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Sample records for bioimpedance estimation theoretical

  1. A Temperature-Based Bioimpedance Correction for Water Loss Estimation During Sports.

    PubMed

    Ring, Matthias; Lohmueller, Clemens; Rauh, Manfred; Mester, Joachim; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2016-11-01

    The amount of total body water (TBW) can be estimated based on bioimpedance measurements of the human body. In sports, TBW estimations are of importance because mild water losses can impair muscular strength and aerobic endurance. Severe water losses can even be life threatening. TBW estimations based on bioimpedance, however, fail during sports because the increased body temperature corrupts bioimpedance measurements. Therefore, this paper proposes a machine learning method that eliminates the effects of increased temperature on bioimpedance and, consequently, reveals the changes in bioimpedance that are due to TBW loss. This is facilitated by utilizing changes in skin and core temperature. The method was evaluated in a study in which bioimpedance, temperature, and TBW loss were recorded every 15 min during a 2-h running workout. The evaluation demonstrated that the proposed method is able to reduce the error of TBW loss estimation by up to 71%, compared to the state of art. In the future, the proposed method in combination with portable bioimpedance devices might facilitate the development of wearable systems for continuous and noninvasive TBW loss monitoring during sports.

  2. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, E. B.; Ulbricht, L.; Krueger, E.; Romaneli, E. F. R.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  3. Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time From Bioimpedance and Continuous Wave Radar.

    PubMed

    Buxi, Dilpreet; Redout, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-04-01

    We have developed and tested a new architecture for pulse transit time (PTT) estimation at the central arteries using electrical bioimpedance, electrocardiogram, and continuous wave radar to estimate cuffless blood pressure. A transmitter and receiver antenna are placed at the sternum to acquire the arterial pulsation at the aortic arch. A four-electrode arrangement across the shoulders acquires arterial pulse across the carotid and subclavian arteries from bioimpedance as well as a bipolar lead I electrocardiogram. The PTT and pulse arrival times (PATs) are measured on six healthy male subjects during exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Using linear regression, the estimated PAT and PTT values are calibrated to the systolic and mean as well as diastolic blood pressure from an oscillometric device. For all subjects, the Pearson correlation coefficients for PAT-SBP and PTT-SBP are -0.66 (p = 0.001) and -0.48 (p = 0.0029), respectively. Correlation coefficients for individual subjects ranged from -0.54 to -0.9 and -0.37 to -0.95, respectively. The proposed system architecture is promising in estimating cuffless arterial blood pressure at the central, proximal arteries, which obey the Moens-Korteweg equation more closely when compared to peripheral arteries. An important advantage of PTT from the carotid and subclavian arteries is that the PTT over the central elastic arteries is measured instead of the peripheral arteries, which potentially reduces the changes in PTT due to vasomotion. Furthermore, the sensors can be completely hidden under a patients clothes, making them more acceptable by the patient for ambulatory monitoring.

  4. Influence of electrode mismatch on Cole parameter estimation from total right side electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements.

    PubMed

    Buendía, Rubén; Bogónez-Franco, Paco; Nescolarde, Lexa; Seoane, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    Applications based on measurements of Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) spectroscopy analysis, like assessment of body composition, have proliferated in the past years. Currently Body Composition Assessment (BCA) based in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (BIS) analysis relays on an accurate estimation of the Cole parameters R(0) and R(∞). A recent study by Bogonez-Franco et al. has proposed electrode mismatch as source of remarkable artefacts in BIS measurements. Using Total Right Side BIS measurements from the aforementioned study, this work has focused on the influence of electrode mismatch on the estimation of R(0) and R(∞) using the Non-Linear Least Square curve fitting technique on the modulus of the impedance. The results show that electrode mismatch on the voltage sensing electrodes produces an overestimation of the impedance spectrum leading to a wrong estimation of the parameters R(0) and R(∞), and consequently obtaining values around 4% larger that the values obtained from BIS without electrode mismatch. The specific key factors behind electrode mismatch or its influence on the analysis of single and spectroscopy measurements have not been investigated yet, no compensation or correction technique is available to overcome the deviation produced on the EBI measurement. Since textile-enabled EBI applications using dry textrodes, i.e. textile electrodes with dry skin-electrode interfaces and potentially large values of electrode polarization impedance are more prone to produce electrode mismatch, the lack of a correction or compensation technique might hinder the proliferation of textile-enabled EBI applications for personalized healthcare monitoring. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Segment-specific resistivity improves body fluid volume estimates from bioimpedance spectroscopy in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhu, F; Kuhlmann, M K; Kaysen, G A; Sarkar, S; Kaitwatcharachai, C; Khilnani, R; Stevens, L; Leonard, E F; Wang, J; Heymsfield, S; Levin, N W

    2006-02-01

    Discrepancies in body fluid estimates between segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy (SBIS) and gold-standard methods may be due to the use of a uniform value of tissue resistivity to compute extracellular fluid volume (ECV) and intracellular fluid volume (ICV). Discrepancies may also arise from the exclusion of fluid volumes of hands, feet, neck, and head from measurements due to electrode positions. The aim of this study was to define the specific resistivity of various body segments and to use those values for computation of ECV and ICV along with a correction for unmeasured fluid volumes. Twenty-nine maintenance hemodialysis patients (16 men) underwent body composition analysis including whole body MRI, whole body potassium (40K) content, deuterium, and sodium bromide dilution, and segmental and wrist-to-ankle bioimpedance spectroscopy, all performed on the same day before a hemodialysis. Segment-specific resistivity was determined from segmental fat-free mass (FFM; by MRI), hydration status of FFM (by deuterium and sodium bromide), tissue resistance (by SBIS), and segment length. Segmental FFM was higher and extracellular hydration of FFM was lower in men compared with women. Segment-specific resistivity values for arm, trunk, and leg all differed from the uniform resistivity used in traditional SBIS algorithms. Estimates for whole body ECV, ICV, and total body water from SBIS using segmental instead of uniform resistivity values and after adjustment for unmeasured fluid volumes of the body did not differ significantly from gold-standard measures. The uniform tissue resistivity values used in traditional SBIS algorithms result in underestimation of ECV, ICV, and total body water. Use of segmental resistivity values combined with adjustment for body volumes that are neglected by traditional SBIS technique significantly improves estimations of body fluid volume in hemodialysis patients.

  6. Bioimpedance spectroscopy for the estimation of body fluid volumes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M E; Hu, L; Plato, C F; Kohan, D E

    2010-07-01

    Conventional indicator dilution techniques for measuring body fluid volume are laborious, expensive, and highly invasive. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) may be a useful alternative due to being rapid, minimally invasive, and allowing repeated measurements. BIS has not been reported in mice; hence we examined how well BIS estimates body fluid volume in mice. Using C57/Bl6 mice, the BIS system demonstrated <5% intermouse variation in total body water (TBW) and extracellular (ECFV) and intracellular fluid volume (ICFV) between animals of similar body weight. TBW, ECFV, and ICFV differed between heavier male and lighter female mice; however, the ratio of TBW, ECFV, and ICFV to body weight did not differ between mice and corresponded closely to values in the literature. Furthermore, repeat measurements over 1 wk demonstrated <5% intramouse variation. Default resistance coefficients used by the BIS system, defined for rats, produced body composition values for TBW that exceeded body weight in mice. Therefore, body composition was measured in mice using a range of resistance coefficients. Resistance values at 10% of those defined for rats provided TBW, ECFV, and ICFV ratios to body weight that were similar to those obtained by conventional isotope dilution. Further evaluation of the sensitivity of the BIS system was determined by its ability to detect volume changes after saline infusion; saline provided the predicted changes in compartmental fluid volumes. In summary, BIS is a noninvasive and accurate method for the estimation of body composition in mice. The ability to perform serial measurements will be a useful tool for future studies.

  7. Association of bioimpedance spectroscopy-based volume estimation with postdialysis hypotension in patients receiving hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    ABREO, Adrian P.; CHERTOW, Glenn M.; DALRYMPLE, Lorien S.; KAYSEN, George A.; JOHANSEN, Kirsten L.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical examination to determine the dry weight of patients on hemodialysis (HD) has been problematic, with studies showing discordance between physician assessment and objective measures of volume status. We studied the association between predialysis bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)-based estimates of fluid overload and postdialysis hypotension in 635 patients in the United States Renal Data System ACTIVE/ADIPOSE (A Cohort study To Investigate the Value of Exercise/Analyses Designed to Investigate the Paradox of Obesity and Survival in ESRD) study receiving HD in 2009–2011. We recorded predialysis and postdialysis weight and blood pressures over 3 consecutive HD sessions and performed BIS before a single session. Using a previously reported method of estimating normohydration weight, we estimated postdialysis fluid overload (FOpost) in liters. We used logistic regression with extracellular water/total body water (ECW/TBW) or estimated FOpost as the primary predictor and 1 or more postdialysis systolic blood pressures less than 110 mmHg as the dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, ultrafiltration rate per kilogram of body weight, end-stage renal disease vintage, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and albumin. Higher ECW/TBW was associated with lower odds of postdialysis hypotension (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15–0.84 per 0.1, P = 0.02). Every liter of FOpost was associated with lower adjusted odds of postdialysis hypotension (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79–0.95, P = 0.003). Prospective studies are needed to determine whether this application of BIS could improve current clinical efforts to minimize episodes of postdialysis hypotension without leading to volume overload. PMID:25881673

  8. Validity of Selected Bioimpedance Equations for Estimating Body Composition in Men and Women: A Four-Compartment Model Comparison.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Brett S; Esco, Michael R; Bishop, Phillip A; Schumacker, Randall E; Richardson, Mark T; Fedewa, Michael V; Wingo, Jonathan E; Welborn, Bailey A

    2017-07-01

    Nickerson, BS, Esco, MR, Bishop, PA, Schumacker, RE, Richardson, MT, Fedewa, MV, Wingo, JE, and Welborn, BA. Validity of selected bioimpedance equations for estimating body composition in men and women: a four-compartment model comparison. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1963-1972, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare body fat percentage (BF%) and fat-free mass (FFM) values from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations to values determined from a 4-compartment (4C) model. Eighty-two adults (42 men and 40 women) volunteered to participate (age = 23 ± 5 years). Body fat percentage and FFM were estimated from previously developed BIA equations by Chumlea et al. (BIACH), Deurenberg et al. (BIADE), Kyle et al. (BIAKYLE), and Sun et al. (BIASUN). Four-compartment model body composition was derived from underwater weighing for body density, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral content, and bioimpedance spectroscopy for total body water. The standard error of estimate (SEE) for group BF% and FFM ranged from 3.0 to 3.8% and 2.1 to 2.7 kg, respectively. The constant error (CE) was significantly higher and lower for BF% and FFM (p < 0.001), respectively, for 3 BIA equations (BIACH, CE = 3.1% and -2.2 kg; BIADE, CE = 3.7% and -2.9 kg; BIAKYLE, CE = 2.3% and -1.9 kg), but was not significant for BF% (p = 0.702) and FFM (p = 0.677) for BIASUN (CE = -0.1% and 0.1 kg). The 95% limits of agreement were narrowest for BIACH (±5.9%; ±4.2 kg) and largest for BIADE (±7.4%; ±6.2 kg). The significant CE yielded by BIACH, BIADE, and BIAKYLE indicates these equations tend to overpredict group BF% and underestimate group FFM. However, all BIA equations produced low SEEs and fairly narrow limits of agreement. When the use of a 4C model is not available, practitioners might consider using one of the selected BIA equations, but should consider the associated CE.

  9. Effect of body mass index (BMI) on estimation of extracellular volume (ECV) in hemodialysis (HD) patients using segmental and whole body bioimpedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Carter, Mary; Morris, Alice T; Zhu, Fansan; Zaluska, Wojciech; Levin, Nathan W

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI) influences the estimation of extracellular volume (ECV) in hemodialysis (HD) patients when using segmental bioimpedance analysis (SBIA) compared to wrist-to-ankle bioimpedance analysis (WBIA) during HD with ultrafiltration (UF). Twenty five HD patients (M:F 19:6,) were studied, and further subdivided into two groups of patients, one group with a high BMI (25 kg m-2) and the other with a low BMI (<25 kg m-2). Segmental (arm, trunk, leg) and wrist-to-ankle bioimpedance measurements on each patient were performed using a modified Xitron 4000B system (Xitron Technologies, San Diego, CA). No differences in extracellular resistance (R(E), ohms) between wrist-to-ankle (R(W)) and sum of segments (R(S)) were noted for either the high BMI (489.2+/-82 ohm versus 491.6+/-82 ohm, p=ns) or low BMI groups (560.8+/-77 ohm versus 557.5+/-75 ohm, p=ns). UF volume (UFV, liters) did not differ significantly between the groups (4.0+/-0.9 L versus 3.3+/-1.0 L, p=ns), but change in ECV (DeltaECV) differed not only between methods: WBIA versus SBIA in the high BMI group (2.74+/-1.1 L versus 3.64+/-1.4 L, p<0.001) and in the low BMI group (1.86+/-0.9 L versus 2.91+/-1.0 L, p<0.05) but also between the high and lower BMI groups with WBIA (2.74+/-1.1 L versus 1.86+/-0.9 L, p<0.01). However, there was no significant difference in SBIA between BMI groups. This study suggests that the segmental bioimpedance approach may more accurately reflect changes in ECV during HD with UF than whole body impedance measurements.

  10. Comparison of cardiac output determined by bioimpedance and bioreactance methods at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Moore, Sarah; Hallsworth, Kate; Fattakhova, Gulnar; Thoma, Christian; Trenell, Michael I

    2012-04-01

    Bioreactance is a novel non-invasive method for cardiac output measurement that involves the analysis of blood flow-dependent changes in the phase shifts of electrical currents applied across the chest. The present study (1) compared resting and exercise cardiac outputs determined by bioreactance and bioimpedance methods and those estimated from measured oxygen consumption, (2) determined the relationship between cardiac output and oxygen consumption, and (3) assessed the agreement between the bioreactance and bioimpedance methods. Twelve healthy subjects (aged 30 ± 4 years) performed graded cardiopulmonary exercise test on a recumbent cycle ergometer on two occasions, 1 week apart. Cardiac output was monitored at rest, at 30, 50, 70, 90, 150 W and at peak exercise intensity by bioreactance and bioimpedance and expired gases collected. Resting cardiac output was not significantly different between the bioreactance and bioimpedance methods (6.2 ± 1.4 vs. 6.5 ± 1.4 l min(-1), P = 0.42). During exercise cardiac outputs were correlated with oxygen uptake for both bioreactance (r = 0.84, P < 0.01) and bioimpedance techniques (r = 0.82, P < 0.01). At peak exercise bioimpedance estimated significantly lower cardiac outputs than both bioreactance and theoretically calculated cardiac output (14.3 ± 2.6 vs. 17.5 ± 5.2 vs. 16.9 ± 4.9 l min(-1), P < 0.05). Bland-Altman analyses including data from rest and exercise demonstrated that the bioimpedance method reported ~1.5 l min(-1) lower cardiac output than bioreactance with lower and upper limits of agreement of -2.98 to 5.98 l min(-1). Bioimpedance and bioreactance methods provide different cardiac output estimates, particularly at high exercise intensity, and therefore the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. In contrast with bioimpedance, bioreactance cardiac outputs are similar to those estimated from measured oxygen consumption.

