In this work, we developed a meniscus prototype to be used as substitute or scaffold for the regeneration of the meniscal matrix, recreating the differential morphology of the meniscus by electrospinning. Synthetic biocompatible polymers were combined with the extracellular matrix component, collagen and used to replicate the meniscus. We studied the correlation between mechanical and structural properties of the polymer blend as a function of collagen concentration. Fibers were collected on a surface of a rapidly rotating precast mold, to accurately replicate each sectional morphology of the meniscus; different electro-tissues were produced. Detailed XRD analyses exhibited structural changes developed by electrospinning. We achieved to integrate all these electro-tissues to form a complete synthetic meniscus. Vascularization tests were performed to assess the potential use of our novel polymeric blend for promising meniscus regeneration.

  5. Novel biocompatible polymeric blends for bone regeneration: Material and matrix design and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Meng

    The first part of the work presented in this dissertation is focused on the design and development of novel miscible and biocompatible polyphosphazene-polyester blends as candidate materials for scaffold-based bone tissue engineering applications. Biodegradable polyesters such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) are among the most widely used polymeric materials for bone tissue engineering. However, acidic degradation products resulting from the bulk degradation mechanism often lead to catastrophic failure of the structure integrity, and adversely affect biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. One promising approach to circumvent these limitations is to blend PLAGA with other macromolecules that can buffer the acidic degradation products with a controlled degradation rate. Biodegradable polyphosphazenes (PPHOS), a new class of biomedical materials, have proved to be superior candidate materials to achieve this objective due to their unique buffering degradation products. A highly practical blending approach was adopted to develop novel biocompatible, miscible blends of these two polymers. In order to achieve this miscibility, a series of amino acid ester, alkoxy, aryloxy, and dipeptide substituted PPHOS were synthesized to promote hydrogen bonding interactions with PLAGA. Five mixed-substituent PPHOS compositions were designed and blended with PLAGA at different weight ratios producing candidate blends via a mutual solvent method. Preliminary characterization identified two specific side groups namely glycylglycine dipeptide and phenylphenoxy that resulted in improved blend miscibility and enhanced in vitro osteocompatibility. These findings led to the synthesis of a mixed-substituent polyphosphazene poly[(glycine ethyl glycinato)1(phenylphenoxy)1phosphazene] (PNGEGPhPh) for blending with PLAGA. Two dipeptide-based blends having weight ratios of PNGEGPhPh to PLAGA namely 25:75 (Matrix1) and 50:50 (Matrix2) were fabricated. Both of the blends were

  6. On the biocompatibility between TiO2 nanotubes layer and human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Portan, Diana V; Kroustalli, Anthi A; Deligianni, Despina D; Papanicolaou, George C

    2012-10-01

    Titanium and its alloys are the most popular biomaterials replacing hard tissues in implant surgeries. Clinicians are generally pleased by titanium mechanical properties and non-toxicity performances; on the other hand, there have been reported several cases of titanium implantation failure, phenomenon explained sometimes as "non adherence of human tissue to the metallic surface." Yet, researchers reported that titanium surfaces are favorable for osteoblasts adhesion. Therefore, titanium integration into the human body remains an unsolved problem. In the present study, biocompatibility tests were performed on titanium and TiO(2) nanotubes substrates, involving human bone marrow cells. The combination of a newly developed analytical model based on the hybrid interphase concept, applicable to systems consisting of inert materials when in contact with living tissues, together with experimental results, confirmed previous research studies and lead to the conclusion that osteoblasts adhere efficiently to titanium surfaces. However, the present results suggest that osteoblasts strong anchorage at the very first moment of their contact with the metallic material leads to their apoptosis. It is most probable that in several cases this is the reason of failed implantation surgeries involving titanium.

