Science.gov

Sample records for biofilm growth kinetics

  1. Mechanism and kinetics of biofilm growth process influenced by shear stress in sewers.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hainan; Xu, Jingwei; Huang, Wei; He, Qiang; Ni, Bingjie; Wang, Yinliang

    2016-01-01

    Sewer biofilms play an important role in the biotransformation of substances for methane and sulfide emission in sewer networks. The dynamic flows and the particular shear stress in sewers are the key factors determining the growth of the sewer biofilm. In this work, the development of sewer biofilm with varying shear stress is specifically investigated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the sewer biofilm dynamics. Sewer biofilms were cultivated in laboratory-scale gravity sewers under different hydraulic conditions with the corresponding shell stresses are 1.12 Pa, 1.29 Pa and 1.45 Pa, respectively. The evolution of the biofilm thickness were monitored using microelectrodes, and the variation in total solids (TS) and extracellular polymer substance (EPS) levels in the biofilm were also measured. The results showed that the steady-state biofilm thickness were highly related to the corresponding shear stresses with the biofilm thickness of 2.4 ± 0.1 mm, 2.7 ± 0.1 mm and 2.2 ± 0.1 mm at shear stresses of 1.12 Pa, 1.29 Pa and 1.45 Pa, respectively, which the chemical oxygen demand concentration is 400 mg/L approximately. Based on these observations, a kinetic model for describing the development of sewer biofilms was developed and demonstrated to be capable of reproducing all the experimental data.

  2. Growth kinetics of candida biofilm on medical polymers: a long-term in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, Matthias; Tobudic, Selma; Moser, Doris; Zatorska, Beata; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2013-03-01

    Recent in vitro models simulating biofilm formation on medical polymers are restricted to only short-term observation periods of 2 hours to 12 days. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro model to generate a long-term polymicrobial biofilm with Candida albicans (C albicans) and Streptococcus salivarius (S salivarius) on thermoplastic medical grade silicone (TPS) and polyurethane (TPU) and continuous documentation of growth kinetics. Test platelets of TPS and TPU were incubated in well plates in RPMI agar at 37°C. Both microbial specimen were isolated from explanted voice prostheses and added every second day for 28 days. Afterward, only the nutrition solution has been changed regularly. Biofilm kinetics were monitored using a specially designed image analysis software to calculate the percentual surface covering of each platelet. Biofilm architecture was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microbial infiltration was examined by crystal violet staining and thin section microscopy. On both materials tested, a cover of living candida biofilm could be generated over 140 days. Colonization was permanent with at least 10% surface coverage. Initially, both materials showed coverage of up to 80% followed by biofilm detachment, which could be reduced by adding planktonic microbes. SEM confirmed three-dimensional biofilm architecture with dimorphic candida growth. Microbial material infiltration of nonhypheal types was proved in 2 TPU platelets, but not in TPS. The in vitro model presented in this study mimics in vivo events of biofilm formation on medical polymers with continuous monitoring of living biofilm kinetics. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Biofilm growth kinetics of a monomethylamine producing Alphaproteobacteria strain isolated from an anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Jopia, Paz; Ruiz-Tagle, Nathaly; Villagrán, Marcelo; Sossa, Katherine; Pantoja, Silvio; Rueda, Luis; Urrutia-Briones, Homero

    2010-02-01

    Industrial fishing effluents are characterized by high loads of protein and sulfate that stimulate the activity of proteolytic and sulfate reducing bacteria during anaerobic digestion. Their metabolic products (NH3 and H2S respectively) have a well-known detrimental effect on the activity of methanogens. Since methylamine is a carbon source used by methylaminotrophic methane producing archaea (mMPA) but not by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), enriched mMPA anaerobic biofilms have been developed on ceramics. We propose that methylated amines could be produced in the biofilm by using betaine, a known precursor of methylamine, as a carbon and energy source. We isolated an anaerobic betainotrophic methylaminogenic bacterial strain (bMB) from an anaerobic bioreactor, using betaine as the only carbon and energy source. This strain was identified by a standard biochemical test (API 20NE), cloning, and 16S rDNA sequencing. bMB biofilm structure and biofilm growth kinetic parameters were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Gompertz growth model, respectively. Monomethylamine production was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by high pressure liquid chromatography. The isolated bMB strain was determined as Stappia stellulata (Proteobacteria phylum). It was able to form biofilm on ceramics and its kinetic growth parameters resulted in: maximum biofilm bacterial count (A) of 6.25 x 10(8) UFC/cm(2) and maximum specific growth rate (mu(m)) of 0.0221/h. Production of monomethylamine was about 4.027 atogram/cell/day (at/cell/day) after 15 days of incubation in biofilms. This study confirms the adhesion capacity of this bMB strain on ceramic supports, assuring that monomethylamine production in biofilms could be enriched with mMPA that use monomethylamine. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of serotype on the growth kinetics and the ability to form biofilms of Salmonella isolates from poultry.

    PubMed

    Díez-García, Miryam; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    The influence of the serotype on the growth behaviour and the ability to form biofilms of Salmonella enterica strains was investigated. The relationships between biofilm formation and growth kinetic parameters were also determined. A total of 69 strains (61 isolates from poultry and 8 reference strains from culture collections) belonging to 10 serotypes (S. enterica serotype Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Paratyphi B, S. Poona, S. Derby, S. Infantis, S. Enteritidis, S. Virchow, S. Agona and S. Typhi) were tested. All Salmonella strains produced biofilms on polystyrene micro-well plates (crystal violet assay). Isolates were classified as weak (35 strains), moderate (22), or strong (12) biofilm producers. S. Agona and S. Typhi produced the most substantial (P < 0.001) biofilms. Growth curves were performed at 37 °C in tryptone soy broth by means of optical density (OD(420-580)) measurements from 0 to 48 h. Growth kinetic parameters (Gompertz model) varied between serotypes. The maximum growth rate (ΔOD(420-580)/h) ranged from 0.030 ± 0.002 (S. Typhi) to 0.114 ± 0.011 (S. Agona). The ability of Salmonella strains to form biofilms was not related to their growth kinetic parameters. The formation of biofilms by Salmonella on polystyrene constitutes an issue of concern because plastic materials are frequently used in food facilities. The findings suggest that special efforts must be made for the effective control of Salmonella in food-processing environments when S. Agona or S. Typhi strains are present. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of various measures of microbial growth kinetics in suspended and biofilm cultures during biodegradation of naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jeong Seop; Lewandowski, Gordon A

    2002-01-01

    This research focused on measurement of bacterial growth rates and activities in suspended cultures and biofilms using Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 17484) for biodegradation of naphthalene. A comparison was made of the effect of three biomass measures: optical density, total cell protein, and living cell number on the calculated rate of naphthalene disappearance. Living cell number was determined by optimizing a fluorescent staining technique and using epifluorescence microscopy. All three techniques gave similar results in terms of the specific growth rates, and in all three there was a lag time between the disappearance of naphthalene and the appearance of biomass. This was most likely a consequence of the production of intermediate products detected in the chromatograms. Inclusion of a one-hour lag time in the integrated Monod expression considerably improved the agreement between experimental and calculated values. However, further improvements to an understanding of the overall rate processes may require more detailed kinetics of the individual biochemical pathways.

  6. An experimental model of COD abatement in MBBR based on biofilm growth dynamic and on substrates' removal kinetics.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Alessio; De Rosa, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the performance of a lab-scale Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) under different operating conditions was analysed. Moreover, the dependence of the reaction rates both from the concentration and biodegradability of substrates and from the biofilm surface density, by means of several batch kinetic tests, was investigated. The reactor controls exhibited an increasing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal, reaching maximum yields (close to 90%) for influent loadings of up to12.5 gCOD/m(2)d. From this value, the pilot plant performance decreased to yields of only about 55% for influent loadings greater than 16 gCOD/m(2)d. In response to the influent loading increase, the biofilm surface density exhibited a logistic growing trend until reaching a maximum amount of total attached solids of about 9.5 g/m(2). The kinetic test results indicated that the COD removal rates for rapidly biodegradable, rapidly hydrolysable and slowly biodegradable substrates were not affected by the organic matter concentrations. Instead, first-order kinetics were detected with respect to biofilm surface density. The experimental results permitted the formulation of a mathematical model to predict the MBBR organic matter removal efficiency. The validity of the model was successfully tested in the lab-scale plant.

  7. Dissipative-particle-dynamics model of biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Scheibe, Timothy D

    2011-06-01

    A dissipative-particle-dynamics model for the quantitative simulation of biofilm growth controlled by substrate (nutrient) consumption, advective and diffusive substrate transport, and hydrodynamic interactions with fluid flow (including fragmentation and reattachment) is described. The model was used to simulate biomass growth, decay, and spreading. It predicts how the biofilm morphology depends on flow conditions, biofilm growth kinetics, the rheomechanical properties of the biofilm, and adhesion to solid surfaces. The morphology of the model biofilm depends strongly on its rigidity and the magnitude of the body force that drives the fluid over the biofilm.

  8. Dissipative-particle-dynamics model of biofilm growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Scheibe, Timothy D.

    2011-06-01

    A dissipative-particle-dynamics model for the quantitative simulation of biofilm growth controlled by substrate (nutrient) consumption, advective and diffusive substrate transport, and hydrodynamic interactions with fluid flow (including fragmentation and reattachment) is described. The model was used to simulate biomass growth, decay, and spreading. It predicts how the biofilm morphology depends on flow conditions, biofilm growth kinetics, the rheomechanical properties of the biofilm, and adhesion to solid surfaces. The morphology of the model biofilm depends strongly on its rigidity and the magnitude of the body force that drives the fluid over the biofilm.

  9. Dissipative-particle-dynamics model of biofilm growth

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.

    2011-06-13

    A dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model for the quantitative simulation of biofilm growth controlled by substrate (nutrient) consumption, advective and diffusive substrate transport, and hydrodynamic interactions with fluid flow (including fragmentation and reattachment) is described. The model was used to simulate biomass growth, decay, and spreading. It predicts how the biofilm morphology depends on flow conditions, biofilm growth kinetics, the rheomechanical properties of the biofilm and adhesion to solid surfaces. The morphology of the model biofilm depends strongly on its rigidity and the magnitude of the body force that drives the fluid over the biofilm.

  10. De-mercurization of wastewater by Bacillus cereus (JUBT1): growth kinetics, biofilm reactor study and field emission scanning electron microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Sanjukta; Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Chowdhury, Ranjana

    2011-10-30

    Removal of mercuric ions by a mercury resistant bacteria, called Bacillus cereus (JUBT1), isolated from the sludge of a local chlor-alkali industry, has been investigated. Growth kinetics of the bacteria have been determined. A multiplicative, non-competitive relationship between sucrose and mercury ions has been observed with respect to bacterial growth. A combination of biofilm reactor, using attached growth of Bacillus cereus (JUBT1) on rice husk packing, and an activated carbon filter has been able to ensure the removal of mercury up to near-zero level. Energy dispersive spectrometry analysis of biofilm and the activated carbon has proved the transformation of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) and its confinement in the system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth dilution of metals in microalgal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Hill, Walter R; Larsen, Ingvar L

    2005-03-15

    Despite the key role microalgae play in introducing toxicants into aquatic food webs, little is known about the effects of environmental factors on metal accumulation by these primary producers. Environmental factors such as light and nutrients alter growth rates and may consequently influence metal concentrations in microalgae through growth dilution. Laboratory experiments suggested that metal uptake and elimination by microalgal biofilms were gradual enough to enable dilution of metals within the biofilms by photosynthetically accrued carbon, and a simple kinetic model of metal accumulation predicted significant variation in metal content due to growth dilution over the natural range of microalgal growth rates. The ratio of metal uptake to carbon uptake by microalgal biofilms decreased exponentially with increasing light in short-term laboratory experiments because photosynthesis was much more sensitive to a light gradient than was metal uptake. The effect of light on biofilm metal concentrations was confirmed in situ with a long-term experiment in which experimental shading of biofilms in a metal-contaminated stream decreased biofilm growth rates and caused a 3x increase in biofilm concentrations of twelve metals, including methylmercury. Slow growth at the primary producer level is a likely contributor to higher biotic metal concentrations in shaded, oligotrophic, or cold ecosystems.

  12. Kinetics and stoichiometry of sulfide oxidation by sewer biofilms.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2005-10-01

    Oxidation of sulfide under aerobic conditions by biofilms grown on municipal wastewater in 6 identical pipe reactors was investigated. The biofilms were grown at pH 7.6 and temperatures of 20 and 25 degrees C under aerobic-anaerobic transient conditions with pulse dosing of sulfide in the bulk water. The pulse dosing of sulfide served to simulate conditions in a gravity sewer located downstream of a pressure main. During growth of the biofilms, sulfide was pulse dosed in concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 g Sm(-3) with a frequency of 1h(-1). Based on a series of batch experiments, kinetics and stoichiometry of sulfide oxidation by the sewer biofilms was investigated and a rate equation and a stoichiometric constant proposed. Sulfide oxidation kinetics was significantly faster for biofilms grown at sulfide loadings of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 g Sm(-3)h(-1) than for biofilms grown in the absence of sulfide. However, the kinetics of sulfide oxidation was relatively constant for biofilms grown at sulfide loadings above 0.5 g Sm(-3)h(-1). Mass balance calculations of dissolved oxygen and sulfur compounds suggested the oxidation product to be elemental sulfur. Further oxidation of elemental sulfur could not be documented.

  13. Kinetic Theories for Biofilms (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    species of biomass and thereby allow a full coupling of quorum sensing mechanism. This work will be forthcoming in a sequel. Acknowledgment and...genetic dynamics in the presence of foreign agents [10, 13, 28]. Biofilms essentially behave like biogels in which small solvent and nutrient molecule can...γ2 = νN is proportional to the reciprocal of the volume of the solvent molecule and ∥·∥ denotes the l2 norm of a vector. The entropic conformational

  14. Kinetic modeling of phototrophic biofilms: the PHOBIA model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Gundula; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2007-08-01

    A kinetic model for mixed phototrophic biofilms is introduced, which focuses on the interactions between photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and chemoautotrophic (nitrifying) functional microbial groups. Biofilm-specific phenomena are taken into account, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production by phototrophs as well as gradients of substrates and light in the biofilm. Acid-base equilibria, in particular carbon speciation, are explicitly accounted for, allowing for the determination of pH profiles across the biofilm. Further to previous models reported in literature, the PHOBIA model combines a number of kinetic mechanisms specific to phototrophic microbial communities, such as internal polyglucose storage under dynamic light conditions, phototrophic growth in the darkness using internally stored reserves, photoadaptation and photoinhibition, preference for ammonia over nitrate as N-source and the ability to utilize bicarbonate as a carbon source in the absence of CO(2). The sensitivity of the PHOBIA model to a number of key parameters is analyzed. An example on the potential use of phototrophic biofilms in wastewater polishing is discussed, where their performance is compared with conventional algal ponds. The PHOBIA model is presented in a manner that is compatible with other reference models in the area of water treatment. Its current version forms a theoretical base which is readily extendable once further experimental observations become available. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparative Kinetic Studies and Performance Evaluation of Biofilm and Biomass Characteristics of Pseudomonas fluorescens in Degrading Synthetic Phenolic Effluent in Inverse Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor.

    PubMed

    Begum, S Sabarunisha; Radha, K V

    2016-05-01

    The bioremediation potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied in an Inverse Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor under batch recirculation conditions using synthetic phenolic effluent of various concentrations (400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 mg/l). The performance of the reactor was investigated and the characteristics of biomass and biofilm were determined by evaluating biofilm dry density and thickness, bioparticle density, suspended and attached biomass concentration, chemical oxygen demand and phenol removal efficiency. Biodegradation kinetics had been studied for suspended biomass culture and biofilm systems with respect to its specific growth and substrate consumption rates. Suspended biomass followed substrate inhibition kinetics and the experimental data fitted well with the Haldane model. The degradation kinetic behavior of biofilm revealed that a well adapted biofilm system with effective control of biofilm thickness in an inverse fluidized bed biofilm reactor overcomes substrate inhibition effects by tolerating higher phenol concentration and fitted well to the Monod model.

  16. Biofilm growth on rugose surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, D.; Einarsson, B.; Carpio, A.

    2012-12-01

    A stochastic model is used to assess the effect of external parameters on the development of submerged biofilms on smooth and rough surfaces. The model includes basic cellular mechanisms, such as division and spreading, together with an elementary description of the interaction with the surrounding flow and probabilistic rules for extracellular polymeric substance matrix generation, cell decay, and adhesion. Insight into the interplay of competing mechanisms such as the flow or the nutrient concentration change is gained. Erosion and growth processes combined produce biofilm structures moving downstream. A rich variety of patterns are generated: shrinking biofilms, patches, ripplelike structures traveling downstream, fingers, mounds, streamerlike patterns, flat layers, and porous and dendritic structures. The observed regimes depend on the carbon source and the type of bacteria.

  17. Differential growth of wrinkled biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espeso, D. R.; Carpio, A.; Einarsson, B.

    2015-02-01

    Biofilms are antibiotic-resistant bacterial aggregates that grow on moist surfaces and can trigger hospital-acquired infections. They provide a classical example in biology where the dynamics of cellular communities may be observed and studied. Gene expression regulates cell division and differentiation, which affect the biofilm architecture. Mechanical and chemical processes shape the resulting structure. We gain insight into the interplay between cellular and mechanical processes during biofilm development on air-agar interfaces by means of a hybrid model. Cellular behavior is governed by stochastic rules informed by a cascade of concentration fields for nutrients, waste, and autoinducers. Cellular differentiation and death alter the structure and the mechanical properties of the biofilm, which is deformed according to Föppl-Von Kármán equations informed by cellular processes and the interaction with the substratum. Stiffness gradients due to growth and swelling produce wrinkle branching. We are able to reproduce wrinkled structures often formed by biofilms on air-agar interfaces, as well as spatial distributions of differentiated cells commonly observed with B. subtilis.

  18. Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vital-Lopez, Francisco G; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2015-10-01

    A hallmark of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to establish biofilm-based infections that are difficult to eradicate. Biofilms are less susceptible to host inflammatory and immune responses and have higher antibiotic tolerance than free-living planktonic cells. Developing treatments against biofilms requires an understanding of bacterial biofilm-specific physiological traits. Research efforts have started to elucidate the intricate mechanisms underlying biofilm development. However, many aspects of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we addressed questions regarding biofilm metabolism using a genome-scale kinetic model of the P. aeruginosa metabolic network and gene expression profiles. Specifically, we computed metabolite concentration differences between known mutants with altered biofilm formation and the wild-type strain to predict drug targets against P. aeruginosa biofilms. We also simulated the altered metabolism driven by gene expression changes between biofilm and stationary growth-phase planktonic cultures. Our analysis suggests that the synthesis of important biofilm-related molecules, such as the quorum-sensing molecule Pseudomonas quinolone signal and the exopolysaccharide Psl, is regulated not only through the expression of genes in their own synthesis pathway, but also through the biofilm-specific expression of genes in pathways competing for precursors to these molecules. Finally, we investigated why mutants defective in anthranilate degradation have an impaired ability to form biofilms. Alternative to a previous hypothesis that this biofilm reduction is caused by a decrease in energy production, we proposed that the dysregulation of the synthesis of secondary metabolites derived from anthranilate and chorismate is what impaired the biofilms of these mutants. Notably, these insights generated through our kinetic model-based approach are not accessible from previous constraint-based model analyses of P. aeruginosa biofilm

  19. Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vital-Lopez, Francisco G.; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to establish biofilm-based infections that are difficult to eradicate. Biofilms are less susceptible to host inflammatory and immune responses and have higher antibiotic tolerance than free-living planktonic cells. Developing treatments against biofilms requires an understanding of bacterial biofilm-specific physiological traits. Research efforts have started to elucidate the intricate mechanisms underlying biofilm development. However, many aspects of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we addressed questions regarding biofilm metabolism using a genome-scale kinetic model of the P. aeruginosa metabolic network and gene expression profiles. Specifically, we computed metabolite concentration differences between known mutants with altered biofilm formation and the wild-type strain to predict drug targets against P. aeruginosa biofilms. We also simulated the altered metabolism driven by gene expression changes between biofilm and stationary growth-phase planktonic cultures. Our analysis suggests that the synthesis of important biofilm-related molecules, such as the quorum-sensing molecule Pseudomonas quinolone signal and the exopolysaccharide Psl, is regulated not only through the expression of genes in their own synthesis pathway, but also through the biofilm-specific expression of genes in pathways competing for precursors to these molecules. Finally, we investigated why mutants defective in anthranilate degradation have an impaired ability to form biofilms. Alternative to a previous hypothesis that this biofilm reduction is caused by a decrease in energy production, we proposed that the dysregulation of the synthesis of secondary metabolites derived from anthranilate and chorismate is what impaired the biofilms of these mutants. Notably, these insights generated through our kinetic model-based approach are not accessible from previous constraint-based model analyses of P. aeruginosa biofilm

  20. A new approach for development of kinetics of wastewater treatment in aerobic biofilm reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, S.; Sarkar, S.; Mazumder, D.

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm process is widely used for the treatment of a variety of wastewater especially containing slowly biodegradable substances. It provides resistance against toxic environment and is capable of retaining biomass under continuous operation. Development of kinetics is very much pertinent for rational design of a biofilm process for the treatment of wastewater with or without inhibitory substances. A simple approach for development of such kinetics for an aerobic biofilm reactor has been presented using a novel biofilm model. The said biofilm model is formulated from the correlations between substrate concentrations in the influent/effluent and at biofilm liquid interface along with substrate flux and biofilm thickness complying Monod's growth kinetics. The methodology for determining the kinetic coefficients for substrate removal and biomass growth has been demonstrated stepwise along with graphical representations. Kinetic coefficients like K, k, Y, b t, b s, and b d are determined either from the intercepts of X- and Y-axis or from the slope of the graphical plots.

  1. A new approach for development of kinetics of wastewater treatment in aerobic biofilm reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, S.; Sarkar, S.; Mazumder, D.

    2017-09-01

    Biofilm process is widely used for the treatment of a variety of wastewater especially containing slowly biodegradable substances. It provides resistance against toxic environment and is capable of retaining biomass under continuous operation. Development of kinetics is very much pertinent for rational design of a biofilm process for the treatment of wastewater with or without inhibitory substances. A simple approach for development of such kinetics for an aerobic biofilm reactor has been presented using a novel biofilm model. The said biofilm model is formulated from the correlations between substrate concentrations in the influent/effluent and at biofilm liquid interface along with substrate flux and biofilm thickness complying Monod's growth kinetics. The methodology for determining the kinetic coefficients for substrate removal and biomass growth has been demonstrated stepwise along with graphical representations. Kinetic coefficients like K, k, Y, b t, b s, and b d are determined either from the intercepts of X- and Y-axis or from the slope of the graphical plots.

  2. Biofilm dynamics and kinetics during high-rate sulfurate reduction under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    The sulfate kinetics in an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing biofilm were investigated with an annular biofilm reactor. Biofilm growth, sulfide production, and kinetic constants (K/sub m/ and V/sub max/) for the bacterial sulfate uptake within the biofilm were determined. These parameters were used to model the biofilm kinetics, and the experimental results were in good agreement with the model predictions. Typical zero-order volume rate constants for sulfate reduction in a biofilm without substrate limitation ranged from 56 to 93 ..mu..mol of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ cm/sup -3/ h/sup -1/ at 20/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence (Q/sub 10/) of sulfate reduction was equivalent to 3.4 at between 9 and 20/sup 0/C. The measured rates of sulfate reduction could explain the relatively high sulfide levels found in sewers and wastewater treatment systems. Furthermore, it has been shown that sulfate reduction in biofilms just a few hundred micrometers thick is limited by sulfate diffusion into biofilm at concentrations below 0.5 mM. This observation might, in some cases, be an explanation for the relatively poor capacity of the sulfate-reducing bacteria to compete with the methanogenic bacteria in anaerobic wastewater treatment in submerged filters.

  3. Morphomechanics of bacterial biofilms undergoing anisotropic differential growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Bo; Huang, Xiao; Ni, Yong; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2016-10-01

    Growing bacterial biofilms exhibit a number of surface morphologies, e.g., concentric wrinkles, radial ridges, and labyrinthine networks, depending on their physiological status and nutrient access. We explore the mechanisms underlying the emergence of these greatly different morphologies. Ginzburg-Landau kinetic method and Fourier spectral method are integrated to simulate the morphological evolution of bacterial biofilms. It is shown that the morphological instability of biofilms is triggered by the stresses induced by anisotropic and heterogeneous bacterial expansion, and involves the competition between membrane energy and bending energy. Local interfacial delamination further enriches the morphologies of biofilms. Phase diagrams are established to reveal how the anisotropy and spatial heterogeneity of growth modulate the surface patterns. The mechanics of three-dimensional microbial morphogenesis may also underpin self-organization in other development systems and provide a potential strategy for engineering microscopic structures from bacterial aggregates.

  4. Inactivation kinetics of anaerobic wastewater biofilms by free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that free nitrous acid (FNA) is biocidal to a broad range of microorganisms. Microorganisms residing in anaerobic sewer biofilms were found to be inactivated after a short (6-24 h) exposure to FNA. In this study, we investigate the inactivation kinetics of anaerobic sewer biofilms grown in real wastewater. Microbial viability of biofilms was determined using LIVE/DEAD staining. A two-fraction kinetic model was developed to simulate the inactivation of mixed culture in biofilms. The kinetic parameters were estimated by using Bayesian statistics. Model simulation found that a fraction (85 %) of the biofilm community was highly sensitive to FNA with a high inactivation rate, and a fraction (15 %) was tolerant to FNA and persisted after FNA treatment. This different susceptibility to FNA treatment was likely due to the diverse microbial community and biofilm protection. The fact that nearly 85 % microbes were inactivated confirmed that FNA is a strong biocide to mixed-culture biofilms. It was found that the inactivation rate constant was not affected by pH levels. The kinetic model was successfully used to optimize FNA dosage for sulfide control in sewer biofilms. Also, results suggest that a high FNA concentration is preferred than long exposure time to reduce the total chemical consumption.

  5. Estimation of a biofilm-specific reaction rate: kinetics of bacterial urea hydrolysis in a biofilm.

    PubMed

    Connolly, James M; Jackson, Benjamin; Rothman, Adam P; Klapper, Isaac; Gerlach, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms and specifically urea-hydrolysing biofilms are of interest to the medical community (for example, urinary tract infections), scientists and engineers (for example, microbially induced carbonate precipitation). To appropriately model these systems, biofilm-specific reaction rates are required. A simple method for determining biofilm-specific reaction rates is described and applied to a urea-hydrolysing biofilm. Biofilms were grown in small silicon tubes and influent and effluent urea concentrations were determined. Immediately after sampling, the tubes were thin sectioned to estimate the biofilm thickness profile along the length of the tube. Urea concentration and biofilm thickness data were used to construct an inverse model for the estimation of the urea hydrolysis rate. It was found that urea hydrolysis in Escherichia coli MJK2 biofilms is well approximated by first-order kinetics between urea concentrations of 0.003 and 0.221 mol/l (0.186 and 13.3 g/l). The first-order rate coefficient (k1) was estimated to be 23.2±6.2 h(-1). It was also determined that advection dominated the experimental system rather than diffusion, and that urea hydrolysis within the biofilms was not limited by diffusive transport. Beyond the specific urea-hydrolysing biofilm discussed in this work, the method has the potential for wide application in cases where biofilm-specific rates must be determined.

  6. Estimation of a biofilm-specific reaction rate: kinetics of bacterial urea hydrolysis in a biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, James M; Jackson, Benjamin; Rothman, Adam P; Klapper, Isaac; Gerlach, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Biofilms and specifically urea-hydrolysing biofilms are of interest to the medical community (for example, urinary tract infections), scientists and engineers (for example, microbially induced carbonate precipitation). To appropriately model these systems, biofilm-specific reaction rates are required. A simple method for determining biofilm-specific reaction rates is described and applied to a urea-hydrolysing biofilm. Methods: Biofilms were grown in small silicon tubes and influent and effluent urea concentrations were determined. Immediately after sampling, the tubes were thin sectioned to estimate the biofilm thickness profile along the length of the tube. Urea concentration and biofilm thickness data were used to construct an inverse model for the estimation of the urea hydrolysis rate. Results/Conclusions: It was found that urea hydrolysis in Escherichia coli MJK2 biofilms is well approximated by first-order kinetics between urea concentrations of 0.003 and 0.221 mol/l (0.186 and 13.3 g/l). The first-order rate coefficient (k1) was estimated to be 23.2±6.2 h−1. It was also determined that advection dominated the experimental system rather than diffusion, and that urea hydrolysis within the biofilms was not limited by diffusive transport. Beyond the specific urea-hydrolysing biofilm discussed in this work, the method has the potential for wide application in cases where biofilm-specific rates must be determined. PMID:28721232

  7. Modeling of an aerobic biofilm reactor with double-limiting substrate kinetics: bifurcational and dynamical analysis.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Marzocchella, Antonio; Salatino, Piero

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model of an aerobic biofilm reactor is presented to investigate the bifurcational patterns and the dynamical behavior of the reactor as a function of different key operating parameters. Suspended cells and biofilm are assumed to grow according to double limiting kinetics with phenol inhibition (carbon source) and oxygen limitation. The model presented by Russo et al. is extended to embody key features of the phenomenology of the granular-supported biofilm: biofilm growth and detachment, gas-liquid oxygen transport, phenol, and oxygen uptake by both suspended and immobilized cells, and substrate diffusion into the biofilm. Steady-state conditions and stability, and local dynamic behavior have been characterized. The multiplicity of steady states and their stability depend on key operating parameter values (dilution rate, gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient, biofilm detachment rate, and inlet substrate concentration). Small changes in the operating conditions may be coupled with a drastic change of the steady-state scenario with transcritical and saddle-node bifurcations. The relevance of concentration profiles establishing within the biofilm is also addressed. When the oxygen level in the liquid phase is <10% of the saturation level, the biofilm undergoes oxygen starvation and the active biofilm fraction becomes independent of the dilution rate. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2011. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  8. Kinetics of inorganic carbon utilization by microalgal biofilm in a flat plate photoreactor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen H; Leu, Jyh Y; Lan, Chi R; Lin, P-Hsiu P; Chang, Fuh L

    2003-11-01

    A kinetic model was developed to describe inorganic carbon utilization by microalgae biofilm in a flat plate photoreactor. The model incorporates the fundamental mechanisms of diffusive mass transport and biological reaction of inorganic carbon by microalgal biofilm. An advanced numerical technique, the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method, was employed to solve this kinetic model. The model solutions included the concentration profiles of inorganic carbon in the microalgal biofilm, the growths of suspended microalgae and microalgal biofilm, the effluent concentrations of inorganic carbon, and the flux of inorganic carbon from bulk liquid into biofilm. The batch kinetic test was independently conducted to determine biokinetic parameters used in the microalgal biofilm model simulation while initial thickness of microalgal biofilm were assumed. A laboratory-scale flat plate photoreactor with a high recycle flow rate was setup and conducted to verify the model. The volume of photoreactor is 60 l which yields a hydraulic retention time of 1.67 days. The model-generated inorganic carbon and the suspended microalgae concentration curves agreed well with those obtained in the laboratory-scale test. The fixation efficiencies of HCO(3)(-) and CO(2) are 98.5% and 90% at a steady-state condition, respectively. The concentration of suspended microalgal cell reached up to 12 mg/l at a maximum growth rate while the thickness of microalgal biofilm was estimated to be 104 microm at a steady-state condition. The approaches of experiments and model simulation presented in this study could be employed for the design of a flat plate photoreactor to treat CO(2) by microalgal biofilm in a fossil-fuel power plant.

  9. Kinetic development of biofilm on NF membranes at the Méry-sur-Oise plant, France.

    PubMed

    Houari, Ahmed; Seyer, Damien; Kecili, Karima; Heim, Véronique; Martino, Patrick Di

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic formation of biofilms developing on nanofiltration (NF) membranes was studied for 2 years in the water production unit of Méry-sur-Oise, France. New membranes were set up in a pilot train integrated to the plant and autopsied after operation for 7, 80, 475 and 717 days. The biofouling layer was studied by confocal laser scanning microscope after 4',6-diamidino-2-phenyindole dihydrochloride and lectin staining, and by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and rheology experiments. Three stages of biofilm growth were discriminated: (1) the presence of sessile microcolonies embedded in an exopolymeric matrix (after filtration for seven days); (2) membrane coverage expansion through microcolony development and biofilm growth in three dimensions (up to 80 days filtration); and (3) biofilm maturation by densification (after filtration for 80-717 days). Biofilm maturation resulted in total coverage of the membrane surface and matrix residue diversification, development of the polysaccharide network, and the strengthening of matrix cohesion through viscosity and elasticity increases. The wettability and permeability of the fouled NF membranes decreased quickly and continuously throughout the biofilm development process. The longitudinal pressure drop (LPD) increased only after the biofilm reached a quantitative threshold. The decline in membrane permeability may be the result of contributions from many fouling mechanisms but the LPD was more substantially influenced by biofilm development.

  10. Growth Kinetics in Epitaxial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessinger, Uwe

    Growth kinetics in heteroepitaxial growth are related to the nucleation and growth of atomic-height islands during the deposition of a material on a dissimilar substrate. Experimental measurements of the initial morphology of CaF_2 films deposited on Si(111) substrates were performed. These measurements consisted of photoemission spectroscopy and diffraction, which give sub-nanometer scale information averaged over the entire sample, and plan-view transmission electron microscopy, which gives localized information on a scale of several nanometers. These results, combined with others in the literature, revealed four distinct growth morphologies dependent on the deposition rate, substrate temperature and spacing between atomic-height steps on the surface, two of which had not been previously explained. A model based on two extant theories of homoepitaxial growth kinetics was developed to explain the different observed growth morphologies for the heteroepitaxial system CaF_2/Si(111). The first theory deals with whether the initial nucleation will occur at substrate steps or through adatom collisions on flat terraces, while the second deals with the nucleation of subsequent layers as these initial atomic islands increase in size. In extending these theories to heteroepitaxy, very different rates of upper-layer nucleation for the different size islands that nucleated at steps and on terraces are predicted. By applying this theory to CaF_2/Si(111), the diffusion barriers for CaF_2 molecule migration both on the reacted Si-Ca-F interface layer and on subsequent CaF_2 layers was extracted. The four different growth morphologies are explained within a common framework. The theory is quite general, and should apply to most heteroepitaxial systems. These theories were extended to predict a means by which the upper-layer nucleation may be inhibited while the underlying layer is completed. This method involves initiating the growth at conditions favoring many, small islands on

  11. Biofilm Growth Induced Transformation of Porous Media Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, J. P.; Seymour, J. D.; Codd, S. L.; Gerlach, R.

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has been applied to study hydrodynamic dispersion in porous media impacted by biofilms growth. MRM measures the averaged propagator of motion which provides the probability of displacements to occur over experimentally controlled times. The transition from pre-asymptotic to asymptotic hydrodynamic dispersion in a homogeneous porous medium constructed from monodisperse spheres is clearly visualized by the time evolution of the propagator to a Gaussian distribution. The growth of biofilms in the porous media induces a transition in the hydrodynamic dispersion from normal to anomalous transport which is visualized by the propagator transition from Gaussian to that modeled by a subdiffusive fractal kinetics model based on continuous time random walks (CTRW's). This transition is consistent with the porous media structure changing from homogeneous to nonhomogeneous and connections to fractal dimensions are discussed. The MRM data can be analyzed in the q-space domain, i.e. the wavelength space reciprocal to displacement, and provides information on the dynamics on scales above and below a single pore. Fractional kinetics models for subdiffusive processes predict stretched exponential Gaussian behavior and the q-space data fits to strectched exponentials exhibit a transition from Gaussian to subdiffusion due to biofilm growth.

  12. Effect of the growth rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents: beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, G; Shigeta, M; Komatsuzawa, H; Sugai, M; Suginaka, H; Usui, T

    1999-01-01

    The growth rate of biofilm bacteria of a leucine-requiring mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa HU1 was regulated by the leucine concentration in a chemically-defined medium. The semiquantitative measurement of glycocalyx and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the kinetics of HU1-biofilm formation were dependent on the incubation time and the leucine concentration in the medium. The effect of the growth rate of biofilm cells on their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, three beta-lactams and four fluoroquinolones, was evaluated. beta-Lactams showed weak bactericidal activity to biofilm cells; the activity was greater in younger biofilm cells growing in high concentrations of leucine. Fluoroquinolones revealed strong bactericidal activity to biofilm bacteria regardless of the growth rate. The following is suggested: the bactericidal action of beta-lactams against biofilm cells is affected by the cell growth rate, while that of fluoroquinolones is considerably greater and independent on the growth rate.

  13. Kinetics of biodegradation of phenolic wastewater in a biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Hsien, Tzu-Yang

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model to describe the biodegradation of phenolic wastewater in a fixed-biofilm process. The model incorporates diffusive mass transport and Haldane kinetics mechanisms. The model was solved using a combination of the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method. A laboratory-scale column reactor was employed to verify the model. Batch kinetic tests were conducted independently to determine biokinetic parameters for the model simulation with the initial biofilm thickness assumed. The model simulated the phenol effluent concentration results well. Removal efficiency for phenol was approximately 94-96.5% for different hydraulic retention times at a steady-state condition. Model simulations results are in agreement with experimental results. The approaches of model and experiments presented in this paper could be used to design a pilot-scale or full-scale fixed-biofilm reactor system for the biodegradation of phenolic wastewater from petrochemical and oil refining plants.

  14. The Roles of Biofilm Conductivity and Donor Substrate Kinetics in a Mixed-Culture Biofilm Anode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Sool; Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; An, Junyeong; Rittmann, Bruce E; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Ren, Hao; Chae, Junseok

    2016-12-06

    We experimentally assessed the kinetics and thermodynamics of electron transfer (ET) from the donor substrate (acetate) to the anode for a mixed-culture biofilm anode. We interpreted the results with a modified biofilm-conduction model consisting of three ET steps in series: (1) intracellular ET, (2) non-Ohmic extracellular ET (EET) from an outer membrane protein to an extracellular cofactor (EC), and (3) ET from the EC to the anode by Ohmic-conduction in the biofilm matrix. The steady-state current density was 0.82 ± 0.03 A/m(2) in a miniature microbial electrochemical cell operated at fixed anode potential of -0.15 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode. Illumina 16S-rDNA and -rRNA sequences showed that the Geobacter genus was less than 30% of the community of the biofilm anode. Biofilm conductivity was high at 2.44 ± 0.42 mS/cm, indicating that the maximum current density could be as high as 270 A/m(2) if only Ohmic-conduction EET was limiting. Due to the high biofilm conductivity, the maximum energy loss for Ohmic-conduction EET was negligible, 0.085 mV. The energy loss in the second ET step also was small, only 20 mV, and the potential for the EC involved in the second ET was -0.15 V, a value documenting that >99% of the EC was in the oxidized state. Monod kinetics for utilization of acetate were relatively slow, and at least 87% of the energy loss was in the intracellular step. Thus, intracellular ET was the main kinetic and thermodynamic bottleneck to ET from donor substrate to the anode for a highly conductive biofilm.

  15. The continuum heterogeneous biofilm model with multiple limiting substrate Monod kinetics.

    PubMed

    Gonzo, Elio Emilio; Wuertz, Stefan; Rajal, Veronica B

    2014-11-01

    We describe a novel procedure to estimate the net growth rate of biofilms on multiple substrates. The approach is based on diffusion-reaction mass balances for chemical species in a continuum biofilm model with reaction kinetics corresponding to a Double-Monod expression. This analytical model considers a heterogeneous biofilm with variable distributions of biofilm density, activity, and effective diffusivity as a function of depth. We present the procedure to estimate the effectiveness factor analytically and compare the outcome with values obtained by the application of a rigorous numerical computational method using several theoretical examples and a test case. A comparison of the profiles of the effectiveness factor as a function of the Thiele modulus, φ, revealed that the activity of a homogeneous biofilm could be as much as 42% higher than that of a heterogeneous biofilm, under the given conditions. The maximum relative error between numerical and estimated effectiveness factor was 2.03% at φ near 0.7 (corresponding to a normalized Thiele modulus φ* = 1). For φ < 0.3 or φ > 1.4, the relative error was less than 0.5%. A biofilm containing aerobic ammonium oxidizers was chosen as a test case to illustrate the model's capability. We assumed a continuum heterogeneous biofilm model where the effective diffusivities of oxygen and ammonium change with biofilm position. Calculations were performed for two scenarios; Case I had low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and Case II had high DO concentrations, with a concentration at the biofilm-fluid interface of 10 g O2 /m(3) . For Case II, ammonium was the limiting substrate for a biofilm surface concentration, CNs , ≤13.84 g of N/m(3) . At these concentrations ammonium was limiting inside the biofilm, and oxygen was fully penetrating. Conversely, for CNs  > 13.84 g of N/m(3) , oxygen became the limiting substrate inside the biofilm and ammonium was fully penetrating. Finally, a

  16. Kinetics of carbendazim degradation in a horizontal tubular biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Gutiérrez, María Luisa; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo; García-Mena, Jaime; Ahuatzi-Chacón, Deifilia

    2016-12-22

    The fungicide carbendazim is an ecotoxic agent affecting aquatic biota. Due to its suspected hormone-disrupting effects, it is considered a "priority hazard substance" by the Water Framework Directive of the European Commission, and its degradation is of major concern. In this work, a horizontal tubular biofilm reactor (HTBR) operating in plug-flow regime was used to study the kinetics of carbendazim removal by an acclimated microbial consortium. The reactor was operated in steady state continuous culture at eight different carbendazim loading rates. The concentrations of the fungicide were determined at several distances of the HTBR. At the loading rates tested, the highest instantaneous removal rates were observed in the first section of the tubular biofilm reactor. No evidence of inhibition of the catabolic activity of the microbial community was found. Strains of the genera Flectobacillus, Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, and Flavobacterium were identified in the biofilm; the last three degrade carbendazim in axenic culture.

  17. A two-dimensional continuum model of biofilm growth incorporating fluid flow and shear stress based detachment.

    PubMed

    Duddu, Ravindra; Chopp, David L; Moran, Brian

    2009-05-01

    We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hierarchical simulator of biofilm growth and dynamics in granular porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapellos, George E.; Alexiou, Terpsichori S.; Payatakes, Alkiviades C.

    2007-06-01

    A new simulator is developed for the prediction of the rate and pattern of growth of biofilms in granular porous media. The biofilm is considered as a heterogeneous porous material that exhibits a hierarchy of length scales. An effective-medium model is used to calculate the local hydraulic permeability and diffusion coefficient in the biofilm, as functions of the local geometric and physicochemical properties. The Navier-Stokes equations and the Brinkman equation are solved numerically to determine the velocity and pressure fields within the pore space and the biofilm, respectively. Biofilm fragments become detached if they are exposed to shear stress higher than a critical value. The detached fragments re-enter into the fluid stream and move within the pore space until they exit from the system or become reattached to downstream grain or biofilm surfaces. A Lagrangian-type simulation is used to determine the trajectories of detached fragments. The spatiotemporal distributions of a carbon source, an electron acceptor and a cell-to-cell signaling molecule are determined from the numerical solution of the governing convection-diffusion-reaction equations. The simulator incorporates growth and apoptosis kinetics for the bacterial cells and production and lysis kinetics for the EPS. The specific growth rate of active bacterial cells depends on the local concentrations of nutrients, mechanical stresses, and a quorum sensing mechanism. Growth-induced deformation of the biofilms is implemented with a cellular automaton approach. In this work, the spatiotemporal evolution of biofilms in the pore space of a 2D granular medium is simulated under high flow rate and nutrient-rich conditions. Transient changes in the pore geometry caused by biofilm growth lead to the formation of preferential flowpaths within the granular porous medium. The decrease of permeability caused by clogging of the porous medium is calculated and is found to be in qualitative agreement with published

  19. Modelling the growth of a methanotrophic biofilm: estimation of parameters and variability.

    PubMed

    Arcangeli, J P; Arvin, E

    1999-06-01

    This article discusses the growth of methanotrophic biofilms. Several independent biofilm growths scenarios involving different inocula were examined. Biofilm growth, substrate removal and product formation were monitored throughout the experiments. Based on the oxygen consumption it was concluded that heterotrophs and nitrifiers co-existed with methanotrophs in the biofilm. Heterotrophic biomass grew on soluble polymers formed by the hydrolysis of dead biomass entrapped in the biofilm. Nitrifier populations developed because of the presence of ammonia in the mineral medium. Based on these experimental results, the computer program AQUASIM was used to develop a biological model involving methanotrophs, heterotrophs and nitrifiers. The modelling of six independent growth experiments showed that stoichiometric and kinetic parameters were within the same order of magnitude. Parameter estimation yielded an average maximum growth rate for methanotrophs, micron, of 1.5 +/- 0.5 d-1, at 20 degrees C, a decay rate, bm, of 0.24 +/- 0.1 d-1, a half saturation constant, KS(CH4), of 0.06 +/- 0.05 mg CH4/L, and a yield coefficient, YCH4, of 0.57 +/- 0.04 g X/g CH4. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed on this model. It indicated that the most influential parameters were those related to the biofilm (i.e. density; solid-volume fraction; thickness). This suggests that in order to improve the model, further research regarding the biofilm structure and composition is needed.

  20. Furoxan Nitric Oxide Donors Disperse Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms, Accelerate Growth, and Repress Pyoverdine Production.

    PubMed

    Poh, Wee Han; Barraud, Nicolas; Guglielmo, Stefano; Lazzarato, Loretta; Rolando, Barbara; Fruttero, Roberta; Rice, Scott A

    2017-08-18

    The use of nitric oxide (NO) as a signal for biofilm dispersal has been shown to increase the susceptibility of many biofilms to antibiotics, promoting their eradication. The delivery of NO to biofilms can be achieved by using NO donors with different kinetics and properties of NO release that can influence their efficacy as biofilm control agents. In this study, the kinetics of three furoxan derivatives were evaluated. The effects of these NO donors, which have an advantageous pharmacological profile of slower onset with an extended duration of action, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, biofilm development, and dispersal were also characterized. Compound LL4254, which showed a fast rate of NO release, induced biofilm dispersal at approximately 200 μM. While LL4212 and LL4216 have a slower rate of NO release, both compounds could induce biofilm dispersal, under the same treatment conditions, when used at higher concentrations. In addition, LL4212 and LL4216 were found to promote P. aeruginosa growth in iron-limited minimal medium, leading to a faster rate of biofilm formation and glucose utilization, and ultimately resulted in early dispersal of biofilm cells through carbon starvation. High concentrations of LL4216 also repressed production of the siderophore pyoverdine by more than 50-fold, via both NOx-dependent and NOx-independent mechanisms. The effects on growth and pyoverdine levels exerted by the furoxans appeared to be mediated by NO-independent mechanisms, suggesting functional activities of furoxans in addition to their release of NO and nitrite. Overall, this study reveals that secondary effects of furoxans are important considerations for their use as NO-releasing dispersal agents and that these compounds could be potentially redesigned as pyoverdine inhibitors.

  1. Effects of growth conditions on biofilm formation by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Josée; Pelletier-Jacques, Geneviève; Deslandes, Vincent; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Auger, Eliane; Nash, John H.E.; Jacques, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of many bacterial pathogens. It has been reported in the literature that only two of the reference strains of the swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, representing serotypes 5b and 11, were able to form biofilm in vitro. In this study, we compared biofilm formation by the serotype 1 reference strain S4074 of A. pleuropneumoniae grown in five different culture media. We observed that strain S4074 of A. pleuropneumoniae is able to form biofilms after growth in one of the culture conditions tested brain heart infusion (BHI medium, supplier B). Confocal laser scanning microscopy using a fluorescent probe specific to the poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) polysaccharide further confirmed biofilm formation. In accordance, biofilm formation was susceptible to dispersin B, a PGA hydrolase. Transcriptional profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae S4074 following growth in BHI-B, which allowed a robust biofilm formation, and in BHI-A, in which only a slight biofilm formation was observed, were compared. Genes such as tadC, tadD, genes with homology to autotransporter adhesins as well as genes pgaABC involved in PGA biosynthesis and genes involved in zinc transport were up-regulated after growth in BHI-B. Interestingly, biofilm formation was inhibited by zinc, which was found to be more present in BHI-A (no or slight biofilm) than in BHI-B. We also observed biofilm formation in reference strains representing serotypes 3, 4, 5a, 12 and 14 as well as in 20 of the 37 fresh field isolates tested. Our data indicate that A. pleuropneumoniae has the ability to form biofilms under appropriate growth conditions and transition from a biofilm-positive to a biofilm-negative phenotype was reversible. PMID:19737507

  2. On growth and flow: bacterial biofilms in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, William; Leombruni, Alberto; Tranzer, Olivier; Stocker, Roman

    2011-11-01

    Bacterial biofilms often occur in porous media, where they play pivotal roles in medicine, industry and the environment. Though flow is ubiquitous in porous media, its effects on biofilm growth have been largely ignored. Using patterned microfluidic devices that simulate unconsolidated soil, we find that the structure of Escherichia coli biofilms undergoes a self-organization mediated by the interaction of growth and flow. Intriguingly, we find that biofilm productivity peaks at intermediate flow rates, when the biofilm is irrigated by a minimum number of preferential flow channels. At larger and smaller flow rates, fluid flows more uniformly through the matrix, but productivity drops due to removal by shear and reduced nutrient transport, respectively. These dynamics are correctly predicted by a simple network model. The observed tradeoff between growth and flow may have important consequences on biofilm-mediated processes such as biochemical cycling, antibiotic resistance and water filtration.

  3. Kinetic and stoichiometric characterization of a fixed biofilm reactor by pulse respirometry.

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Alberto; Oliveira, Catarina S; Quijano, Guillermo; Ferreira, Eugenio C; Alves, Madalena; Thalasso, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    An in situ respirometric technique was applied to a sequential biofilm batch reactor treating a synthetic wastewater containing acetate. In this reactor, inoculated with mixed liquor from a wastewater plant, unglazed ceramic tiles were used as support media while maintaining complete mixing regime. A total of 8 kinetic and stoichiometric parameters were determined by in situ pulse respirometry; namely substrate oxidation yield, biomass growth yield, storage yield, storage growth yield, substrate affinity constant, storage affinity constant, storage kinetic constant and maximum oxygen uptake rate. Additionally, biofilm growth was determined from support media sampling showing that the colonization process occurred during the first 40 days, reaching an apparent steady-state afterward. Similarly, most of the stoichiometric and kinetic parameters were changing over time but reached steady values after day 40. During the experiment, the respirometric method allowed to quantify the amount of substrate directed to storage, which was significant, especially at substrate concentration superior to 30mg CODL(-1). The Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3), which is a model that takes into account substrate storage mechanisms, fitted well experimental data and allowed confirming that feast and famine cycles in SBR favor storage. These results also show that in situ pulse respirometry can be used for fixed-bed reactors characterization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-15

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism Francisco G...we addressed questions regarding biofilm metabolism using a genome-scale kinetic model of the P. aeruginosametabolic network and gene expression...synthesis pathway, but also through the biofilm-specific expression of genes in pathways competing for precursors to these molecules. Finally, we

  5. Effect of EPS on biofilm structure and function as revealed by an individual-based model of biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Kreft, J U; Wimpenny, J W

    2001-01-01

    We have simulated a nitrifying biofilm with one ammonia and one nitrite oxidising species in order to elucidate the effect of various extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production scenarios on biofilm structure and function. The individual-based model (IbM) BacSim simulates diffusion of all substrates on a two-dimensional lattice. Each bacterium is individually simulated as a sphere of given size in a continuous, three-dimensional space. EPS production kinetics was described by a growth rate dependent and an independent term (Leudeking-Piret equation). The structure of the biofilm was dramatically influenced by EPS production or capsule formation. EPS production decreased growth of producers and stimulated growth of non-producers because of the energy cost involved. For the same reason, EPS accumulation can fall as its rate of production increases. The patchiness and roughness of the biofilm decreased and the porosity increased due to EPS production. EPS density was maximal in the middle of the vertical profile. Introduction of binding forces between like cells increased clustering.

  6. Algae biofilm growth and the potential to stimulate lipid accumulation through nutrient starvation.

    PubMed

    Schnurr, Peter J; Espie, George S; Allen, D Grant

    2013-05-01

    An algae biofilm growth system was developed to study the growth kinetics and neutral lipid productivities of Scenedesmus obliquus and Nitzschia palea, and to determine if algal biofilms can be starved of key nutrients to increase their neutral lipid concentrations. Linear growth curves were determined for each species until nutrient starvation commenced, at which point growth ceased and/or biofilms sloughed from their substratum. Nutrient starvation did not increase neutral lipid concentrations in any of the biofilms; however, it approximately doubled their lipid concentrations when grown in suspension. Biomass productivities of 2.8 and 2.1g/m(2)/d and lipid productivities of 0.45 and 0.18 g/m(2)/d were determined for N. palea and S. obliquus, respectively. The results suggest that nutrient starvation of biofilms is not a desirable method of lipid production for algae biofilm biofuel production systems, but that lipid production rates compare favorably with conventional terrestrial biofuel sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Embedded Biofilm, a New Biofilm Model Based on the Embedded Growth of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yong-Gyun; Choi, Jungil; Kim, Soo-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    A variety of systems have been developed to study biofilm formation. However, most systems are based on the surface-attached growth of microbes under shear stress. In this study, we designed a microfluidic channel device, called a microfluidic agarose channel (MAC), and found that microbial cells in the MAC system formed an embedded cell aggregative structure (ECAS). ECASs were generated from the embedded growth of bacterial cells in an agarose matrix and better mimicked the clinical environment of biofilms formed within mucus or host tissue under shear-free conditions. ECASs were developed with the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the most important feature of biofilms, and eventually burst to release planktonic cells, which resembles the full developmental cycle of biofilms. Chemical and genetic effects have also confirmed that ECASs are a type of biofilm. Unlike the conventional biofilms formed in the flow cell model system, this embedded-type biofilm completes the developmental cycle in only 9 to 12 h and can easily be observed with ordinary microscopes. We suggest that ECASs are a type of biofilm and that the MAC is a system for observing biofilm formation. PMID:25326307

  8. Embedded biofilm, a new biofilm model based on the embedded growth of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong-Gyun; Choi, Jungil; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Lee, Joon-Hee; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2015-01-01

    A variety of systems have been developed to study biofilm formation. However, most systems are based on the surface-attached growth of microbes under shear stress. In this study, we designed a microfluidic channel device, called a microfluidic agarose channel (MAC), and found that microbial cells in the MAC system formed an embedded cell aggregative structure (ECAS). ECASs were generated from the embedded growth of bacterial cells in an agarose matrix and better mimicked the clinical environment of biofilms formed within mucus or host tissue under shear-free conditions. ECASs were developed with the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the most important feature of biofilms, and eventually burst to release planktonic cells, which resembles the full developmental cycle of biofilms. Chemical and genetic effects have also confirmed that ECASs are a type of biofilm. Unlike the conventional biofilms formed in the flow cell model system, this embedded-type biofilm completes the developmental cycle in only 9 to 12 h and can easily be observed with ordinary microscopes. We suggest that ECASs are a type of biofilm and that the MAC is a system for observing biofilm formation.

  9. A novel fluidized bed respirometric technique for determination of in situ biofilm kinetics.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    A respirometric approach has been developed to determine heterotrophic biofilm kinetics using fluidized bioparticles--particles with attached biomass. Lava rock particles of 600 microm were used as a biomass carrier medium. The modified respirometer successfully estimates in situ biofilm kinetics of the bioparticles collected from a pilot-scale liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed (LSCFB) bioreactor. The observed maximum specific growth rates (micro(max)) of 3.69 +/- 0.44 d(-1) and biomass yields (Y(H)) of 0.36 +/- 0.03 g COD/g COD in the fluidized bed respirometers were significantly different from the micro(max) of 5.57-5.72 d(-1) and Y(H) of 0.54-0.59 g COD/g COD observed in the conventional respirometric tests for bioparticles and detached biomass. The higher Monod half-saturation coefficient (K(S)) of 186-219mg COD/L observed in the fluidized bed respirometers relative to the 49-58 mg COD/L in the conventional respirometers reveals the presence of mass transfer resistance in the LSCFB despite fluidization. Significantly reduced yields in the fluidized bed respirometers and the estimated maintenance coefficient of 1.16 d(-1) for the particulate biofilm in the LSCFB clearly emphasize that a substantial amount of substrate was utilized for cell maintenance at the low food to microorganism (S/X) ratio of 0.5 g COD/g VSS.

  10. Biofilm growth and characteristics in an alternating pumped sequencing batch biofilm reactor (APSBBR).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xin-Min; Rodgers, Michael; O'Reilly, Edmond

    2006-02-01

    A novel biofilm reactor-alternating pumped sequencing batch biofilm reactor (APSBBR)-was developed to treat synthetic dairy wastewater at a volumetric chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 487 g COD m(-3) d(-1) and an areal loading rate of 5.4 g COD m(-2) d(-1). This biofilm reactor comprised two tanks, Tanks 1 and 2, with two identical plastic biofilm modules in each tank. The maximum volume of bulk fluid in the two-tank reactor was the volume of one tank. The APSBBR was operated as a sequencing batch biofilm reactor with five operational phases-fill (25 min), anoxic (9 h), aerobic (9 h), settle (6 h) and draw (5 min). The fill, anoxic, settle and draw phases occurred in Tank 1. In the aerobic phase, the wastewater was circulated between the two tanks with centrifugal pumps and aeration was mainly achieved through oxygen absorption by micro-organisms in the biofilms when they were exposed to the air. In this paper, the biofilm growth and characteristics in the APSBBR were studied in a 98-day laboratory-scale experiment. During the course of the study, it was found that the biofilm thickness (delta) in Tank 1 ranged from 1.2 to 7.2 mm and that in Tank 2 from 0.5 to 2.2 mm; the biofilm growth against time (t) can be simulated as delta=0.07t0.99 (R2 = 0.97, P = 0.002) in Tank 1 and delta = 0.08t0.66 (R2 = 0.81, P = 0.04) in Tank 2. The biomass yield coefficient, Y, was 0.18 g volatile solids (VS) g(-1) COD removal. The biofilm density in both tanks, X, decreased as the biofilm thickness increased and can be correlated to the biofilm thickness, delta .

  11. In vitro study of biofilm growth on biologic prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Charles; Smith, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Biologic prosthetics are increasingly used for the repair of abdominal wall hernia defects but can become infected as a result of peri- or early post-operative bacterial contamination. Data evaluating biofilm formation on biologic prosthetics is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different biologic prosthetics on the growth behavior of two different bacterial species and their ability to form biofilms. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomrnonas aeruginosa were incubated on disks of two biologic prosthetics-human acellular dermis (ADM), and porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). The bacteria were allowed to attach to the prosthetics and propagate into mature biofilms for 24 hours at 370C. Images of biofilms were obtained using confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of viable cells and the biofilm biomass were quantified by colony forming units (CFUs) and crystal violet staining respectively. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the mean values for the different prosthetics. Each biologic matrix had a distinct surface characteristic. SEM visualized mature biofilms characterized by highly organized multi-cellular structures on surface of both biologic prosthetics. Quantification of bacterial growth over time showed that ADM had the lowest CFUs and biofilm biomass at 24 hours post-inoculation compared to SIS for both bacterial strains. MRSA and P. aeruginosa can form mature biofilms on biologic prosthetics but the relative abundance of the biofilm varies on different prosthetic constructs. Biologic material composition and manufacturing methods may influence bacterial adherence.

  12. Reduction Kinetics of Manganese Dioxide by Geobacter Sulfurreducens and Associated Biofilm Morphology in a Flow-Through Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berns, E.; Werth, C. J.; Valocchi, A. J.; Sanford, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Biogeochemical interactions have been investigated extensively to characterize natural nutrient cycling and predict contaminant transport in surface and groundwater. Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, many of which form biofilms, play an important role in reducing a variety of metals in these systems. It has been shown that biofilm morphology is impacted by flow conditions, but there has been little work that explores how reduction kinetics change as a result of these different morphologies. Different flow rates may affect physical properties of the biofilm that influence the rate of substrate reduction. We introduce an approach to calculate changes in Monod kinetic parameters while simultaneously evaluating biofilm morphologies under different flow rates. A vertical, cylindrical flow cell with removable glass slide sections coated in manganese dioxide (electron acceptor) was used to grow a biofilm of Geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate as the electron donor under both high (50 mL/hr) and low (5 mL/h) flow rates. The removable sections allowed for visualization of the biofilm at different time points with a confocal microscope, and quantification of the biomass on the surface using a combination of a protein assay and image analysis. Data collected from the experiments was used to determine yield and specific growth rate at the different flow rates, and a simple numerical model was used to estimate the half saturation constant of manganese dioxide at both flow rates. A smaller half saturation constant was estimated at the higher flow rate, indicating that the biofilm was more efficient in the high flow system, but a strong correlation between morphology and the faster reduction rate was not observed. Monod kinetic parameters are important for the development of accurate nutrient cycling and contaminant transport models in natural environments, and understanding how they are impacted by flow will be important for the development of new, improved models.

  13. The BioFilm Ring Test: a Rapid Method for Routine Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Elodie; Badel-Berchoux, Stéphanie; Provot, Christian; Jaulhac, Benoît; Prévost, Gilles; Bernardi, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Currently, few techniques are available for the evaluation of bacterial biofilm adhesion. These detection tools generally require time for culture and/or arduous handling steps. In this work, the BioFilm Ring Test (BRT), a new technology, was used to estimate the biofilm formation kinetics of 25 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The principle of the new assay is based on the mobility measurement of magnetic microbeads mixed with a bacterial suspension in a polystyrene microplate. If free to move under the magnetic action, particles gather to a visible central spot in the well bottom. Therefore, the absence of spot formation in the plate reflects the bead immobilization by a biofilm in formation. The BRT device allowed us to classify the bacterial strains into three general adhesion profiles. Group 1 consists of bacteria, which are able to form a solid biofilm in <2 h. Group 2 comprises the strains that progressively set up a biofilm during 24 h. Lastly, group 3 includes the strains that stay in a planktonic form. The grouping of our strains did not differ according to culture conditions, i.e., the use of different sets of beads or culture media. The BRT is shown to be an informative tool for the characterization of biofilm-forming bacteria. Various application perspectives may be investigated for this device, such as the addition of antibiotics to the bacterial suspension to select which would have the ability to inhibit the biofilm formation. PMID:26719437

  14. Pherotype influences biofilm growth and recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Carrolo, Margarida; Pinto, Francisco Rodrigues; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário

    2014-01-01

    In Streptococcus pneumoniae the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), encoded by the comC gene, controls competence development and influences biofilm growth. We explored the influence of pherotype, defined by the two major comC allelic variants (comC1 and comC2), on biofilm development and recombination efficiency. Among isolates recovered from human infections those presenting comC1 show a higher capacity to form in vitro biofilms. The influence of pherotype on biofilm growth was confirmed by experiments with isogenic strains differing in their comC alleles. Biofilm architecture evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that strains carrying comC1 form biofilms that are denser and thicker than those carrying the comC2 allele. Isogenic strains carrying the comC1 allele yielded more transformants than those carrying the comC2 allele in both planktonic and biofilm growth. Transformation assays with comC knockout strains show that ComD1 needs lower doses of the signaling peptide to reach the same biological outcomes. In contrast to mixed planktonic growth, within mixed biofilms inter-pherotype genetic exchange is less frequent than that occurring between bacteria of the same pherotype. Since biofilms are a major bacterial lifestyle, these observations may explain the genetic differentiation between populations with different pherotypes reported previously. Considering that biofilms have been associated with colonization our results suggest that strains carrying the comC1 allele may be more transmissible and more efficient at persisting in carriage. Both effects may help explain the higher prevalence of the comC1 allele in the pneumococcal population.