  11. The Theory and Fundamentals of Bioimpedance Analysis in Clinical Status Monitoring and Diagnosis of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Sami F.; Mohktar, Mas S.; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis is a noninvasive, low cost and a commonly used approach for body composition measurements and assessment of clinical condition. There are a variety of methods applied for interpretation of measured bioimpedance data and a wide range of utilizations of bioimpedance in body composition estimation and evaluation of clinical status. This paper reviews the main concepts of bioimpedance measurement techniques including the frequency based, the allocation based, bioimpedance vector analysis and the real time bioimpedance analysis systems. Commonly used prediction equations for body composition assessment and influence of anthropometric measurements, gender, ethnic groups, postures, measurements protocols and electrode artifacts in estimated values are also discussed. In addition, this paper also contributes to the deliberations of bioimpedance analysis assessment of abnormal loss in lean body mass and unbalanced shift in body fluids and to the summary of diagnostic usage in different kinds of conditions such as cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and neural and infection diseases. PMID:24949644

  12. The theory and fundamentals of bioimpedance analysis in clinical status monitoring and diagnosis of diseases.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Sami F; Mohktar, Mas S; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-06-19

    Bioimpedance analysis is a noninvasive, low cost and a commonly used approach for body composition measurements and assessment of clinical condition. There are a variety of methods applied for interpretation of measured bioimpedance data and a wide range of utilizations of bioimpedance in body composition estimation and evaluation of clinical status. This paper reviews the main concepts of bioimpedance measurement techniques including the frequency based, the allocation based, bioimpedance vector analysis and the real time bioimpedance analysis systems. Commonly used prediction equations for body composition assessment and influence of anthropometric measurements, gender, ethnic groups, postures, measurements protocols and electrode artifacts in estimated values are also discussed. In addition, this paper also contributes to the deliberations of bioimpedance analysis assessment of abnormal loss in lean body mass and unbalanced shift in body fluids and to the summary of diagnostic usage in different kinds of conditions such as cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and neural and infection diseases.

  13. Value of bioimpedance analysis estimated "dry weight" in maintenance dialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Covic, Adrian; Ciumanghel, Adi-Ionut; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Kanbay, Mehmet; Dumea, Raluca; Gavrilovici, Cristina; Nistor, Ionut

    2017-09-30

    Volume overload is a common complication in patients with end-stage kidney disease who undergo maintenance dialysis therapy and associated with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and mortality in this population. Although bioimpedance analysis (BIA), an objective method to assess overhydration, is associated with poor outcomes in observational studies, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) the results were conflicting. We have examined the role of BIA for assessing the "dry weight" and fluid status in order to improve fluid overload in comparison with a control or clinical-based prescription in patients with ESKD receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. All RCTs and quasi-RCTs in which BIA was used to improve fluid overload and assess the effect on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, systolic blood pressure and volume control and arterial stiffness were included. Seven RCTs with 1312 patients could be included in this review. In low-to-medium quality of the evidence, the use of BIA did not reduce all-cause mortality (relative risk 0.87, 95% CI 0.54-1.39) and had small to no effect on body change, but it improved systolic blood pressure control (mean difference (MD) -2.73 mmHg, 95% CI -5.00 to -0.46 mmHg) and reduce overhydration, as measured by BIA, with 0.43 L [(MD), 95% CI 0.71-0.15 L]. In ESKD patients, BIA-based interventions for correction of overhydration have little to no effect on all-cause mortality, whereas BIA improved systolic blood pressure control. Our results should be interpreted with caution as the size and power of the included studies are low. Further studies, larger or with a longer follow-up period, should be performed to better describe the effect of BIA-based strategies on survival.

  14. BMI and an Anthropometry-Based Estimate of Fat Mass Percentage Are Both Valid Discriminators of Cardiometabolic Risk: A Comparison with DXA and Bioimpedance

    PubMed Central

    Völgyi, Eszter; Savonen, Kai; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether categories of obesity based on BMI and an anthropometry-based estimate of fat mass percentage (FM% equation) have similar discriminative ability for markers of cardiometabolic risk as measurements of FM% by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Design and Methods. A study of 40–79-year-old male (n = 205) and female (n = 388) Finns. Weight, height, blood pressure, triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose were measured. Body composition was assessed by DXA and BIA and a FM%-equation. Results. For grade 1 hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and impaired fasting glucose >6.1 mmol/L, the categories of obesity as defined by BMI and the FM% equation had 1.9% to 3.7% (P < 0.01) higher discriminative power compared to DXA. For grade 2 hypertension the FM% equation discriminated 1.2% (P = 0.05) lower than DXA and 2.8% (P < 0.01) lower than BIA. Receiver operation characteristics confirmed BIA as best predictor of grade 2 hypertension and the FM% equation as best predictor of grade 1 hypertension. All other differences in area under curve were small (≤0.04) and 95% confidence intervals included 0. Conclusions. Both BMI and FM% equations may predict cardiometabolic risk with similar discriminative ability as FM% measured by DXA or BIA. PMID:24455216

  15. Sound velocity estimation: A system theoretic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1993-07-30

    A system-theoretic approach is proposed to investigate the feasibility of reconstructing a sound velocity profile (SVP) from acoustical hydrophone measurements. This problem is based on a state-space representation of the normal-mode propagation model. It is shown that this representation can be utilized to investigate the so-called observability of the SVP from noisy measurement data. A model-based processor is developed to extract this information and it is shown that even in cases where limited SVP information is available, the SVP can be estimated using this approach.

  16. Theoretical accuracy in cosmological growth estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Winther, Hans A.

    2017-07-01

    We elucidate the importance of the consistent treatment of gravity-model specific nonlinearities when estimating the growth of cosmological structures from redshift space distortions (RSD). Within the context of standard perturbation theory (SPT), we compare the predictions of two theoretical templates with redshift space data from COLA (comoving Lagrangian acceleration) simulations in the normal branch of DGP gravity (nDGP) and general relativity (GR). Using COLA for these comparisons is validated using a suite of full N-body simulations for the same theories. The two theoretical templates correspond to the standard general relativistic perturbation equations and those same equations modeled within nDGP. Gravitational clustering nonlinear effects are accounted for by modeling the power spectrum up to one-loop order and redshift space clustering anisotropy is modeled using the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) RSD model. Using this approach, we attempt to recover the simulation's fiducial logarithmic growth parameter f . By assigning the simulation data with errors representing an idealized survey with a volume of 10 Gpc3/h3 , we find the GR template is unable to recover fiducial f to within 1 σ at z =1 when we match the data up to kmax=0.195 h /Mpc . On the other hand, the DGP template recovers the fiducial value within 1 σ . Further, we conduct the same analysis for sets of mock data generated for generalized models of modified gravity using SPT, where again we analyze the GR template's ability to recover the fiducial value. We find that for models with enhanced gravitational nonlinearity, the theoretical bias of the GR template becomes significant for stage IV surveys. Thus, we show that for the future large data volume galaxy surveys, the self-consistent modeling of non-GR gravity scenarios will be crucial in constraining theory parameters.

  17. Theoretical uncertainties in proton lifetime estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Kolešová, Helena; Malinský, Michal Mede, Timon

    2016-06-21

    We recapitulate the primary sources of theoretical uncertainties in proton lifetime estimates in renormalizable, four-dimensional & non-supersymmetric grand unifications that represent the most conservative framework in which this question may be addressed at the perturbative level. We point out that many of these uncertainties are so severe and often even irreducible that there are only very few scenarios in which an NLO approach, as crucial as it is for a real testability of any specific model, is actually sensible. Among these, the most promising seems to be the minimal renormalizable SO(10) GUT whose high-energy gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken by the adjoint and the five-index antisymmetric irreducible representations.

  18. Electromagnetic holographic imaging of bioimpedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dexter G.; Ko, Harvey W.; Lee, Benjamin R.; Partin, Alan W.

    1998-05-01

    The electromagnetic bioimpedance method has successfully measured the very subtle conductivity changes associated with brain edema and prostate tumor. This method provides noninvasive measurements using non-ionizing magnetic fields applied with a small coil that avoids the use of contact electrodes. This paper introduces results from combining a holographic signal processing algorithm and a low power coil system that helps provide the 3D image of impedance contrast that should make the noninvasive electromagnetic bioimpedance method useful in health care.

  19. Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bethe, H. A.

    1950-01-31

    The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)

  20. Bioimpedance spectroscopy in haemodynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MCullagh, W. A.; Ward, L. C.

    2010-04-01

    Venous insufficiency is estimated to affect between 10% and 35% of the population in the US with symptoms ranging from mild discomfort to chronic ulceration which may reduce quality of life. Early diagnosis is the key to pre-emptive treatment. We have previously reported [5] an impedance technique for measurement of calf muscle pump function although it was noted that the results could be confounded by change in limb geometry during the exercise protocol. We report here a modified protocol to account for change in limb geometry. Impedance of a 20 cm segment of the calf was continuously recorded using an SFB7 bioimpedance spectrometer whilst subjects performed a sequence of manoeuvres: a) supine with leg raised (for 10 min); b) standing (4 s); c) plantar flexion (tiptoe, 4 s); d) standing elevated on one leg removing tension on the measured leg with the foot horizontal (4 s); e) with the leg relaxed (4 s) and then the sequence repeated. The impedance ratio, k = (e-d)/(c-b), was the proportion of the impedance change, occurring during calf muscle pumping, due primarily to change in limb shape only, i.e. independent of the impedance change due to ejection of blood as a function of calf muscle pump action. Thus (1-k) can be used to correct the ejection fraction (%) calculated as (c-b)/(a-b)*100 for the confounding effect of change in limb geometry. Ejection fractions calculated by this method in 10 control subjects were 51.5 ± 30.1% with no values greater than 100% as found previously.

  1. Multilead measurement system for the time-domain analysis of bioimpedance magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gracia, J; Seppa, V P; Viik, J; Hyttinen, J

    2012-08-01

    Bioimpedance measurement applications range from the characterization of organic matter to the monitoring of biological signals and physiological parameters. Occasionally, multiple bioimpedances measured in different locations are combined in order to solve complex problems or produce enhanced physiological measures. The present multilead bioimpedance measurement methods are mainly focused on electrical impedance tomography. Systems designed to suit other multilead applications are lacking. In this study, a novel multilead bioimpedance measurement system was designed. This was particularly aimed at the time-domain analysis of bioimpedance magnitude. Frequency division multiplexing was used to avoid overlapping between excitation signals; undersampling, to reduce the hardware requirements; and power isolated active current sources, to reduce the electrical interactions between leads. These theoretical concepts were implemented on a prototype device. The prototype was tested on equivalent circuits and a saline tank in order to assess excitation signal interferences and electrical interactions between leads. The results showed that the proposed techniques are functional and the system's validity was demonstrated on a real application, multilead impedance pneumography. Potential applications and further improvements were discussed. It was concluded that the novel approach potentially enables accurate and relatively low-power multilead bioimpedance measurements systems.

  2. Body fat assessment by a new bipedal bioimpedance instrument in normal weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Horejs, J; Müller, L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a new bioimpedance method for assessment of body fat employing bipedal electrodes instead of those attached to both upper and lower extremities. The new analyzer (TBF-105, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan) enables simultaneous measurements of body weight and total body resistance in a subject standing on the stainless steel electrodes. The instrument was tested in both normal weight and obese women. Fat mass estimated by bipedal bioimpedance was highly correlated with that determined by hydrodensitometry (n = 145, r = 0.945, p < 0.001). Fat mass estimated by bipedal bioimpedance significantly correlated not only with subcutaneous fat measured as a sum of 10 skinfolds (r = 0.758, p < 0.001) but also with visceral fat determined as an area on CT scan (r = 0.780, p < 0.001). Anthropometric variables did not substantially influence the differences revealed in fat mass determined by bipedal bioimpedance and by densitometry. An overestimation of total fat mass by bipedal bioimpedance has not been revealed in severely obese individuals, even in those with higher fat accumulation in the limb region. In conclusion, our data have demonstrated that the new bioimpedance instrument employing bipedal electrodes represents a reliable tool for rapid body fat assessment in both normal weight and obese women.

  3. Potential benefits of remote sensing: Theoretical framework and empirical estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.

  4. Some Basic Techniques in Bioimpedance Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Ørjan G.

    2004-09-01

    Any physiological or anatomical changes in a biological material will also change its electrical properties. Hence, bioimpedance measurements can be used for diagnosing or classification of tissue. Applications are numerous within medicine, biology, cosmetics, food industry, sports, etc, and different basic approaches for the development of bioimpedance techniques are discussed in this paper.

  5. Game-theoretic discussion of quantum state estimation and cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chiu Fan; Johnson, Neil F.

    2003-12-01

    We present a game-theoretic perspective on the problems of quantum state estimation and quantum cloning. This enables us to show why the focus on universal machines and the different measures of success, as employed in previous works, are in fact legitimite.

  6. Bioimpedance spectroscopy as technique of hematological and biochemical analysis of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Melnikov, A. A.; Vikulov, A. D.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy may become a useful method for the express analysis and monitoring of blood parameters. The aim of this study was to identify biochemical and hematological parameters of blood that can be accurately predicted by means of bioimpedance technique. Hematological (red blood cell and white blood cell parameters) and biochemical (total proteins, albumins, fibrinogen, sodium, potassium, chloride ion concentrations in plasma) parameters were measured with a hematological analyzer and routine methods. Bioimpedance spectroscopy of the whole blood (1.5 ml) in frequency range 5-500 kHz (31 frequencies) was performed using BIA analyzer ABC-01 "Medass". Frequency relationships of resistance and reactance of the whole blood and the parameters of the Cole model were investigated. Close simple and multiple correlations of bioimpedance indices were observed only with erythrocyte parameters (Ht, Hb, RBC). Thus bioimpedance analysis of the whole blood can accurately predict red cell parameters but it is less effective for estimation of plasma biochemical and white cell parameters.

  7. Estimating the theoretical semivariogram from finite numbers of measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Lingyun; Silliman, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate from a theoretical basis the impacts of the number, location, and correlation among measurement points on the quality of an estimate of the semivariogram. The unbiased nature of the semivariogram estimator ??/(r) is first established for a general random process Z(x). The variance of ??z(r) is then derived as a function of the sampling parameters (the number of measurements and their locations). In applying this function to the case of estimating the semivariograms of the transmissivity and the hydraulic head field, it is shown that the estimation error depends on the number of the data pairs, the correlation among the data pairs (which, in turn, are determined by the form of the underlying semivariogram ??(r)), the relative locations of the data pairs, and the separation distance at which the semivariogram is to be estimated. Thus design of an optimal sampling program for semivariogram estimation should include consideration of each of these factors. Further, the function derived for the variance of ??z(r) is useful in determining the reliability of a semivariogram developed from a previously established sampling design.