  7. Biocompatibility of Novel Type I Collagen Purified from Tilapia Fish Scale: An In Vitro Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jia; Saito, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Type I collagen (COL-1) is the prevailing component of the extracellular matrix in a number of tissues including skin, ligament, cartilage, bone, and dentin. It is the most widely used tissue-derived natural polymer. Currently, mammalian animals, including pig, cow, and rat, are the three major sources for purification of COL-1. To reduce the risk of zoonotic infectious diseases transmission, minimize the possibility of immunogenic reaction, and avoid problems related to religious issues, exploration of new sources (other than mammalian animals) for the purification of type I collagen is highly desirable. Hence, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the in vitro responses of MDPC-23 to type I collagen isolated from tilapia scale in terms of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. The results suggested that tilapia scale collagen exhibited comparable biocompatibility to porcine skin collagen, indicating it might be a potential alternative to type I collagen from mammals in the application for tissue regeneration in oral-maxillofacial area. PMID:26491653

  8. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp . We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp . mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  9. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp. We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp. mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  10. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp. We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp. mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  11. Neoproteoglycans in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Weyers, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Proteoglycans, comprised of a core protein to which glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently linked, are an important structural and functional family of macromolecules found in the extracellular matrix. Advances in our understanding of biological interactions have lead to a greater appreciation for the need to design tissue engineering scaffolds that incorporate mimetics of key extracellular matrix components. A variety of synthetic and semisynthetic molecules and polymers have been examined by tissue engineers that serve as structural, chemical and biological replacements for proteoglycans. These proteoglycan mimetics have been referred to as neoproteoglycans and serve as functional and therapeutic replacements for natural proteoglycans that are often unavailable for tissue engineering studies. Although neoproteoglycans have important limitations, such as limited signaling ability and biocompatibility, they have shown promise in replacing the natural activity of proteoglycans through cell and protein binding interactions. This review focuses on the recent in vivo and in vitro tissue engineering applications of three basic types of neoproteoglycan structures, protein–glycosaminoglycan conjugates, nano-glycosaminoglycan composites and polymer–glycosaminoglycan complexes. PMID:23399318

  12. Biocompatibility and bioactivity of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers in human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Mestieri, Leticia Boldrin; Gomes-Cornélio, Ana Lívia; Rodrigues, Elisandra Márcia; Salles, Loise Pedrosa; Bosso-Martelo, Roberta; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2015-10-01

    Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate-based material. New sealers have been developed based on calcium silicate as MTA Fillapex and MTA Plus. The aim of this study was to evaluate biocompatibility and bioactivity of these two calcium silicate-based sealers in culture of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). The cells were isolated from third molars extracted from a 16-year-old patient. Pulp tissue was sectioned into fragments with approximately 1 mm3 and kept in supplemented medium to obtain hDPCs adherent cultures. Cell characterization assays were performed to prove the osteogenic potential. The evaluated materials were: MTA Plus (MTAP); MTA Fillapex (MTAF) and FillCanal (FC). Biocompatibility was evaluated with MTT and Neutral Red (NR) assays, after hDPCs exposure for 24 h to different dilutions of each sealer extract (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4). Unexposed cells were the positive control (CT). Bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymatic assay in cells exposed for one and three days to sealer extracts (1:4 dilution). All data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post-test (p≤0.05%). MTT and NR results showed suitable cell viability rates for MTAP at all dilutions (90-135%). Cells exposed to MTAF and FC (1:2 and 1:4 dilutions) showed significant low viability rate when compared to CT in MTT. The NR results demonstrated cell viability for all materials tested. In MTAP group, the cells ALP activity was similar to CT in one and three days of exposure to the material. MTAF and FC groups demonstrated a decrease in ALP activity when compared to CT at both periods of cell exposure. The hDPCs were suitable for the evaluation of new endodontic materialsin vitro. MTAP may be considered a promising material for endodontic treatments.