  15. Pherotype Influences Biofilm Growth and Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Carrolo, Margarida; Pinto, Francisco Rodrigues; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário

    2014-01-01

    In Streptococcus pneumoniae the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), encoded by the comC gene, controls competence development and influences biofilm growth. We explored the influence of pherotype, defined by the two major comC allelic variants (comC1 and comC2), on biofilm development and recombination efficiency. Among isolates recovered from human infections those presenting comC1 show a higher capacity to form in vitro biofilms. The influence of pherotype on biofilm growth was confirmed by experiments with isogenic strains differing in their comC alleles. Biofilm architecture evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that strains carrying comC1 form biofilms that are denser and thicker than those carrying the comC2 allele. Isogenic strains carrying the comC1 allele yielded more transformants than those carrying the comC2 allele in both planktonic and biofilm growth. Transformation assays with comC knockout strains show that ComD1 needs lower doses of the signaling peptide to reach the same biological outcomes. In contrast to mixed planktonic growth, within mixed biofilms inter-pherotype genetic exchange is less frequent than that occurring between bacteria of the same pherotype. Since biofilms are a major bacterial lifestyle, these observations may explain the genetic differentiation between populations with different pherotypes reported previously. Considering that biofilms have been associated with colonization our results suggest that strains carrying the comC1 allele may be more transmissible and more efficient at persisting in carriage. Both effects may help explain the higher prevalence of the comC1 allele in the pneumococcal population. PMID:24646937

  16. Spatial & Temporal Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have examined the effect of biogenic gases and biomineralization on the acoustic properties of porous media. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal effect of microbial growth and biofilm formation on compressional waves and complex conductivity in sand...

  17. Spatial & Temporal Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have examined the effect of biogenic gases and biomineralization on the acoustic properties of porous media. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal effect of microbial growth and biofilm formation on compressional waves and complex conductivity in sand...

  18. Biofilm Growth in Porous Media: Validation of three-dimensional characterization of biofilm growth in packed bead columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iltis, G.; Armstrong, R. T.; Jansik, D. P.; Wood, B. D.; Wildenschild, D.

    2009-12-01

    Current understanding of subsurface microbial biofilm formation and the impact on fluid hydrodynamics associated with biofilm growth is limited by our ability to observe the in situ pore-scale geometry of developed biofilms. Biomass distribution in porous media has been observed primarily in two-dimensional systems to date; currently, no high-resolution three-dimensional structural data sets exist for opaque porous media that provide sufficient information about biomass distribution such that the impact on flow and solute transport at the pore-scale can be directly assessed. A new method for resolving high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic images of biofilms in porous media using synchrotron-based x-ray microtomography has been developed. As a part of this method, silver coated, neutrally buoyant microspheres are used to delineate the surface of the biofilm within porous media. Quantitative validation of this method will be presented along with three-dimensional characterization of biofilm growth in packed bead columns. Current and future applications for this imaging method include quantitative experimental validation of mathematical models pertaining to spatial distribution of biofilm and variation in hydrodynamic flow pathways within porous media. Our current research into this area focuses on evaluating microbially mediated co-precipitation of heavy metals in porous media. Results will be presented from new imaging experiments comparing different microbes and varying flow rates to address effects of biofilm type and density on the image quality.

  19. Estimating biofilm reaction kinetics using hybrid mechanistic-neural network rate function model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B Shiva; Venkateswarlu, Ch

    2012-01-01

    This work describes an alternative method for estimation of reaction rate of a biofilm process without using a model equation. A first principles model of the biofilm process is integrated with artificial neural networks to derive a hybrid mechanistic-neural network rate function model (HMNNRFM), and this combined model structure is used to estimate the complex kinetics of the biofilm process as a consequence of the validation of its steady state solution. The performance of the proposed methodology is studied with the aid of the experimental data of an anaerobic fixed bed biofilm reactor. The statistical significance of the method is also analyzed by means of the coefficient of determination (R2) and model efficiency (ME). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of HMNNRFM for estimating the complex kinetics of the biofilm process involved in the treatment of industry wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetics of biofilm formation by drinking water isolated Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Simões, Lúcia Chaves; Simões, Manuel; Lima, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge on drinking water (DW) biofilms has been obtained mainly from studies on bacterial biofilms. Very few reports on filamentous fungi (ff) biofilms are available, although they can contribute to the reduction in DW quality. This study aimed to assess the dynamics of biofilm formation by Penicillium expansum using microtiter plates under static conditions, mimicking water flow behaviour in stagnant regions of drinking water distribution systems. Biofilms were analysed in terms of biomass (crystal violet staining), metabolic activity (resazurin, fluorescein diacetate and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide [MTT]) and morphology (epifluorescence [calcofluor white M2R, FUN-1, FDA and acridine orange] and bright-field microscopies). Biofilm development over time showed the typical sigmoidal curve with noticeable different phases in biofilm formation (induction, exponential, stationary, and sloughing off). The methods used to assess metabolic activity provided similar results. The microscope analysis allowed identification of the involvement of conidia in initial adhesion (4 h), germlings (8 h), initial monolayers (12 h), a monolayer of intertwined hyphae (24 h), mycelial development, hyphal layering and bundling, and development of the mature biofilms (≥48 h). P. expansum grows as a complex, multicellular biofilm in 48 h. The metabolic activity and biomass of the fungal biofilms were shown to increase over time and a correlation between metabolism, biofilm mass and hyphal development was found.

  1. The potential for biofilm growth in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Hallam, N B; West, J R; Forster, C F; Simms, J

    2001-12-01

    Biofilms on pipe walls in water distribution systems are composed of bacteria in a polymeric matrix, which can lead to chlorine demand, coliform growth, pipe corrosion and water taste and odour problems. The majority of previous studies have been laboratory or pilot plant based and few results are available for field conditions. In this study, field observations of biofilm were made using biofilm potential monitors. The monitor results were compared with pipe samples taken from the distribution system and with laboratory pipe reactors. An empirical equation quantified the inhibitory effects of free chlorine and decrease of temperature on biofilm growth. With water having total organic carbon concentrations in the range 1.5-3.9mg/1 a free chlorine residual of 0.2 mg/l was needed to reduce biofilm concentration to below 50 pg ATP cm2. Pipe material influenced biofilm activity far less than chlorine with mean biofilm activity being ranked in the order glass (136 pg ATP/cm2) < cement (212 pg ATP/cm2) < MDPE (302 pg ATP/ cm2) < PVC (509 pg ATP/cm2).

  2. Kinetics of phosphorus release from a natural mixed grain-size sediment with associated algal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gainswin, B E; House, W A; Leadbeater, B S C; Armitage, P D

    2006-05-01

    Experiments using flumes containing mixed grain-size sediment with an associated algal biofilm, from two sites on the R. Tame, investigated the sediment-water exchanges in heterogeneous sediment deposits. These results were considered in the light of findings of a companion study [Gainswin BE, et al. The effects of sediment size fraction and associated algal biofilms on the kinetics of phosphorus release. Sci Total Environ, this issue.] by considering this natural system in relation to the effects of the different sizes of material comprising the sediment. Sediment samples were collected in trays installed in the river over a period of one growth cycle (March 2001-April 2002) and placed in flume channels with controlled water flow. The temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the solution overlying the sediment were monitored automatically whilst filtered samples were obtained at 2-0h intervals over 48 h. The biomass, expressed as chlorophyll a, of the algal component of the biofilm from the surface of the sediment was estimated using methanol extraction. The composition of the sediment, viz. size fractions, organic matter and porosity, were determined at the end of the experiments. The equilibrium phosphate concentration and a phosphorus transfer index were used to establish that a net uptake of phosphorus by some of the samples that occurred at the time of sampling. The results were modelled using a Diffusion Boundary Layer model and the maximum flux from the sediment (or limiting diffusion flux) compared for each of the samples. The limiting diffusion flux was highest at the most contaminated site--reaching approximately 180 nmol m(-2) s(-1) (normalised with respect to the river bed area). The limiting diffusion flux calculated for the composite samples was in agreement with the flux estimated from the contributions expected from the individual size fractions [Gainswin BE, et al. The effects of sediment size fraction and associated algal biofilms on the kinetics

  3. Probing phenotypic growth in expanding Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Koehler, Stephan A; Wilking, James N; Sinha, Naveen N; Cabeen, Matthew T; Srinivasan, Siddarth; Seminara, Agnese; Rubinstein, Shmuel; Sun, Qingping; Brenner, Michael P; Weitz, David A

    2016-05-01

    We develop an optical imaging technique for spatially and temporally tracking biofilm growth and the distribution of the main phenotypes of a Bacillus subtilis strain with a triple-fluorescent reporter for motility, matrix production, and sporulation. We develop a calibration procedure for determining the biofilm thickness from the transmission images, which is based on Beer-Lambert's law and involves cross-sectioning of biofilms. To obtain the phenotype distribution, we assume a linear relationship between the number of cells and their fluorescence and determine the best combination of calibration coefficients that matches the total number of cells for all three phenotypes and with the total number of cells from the transmission images. Based on this analysis, we resolve the composition of the biofilm in terms of motile, matrix-producing, sporulating cells and low-fluorescent materials which includes matrix and cells that are dead or have low fluorescent gene expression. We take advantage of the circular growth to make kymograph plots of all three phenotypes and the dominant phenotype in terms of radial distance and time. To visualize the nonlocal character of biofilm growth, we also make kymographs using the local colonization time. Our technique is suitable for real-time, noninvasive, quantitative studies of the growth and phenotype distribution of biofilms which are either exposed to different conditions such as biocides, nutrient depletion, dehydration, or waste accumulation.

  4. Influence of substrate micropatterning on biofilm growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Stephan; Li, Yiwei; Liu, Bi-Feng Liu; Weitz, David

    2015-11-01

    We culture triple reporter Bacillus Subtilis biofilm on micropatterned agar substrates. We track the biofilm development in terms of size, thickness, shape, and phenotype expression. For a tiling composed of elevated rectangles, we observe the biofilm develops an oval shape or triangular shape depending on the rectangle's aspect ratio and orientation. The motile cells are primarily located in the valleys between the rectangles and the matrix producing cells are mostly located on the rectangles. Wrinkles form at the edges of the elevated surfaces, and upon merging form channels centered on the elevated surface. After a few days, the spore-forming cells appear at the periphery. Since biofilms in nature grow on irregular surfaces, our work may provide insight into the complex patterns observed.

  5. Adherence and kinetics of biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis to different types of intraocular lenses under dynamic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Baillif, Stéphanie; Ecochard, René; Casoli, Emmanuelle; Freney, Jean; Burillon, Carole; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    To compare the adherence and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis under in vitro flow conditions on intraocular lenses (IOLs) made of 4 biomaterials: poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), silicone, hydrophilic acrylic, and hydrophobic acrylic. Department of Ophthalmology, Croix-Rousse University Hospital and University Research Laboratory, Lyon, France. Intraocular lenses were placed in a bioreactor designed to replicate intraocular conditions. The model consisted of Tygon tubing connected to a vial. Three septa allowed the entry and elimination of the artificial aqueous humor and inoculation of the bacterial suspension. The first of 2 pumps moved the aqueous humor along the circuit; the second pump regulated the flow at which the nutritive environment was regenerated. At various times (12, 16, 24, 40, 48, 60, and 72 hours), IOLs were taken from this environment and the bound bacteria were removed and counted. The distribution of bacterial adhesion on the IOLs was modeled using polynomial Poisson regression. To test the effect of the IOL biomaterial on bacterial adhesion, likelihood ratio tests were performed. The model provided the kinetics of S epidermidis biofilm growth on IOLs. The biofilm growth on each of the 4 biomaterials occurred in 3 phases: latent, dynamic or accelerated growth, and linear growth. The extent of bacterial binding to IOLs increased from hydrophilic acrylic polymer to PMMA, hydrophobic acrylic, and silicone. The differences were statistically significant. Bacterial adhesion to and biofilm development on the IOL surface depended on the characteristics of the biomaterial.

  6. Evaluation of Anaerobic Biofilm Reactor Kinetic Parameters Using Ant Colony Optimization.

    PubMed

    Satya, Eswari Jujjavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Chimmiri

    2013-09-01

    Fixed bed reactors with naturally attached biofilms are increasingly used for anaerobic treatment of industry wastewaters due their effective treatment performance. The complex nature of biological reactions in biofilm processes often poses difficulty in analyzing them experimentally, and mathematical models could be very useful for their design and analysis. However, effective application of biofilm reactor models to practical problems suffers due to the lack of knowledge of accurate kinetic models and uncertainty in model parameters. In this work, an inverse modeling approach based on ant colony optimization is proposed and applied to estimate the kinetic and film thickness model parameters of wastewater treatment process in an anaerobic fixed bed biofilm reactor. Experimental data of pharmaceutical industry wastewater treatment process are used to determine the model parameters as a consequence of the solution of the rigorous mathematical models of the process. Results were evaluated for different modeling configurations derived from the combination of mathematical models, kinetic expressions, and optimization algorithms. Analysis of results showed that the two-dimensional mathematical model with Haldane kinetics better represents the pharmaceutical wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactor. The mathematical and kinetic modeling of this work forms a useful basis for the design and optimization of industry wastewater treating biofilm reactors.

  7. Evaluation of Anaerobic Biofilm Reactor Kinetic Parameters Using Ant Colony Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Satya, Eswari Jujjavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Chimmiri

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fixed bed reactors with naturally attached biofilms are increasingly used for anaerobic treatment of industry wastewaters due their effective treatment performance. The complex nature of biological reactions in biofilm processes often poses difficulty in analyzing them experimentally, and mathematical models could be very useful for their design and analysis. However, effective application of biofilm reactor models to practical problems suffers due to the lack of knowledge of accurate kinetic models and uncertainty in model parameters. In this work, an inverse modeling approach based on ant colony optimization is proposed and applied to estimate the kinetic and film thickness model parameters of wastewater treatment process in an anaerobic fixed bed biofilm reactor. Experimental data of pharmaceutical industry wastewater treatment process are used to determine the model parameters as a consequence of the solution of the rigorous mathematical models of the process. Results were evaluated for different modeling configurations derived from the combination of mathematical models, kinetic expressions, and optimization algorithms. Analysis of results showed that the two-dimensional mathematical model with Haldane kinetics better represents the pharmaceutical wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactor. The mathematical and kinetic modeling of this work forms a useful basis for the design and optimization of industry wastewater treating biofilm reactors. PMID:24065871

  8. The effects of sediment size fraction and associated algal biofilms on the kinetics of phosphorus release.

    PubMed

    Gainswin, B E; House, W A; Leadbeater, B S C; Armitage, P D; Patten, J

    2006-05-01

    Experiments using flumes containing sediment of three different size fractions, from two sites on the River Tame, investigated the influences of sediment particle size, and an associated biofilm, on sediment-water exchanges in heterogeneous sediment deposits. This is the first study undertaken to understand the kinetics of the release of soluble reactive phosphorus from sediments of natural systems to identify which of the size compartments affected those fluxes most. Samples of fine material (<2 mm), gravel (2-20 mm), and stones (>20 mm) were collected over a period of several weeks and brought to a fluvarium where they were placed in artificial, controlled flow, and flume channels. Synthetic solutions of similar ionic strength to the river were prepared using calcium chloride. Temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the solution overlying the sediment were monitored automatically whilst filtered samples were obtained at 2 h intervals over 48 h. The biomass, expressed as mg m(-2) chlorophyll a, of the algal component of the biofilm from the surface of the sediment was estimated using methanol extraction. Differences in the responses were observed between the sediment size fractions and the two sites, where contaminant concentrations varied. The equilibrium phosphate concentration and a phosphorus transfer index were used to establish that there was a net uptake of phosphorus by all three sediment size fractions, from both sites, at the time of sampling. The kinetic results showed very fast initial reactions of phosphorus release from the larger size fractions with a well-developed filamentous algal growth present implying a different mechanism than diffusion being involved. The stones and associated biofilms also released more phosphorus than the fine fraction, e.g. final release concentrations for the most contaminated site were: fines approximately 2.5 microM, gravel approximately 6.5 microM, and stones approximately 65.0 microM (expressed as soluble reactive

  9. The BioFilm Ring Test: a Rapid Method for Routine Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Elodie; Badel-Berchoux, Stéphanie; Provot, Christian; Jaulhac, Benoît; Prévost, Gilles; Bernardi, Thierry; Jehl, François

    2016-03-01

    Currently, few techniques are available for the evaluation of bacterial biofilm adhesion. These detection tools generally require time for culture and/or arduous handling steps. In this work, the BioFilm Ring Test (BRT), a new technology, was used to estimate the biofilm formation kinetics of 25 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The principle of the new assay is based on the mobility measurement of magnetic microbeads mixed with a bacterial suspension in a polystyrene microplate. If free to move under the magnetic action, particles gather to a visible central spot in the well bottom. Therefore, the absence of spot formation in the plate reflects the bead immobilization by a biofilm in formation. The BRT device allowed us to classify the bacterial strains into three general adhesion profiles. Group 1 consists of bacteria, which are able to form a solid biofilm in <2 h. Group 2 comprises the strains that progressively set up a biofilm during 24 h. Lastly, group 3 includes the strains that stay in a planktonic form. The grouping of our strains did not differ according to culture conditions, i.e., the use of different sets of beads or culture media. The BRT is shown to be an informative tool for the characterization of biofilm-forming bacteria. Various application perspectives may be investigated for this device, such as the addition of antibiotics to the bacterial suspension to select which would have the ability to inhibit the biofilm formation. Copyright © 2016 Olivares et al.

  10. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni Biofilms under Defined Growth Conditions▿

    PubMed Central

    Reeser, Ryan J.; Medler, Robert T.; Billington, Stephen J.; Jost, B. Helen; Joens, Lynn A.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of human diarrheal disease in many industrialized countries and is a source of public health and economic burden. C. jejuni, present as normal flora in the intestinal tract of commercial broiler chickens and other livestock, is probably the main source of human infections. The presence of C. jejuni in biofilms found in animal production watering systems may play a role in the colonization of these animals. We have determined that C. jejuni can form biofilms on a variety of abiotic surfaces commonly used in watering systems, such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polyvinyl chloride plastics. Furthermore, C. jejuni biofilm formation was inhibited by growth in nutrient-rich media or high osmolarity, and thermophilic and microaerophilic conditions enhanced biofilm formation. Thus, nutritional and environmental conditions affect the formation of C. jejuni biofilms. Both flagella and quorum sensing appear to be required for maximal biofilm formation, as C. jejuni flaAB and luxS mutants were significantly reduced in their ability to form biofilms compared to the wild-type strain. PMID:17259368

  11. Inactivation kinetics of various chemical disinfectants on Aeromonas hydrophila planktonic cells and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Ha, Sang-Do

    2014-05-01

    The present article focuses on the inactivation kinetics of various disinfectants including ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and benzalkonium chloride against Aeromonas hydrophila biofilms and planktonic cells. Efficacy was determined by viable plate count and compared using a modified Weibull model. The removal of the biofilms matrix was determined by the crystal violet assay and was confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that all the experimental data and calculated Weibull α (scale) and β (shape) parameters had a good fit, as the R(2) values were between 0.88 and 0.99. Biofilms are more resistant to disinfectants than planktonic cells. Ethanol (70%) was the most effective in killing cells in the biofilms and significantly reduced (p<0.05) the biofilms matrix. The Weibull parameter b-value correlated (R(2)=0.6835) with the biofilms matrix removal. The present findings deduce that the Weibull model is suitable to determine biofilms matrix reduction as well as the effectiveness of chemical disinfectants on biofilms. The study showed that the Weibull model could successfully be used on food and food contact surfaces to determine the exact contact time for killing biofilms-forming foodborne pathogens.

  12. The effect of light direction and suspended cell concentrations on algal biofilm growth rates.

    PubMed

    Schnurr, Peter J; Espie, George S; Allen, D Grant

    2014-10-01

    Algae biofilms were grown in a semicontinuous flat plate biofilm photobioreactor to study the effects of light direction and suspended algal cell populations on algal biofilm growth. It was determined that, under the growth conditions and biofilm thicknesses studied, light direction had no effect on long-term algal biofilm growth (26 days); however, light direction did affect the concentration of suspended algal cells by influencing the photon flux density in the growth medium in the photobioreactors. This suspended algal cell population affected short-term (7 days) algae cell recruitment and algal biofilm growth, but additional studies showed that enhanced suspended algal cell populations did not affect biofilm growth rates over the long term (26 days). Studying profiles of light transmittance through biofilms as they grew showed that most of the light became attenuated by the biomass after just a few days of growth (88 % after 3 days). The estimated biofilm thicknesses after these few days of growth were approximately 150 μm. The light attenuation data suggests that, although the biofilms grew to 700-900 μm, under these light intensities, only the first few hundred micrometers of the biofilm is receiving enough light to be photosynthetically active. We postulate that this photosynthetically active layer of the biofilm grows adjacent to the light source, while the rest of the biofilm is in a stationary growth phase. The results of this study have implications for algal biofilm photobioreactor design and operation.

  13. Modeling of the Bacillus subtilis Bacterial Biofilm Growing on an Agar Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Mudong

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are organized communities composed of millions of microorganisms that accumulate on almost any kinds of surfaces. In this paper, a biofilm growth model on an agar substrate is developed based on mass conservation principles, Fick's first law, and Monod's kinetic reaction, by considering nutrient diffusion between biofilm and agar substrate. Our results show biofilm growth evolution characteristics such as biofilm thickness, active biomass, and nutrient concentration in the agar substrate. We quantitatively obtain biofilm growth dependence on different parameters. We provide an alternative mathematical method to describe other kinds of biofilm growth such as multiple bacterial species biofilm and also biofilm growth on various complex substrates. PMID:26355542

  14. Kinetics and morphology of polymicrobial biofilm formation on polypropylene mesh.

    PubMed

    Stoodley, Paul; Sidhu, Sandeep; Nistico, Laura; Mather, Megan; Boucek, Ashley; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Kathju, Sandeep

    2012-07-01

    We examined the ability of three clinical bacterial isolates to form mixed biofilms on surgical polypropylene mesh (PPM) in vitro. The three strains--Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae--were isolated from a patient with an infected PPM. Staphylococcus aureus and E. faecalis (alone and in combination) were inoculated into culture containing squares of PPM and allowed to attach and propagate into mature biofilms. Enterococcus faecalis initially attached to the mesh in greater numbers; however, 7 days postinoculation, there were more S. aureus cells attached, indicating that in vitro S. aureus is the out-competing species. All three isolates were then co-cultured to form mature biofilms on mesh, and the biofilms were examined by confocal microscopy using both Live/Dead staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Imaging revealed a dense biofilm structure with interstitial voids and channels; rods and cocci were interspersed throughout the biofilm, indicating bacterial coexistence in close proximity. FISH revealed staphylococci and enterococci adjacent to each other and also to the Enterobacter, distinguishable by its rod morphology. These studies show that different species can co-operatively form mature biofilms on mesh but that the relative abundance of a species within the biofilm may vary over time. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conditions for partial nitrification in biofilm reactors and a kinetic explanation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Julio; Costa, Engràcia; Kreft, Jan-Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    Nitrification is a two-step process in which ammonia is incompletely oxidized by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea (AOB) to nitrite, which is then further oxidized to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Literature reports show that segregation of initially coexisting ammonia and nitrite oxidizing populations co-immobilized in gel cubes and cultured in a set-up with three reactors in series (without recirculation) is attained. In those studies NOB were present and nitrite was oxidized mainly in the last reactor. We developed a mathematical model for immobilized biomass that allows for one-dimensional gradients of metabolites and changes of porosity within the gel due to growth. The model reproduced the experimentally observed compartmentalization under the conditions used by Noto et al. (Noto et al., 1998. Water Res 32(3): 769- 773), using standard kinetic parameters of nitrifying bacteria including free ammonia inhibition of AOB and NOB. The model predicted compartmentalization when the ammonium load was sufficiently high and liquid phase mixing sufficiently limited (close to plug-flow). Modeling results demonstrated that inhibition of NOB by free ammonia did not substantially contribute to the compartmentalization in biofilm reactors. Additional simulations identified the higher oxygen affinity of AOB as the key parameter leading to compartmentalization (i.e., partial nitrification) in artificial and natural biofilms since they enable the formation of oxygen gradients. As a result, a tendency for compartmentalization was found even at equal competitiveness. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Adhesion and removal kinetics of Bacillus cereus biofilms on Ni-PTFE modified stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kang; McLandsborough, Lynne A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm control remains a challenge to food safety. A well-studied non-fouling coating involves codeposition of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) during electroless plating. This coating has been reported to reduce foulant build-up during pasteurization, but opportunities remain in demonstrating its efficacy in inhibiting biofilm formation. Herein, the initial adhesion, biofilm formation, and removal kinetics of Bacillus cereus on Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel (SS) are characterized. Coatings lowered the surface energy of SS and reduced biofilm formation by > 2 log CFU cm(-2). Characterization of the kinetics of biofilm removal during cleaning demonstrated improved cleanability on the Ni-PTFE coated steel. There was no evidence of biofilm after cleaning by either solution on the Ni-PTFE coated steel, whereas more than 3 log and 1 log CFU cm(-2) of bacteria remained on the native steel after cleaning with water and an alkaline cleaner, respectively. This work demonstrates the potential application of Ni-PTFE non-fouling coatings on SS to improve food safety by reducing biofilm formation and improving the cleaning efficiency of food processing equipment.

  17. Mechanistic models of biofilm growth in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Priyank; Al-Hadrami, Fathiya; Atekwana, Estella A.; Atekwana, Eliot A.

    2014-07-01

    Nondestructive acoustics methods can be used to monitor in situ biofilm growth in porous media. In practice, however, acoustic methods remain underutilized due to the lack of models that can translate acoustic data into rock properties in the context of biofilm. In this paper we present mechanistic models of biofilm growth in porous media. The models are used to quantitatively interpret arrival times and amplitudes recorded in the 29 day long Davis et al. (2010) physical scale biostimulation experiment in terms of biofilm morphologies and saturation. The model pivots on addressing the sediment elastic behavior using the lower Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for grain mixing and Gassmann substitution for fluid saturation. The time-lapse P wave velocity (VP; a function of arrival times) is explained by a combination of two rock models (morphologies); "load bearing" which assumes the biofilm as an additional mineral in the rock matrix and "pore filling" which assumes the biofilm as an additional fluid phase in the pores. The time-lapse attenuation (QP-1; a function of amplitudes), on the other hand, can be explained adequately in two ways; first, through squirt flow where energy is lost from relative motion between rock matrix and pore fluid, and second, through an empirical function of porosity (φ), permeability (κ), and grain size. The squirt flow model-fitting results in higher internal φ (7% versus 5%) and more oblate pores (0.33 versus 0.67 aspect ratio) for the load-bearing morphology versus the pore-filling morphology. The empirical model-fitting results in up to 10% increase in κ at the initial stages of the load-bearing morphology. The two morphologies which exhibit distinct mechanical and hydraulic behavior could be a function of pore throat size. The biofilm mechanistic models developed in this study can be used for the interpretation of seismic data critical for the evaluation of biobarriers in bioremediation, microbial enhanced oil recovery, and CO2

  18. Kinetic parameter estimation in N. europaea biofilms using a 2-D reactive transport model.

    PubMed

    Lauchnor, Ellen G; Semprini, Lewis; Wood, Brian D

    2015-06-01

    Biofilms of the ammonia oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea were cultivated to study microbial processes associated with ammonia oxidation in pure culture. We explored the hypothesis that the kinetic parameters of ammonia oxidation in N. europaea biofilms were in the range of those determined with batch suspended cells. Oxygen and pH microelectrodes were used to measure dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH above and inside biofilms and reactive transport modeling was performed to simulate the measured DO and pH profiles. A two dimensional (2-D) model was used to simulate advection parallel to the biofilm surface and diffusion through the overlying fluid while reaction and diffusion were simulated in the biofilm. Three experimental studies of microsensor measurements were performed with biofilms: i) NH3 concentrations near the Ksn value of 40 μM determined in suspended cell tests ii) Limited buffering capacity which resulted in a pH gradient within the biofilms and iii) NH3 concentrations well below the Ksn value. Very good fits to the DO concentration profiles both in the fluid above and in the biofilms were achieved using the 2-D model. The modeling study revealed that the half-saturation coefficient for NH3 in N. europaea biofilms was close to the value measured in suspended cells. However, the third study of biofilms with low availability of NH3 deviated from the model prediction. The model also predicted shifts in the DO profiles and the gradient in pH that resulted for the case of limited buffering capacity. The results illustrate the importance of incorporating both key transport and chemical processes in a biofilm reactive transport model.

  19. Micropollutant removal by attached and suspended growth in a hybrid biofilm-activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Falås, P; Longrée, P; la Cour Jansen, J; Siegrist, H; Hollender, J; Joss, A

    2013-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants in a hybrid biofilm-activated sludge process was investigated through batch experiments, modeling, and full-scale measurements. Batch experiments with carriers and activated sludge from the same full-scale reactor were performed to assess the micropollutant removal rates of the carrier biofilm under oxic conditions and the sludge under oxic and anoxic conditions. Clear differences in the micropollutant removal kinetics of the attached and suspended growth were demonstrated, often with considerably higher removal rates for the biofilm compared to the sludge. For several micropollutants, the removal rates were also affected by the redox conditions, i.e. oxic and anoxic. Removal rates obtained from the batch experiments were used to model the micropollutant removal in the full-scale process. The results from the model and plant measurements showed that the removal efficiency of the process can be predicted with acceptable accuracy (± 25%) for most of the modeled micropollutants. Furthermore, the model estimations indicate that the attached growth in hybrid biofilm-activated sludge processes can contribute significantly to the removal of individual compounds, such as diclofenac. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Population dynamics and in situ kinetics of nitrifying bacteria in autotrophic nitrifying biofilms as determined by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Kindaichi, Tomonori; Kawano, Yoshiko; Ito, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2006-08-20

    Population dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and uncultured Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) dominated in autotrophic nitrifying biofilms were determined by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTQ-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Although two quantitative techniques gave the comparable results, the RTQ-PCR assay was easier and faster than the FISH technique for quantification of both nitrifying bacteria in dense microcolony-forming nitrifying biofilms. Using this RTQ-PCR assay, we could successfully determine the maximum specific growth rate (mu = 0.021/h) of uncultured Nitrospira-like NOB in the suspended enrichment culture. The population dynamics of nitrifying bacteria in the biofilm revealed that once they formed the biofilm, the both nitrifying bacteria grew slower than in planktonic cultures. We also calculated the spatial distributions of average specific growth rates of both nitrifying bacteria in the biofilm based on the concentration profiles of NH4+, NO2-, and O2, which were determined by microelectrodes, and the double-Monod model. This simple model estimation could explain the stratified spatial distribution of AOB and Nitrospira-like NOB in the biofilm. The combination of culture-independent molecular techniques and microelectrode measurements is a very powerful approach to analyze the in situ kinetics and ecophysiology of nitrifying bacteria including uncultured Nitrospira-like NOB in complex biofilm communities.

  1. Inverse modeling approach for evaluation of kinetic parameters of a biofilm reactor using tabu search.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B Shiva; Venkateswarlu, Ch

    2014-08-01

    The complex nature of biological reactions in biofilm reactors often poses difficulties in analyzing such reactors experimentally. Mathematical models could be very useful for their design and analysis. However, application of biofilm reactor models to practical problems proves somewhat ineffective due to the lack of knowledge of accurate kinetic models and uncertainty in model parameters. In this work, we propose an inverse modeling approach based on tabu search (TS) to estimate the parameters of kinetic and film thickness models. TS is used to estimate these parameters as a consequence of the validation of the mathematical models of the process with the aid of measured data obtained from an experimental fixed-bed anaerobic biofilm reactor involving the treatment of pharmaceutical industry wastewater. The results evaluated for different modeling configurations of varying degrees of complexity illustrate the effectiveness of TS for accurate estimation of kinetic and film thickness model parameters of the biofilm process. The results show that the two-dimensional mathematical model with Edward kinetics (with its optimum parameters as mu(max)rho(s)/Y = 24.57, Ks = 1.352 and Ki = 102.36) and three-parameter film thickness expression (with its estimated parameters as a = 0.289 x 10(-5), b = 1.55 x 10(-4) and c = 15.2 x 10(-6)) better describes the biofilm reactor treating the industry wastewater.

  2. Catalase Enhances Growth and Biofilm Production of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Warren L.; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes chronic respiratory disease in humans. Factors thought to be important for colonization include the ability of the mycoplasma to form a biofilm on epithelial surfaces and the production of hydrogen peroxide to damage host tissue. Almost all of the mycoplasmas, including M. pneumoniae, lack superoxide dismutase and catalase and a balance should exist between peroxide production and growth. We show here that the addition of catalase to cultures enhanced the formation of biofilms and altered the structure. The incorporation of catalase in agar increased the number of colony-forming units detected and hence could improve the clinical diagnosis of mycoplasmal diseases. PMID:25894997

  3. Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption of nano-TiO 2 particles on synthetic biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahle-Demessie, Endalkachew; Tadesse, Haregewine

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the environmental behavior of nanoparticles includes their interaction with biofilms, which is a covering on the surface of a living or nonliving substrate composed of microorganisms. This study focuses on nano-TiO2 sorption mechanism by synthetic biofilm that was prepared as superporous spherical beads from agarose, using batch stirred flasks kept at room temperature. The pH plays an important part in these phenomena, by its influence on the nanoparticles and biofilm chemistry, where the biofilm nanoTiO2 uptake at neutral pH was enhanced over acidic conditions. Hydroxylation of TiO2 nanoparticles, dependent on pH and the salinity of the solution, influences the stability of colloids, the sorption kinetics via the nature of limiting phases: diffusion through the boundary layer or intrabiofilm mass transfer and the sorption mechanism. The sorption follows pseudo first-order adsorption kinetics with estimated average rate constants of 2.2 (min- 1). Equilibrium isotherms were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to obtain the maximum uptake at different solution pH and the free energy of the adsorption. The adsorption is apparently irreversible because biofilm limits diffusion of particles out of the pores and the complexation active binding sites on the surface hydrated biofilm to the hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles.

  4. Effect of Growth Rate on Resistance of Candida albicans Biofilms to Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, George S.; Douglas, L. Julia

    1998-01-01

    A perfused biofilm fermentor, which allows growth-rate control of adherent microbial populations, was used to assess whether the susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents is dependent on growth rate. Biofilms were generated under conditions of glucose limitation and were perfused with drugs at a high concentration (20 times the MIC). Amphotericin B produced a greater reduction in the number of daughter cells in biofilm eluates than ketoconazole, fluconazole, or flucytosine. Similar decreases in daughter cell counts were observed when biofilms growing at three different rates were perfused with amphotericin B. In a separate series of experiments, intact biofilms, resuspended biofilm cells, and newly formed daughter cells were removed from the fermentor and were exposed to a lower concentration of amphotericin B for 1 h. The susceptibility profiles over a range of growth rates were then compared with those obtained for planktonic cells grown at the same rates under glucose limitation in a chemostat. Intact biofilms were resistant to amphotericin B at all growth rates tested, whereas planktonic cells were resistant only at low growth rates (≤0.13 h−1). Cells resuspended from biofilms were less resistant than intact biofilm populations but more resistant than daughter cells; the susceptibilities of both these cell types were largely independent of growth rate. Our findings indicate that the amphotericin B resistance of C. albicans biofilms is not simply due to a low growth rate but depends on some other feature of the biofilm mode of growth. PMID:9687381

  5. Growth dynamic of Naegleria fowleri in a microbial freshwater biofilm.

    PubMed

    Goudot, Sébastien; Herbelin, Pascaline; Mathieu, Laurence; Soreau, Sylvie; Banas, Sandrine; Jorand, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    The presence of pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) such as Naegleria fowleri in freshwater environments is a potential public health risk. Although its occurrence in various water sources has been well reported, its presence and associated factors in biofilm remain unknown. In this study, the density of N. fowleri in biofilms spontaneously growing on glass slides fed by raw freshwater were followed at 32 °C and 42 °C for 45 days. The biofilms were collected with their substrata and characterized for their structure, numbered for their bacterial density, thermophilic free-living amoebae, and pathogenic N. fowleri. The cell density of N. fowleri within the biofilms was significantly affected both by the temperature and the nutrient level (bacteria/amoeba ratio). At 32 °C, the density remained constantly low (1-10 N. fowleri/cm(2)) indicating that the amoebae were in a survival state, whereas at 42 °C the density reached 30-900 N. fowleri/cm(2) indicating an active growth phase. The nutrient level, as well, strongly affected the apparent specific growth rate (μ) of N. fowleri in the range of 0.03-0.23 h(-1). At 42 °C a hyperbolic relationship was found between μ and the bacteria/amoeba ratio. A ratio of 10(6) to 10(7) bacteria/amoeba was needed to approach the apparent μ(max) value (0.23 h(-1)). Data analysis also showed that a threshold for the nutrient level of close to 10(4) bacteria/amoeba is needed to detect the growth of N. fowleri in freshwater biofilm. This study emphasizes the important role of the temperature and bacteria as prey to promote not only the growth of N. fowleri, but also its survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of the growth rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, M; Komatsuzawa, H; Sugai, M; Suginaka, H; Usui, T

    1997-01-01

    The growth rate of biofilm cells of a leucine-requiring mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa HU1 was regulated by the leucine concentration in the chemically defined medium, and the effect of the growth rate of biofilm cells on the antimicrobial activities of the antimicrobial agents piperacillin (PIPC), imipenem (IPM) and ofloxacin (OFLX) were evaluated. PIPC showed little effect on the biofilm bacteria regardless of the leucine concentration in the medium. IPM showed weak bactericidal activity to biofilm cells; activity was greater in younger biofilm cells growing in high concentrations of leucine. On the other hand, OFLX revealed strong bactericidal activity to biofilm bacteria regardless of the growth rate. Our data suggest that the bactericidal action of antimicrobial agents to biofilm bacteria is different from that to planktonic bacteria. The bioassay using mutants with regulated growth is useful for the evaluation of the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against biofilm bacteria.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of a biofilm model describing mixed growth of nitrite oxidisers in a CSTR.

    PubMed

    Kornaros, M; Dokianakis, S N; Lyberatos, G

    2006-01-01

    A simple kinetic model has been developed for describing nitrite oxidation by autotrophic aerobic nitrifiers in a CSTR reactor, in which mixed (suspended and attached) growth conditions are prevailing. In this work, a critical dimensionless parameter is identified containing both biofilm characteristics and microbial kinetic parameters, as well as the specific (per volume) surface of the reactor configuration used. Evaluation of this dimensionless parameter can easily provide information on whether or not wall attachment is critical, and should be taken into account either in kinetic studies or in reactor design, when specific pollutants are to be removed from the waste influent stream. The effect of bulk dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the validity of this model is addressed and minimum non-limiting DO concentrations are proposed depending on the reactor configuration.

  8. Kinetics of phenol degradation in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Lee, Kwang K

    2006-06-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe phenol degradation in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm process. The model incorporates the mechanisms of diffusive mass transport and Monod kinetics. The model was solved using a combination of the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method. A pilot-scale column reactor was used to verify the model. Batch kinetic tests were conducted independently to determine the biokinetic parameters used in the model, while shear loss and initial thickness of biofilm were assumed so that the model simulated the substrate concentration results well. The removal efficiency for phenol was approximately 98.5% at a steady-state condition. The model accurately described the effluent substrate concentrations and the sequence of biodegradation in the reactor. The model simulations are in agreement with the experimental results. The approaches presented in this paper could be used to design fullscale anaerobic fixed-biofilm reactor systems for the biodegradation of phenolic substrates.

  9. Kinetics of phenol degradation in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm process

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.H.; Lee, K.K.

    2006-06-15

    A mathematical model was developed to describe phenol degradation in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm process. The model incorporates the mechanisms of diffusive mass transport and Monod kinetics. The model was solved using a combination of the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method. A pilot-scale column reactor was used to verify the model. Batch kinetic tests were conducted independently to determine the biokinetic parameters used in the model, while shear loss and initial thickness of biofilm were assumed so that the model simulated the substrate concentration results well. The removal efficiency for phenol was approximately 98.5% at a steady-state condition. The model accurately described the effluent substrate concentrations and the sequence of biodegradation in the reactor. The model simulations are in agreement with the experimental results. The approaches presented in this paper could be used to design full-scale anaerobic fixed-biofilm reactor systems for the biodegradation of phenolic substrates.

  10. Uncertainty in bulk-liquid hydrodynamics and biofilm dynamics creates uncertainties in biofilm reactor design.

    PubMed

    Boltz, J P; Daigger, G T

    2010-01-01

    While biofilm reactors may be classified as one of seven different types, the design of each is unified by fundamental biofilm principles. It follows that state-of-the art design of each biofilm reactor type is subject to the same uncertainties (although the degree of uncertainty may vary). This paper describes unifying biofilm principles and uncertainties of importance in biofilm reactor design. This approach to biofilm reactor design represents a shift from the historical approach which was based on empirical criteria and design formulations. The use of such design criteria was largely due to inherent uncertainty over reactor-scale hydrodynamics and biofilm dynamics, which correlate with biofilm thickness, structure and function. An understanding of two fundamental concepts is required to rationally design biofilm reactors: bioreactor hydrodynamics and biofilm dynamics (with particular emphasis on mass transfer resistances). Bulk-liquid hydrodynamics influences biofilm thickness control, surface area, and development. Biofilm dynamics influences biofilm thickness, structure and function. While the complex hydrodynamics of some biofilm reactors such as trickling filters and biological filters have prevented the widespread use of fundamental biofilm principles and mechanistic models in practice, reactors utilizing integrated fixed-film activated sludge or moving bed technology provide a bulk-liquid hydrodynamic environment allowing for their application. From a substrate transformation perspective, mass transfer in biofilm reactors defines the primary difference between suspended growth and biofilm systems: suspended growth systems are kinetically (i.e., biomass) limited and biofilm reactors are primarily diffusion (i.e., biofilm growth surface area) limited.

  11. Growth and dissolution kinetics of tetragonal lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaco, L. A.; Rosenberger, F.

    1993-01-01

    The growth and dissolution kinetics of lysozyme in a 25 ml solution bridge inside a closed growth cell was investigated. It was found that, under all growth conditions, the growth habit forming (110) and (101) faces grew through layer spreading with different growth rate dependence on supersaturation/temperature. On the other hand, (100) faces which formed only at low temperatures underwent a thermal roughening transition around 12 C.

  12. Growth and dissolution kinetics of tetragonal lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaco, L. A.; Rosenberger, F.

    1993-01-01

    The growth and dissolution kinetics of lysozyme in a 25 ml solution bridge inside a closed growth cell was investigated. It was found that, under all growth conditions, the growth habit forming (110) and (101) faces grew through layer spreading with different growth rate dependence on supersaturation/temperature. On the other hand, (100) faces which formed only at low temperatures underwent a thermal roughening transition around 12 C.

  13. Kinetics of particulate organic matter removal as a response to bioflocculation in aerobic biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Joshua P; La Motta, Enrique J

    2007-07-01

    Recent research has identified that the major fraction of chemical oxygen demand in domestic wastewaters is in particulate form. The research presented herein develops the kinetics of particle removal as a response to bioflocculation at the surface of aerobic biofilms. This study focuses on the removal of particles that are maintained in aqueous suspension after 30 minutes of gravity settling. It is helpful to consider the particulate organics removal process in biofilms as the sum of four steps, namely (1) external transport of the particles to the biofilm surface, (2) bioflocculation, (3) organic particulate hydrolysis, and (4) diffusion and reaction of the solubilized organics by the bacterial cells comprising the biofilm. Organic (native corn starch) and inorganic particle (Min-U-Sil 10 [U.S. Silica Company, Berkeley Springs, West Virginia]) suspensions, with micronutrients, were continuously fed to a rotating disc biofilm reactor to verify a first-order kinetic expression that has been used to describe bioflocculation and to demonstrate that bioflocculation is the primary particle removal mechanism. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted and quantified to describe the role they play in the bioflocculation process.

  14. Characterization of biofilm growth and biocide susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium phlei using the MBEC assay system.

    PubMed

    Bardouniotis, E; Huddleston, W; Ceri, H; Olson, M E

    2001-09-25

    The importance of non-tuberculosis mycobacterial biofilm species in medicine, industry and the environment has recently gained attention. Our objectives were to characterize biofilm growth of Mycobacterium phlei M4, as a model of rapidly growing mycobacteria using the minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and to compare biocide susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm organisms. Scanning electron microscopy was also carried out to observe biofilm morphology. With the exception of Sporicidin and Virkon the minimum bactericidal concentration values for all biocides tested were lower than the MBEC values. The MBEC assay system was seen to produce multiple and reproducible biofilms of M. phlei and to be a useful tool for susceptibility studies.

  15. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilms: Carbon and energy flow contribute to the distinct biofilm growth state

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) that is intensively studied in the context of metal corrosion and heavy-metal bioremediation, and SRB populations are commonly observed in pipe and subsurface environments as surface-associated populations. In order to elucidate physiological changes associated with biofilm growth at both the transcript and protein level, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were done on mature biofilm cells and compared to both batch and reactor planktonic populations. The biofilms were cultivated with lactate and sulfate in a continuously fed biofilm reactor, and compared to both batch and reactor planktonic populations. Results The functional genomic analysis demonstrated that biofilm cells were different compared to planktonic cells, and the majority of altered abundances for genes and proteins were annotated as hypothetical (unknown function), energy conservation, amino acid metabolism, and signal transduction. Genes and proteins that showed similar trends in detected levels were particularly involved in energy conservation such as increases in an annotated ech hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and rnf oxidoreductase, and the biofilm cells had elevated formate dehydrogenase activity. Several other hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases also showed an increased protein level, while decreased transcript and protein levels were observed for putative coo hydrogenase as well as a lactate permease and hyp hydrogenases for biofilm cells. Genes annotated for amino acid synthesis and nitrogen utilization were also predominant changers within the biofilm state. Ribosomal transcripts and proteins were notably decreased within the biofilm cells compared to exponential-phase cells but were not as low as levels observed in planktonic, stationary-phase cells. Several putative, extracellular proteins (DVU1012, 1545) were also detected in the extracellular fraction from

  16. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilms: carbon and energy flow contribute to the distinct biofilm growth state.

    PubMed

    Clark, Melinda E; He, Zhili; Redding, Alyssa M; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Keasling, Jay D; Zhou, Jizhong Z; Arkin, Adam P; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Fields, Matthew W

    2012-04-16

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) that is intensively studied in the context of metal corrosion and heavy-metal bioremediation, and SRB populations are commonly observed in pipe and subsurface environments as surface-associated populations. In order to elucidate physiological changes associated with biofilm growth at both the transcript and protein level, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were done on mature biofilm cells and compared to both batch and reactor planktonic populations. The biofilms were cultivated with lactate and sulfate in a continuously fed biofilm reactor, and compared to both batch and reactor planktonic populations. The functional genomic analysis demonstrated that biofilm cells were different compared to planktonic cells, and the majority of altered abundances for genes and proteins were annotated as hypothetical (unknown function), energy conservation, amino acid metabolism, and signal transduction. Genes and proteins that showed similar trends in detected levels were particularly involved in energy conservation such as increases in an annotated ech hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and rnf oxidoreductase, and the biofilm cells had elevated formate dehydrogenase activity. Several other hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases also showed an increased protein level, while decreased transcript and protein levels were observed for putative coo hydrogenase as well as a lactate permease and hyp hydrogenases for biofilm cells. Genes annotated for amino acid synthesis and nitrogen utilization were also predominant changers within the biofilm state. Ribosomal transcripts and proteins were notably decreased within the biofilm cells compared to exponential-phase cells but were not as low as levels observed in planktonic, stationary-phase cells. Several putative, extracellular proteins (DVU1012, 1545) were also detected in the extracellular fraction from biofilm cells

  17. Effects of ambroxol on Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Rene, Hernandez-Delgadillo; José, Martínez-Sanmiguel Juan; Isela, Sánchez-Nájera Rosa; Claudio, Cabral-Romero

    2014-04-01

    Typically, the onset of candidiasis is characterised by the appearance of a biofilm of Candida albicans, which is associated with several diseases including oral candidiasis in young and elderly people. The objective of this work was to investigate the in vitro fungicidal activity as well as the antibiofilm activity of ambroxol (AMB) against C. albicans growth. In the present investigation, the fungicidal activity of AMB was established using the cell viability 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Also the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMB required to inhibit the fungal growth was determined. Simultaneously, the antibiofilm activity of AMB was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. The study revealed that 2 mg ml(-1) of AMB exhibited higher fungicidal activity than 3.3 mg ml(-1) of terbinafine, one of most common commercial antifungals. A MIC of 1 mg ml(-1) was determined for AMB to interfere with C. albicans growth. Furthermore, AMB was found to be effective in inhibiting the biofilm formation of C. albicans and exerted its fungicidal activity against the fungal cells interspersed in the preformed biofilm. The study suggests a potential role of the mucolytic agent, AMB, as an interesting therapeutic alternative in the treatment of oral candidiasis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Impact of initial biofilm growth on the anode impedance of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Ramaraja P; Ren, Zhiyong; Mench, Matthew M; Regan, John M

    2008-09-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the behavior of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) during initial biofilm growth in an acetate-fed, two-chamber MFC system with ferricyanide in the cathode. EIS experiments were performed both on the full cell (between cathode and anode) as well as on individual electrodes. The Nyquist plots of the EIS data were fitted with an equivalent electrical circuit to estimate the contributions of various intrinsic resistances to the overall internal MFC impedance. During initial development of the anode biofilm, the anode polarization resistance was found to decrease by over 70% at open circuit and by over 45% at 27 microA/cm(2), and a simultaneous increase in power density by about 120% was observed. The exchange current density for the bio-electrochemical reaction on the anode was estimated to be in the range of 40-60 nA/cm(2) for an immature biofilm after 5 days of closed circuit operation, which increased to around 182 nA/cm(2) after more than 3 weeks of operation and stable performance in an identical parallel system. The polarization resistance of the anode was 30-40 times higher than that of the ferricyanide cathode for the conditions tested, even with an established biofilm. For a two-chamber MFC system with a Nafion 117 membrane and an inter-electrode spacing of 15 cm, the membrane and electrolyte solution dominate the ohmic resistance and contribute to over 95% of the MFC internal impedance. Detailed EIS analyses provide new insights into the dominant kinetic resistance of the anode bio-electrochemical reaction and its influence on the overall power output of the MFC system, even in the high internal resistance system used in this study. These results suggest that new strategies to address this kinetic constraint of the anode bio-electrochemical reactions are needed to complement the reduction of ohmic resistance in modern designs.

  19. Spatial & Temporal Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Werkema, D. D.; Haugen, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies have examined the effect of biogenic gases and biomineralization on the acoustic properties of porous media. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal effect of microbial growth and biofilm formation on compressional waves and complex conductivity in sand columns. A control column (non-biostimulated) and a biostimulated column were studied in a 2D acoustic scanning apparatus, and a second set of columns were constructed with Ag-AgCl electrodes for complex conductivity measurements. At the completion of the 29-day experiment, compressional wave amplitudes and arrival times for the control column were observed to be relatively uniform over the scanned 2D region. However, the biostimulated sample exhibited a high degree of spatial variability within the column for both the amplitude and arrival times. Furthermore, portions of the sample exhibited increased attenuation (~ 80%) concurrent with an increase in the arrival times, while other portions exhibited decreased attenuation (~ 45%) and decreased arrival time. The acoustic amplitude and arrival times changed significantly in the biostimulated column between Days 5 and 7 of the experiment and are consistent with a peak in the imaginary conductivity (σ”) values. The σ” response corresponds to different stages of biofilm development. That is, we interpret the peak σ” with the maximum biofilm thickness and decreasing σ” due to cell death or detachment. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) imaging confirmed microbial cell attachment to sand surfaces in the biostimulated columns, showed apparent differences in the morphology of attached biomass between regions of increased and decreased attenuation, and indicated no mineral precipitation or biomineralization. The heterogeneity in the elastic properties arises from the differences in the morphology and structure of attached biofilms. These results suggest that combining acoustic imaging and complex conductivity techniques

  20. Removal of easily biodegradable organic compounds by drinking water biofilms: analysis of kinetics and mass transfer.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, G A; Huck, P M

    2001-07-01

    This paper evaluates the rate of utilization of easily biodegradable organic compounds by drinking water biofilms. Tap water, which had been filtered through biologically active granular activated carbon, was used as an innoculum for biofilm growth in annular reactors (ARs). Synthetic cocktails of easily biodegradable material in the concentration range of 50-2,000 mgC/m3 were used as substrate for biofilm growth. Influent and effluent aggregate concentrations of biodegradable organic matter (BOM) were calculated by adding the measurable BOM components on a mass carbon basis. The aggregate BOM values were used for calculating the observed Damköhler number and Theile modulus (based on a reaction rate per unit surface area), which were used to determine whether external or internal mass transfer limited BOM removal. For all of the experimental trials, it was shown that neither external nor internal mass transfer limited BOM removal. Because the biofilms in this research are thin and the fact that mass transfer is not limiting, it was assumed that the bulk BOM concentration was approximately equal to the average BOM concentration in the biofilm. A linear model was obtained for the aggregate BOM flux and the product of the effluent BOM concentration and the biofilm density. The slope or the areal biodegradation rate (ka) for the aggregate BOM was 0.033 m/h, as determined through a linear regression.

  1. Nonlinear Dynamics of Biofilm Growth on Sediment Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molz, F. J.; Murdoch, L. C.; Faybishenko, B.

    2013-12-01

    Bioclogging often begins with the establishment of small colonies (microcolonies), which then form biofilms on the surfaces of a porous medium. These biofilm-porous media surfaces are not simple coatings of single microbes, but complex assemblages of cooperative and competing microbes, interacting with their chemical environment. This leads one to ask: what are the underlying dynamics involved with biofilm growth? To begin answering this question, we have extended the work of Kot et al. (1992, Bull. Mathematical Bio.) from a fully mixed chemostat to an idealized, one-dimensional, biofilm environment, taking into account a simple predator-prey microbial competition, with the prey feeding on a specified food source. With a variable (periodic) food source, Kot et al. (1992) were able to demonstrate chaotic dynamics in the coupled substrate-prey-predator system. Initially, deterministic chaos was thought by many to be mainly a mathematical phenomenon. However, several recent publications (e.g., Becks et al, 2005, Nature Letters; Graham et al. 2007, Int. Soc Microb. Eco. J.; Beninca et al., 2008, Nature Letters; Saleh, 2011, IJBAS) have brought together, using experimental studies and relevant mathematics, a breakthrough discovery that deterministic chaos is present in relatively simple biochemical systems. Two of us (Faybishenko and Molz, 2013, Procedia Environ. Sci)) have numerically analyzed a mathematical model of rhizosphere dynamics (Kravchenko et al., 2004, Microbiology) and detected patterns of nonlinear dynamical interactions supporting evidence of synchronized synergetic oscillations of microbial populations, carbon and oxygen concentrations driven by root exudation into a fully mixed system. In this study, we have extended the application of the Kot et al. model to investigate a spatially-dependent biofilm system. We will present the results of numerical simulations obtained using COMSOL Multi-Physics software, which we used to determine the nature of the

  2. Monitoring of biofilm growth in marine sediment by metal electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiani, P.; Guandalini, R.; Del Negro, P.; Cataletto, B.

    2009-04-01

    Electrochemical monitoring of biofilm growing in marine sediments is evaluating in laboratory experiments, still in progress. The interesting preliminary results obtained during six month experiments are presented in this paper. A concept of electrochemically active bacteria has recently pointed out by several studies, showing that bacteria forming biofilms on conductive materials can achieve a direct electrochemical connection with the substrate using it as electron exchanger, also without the aid of additional mediators [1]. The electric current generated by bacteria is more than enough as signal for bio-sensors. Thanks to the developing of bio-sensors based on electrochemical probes and able to monitoring the biofilm growth on metal surfaces, this "bio-electricity" has been already exploited with success for the biofilm monitoring in industrial equipment exposed to natural waters [2]. The same, very simple, electrochemical biofilm probes, in which electrical signal is proportional to biofilm growth, already successfully used for aerobic environments, have been here tested in the anaerobic environment of marine sediments. A laboratory microcosm has been prepared by filling a large polycarbonate cylinder about one-third full with organic-rich coastal marine sediment collected in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea). The sediment was packed tightly in the container to avoid entrapping air and then covered with O2 depleted seawater. Three identical electrochemical sensors were buried in the sediment of microcosm. The cylinder was placed in the dark under controlled temperature and anaerobic conditions. During the six months of monitoring, bacterial communities developing at the water-sediment interface were periodically sampled by inserting a long thin pipette into the column and removing some coloured mud or water. The microrganisms were used to inoculate enriched media and to extract bulk DNA. The results pointed out the possibility of set up simple device

  3. Biofilms of vaginal Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1324 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1332: kinetics of formation and matrix characterization.

    PubMed

    Leccese Terraf, María Cecilia; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; Rault, Lucie; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion and biofilm formation are strain properties that reportedly contribute to the permanence of lactobacilli in the human vagina. The kinetics of biofilm formation and the chemical nature of the biofilm matrix formed by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos Culture Collection) 1324 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1332, vaginal beneficial strains, were evaluated in this work. Crystal violet-stained microplate assay and techniques of epifluorescence, electron and confocal microscopy were applied. The highest density and complexity of biofilms of both vaginal lactobacilli were observed at 72 h of incubation. Protease, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin treatments efficiently detached L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm that was also partially affected by α-amylase. However, L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 biofilm was slightly affected by protease, proteinase K and α-amylase. Confocal microscopy revealed greater amount of polysaccharides in L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 biofilm matrix than in L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm matrix. The results indicate that proteins are one of the main components of the L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm, while the biofilm matrix of L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 is composed of carbohydrates and proteins. The results obtained support the knowledge, understanding and characterization of two biofilm-forming vaginal Lactobacillus strains.

  4. Analysis of uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilm formation under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Adamus-Białek, Wioletta; Kubiak, Anna; Czerwonka, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form different types of biofilm enables bacteria to survive in a harsh or toxic environment. Different structures of biofilms are related to different surfaces and environment of bacterial growth. The aim of this study was analysis of the biofilm formation of 115 clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains under different growth conditions: surface for biofilm formation, medium composition and time of incubation. The biofilm formation after 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h was determined spectrophotometrically (A531) after crystal violet staining and it was correlated with bacterial growth (A600). The live and dead cells in biofilm structures was also observed on the glass surface by an epi-fluorescence microscope. Additionally, the presence of rpoS, sdiA and rscA genes was analyzed. The statistical significance was estimated by paired T-test. The observed biofilms were different for each particular strain. The biofilm formation was the highest in the rich medium (LB) after 24 h and its level hasn't changed in time. When biofilm level was compared to bacterial growth (relative biofilm) - it was higher in a minimal medium in comparison to enriched medium. These results suggest that most of the bacterial cells prefer to live in a biofilm community under the difficult environmental conditions. Moreover, biofilm formation on polyurethane surface did not correlate with biofilm formation on glass. It suggests that mechanisms of biofilm formation can be correlated with other bacterial properties. This phenomenon may explain different types of biofilm formation among one species and even one pathotype - uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

  5. Kinetics of microbial growth on pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed Central

    Klecka, G M; Maier, W J

    1985-01-01

    Batch and fed-batch experiments were conducted to examine the kinetics of pentachlorophenol utilization by an enrichment culture of pentachlorophenol-degrading bacteria. The Haldane modification of the Monod equation was found to describe the relationship between the specific growth rate and substrate concentration. Analysis of the kinetic parameters indicated that the maximum specific growth rate and yield coefficients are low, with values of 0.074 h-1 and 0.136 g/g, respectively. The Monod constant (Ks) was estimated to be 60 micrograms/liter, indicating a high affinity of the microorganisms for the substrate. However, high concentrations (KI = 1,375 micrograms/liter) were shown to be inhibitory for metabolism and growth. These kinetic parameters can be used to define the optimal conditions for the removal of pentachlorophenol in biological treatment systems. PMID:3977315

  6. Structure, viability and bacterial kinetics of an in vitro biofilm model using six bacteria from the subgingival microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M C; Llama-Palacios, A; Blanc, V; León, R; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

    2011-04-01

    There are few in vitro models available in the scientific literature for study of the structure, formation and development of the subgingival biofilm. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an in vitro biofilm model, using representative selected bacteria from the subgingival microbiota. Six standard reference strains were used to develop biofilms over sterile ceramic calcium hydroxyapatite discs coated with saliva within the wells of presterilized polystyrene tissue culture plates. The selected species represent initial (Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces naeslundii), early (Veillonella parvula), secondary (Fusobacterium nucleatum) and late colonizers (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans). The structure of the biofilm obtained was studied using a vital fluorescence technique in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biofilm bacterial kinetics were studied by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. After 12 h, initial and early colonizers were the first microorganisms detected adhering to the calcium hydroxyapatite discs. The intermediate colonizer F. nucleatum was not detected in the model until 24 h of incubation. Late colonizers A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis could be measured inside the biofilm after 48 h. The biofilm reached its steady state between 72 and 96 h after inoculation, with bacterial vitality increasing from the hydroxyapatite surface to the central part of the biofilm. An in vitro biofilm model was developed and validated, demonstrating a pattern of bacterial colonization and maturation similar to the in vivo development of the subgingival biofilm. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Kinetics of nitrification in a fixed biofilm reactor using dewatered sludge-fly ash composite ceramic particle as a supporting medium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mong-Chuan; Lin, Yen-Hui; Yu, Huang-Wei

    2014-11-01

    A mathematical model system was derived to describe the kinetics of ammonium nitrification in a fixed biofilm reactor using dewatered sludge-fly ash composite ceramic particle as a supporting medium. The model incorporates diffusive mass transport and Monod kinetics. The model was solved using a combination of the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method. A batch test was conducted to observe the nitrification of ammonium-nitrogen ([Formula: see text]-N) and the growth of nitrifying biomass. The compositions of nitrifying bacterial community in the batch kinetic test were analyzed using PCR-DGGE method. The experimental results show that the most staining intensity abundance of bands occurred on day 2.75 with the highest biomass concentration of 46.5 mg/L. Chemostat kinetic tests were performed independently to evaluate the biokinetic parameters used in the model prediction. In the column test, the removal efficiency of [Formula: see text]-N was approximately 96 % while the concentration of suspended nitrifying biomass was approximately 16 mg VSS/L and model-predicted biofilm thickness reached up to 0.21 cm in the steady state. The profiles of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of different microbial communities demonstrated that indigenous nitrifying bacteria (Nitrospira and Nitrobacter) existed and were the dominant species in the fixed biofilm process.