  8. Theoretical estimation of redox potential of biological quinone cofactors.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Natacha; Lévy, Bernard; Moliner, Vicent; Demachy, Isabelle; de la Lande, Aurélien

    2017-07-05

    Redox potentials are essential to understand biological cofactor reactivity and to predict their behavior in biological media. Experimental determination of redox potential in biological system is often difficult due to complexity of biological media but computational approaches can be used to estimate them. Nevertheless, the quality of the computational methodology remains a key issue to validate the results. Instead of looking to the best absolute results, we present here the calibration of theoretical redox potential for quinone derivatives in water coupling QM + MM or QM/MM scheme. Our approach allows using low computational cost theoretical level, ideal for long simulations in biological systems, and determination of the uncertainties linked to the calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Assessment of stroke volumeindex with three different bioimpedance algorithms: lack of agreement compared to thermodilution

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Maurits K.; Kalkman, Cor J.; Buhre, Wolfgang F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The accuracy of bioimpedance stroke volumeindex (SVI) is questionable as studies report inconsistent results. It remains unclear whether the algorithms alone are responsible for these findings. We analyzed the raw impedance data with three algorithms and compared bioimpedance SVI to transpulmonary thermodilution (SVITD). Design and setting Prospective observational clinical study in a university hospital. Patients Twenty adult patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Interventions SVITD and bioimpedance parameters were simultaneously obtained before surgery (t1), after bypass (t2), after sternal closure (t3), at the intensive care unit (t4), at normothermia (t5), after extubation (t6) and before discharge (t7). Bioimpedance data were analyzed off-line using cylinder (Kubicek: SVIK; Wang: SVIW) and truncated cone based algorithms (Sramek–Bernstein: SVISB). Measurements and results Bias and precision between the SVITD and SVIK, SVISB, and SVIW was 1.0 ± 10.8, 9.8 ± 11.4, and −15.7 ± 8.2 ml/m2 respectively, while the mean error was abundantly above 30%. Analysis of data per time moment resulted in a mean error above 30%, except for SVIW at t2 (28%). Conclusions Estimation of SVI by cylinder or truncated cone based algorithms is not reliable for clinical decision making in patients undergoing CABG surgery. A more robust approach for estimating bioimpedance based SVI may exclude inconsistencies in the underlying algorithms in existing thoracic bioimpedance cardiography devices. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-007-0938-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18188539

  10. PART I: Theoretical Site Response Estimation for Microzoning Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllidis, P.; Suhadolc, P.; Hatzidimitriou, P. M.; Anastasiadis, A.; Theodulidis, N.

    We estimate the theoretical site response along seven cross sections located in the city of Thessaloniki (Greece). For this purpose the 2-D structural models used are based on the known geometry and the dynamic soil properties derived from borehole measurements and other geophysical techniques. Several double-couple sources have been employed to generate the seismic wavefield, and a hybrid method that combines the modal summation with finite differences, has been deployed to produce synthetic accelerograms to a maximum frequency of 6 Hz for all components of motion. The ratios between the response spectra of signals derived for the 2-D local model and the corresponding spectra of signals derived for the 1-D bedrock reference model at the same site, allow us to estimate the site response due to lateral heterogeneities. We interpret the results in terms of both geological and geometrical features of the models and of the characteristics of the wave propagation. The cases discussed confirm that the geometry and depth of the rock basement, along with the impedance contrast, are responsible for ground amplification phenomena such as edge effects and generation and entrapment of local surface waves. Our analysis also confirms that the peak ground acceleration is not well correlated with damage and that a substantially better estimator for possible damage is the spectral amplification.

  11. On theoretical pricing of options with fuzzy estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysafis, Konstantinos A.; Papadopoulos, Basil K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of a new method of constructing fuzzy estimators for the parameters of a given probability distribution function, using statistical data. This application belongs to the financial field and especially to the section of financial engineering. In financial markets there are great fluctuations, thus the element of vagueness and uncertainty is frequent. This application concerns Theoretical Pricing of Options and in particular the Black and Scholes Options Pricing formula. We make use of fuzzy estimators for the volatility of stock returns and we consider the stock price as a symmetric triangular fuzzy number. Furthermore we apply the Black and Scholes formula by using adaptive fuzzy numbers introduced by Thiagarajah et al. [K. Thiagarajah, S.S. Appadoo, A. Thavaneswaran, Option valuation model with adaptive fuzzy numbers, Computers and Mathematics with Applications 53 (2007) 831-841] for the stock price and the volatility and we replace the fuzzy volatility and the fuzzy stock price by possibilistic mean value. We refer to both cases of call and put option prices according to the Black & Scholes model and also analyze the results to Greek parameters. Finally, a numerical example is presented for both methods and a comparison is realized based on the results.

  12. Theoretical methods for estimating moments of inertia of trees and boles.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos

    1973-01-01

    Presents a theoretical method for estimating the mass moments of inertia of full trees and boles about a transverse axis. Estimates from the theoretical model compared closely with experimental data on aspen and red pine trees obtained in the field by the pendulum method. The theoretical method presented may be used to estimate the mass moments of inertia and other...

  13. Body fluid volumes measurements by impedance: A review of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) methods.

    PubMed

    Jaffrin, Michel Y; Morel, Hélène

    2008-12-01

    This paper reviews various bioimpedance methods permitting to measure non-invasively, extracellular, intracellular and total body water (TBW) and compares BIA methods based on empirical equations of the wrist-ankle resistance or impedance at 50 kHz, height and weight with BIS methods which rely on an electrical model of tissues and resistances measured at zero and infinite frequencies. In order to compare these methods, impedance measurements were made with a multifrequency Xitron 4200 impedance meter on 57 healthy subjects which had undergone simultaneously a Dual X-ray absorptiometry examination (DXA), in order to estimate their TBW from their fat-free-mass. Extracellular (ECW) and TBW volumes were calculated for these subjects using the original BIS method and modifications of Matthie[Matthie JR. Second generation mixture theory equation for estimating intracellular water using bioimpedance spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 2005;99:780-1], Jaffrin et al. [Jaffrin MY, Fenech M, Moreno MV, Kieffer R. Total body water measurement by a modification of the bioimpédance spectroscopy method. Med Bio Eng Comput 2006;44:873-82], Moissl et al. [Moissl UM, Wabel P, Chamney PW, Bosaeus I, Levin NW, et al. Body fluid volume determination via body composition spectroscopy in health and disease. Physiol Meas 2006;27:921-33] and their TBW resistivities were compared and discussed. ECW volumes were calculated by BIA methods of Sergi et al. [Sergi G, Bussolotto M, Perini P, Calliari I, et al. Accuracy of bioelectrical bioimpedance analysis for the assessment of extracellular space in healthy subjects and in fluid retention states. Ann Nutr Metab 1994;38(3):158-65] and Hannan et al. [Hannan WJ, Cowen SJ, Fearon KC, Plester CE, Falconer JS, Richardson RA. Evaluation of multi-frequency bio-impedance analysis for the assessment of extracellular and total body water in surgical patients. Clin Sci 1994;86:479-85] and TBW volumes by BIA methods of Kushner and Schoeller [Kushner RF

  14. In vivo electrical bioimpedance characterization of human lung tissue during the bronchoscopy procedure. A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Benjamin; Vandersteen, Gerd; Martin, Irene; Castillo, Diego; Torrego, Alfons; Riu, Pere J; Schoukens, Johan; Bragos, Ramon

    2013-07-01

    Lung biopsies form the basis for the diagnosis of lung cancer. However, in a significant number of cases bronchoscopic lung biopsies fail to provide useful information, especially in diffuse lung disease, so more aggressive procedures are required. Success could be improved using a guided electronic biopsy based on multisine electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a technique which is evaluated in this paper. The theoretical basis of the measurement method and the instrument developed are described, characterized and calibrated while the performance of the instrument is assessed by experiments to evaluate the noise and nonlinear source of errors from measurements on phantoms. Additional preliminary results are included to demonstrate that it is both feasible and safe to monitor in vivo human lung tissue electrical bioimpedance (EBI) during the bronchoscopy procedure. The time required for performing bronchoscopy is not extended because the bioimpedance measurements, present no complications, tolerance problems or side effects among any of the patients measured.

  15. Nonparametric probability density estimation by optimization theoretic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Two nonparametric probability density estimators are considered. The first is the kernel estimator. The problem of choosing the kernel scaling factor based solely on a random sample is addressed. An interactive mode is discussed and an algorithm proposed to choose the scaling factor automatically. The second nonparametric probability estimate uses penalty function techniques with the maximum likelihood criterion. A discrete maximum penalized likelihood estimator is proposed and is shown to be consistent in the mean square error. A numerical implementation technique for the discrete solution is discussed and examples displayed. An extensive simulation study compares the integrated mean square error of the discrete and kernel estimators. The robustness of the discrete estimator is demonstrated graphically.

  16. Bioimpedance analysis and HIV-related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Meynell, Janet; Barroso, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Although various physiological and psychological causes of fatigue in HIV-positive persons have been proposed, it is still not well understood. Bioimpedance analysis has proved to be an easily used, non-invasive measurement of body composition and cellular integrity. This study, looking at whether body composition as measured by bioimpedance analysis is associated with fatigue, is part of a pilot study looking for physiological and psychological biomarkers that could be factors in the fatigue experienced by HIV-positive people. Twenty-nine men and eleven women were measured for height, weight, and bioimpedance analysis. Correlations were examined between fatigue intensity and weight, body mass index, body cell mass, fat-free mass, extracellular mass, and phase angle. Because of the fat redistribution that has occurred with some people taking protease inhibitors, we also examined differences in weight, body mass index, body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fatigue intensity between those taking and those not taking protease inhibitors. There was no association between fatigue intensity and weight, body mass index, body cell mass, fat-free mass, or phase angle, nor were there differences between those taking and those not taking protease inhibitors. However, it was noted that both the phase angle and the ratio of extracellular mass to body cell mass (extracellular mass:body cell mass) were below their respective normal ranges, indicating that the participants were somewhat compromised nutritionally and with regard to cell membrane integrity. Although fatigue was not shown to be related to body composition measurement in this study, further work is needed on the causes of fatigue, because its effects on the lives of HIV-positive people can be devastating.

  17. Theoretical estimation of the aqueous pKas of thiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Nora E.; Seybold, Paul G.

    2014-02-01

    The ionisation state of a compound is a key parameter influencing the compound's activity as a drug, metabolite, pollutant, or other active chemical agent. Sulfhydrol compounds (thiols) tend to be considerably more acidic than their hydroxyl (alcohol) analogues. In this report, quantum chemical approaches previously used for the estimation of the aqueous pKas of alcohols are applied to the estimation of the acidities of thiols. Acidity estimates obtained from the general-purpose SPARC calculational programme (S.H. Hilal, S.W. Karickhoff, and L.A. Carreira, Quant. Struct.-Act. Relat. 14, 348 (1995)) and the ACD/Labs PhysChem Suite v12 programme package are employed as benchmarks. Quantum chemical calculations were performed using both the semiempirical RM1 method and the density functional theory B3LYP/6-31+G* method. The effectiveness of the SM5.4 and SM8 solvent models in estimating the aqueous-phase acidities was also evaluated. All of the approaches examined demonstrated strong correlations with the experimental acidity values.

  18. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  19. PREFACE: International Conference on Electrical Bioimpedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadleir, Rosalind; Woo, Eung Je

    2010-04-01

    logo The XIVth International Conference on Electrical Bioimpedance, held in conjunction with the 11th Conference on Biomedical Applications of EIT (ICEBI & EIT 2010), took place from 4-8 April 2010 in the Reitz Union of the University of Florida, in Gainesville, USA. This was the first time since its inception in 1969 that the ICEBI was held in the United States. As in the last three conferences (Graz 2007, Gdansk 2004 and Oslo 2001) the ICEBI was combined with the Conference on Biomedical Applications of EIT - a mutually beneficial approach for those interested in the biophysics of tissue electrical properties and those developing imaging methods and measurement systems based thereon. This year's conference was particularly notable for the many papers presented on hybrid and emerging imaging techniques such as Electric Property Tomography (EPT), Magneto Acoustic Tomography using Magnetic Induction (MAT-MI) and Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT); sessions on Cell Scale Impedance, Cardiac Impedance and Imaging Neural Activity. About 180 scientists from all over the world attended, including keynote speakers on topics of fundamental electromagnetic principles (Jaakko Malmivuo), Electrical Source and Impedance Imaging (Bin He), Bioimpedance applications in Nephrology, (Nathan Levin), and Lung EIT (Gerhard Wolf). The papers in this volume are peer-reviewed four-page works selected from over 150 presented in oral and poster sessions at the conference. The complete program is available from the conference website.

  20. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  1. A handheld and textile-enabled bioimpedance system for ubiquitous body composition analysis. An initial functional validation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Gonzalez, Javier; Pau de la Cruz, Ivan; Lindecrantz, Kaj; Seoane, Fernando

    2016-11-15

    In recent years, many efforts have been made to promote a healthcare paradigm shift from the traditional reactive hospital-centered healthcare approach towards a proactive, patient-oriented and self-managed approach that could improve service quality and help reduce costs while contributing to sustainability. Managing and caring for patients with chronic diseases accounts over 75% of healthcare costs in developed countries. One of the most resource demanding diseases is chronic kidney disease (CKD), which often leads to a gradual and irreparable loss of renal function, with up to 12% of the population showing signs of different stages of this disease. Peritoneal dialysis and home haemodialysis are life-saving home-based renal replacement treatments that, compared to conventional in-center hemodialysis, provide similar long-term patient survival, less restrictions of life-style, such as a more flexible diet, and better flexibility in terms of treatment options and locations. Bioimpedance has been largely used clinically for decades in nutrition for assessing body fluid distributions. Moreover, bioimpedance methods are used to assess the overhydratation state of CKD patients, allowing clinicians to estimate the amount of fluid that should be removed by ultrafiltration. In this work, the initial validation of a handheld bioimpedance system for the assessment of body fluid status that could be used to assist the patient in home-based CKD treatments is presented. The body fluid monitoring system comprises a custom-made handheld tetrapolar bioimpedance spectrometer and a textile-based electrode garment for total body fluid assessment. The system performance was evaluated against the same measurements acquired using a commercial bioimpedance spectrometer for medical use on several voluntary subjects. The analysis of the measurement results and the comparison of the fluid estimations indicated that both devices are equivalent from a measurement performance perspective

  2. Implantable bioimpedance monitor using ZigBee.

    PubMed

    Bogónez-Franco, P; Bragós, R; Bayés-Genis, A; Rosell-Ferrer, J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel implantable bioimpedance monitor using a free ZigBee protocol for the transmission of the measured data is described. The application field is the tissue and organ monitoring through electrical impedance spectroscopy in the 100 Hz - 200 kHz range. The specific application is the study of the viability and evolution of engineered tissue in cardiac regeneration. Additionally to the telemetric feature, the measured data are stored in a memory for backup purposes and can be downloaded at any time after an RF link break. In the debugging prototype, the system autonomy exceeds 1 month when a 14 frequencies impedance spectrum is acquired every 5 minutes. In the current implementation, the effective range of the RF link is reduced and needs for a range extender placed near the animal. Current work deals with improving this range.