  13. Biocompatibility of rapidly solidified magnesium alloy RS66 as a temporary biodegradable metal.

    PubMed

    Willbold, Elmar; Kalla, Katharina; Bartsch, Ivonne; Bobe, Katharina; Brauneis, Maria; Remennik, Sergei; Shechtman, Dan; Nellesen, Jens; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Vogt, Carla; Witte, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-based alloys are very promising materials for temporary implants. However, the clinical use of magnesium-based alloys is often limited by rapid corrosion and by insufficient mechanical stability. Here we investigated RS66, a magnesium-based alloy with extraordinary physicochemical properties of high tensile strength combined with a high ductility and a homogeneous grain size of ~1 μm which was obtained by rapid solidification processing and reciprocal extrusion. Using a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, we analyzed the biodegradation behavior and the biocompatibility of this alloy. In vitro, RS66 had no cytotoxic effects in physiological concentrations on the viability and the proliferation of primary human osteoblasts. In vivo, RS66 cylinders were implanted into femur condyles, under the skin and in the muscle of adult rabbits and were monitored for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks. After explantation, the RS66 cylinders were first analyzed by microtomography to determine the remaining RS66 alloy and calculate the corrosion rates. Then, the implantation sites were examined histologically for healing processes and foreign body reactions. We found that RS66 was corroded fastest subcutaneously followed by intramuscular and bony implantation of the samples. No clinical harm with transient gas cavities during the first 6 weeks in subcutaneous and intramuscular implantation sites was observed. No gas cavities were formed around the implantation site in bone. The corrosion rates in the different anatomical locations correlated well with the local blood flow prior to implantation. A normal foreign body reaction occurred in all tissues. Interestingly, no enhanced bone formation could be observed around the corroding samples in the condyles. These data show that RS66 is biocompatible, and due to its interesting physicochemical properties, this magnesium alloy is a promising material for biodegradable implants.

  14. Biocompatible APTES-PEG modified magnetite nanoparticles: effective carriers of antineoplastic agents to ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Javid, Amaneh; Ahmadian, Shahin; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Rezaei-Zarchi, Saeed; Shahzad, Sughra

    2014-05-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles are particularly attractive for drug delivery applications because of their size-dependent superparamagnetism, low toxicity, and biocompatibility with cells and tissues. Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles with biocompatible polymers is potentially beneficial to prepare biodegradable nanocomposite-based drug delivery agents for in vivo and in vitro applications. In the present study, the bare (10 nm) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-(3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) (PA) modified (17 nm) superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), were separately encapsulated into the synthesized polymeric nanocomposites for localized targeting of human ovarian cancer in vitro. Surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed a slight increase in particle size (27 ± 0.7 and 30 ± 0.45 nm) with drug loading capacities of 70 and 61.5 % and release capabilities of 90 and 93 % for the DOX- and PTX-AP-SPIO NPs, respectively (p < 0.001). Ten milligrams/milliliter DOX- and PTX-loaded AP-SPIO NPs caused a significant amount of cytotoxicity and downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, as compared with same amounts of free drugs (p < 0.001). In vivo antiproliferative effect of present formulation on immunodeficient female Balb/c mice showed ovarian tumor shrinkage from 2,920 to 143 mm(3) after 40 days. The present formulation of APTES-PEG-SPIO-based nanocomposite system of targeted drug delivery proved to be effective enough in order to treat deadly solid tumor of ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Polydimethylsiloxane Core-Polycaprolactone Shell Nanofibers as Biocompatible, Real-Time Oxygen Sensors.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruipeng; Behera, Prajna; Xu, Joshua; Viapiano, Mariano S; Lannutti, John J

    2014-03-01

    Real-time, continuous monitoring of local oxygen contents at the cellular level is desirable both for the study of cancer cell biology and in tissue engineering. In this paper, we report the successful fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanofibers containing oxygen-sensitive probes by electrospinning and the applications of these fibers as optical oxygen sensors for both gaseous and dissolved oxygen. A protective 'shell' layer of polycaprolactone (PCL) not only maintains the fiber morphology of PDMS during the slow curing process but also provides more biocompatible surfaces. Once this strategy was perfected, tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) (Ru(dpp)) and platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) were dissolved in the PDMS core and the resulting sensing performance established. These new core-shell sensors containing different sensitivity probes showed slight variations in oxygen response but all exhibited excellent Stern-Volmer linearity. Due in part to the porous nature of the fibers and the excellent oxygen permeability of PDMS, the new sensors show faster response (<0.5 s) -4-10 times faster than previous reports - than conventional 2D film-based oxygen sensors. Such core-shell fibers are readily integrated into standard cell culture plates or bioreactors. The photostability of these nanofiber-based sensors was also assessed. Culture of glioma cell lines (CNS1, U251) and glioma-derived primary cells (GBM34) revealed negligible differences in biological behavior suggesting that the presence of the porphyrin dyes within the core carries with it no strong cytotoxic effects. The unique combination of demonstrated biocompatibility due to the PCL 'shell' and the excellent oxygen transparency of the PDMS core makes this particular sensing platform promising for sensing in the context of biological environments.