  8. Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Callow, J A; Callow, M E

    2006-01-01

    Biofilms of bacteria, frequently in association with algae, protozoa and fungi, are found on all submerged structures in the marine environment. Although it is likely that for the majority of organisms a biofilmed surface is not a pre-requisite for settlement, in practice, colonization by spores and larvae of fouling organisms almost always takes place via a biofilmed surface. Therefore, the properties of the latter may be expected to influence colonization, positively or negatively. Biofilms are responsible for a range of surface-associated and diffusible signals, which may moderate the settling behaviour of cells, spores and larvae. However, there is no consensus view regarding either cause and effect or the mechanism(s) by which biofilms moderate settlement. Studies with mixed biofilms, especially field experiments, are difficult to interpret because of the conflicting signals produced by different members of the biofilm community as well as their spatial organisation. Molecular techniques highlight the deficiencies of culture methods in identifying biofilm bacteria; hence, the strains with the most impact on settlement of spores and larvae may not yet have been isolated and cultured. Furthermore, secondary products isolated from cultured organisms may not reflect the situation that pertains in nature. The evidence that bacterial quorum sensing signal molecules stimulate settlement of spores of the green macroalga, Ulva, is discussed in some detail. New molecular and analytical tools should provide the opportunity to improve our fundamental understanding of the interactions between fouling organisms and biofilms, which in turn may inform novel strategies to control biofouling.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa facilitates Campylobacter jejuni growth in biofilms under oxic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Culotti, Alessandro; Packman, Aaron I

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the growth of Campylobacter jejuni in biofilms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa under oxic flow conditions. We observed the growth of C. jejuni in mono-culture, deposited on pre-established P. aeruginosa biofilms, and co-inoculated with P. aeruginosa. In mono-culture, C. jejuni was unable to form biofilms. However, deposited C. jejuni continuously grew on pre-established P. aeruginosa biofilms for a period of 3 days. The growth of scattered C. jejuni clusters was strictly limited to the P. aeruginosa biofilm surface, and no intergrowth was observed. Co-culturing of C. jejuni and P. aeruginosa also enabled the growth of both organisms in biofilms, with C. jejuni clusters developing on the surface of the P. aeruginosa biofilm. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements in the medium showed that P. aeruginosa biofilms depleted the effluent DO from 9.0 to 0.5 mg L(-1) 24 hours after inoculation. The localized microaerophilic environment generated by P. aeruginosa promoted the persistence and growth of C. jejuni. Our findings show that P. aeruginosa not only prolongs the survival of C. jejuni under oxic conditions, but also enables the growth of C. jejuni on the surface of P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae biofilm tolerance towards systemic antifungals depends on growth phase.

    PubMed

    Bojsen, Rasmus; Regenberg, Birgitte; Folkesson, Anders

    2014-12-04

    Biofilm-forming Candida species cause infections that can be difficult to eradicate, possibly because of antifungal drug tolerance mechanisms specific to biofilms. In spite of decades of research, the connection between biofilm and drug tolerance is not fully understood. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model for drug susceptibility of yeast biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata form similarly structured biofilms and that the viable cell numbers were significantly reduced by treatment of mature biofilms with amphotericin B but not voriconazole, flucytosine, or caspofungin. We showed that metabolic activity in yeast biofilm cells decreased with time, as visualized by FUN-1 staining, and mature, 48-hour biofilms contained cells with slow metabolism and limited growth. Time-kill studies showed that in exponentially growing planktonic cells, voriconazole had limited antifungal activity, flucytosine was fungistatic, caspofungin and amphotericin B were fungicidal. In growth-arrested cells, only amphotericin B had antifungal activity. Confocal microscopy and colony count viability assays revealed that the response of growing biofilms to antifungal drugs was similar to the response of exponentially growing planktonic cells. The response in mature biofilm was similar to that of non-growing planktonic cells. These results confirmed the importance of growth phase on drug efficacy. We showed that in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs was independent of biofilm or planktonic growth mode. Instead, drug tolerance was a consequence of growth arrest achievable by both planktonic and biofilm populations. Our results suggest that efficient strategies for treatment of yeast biofilm might be developed by targeting of non-dividing cells.

  11. Segmented flow is controlling growth of catalytic biofilms in continuous multiphase microreactors.

    PubMed

    Karande, Rohan; Halan, Babu; Schmid, Andreas; Buehler, Katja

    2014-09-01

    Biofilm reactors are often mass transfer limited due to excessive biofilm growth, impeding reactor performance. Fluidic conditions play a key role for biofilm structural development and subsequently for overall reactor performance. Continuous interfacial forces generated by aqueous-air segmented flow are controlling biofilm structure and diminish mass transfer limitations in biofilm microreactors. A simple three step method allows the formation of robust biofilms under aqueous-air segmented flow conditions: a first-generation biofilm is developing during single phase flow, followed by the introduction of air segments discarding most of the established biofilm. Finally, a second-generation, mature biofilm is formed in the presence of aqueous-air segments. Confocal laser scanning microscopy experiments revealed that the segmented flow supports the development of a robust biofilm. This mature biofilm is characterized by a three to fourfold increase in growth rate, calculated from an increase in thickness, a faster spatial distribution (95% surface coverage in 24 h), and a significantly more compact structure (roughness coefficient <1), as compared to biofilms grown under single phase flow conditions. The applicability of the concept in a segmented flow biofilm microreactor was demonstrated using the epoxidation of styrene to (S)-styrene oxide (ee > 99.8%) catalyzed by Pseudomonas sp. strain VLB120ΔC cells in the mono-species biofilm. The limiting factor affecting reactor performance was oxygen transfer as the volumetric productivity rose from 11 to 46 g L tube (-1) day(-1) after increasing the air flow rate. In summary, different interfacial forces can be applied for separating cell attachment and adaptation resulting in the development of a robust catalytic biofilm in continuous microreactors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Polyphosphate-mediated modulation of Campylobacter jejuni biofilm growth and stability.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Mary; Chandrashekhar, Kshipra; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2014-08-15

    Biofilms increase C. jejuni's resilience to detergents, antibiotics, and environmental stressors. In these investigations, we studied the modulation of biofilm in response to phosphate related stressors. We found that the deletion of ppk1, phoX, and ppk2 (polyphosphate associated [poly P] genes) in C. jejuni modulated different stages of biofilm formation such as attached microcolonies, air-liquid biofilms, and biofilm shedding. Additionally, inorganic phosphate also modulated attached microcolonies, air-liquid biofilms, and biofilm shedding both independently of and additively in the poly P associated mutants. Furthermore, we observed that these different biofilm stages were affected by biofilm age: for example, the adherent microcolonies were maximum on day 2, while biofilm growth at the air-liquid interface and shedding was highest on day 3. Also, we observed altered calcofluor white reactive polysaccharides in poly P-associated mutants, as well as increased secretion of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum sensing molecules in the ∆ppk2 mutant. Further, the polysaccharide and flagellar biosynthesis genes, that are associated with biofilm formation, were altered in these poly P-associated mutants. We conclude that the phosphate limiting condition modulates C. jejuni biofilm formation.

  13. Cell growth and protein expression of Shewanella oneidensis in biofilms and hydrogel-entrapped cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingdan; Ng, Chun Kiat; Cohen, Yehuda; Cao, Bin

    2014-05-01

    The performance of biofilm-based bioprocesses is difficult to predict and control because of the intrinsic heterogeneous and dynamic properties of microbial biofilms. Biofilm mimics, such as microbial cells entrapped in polymeric scaffolds that are permeable for nutrients, have been proposed to replace real biofilms to achieve long-term robust performance in engineering applications. However, the physiological differences between cells that are physically entrapped in a synthetic polymeric matrix and biofilm cells that are encased in a self-produced polymeric matrix remain unknown. In this study, using Shewanella oneidensis as a model organism and alginate hydrogel as a model synthetic matrix, we compared the cell growth and protein expression in entrapped cultures and biofilms. The hydrogel-entrapped cultures were found to exhibit a growth rate comparable with biofilms. There was no substantial difference in cell viability, surface charge, as well as hydrophobicity between the cells grown in alginate hydrogel and those grown in biofilms. However, the gel-entrapped cultures were found to be physiologically different from biofilms. The gel-entrapped cultures had a higher demand for metabolic energy. The siderophore-mediated iron uptake was repressed in the gel-entrapped cells. The presence of the hydrogel matrix decreased the expression of proteins involved in biofilm formation, while inducing the production of extracellular DNA (eDNA) in the gel-entrapped cultures. These results advance the fundamental understanding of the physiology of hydrogel-entrapped cells, which can lead to more efficient biofilm mimic-based applications.

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon enhanced growth, nutrient uptake, and lipid accumulation in wastewater grown microalgal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kesaano, Maureen; Gardner, Robert D; Moll, Karen; Lauchnor, Ellen; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M; Sims, Ronald C

    2015-03-01

    Microalgal biofilms grown to evaluate potential nutrient removal options for wastewaters and feedstock for biofuels production were studied to determine the influence of bicarbonate amendment on their growth, nutrient uptake capacity, and lipid accumulation after nitrogen starvation. No significant differences in growth rates, nutrient removal, or lipid accumulation were observed in the algal biofilms with or without bicarbonate amendment. The biofilms possibly did not experience carbon-limited conditions because of the large reservoir of dissolved inorganic carbon in the medium. However, an increase in photosynthetic rates was observed in algal biofilms amended with bicarbonate. The influence of bicarbonate on photosynthetic and respiration rates was especially noticeable in biofilms that experienced nitrogen stress. Medium nitrogen depletion was not a suitable stimulant for lipid production in the algal biofilms and as such, focus should be directed toward optimizing growth and biomass productivities to compensate for the low lipid yields and increase nutrient uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transport and Growth Kinetics in Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otalora, F.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Carotenuto, L.; Castagnolo, D.; Novella, M. L.; Chernov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic coupling between mass transport and incorporation of growth units into the surface of a crystal growing from solution in microgravity is used to derive quantitative information on the crystal growth kinetics. To this end, new procedures for experiment preparation, interferometric data processing and model fitting have been developed. The use of experimental data from the bulk diffusive maw transport together with a model for steady state stagnant crystal growth allows the detailed quantitative understanding of the kinetics of both the concentration depletion zone around the crystal and the growth of the crystal interface. The protein crystal used in the experiment is shown to be growing in the mixed kinetic regime (0.2 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second less than beta R/D less than 0.9 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second).

  16. Transport and Growth Kinetics in Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otalora, F.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Carotenuto, L.; Castagnolo, D.; Novella, M. L.; Chernov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic coupling between mass transport and incorporation of growth units into the surface of a crystal growing from solution in microgravity is used to derive quantitative information on the crystal growth kinetics. To this end, new procedures for experiment preparation, interferometric data processing and model fitting have been developed. The use of experimental data from the bulk diffusive maw transport together with a model for steady state stagnant crystal growth allows the detailed quantitative understanding of the kinetics of both the concentration depletion zone around the crystal and the growth of the crystal interface. The protein crystal used in the experiment is shown to be growing in the mixed kinetic regime (0.2 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second less than beta R/D less than 0.9 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second).

  17. Assessment of Heterotrophic Growth Supported by Soluble Microbial Products in Anammox Biofilm using Multidimensional Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Sun, Jing; Peng, Lai; Wang, Dongbo; Dai, Xiaohu; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is known to autotrophically convert ammonium to dinitrogen gas with nitrite as the electron acceptor, but little is known about their released microbial products and how these are relative to heterotrophic growth in anammox system. In this work, we applied a mathematical model to assess the heterotrophic growth supported by three key microbial products produced by bacteria in anammox biofilm (utilization associated products (UAP), biomass associated products (BAP), and decay released substrate). Both One-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical biofilm models were developed to describe the development of anammox biofilm as a function of the multiple bacteria–substrate interactions. Model simulations show that UAP of anammox is the main organic carbon source for heterotrophs. Heterotrophs are mainly dominant at the surface of the anammox biofilm with small fraction inside the biofilm. 1-D model is sufficient to describe the main substrate concentrations/fluxes within the anammox biofilm, while the 2-D model can give a more detailed biomass distribution. The heterotrophic growth on UAP is mainly present at the outside of anammox biofilm, their growth on BAP (HetB) are present throughout the biofilm, while the growth on decay released substrate (HetD) is mainly located in the inner layers of the biofilm. PMID:27273460

  18. Inhibition factors and Kinetic model for ammonium inhibition on the anammox process of the SNAD biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoming; Li, Jun; Ma, Jing; Du, Jia; Wang, Fan; Bian, Wei; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhao, Baihang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity of simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) biofilm with different substrate concentrations and pH values. Kaldnes rings taken from the SNAD biofilm reactor were incubated in batch tests to determine the anammox activity. Haldane model was applied to investigate the ammonium inhibition on anammox process. As for nitrite inhibition, the NH4(+)-N removal rate of anammox process remained 87.4% of the maximum rate with the NO2(-)-N concentration of 100mg/L. Based on the results of Haldane model, no obvious difference in kinetic coefficients was observed under high or low free ammonia (FA) conditions, indicating that ammonium rather than FA was the true inhibitor for anammox process of SNAD biofilm. With the pH value of 7.0, the rmax, Ks and KI of ammonium were 0.209kg NO2(-)-N/kg VSS/day, 9.5mg/L and 422mg/L, respectively. The suitable pH ranges for anammox process were 5.0 to 9.0. These results indicate that the SNAD biofilm performs excellent tolerance to adverse conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A time-space model for the growth of microalgae biofilms for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, B; Bernard, O; Ribot, M

    2017-11-07

    We present in this paper a spatial model describing the growth of a photosynthetic microalgae biofilm. In this model we consider photosynthesis, extracellular matrix excretion, and mortality. These mechanisms are described precisely using kinetic laws that take into account some saturation effects which limit the reaction rates and involve different components that we treat individually. In particular, to obtain a more detailed description of the microalgae growth, we consider separately the lipids they contain and the functional part of microalgae (proteins, RNA, etc ...), the latter playing a leading role in photosynthesis. We also consider the components dissolved in liquid phase as CO2. The model is based on mixture theory and the behaviour of each component is described on the one hand by mass conservation, which takes into account biological features of the system, and on the other hand by conservation of momentum, which describes the physical properties of the components. Some numerical simulations are displayed in the one-dimensional case and show that the model is able to estimate accurately the biofilm productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acoustic and Electrical Property Changes Due to Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation in Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of microbial growth and biofilm formation on compressional waves, and complex conductivity during stimulated microbial growth. Over the 29 day duration of the experiment, compressional wave amplitudes and arrival times f...

  1. Acoustic and Electrical Property Changes Due to Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation in Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of microbial growth and biofilm formation on compressional waves, and complex conductivity during stimulated microbial growth. Over the 29 day duration of the experiment, compressional wave amplitudes and arrival times f...

  2. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Biofilm Formation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris Growth under Two Metabolic Modes

    PubMed Central

    Kernan, Chase; Chow, Philicia P.; Christianson, Rebecca J.; Huang, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We examined biofilms formed by the metabolically versatile bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grown via different metabolic modes. R. palustris was grown in flow cell chambers with identical medium conditions either in the presence or absence of light and oxygen. In the absence of oxygen and the presence of light, R. palustris grew and formed biofilms photoheterotrophically, and in the presence of oxygen and the absence of light, R. palustris grew and formed biofilms heterotrophically. We used confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis software to quantitatively analyze and compare R. palustris biofilm formation over time in these two metabolic modes. We describe quantifiable differences in structure between the biofilms formed by the bacterium grown heterotrophically and those grown photoheterotrophically. We developed a computational model to explore ways in which biotic and abiotic parameters could drive the observed biofilm architectures, as well as a random-forest machine-learning algorithm based on structural differences that was able to identify growth conditions from the confocal imaging of the biofilms with 87% accuracy. Insight into the structure of phototrophic biofilms and conditions that influence biofilm formation is relevant for understanding the generation of biofilm structures with different properties, and for optimizing applications with phototrophic bacteria growing in the biofilm state. PMID:26087200

  3. U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic sensor for effective biofilm growth monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Li, Yishan

    2016-02-01

    To monitor biofilm growth on polydimethylsiloxane in a photobioreactor effectively, the biofilm cells and liquids were separated and measured using a sensor with two U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic probes (Sen. and Ref. probes). The probes' Au-coated hemispherical tips enabled double-pass evanescent field absorption. The Sen. probe sensed the cells and liquids inside the biofilm. The polyimide-silica hybrid-film-coated Ref. probe separated the liquids from the biofilm cells and analyzed the liquid concentration. The biofilm structure and active biomass were also examined to confirm the effectiveness of the measurement using a simulation model. The sensor was found to effectively respond to the biofilm growth in the adsorption through exponential phases at thicknesses of 0-536 μm.

  4. U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic sensor for effective biofilm growth monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Li, Yishan

    2016-01-01

    To monitor biofilm growth on polydimethylsiloxane in a photobioreactor effectively, the biofilm cells and liquids were separated and measured using a sensor with two U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic probes (Sen. and Ref. probes). The probes’ Au-coated hemispherical tips enabled double-pass evanescent field absorption. The Sen. probe sensed the cells and liquids inside the biofilm. The polyimide–silica hybrid-film-coated Ref. probe separated the liquids from the biofilm cells and analyzed the liquid concentration. The biofilm structure and active biomass were also examined to confirm the effectiveness of the measurement using a simulation model. The sensor was found to effectively respond to the biofilm growth in the adsorption through exponential phases at thicknesses of 0–536 μm. PMID:26977344

  5. Spatio-temporal Kinetics of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae(NTHi) Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanji, Aleya; Rosas, Lucia; Ray, William; Jayaprakash, Ciriyam; Bakaletz, Lauren; Das, Jayajit

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria can form complex spatial structures known as biofilms. Biofilm formation is frequently associated with chronic infections due to the greatly enhanced antibiotic resistance of resident bacteria. However, our understanding of the role of basic processes, such as bacteria replication and resource consumption, in controlling the development and temporal change of the spatial structure remains rudimentary. Here, we examine the growth of cultured biofilms by the opportunistic pathogen NTHi. Through spatial information extracted from confocal microscopy images, we quantitatively characterize the biofilm structure as it evolves over time. We find that the equal-time height-height pair correlation function decreases with distance and scales with time for small length scales. Furthermore, both the surface roughness and the correlation length perpendicular to the surface growth direction increase with time initially and then decrease. We construct a spatially resolved agent based model beginning with the simplest possible case of a single bacteria species Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. We show that it cannot describe the observed spatio-temporal behavior and suggest an improved two-species model that better captures the dynamics of the NTHi system. Supported by The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital.

  6. Effects of streambed morphology and biofilm growth on the transient storage of solutes.

    PubMed

    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea; Singer, Gabriel; Zaramella, Mattia; Battin, Tom J; Marion, Andrea

    2009-10-01

    Microbial biofilms are the prime site of nutrient and contaminant removal in streams. It is therefore essential to understand how biofilms affect hydrodynamic exchange, solute transport, and retention in systems where geomorphology end induced hydrodynamics shape their growth and structure. We experimented with large-scale streamside flumes with streambed landscapes constructed from graded bedforms of constant height and wavelength. Each flume had a different bedform height and was covered with a layer of gravel as substratum for benthic microbial biofilms. Biofilms developed different biomass and physical structures in response to the hydrodynamic conditions induced by the streambed morphology. Step injections of conservative tracers were performed at different biofilm growth stages. The experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed with the STIR model, using a residence time approach to characterize the retention effects associated with biofilms. The retained mass of the solute increased with biofilm biomass and the biofilm-associated retention was furthermore related to bedform height. We tentatively relate this behavior to biofilm structural differentiation induced by bed morphology, which highlights the strong linkage between geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and biofilms in natural streams and provide important clues for stream restoration.

  7. Vibrio cholerae biofilm growth program and architecture revealed by single-cell live imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jing; Sharo, Andrew G.; Stone, Howard A.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-associated bacterial communities that are crucial in nature and during infection. Despite extensive work to identify biofilm components and to discover how they are regulated, little is known about biofilm structure at the level of individual cells. Here, we use state-of-the-art microscopy techniques to enable live single-cell resolution imaging of a Vibrio cholerae biofilm as it develops from one single founder cell to a mature biofilm of 10,000 cells, and to discover the forces underpinning the architectural evolution. Mutagenesis, matrix labeling, and simulations demonstrate that surface adhesion-mediated compression causes V. cholerae biofilms to transition from a 2D branched morphology to a dense, ordered 3D cluster. We discover that directional proliferation of rod-shaped bacteria plays a dominant role in shaping the biofilm architecture in V. cholerae biofilms, and this growth pattern is controlled by a single gene, rbmA. Competition analyses reveal that the dense growth mode has the advantage of providing the biofilm with superior mechanical properties. Our single-cell technology can broadly link genes to biofilm fine structure and provides a route to assessing cell-to-cell heterogeneity in response to external stimuli. PMID:27555592

  8. Kinetics of nitrate and perchlorate removal and biofilm stratification in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Ana R; Carvalho, Gilda; Velizarov, Svetlozar; Crespo, João G; Reis, Maria A M

    2012-09-15

    The biological degradation of nitrate and perchlorate was investigated in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB) using a mixed anoxic microbial culture and ethanol as the carbon source. In this process, a membrane-supported biofilm reduces nitrate and perchlorate delivered through an anion exchange membrane from a polluted water stream, containing 60 mg/L of NO₃⁻ and 100 μg/L of ClO₄⁻. Under ammonia limiting conditions, the perchlorate reduction rate decreased by 10%, whereas the nitrate reduction rate was unaffected. Though nitrate and perchlorate accumulated in the bioreactor, their concentrations in the treated water (2.8 ± 0.5 mg/L of NO₃⁻ and 7.0 ± 0.8 μg/L of ClO₄⁻, respectively) were always below the drinking water regulatory levels, due to Donnan dialysis control of the ionic transport in the system. Kinetic parameters determined for the mixed microbial culture in suspension showed that the nitrate reduction rate was 35 times higher than the maximum perchlorate reduction rate. It was found that perchlorate reduction was inhibited by nitrate, since after nitrate depletion perchlorate reduction rate increased by 77%. The biofilm developed in the IEMB was cryosectioned and the microbial population was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results obtained seem to indicate that the kinetic advantage of nitrate reduction favored accumulation of denitrifiers near the membrane, whereas per(chlorate) reducing bacteria were mainly positioned at the biofilm outer surface, contacting the biomedium. As a consequence of the biofilm stratification, the reduction of perchlorate and nitrate occur sequentially in space allowing for the removal of both ions in the IEMB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rock physics models for constraining quantitative interpretation of ultrasonic data for biofilm growth and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadhrami, Fathiya Mohammed

    This study examines the use of rock physics modeling for quantitative interpretation of seismic data in the context of microbial growth and biofilm formation in unconsolidated sediment. The impetus for this research comes from geophysical experiments by Davis et al. (2010) and Kwon and Ajo-Franklin et al. (2012). These studies observed that microbial growth has a small effect on P-wave velocities (VP) but a large effect on seismic amplitudes. Davis et al. (2010) and Kwon and Ajo-Franklin et al. (2012) speculated that the amplitude variations were due to a combination of rock mechanical changes from accumulation of microbial growth related features such as biofilms. A more definite conclusion can be drawn by developing rock physics models that connect rock properties to seismic amplitudes. The primary objective of this work is to provide an explanation for high amplitude attenuation due to biofilm growth. The results suggest that biofilm formation in the Davis et al. (2010) experiment exhibit two growth styles: a loadbearing style where biofilm behaves like an additional mineral grain and a non-loadbearing mode where the biofilm grows into the pore spaces. In the loadbearing mode, the biofilms contribute to the stiffness of the sediments. We refer to this style as "filler." In the non-loadbearing mode, the biofilms contribute only to change in density of sediments without affecting their strength. We refer to this style of microbial growth as "mushroom." Both growth styles appear to be changing permeability more than the moduli or the density. As the result, while the VP velocity remains relatively unchanged, the amplitudes can change significantly depending on biofilm saturation. Interpreting seismic data from biofilm growths in term of rock physics models provide a greater insight into the sediment-fluid interaction. The models in turn can be used to understand microbial enhanced oil recovery and in assisting in solving environmental issues such as creating bio

  10. Phosphorus removal coupled to bioenergy production by three cyanobacterial isolates in a biofilm dynamic growth system.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Alessandra; Pippo, Francesca Di; Bruno, Laura; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Congestri, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    In the present study a closed incubator, designed for biofilm growth on artificial substrata, was used to grow three isolates of biofilm-forming heterocytous cyanobacteria using an artificial wastewater secondary effluent as the culture medium. We evaluated biofilm efficiency in removing phosphorus, by simulating biofilm-based tertiary wastewater treatment and coupled this process with biodiesel production from the developed biomass. The three strains were able to grow in the synthetic medium and remove phosphorus in percentages, between 6 and 43%, which varied between strains and also among each strain according to the biofilm growth phase. Calothrix sp. biofilm turned out to be a good candidate for tertiary treatment, showing phosphorus reducing capacity (during the exponential biofilm growth) at the regulatory level for the treated effluent water being discharged into natural water systems. Besides phosphorus removal, the three cyanobacterial biofilms produced high quality lipids, whose profile showed promising chemical stability and combustion behavior. Further integration of the proposed processes could include the integration of oil extracted from these cyanobacterial biofilms with microalgal oil known for high monounsaturated fatty acids content, in order to enhance biodiesel cold flow characteristics.

  11. High-throughput dental biofilm growth analysis for multiparametric microenvironmental biochemical conditions using microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond H W; Cui, Xin; Guo, Weijin; Thorsen, Todd

    2016-04-26

    Dental biofilm formation is not only a precursor to tooth decay, but also induces more serious systematic health problems such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Understanding the conditions promoting colonization and subsequent biofilm development involving complex bacteria coaggregation is particularly important. In this paper, we report a high-throughput microfluidic 'artificial teeth' device offering controls of multiple microenvironmental factors (e.g. nutrients, growth factors, dissolved gases, and seeded cell populations) for quantitative characteristics of long-term dental bacteria growth and biofilm development. This 'artificial teeth' device contains multiple (up to 128) incubation chambers to perform parallel cultivation and analyses (e.g. biofilm thickness, viable-dead cell ratio, and spatial distribution of multiple bacterial species) of bacteria samples under a matrix of different combinations of microenvironmental factors, further revealing possible developmental mechanisms of dental biofilms. Specifically, we applied the 'artificial teeth' to investigate the growth of two key dental bacteria, Streptococci species and Fusobacterium nucleatum, in the biofilm under different dissolved gas conditions and sucrose concentrations. Together, this high-throughput microfluidic platform can provide extended applications for general biofilm research, including screening of the biofilm properties developing under combinations of specified growth parameters such as seeding bacteria populations, growth medium compositions, medium flow rates and dissolved gas levels.

  12. Start-up of membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; Poyatos, J M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBR) system was studied as an alternative solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. This paper shows the results obtained from three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants working in parallel in the start-up and steady states. The first wastewater treatment plant was a MBR, the second one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system containing carriers both in anoxic and aerobic zones of the bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBRa), and the last one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system which contained carriers only in the aerobic zone (hybrid MBBR-MBRb). The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 30.40 h. A kinetic study for characterizing heterotrophic biomass was carried out and organic matter and nutrients removals were evaluated. The heterotrophic biomass of the hybrid MBBR-MBRb showed the best kinetic performance in the steady state, with yield coefficient for heterotrophic biomass=0.30246 mg volatile suspended solids per mg chemical oxygen demand, maximum specific growth rate for heterotrophic biomass=0.00308 h(-1) and half-saturation coefficient for organic matter=3.54908 mg O2 L(-1). The removal of organic matter was supported by the kinetic study of heterotrophic biomass.

  13. Biofilm growth on polyvinylchloride surface incubated in suboptimal microbial warm water and effect of sanitizers on biofilm removal post biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Pramir; Huff, Geraldine; Zhang, Wen; Watkins, Susan

    2017-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to understand the nature of biofilm growth on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface when exposed to suboptimal-quality microbial water (>4 log10 cfu/mL) obtained from a poultry drinking water source mimicking water in waterlines during the first week of poultry brooding condition. PVC sections (internal surface area of 15.16 cm(2)) were utilized in the study to grow biofilm. After a 7-d test period, test coupons with 7-day-old biofilm were transferred into autoclaved municipal water and then treated with either chlorine-based or hydrogen peroxide-based sanitizer at bird drinking water rate, to see the impact on removal of biofilm formed on test coupons. Two trials (T1 and T2) were conducted. Test coupons used in T1 and T2 had the bacterial growth of 3.67 (SEM 0.04) and 3.97 (SEM 0.11) log10 cfu/cm(2) on d 7. After sanitizer application, chlorine-based sanitizer removed bacteria in biofilm completely (0 cfu/cm(2)) within 24 h post treatment whereas hydrogen peroxide-based sanitizer reduced the counts to 1.68 log10 cfu/cm(2) (P < 0.05) by 48 h post sanitizer application. Control remained the same (P > 0.05). Results indicated that biofilm formation can occur quickly under suboptimal water condition on PVC surface, and sanitizer application helped mitigate already formed biofilm, yet chlorine proved to be more effective than hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Protein crystal growth - Growth kinetics for tetragonal lysozyme crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, M. L.; Snyder, R. S.; Naumann, R.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from theoretical and experimental studies of the growth rate of lysozyme as a function of diffusion in earth-gravity conditions. The investigations were carried out to form a comparison database for future studies of protein crystal growth in the microgravity environment of space. A diffusion-convection model is presented for predicting crystal growth rates in the presence of solutal concentration gradients. Techniques used to grow and monitor the growth of hen egg white lysozyme are detailed. The model calculations and experiment data are employed to discuss the effects of transport and interfacial kinetics in the growth of the crystals, which gradually diminished the free energy in the growth solution. Density gradient-driven convection, caused by presence of the gravity field, was a limiting factor in the growth rate.

  15. Culture media profoundly affect Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis growth, adhesion and biofilm development

    PubMed Central

    Weerasekera, Manjula M; Wijesinghe, Gayan K; Jayarathna, Thilini A; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Fernando, Neluka; Kottegoda, Nilwala; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-01-01

    As there are sparse data on the impact of growth media on the phenomenon of biofilm development for Candida we evaluated the efficacy of three culture media on growth, adhesion and biofilm formation of two pathogenic yeasts, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The planktonic phase yeast growth, either as monocultures or mixed cultures, in sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB), yeast nitrogen base (YNB), and RPMI 1640 was compared, and adhesion as well as biofilm formation were monitored using MTT and crystal violet (CV) assays and scanning electron microscopy. Planktonic cells of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and their 1:1 co-culture showed maximal growth in SDB. C. albicans/C. tropicalis adhesion was significantly facilitated in RPMI 1640 although the YNB elicited the maximum growth for C. tropicalis. Similarly, the biofilm growth was uniformly higher for both species in RPMI 1640, and C. tropicalis was the slower biofilm former in all three media. Scanning electron microscopy images tended to confirm the results of MTT and CV assay. Taken together, our data indicate that researchers should pay heed to the choice of laboratory culture media when comparing relative planktonic/biofilm growth of Candida. There is also a need for standardisation of biofilm development media so as to facilitate cross comparisons between laboratories. PMID:27706381

  16. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Growth and Biofilm Formation by Probiotics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, Falk; Korte, Franziska; Dörfer, Christof E; Kneist, Susanne; Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim; Paris, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    To exert anticaries effects, probiotics are described to inhibit growth and biofilm formation of cariogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans (SM). We screened 8 probiotics and assessed how SM growth or biofilm formation inhibition affects cariogenicity of probiotic-SM mixed-species biofilms in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by cocultivating probiotics and 2 SM strains (ATCC 20532/25175) on agar. Probiotics were either precultured before SM cultivation (exclusion), or SM precultured prior to probiotic cultivation (displacement). Inhibition of SM culture growth was assessed visually. Inhibition of SM biofilm formation on bovine enamel was assessed using a continuous-flow short-term biofilm model, again in exclusion or displacement mode. The cariogenicity of mixed-species biofilms of SM with the most promising growth and biofilm formation inhibiting probiotic strains was assessed using an artificial mouth model, and enamel mineral loss (ΔZ) was measured microradiographically. We found limited differences in SM growth inhibition in exclusion versus displacement mode, and in inhibition of SM 20532 versus 25175. Results were therefore pooled. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 inhibited significantly more SM culture growth than most other probiotics. L. casei LC-11 inhibited SM biofilm formation similarly to other alternatives but showed the highest retention of probiotics in the biofilms (p < 0.05). Mineral loss from SM monospecies biofilms (ΔZ = 9,772, 25th/75th percentiles: 6,277/13,558 vol% × µm) was significantly lower than from mixed-species SM × LA-5 biofilms (ΔZ = 24,578, 25th/75th percentiles: 19,081/28,768 vol% × µm; p < 0.01) but significantly higher than from SM × LC-11 biofilms (ΔZ = 4,835, 25th/75th percentiles: 263/7,865 vol% × µm; p < 0.05). Probiotics inhibiting SM culture growth do not necessarily reduce the cariogenicity of SM-probiotic biofilms. Nevertheless, SM biofilm formation inhibition may be relevant in the reduction of

  17. Growth kinetics of Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.M.; Subramanian, R.; Bly, M.J.; Winter, S.; Aronson, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219, a phenol-resistant thermophile, can convert phenol to the specialty chemical catechol. The growth kinetics of this organism were studied in batch, continuous, and immobilized-cell culture. Batch growth was insensitive to pH between 6.0 and 8.0, but little growth occurred at 5.5. In continuous culture on a dilute medium supplemented with 10 mM phenol, several steady states were achieved between dilution rates of 0.25 and 1.3 h{sup -1}. Phenol degradation was found to be uncoupled from growth. Immobilized cells grew rapidly in a rich medium, but cell viability plummeted following a switch to a dilute medium supplemented with 5 mM phenol.

  18. [Biofilm--short characteristic of microbial growth related to drinking water distribution systems].

    PubMed

    Szczotko, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    General information about drinking water biofilms containing few steps biofilm forming process, microorganisms' short characterization and potential risk related to microbial presence in water installations has been presented. A part of review concerns European Acceptance Scheme (EAS) basis and current methods applied for assessment of susceptibility of materials contacting with drinking water to microbial growth.

  19. Morphological stability and kinetics in crystal growth from vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) microscopy image storage and processing system; (2) growth kinetics and morphology study with carbon tetrabromide; (3) photothermal deflection vapor growth setup; (4) bridgman growth of iodine single crystals; (5) vapor concentration distribution measurement during growth; and (6) Monte Carlo modeling of anisotropic growth kinetics and morphology. A collection of presentations and publications of these results are presented.

  20. Biofilm growth on polyvinylchloride surface incubated in suboptimal microbial warm water and effect of sanitizers on biofilm removal post biofilm formation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to understand the nature of biofilm growth on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface when exposed to sub optimal quality microbial water (> 4 log10 cfu/ml) obtained from poultry drinking water source mimicking water in waterlines during the first week of poultry broodi...

  1. Kinetics of Indigenous Nitrate Reducing Sulfide Oxidizing Activity in Microaerophilic Wastewater Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Villahermosa, Desirée; Corzo, Alfonso; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; González, Juan M; Papaspyrou, Sokratis

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate decreases sulfide release in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), but little is known on how it affects the microzonation and kinetics of related microbial processes within the biofilm. The effect of nitrate addition on these properties for sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, and oxygen respiration were studied with the use of microelectrodes in microaerophilic wastewater biofilms. Mass balance calaculations and community composition analysis were also performed. At basal WWTP conditions, the biofilm presented a double-layer system. The upper microaerophilic layer (~300 μm) showed low sulfide production (0.31 μmol cm-3 h-1) and oxygen consumption rates (0.01 μmol cm-3 h-1). The anoxic lower layer showed high sulfide production (2.7 μmol cm-3 h-1). Nitrate addition decreased net sulfide production rates, caused by an increase in sulfide oxidation rates (SOR) in the upper layer, rather than an inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). This suggests that the indigenous nitrate reducing-sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) were immediately activated by nitrate. The functional vertical structure of the biofilm changed to a triple-layer system, where the previously upper sulfide-producing layer in the absence of nitrate split into two new layers: 1) an upper sulfide-consuming layer, whose thickness is probably determined by the nitrate penetration depth within the biofilm, and 2) a middle layer producing sulfide at an even higher rate than in the absence of nitrate in some cases. Below these layers, the lower net sulfide-producing layer remained unaffected. Net SOR varied from 0.05 to 0.72 μmol cm-3 h-1 depending on nitrate and sulfate availability. Addition of low nitrate concentrations likely increased sulfate availability within the biofilm and resulted in an increase of both net sulfate reduction and net sulfide oxidation by overcoming sulfate diffusional limitation from the water phase and the strong coupling between SRB and NR-SOB syntrophic

  2. Kinetics of Indigenous Nitrate Reducing Sulfide Oxidizing Activity in Microaerophilic Wastewater Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Villahermosa, Desirée; Corzo, Alfonso; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; González, Juan M.; Papaspyrou, Sokratis

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate decreases sulfide release in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), but little is known on how it affects the microzonation and kinetics of related microbial processes within the biofilm. The effect of nitrate addition on these properties for sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, and oxygen respiration were studied with the use of microelectrodes in microaerophilic wastewater biofilms. Mass balance calaculations and community composition analysis were also performed. At basal WWTP conditions, the biofilm presented a double-layer system. The upper microaerophilic layer (~300 μm) showed low sulfide production (0.31 μmol cm-3 h-1) and oxygen consumption rates (0.01 μmol cm-3 h-1). The anoxic lower layer showed high sulfide production (2.7 μmol cm-3 h-1). Nitrate addition decreased net sulfide production rates, caused by an increase in sulfide oxidation rates (SOR) in the upper layer, rather than an inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). This suggests that the indigenous nitrate reducing-sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) were immediately activated by nitrate. The functional vertical structure of the biofilm changed to a triple-layer system, where the previously upper sulfide-producing layer in the absence of nitrate split into two new layers: 1) an upper sulfide-consuming layer, whose thickness is probably determined by the nitrate penetration depth within the biofilm, and 2) a middle layer producing sulfide at an even higher rate than in the absence of nitrate in some cases. Below these layers, the lower net sulfide-producing layer remained unaffected. Net SOR varied from 0.05 to 0.72 μmol cm-3 h-1 depending on nitrate and sulfate availability. Addition of low nitrate concentrations likely increased sulfate availability within the biofilm and resulted in an increase of both net sulfate reduction and net sulfide oxidation by overcoming sulfate diffusional limitation from the water phase and the strong coupling between SRB and NR-SOB syntrophic

  3. A Genome-Scale Modeling Approach to Quantify Biofilm Component Growth of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Ribaudo, Nicholas; Li, Xianhua; Davis, Brett; Wood, Thomas K; Huang, Zuyi Jacky

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is an extremely dangerous foodborne bacterium that infects both animal and human subjects, causing fatal diseases around the world. Salmonella's robust virulence, antibiotic-resistant nature, and capacity to survive under harsh conditions are largely due to its ability to form resilient biofilms. Multiple genome-scale metabolic models have been developed to study the complex and diverse nature of this organism's metabolism; however, none of these models fully integrated the reactions and mechanisms required to study the influence of biofilm formation. This work developed a systems-level approach to study the adjustment of intracellular metabolism of S. typhimurium during biofilm formation. The most advanced metabolic reconstruction currently available, STM_v1.0, was 1st extended to include the formation of the extracellular biofilm matrix. Flux balance analysis was then employed to study the influence of biofilm formation on cellular growth rate and the production rates of biofilm components. With biofilm formation present, biomass growth was examined under nutrient rich and nutrient deficient conditions, resulting in overall growth rates of 0.8675 and 0.6238 h(-1) respectively. Investigation of intracellular flux variation during biofilm formation resulted in the elucidation of 32 crucial reactions, and associated genes, whose fluxes most significantly adapt during the physiological response. Experimental data were found in the literature to validate the importance of these genes for the biofilm formation of S. typhimurium. This preliminary investigation on the adjustment of intracellular metabolism of S. typhimurium during biofilm formation will serve as a platform to generate hypotheses for further experimental study on the biofilm formation of this virulent bacterium.

  4. [Denitrification and kinetic characteristics using biodegradable polymers as carbon source and biofilm carrier].

    PubMed

    Lai, Cai-sheng; Tan, Hong-xin; Luo, Guo-zhi; Ruan, Yun-jie; Zhou, Wei; Sun, Da-chuan

    2010-08-01

    The PBS material that in the form of insoluble biodegradable polymers pellets was investigated as the solid carbon source and the biofilm carrier for nitrate removal from wastewater. The denitrification of nitrate removal and kinetic process were carried out in a packed-bed reactor in order to remove nitrate in recirculation aquaculture system. The experimental results indicated that the optimal influent loading rate was in the range of 0.107-1.098 kg/(m3 x d), when the water temperature was (29 +/- 1) degrees C and the influent nitrate concentration was in the range of 25-334 mg/L. The maximum nitrate volumetric removal rate of 0.577 kg/(m3 x d) was achieved at the influent loading rate of 1.098 kg/(m3 x d). When the influent loading rate exceeded 1.098 kg/(m3 x d), the nitrate volumetric removal rate was declined. The kinetic experimental results show that the denitrification rate of PBS as the solid carbon source and the biofilm carrier corresponds to first-order kinetics. Based on the kinetics characteristics, constants n and K used in Eckenfelder model were deduced, which can be successfully applied for the prediction of effluent nitrate concentration. The two groups' predictive values and actual values were analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 software for Paired-Samples t test analysis. The Paired-Samples t test analysis indicates that the corresponding p > 0.05 values are 0.553 and 0.632, which proved that no significant differences exist between the predictive values and actual values of the model.

  5. The Small Molecule DAM Inhibitor, Pyrimidinedione, Disrupts Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Growth In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Go, Yoon Young; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae persist in the human nasopharynx within organized biofilms. However, expansion to other tissues may cause severe infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Bacteria within biofilms possess increased tolerance to antibiotics and are able to resist host defense systems. Bacteria within biofilms exhibit different physiology, metabolism, and gene expression profiles than planktonic cells. These differences underscore the need to identify alternative therapeutic targets and novel antimicrobial compounds that are effective against pneumococcal biofilms. In bacteria, DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) alters pathogenic gene expression and catalyzes the methylation of adenine in the DNA duplex and of macromolecules during the activated methyl cycle (AMC). In pneumococci, AMC is involved in the biosynthesis of quorum sensing molecules that regulate competence and biofilm formation. In this study, we examine the effect of a small molecule Dam inhibitor, pyrimidinedione, on Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and evaluate the changes in global gene expression within biofilms via microarray analysis. The effects of pyrimidinedione on in vitro biofilms were studied using a static microtiter plate assay, and the architecture of the biofilms was viewed using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of pyrimidinedione was tested on a human middle ear epithelium cell line by CCK-8. In situ oligonucleotide microarray was used to compare the global gene expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 within biofilms grown in the presence and absence of pyrimidinedione. Real-time RT-PCR was used to study gene expression. Pyrimidinedione inhibits pneumococcal biofilm growth in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, but it does not inhibit planktonic cell growth. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed the absence of organized biofilms, where cell-clumps were scattered

  6. The Small Molecule DAM Inhibitor, Pyrimidinedione, Disrupts Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Growth In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Go, Yoon Young; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae persist in the human nasopharynx within organized biofilms. However, expansion to other tissues may cause severe infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Bacteria within biofilms possess increased tolerance to antibiotics and are able to resist host defense systems. Bacteria within biofilms exhibit different physiology, metabolism, and gene expression profiles than planktonic cells. These differences underscore the need to identify alternative therapeutic targets and novel antimicrobial compounds that are effective against pneumococcal biofilms. In bacteria, DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) alters pathogenic gene expression and catalyzes the methylation of adenine in the DNA duplex and of macromolecules during the activated methyl cycle (AMC). In pneumococci, AMC is involved in the biosynthesis of quorum sensing molecules that regulate competence and biofilm formation. In this study, we examine the effect of a small molecule Dam inhibitor, pyrimidinedione, on Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and evaluate the changes in global gene expression within biofilms via microarray analysis. The effects of pyrimidinedione on in vitro biofilms were studied using a static microtiter plate assay, and the architecture of the biofilms was viewed using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of pyrimidinedione was tested on a human middle ear epithelium cell line by CCK-8. In situ oligonucleotide microarray was used to compare the global gene expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 within biofilms grown in the presence and absence of pyrimidinedione. Real-time RT-PCR was used to study gene expression. Pyrimidinedione inhibits pneumococcal biofilm growth in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, but it does not inhibit planktonic cell growth. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed the absence of organized biofilms, where cell-clumps were scattered

  7. Growth morphology with anisotropic surface kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1990-01-01

    The morphological evolution of crystals growing from an incongruent vapor phase is studied using a Monte Carlo model, and the full range of growth morphologies is recovered. The diffusion in the bulk nutrient and the anisotropy in the interface kinetics are morphologically destabilizing and stabilizing, respectively. For a given set of simulation parameters and lattice symmetries there is a critical size, which scales linearly with the mean free path in the vapor, beyond which a crystal cannot retain its stable, macroscopically faceted growth shape. Surface diffusion stabilizes faceted growth on the shorter scale of the mean surface diffusion length. In simulations with a uniform drift superimposed on the random walk nutrient transport, crystal faces oriented toward the drift show enhanced morphological stability compared to the purely diffusive situation. Rotational drifts with periodic reversal of direction are morphologically stabilizing for all crystal facets.

  8. Effects of Carbon Source, Carbon Concentration, and Chlorination on Growth Related Parameters of Heterotrophic Biofilm Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ellis; Butterfield; Jones; McFeters; Camper

    1999-11-01

    To investigate growth of heterotrophic biofilm bacteria, a model biofilm reactor was developed to simulate a drinking water distribution system. Controlled addition of three different carbon sources (amino acids, carbohydrates, and humics) at three different concentrations (500, 1,000, and 2,000 ppb carbon) in the presence and absence of chlorine were used in separate experiments. An additional experiment was run with a 1:1:2 mixture of the above carbon sources. Biofilm and effluent total and culturable cells in addition to total and dissolved organic carbon were measured in order to estimate specific growth rates (SGRs), observed yields, population densities, and bacterial carbon production rates. Bacterial carbon production rates (µg C/L day) were extremely high in the control biofilm communities (range = 295-1,738). Both growth rate and yield decreased with increasing carbon concentrations. Therefore, biofilm growth rates were zero-order with respect to the carbon concentrations used in these experiments. There was no correlation between growth rate and carbon concentration, but there was a significant negative correlation between growth rate and biofilm cell density (r = -0.637, p = 0.001 control and r = -0.57, p = 0.021 chlorinated biofilms). Growth efficiency was highest at the lowest carbon concentration (range = 12-4.5%, amino acids and humics respectively). Doubling times ranged from 2.3-15.4 days in the control biofilms and 1-12.3 days in the chlorinated biofilms. Growth rates were significantly higher in the presence of chlorine for the carbohydrates, humics, and mixed carbon sources (p = 0.004, < 0.0005, 0.013, respectively). The concept of r/K selection theory was used to explain the results with respect to specific growth rates and yields. Humic removal by the biofilm bacteria (78% and 56% for the control and chlorinated biofilms, respectively) was higher than previously reported literature values for planktonic bacteria. A number of control

  9. A fiber-optic sensor for accurately monitoring biofilm growth in a hydrogen production photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Chen, Rong

    2014-04-15

    A new simple fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor was created to accurately monitor the growth and hydrogen production performance of biofilms. The proposed sensor consists of two probes (i.e., a sensor and reference probe), using the etched fibers with an appropriate surface roughness to improve its sensitivity. The sensor probe measures the biofilm growth and change of liquid-phase concentration inside the biofilm. The reference probe is coated with a hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene membrane to separate the liquids from photosynthetic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris CQK 01 and to measure the liquid concentration. We also developed a model to demonstrate the accuracy of the measurement. The biofilm measurement was calibrated using an Olympus microscope. A linear relationship was obtained for the biofilm thickness range from 0 to 120 μm with a synthetic medium under continuous supply to the bioreactor. The highest level of hydrogen production rate occurred at a thickness of 115 μm.

  10. Roles of ionic strength and biofilm roughness on adhesion kinetics of Escherichia coli onto groundwater biofilm grown on PVC surfaces.

    PubMed

    Janjaroen, Dao; Ling, Fangqiong Q; Ling, Fangqiong; Monroy, Guillermo; Derlon, Nicolas; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Mogenroth, Eberhard; Boppart, Stephen A; Liu, Wen-Tso; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2013-05-01

    Mechanisms of Escherichia coli attachment on biofilms grown on PVC coupons were investigated. Biofilms were grown in CDC reactors using groundwater as feed solution over a period up to 27 weeks. Biofilm physical structure was characterized at the micro- and meso-scales using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), respectively. Microbial community diversity was analyzed with Terminal Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). Both physical structure and microbial community diversity of the biofilms were shown to be changing from 2 weeks to 14 weeks, and became relatively stable after 16 weeks. A parallel plate flow chamber coupled with an inverted fluorescent microscope was also used to monitor the attachment of fluorescent microspheres and E. coli on clean PVC surfaces and biofilms grown on PVC surfaces for different ages. Two mechanisms of E. coli attachment were identified. The adhesion rate coefficients (kd) of E. coli on nascent PVC surfaces and 2-week biofilms increased with ionic strength. However, after biofilms grew for 8 weeks, the adhesion was found to be independent of solution chemistry. Instead, a positive correlation between kd and biofilm roughness as determined by OCT was obtained, indicating that the physical structure of biofilms could play an important role in facilitating the adhesion of E. coli cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Roles of ionic strength and biofilm roughness on adhesion kinetics of Escherichia coli onto groundwater biofilm grown on PVC surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Janjaroen, Dao; Ling, Fangqiong; Monroy, Guillermo; Derlon, Nicolas; Mogenroth, Eberhard; Boppart, Stephen A.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of Escherichia coli attachment on biofilms grown on PVC coupons were investigated. Biofilms were grown in CDC reactors using groundwater as feed solution over a period up to 27 weeks. Biofilm physical structure was characterized at the micro- and meso-scales using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), respectively. Microbial community diversity was analyzed with Terminal Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). Both physical structure and microbial community diversity of the biofilms were shown to be changing from 2 weeks to 14 weeks, and became relatively stable after 16 weeks. A parallel plate flow chamber coupled with an inverted fluorescent microscope was also used to monitor the attachment of fluorescent microspheres and E. coli on clean PVC surfaces and biofilms grown on PVC surfaces for different ages. Two mechanisms of E. coli attachment were identified. The adhesion rate coefficients (kd) of E. coli on nascent PVC surfaces and 2-week biofilms increased with ionic strength. However, after biofilms grew for 8 weeks, the adhesion was found to be independent of solution chemistry. Instead, a positive correlation between kd and biofilm roughness as determined by OCT was obtained, indicating that the physical structure of biofilms could play an important role in facilitating the adhesion of E. coli cells. PMID:23497979

  12. Impact of growth temperature and surface type on the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms to disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Marwan; Khelissa, Oussama; Ibrahim, Ali; Benoliel, Corinne; Heliot, Laurent; Dhulster, Pascal; Chihib, Nour-Eddine

    2015-12-02

    Biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus on food-contact-surfaces represents a significant risk for the public health. In this context, the present study investigates the relationship between the environmental conditions of biofilm formation and the resistance to disinfectants. Therefore, a static biofilm reactor, called NEC-Biofilm System, was established in order to study the effect of growth temperature (20, 30 and 37°C), and of the surface type (stainless steel and polycarbonate), on biofilm resistance to disinfectants. These conditions were selected to mimic the biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces of food processing industries. The antibiofilm assays were performed on biofilms grown during 24 h. The results showed that the growth temperature influenced significantly the biofilm resistance to disinfectants. These data also revealed that the growth temperature has a significant effect on the biofilm structure of both bacteria. Furthermore, the increase of the biofilm growth temperature increased significantly the algD transcript level in sessile P. aeruginosa cells, whereas the icaA one was not affected in S. aureus cells. Overall, our findings show that the biofilm structure and matrix cannot fully explain the biofilm resistance to disinfectant agents. Nevertheless, it underlines the intimate link between environmental conditions, commonly met in food sectors, and the biofilm resistance to disinfectants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF MICROBIAL GROWTH AND BIOFILM FORMATION ON SEISMIC WAVE PROPAGATION IN SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous laboratory investigations have demonstrated that the seismic methods are sensitive to microbially-induced changes in porous media through the generation of biogenic gases and biomineralization. The seismic signatures associated with microbial growth and biofilm formation...

  14. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF MICROBIAL GROWTH AND BIOFILM FORMATION ON SEISMIC WAVE PROPAGATION IN SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous laboratory investigations have demonstrated that the seismic methods are sensitive to microbially-induced changes in porous media through the generation of biogenic gases and biomineralization. The seismic signatures associated with microbial growth and biofilm formation...

  15. Micro-structured surfaces for algal biofilm growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathananthan, Suthamathy; Genin, Scott N.; Aitchison, J. Stewart; Allen, D. Grant

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that cells respond to structured surface cues that are on the micro/nanometer scale. Tissue engineering and bio-fouling fields have utilized the semiconductor device fabrication processes to make micro- and nanometer patterned surfaces to study animal cell tissue formation and to prevent algae attachment on marine surfaces respectively. In this paper we describe the use of micro-structured surfaces to study the attachment and growth of algal films. This paper gives an overview of how micro-structured surfaces are made for this purpose, how they are incorporated into a photo bioreactor and how this patterning influences the growth of an algal biofilm. Our results suggest that surface patterning with deeper V-groove patterns that are of the same size scale as the algal species has resulted in higher biomass productivity giving them a chance to embed and attach on the slope and flat surfaces whereas shallower size grooves and completely flat surfaces did not show this trend.

  16. Volume Diffusion Growth Kinetics and Step Geometry in Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    1998-01-01

    The role of step geometry in two-dimensional stationary volume diff4sion process used in crystal growth kinetics models is investigated. Three different interface shapes: a) a planar interface, b) an equidistant hemispherical bumps train tAx interface, and c) a train of right angled steps, are used in this comparative study. The ratio of the super-saturation to the diffusive flux at the step position is used as a control parameter. The value of this parameter can vary as much as 50% for different geometries. An approximate analytical formula is derived for the right angled steps geometry. In addition to the kinetic models, this formula can be utilized in macrostep growth models. Finally, numerical modeling of the diffusive and convective transport for equidistant steps is conducted. In particular, the role of fluid flow resulting from the advancement of steps and its contribution to the transport of species to the steps is investigated.

  17. Volume Diffusion Growth Kinetics and Step Geometry in Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    1998-01-01

    The role of step geometry in two-dimensional stationary volume diff4sion process used in crystal growth kinetics models is investigated. Three different interface shapes: a) a planar interface, b) an equidistant hemispherical bumps train tAx interface, and c) a train of right angled steps, are used in this comparative study. The ratio of the super-saturation to the diffusive flux at the step position is used as a control parameter. The value of this parameter can vary as much as 50% for different geometries. An approximate analytical formula is derived for the right angled steps geometry. In addition to the kinetic models, this formula can be utilized in macrostep growth models. Finally, numerical modeling of the diffusive and convective transport for equidistant steps is conducted. In particular, the role of fluid flow resulting from the advancement of steps and its contribution to the transport of species to the steps is investigated.

  18. Measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicolás; Obied, Khalid El Tayeb El; Kalkman, Jeroen; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-01-01

    We report on localized and simultaneous measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics in a microfluidic channel using optical coherence tomography. We measure independently with high spatio-temporal resolution the longitudinal flow velocity component parallel to the imaging beam and the transverse flow velocity component perpendicular to the imaging beam. Based on the measured velocities we calculate the shear-rates in the flow channel. We show the relation between the measured biofilm structure and flow velocities as biofilm growth progresses over the course of 48 hours. PMID:27699116

  19. Kinetic analysis of microbial sulfate reduction by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in an anaerobic upflow porous media biofilm reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chingi; Mueller, R.F.; Griebe, T. . National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Biofilm Engineering)

    1994-02-20

    An anaerobic upflow porous media biofilm reactor was designed to study the kinetics and stoichiometry of hydrogen sulfide production by the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 5575) as the first step for the modeling and control of formation souring (H[sub 2]S) in oil field porous media. The initial indication of souring was the appearance of well-separated black spots (precipitates of iron sulfide) in the sand bed. Analysis of the pseudo-steady state column shows that there were concentration gradients for lactate and hydrogen sulfide along the column. The results indicate that most of the lactate was consumed at the front part of the column. Measurements of SRB biomass on the solid phase (sand) and in the liquid phase indicate that the maximum concentration of SRB biomass resided at the front part of the column while the maximum in the liquid phase occurred further downstream. The stoichiometry regarding lactate consumption and hydrogen sulfide production observed in the porous media reactor was different from that in a chemostat. After analyzing the radial dispersion coefficient for the SRB in porous media and kinetics of microbial growth, it was deduced that transport phenomena dominate the souring process in the porous media reactor system.

  20. Bulk water phase and biofilm growth in drinking water at low nutrient conditions.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik; Jørgensen, Claus

    2002-11-01

    In this study, the bacterial growth dynamics of a drinking water distribution system at low nutrient conditions was studied in order to determine bacterial growth rates by a range of methods, and to compare growth rates in the bulk water phase and the biofilm. A model distribution system was used to quantify the effect of retention times at hydraulic conditions similar to those in drinking water distribution networks. Water and pipe wall samples were taken and examined during the experiment. The pipes had been exposed to drinking water at approximately 13 degrees C, for at least 385 days to allow the formation of a mature quasi-stationary biofilm. At retention times of 12 h, total bacterial counts increased equivalent to a net bacterial growth rate of 0.048 day(-1). The bulk water phase bacteria exhibited a higher activity than the biofilm bacteria in terms of culturability, cell-specific ATP content, and cell-specific leucine incorporation rate. Bacteria in the bulk water phase incubated without the presence of biofilm exhibited a bacterial growth rate of 0.30 day(-1). The biofilm was radioactively labelled by the addition of 14C-benzoic acid. Subsequently, a biofilm detachment rate of 0.013 day(-1) was determined by measuring the release of 14C-labelled bacteria of the biofilm. For the quasi-stationary phase biofilm, the detachment rate was equivalent to the net growth rate. The growth rates determined in this study by different independent experimental approaches were comparable and within the range of values reported in the literature.

  1. Particle growth kinetics over the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinterich, T.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Kuang, C.; Longo, K.; Machado, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Mei, F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöhlker, M. L.; Poeschl, U.; Shilling, J. E.; Shiraiwa, M.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Zaveri, R. A.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol particles larger than 100 nm play a key role in global climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Most of these particles, originated from new particle formation or directly emitted into the atmospheric, are initially too small to serve as CCN. These small particles grow to CCN size mainly through condensation of secondary species. In one extreme, the growth is dictated by kinetic condensation of very low-volatility compounds, favoring the growth of the smallest particles; in the other extreme, the process is driven by Raoult's law-based equilibrium partitioning of semi-volatile organic compound, favoring the growth of larger particles. These two mechanisms can lead to very different production rates of CCN. The growth of particles depends on a number of parameters, including the volatility of condensing species, particle phase, and diffusivity inside the particles, and this process is not well understood in part due to lack of ambient data. Here we examine atmospheric particle growth using high-resolution size distributions measured onboard the DOE G-1 aircraft during GoAmazon campaign, which took place from January 2014 to December 2015 near Manaus, Brazil, a city surrounded by natural forest for over 1000 km in every direction. City plumes are clearly identified by the strong enhancement of nucleation and Aitken mode particle concentrations over the clean background. As the plume traveled downwind, particle growth was observed, and is attributed to condensation of secondary species and coagulation (Fig.1). Observed aerosol growth is modeled using MOSAIC (Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry), which dynamically partitions multiple compounds to all particle size bins by taking into account compound volatility, gas-phase diffusion, interfacial mass accommodation, particle-phase diffusion, and particle-phase reaction. The results from both wet and dry seasons will be discussed.

  2. Sinefungin, a natural nucleoside analogue of S-adenosylmethionine, inhibits Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal colonization and disease is often associated with biofilm formation, in which the bacteria exhibit elevated resistance both to antibiotics and to host defense systems, often resulting in infections that are persistent and difficult to treat. We evaluated the effect of sinefungin, a nucleoside analogue of S-adenosylmethionine, on pneumococcal in vitro biofilm formation and in vivo colonization. Sinefungin is bacteriostatic to pneumococci and significantly decreased biofilm growth and inhibited proliferation and structure of actively growing biofilms but did not alter growth or the matrix structure of established biofilms. Sinefungin significantly reduced pneumococcal colonization in rat middle ear. The quorum sensing molecule (autoinducer-2) production was significantly reduced by 92% in sinefungin treated samples. The luxS, pfs, and speE genes were downregulated in biofilms grown in the presence of sinefungin. This study shows that sinefungin inhibits pneumococcal biofilm growth in vitro and colonization in vivo, decreases AI-2 production, and downregulates luxS, pfs, and speE gene expressions. Therefore, the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) inhibitors could be used as lead compounds for the development of novel antibiofilm agents against pneumococci.

  3. Linear surface roughness growth and flow smoothening in a three-dimensional biofilm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, D. A.

    2013-09-01

    The sessile microbial communities known as biofilms exhibit varying architectures as environmental factors are varied, which for immersed biofilms includes the shear rate of the surrounding flow. Here we modify an established agent-based biofilm model to include affine flow and employ it to analyze the growth of surface roughness of single-species, three-dimensional biofilms. We find linear growth laws for surface geometry in both horizontal and vertical directions and measure the thickness of the active surface layer, which is shown to anticorrelate with roughness. Flow is shown to monotonically reduce surface roughness without affecting the thickness of the active layer. We argue that the rapid roughening is due to nonlocal surface interactions mediated by the nutrient field, which are curtailed when advection competes with diffusion. We further argue the need for simplified models to elucidate the underlying mechanisms coupling flow to growth.

  4. Shaping the Growth Behaviour of Biofilms Initiated from Bacterial Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Melaugh, Gavin; Hutchison, Jaime; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Diggle, Stephen P.; Gordon, Vernita D.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase so that it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell aggregates. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to investigate the role of pre-formed aggregates in biofilm development. Focusing on the initial shape the aggregate forms on the surface, we find that the degree of spreading of an aggregate on a surface can play an important role in determining its eventual fate during biofilm development. Specifically, initially spread aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated bacterial cells is low, while initially rounded aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated cells is high. These contrasting outcomes are governed by a trade-off between aggregate surface area and height. Our results provide new insight into biofilm formation and development, and reveal new factors that may be at play in the social evolution of biofilm communities. PMID:26934187

  5. Shaping the Growth Behaviour of Biofilms Initiated from Bacterial Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Melaugh, Gavin; Hutchison, Jaime; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Diggle, Stephen P; Gordon, Vernita D; Allen, Rosalind J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase so that it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell aggregates. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to investigate the role of pre-formed aggregates in biofilm development. Focusing on the initial shape the aggregate forms on the surface, we find that the degree of spreading of an aggregate on a surface can play an important role in determining its eventual fate during biofilm development. Specifically, initially spread aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated bacterial cells is low, while initially rounded aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated cells is high. These contrasting outcomes are governed by a trade-off between aggregate surface area and height. Our results provide new insight into biofilm formation and development, and reveal new factors that may be at play in the social evolution of biofilm communities.