  3. Comparing geophysical measurements to theoretical estimates for soil mixtures at low pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Wildenschild, D; Berge, P A; Berryman, K G; Bonner, B P; Roberts, J J

    1999-01-15

    The authors obtained good estimates of measured velocities of sand-peat samples at low pressures by using a theoretical method, the self-consistent theory of Berryman (1980), using sand and porous peat to represent the microstructure of the mixture. They were unable to obtain useful estimates with several other theoretical approaches, because the properties of the quartz, air and peat components of the samples vary over several orders of magnitude. Methods that are useful for consolidated rock cannot be applied directly to unconsolidated materials. Instead, careful consideration of microstructure is necessary to adapt the methods successfully. Future work includes comparison of the measured velocity values to additional theoretical estimates, investigation of Vp/Vs ratios and wave amplitudes, as well as modeling of dry and saturated sand-clay mixtures (e.g., Bonner et al., 1997, 1998). The results suggest that field data can be interpreted by comparing laboratory measurements of soil velocities to theoretical estimates of velocities in order to establish a systematic method for predicting velocities for a full range of sand-organic material mixtures at various pressures. Once the theoretical relationship is obtained, it can be used to estimate the soil composition at various depths from field measurements of seismic velocities. Additional refining of the method for relating velocities to soil characteristics is useful for development inversion algorithms.

  4. Theoretical and experimental estimation of geometric relationship of non-parallel conjugate normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fusheng; Koyi, Hemin

    2017-04-01

    Intersecting and crossing conjugate normal faults develop at different scales. Equations of geometric parameters of non-parallel conjugate normal faults can be deduced from their trigonometric relations. Physical models can also be used to verify the theoretical calculations and compared with natural examples. In this study, we have used a theoretical approach to outline some key geometric parameters of conjugate normal faults (intersection angles, plunge of intersection line, and vertical and horizontal distances of the intersection point, etc.) and compared them to equivalent geometric values in scaled analogue models. The comparison shows that theoretical plots used for geometric estimation of conjugate normal faults constrain reasonably the geometric parameters in natural cases. Data from the Lufeng Sag of Pearl River Mouth Basin in the northern part of South China Sea, where conjugate non-parallel basement faults propagate and intersect in cover units are compatible with the theoretical geometric estimation.

  5. The Theoretical Estimation of the Bioluminescent Efficiency of the Firefly via a Nonadiabatic Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ling; Lan, Zhenggang; Liu, Ya-Jun

    2015-02-05

    The firefly is famous for its high bioluminescent efficiency, which has attracted both scientific and public attention. The chemical origin of firefly bioluminescence is the thermolysis of the firefly dioxetanone anion (FDO(-)). Although considerable theoretical research has been conducted, and several mechanisms were proposed to elucidate the high efficiency of the chemi- and bioluminescence of FDO(-), there is a lack of direct experimental and theoretical evidence. For the first time, we performed a nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulation on the chemiluminescent decomposition of FDO(-) under the framework of the trajectory surface hopping (TSH) method and theoretically estimated the chemiluminescent quantum yield. The TSH simulation reproduced the gradually reversible charge-transfer initiated luminescence mechanism proposed in our previous study. More importantly, the current study, for the first time, predicted the bioluminescence efficiency of the firefly from a theoretical viewpoint, and the theoretical prediction efficiency is in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  6. Bioimpedance Analysis: A Guide to Simple Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Aroom, Kevin R.; Harting, Matthew T.; Cox, Charles S.; Radharkrishnan, Ravi S.; Smith, Carter; Gill, Brijesh S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioimpedance analysis has found utility in many fields of medical research, yet instrumentation can be expensive and/or complicated to build. Advancements in electronic component design and equipment allow for simple bioimpedance analysis using equipment now commonly found in an engineering lab, combined with a few components exclusive to impedance analysis. Materials and methods A modified Howland bridge circuit was designed on a small circuit board with connections for power and bioimpedance probes. A programmable function generator and an oscilloscope were connected to a laptop computer and were tasked to drive and receive data from the circuit. The software then parsed the received data and inserted it into a spreadsheet for subsequent data analysis. The circuit was validated by testing its current output over a range of frequencies and comparing measured values of impedance across a test circuit to expected values. Results The system was validated over frequencies between 1 and 100 kHz. Maximum fluctuation in current was on the order of micro-Amperes. Similarly, the measured value of impedance in a test circuit followed the pattern of actual impedance over the range of frequencies measured. Conclusions Contemporary generation electronic measurement equipment provides adequate levels of connectivity and programmability to rapidly measure and record data for bioimpedance research. These components allow for the rapid development of a simple but accurate bioimpedance measurement system that can be assembled by individuals with limited knowledge of electronics or programming. PMID:18805550

  7. Modeling the influence of body position in bioimpedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Medrano, G; Leonhardt, S; Zhang, P

    2007-01-01

    Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (BIS) enables the determination of the human body composition (e.g. fat content, water content). From this data, it is possible to draw conclusions about the person's health state. This technology can be easily implemented combined with low costs, which could be used for an easy use at home with a reliable accuracy. Nevertheless, external factors such as body position influence the measurements, limiting their accuracy and use. The use of modeling of these external factors and their influence on the body could be used to improve the accuracy of the bioimpedance spectroscopy and to extend it for a continuous monitoring. In this paper the results of the modeling of the body position for a localized bioimpedance measurement (thigh) and a comparison with measurements on 5 subjects lying down for 40 minutes are shown and discussed.

  8. Limitations of the spike-triggered averaging for estimating motor unit twitch force: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Negro, Francesco; Yavuz, Ş Utku; Yavuz, Utku Ş; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Contractile properties of human motor units provide information on the force capacity and fatigability of muscles. The spike-triggered averaging technique (STA) is a conventional method used to estimate the twitch waveform of single motor units in vivo by averaging the joint force signal. Several limitations of this technique have been previously discussed in an empirical way, using simulated and experimental data. In this study, we provide a theoretical analysis of this technique in the frequency domain and describe its intrinsic limitations. By analyzing the analytical expression of STA, first we show that a certain degree of correlation between the motor unit activities prevents an accurate estimation of the twitch force, even from relatively long recordings. Second, we show that the quality of the twitch estimates by STA is highly related to the relative variability of the inter-spike intervals of motor unit action potentials. Interestingly, if this variability is extremely high, correct estimates could be obtained even for high discharge rates. However, for physiological inter-spike interval variability and discharge rate, the technique performs with relatively low estimation accuracy and high estimation variance. Finally, we show that the selection of the triggers that are most distant from the previous and next, which is often suggested, is not an effective way for improving STA estimates and in some cases can even be detrimental. These results show the intrinsic limitations of the STA technique and provide a theoretical framework for the design of new methods for the measurement of motor unit force twitch.

  9. Prediction of fat-free mass by bioimpedance analysis in migrant Asian Indian men and women: a cross validation study.

    PubMed

    Rush, E C; Chandu, V; Plank, L D

    2006-07-01

    Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is a fast and convenient field technique for estimation of total body fat-free mass (FFM). However, bioimpedance-based prediction equations have been developed in predominantly white populations and little information is available on their usefulness in Asian Indian populations. To develop a prediction equation for FFM based on BIA measurements applicable to a migrant population of Asian Indians and to investigate the predictive accuracy of published BIA-based equations in this ethnic group. FFM was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 211 healthy adults (110 men, 101 women; age ranges 19-74 year) of Asian Indian ethnicity and used as the reference measure to develop prediction equations based on single-frequency BIA measurements of resistance and reactance. A cross-validation technique was applied. Predictive accuracy of published BIA-based equations was assessed in this sample. Sex-specific equations developed in the entire group included height2/resistance and body weight as predictors (R2=0.84 and 0.70 and standard errors of estimate of 2.8 and 2.0 kg for males and females, respectively; CV: 6%). Of published equations examined, one predicted FFM satisfactorily in men with nonsignificant bias and may be applicable to Asian Indian populations. None of the published equations tested performed satisfactorily in women. Bioimpedance-based equations for predicting FFM developed specifically in Asian Indians are recommended for field studies designed to measure body composition of this ethnic group.

  10. Applying theoretical spectra to artificial neural networks for real-time estimation of thin film thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzong-Daw; Chen, Jiun-Shen; Tseng, Ching-Pei; Hsieh, Cheng-Chang

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the application of backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs) for estimating the thickness of deposited silver (Ag) films on polyethylene terephthalate substrate via a roll-to-roll magnetron sputtering system. The thickness of thin films affects the optical properties of films, while the transmittance implies the thickness. Nevertheless, thin films are unlike their bulk counterparts whose absorptions of light are proportional to their thicknesses. Moreover, the interference is considerable. Thus, BPNNs are applied for estimating thickness of Ag films. BPNNs were trained via theoretical transmittance spectra because they can be quickly generated and reduce actual experiments. The BPNNs were applied to estimate thickness via actual spectra. Different levels of noise were also added to the theoretical spectra to improve the performance of BPNNs. The results show that the estimation of BPNNs is more accurate when adding slight noise to the theoretical spectra. The average error is ˜0.027 when 3% noise is added to the training spectra, while the error of spectra without adding noise is greater than 0.12.

  11. Induced current bio-impedance technique for monitoring bone mineral density--a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Katz, Sagie; Zlochiver, Sharon; Abboud, Shimon

    2006-08-01

    In this study, the feasibility of using induced current bio-impedance technique as a method to determine and monitor bone mineral density (BMD) was theoretically evaluated using computerized simulation model. A 2D polar coordinates numerical solver was developed using the Finite Volume Method (FVM) in order to simulate the developed potentials over an axial CT cross section of a human thigh. Varying femur BMD were simulated by varying femur relative permittivity values. At the chosen excitation current of 1 ampere at a frequency of 20 kHz, the real component of the surface potential was found to be more sensitive to BMD variation than the imaginary component (3.9 microV g(-1) cm3 compared with 0.174 microV g(-1) cm3). The correlation between varying femur permittivities and the real component of the developed surface potential was found to be quadratic and influenced by the coil geometry and the measuring point location. Measurement sensitivity was improved either by taking the measuring point closer to the femur location or by minimizing the distance between the excitation coil and the femur. These results provide the basic principle that may enable a future use of bio-impedance technique for bone density evaluation and monitoring.

  12. [Probing the dry weight in hemodialysis: is bioimpedance the solution?].

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Probing the dry weight (DW) was largely dependent on clinical subjective estimate until recently. New bedside non-invasive tools have been developed with the aim of providing more objective information on volume status and guiding physicians in the quest for DW. Among them, bioimpedance (BIA) appears to be very promising in the achievement of this goal. Resistance (R) and capacitance of tissue are the two basic properties in BIA. However, although impedance is an electrical property of tissues that can be directly used in body composition analysis, it is commonly embedded in predictive equations that are derived by correlation with criterion measures of body compartments. In recent studies continuous regional calf multifrequency BIA spectroscopy and wrist-to-ankle whole-body single-frequency BIA were used during dialysis sessions to assess DW. The latter was defined as the weight achieved after flattening of the R0/Rt slope (R0 is R at time 0 and Rt is R at at a given time t during the HD session) for a period of at least 20 minutes despite ongoing ultrafiltration, indicating no further decline in extracellular volume. Two are the main advantages of these methods: they use directly R, with no need for predictive equations; they do not depend on comparison with healthy subjects but mainly use patients as their own control to define DW as stabilization of the R0/Rt slope. In conclusion, clinical methods are fundamental in probing the DW. They must be supported by strict BIA protocols. BIA appears to be a (the) brilliant solution in solving the old problem of DW in hemodialysis patients.

  13. Exploration of Fluid Dynamics in Perioperative Patients Using Bioimpedance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chong, Jae Uk; Nam, Sangguen; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Rami; Choi, Yunjung; Lee, Jae Gil; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2016-05-01

    Perioperative fluid restriction is advocated to reduce complications after major surgeries. Current methods of monitoring body fluids rely on indirect volume markers that may at times be inadequate. In our study, bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used to explore fluid dynamics, in terms of intercompartmental shift, of perioperative patients undergoing operation for hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) diseases. A retrospective review was conducted, examining 36 patients surgically treated for HPB diseases between March 2010 and August 2012. Body fluid compartments were estimated via BIA at baseline (1 day prior to surgery), immediately after surgery, and on postoperative day 1, recording fluid balance during and after procedures. Patients were stratified by net fluid status as balanced (≤500 mL) or imbalanced (>550 mL) and outcomes of BIA compared. Mean net fluid balance volumes in balanced (n = 16) and imbalanced (n = 20) patient subsets were 231.41 ± 155.44 and 1050.18 ± 548.77 mL, respectively. Total body water (TBW) (p = 0.091), extracellular water (ECW) (p = 0.125), ECW/TBW (p = 0.740), and intracellular water (ICW) (p = 0.173) did not fluctuate significantly in fluid-balanced patients. Although TBW (p = 0.069) in fluid-imbalanced patients did not change significantly (relative to baseline), ECW (p = 0.001), ECW/TBW (p = 0.019), and ICW (p = 0.012) showed significant postoperative increases. The exploration of fluid dynamics using BIA has shown importance of balanced fluid management during perioperative period. Increased ECW/TBW in fluid-imbalanced patients suggests possible causality for the development of ascites or fluid collections during postoperative period in patients undergoing HPB operations.

  14. Theoretical and experimental investigations of sensor location for optimal aeroelastic system state estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the design of an active control system is obtaining the information needed for effective feedback. This involves the combination of sensing and estimation. A sensor location index is defined as the weighted sum of the mean square estimation errors in which the sensor locations can be regarded as estimator design parameters. The design goal is to choose these locations to minimize the sensor location index. The choice of the number of sensors is a tradeoff between the estimation quality based upon the same performance index and the total costs of installing and maintaining extra sensors. An experimental study for choosing the sensor location was conducted on an aeroelastic system. The system modeling which includes the unsteady aerodynamics model developed by Stephen Rock was improved. Experimental results verify the trend of the theoretical predictions of the sensor location index for different sensor locations at various wind speeds.

  15. Estimation of ozone with total ozone portable spectroradiometer instruments. I. Theoretical model and error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Lawrence E.; Labow, Gordon J.; Beach, Robert A.; Rawlins, Michael A.; Flittner, David E.

    1996-10-01

    Inexpensive devices to measure solar UV irradiance are available to monitor atmospheric ozone, for example, total ozone portable spectroradiometers (TOPS instruments). A procedure to convert these measurements into ozone estimates is examined. For well-characterized filters with 7-nm FWHM bandpasses, the method provides ozone values (from 304- and 310-nm channels) with less than 0.4 error attributable to inversion of the theoretical model. Analysis of sensitivity to model assumptions and parameters yields estimates of 3 bias in total ozone results with dependence on total ozone and path length. Unmodeled effects of atmospheric constituents and instrument components can result in additional 2 errors.

  16. Theoretical estimates of spherical and chromatic aberration in photoemission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2016-01-01

    We present theoretical estimates of the mean coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration for low energy photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Using simple analytic models, we find that the aberration coefficients depend primarily on the difference between the photon energy and the photoemission threshold, as expected. However, the shape of the photoelectron spectral distribution impacts the coefficients by up to 30%. These estimates should allow more precise correction of aberration in PEEM in experimental situations where the aberration coefficients and precise electron energy distribution cannot be readily measured.