  16. Histological biocompatibility of new, non-absorbable glaucoma deep sclerectomy implant.

    PubMed

    Kałuzny, Jakub J; Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Wiśniewska, Halina

    2007-05-01

    We performed this study to compare the intrascleral biocompatibility of three materials: non-absorbable hydrogel contact lens polymer, non-absorbable silicone rubber, and absorbable cross-linked sodium hyaluronate. Intrascleral implantation of three different materials was performed in 13 healthy, pigmented rabbits. Implants of methacrylic hydrogel, silicone rubber, and cross-linked sodium hyaluronate were implanted in 10, 8, and 8 eyes, respectively. The animals were euthanized at 7, 30, 180, and 360 days post implantation. The eyes were enucleated and immediately fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Semithin sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Light microscope analysis of the specimens was performed. The least severe inflammatory reaction was observed with cross-linked sodium hyaluronate implants. The number of inflammatory cells in proximity to methacrylic hydrogel and silicone implants at all periods of follow up was similar. The thickest fibrous capsule was observed with silicone implants (average, 28.38 +/- 11.17 microm). This area was thinner with methacrylic hydrogel implants (average, 14.90 +/- 5.57 microm) and was thinnest around sodium hyaluronate implants (average, 7.21 +/- 2.33 microm). For each type of implant, the wall on the conjunctival side of the fibrous capsule was significantly thicker than the wall on the choiroidal side. The space between the implant, scleral flap, and bed was filled soon after surgery with connective tissue rich in vessels. In our study, cross-linked sodium hyaluronate had the highest intrascleral biocompatibility. Although the inflammatory responses of the sclera to methacrylic hydrogel and silicone rubber were similar in nature, a thicker fibrous capsule was generated around silicone implants.

  17. Biocompatibility and bioactivity of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers in human dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    MESTIERI, Leticia Boldrin; GOMES-CORNÉLIO, Ana Lívia; RODRIGUES, Elisandra Márcia; SALLES, Loise Pedrosa; BOSSO-MARTELO, Roberta; GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; TANOMARU, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate-based material. New sealers have been developed based on calcium silicate as MTA Fillapex and MTA Plus. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate biocompatibility and bioactivity of these two calcium silicate-based sealers in culture of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Material and Methods The cells were isolated from third molars extracted from a 16-year-old patient. Pulp tissue was sectioned into fragments with approximately 1 mm3 and kept in supplemented medium to obtain hDPCs adherent cultures. Cell characterization assays were performed to prove the osteogenic potential. The evaluated materials were: MTA Plus (MTAP); MTA Fillapex (MTAF) and FillCanal (FC). Biocompatibility was evaluated with MTT and Neutral Red (NR) assays, after hDPCs exposure for 24 h to different dilutions of each sealer extract (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4). Unexposed cells were the positive control (CT). Bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymatic assay in cells exposed for one and three days to sealer extracts (1:4 dilution). All data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post-test (p≤0.05%). Results MTT and NR results showed suitable cell viability rates for MTAP at all dilutions (90-135%). Cells exposed to MTAF and FC (1:2 and 1:4 dilutions) showed significant low viability rate when compared to CT in MTT. The NR results demonstrated cell viability for all materials tested. In MTAP group, the cells ALP activity was similar to CT in one and three days of exposure to the material. MTAF and FC groups demonstrated a decrease in ALP activity when compared to CT at both periods of cell exposure. Conclusions The hDPCs were suitable for the evaluation of new endodontic materials in vitro. MTAP may be considered a promising material for endodontic treatments. PMID:26537716

  18. Polydimethylsiloxane Core-Polycaprolactone Shell Nanofibers as Biocompatible, Real-Time Oxygen Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruipeng; Behera, Prajna; Xu, Joshua; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lannutti, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time, continuous monitoring of local oxygen contents at the cellular level is desirable both for the study of cancer cell biology and in tissue engineering. In this paper, we report the successful fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanofibers containing oxygen-sensitive probes by electrospinning and the applications of these fibers as optical oxygen sensors for both gaseous and dissolved oxygen. A protective ‘shell’ layer of polycaprolactone (PCL) not only maintains the fiber morphology of PDMS during the slow curing process but also provides more biocompatible surfaces. Once this strategy was perfected, tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) (Ru(dpp)) and platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) were dissolved in the PDMS core and the resulting sensing performance established. These new core-shell sensors containing different sensitivity probes showed slight variations in oxygen response but all exhibited excellent Stern-Volmer linearity. Due in part to the porous nature of the fibers and the excellent oxygen permeability of PDMS, the new sensors show faster response (<0.5 s) −4–10 times faster than previous reports – than conventional 2D film-based oxygen sensors. Such core-shell fibers are readily integrated into standard cell culture plates or bioreactors. The photostability of these nanofiber-based sensors was also assessed. Culture of glioma cell lines (CNS1, U251) and glioma-derived primary cells (GBM34) revealed negligible differences in biological behavior suggesting that the presence of the porphyrin dyes within the core carries with it no strong cytotoxic effects. The unique combination of demonstrated biocompatibility due to the PCL ‘shell’ and the excellent oxygen transparency of the PDMS core makes this particular sensing platform promising for sensing in the context of biological environments. PMID:25006274