  6. Nitrification kinetics of activated sludge-biofilm system: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Thalla, Arun Kumar; Bhargava, Renu; Kumar, Pramod

    2010-08-01

    Although activated sludge (AS)-biofilm system has many advantages, it lacks in the mathematical concepts for its design. This paper deals with deducing a mathematical model for the simulation of ammonical nitrogen in such systems starting from the basic mass balance equations. Monod kinetic equation and Fickian diffusion principles are coupled to derive the model. The model thus developed is solved numerically and validated with the experimental results obtained on a laboratory scale AS-biofilm system. It is found that the model validated well with the experimental results which was supported by the R(2) value of 0.79, further the statistical analysis between the observed and predicted values for various experimental conditions showed that the model tends to under-predict at high removal efficiency, whilst a slight tendency towards over-prediction at low removal efficiency values. Fractional error plot for the NH(4)(+)-N data sets showed that the difference between observed and predicted values are insignificant at 5% level of probability for NH(4)(+)-N. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Achieving partial denitrification through control of biofilm structure during biofilm growth in denitrifying biofilter.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bin; Liu, Xiuhong; Yang, Qing; Li, Jianmin; Zhou, Xueyang; Peng, Yongzhen

    2017-08-01

    Partial denitrification was one of most effective ways to provide nitrite for annamox; whereas very limited research has been done to achieve nitrite accumulation in biofilm system. In this study, partial denitrification was studied in a lab-scale denitrifying biofilter (DNBF). The results showed biofilm structure variations caused the differences between nitrate specific reduction rate (NaSRR) and nitrite specific reduction rate (NiSRR), which led to nitrite accumulation in different degree at different biofilm formation phases. Hydrodynamic conditions also significantly influenced biofilm structure, nitrate and nitrite reduction activities. At the filtration velocity of 3.86mh(-1), not only biofilm structure, NaSRR and NiSRR kept relatively stable, but also 60% of nitrite accumulation and no nitrate in the effluent were achieved. Furthermore, Thauera genus bacteria, benefited for nitrite accumulation, became the dominant communities in high nitrite accumulation conditions. The partial denitrification combine with anammox in biofilter have the great potential applied in WWTPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. N-acetylcysteine inhibits growth, adhesion and biofilm formation of Gram-positive skin pathogens.

    PubMed

    Eroshenko, Daria; Polyudova, Tatyana; Korobov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a non-antibiotic drug with antimicrobial properties against biofilm phenotypes of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our aim was to assess the effects of NAC on the growth of Gram-positive human skin and mucous membrane pathogens in the planktonic and biofilm phases. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of NAC against Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and 14 clinical strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) ranged from 0.098 to 25 mg/ml. We found that at sub-MICs of NAC the adherence of E. faecalis, S. epidermidis, and nine CNS strains significantly reduced. However, biofilm formation of E. faecalis, S. aureus and two CNS strains increased at sub-MICs of NAC. Furthermore, a dose-related decrease in biofilm formation of C. ammoniagenes, M. smegmatis, P. acnes, S. pyogenes, and S. epidermidis was observed. The effect of NAC on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of the M. smegmatis cell was also time-dependent. We have selected P. acnes VKM Ac-1450 Rif(r) strain with total resistance to rifampicin and used this microorganism for multispecies P. acnes - S. epidermidis biofilm model. The biofilm formation and growth of mixed culture of P. acnes and S. epidermidis was significantly slowed at 12.5 mg/ml of NAC. NAC also has a higher disruptive effect on both mature M. smegmatis and mixed P. acnes - S. epidermidis biofilm. Thus, NAC appears to be a promising, non-antibiotic alternative to prevent biofilm-associated infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biofilm feeding: Microbial colonization of food promotes the growth of a detritivorous arthropod

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Terézia; Babik, Wiesław; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Feeding on plant material is common among animals, but how different animals overcome the dietary deficiencies imposed by this feeding strategy is not well understood. Microorganisms are generally considered to play a vital role in the nutritional ecology of plant feeding animals. Commonly microbes living inside animal bodies are considered more important, but recent studies suggest external microbes significantly shape plant-feeding strategies in invertebrates. Here we investigate how external microbes that typically form biofilm on primary plant material affect growth rates in a terrestrial isopod species Porcellio scaber. We experimentally manipulated the amount of biofilm on three different primary diet sources and quantified growth and survival of individuals that fed on food with either a small or large amount of biofilm. In addition, we tested how dietary manipulation shapes the composition of bacterial communities in the gut. The presence of visible biofilm significantly affected the growth of isopods: individuals that fed on the primary diet source with a large amount of biofilm gained more mass than individuals feeding on a diet with marginal biofilm. Diet also significantly affected the bacterial gut community. The primary diet source mainly determined the taxonomic composition of the bacterial community in the isopod gut, whereas the amount of biofilm affected the relative abundance of bacterial taxa. Our study suggests that terrestrial isopods may cope with low-quality plant matter by feeding on biofilm, with decomposition of plant material by organisms outside of the feeding organism (here a terrestrial isopod) probably playing a major role. Future investigations may be directed towards the primary diet source, plant matter, and the secondary diet source, biofilm, and should assess if both components are indeed uptaken in detritivorous species. PMID:27110187

  10. Correlation between the growth of bacterial biofilm in flexible endoscopes and endoscope reprocessing methods.

    PubMed

    Ren-Pei, Wu; Hui-Jun, Xi; Ke, Qi; Dong, Wang; Xing, Nie; Zhao-Shen, Li

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate bacterial biofilm formed on endoscopes and to explore the possible correlation between endoscope reprocessing procedures and bacterial biofilm growth on endoscope channels. Sixty-six endoscope suction and biopsy channels and 13 water and air channels were collected from 66 hospitals throughout China. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe biofilm growth on the internal surface of these channels. Questionnaires were mailed to 66 endoscopy centers to investigate reprocessing procedures for endoscopes. Obvious biofilm growth was detected on 36 suction and biopsy channels (36/66, 54.6%) and 10 water and air channels (10/13, 76.9%). The percentage of manual cleaning in group B (n = 36, without detection of biofilms) was 92.3% (33/36), whereas it was 50.0% (15/30) in group A (n = 30, with detection of biofilms). Follow-up of group A (n = 30) showed that no biofilm was detected, whereas biofilm was detected in group B. The difference was statistically significant (P = .001). The proportion of detergent reuse in group B was 92.3% (33/36), and it was 61.5% in group A (18/30) (P = .005). The proportion of alcohol-air drying in group B was 38.9% (14/36), and it was 76.7% (23/30) in group A (P = .002). The formation of endoscopic biofilm during clinical practice may be related to reuse of detergent, manual cleaning, and incomplete drying. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding, Monitoring, and Controlling Biofilm Growth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanly; Gunawan, Cindy; Barraud, Nicolas; Rice, Scott A; Harry, Elizabeth J; Amal, Rose

    2016-09-06

    In drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), biofilms are the predominant mode of microbial growth, with the presence of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) protecting the biomass from environmental and shear stresses. Biofilm formation poses a significant problem to the drinking water industry as a potential source of bacterial contamination, including pathogens, and, in many cases, also affecting the taste and odor of drinking water and promoting the corrosion of pipes. This article critically reviews important research findings on biofilm growth in DWDS, examining the factors affecting their formation and characteristics as well as the various technologies to characterize and monitor and, ultimately, to control their growth. Research indicates that temperature fluctuations potentially affect not only the initial bacteria-to-surface attachment but also the growth rates of biofilms. For the latter, the effect is unique for each type of biofilm-forming bacteria; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, for example, grow more-developed biofilms at a typical summer temperature of 22 °C compared to 12 °C in fall, and the opposite occurs for the pathogenic Vibrio cholerae. Recent investigations have found the formation of thinner yet denser biofilms under high and turbulent flow regimes of drinking water, in comparison to the more porous and loosely attached biofilms at low flow rates. Furthermore, in addition to the rather well-known tendency of significant biofilm growth on corrosion-prone metal pipes, research efforts also found leaching of growth-promoting organic compounds from the increasingly popular use of polymer-based pipes. Knowledge of the unique microbial members of drinking water biofilms and, importantly, the influence of water characteristics and operational conditions on their growth can be applied to optimize various operational parameters to minimize biofilm accumulation. More-detailed characterizations of the biofilm population size and structure are now

  12. Towards optimum permeability reduction in porous media using biofilm growth simulations.

    PubMed

    Pintelon, T R R; Graf von der Schulenburg, D A; Johns, M L

    2009-07-01

    While biological clogging of porous systems can be problematic in numerous processes (e.g., microbial enhanced oil recovery-MEOR), it is targeted during bio-barrier formation to control sub-surface pollution plumes in ground water. In this simulation study, constant pressure drop (CPD) and constant volumetric flow rate (CVF) operational modes for nutrient provision for biofilm growth in a porous system are considered with respect to optimum (minimum energy requirement for nutrient provision) permeability reduction for bio-barrier applications. Biofilm growth is simulated using a Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulation platform complemented with an individual-based biofilm model (IbM). A biomass detachment technique has been included using a fast marching level set (FMLS) method that models the propagation of the biofilm-liquid interface with a speed proportional to the adjacent velocity shear field. The porous medium permeability reduction is simulated for both operational modes using a range of biofilm strengths. For stronger biofilms, less biomass deposition and energy input are required to reduce the system permeability during CPD operation, whereas CVF is more efficient at reducing the permeability of systems containing weaker biofilms.

  13. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation by Animal Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Shabanpour, Ziba; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Khubani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Resistance toward quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) is widespread among a diverse range of microorganisms and is facilitated by several mechanisms such as biofilm formation. Objectives: In this study, the effects of benzalkonium chloride on planktonic growth and biofilm formation by some field isolates of animal bacterial pathogens were investigated. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates of each) were examined for effects of benzalkonium chloride on biofilm formation and planktonic growth using microtiter plates. For all the examined strains in the presence of benzalkonium chloride, biofilm development and planktonic growth were affected at the same concentrations of disinfectant. Results: The means of strains growth increase after the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were significant in all the bacteria (except for E. coli in 1/32 and S. agalactiae in of 1/8 MIC). Biofilm formation increased with decrease of antiseptics concentration; a significant increase was found in all the samples. The most turbidity related to S. aureus and the least to Salmonella. Conclusions: Bacterial resistance against quaternary ammonium compounds is increasing which can increase the bacterial biofilm formation. PMID:25793094

  14. Growth characteristics and biofilm formation of various spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Min; Zheng, Ling; Hyun, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kyu-Seok; Heu, Sunggi; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce including growth at various temperatures, biofilm formation, cell hydrophobicity, and colony spreading. The number of spoilage bacteria present when stored at 35 °C was significantly greater than when stored at lower temperatures, and maximum population size was achieved after 10 h. However, Bacillus pumilus, Dickeya zeae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum Pcc21, and Bacillus pumilus (RDA-R) did not grow at the storage temperature of 5 °C. The biofilm formation by Clavibacter michiganensis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and A. calcoaceticus (RDA-R) are higher than other spoilage bacteria. Biofilm formation showed low correlation between hydrophobicity, and no significant correlation with colony spreading. These results might be used for developing safe storage guidelines for fresh produce at various storage temperatures, and could be basic information on the growth characteristics and biofilm formation properties of spoilage bacteria from fresh produce. Growth of spoilage bacteria was different depending on the bacteria strains and storage temperature. Between biofilm formation and cell hydrophobicity was low correlation on spoilage bacteria. Therefore, growth characteristics and biofilm formation of spoilage bacteria might be used for developing safe storage guidelines for fresh produce at various storage temperatures. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Physiological activities associated with biofilm growth in attached and suspended growth bioreactors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Naz, Iffat; Seher, Shama; Perveen, Irum; Saroj, Devendra P; Ahmed, Safia

    2015-01-01

    This research work evaluated the biofilm succession on stone media and compared the biochemical changes of sludge in attached and suspended biological reactors operated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Stones incubated (30±2°C) with activated sludge showed a constant increase in biofilm weight up to the fifth and seventh week time under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively, where after reduction (>80%) the most probable number index of pathogen indicators on ninth week was recorded. Reduction in parameters such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) (47.7%), chemical oxygen demand (COD, 41%), nitrites (60.2%), nitrates (105.5%) and phosphates (58.9%) and increase in dissolved oxygen (176.5%) of sludge were higher in aerobic attached growth reactors as compared with other settings. While, considerable reductions in these values were also observed (BOD, 53.8%; COD, 2.8%; nitrites, 28.6%; nitrates, 31.7%; phosphates, 41.4%) in the suspended growth system under anaerobic conditions. However, higher sulphate removal was observed in suspended (40.9% and 54.9%) as compared with biofilm reactors (28.2% and 29.3%). Six weeks biofilm on the stone media showed maximum physiological activities; thus, the operational conditions should be controlled to keep the biofilm structure similar to six-week-old biofilm, and can be used in fixed biofilm reactors for wastewater treatment.

  16. Domain Growth Kinetics in Stratifying Foam Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are μ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. We experimentally elucidate the influence of these different driving forces, and confinement on drainage kinetics of horizontal stratifying foam films. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. Quantitative characterization of domain growth visualized in a using Scheludko-type thin film cell and a theoretical model based on lubrication analysis, provide critical insights into hydrodynamics of thin foam films, and the strength and nature of surface forces, including supramolecular oscillatory structural forces.

  17. Effect of alcohols on filamentation, growth, viability and biofilm development in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nitin M; Shinde, Ravikumar B; Karuppayil, S. Mohan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report the potential of alcohols as morphogenetic regulators in Candida albicans. All the alcohols tested influenced various modes of growth like planktonic as well as biofilm forms. Viability was affected at high concentrations. Among the alcohols, the response of C. albicans to amyl alcohol (pentanol) was noteworthy. Amyl alcohol at a concentration 0.5% which was not inhibitory to growth and viability specifically inhibited morphogenetic switching from yeast to hyphal forms. It also inhibited normal biofilm development favoring yeast dominated biofilms. Based on this study we hypothesize that alcohols produced under anaerobic conditions may not favor biofilm development and support dissemination of yeast cells. Since anaerobic conditions are not found to favor production of quorum sensing molecules like farnesol, the alcohols may play a role in morphogenetic regulation. PMID:24688528

  18. Prostaglandin E2 from Candida albicans Stimulates the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Mixed Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Jan; Geginat, Gernot; Tammer, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans interact synergistically in dual species biofilms resulting in enhanced mortality in animal models. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the current study was to test possible candidate molecules which might mediate this synergistic interaction in an in vitro model of mixed biofilms, such as farnesol, tyrosol and prostaglandin (PG) E2. In mono-microbial and dual biofilms of C.albicans wild type strains PGE2 levels between 25 and 250 pg/mL were measured. Similar concentrations of purified PGE2 significantly enhanced S.aureus biofilm formation in a mode comparable to that observed in dual species biofilms. Supernatants of the null mutant deficient in PGE2 production did not stimulate the proliferation of S.aureus and the addition of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin blocked the S.aureus biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, S. aureus biofilm formation was boosted by low and inhibited by high farnesol concentrations. Supernatants of the farnesol-deficient C. albicans ATCC10231 strain significantly enhanced the biofilm formation of S. aureus but at a lower level than the farnesol producer SC5314. However, C. albicans ATCC10231 also produced PGE2 but amounts were significantly lower compared to SC5314. Conclusion/Significance In conclision, we identified C. albicans PGE2 as a key molecule stimulating the growth and biofilm formation of S. aureus in dual S. aureus/C. albicans biofilms, although C. albicans derived farnesol, but not tyrosol, may also contribute to this effect but to a lesser extent. PMID:26262843

  19. Growth of Escherichia coli in Model Distribution System Biofilms Exposed to Hypochlorous Acid or Monochloramine

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margaret M.; Braun-Howland, Ellen B.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria indigenous to water distribution systems were used to grow multispecies biofilms within continuous-flow slide chambers. Six flow chambers were also inoculated with an Escherichia coli isolate obtained from potable water. The effect of disinfectants on bacterial populations was determined after exposure of established biofilms to 1 ppm of hypochlorous acid (ClOH) for 67 min or 4 ppm of monochloramine (NH2Cl) for 155 min. To test the ability of bacterial populations to initiate biofilm formation in the presence of disinfectants, we assessed the biofilms after 2 weeks of exposure to residual concentrations of 0.2 ppm of ClOH or 4 ppm of NH2Cl. Lastly, to determine the effect of recommended residual concentrations on newly established biofilms, we treated systems with 0.2 ppm of ClOH after 5 days of growth in the absence of disinfectant. Whole-cell in situ hybridizations using fluorescently tagged, 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes performed on cryosectioned biofilms permitted the direct observation of metabolically active bacterial populations, including certain phylogenetic groups and species. The results of these studies confirmed the resistance of established bacterial biofilms to treatment with recommended levels of disinfectants. Specifically, Legionella pneumophila, E. coli, and β and δ proteobacteria were identified within biofilms both before and after treatment. Furthermore, although it was undetected using routine monitoring techniques, the observation of rRNA-containing E. coli within biofilms demonstrated not only survival but also metabolic activity of this organism within the model distribution systems. The persistence of diverse bacterial species within disinfectant-treated biofilms suggests that current testing practices underestimate the risk to immunocompromised individuals of contracting waterborne disease. PMID:12957935

  20. Growth of Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms Alters Peptide Signaling at the Sub-population Level

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Robert C.; Burne, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans activates multiple cellular processes in response to the formation of a complex between comX-inducing peptide (XIP) and the ComR transcriptional regulator. Bulk phase and microfluidic experiments previously revealed that ComR-dependent activation of comX is altered by pH and by carbohydrate source. Biofilm formation is a major factor in bacterial survival and virulence in the oral cavity. Here, we sought to determine the response of S. mutans biofilm cells to XIP during different stages of biofilm maturation. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we showed that exogenous addition of XIP to early biofilms resulted in robust comX activation. However, as the biofilms matured, increasing amounts of XIP were required to activate comX expression. Single-cell analysis demonstrated that the entire population was responding to XIP with activation of comX in early biofilms, but only a sub-population was responding in mature biofilms. The sub-population response of mature biofilms was retained when the cells were dispersed and then treated with XIP. The proportion and intensity of the bi-modal response of mature biofilm cells was altered in mutants lacking the Type II toxins MazF and RelE, or in a strain lacking the (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase RelA. Thus, competence signaling is markedly altered in cells growing in mature biofilms, and pathways that control cell death and growth/survival decisions modulate activation of comX expression in these sessile populations. PMID:27471495

  1. A new approach to quantify spatial distribution of biofilm kinetic parameters by in situ determination of oxygen uptake rate (OUR).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Qiu, Yu-Qin; Shi, Han-Chang; Yu, Tong; He, Miao; Cai, Qiang

    2009-02-01

    In order to guide the rational optimization of biofilm reactor design and operation in wastewater treatment, it is essential to comprehend the biokinetic behavior of microorganisms, especially with its depth variation, in biofilms. However, no fast and accurate methods have been established for measuring the stratification of biokinetic parameters in biofilm systems up to now. In this paper, a new approach was presented to quantify the spatial distribution of biokinetic parameters in biofilms with a result demonstration. A multispecies biofilm at endogenous respiration was subjected to a pulse of substrates at various locations. An oxygen microelectrode structurally combined with an additional micropipette for substrate injection was constructed to monitor the in situ OUR (oxygen uptake rate) by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration with time. Based on the oxygen concentration profiles versus times at a series of substrate concentrations, the spatial distribution of biokinetic parameters, biomassyield coefficient (YH), Monod half-saturation coefficient for substrate (KH,S), and maximum specific growth rate (muH,max) were quantified. The demonstration of its utility showed that YH was within the 0.437-0.449 g (COD in cell)/g COD range, with only a slight difference and no regular change in the spatial distribution. Meanwhile, the results showed that the distribution of muH,max varied from 9.18 day(-1) at the surface layer of the biofilm to 1.69 day(-1) at the substratum layer of the biofilm with a decrease of 80% due to the reduction of biomass activity orthe diverse distribution of microbial species. Additionally, an opposite change tendency of KH,S was found, which increased from 37 mg COD/L at the surface layer of the biofilm to 45 mg COD/L at the substratum layer of the biofilm, indicating larger mass transport limitations with penetration into the biofilm. Compared with high heterogeneity in the biofilm depth, the distribution of biokinetic parameters

  2. Numerical simulation of biofilm growth in flow channels using a cellular automaton approach coupled with a macro flow computation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takehiro; Ueda, Shuya

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm is a slime-like complex aggregate of microorganisms and their products, extracellular polymer substances, that grows on a solid surface. The growth phenomenon of biofilm is relevant to the corrosion and clogging of water pipes, the chemical processes in a bioreactor, and bioremediation. In these phenomena, the behavior of the biofilm under flow has an important role. Therefore, controlling the biofilm behavior in each process is important. To provide a computational tool for analyzing biofilm growth, the present study proposes a computational model for the simulation of biofilm growth in flows. This model accounts for the growth, decay, detachment and adhesion of biofilms. The proposed model couples the computation of the surrounding fluid flow, using the finite volume method, with the simulation of biofilm growth, using the cellular automaton approach, a relatively low-computational-cost method. Furthermore, a stochastic approach for considering the adhesion process is proposed. Numerical simulations for the biofilm growth on a planar wall and that in an L-shaped rectangular channel were carried out. A variety of biofilm structures were observed depending on the strength of the flow. Moreover, the importance of the detachment and adhesion processes was confirmed.

  3. Bacterial activity in plant (Schoenoplectus validus) biofilms of constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Peter C

    2010-12-01

    Biofilm-bacterial communities have been exploited in the treatment of wastewater in 'fixed-film' processes. Our understanding of biofilm dynamics requires a quantitative knowledge of bacterial growth-kinetics in these microenvironments. The aim of this paper was to apply the thymidine assay to quantify bacterial growth without disturbing the biofilm on the surfaces of emergent macrophytes (Schoenoplectus validus) of a constructed wetland. The isotope was rapidly and efficiently taken-up and incorporated into dividing biofilm-bacteria. Isotope diffusion into the biofilm did not limit the growth rate measurement. Isotope dilution was inhibited at >12 μM thymidine. Biofilm-bacterial biomass and growth rates were not correlated to the plant surface area (r(2) < 0.02). The measurements of in situ biofilm-bacterial growth rates both displayed, and accommodated, the inherent heterogeneity of the complex wetland ecosystem. Biofilm-bacterial respiratory activities, measured using the redox dye CTC, and growth rates were measured simultaneously. The dye did not interfere with bacterial growth. Biofilm-bacterial specific growth rates ranged from 1.4 ± 0.6 d(-1) to 3.3 ± 1.3 d(-1). In the constructed wetlands of this study biofilm-bacterial specific growth rates, compared to those of natural ecosystems, could be markedly improved through changes in wetland design that increased bacterial respiration while minimising biofilm growth.

  4. Effects of cranberry extracts on growth and biofilm production of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus species.

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Kerry L; Sarkisian, Simon A; Woodmansee, Suzanne; Rowley, David C; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-09-01

    Biofilm producing bacteria such as Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli are the most common cause of catheter related urinary tract infections (UTIs). The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is utilized widely as a prophylaxis for UTIs due to its prevention of microbial adhesion. Cranberry contains proanthocyanidins (PACs), which have been implicated as active constituents responsible for its bacterial antiadhesive properties. Despite overwhelming data supporting cranberry's beneficial effects against human pathogenic bacteria, there is limited information regarding its effects on biofilm formation. This study evaluated the effects of three proprietary PAC-standardized cranberry extracts on the inhibition of bacterial growth and biofilm production against a panel of clinically relevant pathogens: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichia coli. The extracts inhibited the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus spp.) but not the Gram-negative species (E. coli) with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range 0.02-5 mg/mL. The extracts also inhibited biofilm production by the Gram-positive bacteria but did not eradicate their established biofilm. These results suggest that cranberry may have beneficial effects against the growth and biofilm producing capability of Gram-positive bacteria pathogens.

  5. Candida albicans survival, growth and biofilm formation are differently affected by mouthwashes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Paulone, Simona; Malavasi, Giulia; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Orsi, Carlotta Francesca; Peppoloni, Samuele; Neglia, Rachele Giovanna; Blasi, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of oral mycoses. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the susceptibility of C. albicans to mouthwashes, in terms of growth, survival and biofilm formation. Candida albicans, laboratory strain SC5314, and 7 commercial mouthwashes were employed: 3 with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate; 1 with 0.06% chlorhexidine digluconate and 250 ppm F- sodium fluoride; 3 with fluorine-containing molecules. None of the mouthwashes contained ethanol in their formulations. The anti-Candida effects of the mouthwashes were assessed by disk diffusion, crystal violet and XTT assays. By using five protocols combining different dilutions and contact times the mouthwashes were tested against: 1) C. albicans growth; 2) biofilm formation; 3) survival of fungal cells in early, developing and mature Candida biofilm. Chlorhexidine digluconate-containing mouthwashes consistently exhibited the highest anti-Candida activity, irrespective of the protocols employed. Fungal growth, biofilm formation and survival of Candida cells within biofilm were impaired, the effects strictly depending on both the dilution employed and the time of contact. These in vitro studies provide evidence that mouthwashes exert anti-Candida activity against both planktonic and biofilm fungal structures, but to a different extent depending on their composition. This suggests special caution in the choice of mouthwashes for oral hygiene, whether aimed at prevention or treatment of oral candidiasis.

  6. Simulation of Bacillus subtilis biofilm growth on agar plate by diffusion-reaction based continuum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Xiaoling; Nie, Kai; Li, Mingpeng; Sun, Qingping

    2016-08-01

    Various species of bacteria form highly organized spatially-structured aggregates known as biofilms. To understand how microenvironments impact biofilm growth dynamics, we propose a diffusion-reaction continuum model to simulate the formation of Bacillus subtilis biofilm on an agar plate. The extended finite element method combined with level set method are employed to perform the simulation, numerical results show the quantitative relationship between colony morphologies and nutrient depletion over time. Considering that the production of polysaccharide in wild-type cells may enhance biofilm spreading on the agar plate, we inoculate mutant colony incapable of producing polysaccharide to verify our results. Predictions of the glutamate source biofilm’s shape parameters agree with the experimental mutant colony better than that of glycerol source biofilm, suggesting that glutamate is rate limiting nutrient for Bacillus subtilis biofilm growth on agar plate, and the diffusion-limited is a better description to the experiment. In addition, we find that the diffusion time scale is of the same magnitude as growth process, and the common-employed quasi-steady approximation is not applicable here.

  7. The effect of flow velocity on the distribution and composition of extracellular polymeric substances in biofilms and the detachment mechanism of biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Miao, Lingzhan; Hou, Jun; Wang, Peifang; Qian, Jin; Dai, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Flume experiments were conducted to investigate the distribution and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms and the detachment mechanism of biofilms grown under different flow velocity conditions. The results of biofilm growth kinetics showed that the growth trends were coincident with the logistic growth model. The growth kinetics parameters reached their maximum under intermediate velocity (IV) condition. Biofilms exhibited different profiles of EPS composition and distribution, depending on the flow conditions in which the biofilms were grown. The amounts of total polysaccharide and total protein in the thin biofilm (high velocity condition 2 - HV2) were both generally greater than those in the thick biofilm (IV). As compared to the heterogeneous distribution of EPS in the thick biofilms (IV), the EPS in the thin biofilms (HV2) exhibited more homogeneous distribution, and the bound EPS in the thin biofilms (HV2) were much greater than those in the thick biofilms (IV). From the detachment tests, an inverse relationship was observed between the proportion of detached biomass and the value of flow velocity during growth. Biofilms grown under higher velocities showed stronger cohesion than those grown under lower velocities. Therefore, water velocity during biofilm growth conditioned the distribution and composition of EPS, as well as its detachment characteristics under higher shear stress.

  8. Interspecies variation in Candida biofilm formation studied using the Calgary biofilm device.

    PubMed

    Parahitiyawa, N B; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P; Ye, J; Tsang, P W K; Cheung, B P K; Yau, J Y Y; Yeung, S K W

    2006-04-01

    An in vitro assay to study multiple Candida biofilms, in parallel, has been carried out using the Calgary biofilm device (CBD). We here report: i) standardization of the CBD for Candida albicans biofilm formation, ii) kinetics of C. albicans biofilm formation, iii) biofilm formation by five Candida species, and iv) effect of dietary carbohydrates on biofilm formation. The biofilm metabolic activity on all CBD pegs was similar (p=0.6693) and C. albicans biofilm formation revealed slow growth up to 36 h and significantly higher growth up to 48 h (p<0.001). Significant differences in total biofilm metabolic activity were seen for glucose, fructose and lactose grown C. albicans compared with sucrose and maltose grown yeasts. Candida krusei developed the largest biofilm mass (p<0.05) relative to C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that C. krusei produced a thick multilayered biofilm of pseudohyphal forms embedded within the polymer matrix, whereas C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis biofilms consisted of clusters or chains of cells with sparse extracellular matrix material. We conclude that CBD is a useful, simple, low cost miniature device for parallel study of Candida biofilms and factors modulating this phenomenon.

  9. Characterizing the Growth Kinetics in Estrogen Responsive ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is a need to develop high-throughput screening (HTS) tests capable of testing thousands of environmental chemicals for endocrine disrupting potential. The estrogen signaling pathway is a known xenobiotic target that has been implicated in a variety of adverse health effects including reproductive deficits and cancer promotion. Using real-time measurements of growth kinetics by electrode impedance, the estrogen-responsive human ductal carcinoma cell line, T47D, was treated with 2000 chemicals of environmental relevance. Cells were treated in concentration response and measurements of cellular impedance were recorded every hour for six days. Exponential impedance, signifying increased proliferation, was observed by prototypical estrogen receptor agonists (17β-estradiol, genestein, bisphenol-A, nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol). Several compounds, including bisphenol-A and genestein, induced cell proliferation at comparable levels to 17β-estradiol, although at much higher concentrations. Progestins, and mineralocortocoids (progesterone, dihydrotestosterone, aldosterone) invoked a biphasic impedance signature. In conclusion, the real-time nature of this assay allows for rapid detection of differential growth characteristics shows potential, in combination with other ToxCast HTS assays, to detect environmental chemicals with potential endocrine activity. [This abstract does not necessarily reflect Agency policy]. Several compounds, including bisphenol-A and

  10. Investigating Filamentous Growth and Biofilm/Mat Formation in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    In response to nutrient limitation, budding yeast can undergo filamentous growth by differentiating into elongated chains of interconnected cells. Filamentous growth is regulated by signal transduction pathways that oversee the reorganization of cell polarity, changes to the cell cycle, and an increase in cell adhesion that occur in response to nutrient limitation. Each of these changes can be easily measured. Yeast can also grow colonially atop surfaces in a biofilm or mat of connected cells. Filamentous growth and biofilm/mat formation require cooperation among individuals; therefore, studying these responses can shed light on the origin and genetic basis of multicellular behaviors. The assays introduced here can be used to study analogous behaviors in fungal pathogens, which require filamentous growth and biofilm/mat formation for virulence. PMID:25734073

  11. Effects of biofilm growth on flow and transport through a glass parallel plate fracture.

    PubMed

    Hill, David D; Sleep, Brent E

    2002-06-01

    The effects of biofilm growth on flow and solute transport through a sandblasted glass parallel plate fracture was investigated. The fracture was inoculated using soil microorganisms. Glucose, oxygen and other nutrients were supplied to support growth. The biomass initially formed discrete clusters attached to the glass surfaces, but over time formed a continuous biofilm. From dye tracer tests conducted during biofilm growth, it was observed that channels and low-permeability zones dominated transport. The hydraulic conductivity of the fracture showed a sigmoidal decrease with time. The hydraulic conductivity was reduced by a factor of 0.033, from 18 to 0.6 cm/s, corresponding to a 72% decrease in the hydraulic aperture, from 500 to 140 microm. In contrast, the mass balance aperture, determined from fluoride tracer tests, remained relatively constant, indicating that the impact of biomass growth on effective fracture porosity was much less than the effect on hydraulic conductivity. Analyses of pre-biofilm tracer tests revealed that both Taylor dispersion and macrodispersion were influencing transport. During biofilm growth, only macrodispersion was dominant. The macrodispersion coefficient alpha(macro) was found to increase logarithmically with hydraulic conductivity reduction.

  12. Densely adherent growth mode, rather than extracellular polymer substance matrix build-up ability, contributes to high resistance of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yue; Daley, Andrew J; Istivan, Taghrid S; Rouch, Duncan A; Deighton, Margaret A

    2010-07-01

    (i) To evaluate the role of the adherent growth mode and extracellular polymer substance build-up in biofilm resistance to antibiotics. (ii) To re-assess various mechanisms leading to biofilm resistance to antibiotics. We compared the biofilm MICs, biofilm MBCs using the viable count method, biofilm MBCs based on broth recovery methods and minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) of antistaphylococcal antibiotics for multilayer biofilms formed by 'biofilm-positive' S. epidermidis strains and monolayer biofilms formed by their 'biofilm-negative' mutants/variants. Bacterial densities and the quantity of persister cells in both multilayer and monolayer biofilms were assessed to evaluate their roles in biofilm resistance. Monolayer and multilayer biofilms presented similar susceptibilities to multiple antibiotics, based on biofilm MIC, broth recovery-based biofilm MBC and MBEC results. Multilayer biofilms demonstrated higher viable count-based MBCs than monolayer biofilms. Both monolayer and multilayer biofilms had very high bacterial densities of approximately 10(11-12) cfu/mL. Persister cells were found in both monolayer and multilayer biofilms, but not in planktonic cultures at log phase. The presence of persister cells in monolayer and multilayer biofilms appeared to be strain and antibiotic dependent. The adherent growth mode, rather than the ability to build up a typical multilayer biofilm structure, contributes to the high resistance of biofilms to antibiotics, and therefore might be the main virulence factor of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) with respect to antibiotic resistance. The presence of persister cells in CoNS biofilms plays an important role in antibiotic resistance. Growth at high bacterial densities is another significant factor in biofilm resistance.

  13. Biofilm mode of growth of Streptococcus intermedius favored by a competence-stimulating signaling peptide.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Fernanda C; Pecharki, Daniele; Scheie, Anne A

    2004-09-01

    Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate population behavior. In several streptococci, quorum sensing mediated by competence-stimulating peptides (CSP) is associated with development of competence for transformation. We show here that a synthetic CSP favored the biofilm mode of growth of Streptococcus intermedius without affecting the rate of culture growth.

  14. Microbial competition in porous environments can select against rapid biofilm growth

    PubMed Central

    Coyte, Katharine Z.; Tabuteau, Hervé; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Durham, William M.

    2017-01-01

    Microbes often live in dense communities called biofilms, where competition between strains and species is fundamental to both evolution and community function. Although biofilms are commonly found in soil-like porous environments, the study of microbial interactions has largely focused on biofilms growing on flat, planar surfaces. Here, we use microfluidic experiments, mechanistic models, and game theory to study how porous media hydrodynamics can mediate competition between bacterial genotypes. Our experiments reveal a fundamental challenge faced by microbial strains that live in porous environments: cells that rapidly form biofilms tend to block their access to fluid flow and redirect resources to competitors. To understand how these dynamics influence the evolution of bacterial growth rates, we couple a model of flow–biofilm interaction with a game theory analysis. This investigation revealed that hydrodynamic interactions between competing genotypes give rise to an evolutionarily stable growth rate that stands in stark contrast with that observed in typical laboratory experiments: cells within a biofilm can outcompete other genotypes by growing more slowly. Our work reveals that hydrodynamics can profoundly affect how bacteria compete and evolve in porous environments, the habitat where most bacteria live. PMID:28007984

  15. Microbial competition in porous environments can select against rapid biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Coyte, Katharine Z; Tabuteau, Hervé; Gaffney, Eamonn A; Foster, Kevin R; Durham, William M

    2017-01-10

    Microbes often live in dense communities called biofilms, where competition between strains and species is fundamental to both evolution and community function. Although biofilms are commonly found in soil-like porous environments, the study of microbial interactions has largely focused on biofilms growing on flat, planar surfaces. Here, we use microfluidic experiments, mechanistic models, and game theory to study how porous media hydrodynamics can mediate competition between bacterial genotypes. Our experiments reveal a fundamental challenge faced by microbial strains that live in porous environments: cells that rapidly form biofilms tend to block their access to fluid flow and redirect resources to competitors. To understand how these dynamics influence the evolution of bacterial growth rates, we couple a model of flow-biofilm interaction with a game theory analysis. This investigation revealed that hydrodynamic interactions between competing genotypes give rise to an evolutionarily stable growth rate that stands in stark contrast with that observed in typical laboratory experiments: cells within a biofilm can outcompete other genotypes by growing more slowly. Our work reveals that hydrodynamics can profoundly affect how bacteria compete and evolve in porous environments, the habitat where most bacteria live.

  16. Critical roles of arginine in growth and biofilm development by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Robinson, Jill C; Samarian, Derek S; Kolderman, Ethan; Yassin, Sufian A; Bettampadi, Deepti; Bashton, Matthew; Rickard, Alexander H

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus gordonii is an oral commensal and an early coloniser of dental plaque. In vitro, S. gordonii is conditionally auxotrophic for arginine in monoculture but biosynthesises arginine when coaggregated with Actinomyces oris. Here, we investigated the arginine-responsive regulatory network of S. gordonii and the basis for conditional arginine auxotrophy. ArcB, the catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase involved in arginine degradation, was also essential for arginine biosynthesis. However, arcB was poorly expressed following arginine depletion, indicating that arcB levels may limit S. gordonii arginine biosynthesis. Arginine metabolism gene expression was tightly co-ordinated by three ArgR/AhrC family regulators, encoded by argR, ahrC and arcR genes. Microarray analysis revealed that > 450 genes were regulated in response to rapid shifts in arginine concentration, including many genes involved in adhesion and biofilm formation. In a microfluidic salivary biofilm model, low concentrations of arginine promoted S. gordonii growth, whereas high concentrations (> 5 mM arginine) resulted in dramatic reductions in biofilm biomass and changes to biofilm architecture. Collectively, these data indicate that arginine metabolism is tightly regulated in S. gordonii and that arginine is critical for gene regulation, cellular growth and biofilm formation. Manipulating exogenous arginine concentrations may be an attractive approach for oral biofilm control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Modelling biofilm growth in the presence of carbon dioxide and water flow in the subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebigbo, Anozie; Helmig, Rainer; Cunningham, Alfred B.; Class, Holger; Gerlach, Robin

    2010-07-01

    The concentration of greenhouse gases - particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2) - in the atmosphere has been on the rise in the past decades. One of the methods which have been proposed to help reduce anthropogenic CO 2 emissions is the capture of CO 2from large, stationary point sources and storage in deep geological formations. The caprock is an impermeable geological layer which prevents the leakage of stored CO 2, and its integrity is of utmost importance for storage security. Due to the high pressure build-up during injection, the caprock in the vicinity of the well is particularly at risk of fracturing. Biofilms could be used as biobarriers which help prevent the leakage of CO 2 through the caprock in injection well vicinity by blocking leakage pathways. The biofilm could also protect well cement from corrosion by CO 2-rich brine. The goal of this paper is to develop and test a numerical model which is capable of simulating the development of a biofilm in a CO 2 storage reservoir. This involves the description of the growth of the biofilm, flow and transport in the geological formation, and the interaction between the biofilm and the flow processes. Important processes which are accounted for in the model include the effect of biofilm growth on the permeability of the formation, the hazardous effect of supercritical CO 2 on suspended and attached bacteria, attachment and detachment of biomass, and two-phase fluid flow processes. The model is tested by comparing simulation results to experimental data.

  18. Interaction of Klebsiella oxytoca and Burkholderia cepacia in dual-species batch cultures and biofilms as a function of growth rate and substrate concentration.

    PubMed

    Komlos, J; Cunningham, A B; Camper, A K; Sharp, R R

    2005-01-01

    Dual-species microbial interactions have been extensively reported for batch and continuous culture environments. However, little research has been performed on dual-species interaction in a biofilm. This research examined the effects of growth rate and substrate concentration on dual-species population densities in batch and biofilm reactors. In addition, the feasibility of using batch reactor kinetics to describe dual-species biofilm interactions was explored. The scope of the research was directed toward creating a dual-species biofilm for the biodegradation of trichloroethylene, but the findings are a significant contribution to the study of dual-species interactions in general. The two bacterial species used were Burkholderia cepacia PR1-pTOM(31c), an aerobic organism capable of constitutively mineralizing trichloroethylene (TCE), and Klebsiella oxytoca, a highly mucoid, facultative anaerobic organism. The substrate concentrations used were different dilutions of a nutrient-rich medium resulting in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations on the order of 30, 70, and 700 mg/L. Presented herein are single- and dual-species population densities and growth rates for these two organisms grown in batch and continuous-flow biofilm reactors. In batch reactors, planktonic growth rates predicted dual-species planktonic species dominance, with the faster-growing organism (K. oxytoca) outcompeting the slower-growing organism (B. cepacia). In a dual-species biofilm, however, dual-species planktonic growth rates did not predict which organism would have the higher dual-species biofilm population density. The relative fraction of each organism in a dual-species biofilm did correlate with substrate concentration, with B. cepacia having a greater proportional density in the dual-species culture with K. oxytoca at low (30 and 70 mg/L DOC) substrate concentrations and K. oxytoca having a greater dual-species population density at a high (700 mg/L DOC) substrate

  19. An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann model for biofilm growth in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioug, M.; Golfier, F.; Oltéan, C.; Buès, M. A.; Bahar, T.; Cuny, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a two-dimensional pore-scale numerical model to investigate the main mechanisms governing biofilm growth in porous media. The fluid flow and solute transport equations are coupled with a biofilm evolution model. Fluid flow is simulated with an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann model while solute transport is described with a volume-of-fluid-type approach. A cellular automaton algorithm combined with immersed boundary methods was developed to describe the spreading and distribution of biomass. Bacterial attachment and detachment mechanisms are also taken into account. The capability of this model to describe correctly the couplings involved between fluid circulation, nutrient transport and bacterial growth is tested under different hydrostatic and hydrodynamic conditions (i) on a flat medium and (ii) for a complex porous medium. For the second case, different regimes of biofilm growth are identified and are found to be related to the dimensionless parameters of the model, Damköhler and Péclet numbers and dimensionless shear stress. Finally, the impact of biofilm growth on the macroscopic properties of the porous medium is investigated and we discuss the unicity of the relationships between hydraulic conductivity and biofilm volume fraction.

  20. Kinetic analysis of microbial sulfate reduction by desulfovibrio desulfuricans in an anaerobic upflow porous media biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, C I; Mueller, R F; Griebe, T

    1994-02-20

    An anaerobic upflow porous media biofilm reactor was designed to study the kinetics and stoichiometry of hydrogen sulfide production by the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 5575) as the first step for the modeling and control of formation souring (H(2)S) in oil field porous media. The reactor was a packed bed (50 x 5.5 cm) tubular reactor. Sea sand (140 to 375 mum) was used as the porous media. The initial indication of souring was the appearance of well-separated black spots (precipitates of iron sulfide) in the sand bed. The blackened zones expanded radially and upward through the column. New spots also appeared and expanded into the cone shapes. Lactate (substrate) was depleted and hydrogen sulfide appeared in the effluent.Analysis of the pseudo-steady state column shows that there were concentration gradients for lactate and hydrogen sulfide along the column. The results indicate that most of the lactate was consumed at the front part of the column. Measurements of SRB biomass on the solid phase (sand) and in the liquid phase indicate that the maximum concentration of SRB biomass resided at the front part of the column while the maximum in the liquid phase occurred further downstream. The stoichiometry regarding lactate consumption and hydrogen sulfide production observed in the porous media reactor was different from that in a chemostat. After analyzing the radial dispersion coefficient for the SRB in porous media and kinetics of microbial growth, it was deduced that transport phenomena dominate the souring process in our porous media reactor system. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. NMR metabolomics of planktonic and biofilm modes of growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gjersing, Erica L; Herberg, Julie L; Horn, Joanne; Schaldach, Charlene M; Maxwell, Robert S

    2007-11-01

    Bacteria often reside in communities where the cells have secreted sticky, polymeric compounds that allow them to attach to surfaces. This sessile lifestyle, referred to as a biofilm, affords the cells within these communities a tolerance of antibiotics and antimicrobial treatments. Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been implicated in cystic fibrosis and are capable of colonizing medical implant devices, such as heart valves and catheters, where treatment of the infection often requires the removal of the infected device. This mode of growth is in stark contrast to planktonic, free floating cells, which are more easily eradicated with antibiotics. The mechanisms contributing to a biofilm's tenacity and a planktonic cell's susceptibility are just beginning to be explored. In this study, we have used a metabolomic approach employing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to study the metabolic distinctions between these two modes of growth in P. aeruginosa. One-dimensional 1H NMR spectra of fresh growth medium were compared with spent medium supernatants from batch and chemostat planktonic and biofilms generated in continual flow system culture. In addition, 1H high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR techniques were employed to collect 1H NMR spectra of the corresponding cells. Principal component analysis and spectral comparisons revealed that the overall metabolism of planktonic and biofilm modes of growth appeared similar for the spent media, while the planktonic and biofilm cells displayed marked differences. To determine the robustness of this technique, we prepared cell samples under slightly different preparation methods. Both techniques showed similar results. These feasibility studies show that there exist chemical differences between planktonic and biofilm cells; however, in order to identify these metabolomic differences, more extensive studies would have to be performed, including 1H-1H total correlated spectroscopy.

  2. Modeling Antibiotic Tolerance in Biofilms by Accounting for Nutrient Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Mark E.; Stewart, Philip S.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model of biofilm dynamics was used to investigate the protection from antibiotic killing that can be afforded to microorganisms in biofilms based on a mechanism of localized nutrient limitation and slow growth. The model assumed that the rate of killing by the antibiotic was directly proportional to the local growth rate. Growth rates in the biofilm were calculated by using the local concentration of a single growth-limiting substrate with Monod kinetics. The concentration profile of this metabolic substrate was calculated by solving a reaction-diffusion problem. The model predicted the following features: stratified patterns of growth with zones of no growth in the biofilm interior, slow killing of biofilm microorganisms that was further retarded as the initial biofilm thickness increased, nonuniform spatial patterns of killing inside the biofilm, biofilm killing rates that decrease in a nonlinear way as the concentration of the growth-limiting substrate feeding the biofilm is decreased, and heightened tolerance when external mass transfer resistance is manifested. This modeling study also provides motivation for further investigation of a hypothetical cell state in which damaged cells score as nonviable but continue to consume substrate. The existence of such a cell state can further retard biofilm killing, according to the simulations. The results support the important contributions of nutrient limitation and slow growth to the antibiotic tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms. PMID:14693517

  3. Modeling antibiotic tolerance in biofilms by accounting for nutrient limitation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Mark E; Stewart, Philip S

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model of biofilm dynamics was used to investigate the protection from antibiotic killing that can be afforded to microorganisms in biofilms based on a mechanism of localized nutrient limitation and slow growth. The model assumed that the rate of killing by the antibiotic was directly proportional to the local growth rate. Growth rates in the biofilm were calculated by using the local concentration of a single growth-limiting substrate with Monod kinetics. The concentration profile of this metabolic substrate was calculated by solving a reaction-diffusion problem. The model predicted the following features: stratified patterns of growth with zones of no growth in the biofilm interior, slow killing of biofilm microorganisms that was further retarded as the initial biofilm thickness increased, nonuniform spatial patterns of killing inside the biofilm, biofilm killing rates that decrease in a nonlinear way as the concentration of the growth-limiting substrate feeding the biofilm is decreased, and heightened tolerance when external mass transfer resistance is manifested. This modeling study also provides motivation for further investigation of a hypothetical cell state in which damaged cells score as nonviable but continue to consume substrate. The existence of such a cell state can further retard biofilm killing, according to the simulations. The results support the important contributions of nutrient limitation and slow growth to the antibiotic tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms.

  4. Impact of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biofilm mode of growth on the lipid A structures and stimulation of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Hathroubi, Skander; Beaudry, Francis; Provost, Chantale; Martelet, Léa; Segura, Mariela; Gagnon, Carl A; Jacques, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, forms biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces. APP biofilms confers resistance to antibiotics. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the role of APP biofilm in immune evasion and infection persistence. This study was undertaken to (i) investigate biofilm-associated LPS modifications occurring during the switch to biofilm mode of growth; and (ii) characterize pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and proliferation in porcine PBMCs challenged with planktonic or biofilm APP cells. Extracted lipid A samples from biofilm and planktonic cultures were analyzed by HPLC high-resolution, accurate mass spectrometry. Biofilm cells displayed significant changes in lipid A profiles when compared with their planktonic counterparts. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the inflammatory response of PAMs exposed to UV-inactivated APP grown in biofilm or in suspension. Relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes IL1, IL6, IL8 and MCP1 decreased in PAMs when exposed to biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Additionally, the biofilm state reduced PBMCs proliferation. Taken together, APP biofilm cells show a weaker ability to stimulate innate immune cells, which could be due, in part, to lipid A structure modifications. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Kinetics of epidermal growth factor in saliva.

    PubMed

    Ino, M; Ushiro, K; Ino, C; Yamashita, T; Kumazawa, T

    1993-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) stimulates the growth and differentiation of various tissues. We measured EGF levels in saliva (n = 128), urine (n = 94), and serum (n = 99) with radioimmunoassay in order to study the kinetics of hEGF in saliva of normal subjects and patients with oral disease. Salivary EGF levels showed an apparent diurnal rhythm related to the taking of meals. Urinary and serum EGF levels showed no obvious diurnal rhythm. There was no significant correlation between salivary and urinary EGF levels, nor between salivary and serum EGF levels. Salivary EGF levels were significantly lower in the younger group (0-9 years old, 3.06 +/- 0.32 ng/ml, p < 0.05) than in the elder group (10-79 years old, 4.78 +/- 3.5 ng/ml), but did not correlate with age in the elder group. There was no significant difference between males and females between EGF levels in saliva, urine or serum. The relative proportion of EGF levels in submandibular gland saliva, parotid saliva, and whole saliva was 1:6:4. The positive rate of immunohistochemical EGF showed no significant differences between submandibular gland, parotid gland, sublingual gland or minor salivary gland. Salivary EGF levels were markedly low in patients with oral inflammations (stomatitis aphthosa, or peritonsillar abscess) or head and neck tumors (squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, oral cavity, hypopharynx or larynx). These findings may be significant pathophysiologically. Low salivary EGF levels may reduce the capacity of oral mucosal defense mechanisms to fight against injury by physiochemical agents.

  6. Domain growth kinetics in stratifying foam films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-11-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification, which results in a thickness-dependent variation in reflected light intensity, visualized as progressively darker shades of gray. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. We show that the domain expansion dynamics exhibit two distinct growth regimes with characteristic scaling laws. Though several studies have focused on the expansion dynamics of isolated domains that exhibit a diffusion-like scaling, the change in expansion kinetics observed after domains contact with the Plateau border has not been reported and analyzed before.

  7. Tyrosine Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation in Burkholderia cenocepacia Affect Biofilm Formation, Growth under Nutritional Deprivation, and Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Angel; Tavares-Carreón, Faviola; Khodai-Kalaki, Maryam; Valvano, Miguel A

    2015-11-20

    Burkholderia cenocepacia, a member of the B. cepacia complex (Bcc), is an opportunistic pathogen causing serious chronic infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Tyrosine phosphorylation has emerged as an important posttranslational modification modulating the physiology and pathogenicity of Bcc bacteria. Here, we investigated the predicted bacterial tyrosine kinases BCAM1331 and BceF and the low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases BCAM0208, BceD, and BCAL2200 of B. cenocepacia K56-2. We show that BCAM1331, BceF, BCAM0208, and BceD contribute to biofilm formation, while BCAL2200 is required for growth under nutrient-limited conditions. Multiple deletions of either tyrosine kinase or low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase genes resulted in the attenuation of B. cenocepacia intramacrophage survival and reduced pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella larval infection model. Experimental evidence indicates that BCAM1331 displays reduced tyrosine autophosphorylation activity compared to that of BceF. With the artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate, the phosphatase activities of the three low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases demonstrated similar kinetic parameters. However, only BCAM0208 and BceD could dephosphorylate BceF. Further, BCAL2200 became tyrosine phosphorylated in vivo and catalyzed its autodephosphorylation. Together, our data suggest that despite having similar biochemical activities, low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases and tyrosine kinases have both overlapping and specific roles in the physiology of B. cenocepacia.

  8. Tyrosine Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation in Burkholderia cenocepacia Affect Biofilm Formation, Growth under Nutritional Deprivation, and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel; Tavares-Carreón, Faviola; Khodai-Kalaki, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia, a member of the B. cepacia complex (Bcc), is an opportunistic pathogen causing serious chronic infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Tyrosine phosphorylation has emerged as an important posttranslational modification modulating the physiology and pathogenicity of Bcc bacteria. Here, we investigated the predicted bacterial tyrosine kinases BCAM1331 and BceF and the low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases BCAM0208, BceD, and BCAL2200 of B. cenocepacia K56-2. We show that BCAM1331, BceF, BCAM0208, and BceD contribute to biofilm formation, while BCAL2200 is required for growth under nutrient-limited conditions. Multiple deletions of either tyrosine kinase or low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase genes resulted in the attenuation of B. cenocepacia intramacrophage survival and reduced pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella larval infection model. Experimental evidence indicates that BCAM1331 displays reduced tyrosine autophosphorylation activity compared to that of BceF. With the artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate, the phosphatase activities of the three low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases demonstrated similar kinetic parameters. However, only BCAM0208 and BceD could dephosphorylate BceF. Further, BCAL2200 became tyrosine phosphorylated in vivo and catalyzed its autodephosphorylation. Together, our data suggest that despite having similar biochemical activities, low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases and tyrosine kinases have both overlapping and specific roles in the physiology of B. cenocepacia. PMID:26590274

  9. Demonstrating benthic control of anomalous solute transport: biofilm growth interacts with substrate size.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubeneau, A. F.; Tank, J. L.; Bolster, D.; Hanrahan, B.

    2014-12-01

    In fluvial systems, biofilms are the main driver of biogeochemical transformations. Biofilms grow on most surfaces in the benthic and hyporheic regions, where they process waterborne solutes. These solutes are transported in the regional flow and their fluxes near the biofilms are controlled by local physical properties, such as head gradients and hydraulic conductivity. These properties are in turn influenced by the growth of the biofilm itself, which can clog porous media and/or develop its own network of porous space. Therefore, the residence time of a solute in proximity to biofilm surfaces, where it can be processed, should be influenced by the properties not only of the physical environment, but by that of the biofilm itself. We hypothesized that the presence of biofilms would increase residence times in the benthic and shallow subsurface regions of the stream bed. We performed controlled experiments in 4 experimental streams at Notre Dame's Linked Experimental Ecosystem Facility (ND-LEEF) to quantify the interaction between substrate and biofilm in controlling anomalous solute transport. Each stream at ND-LEEF had a different substrate configuration: 2 with homogeneous substrate but with different sizes (pea gravel vs. coarse gravel) and 2 with heterogeneous substrate (alternating sections vs. well-mixed reaches). We measured the evolution of the residence time distributions in the streams by injecting rhodamine tracer (RWT) multiple times over the course of a 5 month colonization gradient. Analysis of breakthrough curves demonstrated that in addition to the influence of substrate, biofilm colonization and growth significantly influenced the residence time in the system. Specifically, as biofilms grew, the power-law exponent of the RTD decreased, i.e. the tails of the distributions became heavier, suggesting prolonged retention due to the presence of the biofilms. Although the substrate signature persisted over time, with the coarser gravel bed washing out

  10. Electron Donors Supporting Growth and Electroactivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Anode Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Speers, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Geobacter bacteria efficiently oxidize acetate into electricity in bioelectrochemical systems, yet the range of fermentation products that support the growth of anode biofilms and electricity production has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we show that Geobacter sulfurreducens oxidized formate and lactate with electrodes and Fe(III) as terminal electron acceptors, though with reduced efficiency compared to acetate. The structure of the formate and lactate biofilms increased in roughness, and the substratum coverage decreased, to alleviate the metabolic constraints derived from the assimilation of carbon from the substrates. Low levels of acetate promoted formate carbon assimilation and biofilm growth and increased the system's performance to levels comparable to those with acetate only. Lactate carbon assimilation also limited biofilm growth and led to the partial oxidization of lactate to acetate. However, lactate was fully oxidized in the presence of fumarate, which redirected carbon fluxes into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and by acetate-grown biofilms. These results expand the known ranges of electron donors for Geobacter-driven fuel cells and identify microbial constraints that can be targeted to develop better-performing strains and increase the performance of bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:22101036

  11. Reaction–diffusion theory explains hypoxia and heterogeneous growth within microbial biofilms associated with chronic infections

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Philip S; Zhang, Tianyu; Xu, Ruifang; Pitts, Betsey; Walters, Marshall C; Roe, Frank; Kikhney, Judith; Moter, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Reaction–diffusion models were applied to gain insight into the aspects of biofilm infection and persistence by comparing mathematical simulations with the experimental data from varied bacterial biofilms. These comparisons, including three in vitro systems and two clinical investigations of specimens examined ex vivo, underscored the central importance of concentration gradients of metabolic substrates and the resulting physiological heterogeneity of the microorganisms. Relatively simple one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) models captured the: (1) experimentally determined distribution of specific growth rates measured in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells within sputum from cystic fibrosis patients; (2) pattern of relative growth rate within aggregates of streptococcal biofilm harboured in an endocarditis vegetation; (3) incomplete penetration of oxygen into a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm under conditions of exposure to ambient air and also pure oxygen; (4) localisation of anabolic activity around the periphery of P. aeruginosa cell clusters formed in a flow cell and attribution of this pattern to iron limitation; (5) very low specific growth rates, as small as 0.025 h−1, in the interior of cell clusters within a Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm in a complex 2D domain of variable cell density. PMID:28721248

  12. Reaction-diffusion theory explains hypoxia and heterogeneous growth within microbial biofilms associated with chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Philip S; Zhang, Tianyu; Xu, Ruifang; Pitts, Betsey; Walters, Marshall C; Roe, Frank; Kikhney, Judith; Moter, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Reaction-diffusion models were applied to gain insight into the aspects of biofilm infection and persistence by comparing mathematical simulations with the experimental data from varied bacterial biofilms. These comparisons, including three in vitro systems and two clinical investigations of specimens examined ex vivo, underscored the central importance of concentration gradients of metabolic substrates and the resulting physiological heterogeneity of the microorganisms. Relatively simple one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) models captured the: (1) experimentally determined distribution of specific growth rates measured in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells within sputum from cystic fibrosis patients; (2) pattern of relative growth rate within aggregates of streptococcal biofilm harboured in an endocarditis vegetation; (3) incomplete penetration of oxygen into a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm under conditions of exposure to ambient air and also pure oxygen; (4) localisation of anabolic activity around the periphery of P. aeruginosa cell clusters formed in a flow cell and attribution of this pattern to iron limitation; (5) very low specific growth rates, as small as 0.025 h(-1), in the interior of cell clusters within a Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm in a complex 2D domain of variable cell density.

  13. Electron donors supporting growth and electroactivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens anode biofilms.

    PubMed

    Speers, Allison M; Reguera, Gemma

    2012-01-01

    Geobacter bacteria efficiently oxidize acetate into electricity in bioelectrochemical systems, yet the range of fermentation products that support the growth of anode biofilms and electricity production has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we show that Geobacter sulfurreducens oxidized formate and lactate with electrodes and Fe(III) as terminal electron acceptors, though with reduced efficiency compared to acetate. The structure of the formate and lactate biofilms increased in roughness, and the substratum coverage decreased, to alleviate the metabolic constraints derived from the assimilation of carbon from the substrates. Low levels of acetate promoted formate carbon assimilation and biofilm growth and increased the system's performance to levels comparable to those with acetate only. Lactate carbon assimilation also limited biofilm growth and led to the partial oxidization of lactate to acetate. However, lactate was fully oxidized in the presence of fumarate, which redirected carbon fluxes into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and by acetate-grown biofilms. These results expand the known ranges of electron donors for Geobacter-driven fuel cells and identify microbial constraints that can be targeted to develop better-performing strains and increase the performance of bioelectrochemical systems.

  14. Development of a simplified biofilm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sushovan; Mazumder, Debabrata

    2017-07-01

    A simplified approach for analyzing the biofilm process in deriving an easy model has been presented. This simplified biofilm model formulated correlations between substrate concentration in the influent/effluent and at biofilm-liquid interface along with substrate flux and biofilm thickness. The model essentially considered the external mass transport according to Fick's Law, steady state substrate as well as biomass balance for attached growth microorganisms. In substrate utilization, Monod growth kinetics has been followed incorporating relevant boundary conditions at the liquid-biofilm interface and at the attachment surface. The numerical solution of equations was accomplished using Runge-Kutta method and accordingly an integrated computer program was developed. The model has been successfully applied in a distinct set of trials with varying range of representative input variables. The model performance was compared with available existing methods and it was found an easy, accurate method that can be used for process design of biofilm reactor.