  17. A theoretical signal processing framework for linear diffusion MRI: Implications for parameter estimation and experiment design.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Divya; Haldar, Justin P

    2017-08-19

    The data measured in diffusion MRI can be modeled as the Fourier transform of the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP), a probability distribution that summarizes the molecular diffusion behavior of the spins within each voxel. This Fourier relationship is potentially advantageous because of the extensive theory that has been developed to characterize the sampling requirements, accuracy, and stability of linear Fourier reconstruction methods. However, existing diffusion MRI data sampling and signal estimation methods have largely been developed and tuned without the benefit of such theory, instead relying on approximations, intuition, and extensive empirical evaluation. This paper aims to address this discrepancy by introducing a novel theoretical signal processing framework for diffusion MRI. The new framework can be used to characterize arbitrary linear diffusion estimation methods with arbitrary q-space sampling, and can be used to theoretically evaluate and compare the accuracy, resolution, and noise-resilience of different data acquisition and parameter estimation techniques. The framework is based on the EAP, and makes very limited modeling assumptions. As a result, the approach can even provide new insight into the behavior of model-based linear diffusion estimation methods in contexts where the modeling assumptions are inaccurate. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework is illustrated using both simulated and real diffusion MRI data in applications such as choosing between different parameter estimation methods and choosing between different q-space sampling schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating concentration of ultrasound contrast agents with backscatter coefficients: Experimental and theoretical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Leithem, Scott M.; Lavarello, Roberto J.; O’Brien, William D.; Oelze, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have been explored as a means to enhance therapeutic techniques. Because the effectiveness of these techniques relies on the UCA concentration at a target site, it would be beneficial to estimate UCA concentration noninvasively. In this study, a noninvasive method for estimating UCA concentration was developed in vitro. Backscatter coefficients (BSCs) estimated from measurements of Definity® UCAs were fitted to a theoretical scattering model in the 15–25 MHz range using a Levenberg-Marquardt regression technique. The model was defined by the UCA size distribution and concentration, and therefore concentration estimates were extracted directly from the fit. Calculation of the BSC was accomplished using planar reference measurements from the back wall of a Plexiglas® chamber and an average of 500 snapshots of ultrasonic backscatter from UCAs flowing through the chamber. In order to verify the ultrasonically derived UCA concentration estimates, a sample of the UCAs was extracted from the flow path and the concentration was estimated with a hemacytometer. UCA concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 times the dose recommended by the manufacturer were used in experiments. All BSC-based estimates were within one standard deviation of hemacytometer based estimates for peak rarefactional pressures of 100–400 kPa. PMID:22423724

  19. Bioimpedance Assessment of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Clinicopathological Correlation.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Kulkarni, Meena; Karmarkar, Swarada; Patll, Shagkargouda; Auciustine, Domimc

    2015-09-01

    Molecular alterations at membrane, cytosol and nuclear level in cancer cells/tissue show variations in bioimpedance measure. In the present study, bioimpedance assessment and comparison was investigated between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal tissue. Study further involves clinicopathological correlation of bioimpedance values in OSCC. The present study is comprised of 50 OSCC cases and 50 healthy control subjects. Four electrical properties of OSCC were measured: Impedance (Z); Phase angle (9); Real part of impedance (R); and Imaginary part of impedance (X) at six frequencies: 20 Hz; 50 kHz; 1.3 MHz; 2.5 MHz; 3.7 MHz; and 5 MHz with the amplitude of the applied voltage limited to 200 mV. The bioimpedance of OSCC as well as control group decreased as the measurement frequency increased from 20 Hz to 5 MHz. The bioimpedance of OSCC was generally smaller than that of control group. The mean bioimpedance of OSCC was found to be 4493 ± 216.9 Ω and 370.0 ± 26.45 Ω and that of control group was 15490 ± 287.2 Ω and 817.1 ± 7.227 Ω at frequencies of 20 Hz and 50 MHz respectively which is statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The values of phase angle, real and imaginary part of impedance of OSCC group were found to be significantly larger than that of control group (p < 0.0001) at 20 Hz and 50 MHz frequency. Impedance values of OSCC were seen to decrease from stages I to IV. Statistically significant differences in values of impedance were observed between stage I (4881 ± 262.5 Ω) and IV (4500 ± 181.6 Ω) (p = 0.0060) and also between stage I (4881 ± 262.5 Ω) and III (4376 ± 121.3 Ω) at frequency of 20 Hz (p-value 0.0005). Statistically significant differences in values of impedance were also observed between well differentiated (4557 ± 260.8) and poorly differentiated OSCC (4347 ± 76.12) (p = 0.0004) but only at 20 Hz frequency. Bioimpedance at a particular frequency showed significant alteration in OSCC tissue as compared to control

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Estimations of Volumetric Inductive Phase Shift in Breast Cancer Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, C. A.; Lozano, L. M.; Uscanga, M. C.; Silva, J. G.; Polo, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Impedance measurements based on magnetic induction for breast cancer detection has been proposed in some studies. This study evaluates theoretical and experimentally the use of a non-invasive technique based on magnetic induction for detection of patho-physiological conditions in breast cancer tissue associated to its volumetric electrical conductivity changes through inductive phase shift measurements. An induction coils-breast 3D pixel model was designed and tested. The model involves two circular coils coaxially centered and a human breast volume centrally placed with respect to the coils. A time-harmonic numerical simulation study addressed the effects of frequency-dependent electrical properties of tumoral tissue on the volumetric inductive phase shift of the breast model measured with the circular coils as inductor and sensor elements. Experimentally; five female volunteer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma previously diagnosed by the radiology and oncology departments of the Specialty Clinic for Women of the Mexican Army were measured by an experimental inductive spectrometer and the use of an ergonomic inductor-sensor coil designed to estimate the volumetric inductive phase shift in human breast tissue. Theoretical and experimental inductive phase shift estimations were developed at four frequencies: 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 MHz. The theoretical estimations were qualitatively in agreement with the experimental findings. Important increments in volumetric inductive phase shift measurements were evident at 0.01MHz in theoretical and experimental observations. The results suggest that the tested technique has the potential to detect pathological conditions in breast tissue associated to cancer by non-invasive monitoring. Further complementary studies are warranted to confirm the observations.

  1. Detection of questionable occlusal carious lesions using an electrical bioimpedance method with fractional electrical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, A. P.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the diagnostic performance of an alternative electric bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS-STEP) detect questionable occlusal carious lesions. Six specialists carried out the visual (V), radiography (R), and combined (VR) exams of 57 sound or non-cavitated occlusal carious lesion teeth classifying the occlusal surfaces in sound surface (H), enamel caries (EC), and dentinal caries (DC). Measurements were based on the current response to a step voltage excitation (BIS-STEP). A fractional electrical model was used to predict the current response in the time domain and to estimate the model parameters: Rs and Rp (resistive parameters), and C and α (fractional parameters). Histological analysis showed caries prevalence of 33.3% being 15.8% hidden caries. Combined examination obtained the best traditional diagnostic results with specificity = 59.0%, sensitivity = 70.9%, and accuracy = 60.8%. There were statistically significant differences in bioimpedance parameters between the H and EC groups (p = 0.016) and between the H and DC groups (Rs, p = 0.006; Rp, p = 0.022, and α, p = 0.041). Using a suitable threshold for the Rs, we obtained specificity = 60.7%, sensitivity = 77.9%, accuracy = 73.2%, and 100% of detection for deep lesions. It can be concluded that BIS-STEP method could be an important tool to improve the detection and management of occlusal non-cavitated primary caries and pigmented sites.

  2. Detection of questionable occlusal carious lesions using an electrical bioimpedance method with fractional electrical model

    SciTech Connect

    Morais, A. P.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

    2016-08-15

    This in vitro study evaluated the diagnostic performance of an alternative electric bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS-STEP) detect questionable occlusal carious lesions. Six specialists carried out the visual (V), radiography (R), and combined (VR) exams of 57 sound or non-cavitated occlusal carious lesion teeth classifying the occlusal surfaces in sound surface (H), enamel caries (EC), and dentinal caries (DC). Measurements were based on the current response to a step voltage excitation (BIS-STEP). A fractional electrical model was used to predict the current response in the time domain and to estimate the model parameters: Rs and Rp (resistive parameters), and C and α (fractional parameters). Histological analysis showed caries prevalence of 33.3% being 15.8% hidden caries. Combined examination obtained the best traditional diagnostic results with specificity = 59.0%, sensitivity = 70.9%, and accuracy = 60.8%. There were statistically significant differences in bioimpedance parameters between the H and EC groups (p = 0.016) and between the H and DC groups (Rs, p = 0.006; Rp, p = 0.022, and α, p = 0.041). Using a suitable threshold for the Rs, we obtained specificity = 60.7%, sensitivity = 77.9%, accuracy = 73.2%, and 100% of detection for deep lesions. It can be concluded that BIS-STEP method could be an important tool to improve the detection and management of occlusal non-cavitated primary caries and pigmented sites.

  3. Theoretical estimation of the critical packing parameter of amphiphilic self-assembled aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Rabah A.; Zarari, Al-hakam A.

    2014-11-01

    The estimating of critical packing parameter (p) of amphiphilic compounds is considered as a hypothetical rather than an empirical. Consequently, an attempt has been made for determining such a dimensionless parameter for homologous series of sodium p-n-alkyl benzoates (n = 0-8) hydrotropes using quantum mechanical calculations that depend on density functional theory (DFT). The calculations were based on the following well-defined model, p = v/a0lc, where v is the volume of the hydrotrope tail, a0 is the effective head group area and lc is the length of the extended hydrotrope tail. It was found that the magnitude of both v and lc parameters can be estimated directly from quantum mechanical calculations. While the investigations found that the a0 parameter is parallel to the Connolly solvent accessible surface area (Csa) which could also be determined through theoretical computations. The obtained results were in good agreement with published data using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. Hence, the theoretical model for predicting p of amphiphilic at critical micelle- or aggregation-concentration (cmc or cac) is p = v/Csalc. An apparent success was observed through applying this simple model to some randomly selected surfactants. It has been concluded that the theoretical calculations that based on quantum mechanical (DFT) method can be considered as a powerful tool for estimating the critical packing parameter of amphiphilic molecules. Finally, the results strongly suggest the employment of the presented model for estimating p of amphiphilic molecules at cmc or cac by computational chemistry software.

  4. Theoretical and empirical efficiency of sampling strategies for estimating upper arm elevation.

    PubMed

    Liv, Per; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the statistical efficiency of strategies for sampling upper arm elevation data, which differed with respect to sample sizes and sample allocations within and across measurement days. The study was also designed to compare standard theoretical predictions of sampling efficiency, which rely on several assumptions about the data structure, with 'true' efficiency as determined by bootstrap simulations. Sixty-five sampling strategies were investigated using a data set containing minute-by-minute values of average right upper arm elevation, percentage of time with an arm elevated <15°, and percentage of time with an arm elevated >90° in a population of 23 house painters, 23 car mechanics, and 26 machinists, all followed for four full working days. Total sample times per subject between 30 and 240 min were subdivided into continuous time blocks between 1 and 240 min long, allocated to 1 or 4 days per subject. Within day(s), blocks were distributed using either a random or a fixed-interval principle. Sampling efficiency was expressed in terms of the variance of estimated mean exposure values of 20 subjects and assessed using standard theoretical models assuming independence between variables and homoscedasticity. Theoretical performance was compared to empirical efficiencies obtained by a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure. We found the assumptions of independence and homoscedasticity in the theoretical model to be violated, most notably expressed through an autocorrelation between measurement units within working days. The empirical variance of the mean exposure estimates decreased, i.e. sampling efficiency increased, for sampling strategies where measurements were distributed widely across time. Thus, the most efficient allocation strategy was to organize a sample into 1-min block collected at fixed time intervals across 4 days. Theoretical estimates of efficiency generally agreed with empirical variances if the sample was allocated into small blocks

  5. A theoretical estimation for the optimal network robustness measure R against malicious node attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liangliang; Liu, Jing; Duan, Boping; Zhou, Mingxing

    2015-07-01

    In a recent work (Schneider C. M. et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 3838), Schneider et al. introduced an effective measure R to evaluate the network robustness against malicious attacks on nodes. Take R as the objective function, they used a heuristic algorithm to optimize the network robustness. In this paper, a theoretical analysis is conducted to estimate the value of R for different types of networks, including regular networks, WS networks, ER networks, and BA networks. The experimental results show that the theoretical value of R is approximately equal to that of optimized networks. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis also shows that regular networks are the most robust than other networks. To validate this result, a heuristic method is proposed to optimize the network structure, in which the degree distribution can be changed and the number of nodes and edges remains invariant. The optimization results show that the degree of most nodes in the optimal networks is close to the average degree, and the optimal network topology is close to regular networks, which confirms the theoretical analysis.

  6. Theoretical estimates of maximum fields in superconducting resonant radio frequency cavities: stability theory, disorder, and laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liarte, Danilo B.; Posen, Sam; Transtrum, Mark K.; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias; Sethna, James P.

    2017-03-01

    Theoretical limits to the performance of superconductors in high magnetic fields parallel to their surfaces are of key relevance to current and future accelerating cavities, especially those made of new higher-T c materials such as Nb3Sn, NbN, and MgB2. Indeed, beyond the so-called superheating field {H}{sh}, flux will spontaneously penetrate even a perfect superconducting surface and ruin the performance. We present intuitive arguments and simple estimates for {H}{sh}, and combine them with our previous rigorous calculations, which we summarize. We briefly discuss experimental measurements of the superheating field, comparing to our estimates. We explore the effects of materials anisotropy and the danger of disorder in nucleating vortex entry. Will we need to control surface orientation in the layered compound MgB2? Can we estimate theoretically whether dirt and defects make these new materials fundamentally more challenging to optimize than niobium? Finally, we discuss and analyze recent proposals to use thin superconducting layers or laminates to enhance the performance of superconducting cavities. Flux entering a laminate can lead to so-called pancake vortices; we consider the physics of the dislocation motion and potential re-annihilation or stabilization of these vortices after their entry.

  7. PART II: Comparison of Theoretical and Experimental Estimations of Site Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllidis, P.; Hatzidimitriou, P. M.; Suhadolc, P.; Theodulidis, N.; Anastasiadis, A.

    To check the reliability and the quality of the theoretically estimated ground responses obtained from the 2-D simulation by the application of the hybrid method in PART-I, we compare some of them with those obtained at the same sites from observed data using the Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR). The comparison validates our synthetic modeling and shows that in cases of complex geometries, the use of at least 2-D numerical simulations is required in order to reliably evaluate site effects and thus facilitate the microzonation of the city of Thessaloniki.

  8. Theoretical optimal modulation frequencies for scattering parameter estimation and ballistic photon filtering in diffusing media.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Fade, Julien; Ramachandran, Hema; Alouini, Mehdi

    2016-07-11

    The efficiency of using intensity modulated light for the estimation of scattering properties of a turbid medium and for ballistic photon discrimination is theoretically quantified in this article. Using the diffusion model for modulated photon transport and considering a noisy quadrature demodulation scheme, the minimum-variance bounds on estimation of parameters of interest are analytically derived and analyzed. The existence of a variance-minimizing optimal modulation frequency is shown and its evolution with the properties of the intervening medium is derived and studied. Furthermore, a metric is defined to quantify the efficiency of ballistic photon filtering which may be sought when imaging through turbid media. The analytical derivation of this metric shows that the minimum modulation frequency required to attain significant ballistic discrimination depends only on the reduced scattering coefficient of the medium in a linear fashion for a highly scattering medium.