  19. Use of cortical neuronal networks for in vitro material biocompatibility testing.

    PubMed

    Charkhkar, Hamid; Frewin, Christopher; Nezafati, Maysam; Knaack, Gretchen L; Peixoto, Nathalia; Saddow, Stephen E; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2014-03-15

    Neural interfaces aim to restore neurological function lost during disease or injury. Novel implantable neural interfaces increasingly capitalize on novel materials to achieve microscale coupling with the nervous system. Like any biomedical device, neural interfaces should consist of materials that exhibit biocompatibility in accordance with the international standard ISO10993-5, which describes in vitro testing involving fibroblasts where cytotoxicity serves as the main endpoint. In the present study, we examine the utility of living neuronal networks as functional assays for in vitro material biocompatibility, particularly for materials that comprise implantable neural interfaces. Embryonic mouse cortical tissue was cultured to form functional networks where spontaneous action potentials, or spikes, can be monitored non-invasively using a substrate-integrated microelectrode array. Taking advantage of such a platform, we exposed established positive and negative control materials to the neuronal networks in a consistent method with ISO 10993-5 guidance. Exposure to the negative controls, gold and polyethylene, did not significantly change the neuronal activity whereas the positive controls, copper and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), resulted in reduction of network spike rate. We also compared the functional assay with an established cytotoxicity measure using L929 fibroblast cells. Our findings indicate that neuronal networks exhibit enhanced sensitivity to positive control materials. In addition, we assessed functional neurotoxicity of tungsten, a common microelectrode material, and two conducting polymer formulations that have been used to modify microelectrode properties for in vivo recording and stimulation. These data suggest that cultured neuronal networks are a useful platform for evaluating the functional toxicity of materials intended for implantation in the nervous system.

  20. Conducting polypyrrole in tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhong-Bing; Yin, Guang-Fu; Liao, Xiao-Ming; Gu, Jian-Wen

    2014-03-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy), the earliest prepared conducting polymer, has good biocompatibility, easy synthesis and flexibility in processing. Compared with metal and inorganic materials, doped PPy has better mechanical match with live tissue, resulting in its many applications in biomedical field. This mini-review presents some information on specific PPy properties for tissue engineering applications, including its synthesis, doping, bio-modification. Although some challenges and unanswered problems still remain, PPy as novel biomaterial has promoted the development tissue engineering for its clinical application in the future.

  1. Guiding Neuronal Growth in Tissues with Light

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-27

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1/12/2008-30/11,2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GUIDING NEURONAL GROWTH IN TISSUES WITH LIGHT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A...687-6594 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescnbed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Adobe Professional 7.0 Guiding Neuronal Growth in Tissues with Light PI...and provide bio-compatible scaffolds for tissue growth and organ regeneration. Unleashing the full potential of these applications requires an

  2. New Soft Tissue Implants Using Organic Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Typical biomaterials are stiff, difficult to manufacture, and not initially developed for medical implants. A new biomaterial is proposed that is similar to human soft tissue. The biomaterial provides mechanical properties similar to soft tissue in its mechanical and physical properties. Characterization is performed for modulus of elasticity, ultimate strength and wear resistance. The material further exhibits excellent biocompatibility with little toxicity and low inflammation. The material can be molded into a variety of anatomic shapes for use as a cartilage replacement, heart valve, and reconstructive implant for trauma victims. The biomaterial may be suitable for several biodevices of the future aimed at soft-tissue replacements.