  15. Large-scale epitaxial growth kinetics of graphene: A kinetic Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2015-08-28

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be C{sub 1}-attachment for concave growth-front segments and C{sub 5}-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  16. Comparative testing of disinfectant efficacy on planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms using a new assay based on kinetic analysis of metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Günther, F; Scherrer, M; Kaiser, S J; DeRosa, A; Mutters, N T

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study was to develop a new reproducible method for disinfectant efficacy testing on bacterial biofilms and to evaluate the efficacy of different disinfectants against biofilms. Clinical multidrug-resistant strains were chosen as test isolates to ensure practical relevance. We compared the standard qualitative suspension assay for disinfectant testing, which does not take into account biofilm formation, to the new biofilm viability assay that uses kinetic analysis of metabolic activity in biofilms after disinfectant exposure to evaluate disinfectant efficacy. In addition, the efficacy of four standard disinfectants to clinical isolates was tested using both methods. All tested disinfectants were effective against test isolates when in planktonic state using the standard qualitative suspension assay, while disinfectants were only weakly effective against bacteria in biofilms. Disinfectant efficacy testing on planktonic organisms ignores biofilms and overestimates disinfectant susceptibility of bacteria. However, biofilm forming, e.g. on medical devices or hospital surfaces, is the natural state of bacterial living and needs to be considered in disinfectant testing. Although bacterial biofilms are the predominant manner of bacterial colonization, most standard procedures for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and efficacy testing of disinfectants are adapted for application to planktonic bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use a newly developed microplate-based biofilm test system that uses kinetic analysis of the metabolic activity in biofilms, after disinfectant exposure, to evaluate disinfectant efficacy. Our study shows that findings obtained from disinfectant efficacy testing on planktonic bacteria cannot be extrapolated to predict disinfectant efficacy on bacterial biofilms of clinically relevant multidrug-resistant organisms. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Influence of lysogeny of Tectiviruses GIL01 and GIL16 on Bacillus thuringiensis growth, biofilm formation, and swarming motility.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium that has been used as an efficient biopesticide worldwide. Despite the fact that this bacterium is usually described as an insect pathogen, its life cycle in the environment is still largely unknown. B. thuringiensis belongs to the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, which has been associated with many mobile genetic elements, such as species-specific temperate or virulent bacteriophages (phages). Temperate (lysogenic) phages are able to establish a long-term relationship with their host, providing, in some cases, novel ecological traits to the bacterial lysogens. Therefore, this work focuses on evaluating the potential influence of temperate tectiviruses GIL01 and GIL16 on the development of different life traits of B. thuringiensis. For this purpose, a B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis plasmid-cured (nonlysogenic) strain was used to establish bacterial lysogens for phages GIL01 and GIL16, and, subsequently, the following life traits were compared among the strains: kinetics of growth, metabolic profiles, antibiotics susceptibility, biofilm formation, swarming motility, and sporulation. The results revealed that GIL01 and GIL16 lysogeny has a significant influence on the bacterial growth, sporulation rate, biofilm formation, and swarming motility of B. thuringiensis. No changes in metabolic profiles or antibiotic susceptibilities were detected. These findings provide evidence that tectiviruses have a putative role in the B. thuringiensis life cycle as adapters of life traits with ecological advantages. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Influence of Lysogeny of Tectiviruses GIL01 and GIL16 on Bacillus thuringiensis Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Swarming Motility

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium that has been used as an efficient biopesticide worldwide. Despite the fact that this bacterium is usually described as an insect pathogen, its life cycle in the environment is still largely unknown. B. thuringiensis belongs to the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, which has been associated with many mobile genetic elements, such as species-specific temperate or virulent bacteriophages (phages). Temperate (lysogenic) phages are able to establish a long-term relationship with their host, providing, in some cases, novel ecological traits to the bacterial lysogens. Therefore, this work focuses on evaluating the potential influence of temperate tectiviruses GIL01 and GIL16 on the development of different life traits of B. thuringiensis. For this purpose, a B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis plasmid-cured (nonlysogenic) strain was used to establish bacterial lysogens for phages GIL01 and GIL16, and, subsequently, the following life traits were compared among the strains: kinetics of growth, metabolic profiles, antibiotics susceptibility, biofilm formation, swarming motility, and sporulation. The results revealed that GIL01 and GIL16 lysogeny has a significant influence on the bacterial growth, sporulation rate, biofilm formation, and swarming motility of B. thuringiensis. No changes in metabolic profiles or antibiotic susceptibilities were detected. These findings provide evidence that tectiviruses have a putative role in the B. thuringiensis life cycle as adapters of life traits with ecological advantages. PMID:25261525

  19. Influence of Plumbing Materials on Biofilm Formation and Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Potable Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Julie; Dowsett, A. B.; Dennis, P. J.; Lee, J. V.; Keevil, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    A two-stage chemostat model of a plumbing system was developed, with tap water as the sole nutrient source. The model system was populated with a naturally occurring inoculum derived from an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and containing Legionella pneumophila along with associated bacteria and protozoa. The model system was used to develop biofilms on the surfaces of a range of eight plumbing materials under controlled, reproducible conditions. The materials varied in their abilities to support biofilm development and the growth of L. pneumophila. Elastomeric surfaces had the most abundant biofilms supporting the highest numbers of L. pneumophila CFU; this was attributed to the leaching of nutrients for bacterial growth from the materials. No direct relationship existed between total biofouling and the numbers of L. pneumophila CFU. Images PMID:16349278

  20. Influence of glyphosate in planktonic and biofilm growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Ilana Schneider; Baumeier, Nicole Carmo; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Campelo, Patrícia Maria Stuelp; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different concentrations of glyphosate (Rondup®) on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442 inoculated in MHB + glyphosate (0.845 ppm, 1.690 ppm, 8.45 ppm, 16.90 ppm, 84.50 ppm, 169 ppm, 845 ppm, and 1690 ppm) and cultured in normoxia and anoxia, following their OD560nm every hour for 24 h. Biofilms of adapted cells were formed in the presence of glyphosate (0.845 to 1690 ppm) in normoxia and anoxia for 36 h. Glyphosate at concentrations higher than 84.5 ppm reduces the cell density of planktonic aerobic cultures (p < 0.05). However, these same concentrations favor the planktonic anaerobic growth (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the herbicide favors a slight growth of biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner up to 84.5 ppm (p > 0.05), and more pronounced over 169 ppm. Anaerobic biofilms have their growth more readily favored (p < 0.05), regardless of concentration. In a concentration-dependent manner, glyphosate interferes with the growth ability of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442. PMID:25477933

  1. Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Qurashi, Aisha Waheed; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2012-01-01

    To compensate for stress imposed by salinity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production are significant strategies of salt tolerant bacteria to assist metabolism. We hypothesized that two previously isolated salt-tolerant strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) have an ability to improve plant growth, These strains can form biofilm and accumulate exopolysacharides at increasing salt stress. These results showed that bacteria might be involved in developing microbial communities under salt stress and helpful in colonizing of bacterial strains to plant roots and soil particles. Eventually, it can add to the plant growth and soil structure. We investigated the comparative effect of exopolysacharide and biofilm formation in two bacterial strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) in response to varying salt stress. We found that biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide accumulation increased at higher salinity. To check the effect of bacterial inoculation on the plant (Cicer arietinum Var. CM-98) growth and soil aggregation, pot experiment was conducted by growing seedlings under salt stress. Inoculation of both strains increased plant growth at elevated salt stress. Weight of soil aggregates attached with roots and present in soil were added at higher salt concentrations compared to untreated controls. Soil aggregation was higher at plant roots under salinity. These results suggest the feasibility of using above strains in improving plant growth and soil fertility under salinity. PMID:24031943

  2. Human Serum Promotes Candida albicans Biofilm Growth and Virulence Gene Expression on Silicone Biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Samaranayake, Yuthika Hemamala; Cheung, Becky P. K.; Yau, Joyce Y. Y.; Yeung, Shadow K. W.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Systemic candidal infections are a common problem in hospitalized patients due to central venous catheters fabricated using silicone biomaterial (SB). We therefore evaluated the effect of human serum on C. albicans biofilm morphology, growth, and the expression of virulence-related genes on SB in vitro. Methods We cultivated C. albicans SC5314 (wild-type strain, WT) and its derivative HLC54 (hyphal mutant, HM) for 48 h in various conditions, including the presence or absence of SB discs, and human serum. The growth of planktonic and biofilm cells of both strains was monitored at three time points by a tetrazolium salt reduction assay and by scanning electron microscopy. We also analyzed by RT-PCR its expression of the virulence-related genes ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2, PLC and PLD. Results At each time point, planktonic cells of WT strain cultured in yeast nitrogen base displayed a much higher expression of EAP1 and HWP1, and a moderately higher ALS3 expression, than HM cells. In planktonic cells, expression of the ten SAP genes was higher in the WT strain initially, but were highly expressed in the HM strain by 48 h. Biofilm growth of both strains on SB was promoted in the presence of human serum than in its absence. Significant upregulation of ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1, SAP4, SAP6 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2 and PLC was observed for WT biofilms grown on serum-treated SB discs for at least one time point, compared with biofilms on serum-free SB discs. Conclusions Human serum stimulates C. albicans biofilm growth on SB discs and upregulates the expression of virulence genes, particularly adhesion genes ALS3 and HWP1, and hydrolase-encoding genes SAP, PLB1 and PLB2. This response is likely to promote the colonization of this versatile pathogen within the human host. PMID:23704884

  3. Microbial Biofilm Growth on Irradiated, Spent Nuclear Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank

    2009-02-01

    A fundamental criticism regarding the potential for microbial influenced corrosion in spent nuclear fuel cladding or storage containers concerns whether the required microorganisms can, in fact, survive radiation fields inherent in these materials. This study was performed to unequivocally answer this critique by addressing the potential for biofilm formation, the precursor to microbial-influenced corrosion, in radiation fields representative of spent nuclear fuel storage environments. This study involved the formation of a microbial biofilm on irradiated spent nuclear fuel cladding within a hot cell environment. This was accomplished by introducing 22 species of bacteria, in nutrient-rich media, to test vessels containing irradiated cladding sections and that was then surrounded by radioactive source material. The overall dose rate exceeded 2 Gy/h gamma/beta radiation with the total dose received by some of the bacteria reaching 5 × 103 Gy. This study provides evidence for the formation of biofilms on spent-fuel materials, and the implication of microbial influenced corrosion in the storage and permanent deposition of spent nuclear fuel in repository environments.

  4. Effect of negative pressure on growth, secretion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Li, Tongtong; Wang, Guoqi; Yin, Peng; Li, Zhirui; Zhang, Licheng; Liu, Jianheng; Li, Ming; Zhang, Lihai; Han, Li; Tang, Peifu

    2015-10-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has gained popularity in the management of contaminated wounds as an effective physical therapy, although its influence on the bacteria in the wounds remains unclear. In this study, we attempted to explore the effect of negative pressure conditions on Staphylococcus aureus, the most frequently isolated pathogen during wound infection. S. aureus was cultured in Luria-Bertani medium at subatmospheric pressure of -125 mmHg for 24 h, with the bacteria grown at ambient pressure as the control. The application of negative pressure was found to slow down the growth rate and inhibit biofilm development of S. aureus, which was confirmed by static biofilm assays. Furthermore, decreases in the total amount of virulence factors and biofilm components were observed, including α-hemolysin, extracellular adherence protein, polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and extracellular DNA. With quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we also revealed a significant inhibition in the transcription of virulence and regulatory genes related to wound infections and bacterial biofilms. Together, these findings indicated that negative pressure could inhibit the growth, virulence and biofilm formation of S. aureus. A topical subatmospheric pressure condition, such as NPWT, may be a potential antivirulence and antibiofilm strategy in the field of wound care.

  5. Optimizing and real-time control of biofilm formation, growth and renewal in denitrifying biofilter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuhong; Wang, Hongchen; Long, Feng; Qi, Lu; Fan, Haitao

    2016-06-01

    A pilot-scale denitrifying biofilter (DNBF) with a treatment capacity of 600m(3)/d was used to study real-time control of biofilm formation, removal and renewal. The results showed biofilm formation, growth and removal can be well controlled using on-line monitored turbidity. The status of filter layer condition can be well indicated by Turb break points on turbidity profile. There was a very good linear relationship between biofilm growth degree (Xbiof) and filter clogging degree (Cfilter) with R(2) higher than 0.99. Filter layer clogging coefficient (Yc) lower than 0.27 can be used to determine stable filter layer condition. Since variations of turbidity during backwash well fitted normal distribution with R(2) higher than 0.96, biofilm removal during backwash also can be well optimized by turbidity. Although biofilm structure and nirK-coding denitrifying communities using different carbon sources were much more different, DNBF was still successfully and stably optimized and real-time controlled via on-line turbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Autoinducer 2: a concentration-dependent signal for mutualistic bacterial biofilm growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickard, A.H.; Palmer, R.J.; Blehert, D.S.; Campagna, S.R.; Semmelhack, M.F.; Egland, P.G.; Bassler, B.L.; Kolenbrander, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD), a product of the LuxS enzyme in the catabolism of S-ribosylhomocysteine, spontaneously cyclizes to form autoinducer 2 (AI-2). AI-2 is proposed to be a universal signal molecule mediating interspecies communication among bacteria. We show that mutualistic and abundant biofilm growth in flowing saliva of two human oral commensal bacteria, Actinomyces naeslundii T14V and Streptococcus oralis 34, is dependent upon production of AI-2 by S. oralis 34. A luxS mutant of S. oralis 34 was constructed which did not produce AI-2. Unlike wild-type dual-species biofilms, A. naeslundii T14V and an S. oralis 34 luxS mutant did not exhibit mutualism and generated only sparse biofilms which contained a 10-fold lower biomass of each species. Restoration of AI-2 levels by genetic or chemical (synthetic AI-2 in the form of DPD) complementation re-established the mutualistic growth and high biomass characteristic for the wild-type dual-species biofilm. Furthermore, an optimal concentration of DPD was determined, above and below which biofilm formation was suppressed. The optimal concentration was 100-fold lower than the detection limit of the currently accepted AI-2 assay. Thus, AI-2 acts as an interspecies signal and its concentration is critical for mutualism between two species of oral bacteria grown under conditions that are representative of the human oral cavity. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Effects of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms and stationary growth phase.

    PubMed

    Kwieciński, Jakub; Eick, Sigrun; Wójcik, Kinga

    2009-04-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is known for its antimicrobial activity. In this study, we determined whether TTO is effective against Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms and how TTO activity is affected by the S. aureus growth phase. All clinical strains tested were killed by TTO both as planktonic cells and as biofilms. The minimum biofilm eradication concentration was usually two times higher than the minimum bactericidal concentration, yet it was never higher than 1% v/v. The fastest killing of biofilm occurred during the first 15min of contact with TTO and was not influenced by increasing TTO concentration above 1% v/v. Planktonic stationary phase cells exhibited decreased susceptibility to TTO compared with exponential phase cells. The killing rate for stationary phase cells was also less affected by increasing TTO concentration than that for exponential phase cells. These data show that TTO efficiently kills S. aureus in the stationary growth phase and within biofilms and is therefore a promising tool for S. aureus eradication.

  8. Theory of a microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor for growth of planktonic and biofilm populations.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sze-Bi; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2016-04-01

    We present the theory of a microfluidic bioreactor with a two-compartment growth chamber and periodic serial dilution. In the model, coexisting planktonic and biofilm populations exchange by adsorption and detachment. The criteria for coexistence and global extinction are determined by stability analysis of the global extinction state. Stability analysis yields the operating diagram in terms of the dilution and removal ratios, constrained by the plumbing action of the bioreactor. The special case of equal uptake function and logistic growth is analytically solved and explicit growth curves are plotted. The presented theory is applicable to generic microfluidic bioreactors with discrete growth chambers and periodic dilution at discrete time points. Therefore, the theory is expected to assist the design of microfluidic devices for investigating microbial competition and microbial biofilm growth under serial dilution conditions.

  9. Influence of hydrodynamics on the growth kinetics of glass-adhering Pseudomonas putida cells through a parallel plate flow chamber.

    PubMed

    Mbaye, S; Séchet, P; Pignon, F; Martins, J M F

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on the growth kinetics of surface-adhering Pseudomonas putida cells. The results showed in particular that under non substrate-limiting conditions, the early step of bacterial apparent growth rate is lower than those measured with suspended cells. Contrary to previously cited authors which explain this behavior to the different adhesive properties of the "daughter"-cells (which makes more probable the detachment of these daughter-cells), in our experimental conditions, that explanation does not hold and we show a clear dependence of growth kinetics with flow conditions, due to the formation of boundary layer concentration at low Reynolds number. These results revealed that using Monod law in the modeling of biofilm growth in fixed-biomass processes should be performed with care.

  10. Growth Kinetics of Suspended Microbial Cells: From Single-Substrate-Controlled Growth to Mixed-Substrate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Kovárová-Kovar, Karin; Egli, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Growth kinetics, i.e., the relationship between specific growth rate and the concentration of a substrate, is one of the basic tools in microbiology. However, despite more than half a century of research, many fundamental questions about the validity and application of growth kinetics as observed in the laboratory to environmental growth conditions are still unanswered. For pure cultures growing with single substrates, enormous inconsistencies exist in the growth kinetic data reported. The low quality of experimental data has so far hampered the comparison and validation of the different growth models proposed, and only recently have data collected from nutrient-controlled chemostat cultures allowed us to compare different kinetic models on a statistical basis. The problems are mainly due to (i) the analytical difficulty in measuring substrates at growth-controlling concentrations and (ii) the fact that during a kinetic experiment, particularly in batch systems, microorganisms alter their kinetic properties because of adaptation to the changing environment. For example, for Escherichia coli growing with glucose, a physiological long-term adaptation results in a change in KS for glucose from some 5 mg liter−1 to ca. 30 μg liter−1. The data suggest that a dilemma exists, namely, that either “intrinsic” KS (under substrate-controlled conditions in chemostat culture) or μmax (under substrate-excess conditions in batch culture) can be measured but both cannot be determined at the same time. The above-described conventional growth kinetics derived from single-substrate-controlled laboratory experiments have invariably been used for describing both growth and substrate utilization in ecosystems. However, in nature, microbial cells are exposed to a wide spectrum of potential substrates, many of which they utilize simultaneously (in particular carbon sources). The kinetic data available to date for growth of pure cultures in carbon-controlled continuous culture

  11. Silver-decorated orthorhombic nanotubes of lithium vanadium oxide: an impeder of bacterial growth and biofilm.

    PubMed

    Diggikar, Rahul S; Patil, Rajendra H; Kale, Sheetal B; Thombre, Dipalee K; Gade, Wasudeo N; Kulkarni, Milind V; Kale, Bharat B

    2013-09-01

    Reoccurrence of infectious diseases and ability of pathogens to resist antibacterial action has raised enormous challenges which may possibly be confronted by nanotechnology routes. In the present study, uniformly embedded silver nanoparticles in orthorhombic nanotubes of lithium vanadium oxide (LiV2O5/Ag) were explored as an impeder of bacterial growth and biofilm. The LiV2O5/Ag nanocomposites have impeded growth of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063 and Gram-negative Escherichia coli NCIM 2931 at 60 to 120 μg/mL. It also impeded the biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2948 at 12.5 to 25 μg/mL. Impedance in the growth and biofilm occurs primarily by direct action of the nanocomposites on the cell surfaces of test organisms as revealed by surface perturbation in scanning electron microscopy. As the metabolic growth and biofilm formation phenomena of pathogens play a central role in progression of pathogenesis, LiV2O5/Ag nanocomposite-based approach is likely to curb the menace of reoccurrence of infectious diseases. Thus, LiV2O5/Ag nanocomposites can be viewed as a promising candidate in biofabrication of biomedical materials.

  12. Kinetics of microbial bromate reduction in a hydrogen-oxidizing, denitrifying biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Downing, Leon S; Nerenberg, Robert

    2007-10-15

    Bromate (BrO(3)(-)) is an oxidized contaminant produced from bromide (Br(-)) during ozonation and advanced oxidation of drinking water. Previous research shows that denitrifying bioreactors can reduce bromate to innocuous bromide. We studied a hydrogen-based, denitrifying membrane-biofilm reactor (MBfR) for bromate reduction, and report the first kinetics for a hydrogen-based bromate reduction process. A mixed-culture MBfR reduced up to 1,500 microg/L bromate to below 10 microg/L with a 50-min hydraulic residence time. Kinetics were determined using short-term tests on a completely mixed MBfR at steady state with an influent of 5 mg N/L nitrate plus 100 microg/L bromate. Short-term tests examined the impact of pH, nitrite, nitrate, and bromate on bromate reduction rates in the MBfR. Kinetic parameters for the process were estimated based on the short-term bromate tests. The q(max) for bromate reduction was 0.12 mg BrO(3)(-) x mg(x)(-1) x day(-1), and the K was 1.2 mg BrO(3)(-)/L. This q(max) is 2-3 times higher than reported for heterotrophic enrichments, and the K is the first reported in the literature. Nitrite and nitrate partially inhibited bromate reduction, with nitrite exerting a stronger inhibitory effect. Bromate was self-inhibitory at concentrations above 15 mg/L, but up to 50 mg/L of bromate had no inhibitory effect on denitrification. The optimum pH was approximately 7. We also examined the performance of an MBfR containing pure culture of the denitrifying bacterium Ralstonia eutropha. Under conditions similar to the mixed-culture tests, no bromate reduction was detected, showing that not all denitrifying bacteria are active in bromate reduction. Our results suggest the presence of specialized, dissimilatory bromate-reducing bacteria in the mixed-culture MBfR. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Selected dietary (poly)phenols inhibit periodontal pathogen growth and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Millhouse, Emma; Culshaw, Shauna; Edwards, Christine A; Ramage, Gordon; Combet, Emilie

    2015-03-01

    Periodontitis (PD) is a chronic infectious disease mediated by bacteria in the oral cavity. (Poly)phenols (PPs), ubiquitous in plant foods, possess antimicrobial activities and may be useful in the prevention and management of periodontitis. The objective of this study was to test the antibacterial effects of selected PPs on periodontal pathogens, on both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. Selected PPs (n = 48) were screened against Streptococcus mitis (S. mitis), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). The antibacterial potential of each compound was evaluated in terms of planktonic minimum inhibitory concentration (PMIC) and planktonic minimum bactericidal concentration (PMBC) using standardized broth microdilution assays. The most active PPs were further tested for their effect on mono-species and multi-species biofilms using a colorimetric resazurin-based viability assay and scanning electron microscopy. Of the 48 PPs tested, 43 showed effective inhibition of planktonic growth of one or more test strains, of which curcumin was the most potent (PMIC range = 7.8-62.5 μg mL(-1)), followed by pyrogallol (PMIC range = 2.4-2500 μg mL(-1)), pyrocatechol (MIC range = 4.9-312.5 μg mL(-1)) and quercetin (PMIC range = 31.2-500 μg mL(-1)). At this concentration, adhesion of curcumin and quercetin to the substrate also inhibited adhesion of S. mitis, and biofilm formation and maturation. While both curcumin and quercetin were able to alter architecture of mature multi-species biofilms, only curcumin-treated biofilms displayed a significantly reduced metabolic activity. Overall, PPs possess antibacterial activities against periodontopathic bacteria in both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. Further cellular and in vivo studies are necessary to confirm their beneficial activities and potential use in the prevention and or treatment of periodontal

  14. Effect of estradiol on planktonic growth, coaggregation, and biofilm formation of the Prevotella intermedia group bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fteita, Dareen; Könönen, Eija; Söderling, Eva; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quantity and quality of biofilms at gingival margin are considered to play a role in the initiation and development of pregnancy-related gingivitis. Prevotella intermedia sensu lato is able to consume estradiol, the major sex hormone secreted during pregnancy, in the absence of vitamin K. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of estradiol on the planktonic growth, coaggregation, polysaccharide production, and biofilm formation of the P. intermedia group bacteria, namely P. intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella pallens. In all experiments, the type strain (ATCC) and a clinical strain (AHN) of P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, and P. pallens were incubated with the concentrations of 0, 30, 90, and 120 nmol/L of estradiol. Planktonic growth was assessed by means of the colony forming unit method, while coaggregation and biofilm formation were assessed by spectrophotometric methods. In the determination of protein and polysaccharide levels, the Bradford and phenol-sulfuric acid methods were used, respectively. P. pallens AHN 9283 and P. nigrescens ATCC 33563 increased their numbers at planktonic stage with increasing estradiol concentrations. In 48-h biofilm tests, elevated protein levels were found for both strains of P. intermedia, and the strains P. nigrescens ATCC 33563 and P. pallens AHN 9283 in the presence of estradiol. The P. intermedia strains also increased the levels of polysaccharide formation in the biofilm. Coaggregation of the P. intermedia group organisms with Fusobacterium nucleatum was enhanced only in P. intermedia AHN 8290. In conclusion, our in vitro experiments indicate that estradiol regulates planktonic growth, coaggregation, polysaccharide production, and biofilm formation characteristics of P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, and P. pallens differently. These results may, at least partly, explain the differences seen in their contribution to the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related gingivitis.

  15. Biofilm growth of individual and dual strains of Klebsiella oxytoca from the dairy industry on ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuemei; Flint, Steve H; Bennett, Rod J; Brooks, John D; Morton, R Hugh

    2009-12-01

    Formation of biofilms in dairy membrane plants causes membrane pore blocking, product contamination and subsequent economic loss. To investigate the biofilm growth, two Klebsiella oxytoca strains, K. B006 and TR002, previously isolated from New Zealand dairy membrane plants, were grown both individually and combined on three types of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in different concentrations of whey medium in biofilm reactors (CBR 90, BioSurface Technologies, Bozeman, USA). Biofilms of both the individual and combined strains grew on the membrane surfaces to levels of 4.9-7.99 log colony-forming units (CFU) cm(-2) measured by standard plate counting after removing the cells by sonication. More biofilm grew on used polyethersulfone (PES) membranes than on new PES and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. Both strains formed good biofilms, although K. B006 formed a denser biofilm than TR002. This corresponded to our previous study on the attachment of these organisms, where K. B006 attached in greater numbers than K. TR002. The dual strains produced a higher biofilm density than single strains on the new membranes. Biofilm density tended to increase with increased whey concentration. The saturated biofilm was approximately 10(8) CFU cm(-2). PES membranes appeared to support biofilm growth less readily than did PVDF membranes and therefore may be the preferred material for UF membranes to reduce problems with microbial colonisation. Used membranes were more readily colonised with biofilm than were new membranes. Therefore, selecting a membrane type and monitoring membrane age will help manage biofilm development during UF.

  16. Growth kinetics of microalgae in microfluidic static droplet arrays.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Alim; Kim, Jihye; McLean, Rebecca H; Vanapalli, Siva A; Karim, Muhammad Nazmul

    2012-12-01

    We investigated growth kinetics of microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris, in immobilized arrays of nanoliter-scale microfluidic drops. These static drop arrays enabled simultaneous monitoring of growth of single as well as multiple cells encapsulated in individual droplets. To monitor the growth, individual drop volumes were kept nearly intact for more than a month by controlling the permeation of water in and out of the microfluidic device. The kinetic growth parameters were quantified by counting the increase in the number of cells in each drop over time. In addition to determining the kinetic parameters, the cell-size distribution of the microalgae was correlated with different stages of the growth. The single-cell growth kinetics of C. vulgaris showed significant heterogeneity. The specific growth rate ranged from 0.55 to 1.52 day(-1) for different single cells grown in the same microfluidic device. In comparison, the specific growth rate in bulk-scale experiment was 1.12 day(-1). It was found that the average cell size changes significantly at different stages of the cell growth. The mean cell-size increased from 5.99 ± 1.08 to 7.33 ± 1.3 µm from exponential to stationary growth phase. In particular, when multiple cells are grown in individual drops, we find that in the stationary growth phase, the cell size increases with the age of cell suggesting enhanced accumulation of fatty acids in older cells.

  17. Role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm in the initial adhesion, growth and detachment of Escherichia coli in porous media.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jin

    2008-01-15

    This study systematically investigated the impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm on the initial adhesion, growth, and detachment of indicator bacteria Escherichia coli JM109 in porous media. Two P. aeruginosa strains, the mucoid PD0300 and wide type PA01 with different extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composition and secretion capability, were used to grow biofilm in packed beds. Results from the column breakthrough curves and retained JM109 profiles show that the amount and composition of P. aeruginosa biofilm EPS have a profound impact on the deposition and retention of E. coli in porous media. PAO1 biofilm coating improved E. coli retention in the column, whereas PDO300 biofilm coating had only a small impact on E. coli removal. Biofilm surface hydrophobicity and polymeric interactions between the biofilm and E. coli cell surfaces were found to play important roles in controlling the distribution of E. coli along the columns. After initial attachment, E. coli bacteria were able to survive and grow at similar growth rates in columns coated with either PAO1 or PDO300 biofilms with a relatively low nutrient supply. Biofilm detachment was the major mechanism that introduced E. coli bacteria to the bulk fluid long after the contamination event when E. coli cells became an integral part of the biofilm. Findings of this study suggest that biofilm plays a significant role in controlling the initial attachment, growth, and survival of bacteria in porous media, and that the interaction between bacteria and biofilm surfaces should be considered when predicting bacterial and pathogen migration in the environment.

  18. Patterns of metal accumulation by natural river biofilms during their growth and seasonal succession.

    PubMed

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Chen, Colin S

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the factors influencing patterns of metal accumulation by river biofilms, concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in biofilms from Erh-Jen River and San-Yeh-Kung Creek were investigated during their growth and seasonal succession. Different metal-accumulation patterns during biofilm development were observed between the two rivers. Mature biofilms (grown for 21-28 days) in both rivers showed maximum metal accumulation (≤3.24 × 10(4), 1.55 × 10(4), 7.40 × 10(3), and 7.80 × 10(2) μg g(-1) of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb, respectively) and bioconcentration factors (≤7.15 × 10(5), 1.60 × 10(5), 2.60 × 10(5), and 4.22 × 10(5) l kg(-1) of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb, respectively). These types of biofilms had the characteristics of being good metal accumulators and the ability to integrate metal-exposure conditions, suggesting that they were suitable biomonitors for metal-contaminated water. Seasonal succession in metal-accumulation ability of 1-month-old biofilms from Erh-Jen River was mainly affected by changes in bacterial and algal biomass and chemical oxygen demand in water, whereas that from San-Yeh-Kung Creek was primary influenced by concentrations of total nitrogen in water. Synergistic interaction between these four metals on metal-binding sites within biofilms was also shown.

  19. Changes in the electrochemical interface as a result of the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms on gold.

    PubMed

    Busalmen, Juan Pablo; de Sánchez, Susana R

    2003-06-05

    In this study, variations in corrosion potential and polarization resistance of thin-film gold electrodes as a result of the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms on them are presented. The growth of the volumetric cell fraction of biofilms, as determined by optical sectioning and digital image analysis of phase-contrast images, was found to be exponential during at least 10 hours of incubation. As a consequence of biofilm growth, an exponential decay of the corrosion potential of gold was observed. Most importantly, an increase in polarization resistance of the interface was observed following a strong linear dependence on the mean thickness of biofilms (r = 0.997), as a consequence of oxygen consumption and diffusion limitations. The results presented indicate that the measurement of polarization resistance may be a suitable technique that could be applied easily in industrial or biotechnological systems for monitoring the formation of biofilms. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 82: 619-624, 2003.

  20. Luminous exothermic hollow optical elements for enhancement of biofilm growth and activity.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Li, Shan; Luo, Binbin; Tang, Bin; Song, Tao; Shi, Shenghui; Hu, Xinyu; Xin, Xin; Wu, Ruohua; Cen, Yanyan; Wang, Zhengkun

    2017-03-20

    In this work, we present a luminous-exothermic hollow optical element (LEHOE) that performs spectral beam splitting in the visible spectral range for the enhancement of biofilm growth and activity. The LEHOE is composed of a four-layer structure with a fiber core (air), cladding (SiO2), coating I (LaB6 film), and coating II (SiO2-Agarose-Medium film). To clarify the physical, optical and photothermal conversion properties of the LEHOE, we determined the surface morphology and composition of the coating materials, and examined the luminous intensity and heating rate at the LEHOE surface. The biofilm activity on the biocompatible LEHOE is far greater than that of commercial fibers, and the biofilm weight on the LEHOE is 4.5 × that of the uncoated hollow optical element.

  1. Nanostructured microspheres of silver @ zinc oxide: an excellent impeder of bacterial growth and biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Santosh S.; Patil, Rajendra H.; Kale, Sheetal B.; Tamboli, Mohaseen S.; Ambekar, Jalindar D.; Gade, Wasudev N.; Kolekar, Sanjay S.; Kale, Bharat B.

    2014-11-01

    Nanostructured (metal/semiconductor) Ag@ZnO a photoactive material is synthesized by facile hydrothermal method. The FESEM analysis of as synthesized Ag@ZnO nanostructures showed formation of submicron-sized microspheres, composed of small nanoparticles of size in the range of 10-20 nm. The as synthesized Ag@ZnO nanostructures possess wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO with band edge transition to visible region due to surface plasmon effect of silver which ultimately is responsible for the improved photocatalytic performance. The photocatalytic action of Ag@ZnO nanostructures impede the growth of model organisms Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063 and Escherichia coli NCIM 2931, and biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa O1. The present study is important as it introduces an excellent functionality of Ag@ZnO, an agent for impeding the biofilm and bacterial communities inside the biofilm.

  2. [Kinetic model and simulation of the adsorption-biofilm theory for the process of biopurifying VOC waste gases].

    PubMed

    Sun, Peishi; Huang, Bing; Huang, Ruohua; Yang, Ping

    2002-05-01

    For the process of biopurifying waste gas containing VOC in low concentration by using a biological trickling filter, the related kinetic model and simulation of the new Adsorption-Biofilm theory were investigated in this study. By using the lab test data and the industrial test data, the results of contrast and validation indicated that the model had a good applicability for describing the practical bio-purification process of VOC waste gas. In the simulation study for the affection of main factor, such as the concentration of toluene in inlet gas, the gas flow and the height of biofilm-packing, a good pertinence was showed between calculated data and test dada, the interrelation coefficients were in 0.80-0.97.

  3. Inhibition of Gallic Acid on the Growth and Biofilm Formation of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongyan; Li, Jing; Li, Ji; Tang, Ruihua; Liu, Liu; Shi, Junling; Huang, Qingsheng; Yang, Hui

    2015-06-01

    New strategies for biofilm inhibition are becoming highly necessary because of the concerns to synthetic additives. As gallic acid (GA) is a hydrolysated natural product of tannin in Chinese gall, this research studied the effects of GA on the growth and biofilm formation of bacteria (Escherichia coli [Gram-negative] and Streptococcus mutans [Gram-positive]) under different conditions, such as nutrient levels, temperatures (25 and 37 °C) and incubation times (24 and 48 h). The minimum antimicrobial concentration of GA against the two pathogenic organisms was determined as 8 mg/mL. GA significantly affected the growth curves of both test strains at 25 and 37 °C. The nutrient level, temperature, and treatment time influenced the inhibition activity of GA on both growth and biofim formation of tested pathogens. The inhibition effect of GA on biofilm could be due to other factors in addition to the antibacterial effect. Overall, GA was most effective against cultures incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and at 25 °C for 48 h in various concentrations of nutrients and in vegetable wash waters, which indicated the potential of GA as emergent sources of biofilm control products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Pleurotus ostreatus biofilm-forming ability and ultrastructure are significantly influenced by growth medium and support type.

    PubMed

    Pesciaroli, L; Petruccioli, M; Federici, F; D'Annibale, A

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of support and growth medium (GM) on Pleurotus ostreatus biofilm production, specific metabolic activity (SMA) and ultrastructure. Biofilms were developed on membranes covering a broad range of surface properties and, due to the applicative implications of mixed biofilms, on standard bacterial GM in stationary and shaken culture. Hydrophilic (glass fibre, Duran glass and hydroxyapatite) and mild hydrophobic (polyurethane, stainless steel, polycarbonate, nylon) supports were more adequate for biofilm attachment than the hydrophobic Teflon. Among the GM, sucrose-asparagine (SA) was more conducive to biofilm production than Luria-Bertani and M9. GM was more influential than support type on biofilm ultrastructure, and a high compactness was evident in biofilms developed on SA. Biofilms on Duran glass were more efficient than planktonic cultures in olive-mill wastewater treatment. The main effects of support and GM variables and their binary interactions on both biofilm production and SMA were all highly significant (P < 0·001): thus, the magnitude of the effect of each variable strongly depended on the level of the other one. There is a lack of basic information regarding physiology and ultrastructure of P. ostreatus biofilms. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to fill this gap, thus representing a basis for future studies. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Progress of nanocrystalline growth kinetics based on oriented attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Huang, Feng; Lin, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The crystal growth mechanism, kinetics, and microstructure development play a fundamental role in tailoring the materials with controllable sizes and morphologies. The classical crystal growth kinetics-Ostwald ripening (OR) theory is usually used to explain the diffusion-controlled crystal growth process, in which larger particles grow at the expense of smaller particles. In nanoscale systems, another significant mechanism named ``oriented attachment (OA)'' was found, where nanoparticles with common crystallographic orientations directly combine together to form larger ones. Comparing with the classical atom/molecular-mediated crystallization pathway, the OA mechanism shows its specific characteristics and roles in the process of nanocrystal growth. In recent years, the OA mechanism has been widely reported in preparing low-dimension nanostructural materials and reveals remarkable effects on directing and mediating the self-assembly of nanocrystals. Currently, the interests are more focused on the investigation of its role rather than the comprehensive insight of the mechanism and kinetics. The inner complicacy of crystal growth and the occurrence of coexisting mechanisms lead to the difficulty and lack of understanding this growth process by the OA mechanism. In this context, we review the progress of the OA mechanism and its impact on materials science, and especially highlight the OA-based growth kinetics aiming to achieve a further understanding of this crystal growth route. To explore the OA-limited growth, the influence of the OR mechanism needs to be eliminated. The introduction of strong surface adsorption was reported as the effective solution to hinder OR from occurring and facilitate the exclusive OA growth stage. A detailed survey of the nanocrystal growth kinetics under the effect of surface adsorption was presented and summarized. Moreover, the development of OA kinetic models was systematically generalized, in which the ``molecular-like'' kinetic

  6. Effects of Biofilm Growth on Plasmid Copy Number and Expression of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm growth causes increased average plasmid copy number as well as increased copy number heterogeneity in Enterococcus faecalis cells carrying plasmid pCF10. In this study, we examined whether biofilm growth affected the copy number and expression of antibiotic resistance determinants for several plasmids with diverse replication systems. Four different E. faecalis plasmids, unrelated to pCF10, demonstrated increased copy number in biofilm cells. In biofilm cells, we also observed increased transcription of antibiotic resistance genes present on these plasmids. The increase in plasmid copy number correlated with increased plating efficiency on high concentrations of antibiotics. Single-cell analysis of strains carrying two different plasmids suggested that the increase in plasmid copy number associated with biofilm growth was restricted to a subpopulation of biofilm cells. Regrowth of harvested biofilm cells in liquid culture resulted in a rapid reduction of plasmid copy number to that observed in the planktonic state. These results suggest a possible mechanism by which biofilm growth could reduce susceptibility to antibiotics in clinical settings. PMID:23380728

  7. Thin films of silk fibroin and its blend with chitosan strongly promote biofilm growth of Synechococcus sp. BDU 140432.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Sharbani; Sarma, Mrinal K; Thungon, Phurpa Dema; Santhosh, Mallesh; Goswami, Pranab

    2016-10-01

    The activating role of different polymer thin films coated over polystyrene support on the Synechococcus sp. biofilm growth was examined concurrently by measuring biofilm florescence using a dye and by measuring cell density in the isolated biofilm. Compared to blank (no coating), the increase in biofilm formation (%) on silk, chitosan, silk-chitosan (3:2) blend, polyaniline, osmium, and Nafion films were 27.73 (31.16), 21.55 (23.74), 37.21 (38.34), 5.35 (8.96), 6.70 (6.55) and (nil), respectively with corresponding cell density (%) shown in the parentheses. This trend of biofilm formation on the films did not significantly vary for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum strains. The films of 20 residues long each of glycine-alanine repeat peptide, which mimics a silk fibroin motif, and a hydrophobic glycine-valine repeat peptide, increased the biofilm growth by 13.53 % and 26.08 %, respectively. Silk and blend films showed highest adhesion unit (0.48-0.49), adhesion rate ((4.2-4.8)×10(-6), m/s) and Gibbs energy of adhesion (-8.5 to -8.6kT) with Synechococcus sp. The results confirmed interplay of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction between cell-surface and polymer films for promoting rapid biofilm growth. This study established that the thin films of silk and the blend (3:2) promote rapid biofilm growth for all the tested microorganisms.

  8. CdTe-TiO2 nanocomposite: an impeder of bacterial growth and biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholap, Haribhau; Patil, Rajendra; Yadav, Prasad; Banpurkar, Arun; Ogale, Satishchandra; Gade, Wasudeo

    2013-05-01

    The resurgence of infectious diseases and associated issues related to antibiotic resistance has raised enormous challenges which may possibly be confronted primarily by nanotechnology routes. One key need of critical significance in this context is the development of an agent capable of inhibiting quorum sensing mediated biofilm formation in pathogenic organisms. In this work we examine the possible use of a nanocomposite, CdTe-TiO2, as an impeder of growth and biofilm. In the presence of CdTe-TiO2, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows exposed cells without the surrounding matrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy shows spatially distributed fluorescence, a typical indication of an impeded biofilm, as opposed to the control which shows matrix-covered cells and continuous fluorescence, typical of biofilm formation. Quantitatively, the inhibition of biofilm was ˜57%. CdTe-TiO2 also exhibits good antibacterial properties against Gram positive and Gram negative organisms by virtue of the generation of reactive oxygen species inside the cells, reflected by a ruptured appearance in the SEM analysis.

  9. Comparison of biofilm ecology supporting growth of individual Naegleria species in a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Puzon, Geoffrey J; Wylie, Jason T; Walsh, Tom; Braun, Kalan; Morgan, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are common components of microbial communities in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). FLA are of clinical importance both as pathogens and as reservoirs for bacterial pathogens, so identifying the conditions promoting amoebae colonisation of DWDSs is an important public health concern for water utilities. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to compare eukaryotic and bacterial communities associated with DWDS biofilms supporting distinct FLA species (Naegleria fowleri, N. lovaniensis or Vermamoeba sp.) at sites with similar physical/chemical conditions. Eukaryote and bacterial communities were characteristics of different FLA species presence, and biofilms supporting Naegleria growth had higher bacterial richness and higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes (bacteria), Nematoda and Rotifera (eukaryota). The eukaryotic community in the biofilms had the greatest difference in relation to the presence of N. fowleri, while the bacterial community identified individual bacterial families associated with the presence of different Naegleria species. Our results demonstrate that ecogenomics data provide a powerful tool for studying the microbial and meiobiotal content of biofilms, and, in these samples can effectively discriminate biofilm communities supporting pathogenic N. fowleri. The identification of microbial species associated with N. fowleri could further be used in the management and control of N. fowleri in DWDS. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A spatially stabilized TDG based finite element framework for modeling biofilm growth with a multi-dimensional multi-species continuum biofilm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, D.; Neuweiler, I.; Nackenhorst, U.

    2017-02-01

    We consider a model for biofilm growth in the continuum mechanics framework, where the growth of different components of biomass is governed by a time dependent advection-reaction equation. The recently developed time-discontinuous Galerkin (TDG) method combined with two different stabilization techniques, namely the Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) method and the finite increment calculus (FIC) method, are discussed as solution strategies for a multi-dimensional multi-species biofilm growth model. The biofilm interface in the model is described by a convective movement following a potential flow coupled to the reaction inside of the biofilm. Growth limiting substrates diffuse through a boundary layer on top of the biofilm interface. A rolling ball method is applied to obtain a boundary layer of constant height. We compare different measures of the numerical dissipation and dispersion of the simulation results in particular for those with non-trivial patterns. By using these measures, a comparative study of the TDG-SUPG and TDG-FIC schemes as well as sensitivity studies on the time step size, the spatial element size and temporal accuracy are presented.

  11. A spatially stabilized TDG based finite element framework for modeling biofilm growth with a multi-dimensional multi-species continuum biofilm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, D.; Neuweiler, I.; Nackenhorst, U.

    2017-06-01

    We consider a model for biofilm growth in the continuum mechanics framework, where the growth of different components of biomass is governed by a time dependent advection-reaction equation. The recently developed time-discontinuous Galerkin (TDG) method combined with two different stabilization techniques, namely the Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) method and the finite increment calculus (FIC) method, are discussed as solution strategies for a multi-dimensional multi-species biofilm growth model. The biofilm interface in the model is described by a convective movement following a potential flow coupled to the reaction inside of the biofilm. Growth limiting substrates diffuse through a boundary layer on top of the biofilm interface. A rolling ball method is applied to obtain a boundary layer of constant height. We compare different measures of the numerical dissipation and dispersion of the simulation results in particular for those with non-trivial patterns. By using these measures, a comparative study of the TDG-SUPG and TDG-FIC schemes as well as sensitivity studies on the time step size, the spatial element size and temporal accuracy are presented.

  12. Online monitoring of biofilm growth and activity using a combined multi-channel impedimetric and amperometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Pires, Leonardo; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Kleintschek, Tanja; Waldbaur, Ansgar; Schwartz, Thomas; Rapp, Bastian E

    2013-09-15

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in water interfaces and therefore influence our daily lives in an ambivalent manner. In medicine, infections can be attributed to biofilm formation. In technical systems, biofilms are causative agents for biocorrosion, contamination, and clogging processes and are responsible for shear force modification in marine systems. To control and manipulate biofilm formation advanced technologies are needed. This paper reports on a novel real-time biofilm monitoring system using custom-made electronics. The system is able to monitor four electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) electrodes and three amperometric sensors in two microfluidic channels assessing biofilm growth and activity in parallel using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model system. The biofilm was characterized during its seeding and growth stages as well as during different injection intervals of a biocide (sodium azide) which allowed monitoring biofilm destabilization and deactivation effects in real time. The results obtained were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy after live/dead cell staining of the bacteria in the measured biofilm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biofilm growth in porous media: Experiments, computational modeling at the porescale, and upscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peszynska, Malgorzata; Trykozko, Anna; Iltis, Gabriel; Schlueter, Steffen; Wildenschild, Dorthe

    2016-09-01

    Biofilm growth changes many physical properties of porous media such as porosity, permeability and mass transport parameters. The growth depends on various environmental conditions, and in particular, on flow rates. Modeling the evolution of such properties is difficult both at the porescale where the phase morphology can be distinguished, as well as during upscaling to the corescale effective properties. Experimental data on biofilm growth is also limited because its collection can interfere with the growth, while imaging itself presents challenges. In this paper we combine insight from imaging, experiments, and numerical simulations and visualization. The experimental dataset is based on glass beads domain inoculated by biomass which is subjected to various flow conditions promoting the growth of biomass and the appearance of a biofilm phase. The domain is imaged and the imaging data is used directly by a computational model for flow and transport. The results of the computational flow model are upscaled to produce conductivities which compare well with the experimentally obtained hydraulic properties of the medium. The flow model is also coupled to a newly developed biomass-nutrient growth model, and the model reproduces morphologies qualitatively similar to those observed in the experiment.

  14. The effect of blue light on periodontal biofilm growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Carla R; Song, Xiaoqing; Polymeri, Angeliki; Goodson, J Max; Wang, Xiaoshan; Soukos, Nikolaos S

    2015-11-01

    We have previously shown that blue light eliminates the black-pigmented oral bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella melaninogenica. In the present study, the in vitro photosensitivity of the above black-pigmented microorganisms and four Fusobacteria species (Fusobacterium nucleatum ss. nucleatum, F. nucleatum ss. vincentii, F. nucleatum ss. polymorphum, Fusobacterium periodonticum) was investigated in pure cultures and human dental plaque suspensions. We also tested the hypothesis that phototargeting the above eight key periodontopathogens in plaque-derived biofilms in vitro would control growth within the dental biofilm environment. Cultures of the eight bacteria were exposed to blue light at 455 nm with power density of 80 mW/cm2 and energy fluence of 4.8 J/cm2. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of bacteria was performed to demonstrate the presence and amounts of porphyrin molecules within microorganisms. Suspensions of human dental plaque bacteria were also exposed once to blue light at 455 nm with power density of 50 mW/cm2 and energy fluence of 12 J/cm2. Microbial biofilms developed from the same plaque were exposed to 455 nm blue light at 50 mW/cm2 once daily for 4 min (12 J/cm2) over a period of 3 days (4 exposures) in order to investigate the cumulative action of phototherapy on the eight photosensitive pathogens as well as on biofilm growth. Bacterial growth was evaluated using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay. The selective phototargeting of pathogens was studied using whole genomic probes in the checkerboard DNA-DNA format. In cultures, all eight species showed significant growth reduction (p < 0.05). HPLC demonstrated various porphyrin patterns and amounts of porphyrins in bacteria. Following phototherapy, the mean survival fractions were reduced by 28.5 and 48.2% in plaque suspensions and biofilms, respectively, (p < 0.05). DNA probe analysis showed significant

  15. Kinetic experiments for evaluating the Nernst-Monod model for anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) in a biofilm anode.

    PubMed

    Torres, César I; Marcus, Andrew Kato; Parameswaran, Prathap; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-09-01

    Anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) are able to transfer electrons from reduced substrates to a solid electrode. Previously, we developed a biofilm model based on the Nernst-Monod equation to describe the anode potential losses of ARB that transfer electrons through a solid conductive matrix. In this work, we develop an experimental setup to demonstrate how well the Nernst-Monod equation is able to represent anode potential losses in an ARB biofilm. We performed low-scan cyclic voltammetry (LSCV) throughout the growth phase of an ARB biofilm on a graphite electrode growing on acetate in continuous mode. The (j)V response of 9 LSCVs corresponded well to the Nernst-Monod equation, and the half-saturation potential (E(KA)) was -0.425 +/- 0.002 V vs Ag/AgCl at 30 degrees C (-0.155 +/- 0.002 V vs SHE). Anode-potential losses from the potential of acetate reached approximately 0.225 V at current density saturation, and this loss was determined by our microbial community's E(KA) value. The LSCVs at high current densities showed no significant deviation from the Nernst-Monod ideal shape, indicating that the conductivity of the biofilm matrix (kappa(bio)) was high enough (> or = 0.5 mS/cm) that potential loss did not affect the performance of the biofilm anode. Our results confirm the applicability of the Nernst-Monod equation for a conductive biofilm anode and give insights of the processes that dominate anode potential losses in microbial fuel cells.

  16. Influence of growth manner on nitrifying bacterial communities and nitrification kinetics in three lab-scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jinghan; Zhang, Yalei; Yang, Haizhen

    2012-04-01

    The effects of growth type, including attached growth, suspended growth, and combined growth, on the characteristics of communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were studied in three lab-scale Anaerobic/Anoxic(m)-Oxic(n) (AmOn) systems. These systems amplified activated sludge, biofilms, and a mixture of activated sludge and biofilm (AS-BF). Identical inocula were adopted to analyze the selective effects of mixed growth patterns on nitrifying bacteria. Fluctuations in the concentration of nitrifying bacteria over the 120 days of system operation were analyzed, as was the composition of nitrifying bacterial community in the stabilized stage. Analysis was conducted using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR. According to the DGGE patterns, the primary AOB lineages were Nitrosomonas europaea (six sequences), Nitrosomonas oligotropha (two sequences), and Nitrosospira (one sequence). The primary subclass of NOB community was Nitrospira, in which all identified sequences belonged to Nitrospira moscoviensis (14 sequences). Nitrobacter consisted of two lineages, namely Nitrobacter vulgaris (three sequences) and Nitrobacter alkalicus (two sequences). Under identical operating conditions, the composition of nitrifying bacterial communities in the AS-BF system demonstrated significant differences from those in the activated sludge system and those in the biofilm system. Major varieties included several new, dominant bacterial sequences in the AS-BF system, such as N. europaea and Nitrosospira and a higher concentration of AOB relative to the activated sludge system. However, no similar differences were discovered for the concentration of the NOB population. A kinetic study of nitrification demonstrated a higher maximum specific growth rate of mixed sludge and a lower half-saturation constant of mixed biofilm, indicating that the AS-BF system maintained relatively good

  17. Candida-streptococcal mucosal biofilms display distinct structural and virulence characteristics depending on growth conditions and hyphal morphotypes.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, M M; Xu, H; Sobue, T; Nobile, C J; Del Bel Cury, A A; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans and streptococci of the mitis group form communities in multiple oral sites, where moisture and nutrient availability can change spatially or temporally. This study evaluated structural and virulence characteristics of Candida-streptococcal biofilms formed on moist or semidry mucosal surfaces, and tested the effects of nutrient availability and hyphal morphotype on dual-species biofilms. Three-dimensional models of the oral mucosa formed by immortalized keratinocytes on a fibroblast-embedded collagenous matrix were used. Infections were carried out using Streptococcus oralis strain 34, in combination with a C. albicans wild-type strain, or pseudohyphal-forming mutant strains. Increased moisture promoted a homogeneous surface biofilm by C. albicans. Dual biofilms had a stratified structure, with streptococci growing in close contact with the mucosa and fungi growing on the bacterial surface. Under semidry conditions, Candida formed localized foci of dense growth, which promoted focal growth of streptococci in mixed biofilms. Candida biofilm biovolume was greater under moist conditions, albeit with minimal tissue invasion, compared with semidry conditions. Supplementing the infection medium with nutrients under semidry conditions intensified growth, biofilm biovolume and tissue invasion/damage, without changing biofilm structure. Under these conditions, the pseudohyphal mutants and S. oralis formed defective superficial biofilms, with most bacteria in contact with the epithelial surface, below a pseudohyphal mass, resembling biofilms growing in a moist environment. The presence of S. oralis promoted fungal invasion and tissue damage under all conditions. We conclude that moisture, nutrient availability, hyphal morphotype and the presence of commensal bacteria influence the architecture and virulence characteristics of mucosal fungal biofilms.

  18. Characterization of the growth dynamics and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from contaminated platelet units.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamza; Greco-Stewart, Valerie S; Jacobs, Michael R; Yomtovian, Roslyn A; Rood, Ineke G H; de Korte, Dirk; Ramírez-Arcos, Sandra M

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) poses the highest transfusion-associated infectious risk, with Staphylococcus epidermidis being a predominant contaminant. Herein, the growth dynamics of 20 S. epidermidis strains in PCs and regular media were characterized. Strains were categorized as fast (short lag phase) or slow (long lag phase) growers in PCs. All strains were evaluated for the presence of the biofilm-associated icaAD genes by PCR, their capability to produce extracellular polysaccharide (slime) on Congo red agar plates and their ability to form surface-attached aggregates (biofilms) in glucose-supplemented trypticase soy broth (TSBg) using a crystal violet staining assay. A subset of four strains (two slow growers and two fast growers) was further examined for the ability for biofilm formation in PCs. Two of these strains carried the icAD genes, formed slime and produced biofilms in TSBg and PCs, while the other two strains, which did not carry icaAD, did not produce slime or form biofilms in TSBg. Although the two ica-negative slime-negative strains did not form biofilms in media, they displayed a biofilm-positive phenotype in PCs. Although all four strains formed biofilms in PCs, the two slow growers formed significantly more biofilms than the fast growers. Furthermore, growth experiments of the two ica-positive strains in plasma-conditioned platelet bags containing TSBg revealed that a slow grower isolate was more likely to escape culture-based screening than a fast grower strain. Therefore, this study provides novel evidence that links S. epidermidis biofilm formation with slow growth in PCs and suggests that slow-growing biofilm-positive S. epidermidis would be more likely to be missed with automate culture. © 2014 The Authors.

  19. Crystal growth kinetics of the two-step model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Clifford Y.; Lin, Chiu-Hsiung

    1987-03-01

    The single crystal technique was used to measure the growth rate of the potassium alum (111) face and the magnesium sulfate (110) face. The two-step model was found appropriate to describe the growth kinetics with the surface integration order of two for potassium alum crystal and of one for magnesium sulfate crystal. The individual rate constants, Kd and Kr, were determined accordingly.

  20. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe - a kinetic analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in unsalted and salted (3%) salmon roe. Growth curves, developed using inoculated samples incubated at constant temperatures between 5 and 30 degrees C, were analyzed by curve-fitting to the Huang and Baran...

  1. Influence of oxyR on Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Mobility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chun-Hui; Fen, Shin-yuan; Yu, Shu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine food-borne enteropathogen. In this study, we examined the antioxidative activity, growth, biofilm formation, and cell mobility of an oxyR deletion mutant and its genetically complementary strain of V. parahaemolyticus. oxyR is the regulator of catalase and ahpC genes. Protection against extrinsic H2O2 and against the organic peroxides cumene hydroperoxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide was weaker in the deletion mutant than in its parent strain. Expression of the major functional antioxidative genes, ahpC1 and VPA1418, was markedly decreased in the oxyR mutant. Growth of this mutant on agar medium was significantly inhibited by autoclaved 0.25% glucose and by 0.25% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, 0.5% monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose), or 114.8 mM phosphates. The inhibition of the growth of this oxyR mutant by extrinsic peroxides, autoclaved sugars, and phosphates was eliminated by the complementary oxyR gene or by the addition of catalase to the autoclaved medium, while no inhibition of growth was observed when filter-sterilized sugars were used. The formation of biofilm and swimming mobility were significantly inhibited in the oxyR mutant relative to that in the wild-type strain. This investigation demonstrates the antioxidative function of oxyR in V. parahaemolyticus and its possible roles in biofilm formation, cell mobility, and the protection of growth in heated rich medium. PMID:26590276

  2. Control of pathogen growth and biofilm formation using a urinary catheter that releases antimicrobial nitrogen oxides.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Hiroaki; Ebberyd, Anette; Römling, Ute; Brauner, Annelie; Lüthje, Petra; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2013-12-01

    Antibacterial nitrogen oxides including nitric oxide are formed from nitrite under acidic conditions. In a continuous-flow model of the urinary bladder we used the retention cuff of an all-silicone Foley catheter as a depot for export of nitrogen oxides. The cuff was filled with sodium nitrite (50mM) and an acidic buffer solution (pH 3.6) and the growth of nine common uropathogens in the surrounding artificial urine was measured along with biofilm formation on the catheter surface. In experiments with control catheters (NaCl) bacteria grew readily and biofilm developed within hours in five of nine strains. In contrast, with test catheters bacterial counts were markedly reduced and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloace was prevented, whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were unaffected. We conclude that antibacterial nitrogen oxides generated in the retention cuff of a urinary catheter diffuse into urine and prevent the growth of urinary pathogens and biofilm formation. Although promising, future studies will reveal if this novel approach can be clinically useful for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  3. Inhibition of bacterial growth and biofilm production by constituents from Hypericum spp.

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, S A; Janssen, M J; Matta, H; Henry, G E; Laplante, K L; Rowley, D C

    2012-07-01

    Biofilm embedded bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to eradicate and are major sources of bacterial infections. New drugs are needed to combat these pathogens. Hypericum is a plant genus that contains species known to have antimicrobial properties. However, the specific constituents responsible for the antimicrobial properties are not entirely known, nor have most compounds been tested as inhibitors of biofilm development. The investigation presented here tested seven secondary metabolites isolated from the species Hypericum densiflorum, Hypericum ellipticum, Hypericum prolificum, and Hypericum punctatum as inhibitors of bacterial growth and biofilm production. Assays were conducted against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Five of the seven compounds demonstrated growth inhibition against the Gram-positive bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.95 µg/mL to 7.81 µg/mL. Four of the secondary metabolites inhibited biofilm production by certain Gram-positive strains at sub-MIC concentrations.

  4. Visualization experiments of biofilm growth in the presence of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manariotis, I. D.; Sygouni, V.; Chrysikopoulos, C. V.

    2013-12-01

    Capturing and storing CO2 emissions in properly selected deep geologic formations is considered a promising solution for the reduction of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, CO2 leakage may potentially occur from the storage geologic formation. Partition of CO2 in water may result in pH decrease. This change in aqueous phase may contribute to solubilization of undesired heavy metals from the solid matrix. In this work we investigate experimentally the impact of CO2 to shallow groundwater systems. A series of visualization experiments in a glass-etched micromodel were performed in order to estimate the effect of CO2 on biofilm formation. Biofilms were developed using Pseudomonas putida. Nutrient saturated with CO2 was injected in the micromodel through an inlet port, and fluid samples were collected at the outlet port. The transient growth of the biofilm was monitored by taking high-resolution digital photographs at various times, and the effect of CO2 on biofilm growth was estimated.

  5. Kinetics of downflow anaerobic attached growth reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.J.; Hamoda, M.F.; Droste, R.L.

    1987-04-01

    This study examines basic reactor operating parameters to be used in DSF reactor design with an optimum surface area to volume ratio, determines kinetic constants, and predicts reactor performance. It includes a comparison of two different substrates, a carbohydrate and a fatty acid. The model gave a good fit to the experimental data obtained and showed that the DSF reactor can successfully treat different wastewaters of various organic strengths at relatively high organic loading rates and short HRTs. (Refs. 27).

  6. The effect of five probiotic lactobacilli strains on the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Jiang, W; Chen, H

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of five probiotic lactobacilli strains on the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans (MS). Five probiotic lactobacilli bacteria (LB), Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus casei LC01, Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, were used as test strains effecting on the Streptococci strain S. mutans UA159 in this study. The effect of LB strains and their supernatants on the viability of the MS was evaluated. Then, the effect of LB strains on the growth of MS biofilm formation was observed by fluorescence microscope. All of the LB strains inhibited the growth of MS at concentrations of 1 × 10(8) and 3 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1) (P < 0.05). Untreated (without pH adjustment and ultrafiltration) LB supernatants from all of the LB strains inhibited the growth of MS (P < 0.05) as well. After pH adjustment and ultrafiltration (treated), only supernatants from L. casei Shirota and L. rhamnosus HN001 inhibited the growth of MS (P < 0.05). MS biofilm formation was also inhibited by all untreated supernatants and by the treated supernatants of L. casei Shirota and L. rhamnosus HN001 (P < 0.05). All five probiotic lactobacilli strains inhibited the growth and biofilm formation of MS, likely through the production of an acid environment, bacteriocin-like poly peptides, or both, and the effects on MS were dependent on the LB strains used. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Growth Kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis in Raw Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Sabike, Islam I; Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Edris, Abobakr M

    2015-01-01

    The growth kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis in raw beef has been little studied so far. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the growth kinetics of the pathogen in ground beef using a growth model. When Salmonella cells inoculated at various initial doses into ground beef were incubated at a given temperature (24℃), the maximum population (Nmax) of the microbe at the stationary phase varied with the doses. This relationship was expressed with a polynomialequation for Nmax using the initial dose. The combination of the growth model and the polynomial equation successfully predicted Salmonella growth at a given initial dose. When Salmonella cells inoculated in ground beef were incubated at various constant temperatures, the growth curves of the pathogen and natural microflora (NM) were well described with the growth model. The rate constant of growth and the Nmax values for Salmonella and NM were then analyzed kinetically. From these results, growth curves of Salmonella and NM in ground beef stored at dynamic temperatures were successfully predicted. Competition between Salmonella and NM in ground beef was also found during the storage. This study could give usable information on the growth of Salmonella and NM in ground beef at various temperatures.

  8. Biodegradation of phenol with chromium(VI) reduction in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm process--kinetic model and reactor performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Wu, Chih-Lung; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Li, Hsin-Lung

    2009-12-30

    A mathematical model system was derived to describe the simultaneous removal of phenol biodegradation with chromium(VI) reduction in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm reactor. The model system incorporates diffusive mass transport and double Monod kinetics. The model was solved using a combination of the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method. A laboratory-scale column reactor was employed to validate the kinetic model system. Batch kinetic tests were conducted independently to evaluate the biokinetic parameters used in the model simulation. The removal efficiencies of phenol and chromium(VI) in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm process were approximately 980 mg/g and 910 mg/g, respectively, under a steady-state condition. In the steady state, model-predicted biofilm thickness reached up to 350 microm and suspended cells in the effluent were 85 mg cell/l. The experimental results agree closely with the results of the model simulations.

  9. Effect of growth temperature, surface type and incubation time on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms to disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Marwan; Chataigne, Gabrielle; Ferreira-Theret, Pauline; Benoliel, Corinne; Drider, Djamel; Dhulster, Pascal; Chihib, Nour-Eddine

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of the environmental conditions such as the temperature change, incubation time and surface type on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms to disinfectants. The antibiofilm assays were performed against biofilms grown at 20 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C, on the stainless steel and polycarbonate, during 24 and 48 h. The involvement of the biofilm matrix and the bacterial membrane fluidity in the resistance of sessile cells were investigated. Our results show that the efficiency of disinfectants was dependent on the growth temperature, the surface type and the disinfectant product. The increase of growth temperature from 20 °C to 37 °C, with an incubation time of 24 h, increased the resistance of biofilms to cationic antimicrobials. This change of growth temperature did not affect the major content of the biofilm matrix, but it decreased the membrane fluidity of sessile cells through the increase of the anteiso-C19 relative amount. The increase of the biofilm resistance to disinfectants, with the rise of the incubation time, was dependent on both growth temperature and disinfectant product. The increase of the biofilm age also promoted increases in the matrix production and the membrane fluidity of sessile cells. The resistance of S. aureus biofilm seems to depend on the environment of the biofilm formation and involves both extracellular matrix and membrane fluidity of sessile cells. Our study represents the first report describing the impact of environmental conditions on the matrix production, sessile cells membrane fluidity and resistance of S. aureus biofilms to disinfectants.