  9. Theoretical estimates of exposure timescales of protein binding sites on DNA regulated by nucleosome kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Jyotsana J.; Das, Dibyendu; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    It is being increasingly realized that nucleosome organization on DNA crucially regulates DNA–protein interactions and the resulting gene expression. While the spatial character of the nucleosome positioning on DNA has been experimentally and theoretically studied extensively, the temporal character is poorly understood. Accounting for ATPase activity and DNA-sequence effects on nucleosome kinetics, we develop a theoretical method to estimate the time of continuous exposure of binding sites of non-histone proteins (e.g. transcription factors and TATA binding proteins) along any genome. Applying the method to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that the exposure timescales are determined by cooperative dynamics of multiple nucleosomes, and their behavior is often different from expectations based on static nucleosome occupancy. Examining exposure times in the promoters of GAL1 and PHO5, we show that our theoretical predictions are consistent with known experiments. We apply our method genome-wide and discover huge gene-to-gene variability of mean exposure times of TATA boxes and patches adjacent to TSS (+1 nucleosome region); the resulting timescale distributions have non-exponential tails. PMID:26553807

  10. Effect of osmotic pressure to bioimpedance indexes of erythrocyte suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    In the paper we studied effects of osmotic modification of red blood cells on bioimpedance parameters of erythrocyte suspension. The Cole parameters: the extracellular (Re) and intracellular (Ri) fluid resistance, the Alpha parameter, the characteristic frequency (Fchar) and the cell membranes capacitance (Cm) of concentrated erythrocyte suspensions were measured by bioimpedance analyser in the frequency range 5 - 500 kHz. Erythrocytes were incubated in hypo-, hyper- and isoosmotic solutions to achieve changes in cell volume. It was found that Re and Alpha increased in the suspensions with low osmolarity and decreased in the hypertonic suspensions. Ri, Fchar and Cm were higher in the hyperosmotic and were lower in the hypoosmotic suspensions. Correlations of all BIS parameters with MCV were obtained, but multiple regression analysis showed that only Alpha parameter was independently related to MCV (β=0.77, p=0.01). Thus Alpha parameter may be related the mean corpuscular volume of cells.

  11. Probability density estimation using isocontours and isosurfaces: applications to information-theoretic image registration.

    PubMed

    Rajwade, Ajit; Banerjee, Arunava; Rangarajan, Anand

    2009-03-01

    We present a new, geometric approach for determining the probability density of the intensity values in an image. We drop the notion of an image as a set of discrete pixels, and assume a piecewise-continuous representation. The probability density can then be regarded as being proportional to the area between two nearby isocontours of the image surface. Our paper extends this idea to joint densities of image pairs. We demonstrate the application of our method to affine registration between two or more images using information theoretic measures such as mutual information. We show cases where our method outperforms existing methods such as simple histograms, histograms with partial volume interpolation, Parzen windows, etc. under fine intensity quantization for affine image registration under significant image noise. Furthermore, we demonstrate results on simultaneous registration of multiple images, as well as for pairs of volume datasets, and show some theoretical properties of our density estimator. Our approach requires the selection of only an image interpolant. The method neither requires any kind of kernel functions (as in Parzen windows) which are unrelated to the structure of the image in itself, nor does it rely on any form of sampling for density estimation.

  12. Probability Density Estimation Using Isocontours and Isosurfaces: Application to Information-Theoretic Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Rajwade, Ajit; Banerjee, Arunava; Rangarajan, Anand

    2010-01-01

    We present a new geometric approach for determining the probability density of the intensity values in an image. We drop the notion of an image as a set of discrete pixels and assume a piecewise-continuous representation. The probability density can then be regarded as being proportional to the area between two nearby isocontours of the image surface. Our paper extends this idea to joint densities of image pairs. We demonstrate the application of our method to affine registration between two or more images using information-theoretic measures such as mutual information. We show cases where our method outperforms existing methods such as simple histograms, histograms with partial volume interpolation, Parzen windows, etc., under fine intensity quantization for affine image registration under significant image noise. Furthermore, we demonstrate results on simultaneous registration of multiple images, as well as for pairs of volume data sets, and show some theoretical properties of our density estimator. Our approach requires the selection of only an image interpolant. The method neither requires any kind of kernel functions (as in Parzen windows), which are unrelated to the structure of the image in itself, nor does it rely on any form of sampling for density estimation. PMID:19147876

  13. Estimating vocal repertoire size is like collecting coupons: a theoretical framework with heterogeneity in signal abundance.

    PubMed

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Freeberg, Todd M; Gammon, David E

    2015-05-21

    Vocal repertoire size is an important behavioural measure in songbirds and mammals with complex vocal communication systems, and has traditionally been used as an indicator of individual fitness, cognitive ability, and social structure. Estimates of asymptotic repertoire size have typically been made using curve fitting techniques. However, the exponential model usually applied in these techniques has never been provided with a theoretical justification based on probability theory, and the model has led to inaccurate estimates. We derived the precise expression for the expected number of distinct signal types observed for a fixed sampling effort: a variation of what is known in the statistical literature as the "Coupon Collector׳s problem". We used empirical data from three species (northern mockingbird, Carolina chickadee, and rock hyrax) to assess the performance of the Coupon Collector model compared to commonly used techniques, such as exponential fitting and repertoire enumeration, and also tested the different models against simulated artificial data sets with the statistical properties of the empirical data. We found that when signal probabilities are dissimilar, the Coupon Collector model provides far more accurate estimates of repertoire size than traditional techniques. Enumeration and exponential curve fitting greatly underestimated repertoire size, despite appearing to have reached saturation. Application of the Coupon Collector model can generate more accurate estimates of repertoire size than the commonly used exponential model of repertoire discovery, and could go a long way towards re-establishing repertoire size as a useful indicator in animal communication research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of theoretical maximum speedup ratio for parallel computing of grid-based distributed hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junzhi; Zhu, A.-Xing; Qin, Cheng-Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Theoretical maximum speedup ratio (TMSR) can be used as a goal for improving parallel computing methods for distributed hydrological models. Different types of distributed hydrological models need different TMSR estimation methods because of the different computing characteristics of models. Existing TMSR estimation methods, such as those for sub-basin based distributed hydrological models, are inappropriate for grid-based distributed hydrological models. In this paper, we proposed a TMSR estimation method suitable for grid-based distributed hydrological models. With this method, TMSRs for hillslope processes and channel routing processes are calculated separately and then combined to obtain the overall TMSR. A branch-and-bound algorithm and a critical path heuristic algorithm are used to estimate TMSRs for parallel computing of hillslope processes and channel routing processes, respectively. The overall TMSR is calculated according to the proportions of computing these two types of processes. A preliminary application showed that the more the number of sub-basins, the larger the TMSRs and that the compact watersheds had larger TMSRs than the long narrow watersheds.

  15. Mathematical modelling of fractional order circuit elements and bioimpedance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreles, Miguel Angel; Lainez, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    In this work a classical derivation of fractional order circuits models is presented. Generalised constitutive equations in terms of fractional Riemann-Liouville derivatives are introduced in the Maxwell's equations for each circuit element. Next the Kirchhoff voltage law is applied in a RCL circuit configuration. It is shown that from basic properties of Fractional Calculus, a fractional differential equation model with Caputo derivatives is obtained. Thus standard initial conditions apply. Finally, models for bioimpedance are revisited.

  16. Bioimpedance for pain monitoring during cutaneous photodynamic therapy: Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mikolajewska, Patrycja; Rømoen, Ola Taarud; Martinsen, Orjan G; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan; Grimnes, Sverre; Juzeniene, Asta

    2011-12-01

    Pain is a well-known problem associated with light exposure during topical photodynamic therapy (PDT). Different methods for dealing with the pain have been developed over the past years, ranging from cooling with air or water to nerve blocking. However, the mechanisms responsible for the pain induction have not yet been fully understood. This study aims to evaluate bioimpedance in situ measurements of human skin as a method to shed light on pain-inducing real-time changes during light exposure during topical PDT. Cream containing 20% aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was applied on forearms of ten healthy human volunteers. After 24h incubation, the cream was removed and the spots were exposed to red laser light (636nm, 300mW/cm(2)). During light exposure bioimpedance measurements with a 4-electrode set-up were taken at two frequencies (10Hz and 100kHz). A significant drop in skin impedance at high and low frequencies coincided with onset of pain during light exposure of spots treated with ALA. A similar drop was not observed for controls. Bioimpedance spectroscopy can provide valuable data for real-time observation of changes in skin, and may contribute to an increased understanding of the mechanisms responsible for induction of pain during topical PDT. Future studies are needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An efficient analysis of nanomaterial cytotoxicity based on bioimpedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2010-09-01

    In the emerging nanotechnology field, there is an urgent need for the development of a significant and sensitive method that can be used to analyse and compare the cytotoxicities of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), since such materials can be applied as contrast agents or drug delivery carriers. The bioimpedance system possesses great potential in many medical research fields including nanotechnology. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is a particular bioimpedance system that offers a real-time, non-invasive, and quantitative measurement method for the cytotoxicity of various materials. The present work compared the cytotoxicity of AuNPs to that of purchased single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The size-controlled and monodispersed AuNPs were synthesized under autoclaved conditions and reduced by ascorbic acid (AA) whereas the purchased SWCNTs were used without any surface modifications. Bioimpedance results were validated by conventional WST-1 and trypan blue assays, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were performed to examine nanomaterials inside the VERO cells. This research evaluates the ability of the ECIS system compared to those of conventional methods in analyzing the cytotoxicity of AuNPs and SWCNTs with higher sensitivity under real-time conditions.

  18. Effect of Influenza-Induced Fever on Human Bioimpedance Values

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Elisabetta; Buffa, Roberto; Contreras, Monica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Sanchez, Wilmer; Ortiz, Vanessa; Urbaez, Maryluz; Cabras, Stefano; Blaser, Martin J.; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used technique to assess body composition and nutritional status. While bioelectrical values are affected by diverse variables, there has been little research on validation of BIA in acute illness, especially to understand prognostic significance. Here we report the use of BIA in acute febrile states induced by influenza. Methods Bioimpedance studies were conducted during an H1N1 influenza A outbreak in Venezuelan Amerindian villages from the Amazonas. Measurements were performed on 52 subjects between 1 and 40 years of age, and 7 children were re-examined after starting Oseltamivir treatment. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) and permutation tests were applied. Results For the entire sample, febrile individuals showed a tendency toward greater reactance (p=0.058) and phase angle (p=0.037) than afebrile individuals, while resistance and impedance were similar in the two groups. Individuals with repeated measurements showed significant differences in bioimpedance values associated with fever, including increased reactance (p<0.001) and phase angle (p=0.007), and decreased resistance (p=0.007) and impedance (p<0.001). Conclusions There are bioelectrical variations induced by influenza that can be related to dehydration, with lower extracellular to intracellular water ratio in febrile individuals, or a direct thermal effect. Caution is recommended when interpreting bioimpedance results in febrile states. PMID:25915945

  19. Effect of influenza-induced fever on human bioimpedance values.

    PubMed

    Marini, Elisabetta; Buffa, Roberto; Contreras, Monica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Sanchez, Wilmer; Ortiz, Vanessa; Urbaez, Maryluz; Cabras, Stefano; Blaser, Martin J; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used technique to assess body composition and nutritional status. While bioelectrical values are affected by diverse variables, there has been little research on validation of BIA in acute illness, especially to understand prognostic significance. Here we report the use of BIA in acute febrile states induced by influenza. Bioimpedance studies were conducted during an H1N1 influenza A outbreak in Venezuelan Amerindian villages from the Amazonas. Measurements were performed on 52 subjects between 1 and 40 years of age, and 7 children were re-examined after starting Oseltamivir treatment. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) and permutation tests were applied. For the entire sample, febrile individuals showed a tendency toward greater reactance (p=0.058) and phase angle (p=0.037) than afebrile individuals, while resistance and impedance were similar in the two groups. Individuals with repeated measurements showed significant differences in bioimpedance values associated with fever, including increased reactance (p<0.001) and phase angle (p=0.007), and decreased resistance (p=0.007) and impedance (p<0.001). There are bioelectrical variations induced by influenza that can be related to dehydration, with lower extracellular to intracellular water ratio in febrile individuals, or a direct thermal effect. Caution is recommended when interpreting bioimpedance results in febrile states.

  20. A new bioimpedance research device (BIRD) for measuring the electrical impedance of acupuncture meridians.

    PubMed

    Wong, Felix Wu Shun; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn; Smith, Warren

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce an electrical bioimpedance device that uses an old and little-known impedance measuring technique to study the impedance of the meridian and nonmeridian tissue segments. Three (3) pilot experimental studies involving both a tissue phantom (a cucumber) and 3 human subjects were performed using this BIRD-I (Bioimpedance Research Device) device. This device consists of a Fluke RCL meter, a multiplexer box, a laptop computer, and a medical-grade isolation transformer. Segment and surface sheath (or local) impedances were estimated using formulae first published in the 1930s, in an approach that differs from that of the standard four-electrode technique used in most meridian studies to date. Our study found that, when using a quasilinear four-electrode arrangement, the reference electrodes should be positioned at least 10 cm from the test electrodes to ensure that the segment (or core) impedance estimation is not affected by the proximity of the reference electrodes. A tissue phantom was used to determine the repeatability of segment (core) impedance measurement by the device. An applied frequency of 100 kHz was found to produce the best repeatability among the various frequencies tested. In another preliminary study, with a segment of the triple energizer meridian on the lower arm selected as reference segment, core resistance-based profiles around the lower arm showed three of the other five meridians to exist as local resistance minima relative to neighboring nonmeridian segments. The profiles of the 2 subjects tested were very similar, suggesting that the results are unlikely to be spurious. In electrical bioimpedance studies, it is recommended that the measuring technique and device be clearly defined and standardized to provide optimal working conditions. In our study using the BIRD I device, we defined our standard experimental conditions as a test frequency of 100 kHz and the position of the reference electrodes of at

  1. Does a theoretical estimation of the dust size distribution at emission suggest more bioavailable iron deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, A; Kok, J; Feng, Y; Penner, J

    2012-01-01

    Global models have been used to deduce atmospheric iron supply to the ocean, but the uncertainty remains large. We used a global chemical transport model to investigate the effect of the estimated size distribution of dust on the bioavailable iron deposition. Simulations are performed with six different size distributions for dust aerosols at emission using similar aerosol optical depths (AODs) to constrain the total emission flux of dust. The global dust emission rate using a recent theoretical estimate for the dust size distribution at emission (2116 Tg yr{sup -1}) is about two times larger than the average of estimates using the other four empirical size distributions (1089 {+-} 469 Tg yr{sup -1}). In contrast to the large differences in total emissions, the emission of fine dust (diameter < 2.5 {mu}m) is relatively robust (176 {+-} 34 Tg yr{sup -1}), due to the strong constraint of AOD on fine dust emission. Our model results indicate that soluble iron (SFe) deposition is relatively invariant to the dust size distribution at emission in regions where most soluble iron is provided by acid mobilization of fine dust. In contrast, the use of the theoretical size distribution suggests a larger deposition of SFe (by a factor of 1.2 to 5) in regions where the concentration of acidic gases is insufficient to promote iron dissolution in dust particles, such as the South Atlantic. These results could have important implications for the projection of marine ecosystem feedbacks to climate change and highlight the necessity to improve the dust size distribution.