  3. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Background Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms isolated from its three-dimensional parent material, graphite. One of the most common methods for preparation of graphene is chemical exfoliation of graphite using powerful oxidizing agents. Generally, graphene is synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) by using hydrazine, which is one of the most widespread and strongest reducing agents. Due to the high toxicity of hydrazine, it is not a promising reducing agent in large-scale production of graphene; therefore, this study focused on a green or sustainable synthesis of graphene and the biocompatibility of graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (PMEFs). Methods Here, we demonstrated a simple, rapid, and green chemistry approach for the synthesis of reduced GO (rGO) from GO using triethylamine (TEA) as a reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The obtained TEA reduced GO (TEA-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results The transition of graphene oxide to graphene was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. XRD and SEM were used to investigate the crystallinity of graphene and the surface morphologies of prepared graphene respectively. The formation of defects further supports the functionalization of graphene as indicated in the Raman spectrum of TEA-rGO. Surface morphology and the thickness of the GO and TEA-rGO were analyzed using AFM. The presented results suggest that TEA-rGO shows significantly more biocompatibility with PMEFs cells than GO. Conclusion This is the first report about using TEA as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent for the preparation of biocompatible graphene. The proposed safe and green method offers substitute routes for large-scale production of graphene

  4. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms isolated from its three-dimensional parent material, graphite. One of the most common methods for preparation of graphene is chemical exfoliation of graphite using powerful oxidizing agents. Generally, graphene is synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) by using hydrazine, which is one of the most widespread and strongest reducing agents. Due to the high toxicity of hydrazine, it is not a promising reducing agent in large-scale production of graphene; therefore, this study focused on a green or sustainable synthesis of graphene and the biocompatibility of graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (PMEFs). Here, we demonstrated a simple, rapid, and green chemistry approach for the synthesis of reduced GO (rGO) from GO using triethylamine (TEA) as a reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The obtained TEA reduced GO (TEA-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The transition of graphene oxide to graphene was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD and SEM were used to investigate the crystallinity of graphene and the surface morphologies of prepared graphene respectively. The formation of defects further supports the functionalization of graphene as indicated in the Raman spectrum of TEA-rGO. Surface morphology and the thickness of the GO and TEA-rGO were analyzed using AFM. The presented results suggest that TEA-rGO shows significantly more biocompatibility with PMEFs cells than GO. This is the first report about using TEA as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent for the preparation of biocompatible graphene. The proposed safe and green method offers substitute routes for large-scale production of graphene for several biomedical applications.

  5. A capillary viscometer designed for the characterization of biocompatible ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J.; Odenbach, S.

    2016-08-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles are receiving a growing interest in biomedical research. These ferrofluids can, e.g., be used for the treatment of cancer, making use of the drug targeting principle or using an artificially induced heating. To enable a safe application the basic properties of the ferrofluids have to be well understood, including the viscosity of the fluids if an external magnetic field is applied. It is well known that the viscosity of ferrofluids rises if a magnetic field is applied, where the rise depends on shear rate and magnetic field strength. In case of biocompatible ferrofluids such investigations proved to be rather complicated as the experimental setup should be close to the actual application to allow justified predictions of the effects which have to be expected. Thus a capillary viscometer, providing a flow situation comparable to the flow in a blood vessel, has been designed. The glass capillary is exchangeable and different inner diameters can be used. The range of the shear rates has been adapted to the range found in the human organism. The application of an external magnetic field is enabled with two different coil setups covering the ranges of magnetic field strengths required on the one hand for a theoretical understanding of particle interaction and resulting changes in viscosity and on the other hand for values necessary for a potential biomedical application. The results show that the newly designed capillary viscometer is suitable to measure the magnetoviscous effect in biocompatible ferrofluids and that the results appear to be consistent with data measured with rotational rheometry. In addition, a strong change of the flow behaviour of a biocompatible ferrofluid was proven for ranges of the shear rate and the magnetic field strength expected for a potential biomedical application.