  10. Biofilm supported increase of chemical weathering and decrease of chemical denudation in pine growth experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Z.; Keller, C.; Gill, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Vascular plants and associated microbial communities produced biofilm coatings increase weathering by extending contact periods of minerals with low pH liquids. We performed an experiment to isolate the effects of ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi and ectomycorrhiza- helper bacteria on chemical weathering and chemical denudation (i.e. chemical erosion), and their effects on these fluxes in association with red pine as a host. The study was conducted in a growth chamber using sandy growth medium in replicated flow-through columns. Biotite and anorthite supplied Ca, Mg and K. Concentrations of these cations were measured in input and output solutions, in tree biomass and on exchangeable cation sites of the growth medium; then weathering and denudation fluxes were estimated by mass-balance. In addition, mineral surface changes, biofilm cover and microbial attachment to surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The column experiment demonstrated that both bacteria and fungi had a large weathering potential for Ca- bearing minerals, but the microbial communities were not able to regulate denudation losses without a vascular host. Chemical weathering and denudation were about equal in each microbe-only treatment. By the second 6 months of the experiment treatment effects became significant for the seedling systems (p<0.005). The ectomycorrhizal treatments produced the greatest weathering and least denudation, but non- ectomycorrhizal seedlings lowered denudation as well. The differences between the fluxes were significant in both ectomycorrhizal and non-ectomycorrhizal treatments, but the ectomycorrhizal treatment difference was larger, while abiotic weathering was less and equaled the abiotic denudation flux. The ability to retard denudation in both ectomycorrhizal and non-ectomycorrhizal treatment was linked to biofilm formation on mineral surfaces. An ectomycorrhizal hyphal network, as part of the biofilm or covered by the biofilm, was apparently able

  11. Effects of nutritional and environmental conditions on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Citrobacter werkmanii BF-6.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Li, Long-jie; Shi, Qing-shan; Ouyang, You-sheng; Chen, Yi-ben; Hu, Wen-feng

    2013-12-01

    Citrobacter sp. is a cause of significant opportunistic nosocomial infection and is frequently found in human and animal feces, soil, and sewage water, and even in industrial waste or putrefaction. Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of Citrobacter sp. pathogens but the process and characteristics of this formation are unclear. Therefore, we employed in vitro assays to study the nutritional and environmental parameters that might influence biofilm formation of C. werkmanii BF-6 using 96-well microtiter plates. In addition, we detected the relative transcript levels of biofilm formation genes by RT-PCR. Our results indicated that the capacity of C. werkmanii BF-6 to form biofilms was affected by culture temperature, media, time, pH, and the osmotic agents glucose, sucrose, NaCl, and KCl. Confocal laser scanning microscopy results illustrated that the structure of biofilms and extracellular polysaccharide was influenced by 100 mM NaCl or 100 mM KCl. In addition, nine biofilm formation genes (bsmA, bssR, bssS, csgD, csgE, csgF, mrkA, mrkB, and mrkE) were found to contribute to planktonic and biofilm growth. Our data suggest that biofilm formation by C. werkmanii BF-6 is affected by nutritional and environmental factors, which could pave the way to the prevention and elimination of biofilm formation using proper strategies.

  12. Battling Bacterial Biofilms with Gas Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelaya, Anna; Vandervoort, Kurt; Brelles-Mariño, Graciela

    Most studies dealing with growth and physiology of bacteria have been carried out using free-living cells. However, most bacteria live in communities referred to as biofilms where cooperative interactions among their members make conventional methods of controlling microbial growth often ineffective. The use of gas discharge plasmas represents an alternative to traditional decontamination/sterilization methods. We studied biofilms using two organisms, Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. With the first organism we demonstrated almost complete loss of cell culturability after a 5-min plasma treatment. However, additional determinations showed that non-culturable cells were still alive after short exposure times. We have recently reported the effect of plasma on P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on borosilicate coupons. In this paper, we present results for plasma treatments of 1-, 3-, and 7-day old P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on polycarbonate or stainless-steel coupons. Results indicate nearly 100% of ­biofilm inactivation after 5 min of exposure with similar inactivation kinetics for 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old biofilms, and for both materials used. The inactivation kinetics is similar for both organisms, suggesting that the method is useful regardless of the type of biofilm. AFM images show changes in biofilm structure for various plasma exposure times.

  13. Kinetic Anisotropy and Dendritic Growth in Electrochemical Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkey, D.; Oberholtzer, F.; Wu, Q.

    1995-10-01

    It is shown that kinetic anisotropy stabilizes dendritic growth in electrochemical deposition of copper, and that in its absence the growth tips are unstable to splitting. The degree of anisotropy in the interfacial dynamics, which may be controlled through the chemistry of the electrolyte solution, was determined by the measurement of open-circuit potentials of single-crystal electrodes under nonequilibrium conditions. The experiments provide direct evidence that microscopic interfacial anisotropy in depositional growth stabilizes the dendritic morphology.

  14. Detection of Biofilms in Biopsies from Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients: In Vitro Biofilm Forming Ability and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in Biofilm Mode of Growth of Isolated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Navari, Elena; Esin, Semih; Menichini, Melissa; Barnini, Simona; Trampuz, Andrej; Casani, Augusto; Batoni, Giovanna

    2017-04-08

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is the most common illness among chronic disorders that remains poorly understood from a pathogenic standpoint and has a significant impact on patient quality of life, as well as healthcare costs. Despite being widespread, little is known about the etiology of the CRS. Recent evidence, showing the presence of biofilms within the paranasal sinuses, suggests a role for biofilm in the pathogenesis. To elucidate the role of biofilm in the pathogenesis of CRS, we assessed the presence of biofilm at the infection site and the ability of the aerobic flora isolated from CRS patients to form biofilm in vitro. For selected bacterial strains the susceptibility profiles to antibiotics in biofilm condition was also evaluated.Staphylococci represented the majority of the isolates obtained from the infection site, with S. epidermidis being the most frequently isolated species. Other isolates were represented by Enterobacteriaceae or by species present in the oral flora. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of the mucosal biopsies taken from patients with CRS revealed the presence of biofilm in the majority of the samples. Strains isolated from the specific infection site of the CRS patients were able to form biofilm in vitro at moderate or high levels, when tested in optimized conditions. No biofilm was observed by CLSM in the biopsies from control patients, although the same biopsies were positive for staphylococci in microbiological culture analysis. Drug-susceptibility tests demonstrated that the susceptibility profile of planktonic bacteria differs from that of sessile bacteria in biofilms.

  15. C. albicans growth, transition, biofilm formation, and gene expression modulation by antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial peptides have been the focus of much research over the last decade because of their effectiveness and broad-spectrum activity against microbial pathogens. These peptides also participate in inflammation and the innate host defense system by modulating the immune function that promotes immune cell adhesion and migration as well as the respiratory burst, which makes them even more attractive as therapeutic agents. This has led to the synthesis of various antimicrobial peptides, including KSL-W (KKVVFWVKFK-NH2), for potential clinical use. Because this peptide displays antimicrobial activity against bacteria, we sought to determine its antifungal effect on C. albicans. Growth, hyphal form, biofilm formation, and degradation were thus examined along with EFG1, NRG1, EAP1, HWP1, and SAP 2-4-5-6 gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR. Results This study demonstrates that KSL-W markedly reduced C. albicans growth at both early and late incubation times. The significant effect of KSL-W on C. albicans growth was observed beginning at 10 μg/ml after 5 h of contact by reducing C. albicans transition and at 25 μg/ml by completely inhibiting C. albicans transition. Cultured C. albicans under biofilm-inducing conditions revealed that both KSL-W and amphotericin B significantly decreased biofilm formation at 2, 4, and 6 days of culture. KSL-W also disrupted mature C. albicans biofilms. The effect of KSL-W on C. albicans growth, transition, and biofilm formation/disruption may thus occur through gene modulation, as the expression of various genes involved in C. albicans growth, transition and biofilm formation were all downregulated when C. albicans was treated with KSL-W. The effect was greater when C. albicans was cultured under hyphae-inducing conditions. Conclusions These data provide new insight into the efficacy of KSL-W against C. albicans and its potential use as an antifungal therapy. PMID:24195531

  16. On the Nonequilibrium Interface Kinetics of Rapid Coupled Eutectic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Chen, Y. Z.; Shan, G. B.; Zhang, Z. R.; Liu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Nonequilibrium interface kinetics (NEIK) is expected to play an important role in coupled growth of eutectic alloys, when solidification velocity is high and intermetallic compound or topologically complex phases form in the crystallized product. In order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of NEIK on the rapid coupled eutectic growth, in this work, two nonequilibrium interface kinetic effects, i.e., atom attachment and solute trapping at the solid-liquid interface, were incorporated into the analyses of the coupled eutectic growth under the rapid solidification condition. First, a coupled growth model incorporating the preceding two nonequilibrium kinetic effects was derived. On this basis, an expression of kinetic undercooling (∆ T k), which is used to characterize the NEIK, was defined. The calculations based on the as-derived couple growth model show good agreement with the reported experimental results achieved in rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Sm alloys consisting of a solid solution phase ( α-Al) and an intermetallic compound phase (Al11Sm3). In terms of the definition of ∆ T k defined in this work, the role of NEIK in the coupled growth of the Al-Sm eutectic system was analyzed. The results show that with increasing the coupled growth velocity, ∆ T k increases continuously, and its ratio to the total undercooling reaches 0.32 at the maximum growth velocity for coupled eutectic growth. Parametric analyses on two key alloy parameters that influence ∆ T k, i.e., interface kinetic parameter ( μ i ) and solute distribution coefficient ( k e ), indicate that both μ i and k e influence the NEIK significantly and the decrease of either these two parameters enhances the NEIK effect.

  17. Probiotic lactobacilli inhibit early stages of Candida albicans biofilm development by reducing their growth, cell adhesion, and filamentation.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Victor Haruo; Wang, Yi; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus species on different phases of Candida albicans biofilm development. Quantification of biofilm growth and ultrastructural analyses were performed on C. albicans biofilms treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus planktonic cell suspensions as well as their supernatants. Planktonic lactobacilli induced a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of biofilm cells (25.5-61.8 %) depending on the probiotic strain and the biofilm phase. L. rhamnosus supernatants had no significant effect on the mature biofilm (p > 0.05), but significantly reduced the early stages of Candida biofilm formation (p < 0.01). Microscopic analyses revealed that L. rhamnosus suspensions reduced Candida hyphal differentiation, leading to a predominance of budding growth. All lactobacilli negatively impacted C. albicans yeast-to-hyphae differentiation and biofilm formation. The inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus on C. albicans entailed both cell-cell interactions and secretion of exometabolites that may impact on pathogenic attributes associated with C. albicans colonization on host surfaces and yeast filamentation. This study clarifies, for the first time, the mechanics of how Lactobacillus species may antagonize C. albicans host colonization. Our data elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms that define the probiotic candicidal activity of lactobacilli, thus supporting their utility as an adjunctive therapeutic mode against mucosal candidal infections.

  18. Biofilm growth of Chlorella sorokiniana in a rotating biological contactor based photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Blanken, W; Janssen, M; Cuaresma, M; Libor, Z; Bhaiji, T; Wijffels, R H

    2014-12-01

    Microalgae biofilms could be used as a production platform for microalgae biomass. In this study, a photobioreactor design based on a rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used as a production platform for microalgae biomass cultivated in biofilm. In the photobioreactor, referred to as Algadisk, microalgae grow in biofilm on vertical rotating disks partially submerged in a growth medium. The objective is to evaluate the potential of the Algadisk photobioreactor with respect to the effects of disk roughness, disk rotation speed and CO2 concentration. These objectives where evaluated in relationship to productivity, photosynthetic efficiency, and long-term cultivation stability in a lab-scale Algadisk system. Although the lab-scale Algadisk system is used, operation parameters evaluated are relevant for scale-up. Chlorella Sorokiniana was used as model microalgae. In the lab-scale Algadisk reactor, productivity of 20.1 ± 0.7 g per m(2) disk surface per day and a biomass yield on light of 0.9 ± 0.04 g dry weight biomass per mol photons were obtained. Different disk rotation speeds did demonstrate minimal effects on biofilm growth and on the diffusion of substrate into the biofilm. CO2 limitation, however, drastically reduced productivity to 2-4 g per m(2) disk surface per day. Productivity could be maintained over a period of 21 weeks without re-inoculation of the Algadisk. Productivity decreased under extreme conditions such as pH 9-10, temperature above 40°C, and with low CO2 concentrations. Maximal productivity, however, was promptly recovered when optimal cultivation conditions were reinstated. These results exhibit an apparent opportunity to employ the Algadisk photobioreactor at large scale for microalgae biomass production if diffusion does not limit the CO2 supply. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inhibitory effects of lactoferrin on growth and biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2009-08-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding antimicrobial protein present in saliva and gingival crevicular fluids, and it is possibly associated with host defense against oral pathogens, including periodontopathic bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of LF-related agents on the growth and biofilm formation of two periodontopathic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which reside as biofilms in the subgingival plaque. The planktonic growth of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia was suppressed for up to 5 h by incubation with >or=130 microg/ml of human LF (hLF), iron-free and iron-saturated bovine LF (apo-bLF and holo-bLF, respectively), and >or=6 microg/ml of bLF-derived antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B); but those effects were weak after 8 h. The biofilm formation of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia over 24 h was effectively inhibited by lower concentrations (>or=8 microg/ml) of various iron-bound forms (the apo, native, and holo forms) of bLF and hLF but not LFcin B. A preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia was also reduced by incubation with various iron-bound bLFs, hLF, and LFcin B for 5 h. In an examination of the effectiveness of native bLF when it was used in combination with four antibiotics, it was found that treatment with ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and minocycline in combination with native bLF for 24 h reduced the amount of a preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis compared with the level of reduction achieved with each agent alone. These results demonstrate the antibiofilm activity of LF with lower iron dependency against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia and the potential usefulness of LF for the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases and as adjunct therapy for periodontal diseases.

  20. Differences between single- and dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella parvula in growth, acidogenicity and susceptibility to chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Kara, Duygu; Luppens, Suzanne B I; Cate, Jacob M

    2006-02-01

    Streptococcus mutans, considered a primary pathogen in dental caries, thrives in dental plaque, which is a multispecies biofilm. Metabolic interactions between S. mutans and Veillonella parvula have been suggested. In this study we developed a biofilm model to quantify single-species (S. mutans or V. parvula) and dual-species (S. mutans and V. parvula) biofilm formation, and we identified the differences between the respective biofilms in terms of growth, acid formation, and response to chlorhexidine. Polystyrene 96-well microtiter plates were used for biofilm formation. These biofilms were exposed to various chlorhexidine concentrations (0.025-0.4 mg ml(-1)) and treatment conditions. Growth of the biofilms and the effects of chlorhexidine were evaluated by viable counts. Viability of the two species in all biofilm types was similar ( approximately 10(8) colony-forming units per well) after 72 h. Lactic acid accumulation of dual-species biofilms was significantly lower at 48 and 72 h than single-species biofilms of S. mutans. Dual-species biofilms were less susceptible to chlorhexidine than single-species biofilms when a neutralization step was included. These results indicate that bacteria in dual-species biofilms have different properties from bacteria in single-species biofilms.

  1. Kinetics-driven anisotropic growth of pentacene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mahboob, Abdullah; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Kazuo; Sakurai, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    The growth of nonepitaxial as well as epitaxial structures of (001)-oriented pentacene ( C22H14 , Pn) thin films on silicon surfaces has been extensively studied in order to elucidate the intrinsic thin-film growth mechanism. The kinetically driven growth processes in pentacene films were found to be modified significantly by the anisotropy of the crystal structure. In situ real-time low-energy electron microscopy studies of diffusion-limited growth of Pn islands on Si(111)-7×7 and α√3 -Bi-Si(111) surfaces reveal a definite anisotropy in their shapes. Although this anisotropy is associated with organic film crystal structure, it cannot be predicted directly from the equilibrium crystal shape. It has been found that under kinetic growth conditions the Pn islands are always elongated along the b axis of the in-plane unit cell, even though the step along the a axis has the lowest energy, regardless of crystalline polymorph or epitaxial relation, indicating that Pn thin-film growth has an intrinsic kinetic preference along the b -axis direction. Utilizing this kinetic preference and constraining the direction of available flux on inert surfaces during Pn deposition enabled us to control the crystal orientation of Pn domains.

  2. Multiple substrate growth kinetics of Leptothrix discophora SP-6.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Nurdan; Sears, John; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    2002-01-01

    The growth parameters of Leptothrix discophora SP-6 were quantified on the basis of the steady-state concentrations and utilization rates of pyruvate, dissolved oxygen, and concentration of microorganisms in a chemostat operated at 25 degrees C, pH 7.2, and an agitation rate of 350 rpm. The results showed that the microbial growth was limited by both pyruvate and dissolved oxygen. A combined growth kinetics model using Monod growth kinetics for pyruvate and Tessier growth kinetics for oxygen showed the best correlation with the experimental data when analyzed using an interactive multiple substrate model. The growth kinetics parameters and the respective confidence limits, estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation, were mu(max) = 0.576 +/- 0.021 h(-1), K(sMp) = 38.81 +/- 4.24 mg L(-1), K(sTo) = 0.39 +/- 0.04 mg L(-1), Y(X/p) = 0.150 (mg microorganism mg(-1) pyruvate), Y(X/o) = 1.24 (mg microorganism mg(-1) oxygen), the maintenance factors for pyruvate and oxygen were m(p) = 0.129 (mg pyruvate consumed mg(-1) microorganism h(-1)) and m(o) = 0.076 (mg oxygen consumed mg(-1) microorganism h(-1)), respectively.

  3. Janus particle rotator-to-lamellar nucleation and growth kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltran-Villegas, Daniel J.; Zhang, Yulei; Larson, Ronald G.

    2017-03-01

    We determine the free energy barrier, critical nucleus size, and kinetics of a Janus particle solid-solid transition by nucleation and growth of lamellar clusters within a metastable rotator phase. The transition involves negligible change in particle position and phase volume and entails only particle orientational ordering. Fast kinetics enable the analysis of unbiased crystal growth and shrinkage trajectories from Brownian dynamic simulations. By fitting simulation trajectories to a diffusion-migration equation, the nucleus free energy and growth coefficient as a function of nucleus size are extracted. Observed transition times are on the order of hundreds of characteristic particle rotation times. Lamellar crystal nuclei are oblate rather than spherical, but otherwise classical nucleation theory applies, with the bulk free energy contribution following closely the Maier-Saupe theory for purely orientational transitions and the interfacial energy contribution following trends from 3-dimensional Ising spin kinetics.

  4. General theory for integrated analysis of growth, gene, and protein expression in biofilms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyu; Pabst, Breana; Klapper, Isaac; Stewart, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    A theory for analysis and prediction of spatial and temporal patterns of gene and protein expression within microbial biofilms is derived. The theory integrates phenomena of solute reaction and diffusion, microbial growth, mRNA or protein synthesis, biomass advection, and gene transcript or protein turnover. Case studies illustrate the capacity of the theory to simulate heterogeneous spatial patterns and predict microbial activities in biofilms that are qualitatively different from those of planktonic cells. Specific scenarios analyzed include an inducible GFP or fluorescent protein reporter, a denitrification gene repressed by oxygen, an acid stress response gene, and a quorum sensing circuit. It is shown that the patterns of activity revealed by inducible stable fluorescent proteins or reporter unstable proteins overestimate the region of activity. This is due to advective spreading and finite protein turnover rates. In the cases of a gene induced by either limitation for a metabolic substrate or accumulation of a metabolic product, maximal expression is predicted in an internal stratum of the biofilm. A quorum sensing system that includes an oxygen-responsive negative regulator exhibits behavior that is distinct from any stage of a batch planktonic culture. Though here the analyses have been limited to simultaneous interactions of up to two substrates and two genes, the framework applies to arbitrarily large networks of genes and metabolites. Extension of reaction-diffusion modeling in biofilms to the analysis of individual genes and gene networks is an important advance that dovetails with the growing toolkit of molecular and genetic experimental techniques.

  5. General Theory for Integrated Analysis of Growth, Gene, and Protein Expression in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianyu; Pabst, Breana; Klapper, Isaac; Stewart, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    A theory for analysis and prediction of spatial and temporal patterns of gene and protein expression within microbial biofilms is derived. The theory integrates phenomena of solute reaction and diffusion, microbial growth, mRNA or protein synthesis, biomass advection, and gene transcript or protein turnover. Case studies illustrate the capacity of the theory to simulate heterogeneous spatial patterns and predict microbial activities in biofilms that are qualitatively different from those of planktonic cells. Specific scenarios analyzed include an inducible GFP or fluorescent protein reporter, a denitrification gene repressed by oxygen, an acid stress response gene, and a quorum sensing circuit. It is shown that the patterns of activity revealed by inducible stable fluorescent proteins or reporter unstable proteins overestimate the region of activity. This is due to advective spreading and finite protein turnover rates. In the cases of a gene induced by either limitation for a metabolic substrate or accumulation of a metabolic product, maximal expression is predicted in an internal stratum of the biofilm. A quorum sensing system that includes an oxygen-responsive negative regulator exhibits behavior that is distinct from any stage of a batch planktonic culture. Though here the analyses have been limited to simultaneous interactions of up to two substrates and two genes, the framework applies to arbitrarily large networks of genes and metabolites. Extension of reaction-diffusion modeling in biofilms to the analysis of individual genes and gene networks is an important advance that dovetails with the growing toolkit of molecular and genetic experimental techniques. PMID:24376726

  6. Influence of internal biofilm growth on residual permeability loss in aerobic granular membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Juang, Yu-Chuan; Adav, Sunil S; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2010-02-15

    Membrane fouling results in flux decline or transmembrane pressure drop increase during membrane bioreactor (MBR) operation. Physical and chemical cleanings are essential to keep an MBR operating at an appropriate membrane flux. Considerable residual membrane permeability loss that cannot be removed by conventional cleaning requires membrane replacement. This study demonstrates that an internal biofilm can develop inside a hollow-fiber membrane and can probably account for up to 58.9 and 81.3% of total membrane resistance for aerobic granular MBR operated in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) mode or continuous-fed mode, respectively. The Arthrobacter sp. (accession no. AM900505 in GenBank) corresponded to internal biofilm development by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis and the agar-plating technique. This study also identifies a single strain, Arthrobacter sp., generates the internal biofilm. The Arthrobacter sp. is a rod-shaped bacterium with a size close to that of membrane pores, and can secrete excess bound proteins, hence can penetrate and attach itself inside the membrane and grow. Internal biofilm growth could contribute significantly to membrane resistance during long-term MBR operation.

  7. Label-free interdigitated microelectrode based biosensors for bacterial biofilm growth monitoring using Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jacobo; Becerro, Sheila; Arana, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Impedance microbiology (IM) is a known technique that has been applied during the last decades to detect the presence of microorganisms in real samples in different fields: food industry, healthcare, environment, etc. Bacterial biofilms however have not been so far studied despite the fact that they are the most common microbiological formation and that they present resistance to antimicrobial agents. In situ early detection of bacterial biofilm is still a challenge nowadays that causes huge impact in many different scenarios. The ability to detect biofilm generation early will allow better and more efficient treatments preventing high costs and important problems. In this work a new performance of this technique with interdigitated microelectrode sensors (IDE) is proposed. A specific culturing setup where the sensors have been integrated in Petri Dishes has been developed. From the results it can be highlighted that low frequencies are more sensitive for detection than higher ones. The results achieved record variations of approximately 40% in the equivalent serial resistance after 10h of culture. Electrical models have been successfully simulated to find the electrical behavior of the development of biofilms. Variations in both the capacitance and resistance were recorded during the growth of the microbes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rotation Disk Process to Assess the Influence of Metals and Voltage on the Growth of Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Dana M.; McGrath, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms consist of not only bacteria but also extracellular polymer substrates (EPS). They are groups of microorganisms that adhere to each other on a surface, especially as a result of exposure to water and bacteria. They can pose health risks to humans as they grow in hospital settings that include medical supplies and devices. In a previous study, the researchers discovered that bacteria/biofilm grew well on wetted external latex, male catheters. These results concerned the investigators and encouraged them to find ways for prohibiting the growth of bacteria/biofilm on the male catheters (which are made of natural rubber). They carried out a new study to assess the influence of metals and voltage for the growth of bacteria on these latex samples. For this purpose, a unique Rotation Disk Reactor was used to accelerate biofilm formation on external male catheter samples. This setup included a dip tank containing water and a rotating wheel with the attached latex samples (some of which had single electrodes while others had paired electrodes with applied voltage). The process allowed the samples to become wetted and also exposed them to microorganisms in the ambient air during each revolution of the wheel. The results (as viewed from SEM images) showed that when compared to the control sample, the presence of metals (brass, stainless steel, and silver) was generally effective in preventing bacterial growth. Also the use of voltage (9.5 volt battery) essentially eliminated the appearance of rod shaped bacteria in some of the samples. It can be concluded that the presence of metals significantly reduced bacterial growth on latex and the application of voltage was able to essentially eliminate bacteria, providing appropriate electrode combinations were used. PMID:28773689

  9. A non-destructive method for characterizing phenotypes and growth of a Bacillus subtilis biofilm using fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Stephan; Wang, Xiaoling; Wilking, James; Weitz, Dave

    2015-11-01

    We develop an imaging technique for characterizing growth of biofilms using a triple fluorescent labeled strain for the three main phenotypes of a Bacillus subtilis biofilm on an agar substrate. We find that the biofilm does not flow across the substrate and thus growth is due to colonization at the periphery and thickening of the interior regions. We obtain local height and its composition of the three main phenotypes, which are motile, matrix-producing and sporulating, as well as the non-fluorescent material, which can be spores, dormant or dead cells or extracellular matrix. This technique is suitable for the study of biofilm growth and inhibition for different conditions such as biocides or bioremediation.

  10. Growth and Nitrogen Uptake Kinetics in Cultured Prorocentrum donghaiense

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhangxi; Duan, Shunshan; Xu, Ning; Mulholland, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    We compared growth kinetics of Prorocentrum donghaiense cultures on different nitrogen (N) compounds including nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), urea, glutamic acid (glu), dialanine (diala) and cyanate. P. donghaiense exhibited standard Monod-type growth kinetics over a range of N concentraions (0.5–500 μmol N L−1 for NO3− and NH4+, 0.5–50 μmol N L−1 for urea, 0.5–100 μmol N L−1 for glu and cyanate, and 0.5–200 μmol N L−1 for diala) for all of the N compounds tested. Cultures grown on glu and urea had the highest maximum growth rates (μm, 1.51±0.06 d−1 and 1.50±0.05 d−1, respectively). However, cultures grown on cyanate, NO3−, and NH4+ had lower half saturation constants (Kμ, 0.28–0.51 μmol N L−1). N uptake kinetics were measured in NO3−-deplete and -replete batch cultures of P. donghaiense. In NO3−-deplete batch cultures, P. donghaiense exhibited Michaelis-Menten type uptake kinetics for NO3−, NH4+, urea and algal amino acids; uptake was saturated at or below 50 μmol N L−1. In NO3−-replete batch cultures, NH4+, urea, and algal amino acid uptake kinetics were similar to those measured in NO3−-deplete batch cultures. Together, our results demonstrate that P. donghaiense can grow well on a variety of N sources, and exhibits similar uptake kinetics under both nutrient replete and deplete conditions. This may be an important factor facilitating their growth during bloom initiation and development in N-enriched estuaries where many algae compete for bioavailable N and the nutrient environment changes as a result of algal growth. PMID:24710151

  11. Biofilm Growth of Escherichia coli Is Subject to cAMP-Dependent and cAMP-Independent Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sutrina, Sarah L; Daniel, Kia; Lewis, Michael; Charles, Naomi T; Anselm, Cherysa K E; Thomas, Na'am; Holder, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    We established that Escherichia coli strain 15 (ATCC 9723) produces both curli and cellulose, and forms robust biofilms. Since this strain is wild type with respect to the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), it is an ideal strain in which to investigate the effects of the PTS on the biofilm growth of E. coli. We began by looking into the effects of PTS and non-PTS sugars on the biofilm growth of this strain. All the sugars tested tended to activate biofilm growth at low concentrations but to inhibit biofilm growth at high concentrations. Acidification of the medium was an inhibitory factor in the absence of buffer, but buffering to prevent a pH drop did not prevent the inhibitory effects of the sugars. The concentration at which inhibition set in varied from sugar to sugar. For most sugars, cyclic (c)AMP counteracted the inhibition at the lowest inhibitory concentrations but became ineffective at higher concentrations. Our results suggest that cAMP-dependent catabolite repression, which is mediated by the PTS in E. coli, plays a role in the regulation of biofilm growth in response to sugars. cAMP-independent processes, possibly including Cra, also appear to be involved, in addition to pH effects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. [Growth and development kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis in batch culture].

    PubMed

    Sakharova, Z V; Ignatenko, Iu N; Schulz, F; Khovrychev, M P; Rabotnova, I L

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis growth and its assimilation of nutrient substances were studied under the conditions of batch cultivation in a complex medium containing yeast extract and in a chemically defined medium with amino acids. The growth of B. thuringiensis can be divided into five phases: exponential growth; decelerated growth; stationary phase when protein crystals are formed; stationary phase when spores are formed; lysis of sporangia releasing spores. The first phase may in turn be subdivided into three stages according to changes in the specific growth rate and substrate assimilation: a high specific growth rate and no glucose assimilation; an abrupt drop in mu and the beginning of intensive glucose assimilation from the medium; a new rise in the specific growth rate. As follows from the results of studying the kinetics of B. thuringiensis growth in a chemically defined medium, the above changes in the exponential growth phase are due to the fact that the culture assimilates yeast extract components in the complex medium or amino acids in the chemically defined medium during this phase, and then starts to assimilate glucose and ammonium in the following phases of growth.

  13. ZnO Nanoparticles Affect Bacillus subtilis Cell Growth and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lin, Kuen-Song; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chiang, Chao-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are an important antimicrobial additive in many industrial applications. However, mass-produced ZnO NPs are ultimately disposed of in the environment, which can threaten soil-dwelling microorganisms that play important roles in biodegradation, nutrient recycling, plant protection, and ecological balance. This study sought to understand how ZnO NPs affect Bacillus subtilis, a plant-beneficial bacterium ubiquitously found in soil. The impact of ZnO NPs on B. subtilis growth, FtsZ ring formation, cytosolic protein activity, and biofilm formation were assessed, and our results show that B. subtilis growth is inhibited by high concentrations of ZnO NPs (≥ 50 ppm), with cells exhibiting a prolonged lag phase and delayed medial FtsZ ring formation. RedoxSensor and Phag-GFP fluorescence data further show that at ZnO-NP concentrations above 50 ppm, B. subtilis reductase activity, membrane stability, and protein expression all decrease. SDS-PAGE Stains-All staining results and FT-IR data further demonstrate that ZnO NPs negatively affect exopolysaccharide production. Moreover, it was found that B. subtilis biofilm surface structures became smooth under ZnO-NP concentrations of only 5–10 ppm, with concentrations ≤ 25 ppm significantly reducing biofilm formation activity. XANES and EXAFS spectra analysis further confirmed the presence of ZnO in co-cultured B. subtilis cells, which suggests penetration of cell membranes by either ZnO NPs or toxic Zn+ ions from ionized ZnO NPs, the latter of which may be deionized to ZnO within bacterial cells. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnO NPs can affect B. subtilis viability through the inhibition of cell growth, cytosolic protein expression, and biofilm formation, and suggest that future ZnO-NP waste management strategies would do well to mitigate the potential environmental impact engendered by the disposal of these nanoparticles. PMID:26039692

  14. ZnO Nanoparticles Affect Bacillus subtilis Cell Growth and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lin, Kuen-Song; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chiang, Chao-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are an important antimicrobial additive in many industrial applications. However, mass-produced ZnO NPs are ultimately disposed of in the environment, which can threaten soil-dwelling microorganisms that play important roles in biodegradation, nutrient recycling, plant protection, and ecological balance. This study sought to understand how ZnO NPs affect Bacillus subtilis, a plant-beneficial bacterium ubiquitously found in soil. The impact of ZnO NPs on B. subtilis growth, FtsZ ring formation, cytosolic protein activity, and biofilm formation were assessed, and our results show that B. subtilis growth is inhibited by high concentrations of ZnO NPs (≥ 50 ppm), with cells exhibiting a prolonged lag phase and delayed medial FtsZ ring formation. RedoxSensor and Phag-GFP fluorescence data further show that at ZnO-NP concentrations above 50 ppm, B. subtilis reductase activity, membrane stability, and protein expression all decrease. SDS-PAGE Stains-All staining results and FT-IR data further demonstrate that ZnO NPs negatively affect exopolysaccharide production. Moreover, it was found that B. subtilis biofilm surface structures became smooth under ZnO-NP concentrations of only 5-10 ppm, with concentrations ≤ 25 ppm significantly reducing biofilm formation activity. XANES and EXAFS spectra analysis further confirmed the presence of ZnO in co-cultured B. subtilis cells, which suggests penetration of cell membranes by either ZnO NPs or toxic Zn+ ions from ionized ZnO NPs, the latter of which may be deionized to ZnO within bacterial cells. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnO NPs can affect B. subtilis viability through the inhibition of cell growth, cytosolic protein expression, and biofilm formation, and suggest that future ZnO-NP waste management strategies would do well to mitigate the potential environmental impact engendered by the disposal of these nanoparticles.

  15. An autocatalytic kinetic model for describing microbial growth during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro E D

    2015-01-01

    The mathematical modelling of the behaviour of microbial growth is widely desired in order to control, predict and design food and bioproduct processing, stability and safety. This work develops and proposes a new semi-empirical mathematical model, based on an autocatalytic kinetic, to describe the microbial growth through its biomass concentration. The proposed model was successfully validated using 15 microbial growth patterns, covering the three most important types of microorganisms in food and biotechnological processing (bacteria, yeasts and moulds). Its main advantages and limitations are discussed, as well as the interpretation of its parameters. It is shown that the new model can be used to describe the behaviour of microbial growth.

  16. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect

    Dedyulin, Sergey N. Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2014-03-24

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ≈5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T = 450–650 °C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  17. Signature of microscale kinetics in mesoscale description of epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Joshua P.; Margetis, Dionisios

    2017-08-01

    We describe the effect of kinetic interactions of adsorbed atoms in a mesoscale model of epitaxial growth without elasticity. Our goal is to understand how atomic correlations due to kinetics leave their signature in mechanisms governing the motion of crystal line defects (steps) at the nanoscale. We focus on the key atomistic processes related to external material deposition, desorption, and asymmetric energy barriers on a stepped surface. By starting with a kinetic, restricted solid-on-solid model in 1+1 dimensions, we derive laws that govern the motion of a single step when deposition is nearly balanced out by desorption. These mesoscale laws reveal how kinetic processes, e.g., bond breaking at the step edge, influence step motion via the correlated motion of atoms.

  18. Metastable Solution Thermodynamic Properties and Crystal Growth Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soojin; Myerson, Allan S.

    1996-01-01

    The crystal growth rates of NH4H2PO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, KAl(SO4)2 central dot 12H2O, NaCl, and glycine and the nucleation rates of KBr, KCl, NaBr central dot 2H2O, (NH4)2Cl, and (NH4)2SO4 were expressed in terms of the fundamental driving force of crystallization calculated from the activity of supersaturated solutions. The kinetic parameters were compared with those from the commonly used kinetic expression based on the concentration difference. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, rate expressions based on the chemical potential difference provide accurate kinetic representation over a broad range of supersaturation. The rates estimated using the expression based on the concentration difference coincide with the true rates of crystallization only in the concentration range of low supersaturation and deviate from the true kinetics as the supersaturation increases.

  19. Biofilms of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum: Effect on stress responses, antagonistic effects on pathogen growth and immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Aoudia, Nabil; Rieu, Aurélie; Briandet, Romain; Deschamps, Julien; Chluba, Johanna; Jego, Gaëtan; Garrido, Carmen; Guzzo, Jean

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have extensively investigated probiotic functions associated with biofilms. Here, we show that strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum are able to grow as biofilm on abiotic surfaces, but the biomass density differs between strains. We performed microtiter plate biofilm assays under growth conditions mimicking to the gastrointestinal environment. Osmolarity and low concentrations of bile significantly enhanced Lactobacillus spatial organization. Two L. plantarum strains were able to form biofilms under high concentrations of bile and mucus. We used the agar well-diffusion method to show that supernatants from all Lactobacillus except the NA4 isolate produced food pathogen inhibitory molecules in biofilm. Moreover, TNF-α production by LPS-activated human monocytoid cells was suppressed by supernatants from Lactobacillus cultivated as biofilms but not by planktonic culture supernatants. However, only L. fermentum NA4 showed anti-inflammatory effects in zebrafish embryos fed with probiotic bacteria, as assessed by cytokine transcript level (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10). We conclude that the biofilm mode of life is associated with beneficial probiotic properties of lactobacilli, in a strain dependent manner. Those results suggest that characterization of isolate phenotype in the biofilm state could be additional valuable information for the selection of probiotic strains.

  20. Kinetic model of particle-inhibited grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gary Scott

    The effects of second phase particles on matrix grain growth kinetics were investigated using Al2O3-SiC as a model system. In particular, the validity of the conclusion drawn from a previous kinetic analysis that the kinetics of particle-inhibited grain growth in Al2 O3-SiC samples with an intermediate volume fraction of second phase could be well quantified by a modified-Zener model was investigated. A critical analysis of assumptions made during the previous kinetic analysis revealed oversimplifications which affect the validity of the conclusion. Specifically, the degree of interaction between particles and grain boundaries was assumed to be independent of the mean second phase particle size and size distribution. In contrast, current measurements indicate that the degree of interaction in Al2O3-SiC is dependent on these parameters. An improved kinetic model for particle-inhibited grain growth in Al 2O3-SiC was developed using a modified-Zener approach. The comparison of model predictions with experimental grain growth data indicated that significant discrepancies (as much as 4--5 orders of magnitude) existed. Based on this, it was concluded that particles had a much more significant effect on grain growth kinetics than that caused by a simple reduction of the boundary driving force due to the removal of boundary area. Consequently, it was also concluded that the conclusion drawn from the earlier kinetic analysis regarding the validity of a modified-Zener model was incorrect. Discrepancies between model and experiment were found to be the result of a significant decrease in experimental growth rate constant not predicted by the model. Possible physical mechanisms for such a decrease were investigated. The investigation of a small amount of SiO2 on grain growth in Al2O3 indicated that the decrease was not the result of a decrease in grain boundary mobility due to impurity contamination by particles. By process of elimination and based on previous observations

  1. First-order kinetics of landfill leachate treatment in a pilot-scale anaerobic sequence batch biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Contrera, Ronan Cleber; da Cruz Silva, Katia Cristina; Morita, Dione Mari; Domingues Rodrigues, José Alberto; Zaiat, Marcelo; Schalch, Valdir

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the kinetics evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatment in a pilot-scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR). The experiment was carried out at room temperature (23.8 ± 2.1 °C) in the landfill area in São Carlos-SP, Brazil. Biomass from the bottom of a local landfill leachate stabilization pond was used as inoculum. After acclimated and utilizing leachate directly from the landfill, the AnSBBR presented efficiency over 70%, in terms of COD removal, with influent COD ranging from 4825 mg L(-1) to 12,330 mg L(-1). To evaluate the kinetics of landfill leachate treatment, temporal profiles of CODFilt. concentration were performed and a first-order kinetics model was adjusted for substrate consumption, obtaining an average k1 = 4.40 × 10(-5) L mgTVS(-1) d(-1), corrected to 25 °C. Considering the temperature variations, a temperature-activity coefficient θ = 1.07 was obtained. Statistical "Randomness" and "F" tests were used to successfully validate the model considered. Thus, the results demonstrate that the first-order kinetic model is adequate to model the anaerobic treatment of the landfill leachate in the AnSBBR.

  2. Growth Kinetics and Modeling of ZnO Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Penny S.; Maddox, Leone M.; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nico H.; Ford, Michael J.; Waclawik, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    The technique for producing quantum-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles is much safer than a technique that used hydrogen sulfide gas to produce cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide nanoparticles. A further advantage of this method is the ability to sample the solution over time and hence determine the growth kinetics.

  3. Growth Kinetics and Modeling of ZnO Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Penny S.; Maddox, Leone M.; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nico H.; Ford, Michael J.; Waclawik, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    The technique for producing quantum-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles is much safer than a technique that used hydrogen sulfide gas to produce cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide nanoparticles. A further advantage of this method is the ability to sample the solution over time and hence determine the growth kinetics.

  4. Development and calibration of a microfluidic biofilm growth cell with flow-templating and multi-modal characterization.

    PubMed

    Paquet-Mercier, Francois; Karas, Adnane; Safdar, Muhammad; Aznaveh, Nahid Babaei; Zarabadi, Mirpouyan; Greener, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of a microfluidic flow-templating platform with multi-modal characterization for studies of biofilms and their precursor materials. A key feature is a special three inlet flow-template compartment, which confines and controls the location of biofilm growth against a template wall. Characterization compartments include Raman imaging to study the localization of the nutrient solutions, optical microscopy to quantify biofilm biomass and localization, and cyclic voltammetry for flow velocity measurements. Each compartment is tested and then utilized to make preliminary measurements.

  5. Influence of oxyR on Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Mobility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chun-Hui; Fen, Shin-yuan; Yu, Shu-Chuan; Wong, Hin-chung

    2015-11-20

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine food-borne enteropathogen. In this study, we examined the antioxidative activity, growth, biofilm formation, and cell mobility of an oxyR deletion mutant and its genetically complementary strain of V. parahaemolyticus. oxyR is the regulator of catalase and ahpC genes. Protection against extrinsic H2O2 and against the organic peroxides cumene hydroperoxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide was weaker in the deletion mutant than in its parent strain. Expression of the major functional antioxidative genes, ahpC1 and VPA1418, was markedly decreased in the oxyR mutant. Growth of this mutant on agar medium was significantly inhibited by autoclaved 0.25% glucose and by 0.25% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, 0.5% monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose), or 114.8 mM phosphates. The inhibition of the growth of this oxyR mutant by extrinsic peroxides, autoclaved sugars, and phosphates was eliminated by the complementary oxyR gene or by the addition of catalase to the autoclaved medium, while no inhibition of growth was observed when filter-sterilized sugars were used. The formation of biofilm and swimming mobility were significantly inhibited in the oxyR mutant relative to that in the wild-type strain. This investigation demonstrates the antioxidative function of oxyR in V. parahaemolyticus and its possible roles in biofilm formation, cell mobility, and the protection of growth in heated rich medium. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Individual growth detection of bacterial species in an in vitro oral polymicrobial biofilm model.

    PubMed

    Tabenski, L; Maisch, T; Santarelli, F; Hiller, K-A; Schmalz, G

    2014-11-01

    Most in vitro studies on the antibacterial effects of antiseptics have used planktonic bacteria in monocultures. However, this study design does not reflect the in vivo situation in oral cavities harboring different bacterial species that live in symbiotic relationships in biofilms. The aim of this study was to establish a simple in vitro polymicrobial model consisting of only three bacterial strains of different phases of oral biofilm formation to simulate in vivo oral conditions. Therefore, we studied the biofilm formation of Actinomyces naeslundii (An), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), and Enterococcus faecalis (Ef) on 96-well tissue culture plates under static anaerobic conditions using artificial saliva according to the method established by Pratten et al. that was supplemented with 1 g l(-1) sucrose. Growth was separately determined for each bacterial strain after incubation periods of up to 72 h by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and live/dead staining. Presence of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was visualized by Concanavalin A staining. Increasing incubation times of up to 72 h showed adhesion and propagation of the bacterial strains with artificial saliva formulation. An and Ef had significantly higher growth rates than Fn. Live/dead staining showed a median of 49.9 % (range 46.0-53.0 %) of living bacteria after 72 h of incubation, and 3D fluorescence microscopy showed a three-dimensional structure containing EPS. An in vitro oral polymicrobial biofilm model was established to better simulate oral conditions and had the advantage of providing the well-controlled experimental conditions of in vitro testing.

  7. Effects of Tween 80 on Growth and Biofilm Formation in Laboratory Media.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Christina K; Kjems, Jørgen; Mygind, Tina; Snabe, Torben; Meyer, Rikke L

    2016-01-01

    Tween 80 is a widely used non-ionic emulsifier that is added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods. Because of its widespread use we need to understand how it affects bacteria on our skin, in our gut, and in food products. The aim of this study is to investigate how Tween 80 affects the growth and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, which are common causes of spoilage and foodborne illnesses. Addition of 0.1% Tween 80 to laboratory growth media increased the growth rate of planktonic S. aureus batch cultures, and it also increased the total biomass when S. aureus was grown as biofilms. In contrast, Tween 80 had no effect on batch cultures of L. monocytogenes, it slowed the growth rate of P. fluorescens, and it led to formation of less biofilm by both L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens. Furthermore, Tween 80 lowered the antibacterial efficacy of two hydrophobic antimicrobials: rifampicin and the essential oil isoeugenol. Our findings underline the importance of documenting indirect effects of emulsifiers when studying the efficacy of hydrophobic antimicrobials that are dispersed in solution by emulsification, or when antimicrobials are applied in food matrixes that include emulsifiers. Furthermore, the species-specific effects on microbial growth suggests that Tween 80 in cosmetics and food products could affect the composition of skin and gut microbiota, and the effect of emulsifiers on the human microbiome should therefore be explored to uncover potential health effects.

  8. Effects of Tween 80 on Growth and Biofilm Formation in Laboratory Media

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Christina K.; Kjems, Jørgen; Mygind, Tina; Snabe, Torben; Meyer, Rikke L.

    2016-01-01

    Tween 80 is a widely used non-ionic emulsifier that is added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods. Because of its widespread use we need to understand how it affects bacteria on our skin, in our gut, and in food products. The aim of this study is to investigate how Tween 80 affects the growth and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, which are common causes of spoilage and foodborne illnesses. Addition of 0.1% Tween 80 to laboratory growth media increased the growth rate of planktonic S. aureus batch cultures, and it also increased the total biomass when S. aureus was grown as biofilms. In contrast, Tween 80 had no effect on batch cultures of L. monocytogenes, it slowed the growth rate of P. fluorescens, and it led to formation of less biofilm by both L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens. Furthermore, Tween 80 lowered the antibacterial efficacy of two hydrophobic antimicrobials: rifampicin and the essential oil isoeugenol. Our findings underline the importance of documenting indirect effects of emulsifiers when studying the efficacy of hydrophobic antimicrobials that are dispersed in solution by emulsification, or when antimicrobials are applied in food matrixes that include emulsifiers. Furthermore, the species-specific effects on microbial growth suggests that Tween 80 in cosmetics and food products could affect the composition of skin and gut microbiota, and the effect of emulsifiers on the human microbiome should therefore be explored to uncover potential health effects. PMID:27920774

  9. Nucleation and growth kinetics of biochemicals measured at high supersaturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Amarjit J.; Kirwan, Donald J.

    1994-12-01

    A grid mixer device (characteristic micromixing time < 3 ms) was successfully used to measure both nucleation and growth kinetics of lovastatin in 60 vol% methanol and asparagine monohydrate in 50 vol% 2-propanol at 23°C at high supersaturations but in the absence of mixing limitations. The supersaturation ratios investigated were in the range 1.25-8.8 for the lovastatin system and 1.17-4.1 for the asparagine system. When plotted according to primary nucleation theory, the induction time and nucleation rate measurements for both systems exhibited a homogeneous nucleation region at high supersaturations and a heterogeneous nucleation region at low supersaturations. The values of interfacial free energy extracted from these measurements for lovastatin (1.4-1.6 mJ/m 2) and asparagine (4.5-6.1 mJ/m 2) were an order-of-magnitude lower than those for inorganic salts reflecting the weaker intermolecular bonding in such biochemical solutes. The measured crystal growth rates for both solutes over the entire range of supersaturation could be represented with a power law dependence on chemical potential driving force. The kinetic orders of crystal growth were found to be 6.7 and 2.9 for lovastatin and asparagine, respectively. These unusually high kinetic orders could be represented by a polynuclear surface nucleation growth mechanism. The activation energy for the growth of lovastatin was measured as 280 kJ/mol.

  10. QCM-D for non-destructive real-time assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm attachment to the substratum during biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Adam L J; Mitzel, Michael R; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used to investigate initial adhesion and subsequent biofilm growth of wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and a pili-deficient (ΔpilA) mutant PAO1 strain. Clean, sterilized, silica-coated QCM-D crystals were pre-coated with lysogeny broth (LB), seeded with a PAO1 strain and allowed to grow for 20 h at 37 °C in fresh LB injected at 100 μL/min. QCM-D signals obtained for the wild-type PAO1 strain during the seeding period depict a large positive frequency shift that returns to baseline after ~20 min that is absent in the ΔpilA mutants, suggesting a dynamic pili-mediated attachment event for the wild-type PAO1 strain. During the subsequent growth period, significant and characteristic differences in the acquired QCM-D signals were observed between the wild-type and the ΔpilA mutant. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of the biofilm on the crystal surface showed that these differences could not be explained by differences in the extent of biofilm growth alone. When interpreted according to a coupled resonance model, the QCM-D observations suggest that pili are essential for coupling the developing biomass to the sensor surface. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) supports the hypothesis that the characteristic QCM-D signal is indicative of a dynamic attachment event, mediated by pili cell surface appendages pulling the wild-type PAO1 closer to the surface during the seeding period. We show that QCM-D offers direct, non-disruptive, in situ measurements of biofilm-substrate attachment. This technique has the potential to improve the current understanding of biofilm formation phenomena. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Soomin; Han, Minkyung; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we developed mathematical models to describe the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on natural cheeses. A five-strain mixture of Staph. aureus was inoculated onto 15 g of Brie and Camembert cheeses at 4 log CFU/g. The samples were then stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C for 2-60 d, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacterial and Staph. aureus cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and mannitol salt agar, respectively. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of Staph. aureus to calculate kinetic parameters such as the maximum growth rate in log CFU units (r max; log CFU/g/h) and the lag phase duration (λ; h). The effects of temperature on the square root of r max and on the natural logarithm of λ were modelled in the second stage (secondary model). Independent experimental data (observed data) were compared with prediction and the respective root mean square error compared with the RMSE of the fit on the original data, as a measure of model performance. The total growth of bacteria was observed at 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C on both cheeses. The r max values increased with storage temperature (P<0·05), but a significant effect of storage temperature on λ values was only observed between 4 and 15 °C (P<0·05). The square root model and linear equation were found to be appropriate for description of the effect of storage temperature on growth kinetics (R 2=0·894-0·983). Our results indicate that the models developed in this study should be useful for describing the growth kinetics of Staph. aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

  12. Secondary multidrug efflux pump mutants alter Escherichia coli biofilm growth in the presence of cationic antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Bay, Denice C; Stremick, Carol A; Slipski, Carmine J; Turner, Raymond J

    2017-04-01

    Escherichia coli possesses many secondary active multidrug resistance transporters (MDTs) that confer overlapping substrate resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials via proton and/or sodium motive force. It is uncertain whether redundant MDTs uniquely alter cell survival when cultures grow planktonically or as biofilms. In this study, the planktonic and biofilm growth and antimicrobial resistance of 13 E. coli K-12 single MDT gene deletion strains in minimal and rich media were determined. Antimicrobial tolerance to tetracycline, tobramycin and benzalkonium were also compared for each ΔMDT strain. Four E. coli MDT families were represented in this study: resistance nodulation and cell division members acrA, acrB, acrD, acrE, acrF and tolC; multidrug and toxin extruder mdtK; major facilitator superfamily emrA and emrB; and small multidrug resistance members emrE, sugE, mdtI and mdtJ. Deletions of multipartite efflux system genes acrB, acrE and tolC resulted in significant reductions in both planktonic and biofilm growth phenotypes and enhanced antimicrobial susceptibilities. The loss of remaining MDT genes produced similar or enhanced (acrD, acrE, emrA, emrB, mdtK, emrE and mdtJ) biofilm growth and antimicrobial resistance. ΔMDT strains with enhanced antimicrobial tolerance also enhanced biofilm biomass. These findings suggest that many redundant MDTs regulate biofilm formation and drug tolerance.

  13. Quantifying the rate of biofilm growth of S. meliloti strains in microfluidics via the diffusion coefficient of microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorian, Matthew; Seitaridou, Effrosyni

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the rate of biofilm growth is essential for studying genes and preventing unwanted biofilms. In this study, the diffusion coefficient (D) of polystyrene microspheres was used to quantify biofilm growth rates of Sinorhizobia meliloti, a nitrogen fixing bacteria that forms a symbiotic relationship with alfalfa plants. Five strains were studied, two wild types (8530 expR+ and 1021) and three mutants in the exopolysaccharide (EPS I, EPS II) synthesis (8530 exoY , 9034 expG , and 9030-2 expA 1); 1021 and 9030-2 expA 1 are known to be unable to form biofilms. Each strain was inserted into a microfluidic channel with the microspheres. As the cultures grew, the spheres' D values were obtained every 24 hours for 4 days using fluorescence microscopy. Although the D values for 9030-2 expA 1 were inconclusive, 8530 expR+ , 8530 exoY , and 9034 expG showed significant decreases in D between 3 days of growth (| z | > 2 . 25 , p < 0 . 025). The data also indicated that 8530 expR+ and 8530 exoY grew at similar rates. There was no significant change in D for 1021 (χ2(2) = 5 . 76 , p > 0 . 05), which shows the lack of a structured biofilm community. Thus, D can be used as an indicator of the presence of a biofilm and its development.

  14. Kinetics of microbial growth and biodegradation of methanol and toluene in biofilters and an analysis of the energetic indicators.

    PubMed

    Avalos Ramirez, Antonio; Bénard, Sandrine; Giroir-Fendler, Anne; Jones, J Peter; Heitz, Michèle

    2008-11-25

    The kinetics of microbial growth and the biodegradation of methanol and toluene in (a) biofilters (BFs), and (b) biotrickling filters (BTFs), packed with inert materials, has been studied and analyzed. The specific growth rate, mu, for the treatment of methanol was 0.037h(-1) for a wide range of operating conditions. In the BF, mu was found to be a function of the methanol and toluene concentrations in the biofilm. In the BF used for treating methanol, mu was found to be affected by (1) the nitrogen concentration present in the nutrient solution, and (2) the kind of packing material employed. The kinetics of the methanol and toluene biodegradations were also analyzed using "mixed order" models. A Michaelis-Menten model type provided a good fit for the elimination capacity (EC) of the BTF treating methanol, while a Haldane model type provided a good fit to the EC of the BF treating methanol and toluene. The carbon dioxide production rate was related to the packed bed temperature and the content of the volatile solids within the biofilm. For the BF, the ratio of temperature/carbon dioxide production rate (PCO(2)) was 0.024 degrees C per unit of PCO(2), and for the BTF it was 0.15 degrees C per unit of PCO(2).

  15. Effect of oxygen on the growth and biofilm formation of Xylella fastidiosa in liquid media.

    PubMed

    Shriner, Anthony D; Andersen, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterial pathogen, and is the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines and scorch diseases of many other plant species. The disease symptoms are putatively due to blocking of the transpiration stream by bacterial-induced biofilm formation and/or by the formation of plant-generated tylosis. Xylella fastidiosa has been classified as an obligate aerobe, which appears unusual given that dissolved O2 levels in the xylem during the growing season are often hypoxic (20-60 μmol L(-1)). We examined the growth and biofilm formation of three strains of X. fastidiosa under variable O2 conditions (21, 2.1, 0.21 and 0 % O2), in comparison to that of Pseudomonas syringae (obligate aerobe) and Erwinia carotovora (facultative anaerobe) under similar conditions. The growth of X. fastidiosa more closely resembled that of the facultative anaerobe, and not the obligate aerobe. Xanthomonas campestris, the closest genetic relative of X. fastidiosa, exhibited no growth in an N2 environment, whereas X. fastidiosa was capable of growing in an N2 environment in PW(+), CHARDS, and XDM2-PR media. The magnitude of growth and biofilm formation in the N2 (0 % O2) treatment was dependent on the specific medium. Additional studies involving the metabolism of X. fastidiosa in response to low O2 are warranted. Whether X. fastidiosa is classified as an obligate aerobe or a facultative anaerobe should be confirmed by gene activation and/or the quantification of the metabolic profiles under hypoxic conditions.

  16. The Influence of Prior Modes of Growth, Temperature, Medium, and Substrate Surface on Biofilm Formation by Antibiotic-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of bacterial gastrointestinal food-borne infection worldwide. It has been suggested that biofilm formation may play a role in survival of these bacteria in the environment. In this study, the influence of prior modes of growth (planktonic or sessile), temperatures (37 and 42 °C), and nutrient conditions (nutrient broth and Mueller-Hinton broth) on biofilm formation by eight C. jejuni strains with different antibiotic resistance profiles was examined. The ability of these strains to form biofilm on different abiotic surfaces (stainless steel, glass, and polystyrene) as well as factors potentially associated with biofilm formation (bacterial surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, and initial attachment) was also determined. The results showed that cells grown as sessile culture generally have a greater ability to form biofilm (P < 0.05) compared to their planktonic counterparts. Biofilm was also greater (P < 0.05) in lower nutrient media, while growth at different temperatures affects biofilm formation in a strain-dependent manner. The strains were able to attach and form biofilms on different abiotic surfaces, but none of them demonstrated strong, complex, or structured biofilm formation. There were no clear trends between the bacterial surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, attachment, and biofilm formation by the strains. This finding suggests that environmental factors did affect biofilm formation by C. jejuni, and they are more likely to persist in the environment in the form of mixed-species rather than monospecies biofilms.

  17. Maximising electricity production by controlling the biofilm specific growth rate in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Pablo; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study the relationship between growth rate and electricity production in perfusion-electrode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), across a wide range of flow rates by co-measurement of electrical output and changes in population numbers by viable counts and optical density. The experiments hereby presented demonstrate, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, that the anodic biofilm specific growth rate can be determined and controlled in common with other loose matrix perfusion systems. Feeding with nutrient-limiting conditions at a critical flow rate (50.8 mL h(-1)) resulted in the first experimental determination of maximum specific growth rate μ(max) (19.8 day(-1)) for Shewanella spp. MFC biofilms, which is considerably higher than those predicted or assumed via mathematical modelling. It is also shown that, under carbon-energy limiting conditions there is a strong direct relationship between growth rate and electrical power output, with μ(max) coinciding with maximum electrical power production.

  18. Flexible camphor diamond-like carbon coating on polyurethane to prevent Candida albicans biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thaisa B; Vieira, Angela A; Paula, Luciana O; Santos, Everton D; Radi, Polyana A; Khouri, Sônia; Maciel, Homero S; Pessoa, Rodrigo S; Vieira, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Camphor was incorporated in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films to prevent the Candida albicans yeasts fouling on polyurethane substrates, which is a material commonly used for catheter manufacturing. The camphor:DLC and DLC film for this investigation was produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), using an apparatus based on the flash evaporation of organic liquid (hexane) containing diluted camphor for camphor:DLC and hexane/methane, mixture for DLC films. The film was deposited at a low temperature of less than 25°C. We obtained very adherent camphor:DLC and DLC films that accompanied the substrate flexibility without delamination. The adherence of camphor:DLC and DLC films on polyurethane segments were evaluated by scratching test and bending polyurethane segments at 180°. The polyurethane samples, with and without camphor:DLC and DLC films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical profilometry. Candida albicans biofilm formation on polyurethane, with and without camphor:DLC and DLC, was assessed. The camphor:DLC and DLC films reduced the biofilm growth by 99.0% and 91.0% of Candida albicans, respectively, compared to bare polyurethane. These results open the doors to studies of functionalized DLC coatings with biofilm inhibition properties used in the production of catheters or other biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Growth and Biofilm Formation after Treatment with Antibiotics and SeNPs.

    PubMed

    Cihalova, Kristyna; Chudobova, Dagmar; Michalek, Petr; Moulick, Amitava; Guran, Roman; Kopel, Pavel; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-10-16

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a dangerous pathogen resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Due to its resistance, it is difficult to manage the infections caused by this strain. We examined this issue in terms of observation of the growth properties and ability to form biofilms in sensitive S. aureus and MRSA after the application of antibiotics (ATBs)-ampicillin, oxacillin and penicillin-and complexes of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with these ATBs. The results suggest the strong inhibition effect of SeNPs in complexes with conventional ATBs. Using the impedance method, a higher disruption of biofilms was observed after the application of ATB complexes with SeNPs compared to the group exposed to ATBs without SeNPs. The biofilm formation was intensely inhibited (up to 99%±7% for S. aureus and up to 94%±4% for MRSA) after application of SeNPs in comparison with bacteria without antibacterial compounds whereas ATBs without SeNPs inhibited S. aureus up to 79%±5% and MRSA up to 16%±2% only. The obtained results provide a basis for the use of SeNPs as a tool for the treatment of bacterial infections, which can be complicated because of increasing resistance of bacteria to conventional ATB drugs.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Growth and Biofilm Formation after Treatment with Antibiotics and SeNPs

    PubMed Central

    Cihalova, Kristyna; Chudobova, Dagmar; Michalek, Petr; Moulick, Amitava; Guran, Roman; Kopel, Pavel; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a dangerous pathogen resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Due to its resistance, it is difficult to manage the infections caused by this strain. We examined this issue in terms of observation of the growth properties and ability to form biofilms in sensitive S. aureus and MRSA after the application of antibiotics (ATBs)—ampicillin, oxacillin and penicillin—and complexes of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with these ATBs. The results suggest the strong inhibition effect of SeNPs in complexes with conventional ATBs. Using the impedance method, a higher disruption of biofilms was observed after the application of ATB complexes with SeNPs compared to the group exposed to ATBs without SeNPs. The biofilm formation was intensely inhibited (up to 99% ± 7% for S. aureus and up to 94% ± 4% for MRSA) after application of SeNPs in comparison with bacteria without antibacterial compounds whereas ATBs without SeNPs inhibited S. aureus up to 79% ± 5% and MRSA up to 16% ± 2% only. The obtained results provide a basis for the use of SeNPs as a tool for the treatment of bacterial infections, which can be complicated because of increasing resistance of bacteria to conventional ATB drugs. PMID:26501270

  1. Obliteration of bacterial growth and biofilm through ROS generation by facilely synthesized green silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Shariq; Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Asad U

    2017-01-01

    Mangifera indica inflorescence aqueous extract was utilized for production of green AgNPs. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, XRD, TEM, FESEM and particles size analyzer. AgNPs showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8 μg ml-1 and 16 μg ml-1 for Gram negative (K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli) and Gram positive (S. mutans and S. aureus) strains, respectively which was relatively quite low compared to chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. AgNPs inhibited 80% and 75% biofilms of E. coli and S. mutans respectively as observed quantitatively by crystal violet assay. Qualitative biofilm inhibition was observed using SEM and CLSM. AgNPs adsorbed catheter also resisted the growth of biofilm on its surface displaying its possible future applications. AgNPs interaction with bacteria lead to bacterial membrane damage as observed by SEM and TEM. The membrane damage was confirmed by detecting leakage of proteins and reducing sugars from treated bacterial cells. AgNPs generated ROS on interaction with bacterial cells and this ROS production can be one of the possible reasons for their action. AgNPs exhibited no toxic effect on the cell viability of HeLa cell line.

  2. Obliteration of bacterial growth and biofilm through ROS generation by facilely synthesized green silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, Shariq; Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Asad U.

    2017-01-01

    Mangifera indica inflorescence aqueous extract was utilized for production of green AgNPs. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, XRD, TEM, FESEM and particles size analyzer. AgNPs showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8 μg ml-1 and 16 μg ml-1 for Gram negative (K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli) and Gram positive (S. mutans and S. aureus) strains, respectively which was relatively quite low compared to chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. AgNPs inhibited 80% and 75% biofilms of E. coli and S. mutans respectively as observed quantitatively by crystal violet assay. Qualitative biofilm inhibition was observed using SEM and CLSM. AgNPs adsorbed catheter also resisted the growth of biofilm on its surface displaying its possible future applications. AgNPs interaction with bacteria lead to bacterial membrane damage as observed by SEM and TEM. The membrane damage was confirmed by detecting leakage of proteins and reducing sugars from treated bacterial cells. AgNPs generated ROS on interaction with bacterial cells and this ROS production can be one of the possible reasons for their action. AgNPs exhibited no toxic effect on the cell viability of HeLa cell line. PMID:28771501

  3. Utilization of moving bed biofilm reactor for industrial wastewater treatment containing ethylene glycol: kinetic and performance study.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Amir Hessam; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Samadyar, Hassan; Ghanbari, Bastam

    2014-01-01

    One of the requirements for environmental engineering, which is currently being considered, is the removal of ethylene glycol (EG) as a hazardous environmental pollutant from industrial wastewater. Therefore, in a recent study, a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was applied at pilot scale to treat industrial effluents containing different concentrations of EG (600, 800, 1200, and 1800 mg L-1 ). The removal efficiency and kinetic analysis of the system were examined at different hydraulic retention times of 6, 8, 10, and 12 h as well as influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) ranged between values of 1000 and 3000mg L-1. In minimum and maximum COD Loadings, the MBBR showed 95.1% and 60.7% removal efficiencies, while 95.9% and 66.2% EG removal efficiencies were achieved in the lowest and highest EG concentrations. The results of the reactor modelling suggested compliance of the well-known modified Stover-Kincannon model with the system.