  2. [A study of coordinates transform iterative fitting method to extract bio-impedance model parameters bio-impedance model parameters].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming; Yang, Yuxing; Yuan, Shiying

    2006-02-01

    A new algorithm, the coordinates transform iterative optimizing method based on the least square curve fitting model, is presented. This arithmetic is used for extracting the bio-impedance model parameters. It is superior to other methods, for example, its speed of the convergence is quicker, and its calculating precision is higher. The objective to extract the model parameters, such as Ri, Re, Cm and alpha, has been realized rapidly and accurately. With the aim at lowering the power consumption, decreasing the price and improving the price-to-performance ratio, a practical bio-impedance measure system with double CPUs has been built. It can be drawn from the preliminary results that the intracellular resistance Ri increased largely with an increase in working load during sitting, which reflects the ischemic change of lower limbs.

  3. Graph theoretic framework based cooperative control and estimation of multiple UAVs for target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mousumi

    Designing the control technique for nonlinear dynamic systems is a significant challenge. Approaches to designing a nonlinear controller are studied and an extensive study on backstepping based technique is performed in this research with the purpose of tracking a moving target autonomously. Our main motivation is to explore the controller for cooperative and coordinating unmanned vehicles in a target tracking application. To start with, a general theoretical framework for target tracking is studied and a controller in three dimensional environment for a single UAV is designed. This research is primarily focused on finding a generalized method which can be applied to track almost any reference trajectory. The backstepping technique is employed to derive the controller for a simplified UAV kinematic model. This controller can compute three autopilot modes i.e. velocity, ground heading (or course angle), and flight path angle for tracking the unmanned vehicle. Numerical implementation is performed in MATLAB with the assumption of having perfect and full state information of the target to investigate the accuracy of the proposed controller. This controller is then frozen for the multi-vehicle problem. Distributed or decentralized cooperative control is discussed in the context of multi-agent systems. A consensus based cooperative control is studied; such consensus based control problem can be viewed from the algebraic graph theory concepts. The communication structure between the UAVs is represented by the dynamic graph where UAVs are represented by the nodes and the communication links are represented by the edges. The previously designed controller is augmented to account for the group to obtain consensus based on their communication. A theoretical development of the controller for the cooperative group of UAVs is presented and the simulation results for different communication topologies are shown. This research also investigates the cases where the communication

  4. Robust estimate of excitations in mechanical systems using M-estimators—Theoretical background and numerical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennacchi, Paolo

    2008-03-01

    Model-based methods are often used along with least squares to estimate (or to identify in equivalent but in more engineering terms) dynamic forces, parameters and malfunctions in mechanical systems, starting from experimental vibrations. The effectiveness of these methods, broadly proven and documented by several cases of study, can be reduced if the model of the system is not accurate or if the experimental data are corrupted by noise, especially if the mean value of the noise is not null or if biases are present. A possible solution is the use of robust estimation techniques instead of traditional least squares in the ambit of model-based identification. The author proposes the application of the M-estimators and discusses the problems related to their application to excitation identification in mechanical systems. In this paper, the necessary theory is presented in detail, introducing several concepts of statistics, in order to properly introduce the concept of robust estimation and the required algorithms (based on iterative re-weighted least squares) are described. Then the different types of M-estimators proposed in literature are introduced. Their performances with regard to mechanical applications are evaluated by means of a theoretical analysis and a couple of simple numerical examples: a single input-single output and a multiple inputs-multiple outputs systems. Moreover, the problem of the scale parameter, which is not discussed in literature for complex numbers, as the vibrations are conveniently represented, is analyzed and a solution is proposed using a concept related to the data depth.

  5. Estimates of the theoretical maximum daily intake of phenolic antioxidants BHA, BHT and TBHQ in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maziero, G C; Baunwart, C; Toledo, M C

    2001-05-01

    The theoretical maximum daily intakes (TMDI) of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertbutyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in Brazil were estimated using food consumption data derived from a household economic survey and a packaged goods market survey. The estimates were based on maximum levels of use of the food additives specified in national food standards. The calculated intakes of the three additives for the mean consumer were below the ADIs. Estimates of TMDI for BHA, BHT and TBHQ ranged from 0.09 to 0.15, 0.05 to 0.10 and 0.07 to 0.12 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. To check if the additives are actually used at their maximum authorized levels, analytical determinations of these compounds in selected food categories were carried out using HPLC with UV detection. BHT and TBHQ concentrations in foodstuffs considered to be representive sources of these antioxidants in the diet were below the respective maximum permitted levels. BHA was not detected in any of the analysed samples. Based on the maximal approach and on the analytical data, it is unlikely that the current ADI of BHA (0.5 mg/kg body weight), BHT (0.3 mg/kg body weight) and TBHQ (0.7 mg/kg body weight) will be exceeded in practice by the average Brazilian consumer.

  6. Bioimpedance vector analysis and conventional bioimpedance to assess body composition in older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Camina Martín, María Alicia; de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Nescolarde Selva, Lexa; Barrera Ortega, Sara; Domínguez Rodríguez, Luis; Redondo Del Río, María Paz

    2015-01-01

    Although dementia and nutritional status have been shown to be strongly associated, differences in body composition (BC) among older people with dementia have not yet been firmly established. The aim of this study was to assess BC through conventional and vector bioimpedance analysis (BIA and BIVA, respectively) in a sample of institutionalized older men with and without dementia, in order to detect dementia-related BC changes. Forty-one institutionalized men ages ≥ 65 y (23 without dementia [CG] and 18 with dementia [DG]) were measured with BIA and interpreted with BIVA and predictive equations. Age (74.4 and 75.7 y) and body mass index (22.5 and 23.6 kg/m(2)) were similar for DG and CG, respectively. Resistance and ratio of resistance to height did not differ significantly between the two groups. Reactance and ratio of reactance to height were 21.2% and 20.4% lower in DG than in CG. Phase angle was significantly lower in DG (mean = 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6°-4.3°) than in CG (mean = 4.7; 95% CI, 4.3°-5.1°). Mean fat mass index (6 and 7 kg/m(2)), and mean fat-free mass index (16.4 and 16.6 kg/m(2)) were similar in both groups. BIVA showed a significant downward migration of the ellipse in DG with respect to CG (T(2) = 15.1; P < 0.01). Conventional BIA showed no significant differences in BC between DG and CG, although reactance and ratio of reactance to height were about 21% lower in DG. Nevertheless, a body cell mass depletion and an increase in the ratio of extracellular to intracellular water were identified in DG using BIVA. BIVA reflects dementia-related changes in BC better than BIA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing thermal mismatch stress in anodically bonded silicon-glass wafers: theoretical estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinev, Leonid S.; Ryabov, Vladimir T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the theoretical study and estimations of thermal mismatch stress reduction in anodically bonded silicon-glass stacks by justifiable selection of bonding temperature and glass thickness. This can be done only after prior thorough study of temperature dependence of the linear thermal expansion coefficient of the glass and silicon to be used. We show by analyzing such a dependence of several glass brands that the usual idea of decreasing the bonding process temperature as a solution to the thermal mismatch stress problem can be a failure. Interchanging glass brands during device design is shown to produce very contrasting changes in residual stresses. These results are in good agreement with finite-element modeling. This paper reports there is proportion between glass and silicon wafer thicknesses minimizing thermal mismatch stress at unbonded side of the silicon independently of the bonding or working temperatures chosen.

  8. A Theoretical Model for Estimation of Yield Strength of Fiber Metal Laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Sunil; Nagesh, Suresh; Umesh, C. K.; Narayanan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a theoretical model for estimation of yield strength of fiber metal laminate. Principles of elasticity and formulation of residual stress are employed to determine the stress state in metal layer of the laminate that is found to be higher than the stress applied over the laminate resulting in reduced yield strength of the laminate in comparison with that of the metal layer. The model is tested over 4A-3/2 Glare laminate comprising three thin aerospace 2014-T6 aluminum alloy layers alternately bonded adhesively with two prepregs, each prepreg built up of three uni-directional glass fiber layers laid in longitudinal and transverse directions. Laminates with prepregs of E-Glass and S-Glass fibers are investigated separately under uni-axial tension. Yield strengths of both the Glare variants are found to be less than that of aluminum alloy with use of S-Glass fiber resulting in higher laminate yield strength than with the use of E-Glass fiber. Results from finite element analysis and tensile tests conducted over the laminates substantiate the theoretical model.

  9. Fecundity estimation by oocyte packing density formulae in determinate and indeterminate spawners: Theoretical considerations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Yutaka; Kjesbu, Olav S.

    2009-02-01

    This paper explores why the 'Auto-diametric method', currently used in many laboratories to quickly estimate fish fecundity, works well on marine species with a determinate reproductive style but much less so on species with an indeterminate reproductive style. Algorithms describing links between potentially important explanatory variables to estimate fecundity were first established, and these were followed by practical observations in order to validate the method under two extreme situations: 1) straightforward fecundity estimation in a determinate, single-batch spawner: Atlantic herring (AH) Clupea harengus and 2) challenging fecundity estimation in an indeterminate, multiple-batch spawner: Japanese flounder (JF) Paralichthys olivaceus. The Auto-diametric method relies on the successful prediction of the number of vitellogenic oocytes (VTO) per gram ovary (oocyte packing density; OPD) from the mean VTO diameter. Theoretically, OPD could be reproduced by the following four variables; OD V (volume-based mean VTO diameter, which deviates from arithmetic mean VTO diameter), VFvto (volume fraction of VTO in the ovary), ρo (specific gravity of the ovary) and k (VTO shape, i.e. ratio of long and short oocyte axes). VF vto, ρ o and k were tested in relation to growth in OD V. The dynamic range throughout maturation was clearly highest in VF vto. As a result, OPD was mainly influenced by OD V and secondly by VFvto. Log (OPD) for AH decreased as log (OD V) increased, while log (OPD) for JF first increased during early vitellogenesis, then decreased during late vitellogenesis and spawning as log (OD V) increased. These linear regressions thus behaved statistically differently between species, and associated residuals fluctuated more for JF than for AH. We conclude that the OPD-OD V relationship may be better expressed by several curves that cover different parts of the maturation cycle rather than by one curve that cover all these parts. This seems to be particularly

  10. A theoretical estimate for nucleotide sugar demand towards Chinese Hamster Ovary cellular glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    del Val, Ioscani Jimenez; Polizzi, Karen M.; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation greatly influences the safety and efficacy of many of the highest-selling recombinant therapeutic proteins (rTPs). In order to define optimal cell culture feeding strategies that control rTP glycosylation, it is necessary to know how nucleotide sugars (NSs) are consumed towards host cell and rTP glycosylation. Here, we present a theoretical framework that integrates the reported glycoproteome of CHO cells, the number of N-linked and O-GalNAc glycosylation sites on individual host cell proteins (HCPs), and the carbohydrate content of CHO glycosphingolipids to estimate the demand of NSs towards CHO cell glycosylation. We have identified the most abundant N-linked and O-GalNAc CHO glycoproteins, obtained the weighted frequency of N-linked and O-GalNAc glycosites across the CHO cell proteome, and have derived stoichiometric coefficients for NS consumption towards CHO cell glycosylation. By combining the obtained stoichiometric coefficients with previously reported data for specific growth and productivity of CHO cells, we observe that the demand of NSs towards glycosylation is significant and, thus, is required to better understand the burden of glycosylation on cellular metabolism. The estimated demand of NSs towards CHO cell glycosylation can be used to rationally design feeding strategies that ensure optimal and consistent rTP glycosylation. PMID:27345611

  11. Estimation-theoretic approach to delayed decoding of predictively encoded video sequences.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingning; Melkote, Vinay; Rose, Kenneth

    2013-03-01

    Current video coders employ predictive coding with motion compensation to exploit temporal redundancies in the signal. In particular, blocks along a motion trajectory are modeled as an auto-regressive (AR) process, and it is generally assumed that the prediction errors are temporally independent and approximate the innovations of this process. Thus, zero-delay encoding and decoding is considered efficient. This paper is premised on the largely ignored fact that these prediction errors are, in fact, temporally dependent due to quantization effects in the prediction loop. It presents an estimation-theoretic delayed decoding scheme, which exploits information from future frames to improve the reconstruction quality of the current frame. In contrast to the standard decoder that reproduces every block instantaneously once the corresponding quantization indices of residues are available, the proposed delayed decoder efficiently combines all accessible (including any future) information in an appropriately derived probability density function, to obtain the optimal delayed reconstruction per transform coefficient. Experiments demonstrate significant gains over the standard decoder. Requisite information about the source AR model is estimated in a spatio-temporally adaptive manner from a bit-stream conforming to the H.264/AVC standard, i.e., no side information needs to be sent to the decoder in order to employ the proposed approach, thereby compatibility with the standard syntax and existing encoders is retained.

  12. Error correction algorithm for high accuracy bio-impedance measurement in wearable healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Kubendran, Rajkumar; Lee, Seulki; Mitra, Srinjoy; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat

    2014-04-01

    Implantable and ambulatory measurement of physiological signals such as Bio-impedance using miniature biomedical devices needs careful tradeoff between limited power budget, measurement accuracy and complexity of implementation. This paper addresses this tradeoff through an extensive analysis of different stimulation and demodulation techniques for accurate Bio-impedance measurement. Three cases are considered for rigorous analysis of a generic impedance model, with multiple poles, which is stimulated using a square/sinusoidal current and demodulated using square/sinusoidal clock. For each case, the error in determining pole parameters (resistance and capacitance) is derived and compared. An error correction algorithm is proposed for square wave demodulation which reduces the peak estimation error from 9.3% to 1.3% for a simple tissue model. Simulation results in Matlab using ideal RC values show an average accuracy of for single pole and for two pole RC networks. Measurements using ideal components for a single pole model gives an overall and readings from saline phantom solution (primarily resistive) gives an . A Figure of Merit is derived based on ability to accurately resolve multiple poles in unknown impedance with minimal measurement points per decade, for given frequency range and supply current budget. This analysis is used to arrive at an optimal tradeoff between accuracy and power. Results indicate that the algorithm is generic and can be used for any application that involves resolving poles of an unknown impedance. It can be implemented as a post-processing technique for error correction or even incorporated into wearable signal monitoring ICs.

  13. The bioimpedance analysis of a parenchyma of a liver in the conditions of its extensive resection in experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agibalov, D. Y.; Panchenkov, D. N.; Chertyuk, V. B.; Leonov, S. D.; Astakhov, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The liver failure which is result of disharmony of functionality of a liver to requirements of an organism is the main reason for unsatisfactory results of an extensive resection of a liver. However, uniform effective criterion of definition of degree of a liver failure it isn’t developed now. One of data acquisition methods about a morfo-functional condition of internals is the bioimpedance analysis (BIA) based on impedance assessment (full electric resistance) of a biological tissue. Measurements of an impedance are used in medicine and biology for the characteristic of physical properties of living tissue, studying of the changes bound to a functional state and its structural features. In experimental conditions we carried out an extensive resection of a liver on 27 white laboratory rats of the Vistar line. The comparative characteristic of data of a bioimpedansometriya in intraoperative and after the operational period with the main existing methods of assessment of a functional condition of a liver was carried out. By results of the work performed by us it is possible to claim that the bioimpedance analysis of a liver on the basis of an invasive bioimpedansometriya allows to estimate morphological features and functional activity of a liver before performance of an extensive resection of a liver. The data obtained during scientific work are experimental justification for use of an impedansometriya during complex assessment of functional reserves of a liver. Preliminary data of clinical approbation at a stage of introduction of a technique speak about rather high informational content of a bioimpedansometriya. The subsequent analysis of efficiency of the invasive bioimpedance analysis of a liver requires further accumulation of clinical data. However even at this stage the method showed the prospect for further use in clinical surgical hepathology.