  6. Biocompatible Hydroxylated Boron Nitride Nanosheets/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Interpenetrating Hydrogels with Enhanced Mechanical and Thermal Responses.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lin; Li, Hongling; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Sun, Bo; Tsang, Siu Hon; Cometto, Olivier; Lin, Jinjun; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2017-04-25

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels with tissue-like viscoelasticity, excellent biocompatibility, and high hydrophilicity have been considered as promising cartilage replacement materials. However, lack of sufficient mechanical properties is a critical barrier to their use as load-bearing cartilage substitutes. Herein, we report hydroxylated boron nitride nanosheets (OH-BNNS)/PVA interpenetrating hydrogels by cyclically freezing/thawing the aqueous mixture of PVA and highly hydrophilic OH-BNNS (up to 0.6 mg/mL, two times the highest reported so far). Encouragingly, the resulting OH-BNNS/PVA hydrogels exhibit controllable reinforcements in both mechanical and thermal responses by simply varying the OH-BNNS contents. Impressive 45, 43, and 63% increases in compressive, tensile strengths and Young's modulus, respectively, can be obtained even with only 0.12 wt% (OH-BNNS:PVA) OH-BNNS addition. Meanwhile, exciting improvements in the thermal diffusivity (15%) and conductivity (5%) can also be successfully achieved. These enhancements are attributed to the synergistic effect of intrinsic superior properties of the as-prepared OH-BNNS and strong hydrogen bonding interactions between the OH-BNNS and PVA chains. In addition, excellent cytocompatibility of the composite hydrogels was verified by cell proliferation and live/dead viability assays. These biocompatible OH-BNNS/PVA hydrogels are promising in addressing the mechanical failure and locally overheating issues as cartilage substitutes and may also have broad utility for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensors, and actuators.

  7. Preparation, characterization, and biocompatibility evaluation of poly(Nɛ-acryloyl-L-lysine)/hyaluronic acid interpenetrating network hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ning; Qian, Junmin; Xu, Weijun; Xu, Minghui; Zhao, Na; Liu, Ting; Wang, Hongjie

    2016-01-20

    In the present study, poly(Nɛ-acryloyl-L-lysine)/hyaluronic acid (pLysAAm/HA) interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels were successfully fabricated through the combination of hydrazone bond crosslinking and photo-crosslinking reactions. The HA hydrogel network was first synthesized from 3,3'-dithiodipropionate hydrazide-modified HA and polyethylene glycol dilevulinate by hydrazone bond crosslinking. The pLysAAm hydrogel network was prepared from Nɛ-acryloyl-L-lysine and N,N'-bis(acryloyl)-(L)-cystine by photo-crosslinking. The resultant pLysAAm/HA hydrogels had a good shape recovery property after loading and unloading for 1.5 cycles (up to 90%) and displayed a highly porous microstructure. Their compressive moduli were at least 5 times higher than that of HA hydrogels. The pLysAAm/HA hydrogels had an equilibrium swelling ratio of up to 37.9 and displayed a glutathione-responsive degradation behavior. The results from in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 cells revealed that the pLysAAm/HA hydrogels could support cell viability and proliferation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that the pLysAAm/HA hydrogels allowed cell and tissue infiltration, confirming their good in vivo biocompatibility. Therefore, the novel pLysAAm/HA IPN hydrogels have great potential for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biocompatibility evaluation of HDPE-UHMWPE reinforced β-TCP nanocomposites using highly purified human osteoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Shokrgozar, M A; Farokhi, M; Rajaei, F; Bagheri, M H A; Azari, Sh; Ghasemi, I; Mottaghitalab, F; Azadmanesh, K; Radfar, J

    2010-12-15

    Biocompatibility of β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE nanocomposite as a new bone substitute material was evaluated by using highly purified human osteoblast cells. Human osteoblast cells were isolated from bone tissue and characterized by immunofluorescence Staining before and after purification using magnetic bead system. Moreover, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase production, cell attachment, calcium deposition, gene expression, and morphology of osteoblast cells on β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE nanocomposites were evaluated. The results have shown that the human osteoblast cells were successfully purified and were suitable for subsequent cell culturing process. The high proliferation rate of osteoblast cells on β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE nanocomposite confirmed the great biocompatibility of the scaffold. Expression of bone-specific genes was taken place after the cells were incubated in composite extract solutions. Furthermore, osteoblast cells were able to mineralize the matrix next to composite samples. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that cells had normal morphology on the scaffold. Thus, these results indicated that the nanosized β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE blend composites could be potential scaffold, which is used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Biocompatibility and Biomechanical Effect of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Implanted in the Corneal Stroma: A Proof of Concept Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alejandra E.; Rodriguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Gomez-Tejedor, Jos