  4. Kinetics of the AHL regulatory system in a model biofilm system: how many bacteria constitute a "quorum"?

    PubMed

    Nilsson, P; Olofsson, A; Fagerlind, M; Fagerström, T; Rice, S; Kjelleberg, S; Steinberg, P

    2001-06-08

    Acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) regulate a wide variety of phenotypes in Gram-negative bacteria. Most research suggests that AHL-mediated phenotypes are not expressed in populations until late logarithmic phase or stationary phase. Here, we model how the concentration of AHLs inside bacterial cells and in a biofilm changes over time as a function of population growth rate, diffusion of AHLs and the rate of autoinduction. Our theoretical results show that the concentration of AHLs inside a single bacterium (and by implication induction of a phenotype) has a non-trivial behaviour over time, and often exhibits a rapid increase early in population growth. This rapid increase is followed by a plateau, followed by another rise in the concentration of AHLs, to a second plateau. High concentrations of AHLs inside the bacterial cell early in population growth are positively affected by slow diffusion rates out of the cell and the biofilm, slow bacterial growth rates and fast autoinduction. In contrast, fast growth rates, slow autoinduction rates and high diffusion rates result in a high concentration plateau in stationary phase. More generally, the density-dependent nature of AHL regulation can be viewed as a trade-off between factors that dilute intracellular concentrations of AHLs (diffusion out of the cell, cell division), and those that increase concentrations (a slowing or restriction of diffusion or growth, or autoinduction). These results suggest that expression of AHL-mediated phenotypes can occur at relatively low cell densities and low external/environmental AHL concentrations. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Dendritic growth shapes in kinetic Monte Carlo models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumwiede, Tim R.; Schulze, Tim P.

    2017-02-01

    For the most part, the study of dendritic crystal growth has focused on continuum models featuring surface energies that yield six pointed dendrites. In such models, the growth shape is a function of the surface energy anisotropy, and recent work has shown that considering a broader class of anisotropies yields a correspondingly richer set of growth morphologies. Motivated by this work, we generalize nanoscale models of dendritic growth based on kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, we examine the effects of extending the truncation radius for atomic interactions in a bond-counting model. This is done by calculating the model’s corresponding surface energy and equilibrium shape, as well as by running KMC simulations to obtain nanodendritic growth shapes. Additionally, we compare the effects of extending the interaction radius in bond-counting models to that of extending the number of terms retained in the cubic harmonic expansion of surface energy anisotropy in the context of continuum models.

  6. Cell Differentiation in a Bacillus thuringiensis Population during Planktonic Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Host Infection.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Emilie; Slamti, Leyla; Gohar, Michel; Lereclus, Didier

    2015-04-28

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is armed to complete a full cycle in its insect host. During infection, virulence factors are expressed under the control of the quorum sensor PlcR to kill the host. After the host's death, the quorum sensor NprR controls a necrotrophic lifestyle, allowing the vegetative cells to use the insect cadaver as a bioincubator and to survive. Only a part of the Bt population sporulates in the insect cadaver, and the precise composition of the whole population and its evolution over time are unknown. Using fluorescent reporters to record gene expression at the single-cell level, we have determined the differentiation course of a Bt population and explored the lineage existing among virulent, necrotrophic, and sporulating cells. The dynamics of cell differentiation were monitored during growth in homogenized medium, biofilm formation, and colonization of insect larvae. We demonstrated that in the insect host and in planktonic culture in rich medium, the virulence, necrotrophism, and sporulation regulators are successively activated in the same cell. In contrast, in biofilms, activation of PlcR is dispensable for NprR activation and we observed a greater heterogeneity than under the other two growth conditions. We also showed that sporulating cells arise almost exclusively from necrotrophic cells. In biofilm and in the insect cadaver, we identified an as-yet-uncharacterized category of cells that do not express any of the reporters used. Overall, we showed that PlcR, NprR, and Spo0A act as interconnected integrators to allow finely tuned adaptation of the pathogen to its environment. Bt is an entomopathogen found ubiquitously in the environment and is a widely used biopesticide. Studies performed at the population level suggest that the infection process of Bt includes three successive steps (virulence, necrotrophism, and sporulation) controlled by different regulators. This study aimed to determine how these phenotypes are activated at the

  7. Kinetic Roughening Transition and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    Interpretation of lysozyme crystal growth rates using well-established physical theories enabled the discovery of a phenomenon possibly indicative of kinetic roughening. For example, lysozyme crystals grown above a critical supersaturation sigma, (where supersaturation sigma = ln c/c(sub eq), c = the protein concentration and c(sub eq) = the solubility concentration) exhibit microscopically rough surfaces due to the continuous addition of growth units anywhere on the surface of a crystal. The rate of crystal growth, V(sub c), for the continuous growth process is determined by the continuous flux of macromolecules onto a unit area of the crystal surface, a, from a distance, xi, per unit time due to diffusion, and a probability of attachment onto the crystal surface, expressed. Based upon models applied, the energetics of lysozyme crystal growth was determined. The magnitudes of the energy barriers of crystal growth for both the (110) and (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals are compared. Finally, evidence supportive of the kinetic roughening hypothesis is presented.

  8. Kinetic Roughening Transition and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    Interpretation of lysozyme crystal growth rates using well-established physical theories enabled the discovery of a phenomenon possibly indicative of kinetic roughening. For example, lysozyme crystals grown above a critical supersaturation sigma, (where supersaturation sigma = ln c/c(sub eq), c = the protein concentration and c(sub eq) = the solubility concentration) exhibit microscopically rough surfaces due to the continuous addition of growth units anywhere on the surface of a crystal. The rate of crystal growth, V(sub c), for the continuous growth process is determined by the continuous flux of macromolecules onto a unit area of the crystal surface, a, from a distance, xi, per unit time due to diffusion, and a probability of attachment onto the crystal surface, expressed. Based upon models applied, the energetics of lysozyme crystal growth was determined. The magnitudes of the energy barriers of crystal growth for both the (110) and (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals are compared. Finally, evidence supportive of the kinetic roughening hypothesis is presented.

  9. Cyclosporine A decreases the fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration of Candida albicans clinical isolates but not biofilm formation and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Wibawa, T; Nurrokhman; Baly, I; Daeli, P R; Kartasasmita, G; Wijayanti, N

    2015-03-01

    Among the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most abundant species in humans. One of the virulent factors of C. albicans is its ability to develop biofilm. Biofilm forming microbes are characterized by decreasing of its susceptibility to antibiotics and antifungal. The fungicidal effect of fluconazole may be enhanced by cyclosporine A in laboratory engineered C. albicans strains. The aim of this work is to analyze the synergistic effect of cyclosporine A with fluconazole in C. albicans clinical isolates and the effect of cycolsporine A alone in the biofilm formation. Six fluconazole resistant and six sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates were analyzed for its minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs), biofilm formation, and cell growths. A semi-quantitative XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction assay was conducted to measure the biofilm formation. Cyclosporine A has synergistic effect with fluconazole that was shown by decreasing MICs of both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates. However, cyclosporine A alone did not influence the biofilm formation and cell growth of both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates. These results indicated that cyclosporine A might be a promising candidate of adjuvant therapy for fluconazole against both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates.

  10. An investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth on novel nanocellulose fibre dressings.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lydia C; Khan, Saira; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Wright, Chris J; Hill, Katja E; Thomas, David W

    2016-02-10

    Nanocellulose from wood is a novel biomaterial, which is highly fibrillated at the nanoscale. This affords the material a number of advantages, including self-assembly, biodegradability and the ability to absorb and retain moisture, which highlights its potential usefulness in clinical wound-dressing applications. In these in vitro studies, the wound pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was used to assess the ability of two nanocellulose materials to impair bacterial growth (<48 h). The two nanocelluloses had a relatively small fraction of residual fibres (<4%) and thus a large fraction of nanofibrils (widths <20 nm). Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging demonstrated impaired biofilm growth on the nanocellulose films and increased cell death when compared to a commercial control wound dressing, Aquacel(®). Nanocellulose suspensions inhibited bacterial growth, whilst UV-vis spectrophotometry and laser profilometry also revealed the ability of nanocellulose to form smooth, translucent films. Atomic force microscopy studies of the surface properties of nanocellulose demonstrated that PAO1 exhibited markedly contrasting morphology when grown on the nanocellulose film surfaces compared to an Aquacel(®) control dressing (p<0.05). This study highlights the potential utility of these biodegradable materials, from a renewable source, for wound dressing applications in the prevention and treatment of biofilm development.

  11. Kinetics of Denitrifying Growth by Fast-Growing Cowpea Rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    El Hassan, G. A.; Zablotowicz, R. M.; Focht, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two fast-growing strains of cowpea rhizobia (A26 and A28) were found to grow anaerobically at the expense of NO3−, NO2−, and N2O as terminal electron acceptors. The two major differences between aerobic and denitrifying growth were lower yield coefficients (Y) and higher saturation constants (Ks) with nitrogenous oxides as electron acceptors. When grown aerobically, A26 and A28 adhered to Monod kinetics, respectively, as follows: Ks, 3.4 and 3.8 μM; Y, 16.0 and 14.0 g · cells eq−1; μmax, 0.41 and 0.33 h−1. Yield coefficients for denitrifying growth ranged from 40 to 70% of those for aerobic growth. Only A26 adhered to Monod kinetics with respect to growth on all three nitrogenous oxides. The apparent Ks values were 41, 270, and 460 μM for nitrous oxide, nitrate, and nitrite, respectively; the Ks for A28 grown on nitrate was 250 μM. The results are kinetically and thermodynamically consistent in explaining why O2 is the preferred electron acceptor. Although no definitive conclusions could be drawn regarding preferential utilization of nitrogenous oxides, nitrite was inhibitory to both strains and effected slower growth. However, growth rates were identical (μmax, 0.41 h−1) when A26 was grown with either O2 or NO3− as an electron acceptor and were only slightly reduced when A28 was grown with NO3− (0.25 h−1) as opposed to O2 (0.33 h−1). PMID:16346745

  12. Continuous monitoring of bacterial biofilm growth using uncoated Thickness-Shear Mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, P.; Resa, P.; Durán, C.; Maestre, J. R.; Mateo, M.; Elvira, L.

    2012-12-01

    Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) were used to nondestructively monitor in real time the microbial growth of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) in a liquid broth. QCM, sometimes referred to as Thickness-Shear Mode (TSM) resonators, are highly sensitive sensors not only able to measure very small mass, but also non-gravimetric contributions of viscoelastic media. These devices can be used as biosensors for bacterial detection and are employed in many applications including their use in the food industry, water and environment monitoring, pharmaceutical sciences and clinical diagnosis. In this work, three strains of S. epidermidis (which differ in the ability to produce biofilm) have been continuously monitored using an array of piezoelectric TSM resonators, at 37 °C in a selective culturing media. Microbial growth was followed by measuring the changes in the crystal resonant frequency and bandwidth at several harmonics. It was shown that microbial growth can be monitored in real time using multichannel and multiparametric QCM sensors.

  13. Kinetic model for microbial growth and desulphurisation with Enterobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Guo, Zhiguo; Lu, Jianjiang; Xu, Xiaolin

    2015-02-01

    Biodesulphurisation was investigated by using Enterobacter sp. D4, which can selectively desulphurise and convert dibenzothiophene into 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). The experimental values of growth, substrate consumption and product generation were obtained at 95 % confidence level of the fitted values using three models: Hinshelwood equation, Luedeking-Piret and Luedeking-Piret-like equations. The average error values between experimental values and fitted values were less than 10 %. These kinetic models describe all the experimental data with good statistical parameters. The production of 2-HBP in Enterobacter sp. was by "coupled growth".

  14. [Methods for extraction of exopolymeric complex in plankton and biofilm growth mode of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 22M].

    PubMed

    Boretskaia, M A; Suslova, O S

    2013-01-01

    The optimal methods for the extraction of exopolymeric complex (EPS) of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 22M was determined. That EPS was synthesized in plankton and biofilm growth mode on the mild steel surface. It is desirable to use different physical and chemical methods for studying the EPS composition (carbohydrates and proteins) depending on the bacteria growth mode. In this way the interaction with ion exchange resin was the most effective for plankton growth mode to determine the maximum amount of carbohydrates (9.5 microg/ml), and the impact of heating to determine protein (3.9 microg/ml). For EPS biofilm in order to obtain maximum amount of carbohydrate it is desirable to use heating (30 microg/ml) and centrifugation (35 microg/ml). It is recommended to determine protein in the biofilm EPS after treatment with heating (3.75 microg/ml) and centrifugation (3.75 microg/ml).

  15. Growth and bacteriocin production kinetics of Leuconostoc mesenteroides E131.

    PubMed

    Drosinos, E H; Mataragas, M; Nasis, P; Galiotou, M; Metaxopoulos, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, sodium chloride, type and level of sugar used in fermented sausages, on the occurrence and the concentration of the maximum bacteriocin activity, in order to optimize the bacteriocin synthesis during the growth cycle of Leuconostoc mesenteroides E131. In order to study the effect of the environmental factors on growth and bacteriocin production of Leuc. mesenteroides E131 fermentations were carried out in fermentor as well as in flasks. Mathematical equations were used to describe the kinetic parameters of the strain. When the micro-organism was grown in lower pH value (5.5) than optimum for growth (pH 6.5) the bacteriocin production was enhanced. On the contrary, bacteriocin production was favoured when the micro-organism was grown at temperatures close to the optimum for growth (25 degrees C). Finally, the level and the type of the sugar used as carbon source affected both growth and bacteriocin production with glucose being better source for biomass production and fructose more suitable for bacteriocin production. Leuconostoc mesenteroides E131 has a potential use as protective culture or its bacteriocin as protective agent in combination with another starter culture in fermented meats. Better understanding of the influence of environmental factors, such as pH, temperature and carbon source on the kinetic behaviour of Leuc. mesenteroides E131.

  16. Growth morphologies of wax in the presence of kinetic inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetervak, Alexander A.

    Driven by the need to prevent crystallization of normal alkanes from diesel fuels in cold climates, the petroleum industry has developed additives to slow the growth of these crystals and alter their morphologies. Although the utility of these kinetic inhibitors has been well demonstrated in the field, few studies have directly monitored their effect at microscopic morphology, and the mechanisms by which they act remain poorly understood. Here we present a study of the effects of such additives on the crystallization of long-chain n-alkanes from solution. The additives change the growth morphology from plate-like crystals to a microcrystalline mesh. When we impose a front velocity by moving the sample through a temperature gradient, the mesh growth may form a macroscopic banded pattern and also exhibit a burst-crystallization behavior. In this study, we characterize these crystallization phenomena and also two growth models: a continuum model that demonstrates the essential behavior of the banded crystallization, and a simple qualitative cellular automata model that captures basics of the burst-crystallization process. Keywords: solidification; mesh crystallization; kinetic inhibitor; burst growth.

  17. Role of Transport and Kinetics in Growth of Renal Stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Iskovitz, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    Renal stone disease is not only a concern on earth but could conceivably pose as a serious risk to the astronauts health and safety in Space. In this paper, a combined transport-kinetics model for growth of calcium oxalate crystals is presented. The model is used to parametrically investigate the growth of renal calculi in urine with a focus on the coupled effects of transport and surface reaction on the ionic concentrations at the surface of the crystal and their impact on the resulting growth rates. It is shown that under nominal conditions of low solution supersaturation and low Damkohler number that typically exist on Earth, the surface concentrations of calcium and oxalate approach their bulk solution values in the urine and the growth rate is most likely limited by the surface reaction kinetics. But for higher solution supersaturations and larger Damkohler numbers that may be prevalent in the microgravity environment of Space, the calcium and oxalate surface concentrations tend to shift more towards their equilibrium or saturation values and thus the growth process may be limited by the transport through the medium. Furthermore, parametric numerical studies suggest that changes to the renal biochemistry of astronauts due in space may promote development of renal calculi during long duration space expeditions.

  18. Development of a simplified model for the fixed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sushovan; Mazumder, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    A simplified fixed biofilm model was developed to formulate the relationship between the substrate concentrations at both the entry and exit, at the biofilm-liquid interface and at the biofilm attached surface along with average substrate flux in the biofilm, substrate flux at the biofilm-liquid interface and effective biofilm thickness. The model considered the substrate mass transport external to the biofilm and into the biofilm as per Fick's law and the steady state substrate as well as biomass balance for attached growth microorganisms. Monod's growth kinetics has been adopted in substrate utilization, incorporating relevant boundary conditions. The numerical solution of model equations was accomplished for calculating average flux and exit substrate concentration and thereafter the Runge-Kutta method was employed for determining effective biofilm thickness. Consequently, two computer programs were developed for the purpose of rapid solution. The model was satisfactorily applied to data available from the literature for checking its accuracy and was validated with the experimental results. The model was found to be an easy, accurate and fast method that can be used for process design of a fixed biofilm reactor.

  19. Solution Chemistry Effect on the Kinetics of Calcite Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.; Teng, H.

    2013-12-01

    Calcite is one of the commonly chosen model systems to study crystallization due to the easiness to acquire data in simple experimental settings and the high relevance to mineralization in inorganic and biological environments. While the thermodynamic driving force for calcite growth is well-understood and can be precisely controlled via changing saturation levels of solutions, the parameters that govern the growth kinetics have often been the subject of significant controversy. Different studies reported different degree of step speed dependence on supersaturation and different views on the effects of ionic strength, solution pH, as well as solution stoichiometry (i.e. activity ratio of Ca2+/CO32-). A literature search finds that most of the previous studies did not fully control solution chemistry during growth experiments, suggesting that the observed effect of individual solution chemistry parameters was more likely not properly isolated. To get a clear view of the kinetic controls for calcite growth, we conducted a series of growth experiments to interrogate the step kinetics by systematically varying solution chemistry parameters including ionic strength, pH, and solution stoichiometry. Experiments were conducted at constant supersaturation conditions and with only one of the three solution chemistry parameter allowed to change. Step speed measurements were collected for both the acute and the obtuse steps on calcite cleavage surfaces and the results showed the two directions respond differently to changes in solution chemistry. The pH effect, instead of showing a monotonic trend as reported before, changes directions around pHpzc (9.5). For example, obtuse steps maintain a rather constant growth rate when pH increased from 7.5 to 9.5, but propagate much faster afterwards; meanwhile, acute steps is retarded with the same pH change but the growth also speeds up once pH>9.5. Ionic strength was reported to have negligible or positive effect on calcite growth

  20. Growth condition-dependent Esp expression by Enterococcus faecium affects initial adherence and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Van Wamel, Willem J B; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Top, Janetta; Posthuma, George; Willems, Rob J L

    2007-02-01

    A genetic subpopulation of Enterococcus faecium, called clonal complex 17 (CC-17), is strongly associated with hospital outbreaks and invasive infections. Most CC-17 strains contain a putative pathogenicity island encoding the E. faecium variant of enterococcal surface protein (Esp). Western blotting, flow cytometric analyses, and electron microscopy showed that Esp is expressed and exposed on the surface of E. faecium, though Esp expression and surface exposure are highly varied among different strains. Furthermore, Esp expression depends on growth conditions like temperature and anaerobioses. When grown at 37 degrees C, five of six esp-positive E. faecium strains showed significantly increased levels of surface-exposed Esp compared to bacteria grown at 21 degrees C, which was confirmed at the transcriptional level by real-time PCR. In addition, a significant increase in surface-exposed Esp was found in half of these strains when grown at 37 degrees C under anaerobic conditions compared to the level in bacteria grown under aerobic conditions. Finally, amounts of surface-exposed Esp correlated with initial adherence to polystyrene (R(2) = 0.7146) and biofilm formation (R(2) = 0.7535). Polystyrene adherence was competitively inhibited by soluble recombinant N-terminal Esp. This study demonstrates that Esp expression on the surface of E. faecium (i) varies consistently between strains, (ii) is growth condition dependent, and (iii) is quantitatively correlated with initial adherence and biofilm formation. These data indicate that E. faecium senses and responds to changing environmental conditions, which might play a role in the early stages of infection when bacteria transit from oxygen-rich conditions at room temperature to anaerobic conditions at body temperature. In addition, variation of surface exposure may explain the contrasting findings reported on the role of Esp in biofilm formation.

  1. Cell Differentiation in a Bacillus thuringiensis Population during Planktonic Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Host Infection

    PubMed Central

    Verplaetse, Emilie; Slamti, Leyla; Gohar, Michel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is armed to complete a full cycle in its insect host. During infection, virulence factors are expressed under the control of the quorum sensor PlcR to kill the host. After the host’s death, the quorum sensor NprR controls a necrotrophic lifestyle, allowing the vegetative cells to use the insect cadaver as a bioincubator and to survive. Only a part of the Bt population sporulates in the insect cadaver, and the precise composition of the whole population and its evolution over time are unknown. Using fluorescent reporters to record gene expression at the single-cell level, we have determined the differentiation course of a Bt population and explored the lineage existing among virulent, necrotrophic, and sporulating cells. The dynamics of cell differentiation were monitored during growth in homogenized medium, biofilm formation, and colonization of insect larvae. We demonstrated that in the insect host and in planktonic culture in rich medium, the virulence, necrotrophism, and sporulation regulators are successively activated in the same cell. In contrast, in biofilms, activation of PlcR is dispensable for NprR activation and we observed a greater heterogeneity than under the other two growth conditions. We also showed that sporulating cells arise almost exclusively from necrotrophic cells. In biofilm and in the insect cadaver, we identified an as-yet-uncharacterized category of cells that do not express any of the reporters used. Overall, we showed that PlcR, NprR, and Spo0A act as interconnected integrators to allow finely tuned adaptation of the pathogen to its environment. PMID:25922389

  2. Biofilm Composition and Threshold Concentration for Growth of Legionella pneumophila on Surfaces Exposed to Flowing Warm Tap Water without Disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Geo L.; Italiaander, Ronald; Veenendaal, Harm R.; Wullings, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legionella pneumophila in potable water installations poses a potential health risk, but quantitative information about its replication in biofilms in relation to water quality is scarce. Therefore, biofilm formation on the surfaces of glass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) in contact with tap water at 34 to 39°C was investigated under controlled hydraulic conditions in a model system inoculated with biofilm-grown L. pneumophila. The biofilm on glass (average steady-state concentration, 23 ± 9 pg ATP cm−2) exposed to treated aerobic groundwater (0.3 mg C liter−1; 1 μg assimilable organic carbon [AOC] liter−1) did not support growth of the organism, which also disappeared from the biofilm on CPVC (49 ± 9 pg ATP cm−2) after initial growth. L. pneumophila attained a level of 4.3 log CFU cm−2 in the biofilms on glass (1,055 ± 225 pg ATP cm−2) and CPVC (2,755 ± 460 pg ATP cm−2) exposed to treated anaerobic groundwater (7.9 mg C liter−1; 10 μg AOC liter−1). An elevated biofilm concentration and growth of L. pneumophila were also observed with tap water from the laboratory. The Betaproteobacteria Piscinibacter and Methyloversatilis and amoeba-resisting Alphaproteobacteria predominated in the clones and isolates retrieved from the biofilms. In the biofilms, the Legionella colony count correlated significantly with the total cell count (TCC), heterotrophic plate count, ATP concentration, and presence of Vermamoeba vermiformis. This amoeba was rarely detected at biofilm concentrations of <100 pg ATP cm−2. A threshold concentration of approximately 50 pg ATP cm−2 (TCC = 1 × 106 to 2 × 106 cells cm−2) was derived for growth of L. pneumophila in biofilms. IMPORTANCE Legionella pneumophila is the etiologic agent in more than 10,000 cases of Legionnaires' disease that are reported annually worldwide and in most of the drinking water-associated disease outbreaks reported in the United States. The organism proliferates in biofilms

  3. Biofilm Composition and Threshold Concentration for Growth of Legionella pneumophila on Surfaces Exposed to Flowing Warm Tap Water without Disinfectant.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, Dick; Bakker, Geo L; Italiaander, Ronald; Veenendaal, Harm R; Wullings, Bart A

    2017-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila in potable water installations poses a potential health risk, but quantitative information about its replication in biofilms in relation to water quality is scarce. Therefore, biofilm formation on the surfaces of glass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) in contact with tap water at 34 to 39°C was investigated under controlled hydraulic conditions in a model system inoculated with biofilm-grown L. pneumophila The biofilm on glass (average steady-state concentration, 23 ± 9 pg ATP cm(-2)) exposed to treated aerobic groundwater (0.3 mg C liter(-1); 1 μg assimilable organic carbon [AOC] liter(-1)) did not support growth of the organism, which also disappeared from the biofilm on CPVC (49 ± 9 pg ATP cm(-2)) after initial growth. L. pneumophila attained a level of 4.3 log CFU cm(-2) in the biofilms on glass (1,055 ± 225 pg ATP cm(-2)) and CPVC (2,755 ± 460 pg ATP cm(-2)) exposed to treated anaerobic groundwater (7.9 mg C liter(-1); 10 μg AOC liter(-1)). An elevated biofilm concentration and growth of L. pneumophila were also observed with tap water from the laboratory. The Betaproteobacteria Piscinibacter and Methyloversatilis and amoeba-resisting Alphaproteobacteria predominated in the clones and isolates retrieved from the biofilms. In the biofilms, the Legionella colony count correlated significantly with the total cell count (TCC), heterotrophic plate count, ATP concentration, and presence of Vermamoeba vermiformis This amoeba was rarely detected at biofilm concentrations of <100 pg ATP cm(-2) A threshold concentration of approximately 50 pg ATP cm(-2) (TCC = 1 × 10(6) to 2 × 10(6) cells cm(-2)) was derived for growth of L. pneumophila in biofilms.IMPORTANCELegionella pneumophila is the etiologic agent in more than 10,000 cases of Legionnaires' disease that are reported annually worldwide and in most of the drinking water-associated disease outbreaks reported in the United States. The organism proliferates in biofilms on

  4. Physiological adaptation of growth kinetics in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, M; Takács, I; Tränckner, J

    2015-11-15

    Physiological adaptation as it occurs in bacterial cells at variable environmental conditions influences characteristic properties of growth kinetics significantly. However, physiological adaptation to growth related parameters in activated sludge modelling is not yet recognised. Consequently these parameters are regarded to be constant. To investigate physiological adaptation in activated sludge the endogenous respiration in an aerobic degradation batch experiment and simultaneous to that the maximum possible respiration in an aerobic growth batch experiment was measured. The activated sludge samples were taken from full scale wastewater treatment plants with different sludge retention times (SRTs). It could be shown that the low SRT sludge adapts by growth optimisation (high maximum growth rate and high decay rate) to its particular environment where a high SRT sludge adapts by survival optimization (low maximum growth rate and low decay rate). Thereby, both the maximum specific growth rate and the decay rate vary in the same pattern and are strongly correlated to each other. To describe the physiological state of mixed cultures like activated sludge quantitatively a physiological state factor (PSF) is proposed as the ratio of the maximum specific growth rate and the decay rate. The PSF can be expressed as an exponential function with respect to the SRT.

  5. Bioelectrochemical Reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO in a Biofilm Electrode Reactor: Performance, Mechanism, and Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yinfeng; Zhao, Jingkai; Li, Meifang; Zhang, Shihan; Li, Sujing; Li, Wei

    2016-04-05

    A biofilm electrode reactor (BER) is proposed to effectively regenerate Fe(II)EDTA, a solvent for NOx removal from flue gas, from Fe(II)EDTA-NO, a spent solution. In this study, the performance, mechanism, and kinetics of the bioelectrochemical reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO were investigated. The pathways of Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction were investigated via determination of nitrogen element balance in the BER and an abiotic electrode reactor. The experimental results indicate that the chelated NO (Fe(II)EDTA-NO) is reduced to N2 with N2O as an intermediate. However, the oxidation of NO occurred in the absence of Fe(II)EDTA in abiotic reactors. Furthermore, the accumulation of N2O was suppressed with the help of electricity. The preponderant electron donor for reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO was also confirmed via analysis of the electron conservation. About 87% of Fe(II)EDTA-NO was reduced using Fe(II)EDTA as the electron donor in the presence of both glucose and cathode electrons while the cathode electrons were utilized for the reduction of Fe(III)EDTA to Fe(II)EDTA. Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants of bioelectrochemical reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO were also calculated. The maximum reduction rate of Fe(II)EDTA-NO was 13.04 mol m(-3) h(-1), which is 50% higher than that in a conventional biofilter.

  6. Linking biofilm growth to fouling and aeration performance of fine-pore diffuser in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Asvapathanagul, Pitiporn; McCarthy, Graham W; Gocke, Thomas E; Olson, Betty H; Park, Hee-Deung; Al-Omari, Ahmed; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B; Wett, Bernhard; Smeraldi, Joshua D; Shaw, Andrew R; Rosso, Diego

    2016-03-01

    Aeration is commonly identified as the largest contributor to process energy needs in the treatment of wastewater and therefore garners significant focus in reducing energy use. Fine-pore diffusers are the most common aeration system in municipal wastewater treatment. These diffusers are subject to fouling and scaling, resulting in loss in transfer efficiency as biofilms form and change material properties producing larger bubbles, hindering mass transfer and contributing to increased plant energy costs. This research establishes a direct correlation and apparent mechanistic link between biofilm DNA concentration and reduced aeration efficiency caused by biofilm fouling. Although the connection between biofilm growth and fouling has been implicit in discussions of diffuser fouling for many years, this research provides measured quantitative connection between the extent of biofouling and reduced diffuser efficiency. This was clearly established by studying systematically the deterioration of aeration diffusers efficiency during a 1.5 year period, concurrently with the microbiological study of the biofilm fouling in order to understand the major factors contributing to diffuser fouling. The six different diffuser technologies analyzed in this paper included four different materials which were ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), polyurethane, silicone and ceramic. While all diffusers foul eventually, some novel materials exhibited fouling resistance. The material type played a major role in determining the biofilm characteristics (i.e., growth rate, composition, and microbial density) which directly affected the rate and intensity at what the diffusers were fouled, whereas diffuser geometry exerted little influence. Overall, a high correlation between the increase in biofilm DNA and the decrease in αF was evident (CV < 14.0 ± 2.0%). By linking bacterial growth with aeration efficiency, the research was able to show quantitatively the causal connection

  7. Growth and characterization of Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm on concrete surfaces as a protective layer against microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD).

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Sahar; Ormeci, Banu; Isgor, O Burkan

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms of selected bacteria strains were previously used on metal coupons as a protective layer against microbiologically influenced corrosion of metals. Unlike metal surfaces, concrete surfaces present a hostile environment for growing a protective biofilm. The main objective of this research was to investigate whether a beneficial biofilm can be successfully grown on mortar surfaces. Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was grown on mortar surfaces for 8 days, and the structure and characteristics of the biofilm were studied using advanced microscopy techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization, live/dead, extracellular polymer staining, ATP analysis, and membrane filtration. A biofilm layer with a varying thickness of 20-40 μm was observed on the mortar surface. The distribution of live and dead bacteria and extracellular polymers varied with depth. The density of the live population near the mortar surface was the lowest. The bacteria reached their highest density at three fourths of the biofilm depth and then decreased again near the biofilm-liquid interface. Overall, the results indicated a healthy biofilm growth in the chosen growth period of 8 days, and it is expected that longer growth periods would lead to formation of a more resistant biofilm with more coverage of mortar surfaces.

  8. Waste Water Derived Electroactive Microbial Biofilms: Growth, Maintenance, and Basic Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gimkiewicz, Carla; Harnisch, Falk

    2013-01-01

    The growth of anodic electroactive microbial biofilms from waste water inocula in a fed-batch reactor is demonstrated using a three-electrode setup controlled by a potentiostat. Thereby the use of potentiostats allows an exact adjustment of the electrode potential and ensures reproducible microbial culturing conditions. During growth the current production is monitored using chronoamperometry (CA). Based on these data the maximum current density (jmax) and the coulombic efficiency (CE) are discussed as measures for characterization of the bioelectrocatalytic performance. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), a nondestructive, i.e. noninvasive, method, is used to study the extracellular electron transfer (EET) of electroactive bacteria. CV measurements are performed on anodic biofilm electrodes in the presence of the microbial substrate, i.e. turnover conditions, and in the absence of the substrate, i.e. nonturnover conditions, using different scan rates. Subsequently, data analysis is exemplified and fundamental thermodynamic parameters of the microbial EET are derived and explained: peak potential (Ep), peak current density (jp), formal potential (Ef) and peak separation (ΔEp). Additionally the limits of the method and the state-of the art data analysis are addressed. Thereby this video-article shall provide a guide for the basic experimental steps and the fundamental data analysis. PMID:24430581

  9. A novel algal biofilm membrane photobioreactor for attached microalgae growth and nutrients removal from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Li, Chen; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Ma, Dan-Hui; Zhou, Li

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel algal biofilm membrane photobioreactor (BMPBR) equipped with solid carriers and submerged membrane module was developed for attached growth of Chlorella vulgaris and secondary effluent treatment. The volumetric microalgae production achieved in BMPBR was 0.072 g L(-1) d(-1), which was 1.44-fold larger than that in suspended growth membrane photobioreactor (MPBR). Furthermore, 72.4% of the total produced algal biomass was immobilized as algal biofilm in BMPBR. Advanced nutrients removal from secondary effluent was achieved both in BMPBR and MPBR, with average reduction of about 85% for PO4(3-)-P in the stable stage. Additionally, BMPBR showed better nitrogen removal performance than MPBR due to its higher algal biomass productivity. Moreover, with the filtration effect of the submerged membrane module in the reactor, suspended microalgae could be completely isolated from the effluent and a low average SS concentration of 0.28 mg L(-1) was achieved in the effluent of BMPBR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Waste water derived electroactive microbial biofilms: growth, maintenance, and basic characterization.

    PubMed

    Gimkiewicz, Carla; Harnisch, Falk

    2013-12-29

    The growth of anodic electroactive microbial biofilms from waste water inocula in a fed-batch reactor is demonstrated using a three-electrode setup controlled by a potentiostat. Thereby the use of potentiostats allows an exact adjustment of the electrode potential and ensures reproducible microbial culturing conditions. During growth the current production is monitored using chronoamperometry (CA). Based on these data the maximum current density (jmax) and the coulombic efficiency (CE) are discussed as measures for characterization of the bioelectrocatalytic performance. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), a nondestructive, i.e. noninvasive, method, is used to study the extracellular electron transfer (EET) of electroactive bacteria. CV measurements are performed on anodic biofilm electrodes in the presence of the microbial substrate, i.e. turnover conditions, and in the absence of the substrate, i.e. nonturnover conditions, using different scan rates. Subsequently, data analysis is exemplified and fundamental thermodynamic parameters of the microbial EET are derived and explained: peak potential (Ep), peak current density (jp), formal potential (E(f)) and peak separation (ΔEp). Additionally the limits of the method and the state-of the art data analysis are addressed. Thereby this video-article shall provide a guide for the basic experimental steps and the fundamental data analysis.

  11. Zoocin A and lauricidin in combination reduce Streptococcus mutans growth in a multispecies biofilm.

    PubMed

    Lester, K; Simmonds, R S

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent human infection. It is a multifactorial disease in which the microbial composition of dental plaque plays a major role in the development of clinical symptoms. The bacteria most often implicated in the development of caries are that group of streptococci referred to as the mutans streptococci, in particular Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. One approach to the prevention of caries is to reduce the numbers of mutans streptococci in plaque to a level insufficient to support demineralization of the tooth. In this study, zoocin A, a peptidoglycan hydrolase, combined with lauricidin, a cell membrane active lipid, was shown over a 72 h period to selectively suppress the growth of S. mutans in a triple species biofilm. Growth of the non-target species Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces viscosus was not inhibited. In treated systems the amount of extracellular polysaccharide matrix produced was much reduced as determined by use of fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated wheat germ agglutinin. The pH of treated biofilms remained above neutral as opposed to a value of 4.3 in untreated controls. We conclude that use of antimicrobial compounds that specifically target cariogenic bacteria should be further explored.

  12. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Aaron M.; McCollough, Forest W.; Eldreth, Bryan L.; Binder, Brad M.; Abel, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  13. Wetting and domain-growth kinetics in confined geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monette, Liza; Liu, Andrea J.; Grest, Gary S.

    1992-12-01

    In this paper, we review the theoretical and experimental progress in understanding the controversial phase behavior of binary liquids in dense porous media. Experimental observation of metastability and hysteresis in the phase-separation behavior has led to two widely different theoretical interpretations: the random-field Ising picture and the single-pore picture. We argue that the random-field model is inapplicable to binary liquids in low-porosity media such as Vycor, and discuss the available experimental evidence on such systems. Next, we present Monte Carlo studies of phase-separation kinetics of an Ising model in a pore. We find that the domain-growth kinetics slow down dramatically once the domain size becomes comparable to the pore size, as predicted by the single-pore model. In addition, we examine the influence of temperature and interfacial phase transitions on the kinetics, and show that the domain-growth rate slows down as the temperature moves further into the two-phase region. Finally, our results for small pores, only 20 spins across, suggest that macroscopic descriptions are surprisingly successful, even at short length scales.

  14. Solution growth kinetics and mechanism: Prismatic face of ADP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, A. A.; Rashkovich, L. N.; Mkrtchan, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Laser Michelson interferometry has been applied to in situ study the (001) ADP growth kinetics in aqueous solution in the kinetic regime. The technique allows one to simultaneously measure the slope p of a growth hillock and normal growth rate R provided by this hillock. From these data, the average step growth rate v=R/p has been determined as a function of relative supersaturation σ. The dependencev(σ) is found to be linear, demonstrating the unimportance of surface and bulk diffusion. The direct incorporation at steps is characterized by the step kinetic coefficient βl=(5.1-6.4)X10-3 cm/s. The specific step free energy αl=(1.2-1.9) X10-6 erg/cm was determined from the measured linear dependence of the hillock slope on supersaturation for the hillock around presumably single elementary dislocation. For complex dislocation sources with large total Burgers vectors, the tendency to saturationin the hillock slope-supersaturation curves has been found. The curve perfectly fits the BCF expression which takes into account the perimeter 2L of the region occupied by the points in which the dislocation of the complex step source cross the growing face. For two dislocation sources,L=0.92 μm andL=0.31 μm and total Burgers vectors ⋍12h and 6h (h=7.53Å) have been found. The supersaturation dependence of activities for various complex dislocation sources have been directly demonstrated.

  15. Modelling the competitive growth between Listeria monocytogenes and biofilm microflora of smear cheese wooden shelves.

    PubMed

    Guillier, L; Stahl, V; Hezard, B; Notz, E; Briandet, R

    2008-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the observed inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by the natural biofilm microflora (BM) on wooden shelves used in the ripening of a soft and smear cheese. For this, BM was harvested and we conducted a series of experiments in which two strains of L. monocytogenes were co-cultured with BM on glass fiber filters deposited on model cheeses. Compared to monoculture, L. monocytogenes growth rate in co-culture was not reduced but the growth of the pathogen stopped as soon as BM entered the stationary phase. This reduction in maximum population density can be explained by nutrient consumption and exhaustion by BM as no production of inhibitors by BM has been detected. This mechanism of pathogen inhibition has been previously described as the "Jameson effect".

  16. Mucin can enhance growth, biofilm formation, and survival of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Mothey, Deepa; Buttaro, Bettina A; Piggot, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a member of the dental plaque and is the primary causative agent of dental caries. It can survive extended periods of starvation, which may occur in different niches within the oral cavity. We have found that mucin compensated for the absence of amino acids to promote exponential growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans in minimal medium supplemented with glucose and sucrose, respectively. Mucin extended survival in conditions where there was no net growth provided the operon encoding the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was intact. Mucin extended survival in conditions of amino acid sufficiency provided the tagatose pathway for galactose utilization was intact, suggesting that S. mutans can scavenge sufficient galactose from mucin to enhance survival, although not to serve as a primary carbon and energy source. The results suggest that mucin has a metabolic role in promoting survival of S. mutans.

  17. Systematic evaluation of nitrate and perchlorate bioreduction kinetics in groundwater using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Ziv-El, Michal C; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the simultaneous reduction kinetics of the oxidized compounds, we treated nitrate-contaminated groundwater (approximately 9.4 mg-N/L) containing low concentrations of perchlorate (approximately 12.5 microg/L) and saturated with dissolved oxygen (approximately 8 mg/L) in a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). We systematically increased the hydrogen availability and simultaneously varied the surface loading of the oxidized compounds on the biofilm in order to provide a comprehensive, quantitative data set with which to evaluate the relationship between electron donor (H(2)) availability, surface loading of the electron acceptors (oxidized compounds), and simultaneous bioreduction of the electron acceptors. Increasing the H(2) pressure delivered more H(2) gas, and the total H(2) flux increased linearly from approximately 0.04 mg/cm(2)-d for 0.5 psig (0.034 atm) to 0.13 mg/cm(2)-d for 9.5 psig (0.65 atm). This increased rate of H(2) delivery allowed for continued reduction of the acceptors as their surface loading increased. The electron acceptors had a clear hydrogen-utilization order when the availability of hydrogen was limited: oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, and then perchlorate. Spiking the influent with perchlorate or nitrate allowed us to identify the maximum surface loadings that still achieved more than 99.5% reduction of both oxidized contaminants: 0.21 mg NO(3)-N/cm(2)-d and 3.4 microg ClO(4)/cm(2)-d. Both maximum values appear to be controlled by factors other than hydrogen availability.

  18. Kinetics of growth and aniline degradation by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Zissi, U.S.; Lyberatos, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    A pure bacterial culture of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, capable of using aniline as a sole carbon source, was isolated. Kinetic experiments were conducted to develop a mathematical model that describes accurately the growth and utilization rates of the microorganism on the aniline and an alternate carbon source (glucose) individually and on their mixture. The growth of microorganisms and substrate utilization could be well described by using Monod expressions for limiting substrates. The presence of glucose in the culture medium did not repress aniline catabolism but simultaneous utilization was observed. When both substrates were present, the utilization of one substrate had a considerable effect on the utilization of the other. These effects were shown to be predicted by a mathematical model based on a modified Monod expression. The proposed model was found capable of describing accurately cellular growth as well as aniline and glucose biodegradation.

  19. In Situ μGISAXS: II. Thaumatin Crystal Growth Kinetic

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Pechkova, Eugenia; Riekel, Christian; Nicolini, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The formation of thaumatin crystals by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film nanotemplates was studied by the hanging-drop technique in a flow-through cell by synchrotron radiation micrograzing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The kinetics of crystallization was measured directly on the interface of the LB film crystallization nanotemplate. The evolution of the micrograzing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering patterns suggests that the increase in intensity in the Yoneda region is due to protein incorporation into the LB film. The intensity variation suggests several steps, which were modeled by system dynamics based on first-order differential equations. The kinetic data can be described by two processes that take place on the LB film, a first, fast, process, attributed to the crystal growth and its detachment from the LB film, and a second, slower process, attributed to an unordered association and conversion of protein on the LB film. PMID:20713011

  20. Capric Acid Secreted by S. boulardii Inhibits C. albicans Filamentous Growth, Adhesion and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Murzyn, Anna; Krasowska, Anna; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Dziadkowiec, Dorota; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis are life-threatening systemic fungal diseases, especially of gastro intestinal track, skin and mucous membranes lining various body cavities like the nostrils, the mouth, the lips, the eyelids, the ears or the genital area. Due to increasing resistance of candidiasis to existing drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. One promising strategy is the use of the probiotic microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit. Such a probiotic microorganism is yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, a close relative of baker yeast. Saccharomyces boulardii cells and their extract affect the virulence factors of the important human fungal pathogen C. albicans, its hyphae formation, adhesion and biofilm development. Extract prepared from S. boulardii culture filtrate was fractionated and GC-MS analysis showed that the active fraction contained, apart from 2-phenylethanol, caproic, caprylic and capric acid whose presence was confirmed by ESI-MS analysis. Biological activity was tested on C. albicans using extract and pure identified compounds. Our study demonstrated that this probiotic yeast secretes into the medium active compounds reducing candidal virulence factors. The chief compound inhibiting filamentous C. albicans growth comparably to S. boulardii extract was capric acid, which is thus responsible for inhibition of hyphae formation. It also reduced candidal adhesion and biofilm formation, though three times less than the extract, which thus contains other factors suppressing C. albicans adherence. The expression profile of selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by real-time PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, INO1 and CSH1 genes in C. albicans cells treated with capric acid and S. boulardii extract. Hence capric acid secreted by S. boulardii is responsible for inhibition of C. albicans filamentation and partially also adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID

  1. Effects of antimicrobial peptides on Staphylococcus aureus growth and biofilm formation in vitro following isolation from implant-associated infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangfeng; Zhong, Huiming; Zhang, Mao; Hong, Yucai

    2015-01-01

    To prevent biomaterial-associated infections, antibiotic agents are recommended for various medical conditions requiring biomaterial implants, but resistance often appears after the introduction of antibiotics into clinical use. Therefore, new strategies for the prevention or treatment for biomaterial-associated infections are required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of antimicrobial peptides on growth and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from implant-associated infections. A total of 20 patients with culture-proven staphylococcal infection associated with stable orthopedic implants were selected as the experimental group. S. aureus were isolated from tissue biopsies for identification, the isolated strains were mixed with Tet213 incubated at 37°C and viable bactrial number of S. aureus was counted. For the biofilm formation, the broad spectrum AMP Tet213 was selected and loaded onto the Ti coating first. At the same time Ti coated with Tet213 were mixed with S. aureus in vitro to form biofilm. After 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, the population of S. aureus in the biofilm was counted. Tet213 showed significant antibacterial effect on 16 strains (P < 0.05, Table 1). The inhibition rate reached above 80% among 12 strains of the clinically isolated strain. In biofilm experiments, counts of the NO. 1, 2, 3, 4 strains in biofilms decreased significantly after 2 h (P < 0.05), while there was no obvious difference in counts of NO. 5 strain (P > 0.05). The broad spectrum AMP Tet213 could strongly reduce the growth and biofilm formation of S. aureus in vitro, and the use of this might be an important new approach to target implant-associated infections. PMID:25785171

  2. Biofilm formation and partial biodegradation of polystyrene by the actinomycete Rhodococcus ruber: biodegradation of polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Mor, Roi; Sivan, Alex

    2008-11-01

    Polystyrene, which is one of the most utilized thermoplastics, is highly durable and is considered to be non-biodegradable. Hence, polystyrene waste accumulates in the environment posing an increasing ecological threat. In a previous study we have isolated a biofilm-producing strain (C208) of the actinomycete Rhodococcus ruber that degraded polyethylene films. Formation of biofilm, by C208, improved the biodegradation of polyethylene. Consequently, the present study aimed at monitoring the kinetics of biofilm formation by C208 on polystyrene, determining the physiological activity of the biofilm and analyzing its capacity to degrade polystyrene. Quantification of the biofilm biomass was performed using a modified crystal violet (CV) staining or by monitoring the protein content in the biofilm. When cultured on polystyrene flakes, most of the bacterial cells adhered to the polystyrene surface within few hours, forming a biofilm. The growth of the on polystyrene showed a pattern similar to that of a planktonic culture. Furthermore, the respiration rate, of the biofilm, exhibited a pattern similar to that of the biofilm growth. In contrast, the respiration activity of the planktonic population showed a constant decline with time. Addition of mineral oil (0.005% w/v), but not non-ionic surfactants, increased the biofilm biomass. Extended incubation of the biofilm for up to 8 weeks resulted in a small reduction in the polystyrene weight (0.8% of gravimetric weight loss). This study demonstrates the high affinity of C208 to polystyrene which lead to biofilm formation and, presumably, induced partial biodegradation.

  3. Effects of nisin and lysozyme on growth inhibition and biofilm formation capacity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw milk and cheese samples.

    PubMed

    Sudagidan, Mert; Yemenicioğlu, Ahmet

    2012-09-01

    Effects of nisin and lysozyme on growth inhibition and biofilm formation capacity of 25 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw milk (13 strains) and cheese (12 strains) were studied. Nisin was tested at concentrations between 0.5 and 25 μg/ml; the growth of all strains was inhibited at 25 μg/ml, but the resistances of strains showed a great variation at lower nisin concentrations. In contrast, lysozyme tested at concentrations up to 5.0 mg/ml showed no inhibition on the growth of strains. Nisin used at the growth inhibitory concentration prevented the biofilm formation of strains, but strains continued biofilm formation at subinhibitory nisin concentrations. Lysozyme did not affect the biofilm formation of 19 of the strains, but it caused a considerable activation in the biofilm formation capacity of six strains. Twelve of the strains contained both biofilm-related protease genes (sspA, sspB, and aur) and active proteases; eight of these strains were nisin resistant. These results suggest a potential risk of S. aureus growth and biofilm formation when lysozyme is used in the biopreservation of dairy products. Nisin can be used to control growth and biofilm formation of foodborne S. aureus, unless resistance against this biopreservative develops.

  4. A kinetic chain growth algorithm in coarse-grained simulations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhu, You-Liang; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2016-11-15

    We propose a kinetic chain growth algorithm for coarse-grained (CG) simulations in this work. By defining the reaction probability, it delivers a description of consecutive polymerization process. This algorithm is validated by modeling the process of individual styrene monomers polymerizing into polystyrene chains, which is proved to correctly reproduce the properties of polymers in experiments. By bridging the relationship between the generic chain growth process in CG simulations and the chemical details, the impediment to reaction can be reflected. Regarding to the kinetics, it models a polymerization process with an Arrhenius-type reaction rate coefficient. Moreover, this algorithm can model both the gradual and jump processes of the bond formation, thus it readily encompasses several kinds of previous CG models of chain growth. With conducting smooth simulations, this algorithm can be potentially applied to describe the variable macroscopic features of polymers with the process of polymerization. The algorithm details and techniques are introduced in this article. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Pantuso, Traci; Bennett, Bradley C.

    2008-01-01

    One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 hours growth using an optical density (OD600nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 hours, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD570nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50 ≤32 μg/ml for biofilm inhibition: Lonicera alpigena, Castanea sativa, Juglans regia, Ballota nigra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Leopoldia comosa, Malva sylvestris, Cyclamen hederifolium, Rosa canina, and Rubus ulmifolius. Limited bacteriostatic activity was evident. The anti-biofilm activity of medicinal plants was significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications. PMID:18556162

  6. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacilli on the Growth of Streptococcus Mutans and Multispecies Biofilms Isolated from Children with Active Caries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaolong; Chen, Xi; Tu, Yan; Wang, Sa; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on Streptococcus mutans (MS) and multispecies biofilms isolated from children with severe caries. Material/Methods Twenty children with active caries (DMFS ≥6) were selected as the experimental group and Streptococcus mutans (MS) were isolated from their saliva. After identification the MS strains were mixed with lactobacilli at 37°C, following which viable MS colonies were counted. At the same time dental plaques from the children were mixed with lactobacilli in vitro to form biofilms, and the population of nine common strains in the biofilms was enumerated after 24 hours of growth. Results Lactobacillus casei Shirota, L. casei LC01, L. plantarum ST-III and L. paracasei LPC37 all had strong inhibitory effects on the majority the MS isolated from children with active caries, with the inhibition rate reaching approximately 70–90% (p<0.05). L. casei Shirota, L. casei LC01, L. plantarum ST-III, L. paracasei LPC37 also significantly reduced the numbers of MS, Streptococcus spp., S. sanguinis and total bacteria in mixed biofilms compared with the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions The four strains of lactobacilli were able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans and had effects on the composition of bacterial biofilms in vitro. Ingestion of probiotics may be a promising method of caries prevention. PMID:28851857

  7. Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Pantuso, Traci; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-08-13

    One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 h growth using an optical density (OD 600 nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 h, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD 570 nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50biofilm inhibition: Lonicera alpigena, Castanea sativa, Juglans regia, Ballota nigra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Leopoldia comosa, Malva sylvestris, Cyclamen hederifolium, Rosa canina, and Rubus ulmifolius. Limited bacteriostatic activity was evident. This study has demonstrated that the anti-biofilm activity of medicinal plants used for SSTI is significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications.

  8. A novel in vitro flat-bed perfusion biofilm model for determining the potential antimicrobial efficacy of topical wound treatments.

    PubMed

    Thorn, R M S; Greenman, J

    2009-12-01

    To develop an in vitro flat-bed perfusion biofilm model that could be used to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of topically applied treatments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms were grown within continuously perfused cellulose matrices. Enumeration of the biofilm density and eluate was performed at various sampling times, enabling determination of the biofilm growth rate. Two antimicrobial wound dressings were applied to the surface of mature biofilms and periodically sampled. To enable real-time imaging of biofilm growth and potential antimicrobial kinetics, a bioluminescent Ps. aeruginosa biofilm was monitored using low-light photometry. Target species produced reproducible steady-state biofilms at a density of c. 10(7) per biofilm support matrix, after 24-h perfusion. Test dressings elicited significant antimicrobial effects, producing differing kill kinetic profiles. There was a good correlation between photon and viable count data. The model enables determination of the antimicrobial profile of topically applied treatments against target species biofilms, accurately differentiating bactericidal from bacteriostatic effects. Moreover, these effects could be monitored in real time using bioluminescence. This is the first in vitro biofilm model which can assess the antimicrobial potential of topical therapies in a dynamic growth environment.

  9. Growth Kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in Cut Produce.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Sahu, Surasri N; Hildebrandt, Ian M; Zhang, Lijie; Qi, Yan; Liggans, Girvin; Datta, Atin R; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2017-08-01

    Cut produce continues to constitute a significant portion of the fresh fruit and vegetables sold directly to consumers. As such, the safety of these items during storage, handling, and display remains a concern. Cut tomatoes, cut leafy greens, and cut melons, which have been studied in relation to their ability to support pathogen growth, have been specifically identified as needing temperature control for safety. Data are needed on the growth behavior of foodborne pathogens in other types of cut produce items that are commonly offered for retail purchase and are potentially held without temperature control. This study assessed the survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cut produce items that are commonly offered for retail purchase, specifically broccoli, green and red bell peppers, yellow onions, canned green and black olives, fresh green olives, cantaloupe flesh and rind, avocado pulp, cucumbers, and button mushrooms. The survival of L. monocytogenes strains representing serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b was determined on the cut produce items for each strain individually at 5, 10, and 25°C for up to 720 h. The modified Baranyi model was used to determine the growth kinetics (the maximum growth rates and maximum population increases) in the L. monocytogenes populations. The products that supported the most rapid growth of L. monocytogenes, considering the fastest growth and resulting population levels, were cantaloupe flesh and avocado pulp. When stored at 25°C, the maximum growth rates for these products were 0.093 to 0.138 log CFU/g/h and 0.130 to 0.193 log CFU/g/h, respectively, depending on the strain. Green olives and broccoli did not support growth at any temperature. These results can be used to inform discussions surrounding whether specific time and temperature storage conditions should be recommended for additional cut produce items.

  10. Kinetic model of impurity poisoning during growth of calcite

    SciTech Connect

    DeYoreo, J; Wasylenki, L; Dove, P; Wilson, D; Han, N

    2004-05-18

    The central role of the organic component in biologically controlled mineralization is widely recognized. These proteins are characterized by a high proportion of acidic amino acid residues, especially aspartate, Asp. At the same time, biomineralization takes place in the presence of a number of naturally-occurring, inorganic impurities, particularly Mg and Sr. In an attempt to decipher the controls on calcite growth imposed by both classes of modifiers, we have used in situ AFM to investigate the dependence of growth morphology and step kinetics on calcite in the presence of Sr{sup 2+}, as well as a wide suite of Aspartic acid-bearing polypeptides. In each case, we observe a distinct and step-specific modification. Most importantly, we find that the step speed exhibits a characteristic dependence on impurity concentration not predicted by existing crystal growth models. While all of the impurities clearly induce appearance of a 'dead zone,' neither the width of that dead zone nor the dependence of step speed on activity or impurity content can be explained by invoking the Gibbs-Thomson effect, which is the basis for the Cabrera-Vermilyea model of impurity poisoning. Common kink-blocking models also fail to explain the observed dependencies. Here we propose a kinetic model of inhibition based on a 'cooperative' effect of impurity adsorption at adjacent kink sites. The model is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results in that it predicts a non-linear dependence of dead zone width on impurity concentration, as well as a sharp drop in step speed above a certain impurity content. However, a detailed model of impurity adsorption kinetics that give quantitative agreement with the data has yet to be developed.

  11. Glass susceptibility: Growth kinetics and saturation under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2016-07-01

    We study the growth kinetics of glassy correlations in a structural glass by monitoring the evolution, within mode-coupling theory, of a suitably defined three-point function χC(t ,tw) with time t and waiting time tw. From the complete wave-vector-dependent equations of motion for domain growth, we pass to a schematic limit to obtain a numerically tractable form. We find that the peak value χCP of χC(t ,tw) , which can be viewed as a correlation volume, grows as tw0.5, and the relaxation time as tw0.8, following a quench to a point deep in the glassy state. These results constitute a theoretical explanation of the simulation findings of Parisi [J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 4128 (1999), 10.1021/jp983967m] and Kob and Barrat [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4581 (1997), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.4581], and they are also in qualitative agreement with Parsaeian and Castillo [Phys. Rev. E 78, 060105(R) (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.060105]. On the other hand, if the quench is to a point on the liquid side, the correlation volume grows to saturation. We present a similar calculation for the growth kinetics in a p -spin spin glass mean-field model where we find a slower growth, χCP˜tw0.13 . Further, we show that a shear rate γ ˙ cuts off the growth of glassy correlations when tw˜1 /γ ˙ for quench in the glassy regime and tw=min(tr,1 /γ ˙) in the liquid, where tr is the relaxation time of the unsheared liquid. The relaxation time of the steady-state fluid in this case is ∝γ˙-0.8 .

  12. Kinetic growth walk on critical percolation clusters and lattice animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, P. M.; Zhang, Z. Q.

    1984-03-01

    The statistics of recently proposed kinetic growth walk (KGW) model for linear polymers (or growing self avoiding walk (GSAW)) on two dimensional critical percolation clusters and lattice animals are studied using real-space renormalization group method. The correlation length exponents ν's are found to be ν{KGW/ Pc } = 0.68 and ν{KGW/LA} respectively for the critical percolation clusters and lattice animals. Close agreements are found between these results and a generalized Flory formula for linear polymers at theta point ν{KGW/F} = 2/bar d+1),, wherebar d is the fractal dimension of the fractal object F.

  13. Influence of femtosecond laser produced nanostructures on biofilm growth on steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epperlein, Nadja; Menzel, Friederike; Schwibbert, Karin; Koter, Robert; Bonse, Jörn; Sameith, Janin; Krüger, Jörg; Toepel, Jörg

    2017-10-01

    Biofilm formation poses high risks in multiple industrial and medical settings. However, the robust nature of biofilms makes them also attractive for industrial applications where cell biocatalysts are increasingly in use. Since tailoring material properties that affect bacterial growth or its inhibition is gaining attention, here we focus on the effects of femtosecond laser produced nanostructures on bacterial adhesion. Large area periodic surface structures were generated on steel surfaces using 30-fs laser pulses at 790 nm wavelength. Two types of steel exhibiting a different corrosion resistance were used, i.e., a plain structural steel (corrodible) and a stainless steel (resistant to corrosion). Homogeneous fields of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were realized utilizing laser fluences close to the ablation threshold while scanning the sample under the focused laser beam in a multi-pulse regime. The nanostructures were characterized with optical and scanning electron microscopy. For each type of steel, more than ten identical samples were laser-processed. Subsequently, the samples were subjected to microbial adhesion tests. Bacteria of different shape and adhesion behavior (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) were exposed to laser structures and to polished reference surfaces. Our results indicate that E. coli preferentially avoids adhesion to the LIPSS-covered areas, whereas S. aureus favors these areas for colonization.

  14. Bacterial growth and biofilm formation in household-stored groundwater collected from public wells.

    PubMed

    Burkowska-But, Aleksandra; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Swiontek Brzezinska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    The research was aimed at assessing changes in the number of bacteria and evaluating biofilm formation in groundwater collected from public wells, both aspects directly related to the methods of household storage. In the research, water collected from Cretaceous aquifer wells in Toruń (Poland) was stored in a refrigerator and at room temperature. Microbiological parameters of the water were measured immediately after the water collection, and then after 3 and 7 days of storage under specified conditions. The microbiological examination involved determining the number of heterotrophic bacteria capable of growth at 22 and 37 °C, the number of spore-forming bacteria, and the total number of bacteria on membrane filters. The storage may affect water quality to such an extent that the water, which initially met the microbiological criteria for water intended for human consumption, may pose a health risk. The repeated use of the same containers for water storage results in biofilm formation containing live and metabolically active bacterial cells.

  15. Rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis under static growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Waters, Elaine M; McCarthy, Hannah; Hogan, Siobhan; Zapotoczna, Marta; O'Neill, Eoghan; O'Gara, James P

    2014-01-01

    Rapid screening of biofilm forming capacity by Staphylococcus epidermidis is possible using in vitro assays with 96-well plates. This method first developed by Christensen et al. in 1985 is fast and does not require specialized instruments. Thus, laboratories with standard microbiology infrastructure and a 96-well plate reader can easily use this technique to generate data on the biofilm phenotypes of multiple S. epidermidis strains and clinical isolates. Furthermore, this method can be adapted to gain insights into biofilm regulation and the characteristics of biofilms produced by different S. epidermidis isolates. Although this assay is extremely useful for showing whether individual strains are biofilm-positive or biofilm-negative and distinguishing between form weak, moderate or strong biofilm, it is important to acknowledge that the absolute levels of biofilm produced by an individual strain can vary significantly between experiments meaning that strict adherence to the protocol used is of paramount importance. Furthermore, measuring biofilm under static conditions does not generally reflect in vivo conditions in which bacteria are often subjected to shear stresses under flow conditions. Hence, the biofilm characteristics of some strains are dramatically different under flow and static conditions. Nevertheless, rapid measurement of biofilm production under static conditions is a useful tool in the analysis of the S. epidermidis biofilm phenotype.

  16. Kinetic 15N-isotope effects on algal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism metabolism and growth, which is not consistent with current theoretical and empirical knowledge on kinetic isotope effects. Here, we demonstrate profound changes in growth dynamics of the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata grown in 15N-enriched media. With increasing 15N concentration (0.37 to 50 at%), the lag phase increased, whereas maximal growth rate and total yield decreased; moreover, there was a negative relationship between the growth and the lag phase across the treatments. The latter suggests that a trade-off between growth rate and the ability to adapt to the high 15N environment may exist. Remarkably, the lag-phase response at 3.5 at% 15N was the shortest and deviated from the overall trend, thus providing partial support to the recently proposed Isotopic Resonance hypothesis, which predicts that certain isotopic composition is particularly favorable for living organisms. These findings confirm the occurrence of KIE in isotopically enriched algae and underline the importance of considering these effects when using stable isotope labeling in field and experimental studies.

  17. Kinetic 15N-isotope effects on algal growth

    PubMed Central

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism metabolism and growth, which is not consistent with current theoretical and empirical knowledge on kinetic isotope effects. Here, we demonstrate profound changes in growth dynamics of the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata grown in 15N-enriched media. With increasing 15N concentration (0.37 to 50 at%), the lag phase increased, whereas maximal growth rate and total yield decreased; moreover, there was a negative relationship between the growth and the lag phase across the treatments. The latter suggests that a trade-off between growth rate and the ability to adapt to the high 15N environment may exist. Remarkably, the lag-phase response at 3.5 at% 15N was the shortest and deviated from the overall trend, thus providing partial support to the recently proposed Isotopic Resonance hypothesis, which predicts that certain isotopic composition is particularly favorable for living organisms. These findings confirm the occurrence of KIE in isotopically enriched algae and underline the importance of considering these effects when using stable isotope labeling in field and experimental studies. PMID:28281640

  18. Kinetically controlled growth of gallium on stepped Si (553) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, Syed Khalid; Govind

    2013-10-01

    Kinetically controlled growth of gallium (Ga) metal has been reported on high index stepped Si (553) surface and its thermal stability with various novel superstructural phases has been analyzed. Auger electron spectroscopy studies revealed that the adsorption of Ga at room temperature (RT) follows Frank-van der Merwe (FM) growth mode while for higher substrate temperature, Ga adsorption remains within the submonolayer range. Thermal desorption and low energy electron diffraction studies investigated the formation of thermally stable Ga-islands and the various Ga induced superstructural phase on Si (553). During room temperature adsorption, (1 1 1)7 × 7 facet of Si (553) reconstructed into (1 1 1)6 × 6 facet while during desorption process, stable (1 1 1)6 × 6 and (1 1 1)√3 × √3-R30° surface reconstructions has been observed.

  19. Comparing Resistance, Resilience, and Stability of Replicate Moving Bed Biofilm and Suspended Growth Combined Nitritation-Anammox Reactors.

    PubMed

    Wells, G F; Shi, Y; Laureni, M; Rosenthal, A; Szivák, I; Weissbrodt, D G; Joss, A; Buergmann, H; Johnson, D R; Morgenroth, E

    2017-04-04

    Combined partial nitritation-anammox (PN/A) systems are increasingly employed for sustainable nitrogen removal from wastewater, but process instabilities present ongoing challenges for practitioners. The goal of this study was to elucidate differences in process stability between PN/A process variations employing two distinct aggregate types-biofilm (in moving bed biofilm reactors, MBBRs) and suspended growth biomass. Triplicate reactors for each process variation were studied under baseline conditions and in response to a series of transient perturbations. MBBRs displayed elevated NH4+ removal rates relative to suspended growth counterparts over six months of unperturbed baseline operation, but also exhibited significantly greater variability in performance. Transient perturbations led to strikingly divergent yet reproducible behavior in biofilm versus suspended growth systems. A temperature perturbation prompted a sharp reduction in NH4+ removal rates with no NO2- accumulation and rapid recovery in MBBRs, compared to a similar reduction in NH4+ removal rates but strong NO2- accumulation in suspended growth reactors. Pulse additions of a nitrification inhibitor (allylthiourea) prompted only moderate declines in performance in suspended growth reactors compared to sharp decreases in NH4+ removal rates in MBBRs. Quantitative FISH demonstrated a significant enrichment of anammox in MBBRs compared to suspended growth reactors, and conversely a proportionally higher AOB abundance in suspended growth reactors. Overall, MBBRs displayed significantly increased susceptibility to transient perturbations employed in this study compared to suspended growth counterparts (stability parameter), including significantly longer recovery times (resilience). No significant difference in maximum impact of perturbations (resistance) was apparent. Taken together, our results suggest that aggregate architecture (biofilm versus suspended growth) in PN/A processes exerts an unexpectedly

  20. Growth of Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120∆C biofilms in the presence of n-butanol.

    PubMed

    Halan, Babu; Vassilev, Igor; Lang, Karsten; Schmid, Andreas; Buehler, Katja

    2016-10-03

    Biocatalytic processes often encounter problems due to toxic reactants and products, which reduce biocatalyst viability. Thus, robust organisms capable of tolerating or adapting towards such compounds are of high importance. This study systematically investigated the physiological response of Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120∆C biofilms when exposed to n-butanol, one of the potential next generation biofuels as well as a toxic substance using microscopic and biochemical methods. Initially P. taiwanensis VLB120∆C biofilms did not show any observable growth in the presence of 3% butanol. Prolonged cultivation of 10 days led to biofilm adaptation, glucose and oxygen uptake doubled and consequently it was possible to quantify biomass. Complementing the medium with yeast extract and presumably reducing the metabolic burden caused by butanol exposure further increased the biomass yield. In course of cultivation cells reduced their size in the presence of n-butanol which results in an enlarged surface-to-volume ratio and thus increased nutrient uptake. Finally, biofilm enhanced its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production when exposed to n-butanol. The predominant response of these biofilms under n-butanol stress are higher energy demand, increased biomass yield upon medium complements, larger surface-to-volume ratio and enhanced EPS production. Although we observed a distinct increase in biomass in the presence of 3% butanol it was not possible to cultivate P. taiwanensis VLB120∆C biofilms at higher n-butanol concentrations. Thereby this study shows that biofilms are not per se tolerant against solvents, and need to adapt to toxic n-butanol concentrations.

  1. Bactericidal Compounds Controlling Growth of the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Which Forms Biofilms Composed of a Novel Exopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ghods, Shirin; Sims, Ian M.; Moradali, M. Fata

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the major cause of bacterial canker and is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. Many aspects of the disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae, such as the pathogenicity-relevant formation of a biofilm composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), are still unknown. Here, a highly virulent strain of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, NZ V-13, was studied with respect to biofilm formation and architecture using a flow cell system combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biofilm formed by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 was heterogeneous, consisting of a thin cellular base layer 5 μm thick and microcolonies with irregular structures. The major component of the EPSs produced by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 bacteria was isolated and identified to be an exopolysaccharide. Extensive compositional and structural analysis showed that rhamnose, fucose, and glucose were the major constituents, present at a ratio of 5:1.5:2. Experimental evidence that P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 produces two polysaccharides, a branched α-d-rhamnan with side chains of terminal α-d-Fucf and an α-d-1,4-linked glucan, was obtained. The susceptibility of the cells in biofilms to kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide was assessed. About 64 and 73% of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 cells in biofilms were killed when kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide were used at 5 and 10 ppm, respectively. Kasugamycin inhibited the attachment of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 to solid surfaces at concentrations of 80 and 100 ppm. Kasugamycin was bacteriostatic against P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 growth in the planktonic mode, with the MIC being 40 to 60 ppm and a bactericidal effect being found at 100 ppm. Here we studied the formation, architecture, and composition of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biofilms as well as used the biofilm as a model to assess the efficacies of bactericidal compounds. PMID:25841017

  2. Influence of starvation, surface attachment and biofilm growth on the biocide susceptibility of the biodeteriogenic yeast Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Sabev, H A; Robson, G D; Handley, P S

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the effect of starvation, surface attachment and growth in a biofilm on the susceptibility of Aureobasidium pullulans to the biocides 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Fluorescence loss from a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transformed strain was used to monitor real-time loss in viability as previously described in situ in 96-well plates. Exponential phase, yeast-like (YL) cells were settled in the bottom of the wells as a low-density monolayer (LDM) and were susceptible to all biocide concentrations (25-100 mug ml(-1)). The exponential phase YL cells were either starved for 48 h in suspension or starved for 48 h as LDMs in the wells. Starvation in both cases led to a small reduction in susceptibility to the biocides. In contrast, 48-h biofilms grown in malt extract broth showed an apparent lack of susceptibility to 25 and 50 mug ml(-1) OIT and to 25-100 mug ml(-1) NaOCl. However, when the OIT concentration was increased to compensate for the higher cell density in the biofilm, the biofilms were found to be equally susceptible to the LDM. Starvation of A. pullulans YL cells either in suspension or as attached LDM resulted in a decrease in susceptibility to low concentrations of both OIT and NaOCl while the apparent reduced susceptibility of mature biofilms was due to the increase in biofilm cell density rather than true biofilm resistance per se. Monitoring fluorescence loss from the GFP-transformed strain of A. pullulans can be used as a fast and reliable method for monitoring cell death in real time as a response to biocide and antimicrobial challenge.

  3. Vizantin inhibits bacterial adhesion without affecting bacterial growth and causes Streptococcus mutans biofilm to detach by altering its internal architecture.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Shoji; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohshima, Hayato; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Terao, Yutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro

    2016-11-11

    An ideal antibiofilm strategy is to control both in the quality and quantity of biofilm while maintaining the benefits derived from resident microflora. Vizantin, a recently developed immunostimulating compound, has also been found to have antibiofilm property. This study evaluated the influence on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sulfated vizantin and biofilm development following bacterial adhesion on a hydroxyapatite disc coated with sulfated vizantin. Supplementation with sulfated vizantin up to 50 μM did not affect either bacterial growth or biofilm formation, whereas 50 μM sulfated vizantin caused the biofilm to readily detach from the surface. Sulfated vizantin at the concentration of 50 μM upregulated the expression of the gtfB and gtfC genes, but downregulated the expression of the gtfD gene, suggesting altered architecture in the biofilm. Biofilm development on the surface coated with sulfated vizantin was inhibited depending on the concentration, suggesting prevention from bacterial adhesion. Among eight genes related to bacterial adherence in S. mutans, expression of gtfB and gtfC was significantly upregulated, whereas the expression of gtfD, GbpA and GbpC was downregulated according to the concentration of vizantin, especially with 50 μM vizantin by 0.8-, 0.4-, and 0.4-fold, respectively. These findings suggest that sulfated vizantin may cause structural degradation as a result of changing gene regulation related to bacterial adhesion and glucan production of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Continuous growth kinetics of Candida utilis in pineapple cannery effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Candida utilis was grown on a pineapple cannery effluent as the sole carbon and energy source in a chemostat at dilution rates between 0.10 and 0.62 h/sup -1/ to determine the growth kinetics. The principal sugars in the effluent were sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The cell yield coefficient on carbohydrate varied with dilution rate and a maximum value of 0.63 was observed at a dilution rate of 0.33 h/sup -1/. The steady-state concentrations of carbohydrate, reducing sugar, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) appeared to follow Monod saturation kinetics with increasing dilution rate, although none of the measured parameters represented a pure substrate. The maximum specific growth rate and reducing sugar saturation constant were 0.64 h/sup -1/ and 0.060 g/L, respectively. A maximum cell mass productivity of 2.3 g/L h was observed at a dilution rate of 0.51 h/sup -1/. At this dilution rate, only 68% of the COD was removed. A 95% COD removal was attained at a dilution rate of 0.10 h/sup -1/. Optimal yeast productivity and COD reduction occurred at a dilution rate of 0.33 h/sup -1/.

  5. Kinetics of growth and sugar consumption in yeasts.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, J P; Weusthuis, R A; Pronk, J T

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the steady- and transient state kinetics of growth and formation of metabolic byproducts in yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly inclined to perform alcoholic fermentation. Even under fully aerobic conditions, ethanol is produced by this yeast when sugars are present in excess. This so-called 'Crabtree effect' probably results from a multiplicity of factors, including the mode of sugar transport and the regulation of enzyme activities involved in respiration and alcoholic fermentation. The Crabtree effect in S. cerevisiae is not caused by an intrinsic inability to adjust its respiratory activity to high glycolytic fluxes. Under certain cultivation conditions, for example during growth in the presence of weak organic acids, very high respiration rates can be achieved by this yeast. S. cerevisiae is an exceptional yeast since, in contrast to most other species that are able to perform alcoholic fermentation, it can grow under strictly anaerobic conditions. 'Non-Saccharomyces' yeasts require a growth-limiting supply of oxygen (i.e. oxygen-limited growth conditions) to trigger alcoholic fermentation. However, complete absence of oxygen results in cessation of growth and therefore, ultimately, of alcoholic fermentation. Since it is very difficult to reproducibly achieve the right oxygen dosage in large-scale fermentations, non-Saccharomyces yeasts are therefore not suitable for large-scale alcoholic fermentation of sugar-containing waste streams. In these yeasts, alcoholic fermentation is also dependent on the type of sugar. For example, the facultatively fermentative yeast Candida utilis does not ferment maltose, not even under oxygen-limited growth conditions, although this disaccharide supports rapid oxidative growth.

  6. Effect of tannic and gallic acids alone or in combination with carbenicillin or tetracycline on Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 growth, motility, and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Dusane, Devendra H; O'May, Che; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections that are difficult to treat. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of selected tannins (tannic acid (TA) and gallic acid (GA)) on bacterial growth, motility, antibiotic (carbenicillin, tetracycline) susceptibility, and biofilm formation. Both tannins, particularly TA, impaired bacterial growth levels and swimming motilities at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs). In combination with tannins, antibiotics showed increased MICs, suggesting that tannins interfered with antibacterial activity. Sub-MICs of tetracycline or TA alone enhanced biofilm formation of C. violaceum; however, in combination, these compounds inhibited biofilm formation. In contrast, carbenicillin at sub-MICs was effective in inhibiting C. violaceum biofilm formation; however, in combination with lower concentrations of TA or GA, biofilms were enhanced. These results provide insights into the effects of tannins on C. violaceum growth and their varying interaction with antibiotics used to target C. violaceum infections.

  7. Kinetics of nitrate and perchlorate reduction in ion-exchange brine using the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR).

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, Steven W; Ahn, Chang Hoon; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Roberts, Deborah J; Lehman, S Geno; Adham, Samer S; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-09-01

    Several sources of bacterial inocula were tested for their ability to reduce nitrate and perchlorate in synthetic ion-exchange spent brine (30-45 g/L) using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). Nitrate and perchlorate removal fluxes reached as high as 5.4 g Nm(-2)d(-1) and 5.0 g ClO(4)m(-2)d(-1), respectively, and these values are similar to values obtained with freshwater MBfRs. Nitrate and perchlorate removal fluxes decreased with increasing salinity. The nitrate fluxes were roughly first order in H(2) pressure, but roughly zero-order with nitrate concentration. Perchlorate reduction rates were higher with lower nitrate loadings, compared to high nitrate loadings; this is a sign of competition for H(2). Nitrate and perchlorate reduction rates depended strongly on the inoculum. An inoculum that was well acclimated (years) to nitrate and perchlorate gave markedly faster removal kinetics than cultures that were acclimated for only a few months. These results underscore that the most successful MBfR bioreduction of nitrate and perchlorate in ion-exchange brine demands a well-acclimated inoculum and sufficient hydrogen availability.

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Sophorolipid on Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Hyphal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Farazul; Alfatah, Md.; Ganesan, K.; Bhattacharyya, Mani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans causes superficial and life-threatening systemic infections. These are difficult to treat often due to drug resistance, particularly because C. albicans biofilms are inherently resistant to most antifungals. Sophorolipid (SL), a glycolipid biosurfactant, has been shown to have antimicrobial and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. SL was found to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation as well as reduce the viability of preformed biofilms. Moreover, SL, when used along with amphotericin B (AmB) or fluconazole (FLZ), was found to act synergistically against biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. Effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation was further visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which revealed absence of hyphae, typical biofilm architecture and alteration in the morphology of biofilm cells. We also found that SL downregulates the expression of hypha specific genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, ECE1 and SAP4, which possibly explains the inhibitory effect of SL on hyphae and biofilm formation. PMID:27030404

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Sophorolipid on Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Hyphal Growth.

    PubMed

    Haque, Farazul; Alfatah, Md; Ganesan, K; Bhattacharyya, Mani Shankar

    2016-03-31

    Candida albicans causes superficial and life-threatening systemic infections. These are difficult to treat often due to drug resistance, particularly because C. albicans biofilms are inherently resistant to most antifungals. Sophorolipid (SL), a glycolipid biosurfactant, has been shown to have antimicrobial and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. SL was found to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation as well as reduce the viability of preformed biofilms. Moreover, SL, when used along with amphotericin B (AmB) or fluconazole (FLZ), was found to act synergistically against biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. Effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation was further visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which revealed absence of hyphae, typical biofilm architecture and alteration in the morphology of biofilm cells. We also found that SL downregulates the expression of hypha specific genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, ECE1 and SAP4, which possibly explains the inhibitory effect of SL on hyphae and biofilm formation.

  10. Modeling and validation of single-chamber microbial fuel cell cathode biofilm growth and response to oxidant gas composition

    DOE PAGES

    Ou, Shiqi; Zhao, Yi; Aaron, Douglas S.; ...

    2016-08-15

    This work describes experiments and computational simulations to analyze single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance and cathodic limitations in terms of current generation, power output, mass transport, biomass competition, and biofilm growth. Steady-state and transient cathode models were developed and experimentally validated. Two cathode gas mixtures were used to explore oxygen transport in the cathode: the MFCs exposed to a helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) produced higher current and power output than the group of MFCs exposed to air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture (nitrox), indicating a dependence on gas-phase transport in the cathode. Multi-substance transport, biological reactions, and electrochemical reactions inmore » a multi-layer and multi-biomass cathode biofilm were also simulated in a transient model. The transient model described biofilm growth over 15 days while providing insight into mass transport and cathodic dissolved species concentration profiles during biofilm growth. Lastly, simulation results predict that the dissolved oxygen content and diffusion in the cathode are key parameters affecting the power output of the air-cathode MFC system, with greater oxygen content in the cathode resulting in increased power output and fully-matured biomass.« less

  11. Cigarette smoke condensate increases C. albicans adhesion, growth, biofilm formation, and EAP1, HWP1 and SAP2 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers are more prone to oral infections than are non-smokers. Cigarette smoke reaches the host cells but also microorganisms present in the oral cavity. The contact between cigarette smoke and oral bacteria promotes such oral diseases as periodontitis. Cigarette smoke can also modulate C. albicans activities that promote oral candidiasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate on C. albicans adhesion, growth, and biofilm formation as well as the activation of EAP1, HWP1 and secreted aspartic protease 2. Results Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) increased C. albicans adhesion and growth, as well as biofilm formation. These features may be supported by the activation of certain important genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that CSC-exposed C. albicans expressed high levels of EAP1, HWP1 and SAP2 mRNA and that this gene expression increased with increasing concentrations of CSC. Conclusion CSC induction of C. albicans adhesion, growth, and biofilm formation may explain the increased persistence of this pathogen in smokers. These findings may also be relevant to other biofilm-induced oral diseases. PMID:24618025

  12. Modeling and validation of single-chamber microbial fuel cell cathode biofilm growth and response to oxidant gas composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Shiqi; Zhao, Yi; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-10-01

    This work describes experiments and computational simulations to analyze single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance and cathodic limitations in terms of current generation, power output, mass transport, biomass competition, and biofilm growth. Steady-state and transient cathode models were developed and experimentally validated. Two cathode gas mixtures were used to explore oxygen transport in the cathode: the MFCs exposed to a helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) produced higher current and power output than the group of MFCs exposed to air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture (nitrox), indicating a dependence on gas-phase transport in the cathode. Multi-substance transport, biological reactions, and electrochemical reactions in a multi-layer and multi-biomass cathode biofilm were also simulated in a transient model. The transient model described biofilm growth over 15 days while providing insight into mass transport and cathodic dissolved species concentration profiles during biofilm growth. Simulation results predict that the dissolved oxygen content and diffusion in the cathode are key parameters affecting the power output of the air-cathode MFC system, with greater oxygen content in the cathode resulting in increased power output and fully-matured biomass.

  13. Modeling and validation of single-chamber microbial fuel cell cathode biofilm growth and response to oxidant gas composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Shiqi; Zhao, Yi; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-08-15

    This work describes experiments and computational simulations to analyze single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance and cathodic limitations in terms of current generation, power output, mass transport, biomass competition, and biofilm growth. Steady-state and transient cathode models were developed and experimentally validated. Two cathode gas mixtures were used to explore oxygen transport in the cathode: the MFCs exposed to a helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) produced higher current and power output than the group of MFCs exposed to air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture (nitrox), indicating a dependence on gas-phase transport in the cathode. Multi-substance transport, biological reactions, and electrochemical reactions in a multi-layer and multi-biomass cathode biofilm were also simulated in a transient model. The transient model described biofilm growth over 15 days while providing insight into mass transport and cathodic dissolved species concentration profiles during biofilm growth. Lastly, simulation results predict that the dissolved oxygen content and diffusion in the cathode are key parameters affecting the power output of the air-cathode MFC system, with greater oxygen content in the cathode resulting in increased power output and fully-matured biomass.

  14. Modeling and validation of single-chamber microbial fuel cell cathode biofilm growth and response to oxidant gas composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Shiqi; Zhao, Yi; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-08-15

    This work describes experiments and computational simulations to analyze single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance and cathodic limitations in terms of current generation, power output, mass transport, biomass competition, and biofilm growth. Steady-state and transient cathode models were developed and experimentally validated. Two cathode gas mixtures were used to explore oxygen transport in the cathode: the MFCs exposed to a helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) produced higher current and power output than the group of MFCs exposed to air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture (nitrox), indicating a dependence on gas-phase transport in the cathode. Multi-substance transport, biological reactions, and electrochemical reactions in a multi-layer and multi-biomass cathode biofilm were also simulated in a transient model. The transient model described biofilm growth over 15 days while providing insight into mass transport and cathodic dissolved species concentration profiles during biofilm growth. Lastly, simulation results predict that the dissolved oxygen content and diffusion in the cathode are key parameters affecting the power output of the air-cathode MFC system, with greater oxygen content in the cathode resulting in increased power output and fully-matured biomass.

  15. Immobilized growth of the peridinin-producing marine dinoflagellate Symbiodinium in a simple biofilm photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Benstein, Ruben Maximilian; Cebi, Zehra; Podola, Björn; Melkonian, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Products from phototrophic dinoflagellates such as toxins or pigments are potentially important for applications in the biomedical sciences, especially in drug development. However, the technical cultivation of these organisms is often problematic due to their sensitivity to hydrodynamic (shear) stress that is a characteristic of suspension-based closed photobioreactors (PBRs). It is thus often thought that most species of dinoflagellates are non-cultivable at a technical scale. Recent advances in the development of biofilm PBRs that rely on immobilization of microalgae may hold potential to circumvent this major technical problem in dinoflagellate cultivation. In the present study, the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium voratum was grown immobilized on a Twin-Layer PBR for isolation of the carotenoid peridinin, an anti-cancerogenic compound. Biomass productivities ranged from 1.0 to 11.0 g m(-2) day(-1) dry matter per vertical growth surface and a maximal biomass yield of 114.5 g m(-2), depending on light intensity, supplementary CO2, and type of substrate (paper or polycarbonate membrane) used. Compared to a suspension culture, the performance of the Twin-Layer PBRs exhibited significantly higher growth rates and maximal biomass yield. In the Twin-Layer PBR a maximal peridinin productivity of 24 mg m(-2) day(-1) was determined at a light intensity of 74 μmol m(-2) s(-1), although the highest peridinin content per dry weight (1.7 % w/w) was attained at lower light intensities. The results demonstrate that a biofilm-based PBR that minimizes hydrodynamic shear forces is applicable to technical-scale cultivation of dinoflagellates and may foster biotechnological applications of these abundant marine protists.

  16. Biofilm growth mode promotes maximum carrying capacity and community stability during product inhibition syntrophy.

    PubMed

    Brileya, Kristen A; Camilleri, Laura B; Zane, Grant M; Wall, Judy D; Fields, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can interact syntrophically with other community members in the absence of sulfate, and interactions with hydrogen-consuming methanogens are beneficial when these archaea consume potentially inhibitory H2 produced by the SRB. A dual continuous culture approach was used to characterize population structure within a syntrophic biofilm formed by the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and the methanogenic archaeum Methanococcus maripaludis. Under the tested conditions, monocultures of D. vulgaris formed thin, stable biofilms, but monoculture M. maripaludis did not. Microscopy of intact syntrophic biofilm confirmed that D. vulgaris formed a scaffold for the biofilm, while intermediate and steady-state images revealed that M. maripaludis joined the biofilm later, likely in response to H2 produced by the SRB. Close interactions in structured biofilm allowed efficient transfer of H2 to M. maripaludis, and H2 was only detected in cocultures with a mutant SRB that was deficient in biofilm formation (ΔpilA). M. maripaludis produced more carbohydrate (uronic acid, hexose, and pentose) as a monoculture compared to total coculture biofilm, and this suggested an altered carbon flux during syntrophy. The syntrophic biofilm was structured into ridges (∼300 × 50 μm) and models predicted lactate limitation at ∼50 μm biofilm depth. The biofilm had structure that likely facilitated mass transfer of H2 and lactate, yet maximized biomass with a more even population composition (number of each organism) when compared to the bulk-phase community. Total biomass protein was equivalent in lactate-limited and lactate-excess conditions when a biofilm was present, but in the absence of biofilm, total biomass protein was significantly reduced. The results suggest that multispecies biofilms create an environment conducive to resource sharing, resulting in increased biomass retention, or carrying capacity, for cooperative populations.

  17. Biofilm growth mode promotes maximum carrying capacity and community stability during product inhibition syntrophy

    PubMed Central

    Brileya, Kristen A.; Camilleri, Laura B.; Zane, Grant M.; Wall, Judy D.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can interact syntrophically with other community members in the absence of sulfate, and interactions with hydrogen-consuming methanogens are beneficial when these archaea consume potentially inhibitory H2 produced by the SRB. A dual continuous culture approach was used to characterize population structure within a syntrophic biofilm formed by the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and the methanogenic archaeum Methanococcus maripaludis. Under the tested conditions, monocultures of D. vulgaris formed thin, stable biofilms, but monoculture M. maripaludis did not. Microscopy of intact syntrophic biofilm confirmed that D. vulgaris formed a scaffold for the biofilm, while intermediate and steady-state images revealed that M. maripaludis joined the biofilm later, likely in response to H2 produced by the SRB. Close interactions in structured biofilm allowed efficient transfer of H2 to M. maripaludis, and H2 was only detected in cocultures with a mutant SRB that was deficient in biofilm formation (ΔpilA). M. maripaludis produced more carbohydrate (uronic acid, hexose, and pentose) as a monoculture compared to total coculture biofilm, and this suggested an altered carbon flux during syntrophy. The syntrophic biofilm was structured into ridges (∼300 × 50 μm) and models predicted lactate limitation at ∼50 μm biofilm depth. The biofilm had structure that likely facilitated mass transfer of H2 and lactate, yet maximized biomass with a more even population composition (number of each organism) when compared to the bulk-phase community. Total biomass protein was equivalent in lactate-limited and lactate-excess conditions when a biofilm was present, but in the absence of biofilm, total biomass protein was significantly reduced. The results suggest that multispecies biofilms create an environment conducive to resource sharing, resulting in increased biomass retention, or carrying capacity, for cooperative populations. PMID:25566209

  18. Thermodynamic-kinetic simulation of constrained dendrite growth in steels

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, J.

    2000-04-01

    A model of constrained dendritic growth for steels, based on thermodynamic and kinetic theory, is presented. The model links thermodynamic chemical potential-equality equations to an existing, approximate treatment of constrained dendritic growth in multicomponent steels, taking into account the deviation from the local thermodynamic equilibrium of the phase interface caused by interface friction, capillarity, and solute trapping. Due to the thermodynamic approach, with a thermodynamic model and recently assessed data, the present treatment yields a more accurate determination of phase stabilities than the earlier methods. Depending on the steel composition and the growth conditions (growth rate and temperature gradient), the model determines the dendrite tip undercooling, the primary solid phase (ferrite or austenite), the stability of that phase, certain dimensions of the microstructure, and the solute accumulation ahead of the dendrite tip. A special optional calculations is that of the equally probable formation of ferrite and austenite in stainless steels. Calculations for testing the model and for validation it with experimental data are presented.

  19. Kinetics of ice particles growth in the polar summer mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasetsky, A. Y.; Petelina, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The growth kinetics of ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere is discussed. The particle growth time is calculated using the temperature, water vapor density, and ice number density simultaneously measured by the infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer on the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE-FTS) satellite. The formation rate for ice particles is a very strong function of temperature and water vapor concentration. We found the equilibrium radius of ice particles to be in the range from 20 to 70 nm, and the formation time - from about 2 hours at 150 K to about 18 hours at 125 K. Our results imply that in addition to the commonly accepted particle growth during their sedimentation from higher altitudes, in-situ growth to radii of 50-70 nm at mesospheric temperatures near 150 K in two hours or less may also be possible. Our analysis of possible shapes for mesospheric ice particles using the band shape of ice absorption feature measured by ACE-FTS suggests that cubes or compact hexagonal prisms (with an aspect ratio of 1.1) are the best candidates to represent the crystalline ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere.

  20. Influence of anodic biofilm growth on bioelectricity production in single chambered mediatorless microbial fuel cell using mixed anaerobic consortia.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Veer Raghavulu, S; Sarma, P N

    2008-09-15

    The effect of anodic biofilm growth and extent of its coverage on the anodic surface of a single chambered mediatorless microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated for bioelectricity generation using designed synthetic wastewater (DSW) and chemical wastewater (CW) as substrates and anaerobic mixed consortia as biocatalyst. Three MFCs (plain graphite electrodes, air cathode, Nafion membrane) were operated separately with variable biofilm coverage [control; anode surface coverage (ASC), 0%], partially developed biofilm [PDB; ASC approximately 44%; 90 days] and fully developed biofilm [FDB; ASC approximately 96%; 180 days] under acidophilic conditions (pH 6) at room temperature. The study depicted the effectiveness of anodic biofilm formation in enhancing the extracellular electron transfer in the absence of mediators. Higher specific power production [29 mW/kg COD(R) (CW and DSW)], specific energy yield [100.46 J/kg VSS (CW)], specific power yield [0.245 W/kg VSS (DSW); 0.282 W/kg VSS (CW)] and substrate removal efficiency of 66.07% (substrate degradation rate, 0.903 kgCOD/m(3)-day) along with effective functioning fuel cell at relatively higher resistance [4.5 komega (DSW); 14.9 komega (CW)] correspond to sustainable power [0.008 mW (DSW); 0.021 mW (CW)] and effective electron discharge (at higher resistance) and recovery (Coulomb efficiency; 27.03%) were observed especially with FDB operation. Cyclic voltammetry analysis documented six-fold increment in energy output from control (1.812 mJ) to PDB (10.666 mJ) operations and about eight-fold increment in energy from PDB to FDB (86.856 mJ). Biofilm configured MFC was shown to have the potential to selectively support the growth of electrogenic bacteria with robust characteristics, capable of generating higher power yields along with substrate degradation especially operated with characteristically complex wastewaters as substrates.

  1. Rethinking growth and decay kinetics in activated sludge - towards a new adaptive kinetics approach.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Michael; Jimenez, Jose; Pruden, Amy; Miller, Jennifer H; Metch, Jacob; Takács, Imre

    2017-02-01

    Growth kinetics in activated sludge modelling (ASM) are typically assumed to be the result of intrinsic growth and decay properties and thus process parameters are deemed to be constant. The activity change in a microbial population is expressed in terms of variance of the active biomass fraction and not actual shifts in bacterial cellular activities. This approach is limited, in that it does not recognise the reality that active biomass is highly physiologically adaptive. Here, a strong correlation between maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and decay rate (be) of ordinary heterotrophic organisms was revealed in both low solids retention times (SRT) and high SRT activated sludge systems. This relationship is indicative of physiological adaptation either for growth (high μmax and be) or survival optimization (low μmax and be). Further, the nitrifier decay process was investigated using molecular techniques to measure decay rates of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria over a range of temperatures. This approach revealed decay rates 10-12% lower than values previously accepted and used in ASM. These findings highlight potential benefits of incorporating physiological adaptation of heterotrophic and nitrifying populations in future ASM.

  2. Kinetics of droplet growth observed in recent field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, F.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can indirectly influence global climate budget by changing the microphysical structure, lifetime, and coverage of clouds. While it is generally agreed that aerosol indirect effects act to cool the Earth-atmosphere system by increasing cloud reflectivity and coverage, the magnitudes of the indirect effects are poorly understood. The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles is kinetically controlled by the availability of water vapor, equilibrium water vapor pressure above the growing droplet surface, and both the gas phase and aerosol phase mass transfer resistances. It has been hypothesized that the formation of surface organic films or the delay in dissolution of solute could significantly delay the growth of cloud droplets. Such delay could lead to a higher maximum supersaturation within a rising cloud parcel, therefore higher droplet number concentration and smaller droplet size at constant liquid water content. When only a subset of the droplets experiences significant growth delay, the overall droplet size spectrum will be broadened, which facilitates the formation of precipitation. During three recent field campaigns (CalNex-LA, CARES, and Aerosol Intensive Observation Period at Brookhaven National Laboratory), the CCN activity and droplet growth of size selected particles ranging from 25 to 320 nm were characterized by a CCN counter under supersaturations from 0.1% to 0.8%. The three campaigns allow us to examine the droplet growth for many representative organic aerosol types, including biogenic SOA, anthropogenic SOA, and organic aerosols from biomass burning. The droplet growth of size-selected ambient particles inside the CCN counter was found to be influenced by a number of parameters, including particle critical supersaturation, heterogeneity in particle composition, and particle concentration. For example, reduced droplet growth due to water vapor depletion was observed when particle concentration was higher than 200 cm

  3. Two-step nitrification in a pure moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment: nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; González-Martínez, A; Muñío, M M; Poyatos, J M

    2015-12-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) is a novel solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. In this study, a pure MBBR-MBR was studied. The pure MBBR-MBR mainly had attached biomass. The bioreactor operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.5 h. The kinetic parameters for heterotrophic and autotrophic biomasses, mainly nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), were evaluated. The analysis of the bacterial community structure of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), NOB, and denitrifying bacteria (DeNB) from the pure MBBR-MBR was carried out by means of pyrosequencing to detect and quantify the contribution of the nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in the total bacterial community. The relative abundance of AOB, NOB, and DeNB were 5, 1, and 3%, respectively, in the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and these percentages were 18, 5, and 2%, respectively, in the biofilm density (BD) attached to carriers. The pure MBBR-MBR had a high efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) removal of 71.81±16.04%, which could reside in the different bacterial assemblages in the fixed biofilm on the carriers. In this regard, the kinetic parameters for autotrophic biomass had values of YA=2.3465 mg O2 mg N(-1), μm, A=0.7169 h(-1), and KNH=2.0748 mg NL(-1).

  4. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overall growth ratemore » of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m-2∙h-1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl2, respectively.« less

  5. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overall growth rate of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m-2∙h-1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl2, respectively.

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics and lunisolar tidal acceleration.

    PubMed

    Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Klingele, Emile; Barlow, Peter

    2012-07-01

    • All living organisms on Earth are continually exposed to diurnal variations in the gravitational tidal force due to the Sun and Moon. • Elongation of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings maintained at a constant temperature was monitored for periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging. The time-course of the half-hourly elongation rates exhibited an oscillation which was maintained when the roots were placed in the free-running condition of continuous illumination. • Correlation between the root growth kinetics collected from seedlings initially raised under several light protocols but whose roots were subsequently in the free-running condition and the lunisolar tidal profiles enabled us to identify that the latter is the probable exogenous determinant of the rhythmic variation in root elongation rate. Similar observations and correlations using roots of Arabidopsis starch mutants suggest a central function of starch metabolism in the response to the lunisolar tide. The periodicity of the lunisolar tidal signal and the concomitant adjustments in root growth rate indicate that an exogenous timer exists for the modulation of root growth and development. • We propose that, in addition to the sensitivity to Earthly 1G gravity, which is inherent to all animals and plants, there is another type of responsiveness which is attuned to the natural diurnal variations of the lunisolar tidal force.

  7. Kinetics of faceting of crystals in growth, etching, and equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, D. G.; Schmidt, L. D.; Aris, R.

    1993-03-01

    The faceting of crystals in equilibrium with the gas phase and also during crystal growth and etching conditions is studied using the Monte Carlo method. The dynamics of the transformation of unstable crystallographic orientations into hill and valley structures and the spatial patterns that develop are examined as functions of surface temperature, crystallographic orientation, and strength of interatomic potential for two transport processes: adsorption-desorption and surface diffusion. The results are compared with the continuum theory for facet formation. Thermodynamically unstable orientations break into hill and valley structures, and faceting exhibits three time regimes: disordering, facet nucleation, and coarsening of small facets to large facets. Faceting is accelerated as temperature increases, but thermal roughening can occur at high temperatures. Surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism at short times and small facets but adsorption-desorption becomes important at long times and large facets. Growth and etching promote faceting for conditions close to equilibrium but induce kinetic roughening for conditions far from equilibrium. Simultaneous irreversible growth and etching conditions with fast surface diffusion result in enhanced faceting.

  8. N-acetyl-L-cysteine affects growth, extracellular polysaccharide production, and bacterial biofilm formation on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Ann-Cathrin; Hermansson, Malte; Elwing, Hans

    2003-08-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used in medical treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. The positive effects of NAC treatment have primarily been attributed to the mucus-dissolving properties of NAC, as well as its ability to decrease biofilm formation, which reduces bacterial infections. Our results suggest that NAC also may be an interesting candidate for use as an agent to reduce and prevent biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in environments typical of paper mill plants. Using 10 different bacterial strains isolated from a paper mill, we found that the mode of action of NAC is chemical, as well as biological, in the case of bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces. The initial adhesion of bacteria is dependent on the wettability of the substratum. NAC was shown to bind to stainless steel, increasing the wettability of the surface. Moreover, NAC decreased bacterial adhesion and even detached bacteria that were adhering to stainless steel surfaces. Growth of various bacteria, as monocultures or in a multispecies community, was inhibited at different concentrations of NAC. We also found that there was no detectable degradation of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by NAC, indicating that NAC reduced the production of EPS, in most bacteria tested, even at concentrations at which growth was not affected. Altogether, the presence of NAC changes the texture of the biofilm formed and makes NAC an interesting candidate for use as a general inhibitor of formation of bacterial biofilms on stainless steel surfaces.

  9. Stochastic Kinetic Modeling of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Intracellular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Sebastian C.; Rawlings, James B.; Yin, John

    2011-01-01

    By building kinetic models of biological networks one may advance the development of new modeling approaches while gaining insights into the biology. We focus here on building a stochastic kinetic model for the intracellular growth of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a well-studied virus that encodes five genes. The essential network of VSV reactions creates challenges to stochastic simulation owing to (i) delayed reactions associated with transcription and genome replication, (ii) production of large numbers of intermediate proteins by translation, and (iii) the presence of highly reactive intermediates that rapidly fluctuate in their intracellular levels. We address these issues by developing a hybrid implementation of the model that combines a delayed stochastic simulation algorithm (DSSA) with Langevin equations to simulate the reactions that produce species in high numbers. Further, we employ a quasi-steady state approximation (QSSA) to overcome the computational burden of small time steps caused by highly reactive species. The simulation is able to capture experimentally observed patterns of viral gene expression. Moreover, the simulation suggests that early levels of a low-abundance species, VSV L mRNA, play a key role in determining the production level of VSV genomes, transcripts, and proteins within an infected cell. Ultimately, these results suggest that stochastic gene expression contribute to the distribution of virus progeny yields from infected cells. PMID:19459014

  10. In situ muGISAXS: II. Thaumatin crystal growth kinetic.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Pechkova, Eugenia; Riekel, Christian; Nicolini, Claudio

    2010-08-09

    The formation of thaumatin crystals by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film nanotemplates was studied by the hanging-drop technique in a flow-through cell by synchrotron radiation micrograzing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The kinetics of crystallization was measured directly on the interface of the LB film crystallization nanotemplate. The evolution of the micrograzing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering patterns suggests that the increase in intensity in the Yoneda region is due to protein incorporation into the LB film. The intensity variation suggests several steps, which were modeled by system dynamics based on first-order differential equations. The kinetic data can be described by two processes that take place on the LB film, a first, fast, process, attributed to the crystal growth and its detachment from the LB film, and a second, slower process, attributed to an unordered association and conversion of protein on the LB film. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetic transition during the growth of proeutectoid ferrite in Fe-C-Mn-Si quaternary steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Hong; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Song, Eun-Ju; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2013-03-01

    The kinetics of ferrite growth in Fe-0.1C-1.5Mn-0.94Si (mass pct) quaternary steel is investigated through the characterization of isothermal growth behavior, the thermodynamic prediction of kinetic boundary and the diffusional growth simulations using DICTRA. The change in microstructural evolution from slow growth to fast one is consistent with the calculated change of interface condition from the partitioning local equilibrium (PLE) to the negligible partitioning local equilibrium (NPLE). Compared with the DICTRA simulation, the observed growth kinetics of ferrite are between the calculated ones assuming local equilibrium (LE) and paraequilibrium (PE) criterions. At temperatures below the PLE/NPLE kinetic boundary, the observed growth behavior can be reasonably described by kinetic transition from PE to NPLE condition as isothermal time elapses, taking into account the critical velocity of interface at which trans-interface diffusion of subsitutional element permits the transition from PE to NPLE growth.

  12. Evaluation of the kinetics and mechanism of action of anti-integration host factor-mediated disruption of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Brockson, M Elizabeth; Novotny, Laura A; Mokrzan, Elaine M; Malhotra, Sankalp; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Akbar, Rabia; Devaraj, Aishwarya; Goodman, Steven D; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2014-09-01

    The extracellular polymeric substance produced by many human pathogens during biofilm formation often contains extracellular DNA (eDNA). Strands of bacterial eDNA within the biofilm matrix can occur in a lattice-like network wherein a member of the DNABII family of DNA-binding proteins is positioned at the vertex of each crossed strand. To date, treatment of all biofilms tested with antibodies directed against one DNABII protein, Integration Host Factor (IHF), results in significant disruption. Here, using non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae as a model organism, we report that this effect was rapid, IHF-specific and mediated by binding of transiently dissociated IHF by anti-IHF even when physically separated from the biofilm by a nucleopore membrane. Further, biofilm disruption fostered killing of resident bacteria by previously ineffective antibiotics. We propose the mechanism of action to be the sequestration of IHF upon dissociation from the biofilm eDNA, forcing an equilibrium shift and ultimately, collapse of the biofilm. Further, antibodies against a peptide positioned at the DNA-binding tips of IHF were as effective as antibodies directed against the native protein. As incorporating eDNA and associated DNABII proteins is a common strategy for biofilms formed by multiple human pathogens, this novel therapeutic approach is likely to have broad utility. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of the kinetics and mechanism of action of anti-integration host factor mediated disruption of bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Brockson, M. Elizabeth; Novotny, Laura A.; Mokrzan, Elaine M.; Malhotra, Sankalp; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; Akbar, Rabia; Devaraj, Aishwarya; Goodman, Steven D.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The extracellular polymeric substance produced by many human pathogens during biofilm formation often contains extracellular DNA (eDNA). Strands of bacterial eDNA within the biofilm matrix can occur in a lattice-like network wherein a member of the DNABII family of DNA-binding proteins is positioned at the vertex of each crossed strand. To date, treatment of all biofilms tested with antibodies directed against one DNABII protein, Integration Host Factor (IHF), results in significant disruption. Here, using nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae as a model organism, we report that this effect was rapid, IHF-specific and mediated by binding of transiently dissociated IHF by anti-IHF even when physically separated from the biofilm by a nucleopore membrane. Further, biofilm disruption fostered killing of resident bacteria by previously ineffective antibiotics. We propose the mechanism of action to be the sequestration of IHF upon dissociation from the biofilm eDNA, forcing an equilibrium shift and ultimately, collapse of the biofilm. Further, antibodies against a peptide positioned at the DNA-binding tips of IHF were as effective as antibodies directed against the native protein. As incorporating eDNA and associated DNABII proteins is a common strategy for biofilms formed by multiple human pathogens, this novel therapeutic approach is likely to have broad utility. PMID:25069521

  14. Bacterial biofilm formation versus mammalian cell growth on titanium-based mono- and bi-functional coating.

    PubMed

    Subbiahdoss, G; Pidhatika, B; Coullerez, G; Charnley, M; Kuijer, R; van der Mei, H C; Textor, M; Busscher, H J

    2010-05-13

    Biomaterials-associated-infections (BAI) are serious complications in modern medicine. Although non-adhesive coatings, like polymer-brush coatings, have been shown to prevent bacterial adhesion, they do not support cell growth. Bi-functional coatings are supposed to prevent biofilm formation while supporting tissue integration. Here, bacterial and cellular responses to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush-coatings on titanium oxide presenting the integrin-active peptide RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) (bioactive "PEG-RGD") were compared to mono-functional PEG brush-coatings (biopassive "PEG") and bare titanium oxide (TiO2) surfaces under flow. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35983 was deposited on the surfaces under a shear rate of 11 s-1 for 2 h followed by seeding of U2OS osteoblasts. Subsequently, both S. epidermidis and U2OS cells were grown simultaneously on the surfaces for 48 h under low shear (0.14 s-1). After 2 h, staphylococcal adhesion was reduced to 3.6-/+1.8 x 103 and 6.0-/+3.9 x 103 cm-2 on PEG and PEG-RGD coatings respectively, compared to 1.3-/+0.4 x 105 cm-2 for the TiO2 surface. When allowed to grow for 48 h, biofilms formed on all surfaces. However, biofilms detached from the PEG and PEG-RGD coatings when exposed to an elevated shear (5.6 s-1) U2OS cells neither adhered nor spread on PEG brush-coatings, regardless of the presence of biofilm. In contrast, in the presence of biofilm, U2OS cells adhered and spread on PEG-RGD coatings with a significantly higher surface coverage than on bare TiO2. The detachment of biofilm and the high cell surface coverage revealed the potential significance of PEG-RGD coatings in the context of the "race for the surface" between bacteria and mammalian cells.

  15. Biofilm growth in gravel bed streams controls solute residence time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubeneau, A. F.; Hanrahan, Brittany; Bolster, Diogo; Tank, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Streambed substrates harbor a rich biome responsible for biogeochemical processing in riverine waters. Beyond their biological role, the presence of benthic and hyporheic biofilms can play an important role in influencing large-scale transport of solutes, even for conservative tracers. As biofilms grow and accumulate biomass, they actively interact with and influence surface and subsurface flow patterns. To explore this effect, we conducted experiments at the Notre Dame Linked Ecosystems Experimental Facility in four outdoor streams, each with different gravel beds. Over the course of 20 weeks we conducted transport experiments in each of these streams and observed different patterns in breakthrough curves as biofilms grew on the substrate. Biofilms played a major role in shaping the observed conservative transport patterns. Overall, while the presence of biofilms led to a decreased exchange rate between the fast (mobile) and slow (immobile) parts of the flow domain, water that was exchanged tended to be stored in the slow regions for longer times once biofilms had established. More specifically, we observed enhanced longitudinal dispersion in breakthrough curves as well as broader residence time distributions when biofilms were present. Biofilm colonization over time homogenized transport patterns across the four streams that were originally very distinct. These results indicate that stream biofilms exert a strong control on conservative solute transport in streams, a role that to date has not received enough attention.

  16. Growth, viability and architecture of biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes formed on abiotic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Reis-Teixeira, Fernanda Barbosa Dos; Alves, Virgínia Farias; de Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2017-02-09

    The pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food processing plants for many years, even when appropriate hygienic measures are in place, with potential for contaminating ready-to-eat products and, its ability to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces certainly contributes for the environmental persistence. In this research, L. monocytogenes was grown in biofilms up 8 days attached to stainless steel and glass surfaces, contributing for advancing the knowledge on architecture of mature biofilms, since many literature studies carried out on this topic considered only early stages of cell adhesion. In this study, biofilm populations of two strains of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 1/2a and 4b) on stainless steel coupons and glass were examined using regular fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and classic culture method. The biofilms formed were not very dense and microscopic observations revealed uneven biofilm structures, with presence of exopolymeric matrix surrounding single cells, small aggregates and microcolonies, in a honeycomb-like arrangement. Moreover, planktonic population of L. monocytogenes (present in broth media covering the abiotic surface) remained stable throughout the incubation time, which indicates an efficient dispersal mechanism, since the culture medium was replaced daily. In conclusion, even if these strains of L. monocytogenes were not able to form thick multilayer biofilms, it was noticeable their high persistence on abiotic surfaces, reinforcing the need to focus on measures to avoid biofilm formation, instead of trying to eradicate mature biofilms.

  17. Development and Validation of a Chemostat Gut Model To Study Both Planktonic and Biofilm Modes of Growth of Clostridium difficile and Human Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Grace S.; Chilton, Caroline H.; Todhunter, Sharie L.; Nicholson, Scott; Freeman, Jane; Baines, Simon D.; Wilcox, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbours a complex microbial community which exist in planktonic and sessile form. The degree to which composition and function of faecal and mucosal microbiota differ remains unclear. We describe the development and characterisation of an in vitro human gut model, which can be used to facilitate the formation and longitudinal analysis of mature mixed species biofilms. This enables the investigation of the role of biofilms in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A well established and validated human gut model of simulated CDI was adapted to incorporate glass rods that create a solid-gaseous-liquid interface for biofilm formation. The continuous chemostat model was inoculated with a pooled human faecal emulsion and controlled to mimic colonic conditions in vivo. Planktonic and sessile bacterial populations were enumerated for up to 46 days. Biofilm consistently formed macroscopic structures on all glass rods over extended periods of time, providing a framework to sample and analyse biofilm structures independently. Whilst variation in biofilm biomass is evident between rods, populations of sessile bacterial groups (log10 cfu/g of biofilm) remain relatively consistent between rods at each sampling point. All bacterial groups enumerated within the planktonic communities were also present within biofilm structures. The planktonic mode of growth of C. difficile and gut microbiota closely reflected observations within the original gut model. However, distinct differences were observed in the behaviour of sessile and planktonic C. difficile populations, with C. difficile spores preferentially persisting within biofilm structures. The redesigned biofilm chemostat model has been validated for reproducible and consistent formation of mixed species intestinal biofilms. This model can be utilised for the analysis of sessile mixed species communities longitudinally, potentially providing information of the role of biofilms in CDI. PMID

  18. Development and validation of a chemostat gut model to study both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth of Clostridium difficile and human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Grace S; Chilton, Caroline H; Todhunter, Sharie L; Nicholson, Scott; Freeman, Jane; Baines, Simon D; Wilcox, Mark H

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbours a complex microbial community which exist in planktonic and sessile form. The degree to which composition and function of faecal and mucosal microbiota differ remains unclear. We describe the development and characterisation of an in vitro human gut model, which can be used to facilitate the formation and longitudinal analysis of mature mixed species biofilms. This enables the investigation of the role of biofilms in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A well established and validated human gut model of simulated CDI was adapted to incorporate glass rods that create a solid-gaseous-liquid interface for biofilm formation. The continuous chemostat model was inoculated with a pooled human faecal emulsion and controlled to mimic colonic conditions in vivo. Planktonic and sessile bacterial populations were enumerated for up to 46 days. Biofilm consistently formed macroscopic structures on all glass rods over extended periods of time, providing a framework to sample and analyse biofilm structures independently. Whilst variation in biofilm biomass is evident between rods, populations of sessile bacterial groups (log10 cfu/g of biofilm) remain relatively consistent between rods at each sampling point. All bacterial groups enumerated within the planktonic communities were also present within biofilm structures. The planktonic mode of growth of C. difficile and gut microbiota closely reflected observations within the original gut model. However, distinct differences were observed in the behaviour of sessile and planktonic C. difficile populations, with C. difficile spores preferentially persisting within biofilm structures. The redesigned biofilm chemostat model has been validated for reproducible and consistent formation of mixed species intestinal biofilms. This model can be utilised for the analysis of sessile mixed species communities longitudinally, potentially providing information of the role of biofilms in CDI.

  19. Biofilm Growth and Near-Infrared Radiation-Driven Photosynthesis of the Chlorophyll d-Containing Cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina

    PubMed Central

    Behrendt, Lars; Schrameyer, Verena; Qvortrup, Klaus; Lundin, Luisa; Sørensen, Søren J.; Larkum, Anthony W. D.

    2012-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina is the only known phototroph harboring chlorophyll (Chl) d. It is easy to cultivate it in a planktonic growth mode, and A. marina cultures have been subject to detailed biochemical and biophysical characterization. In natural situations, A. marina is mainly found associated with surfaces, but this growth mode has not been studied yet. Here, we show that the A. marina type strain MBIC11017 inoculated into alginate beads forms dense biofilm-like cell clusters, as in natural A. marina biofilms, characterized by strong O2 concentration gradients that change with irradiance. Biofilm growth under both visible radiation (VIS, 400 to 700 nm) and near-infrared radiation (NIR, ∼700 to 730 nm) yielded maximal cell-specific growth rates of 0.38 per day and 0.64 per day, respectively. The population doubling times were 1.09 and 1.82 days for NIR and visible light, respectively. The photosynthesis versus irradiance curves showed saturation at a photon irradiance of Ek (saturating irradiance) >250 μmol photons m−2 s−1 for blue light but no clear saturation at 365 μmol photons m−2 s−1 for NIR. The maximal gross photosynthesis rates in the aggregates were ∼1,272 μmol O2 mg Chl d−1 h−1 (NIR) and ∼1,128 μmol O2 mg Chl d−1 h−1 (VIS). The photosynthetic efficiency (α) values were higher in NIR-irradiated cells [(268 ± 0.29) × 10−6 m2 mg Chl d−1 (mean ± standard deviation)] than under blue light [(231 ± 0.22) × 10−6 m2 mg Chl d−1]. A. marina is well adapted to a biofilm growth mode under both visible and NIR irradiance and under O2 conditions ranging from anoxia to hyperoxia, explaining its presence in natural niches with similar environmental conditions. PMID:22467501

  20. Biofilm growth and near-infrared radiation-driven photosynthesis of the chlorophyll d-containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Lars; Schrameyer, Verena; Qvortrup, Klaus; Lundin, Luisa; Sørensen, Søren J; Larkum, Anthony W D; Kühl, Michael

    2012-06-01

    The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina is the only known phototroph harboring chlorophyll (Chl) d. It is easy to cultivate it in a planktonic growth mode, and A. marina cultures have been subject to detailed biochemical and biophysical characterization. In natural situations, A. marina is mainly found associated with surfaces, but this growth mode has not been studied yet. Here, we show that the A. marina type strain MBIC11017 inoculated into alginate beads forms dense biofilm-like cell clusters, as in natural A. marina biofilms, characterized by strong O(2) concentration gradients that change with irradiance. Biofilm growth under both visible radiation (VIS, 400 to 700 nm) and near-infrared radiation (NIR, ∼700 to 730 nm) yielded maximal cell-specific growth rates of 0.38 per day and 0.64 per day, respectively. The population doubling times were 1.09 and 1.82 days for NIR and visible light, respectively. The photosynthesis versus irradiance curves showed saturation at a photon irradiance of E(k) (saturating irradiance) >250 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for blue light but no clear saturation at 365 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for NIR. The maximal gross photosynthesis rates in the aggregates were ∼1,272 μmol O(2) mg Chl d(-1) h(-1) (NIR) and ∼1,128 μmol O(2) mg Chl d(-1) h(-1) (VIS). The photosynthetic efficiency (α) values were higher in NIR-irradiated cells [(268 ± 0.29) × 10(-6) m(2) mg Chl d(-1) (mean ± standard deviation)] than under blue light [(231 ± 0.22) × 10(-6) m(2) mg Chl d(-1)]. A. marina is well adapted to a biofilm growth mode under both visible and NIR irradiance and under O(2) conditions ranging from anoxia to hyperoxia, explaining its presence in natural niches with similar environmental conditions.

  1. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, induce biofilm formation, and inhibit antimicrobial peptide function.

    PubMed

    Borcherding, Jennifer; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Chen, Haihan; Stebounova, Larissa; Wu, Chia-Ming; Rubasinghege, Gayan; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A; Caraballo, Juan Carlos; Zabner, Joseph; Grassian, Vicki H; Comellas, Alejandro P

    2014-04-01

    Given the increased use of iron-containing nanoparticles in a number of applications, it is important to understand any effects that iron-containing nanoparticles can have on the environment and human health. Since iron concentrations are extremely low in body fluids, there is potential that iron-containing nanoparticles may influence the ability of bacteria to scavenge iron for growth, affect virulence and inhibit antimicrobial peptide (AMP) function. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) and AMPs were exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles, hematite (α-Fe2O3), of different sizes ranging from 2 to 540 nm (2 ± 1, 43 ± 6, 85 ± 25 and 540 ± 90 nm) in diameter. Here we show that the greatest effect on bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and AMP function impairment is found when exposed to the smallest particles. These results are attributed in large part to enhanced dissolution observed for the smallest particles and an increase in the amount of bioavailable iron. Furthermore, AMP function can be additionally impaired by adsorption onto nanoparticle surfaces. In particular, lysozyme readily adsorbs onto the nanoparticle surface which can lead to loss of peptide activity. Thus, this current study shows that co-exposure of nanoparticles and known pathogens can impact host innate immunity. Therefore, it is important that future studies be designed to further understand these types of impacts.

  2. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles.

  3. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Diaz, David; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Garza-Enriquez, Marianela; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam A; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities. Results Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM. Conclusion These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation. PMID:22619547

  4. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles. PMID:23637533

  5. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, induce biofilm formation, and inhibit antimicrobial peptide function†

    PubMed Central

    Borcherding, Jennifer; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Chen, Haihan; Stebounova, Larissa; Wu, Chia-Ming; Rubasinghege, Gayan; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Caraballo, Juan Carlos; Zabner, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Given the increased use of iron-containing nanoparticles in a number of applications, it is important to understand any effects that iron-containing nanoparticles can have on the environment and human health. Since iron concentrations are extremely low in body fluids, there is potential that iron-containing nanoparticles may influence the ability of bacteria to scavenge iron for growth, affect virulence and inhibit antimicrobial peptide (AMP) function. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) and AMPs were exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles, hematite (α-Fe2O3), of different sizes ranging from 2 to 540 nm (2 ± 1, 43 ± 6, 85 ± 25 and 540 ± 90 nm) in diameter. Here we show that the greatest effect on bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and AMP function impairment is found when exposed to the smallest particles. These results are attributed in large part to enhanced dissolution observed for the smallest particles and an increase in the amount of bioavailable iron. Furthermore, AMP function can be additionally impaired by adsorption onto nanoparticle surfaces. In particular, lysozyme readily adsorbs onto the nanoparticle surface which can lead to loss of peptide activity. Thus, this current study shows that co-exposure of nanoparticles and known pathogens can impact host innate immunity. Therefore, it is important that future studies be designed to further understand these types of impacts. PMID:25221673

  6. Dormant bacteria within Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms have low inflammatory properties and maintain tolerance to vancomycin and penicillin after entering planktonic growth.

    PubMed

    Cerca, Filipe; França, Angela; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Carvalhais, Virgínia; Ribeiro, Adília; Azeredo, Joana; Pier, Gerald; Cerca, Nuno; Vilanova, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most commonly isolated aetiological agent of nosocomial infections, mainly due to its ability to establish biofilms on indwelling medical devices. Detachment of bacteria from S. epidermidis biofilms and subsequent growth in the planktonic form is a hallmark of the pathogenesis of these infections leading to dissemination. Here we showed that S. epidermidis cells collected from biofilms cultured in conditions that promote cell viability present marked changes in their physiological status upon initiating a planktonic mode of growth. When compared to cells growing in biofilms, they displayed an increased SYBR green I staining intensity, increased transcription of the rpiA gene, decreased transcription of the icaA gene, as well as higher susceptibility to vancomycin and penicillin. When bacteria collected from biofilms with high proportions of dormant cells were subsequently cultured in the planktonic mode, a large proportion of cells maintained a low SYBR green I staining intensity and increased resistance to vancomycin and penicillin, a profile typical of dormant cells. This phenotype further associated with a decreased ability of these biofilm-derived cells to induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in vitro. These results demonstrated that cells detached from the biofilm maintain a dormant cell-like phenotype, having a low pro-inflammatory effect and decreased susceptibility to antibiotics, suggesting these cells may contribute to the recalcitrant nature of biofilm infections. © 2014 The Authors.

  7. Dormant bacteria within Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms have low inflammatory properties and maintain tolerance to vancomycin and penicillin after entering planktonic growth

    PubMed Central

    Cerca, Filipe; França, Ângela; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Carvalhais, Virgínia; Ribeiro, Adília; Azeredo, Joana; Pier, Gerald; Cerca, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most commonly isolated aetiological agent of nosocomial infections, mainly due to its ability to establish biofilms on indwelling medical devices. Detachment of bacteria from S. epidermidis biofilms and subsequent growth in the planktonic form is a hallmark of the pathogenesis of these infections leading to dissemination. Here we showed that S. epidermidis cells collected from biofilms cultured in conditions that promote cell viability present marked changes in their physiological status upon initiating a planktonic mode of growth. When compared to cells growing in biofilms, they displayed an increased SYBR green I staining intensity, increased transcription of the rpiA gene, decreased transcription of the icaA gene, as well as higher susceptibility to vancomycin and penicillin. When bacteria collected from biofilms with high proportions of dormant cells were subsequently cultured in the planktonic mode, a large proportion of cells maintained a low SYBR green I staining intensity and increased resistance to vancomycin and penicillin, a profile typical of dormant cells. This phenotype further associated with a decreased ability of these biofilm-derived cells to induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in vitro. These results demonstrated that cells detached from the biofilm maintain a dormant cell-like phenotype, having a low pro-inflammatory effect and decreased susceptibility to antibiotics, suggesting these cells may contribute to the recalcitrant nature of biofilm infections. PMID:25053799

  8. Exact solutions of kinetic equations in an autocatalytic growth model.

    PubMed

    Jędrak, Jakub

    2013-02-01

    Kinetic equations are introduced for the transition-metal nanocluster nucleation and growth mechanism, as proposed by Watzky and Finke [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 10382 (1997)]. Equations of this type take the form of Smoluchowski coagulation equations supplemented with the terms responsible for the chemical reactions. In the absence of coagulation, we find complete analytical solutions of the model equations for the autocatalytic rate constant both proportional to the cluster mass, and the mass-independent one. In the former case, ξ(k)=s(k)(ξ(1))[proportionality]ξ(1)(k)/k was obtained, while in the latter, the functional form of s(k)(ξ(1)) is more complicated. In both cases, ξ(1)(t)=h(μ)(M(μ)(t)) is a function of the moments of the mass distribution. Both functions, s(k)(ξ(1)) and h(μ)(M(μ)), depend on the assumed mechanism of autocatalytic growth and monomer production, and not on other chemical reactions present in a system.

  9. Pattern formation and growth kinetics in eutectic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Jing

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rod, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  10. Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  11. Gas-phase kinetics during diamond growth: CH4 as-growth species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Stephen J.

    1989-04-01

    We have used a one-dimensional kinetic analysis to model the gas-phase chemistry that occurred during the diamond growth experiments of Chauhan, Angus, and Gardner [J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4746 (1976)]. In those experiments the weight of diamond seed crystals heated by lamps in a CH4/H2 environment was monitored by a microbalance. No filament or electric discharge was present. Our analysis shows that diamond growth occurred in this system by direct reaction of CH4 on the diamond surface. C2H2 and CH3, which have been proposed as diamond growth species, played no significant role there, although our results do not address their possible contributions in other systems such as filament- or plasma-assisted diamond growth.

  12. Re-interpretation of the logistic equation for batch microbial growth in relation to Monod kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kargi, F

    2009-04-01

    To determine the underlying substrate utilization mechanism in the logistic equation for batch microbial growth by revealing the relationship between the logistic and Monod kinetics. Also, to determine the logistic rate constant in terms of Monod kinetic constants. The logistic equation used to describe batch microbial growth was related to the Monod kinetics and found to be first-or