  14. Detecting and estimating signals in noisy cable structures, II: information theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Manwani, A; Koch, C

    1999-11-15

    This is the second in a series of articles that seek to recast classical single-neuron biophysics in information-theoretical terms. Classical cable theory focuses on analyzing the voltage or current attenuation of a synaptic signal as it propagates from its dendritic input location to the spike initiation zone. On the other hand, we are interested in analyzing the amount of information lost about the signal in this process due to the presence of various noise sources distributed throughout the neuronal membrane. We use a stochastic version of the linear one-dimensional cable equation to derive closed-form expressions for the second-order moments of the fluctuations of the membrane potential associated with different membrane current noise sources: thermal noise, noise due to the random opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels, and noise due to the presence of "spontaneous" synaptic input. We consider two different scenarios. In the signal estimation paradigm, the time course of the membrane potential at a location on the cable is used to reconstruct the detailed time course of a random, band-limited current injected some distance away. Estimation performance is characterized in terms of the coding fraction and the mutual information. In the signal detection paradigm, the membrane potential is used to determine whether a distant synaptic event occurred within a given observation interval. In the light of our analytical results, we speculate that the length of weakly active apical dendrites might be limited by the information loss due to the accumulated noise between distal synaptic input sites and the soma and that the presence of dendritic nonlinearities probably serves to increase dendritic information transfer.

  15. Theoretical Estimation of the Acoustic Energy Generation and Absorption Caused by Jet Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kin'ya; Iwagami, Sho; Kobayashi, Taizo; Takami, Toshiya

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the energy transfer between the fluid field and acoustic field caused by a jet driven by an acoustic particle velocity field across it, which is the key to understanding the aerodynamic sound generation of flue instruments, such as the recorder, flute, and organ pipe. Howe's energy corollary allows us to estimate the energy transfer between these two fields. For simplicity, we consider the situation such that a free jet is driven by a uniform acoustic particle velocity field across it. We improve the semi-empirical model of the oscillating jet, i.e., exponentially growing jet model, which has been studied in the field of musical acoustics, and introduce a polynomially growing jet model so as to apply Howe's formula to it. It is found that the relative phase between the acoustic oscillation and jet oscillation, which changes with the distance from the flue exit, determines the quantity of the energy transfer between the two fields. The acoustic energy is mainly generated in the downstream area, but it is consumed in the upstream area near the flue exit in driving the jet. This theoretical examination well explains the numerical calculation of Howe's formula for the two-dimensional flue instrument model in our previous work [http://doi.org/10.1088/0169-5983/46/6/061411, Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 061411 (2014)] as well as the experimental result of Yoshikawa et al. [http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2012.01.026, J. Sound Vib. 331, 2558 (2012)].

  16. Theoretical Estimation of the Death Toll caused by collapsed buildings in different regions of Taiwan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. Y.; Chen, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to theoretically estimate the death toll caused by collapsed buildings in different regions of Taiwan from future earthquakes according to the empirical data of the 1999 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake that occurred in Taiwan. The results are presented in a quadratic equation that relates collapsed buildings with Modified Mercalli Intensity (), then matching with a novel reliable function. It is found that two zones are subject to high collapsed building, one zone extends from Hsinchu southward to Taichung, Nantou, Chiayi, and Tainan in western Taiwan and the other extends from Ilan southward to Hualian and Taitung in eastern Taiwan. These zones are also characterized by low b values.We also present the expected probability of collapsed buildings as a function of waiting time in ten major metropolitan areas of Taiwan. The results exhibit relatively low expected probabilities in Tainan, Kaohsiung, and Hengchun; hence, the expected death toll due to collapsed buildings is very low (e.g., the expected death toll in Kaohsiung is zero). However, a relatively high number of collapsed buildings is found for most other areas. These results should be of use to government regulators and practicing engineers in enforcing appropriate building codes to effectively mitigate potential seismic hazards.

  17. Theoretical estimation of systematic errors in local deformation measurements using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohai; Su, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan

    2017-01-01

    The measurement accuracy using the digital image correlation (DIC) method in local deformations such as the Portevin-Le Chatelier bands, the deformations near the gap, and the crack tips has raised a major concern. The measured displacement and strain results are heavily affected by the calculation parameters (such as the subset size, the grid step, and the strain window size) due to under-matched shape functions (for displacement measurement) and surface fitting functions (for strain calculation). To evaluate the systematic errors in local deformations, theoretical estimations and approximations of displacement and strain systematic errors have been deduced when the first-order shape functions and quadric surface fitting functions are employed. The following results come out: (1) the approximate displacement systematic errors are proportional to the second-order displacement gradients and the ratio is only determined by the subset size; (2) the approximate strain systematic errors are functions of the third-order displacement gradients and the coefficients are dependent on the subset size, the grid step and the strain window size. Simulated experiments have been carried out to verify the reliability. Besides, a convenient way by comparing displacement results measured by the DIC method with different subset sizes is proposed to approximately evaluate the displacement systematic errors.

  18. A Theoretical Mathematical Model to Estimate Blood Volume in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Matthew; Hodgen, R Kyle; Wofford, Kenneth; Vacchiano, Charles

    2015-10-01

    Perioperative intravenous (IV) fluid management is controversial. Fluid therapy is guided by inaccurate algorithms and changes in the patient's vital signs that are nonspecific for changes to the patient's blood volume (BV). Anesthetic agents, patient comorbidities, and surgical techniques interact and further confound clinical assessment of volume status. Through adaptation of existing acute normovolemic hemodilution algorithms, it may be possible to predict patient's BV by measuring hematocrit (HcT) before and after hemodilution. Our proposed mathematical model requires the following four data points to estimate a patient's total BV: ideal BV, baseline HcT, a known fluid bolus (FB), and a second HcT following the FB. To test our method, we obtained 10 ideal and 10 actual subject BV data measures from 9 unique subjects derived from a commercially used Food and Drug Administration-approved, semi-automated, BV analyzer. With these data, we calculated the theoretical BV change following a FB. Using the four required data points, we predicted BVs (BVp) and compared our predictions with the actual BV (BVa) measures provided by the data set. The BVp calculated using our model highly correlated with the BVa provided by the BV analyzer data set (df = 8, r = .99). Our calculations suggest that, with accurate HcT measurement, this method shows promise for the identification of abnormal BV states such as hyper- and hypovolemia and may prove to be a reliable method for titrating IV fluid.

  19. Comparison of nine theoretical models for estimating the mechanical power output in cycling

    PubMed Central

    González‐Haro, Carlos; Ballarini, P A Galilea; Soria, M; Drobnic, F; Escanero, J F

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess which of the equations used to estimate mechanical power output for a wide aerobic range of exercise intensities gives the closest value to that measured with the SRM training system. Methods Thirty four triathletes and endurance cyclists of both sexes (mean (SD) age 24 (5) years, height 176.3 (6.6) cm, weight 69.4 (7.6) kg and Vo2max 61.5 (5.9) ml/kg/min) performed three incremental tests, one in the laboratory and two in the velodrome. The mean mechanical power output measured with the SRM training system in the velodrome tests corresponding to each stage of the tests was compared with the values theoretically estimated using the nine most referenced equations in literature (Whitt (Ergonomics 1971;14:419–24); Di Prampero et al (J Appl Physiol 1979;47:201–6); Whitt and Wilson (Bicycling science. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982); Kyle (Racing with the sun. Philadelphia: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1991:43–50); Menard (First International Congress on Science and Cycling Skills, Malaga, 1992); Olds et al (J Appl Physiol 1995;78:1596–611; J Appl Physiol 1993;75:730–7); Broker (USOC Sport Science and Technology Report 1–24, 1994); Candau et al (Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1441–7)). This comparison was made using the mean squared error of prediction, the systematic error and the random error. Results The equations of Candau et al, Di Prampero et al, Olds et al (J Appl Physiol 1993;75:730–7) and Whitt gave a moderate mean squared error of prediction (12.7%, 21.6%, 13.2% and 16.5%, respectively) and a low random error (0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7% and 0.8%, respectively). Conclusions The equations of Candau et al and Di Prampero et al give the best estimate of mechanical power output when compared with measurements obtained with the SRM training system. PMID:17341588

  20. Laser biostimulation of wound healing: bioimpedance measurements support histology.

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Hakan; Dervisoglu, Sergulen; Gulsoy, Murat; Ulgen, Yekta

    2016-11-01

    Laser biostimulation in medicine has become widespread supporting the idea of therapeutic effects of photobiomodulation in biological tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the biostimulation effect of laser irradiation on healing of cutaneous skin wounds, in vivo, by means of bioimpedance measurements and histological examinations. Cutaneous skin wounds on rats were subjected to 635 nm diode laser irradiations at two energy densities of 1 and 3 J/cm(2) separately. Changes in the electrical properties of the wound sites were examined with multi-frequency electrical impedance measurements performed on the 3rd, 7th, 10th, and 14th days following the wounding. Tissue samples were both morphologically and histologically examined to determine the relationship between electrical properties and structure of tissues during healing. Laser irradiations of both energy densities stimulated the wound healing process. In particular, laser irradiation of lower energy density had more evidence especially for the first days of healing process. On the 7th day of healing, 3 J/cm(2) laser-irradiated tissues had significantly smaller wound areas compared to non-irradiated wounds (p < 0.05). The electrical impedance results supported the idea of laser biostimulation on healing of cutaneous skin wounds. Thus, bioimpedance measurements may be considered as a non-invasive supplementary method for following the healing process of laser-irradiated tissues.

  1. Detection and Classification of Measurement Errors in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Pita, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement errors may be caused by parasitic stray capacitance, impedance mismatch, cross-talking or their very likely combination. An accurate detection and identification is of extreme importance for further analysis because in some cases and for some applications, certain measurement artifacts can be corrected, minimized or even avoided. In this paper we present a robust method to detect the presence of measurement artifacts and identify what kind of measurement error is present in BIS measurements. The method is based on supervised machine learning and uses a novel set of generalist features for measurement characterization in different immittance planes. Experimental validation has been carried out using a database of complex spectra BIS measurements obtained from different BIS applications and containing six different types of errors, as well as error-free measurements. The method obtained a low classification error (0.33%) and has shown good generalization. Since both the features and the classification schema are relatively simple, the implementation of this pre-processing task in the current hardware of bioimpedance spectrometers is possible. PMID:27362862

  2. A Bioimpedance Analysis Platform for Amputee Residual Limb Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joan E; Moehring, Mark A; Rothlisberger, Travis M; Phillips, Reid H; Hartley, Tyler; Dietrich, Colin R; Redd, Christian B; Gardner, David W; Cagle, John C

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a bioimpedance platform for monitoring fluid volume in residual limbs of people with trans-tibial limb loss using prostheses. A customized multifrequency current stimulus profile was sent to thin flat electrodes positioned on the thigh and distal residual limb. The applied current signal and sensed voltage signals from four pairs of electrodes located on the anterior and posterior surfaces were demodulated into resistive and reactive components. An established electrical model (Cole) and segmental limb geometry model were used to convert results to extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes. Bench tests and testing on amputee participants were conducted to optimize the stimulus profile and electrode design and layout. The proximal current injection electrode needed to be at least 25 cm from the proximal voltage sensing electrode. A thin layer of hydrogel needed to be present during testing to ensure good electrical coupling. Using a burst duration of 2.0 ms, intermission interval of 100 μs, and sampling delay of 10 μs at each of 24 frequencies except 5 kHz, which required a 200-μs sampling delay, the system achieved a sampling rate of 19.7 Hz. The designed bioimpedance platform allowed system settings and electrode layouts and positions to be optimized for amputee limb fluid volume measurement. The system will be useful toward identifying and ranking prosthetic design features and participant characteristics that impact residual limb fluid volume.

  3. Bioimpedance measurements of human body composition: critical analysis and outlook.

    PubMed

    Matthie, James R

    2008-03-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy represents one of the largest emerging medical device technologies. The method is generally known as impedance spectroscopy and is an inexpensive, yet extremely powerful, analytical technique for studying the electrical properties of materials. Much of what we know about biological cells and tissues comes from use of this technique in vitro. Due to the high impedance of the cell membrane, current flow through the cell is frequency dependent and this allows the fluid volume inside versus outside the body's cells to be determined. The fluid outside the cells is primarily related to fluid volume status while the intracellular fluid also relates to the body's cellular mass. Technical advances have removed much of the method's basic complexities. The first commercial bioimpedance spectroscopy device for in vivo human body composition studies was introduced in 1990. Major strides have been made and the method is now poised to enter mainstream clinical medicine but the field is only in its infancy. This paper attempts to fully describe the current use of impedance in the body composition field.

  4. Electrical bioimpedance enabling prompt intervention in traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoane, Fernando; Atefi, S. Reza

    2017-05-01

    Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) is a well spread technology used in clinical practice across the world. Advancements in Textile material technology with conductive textile fabrics and textile-electronics integration have allowed exploring potential applications for Wearable Measurement Sensors and Systems exploiting. The sensing principle of electrical bioimpedance is based on the intrinsic passive dielectric properties of biological tissue. Using a pair of electrodes, tissue is electrically stimulated and the electrical response can be sensed with another pair of surface electrodes. EBI spectroscopy application for cerebral monitoring of neurological conditions such as stroke and perinatal asphyxia in newborns have been justified using animal studies and computational simulations. Such studies have shown proof of principle that neurological pathologies indeed modify the dielectric composition of the brain that is detectable via EBI. Similar to stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) also affects the dielectric properties of brain tissue that can be detected via EBI measurements. Considering the portable and noninvasive characteristics of EBI it is potentially useful for prehospital triage of TBI patients where. In the battlefield blast induced Traumatic Brain Injuries are very common. Brain damage must be assessed promptly to have a chance to prevent severe damage or eventually death. The relatively low-complexity of the sensing hardware required for EBI sensing and the already proven compatibility with textile electrodes suggest the EBI technology is indeed a candidate for developing a handheld device equipped with a sensorized textile cap to produce an examination in minutes for enabling medically-guided prompt intervention.

  5. A Batteryless Sensor ASIC for Implantable Bio-Impedance Applications.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Saul; Ollmar, Stig; Waqar, Muhammad; Rusu, Ana

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of the biological tissue's electrical impedance is an active research field that has attracted a lot of attention during the last decades. Bio-impedances are closely related to a large variety of physiological conditions; therefore, they are useful for diagnosis and monitoring in many medical applications. Measuring living tissues, however, is a challenging task that poses countless technical and practical problems, in particular if the tissues need to be measured under the skin. This paper presents a bio-impedance sensor ASIC targeting a battery-free, miniature size, implantable device, which performs accurate 4-point complex impedance extraction in the frequency range from 2 kHz to 2 MHz. The ASIC is fabricated in 150 nm CMOS, has a size of 1.22 mm × 1.22 mm and consumes 165 μA from a 1.8 V power supply. The ASIC is embedded in a prototype which communicates with, and is powered by an external reader device through inductive coupling. The prototype is validated by measuring the impedances of different combinations of discrete components, measuring the electrochemical impedance of physiological solution, and performing ex vivo measurements on animal organs. The proposed ASIC is able to extract complex impedances with around 1 Ω resolution; therefore enabling accurate wireless tissue measurements.

  6. Detection of fruit quality based on bioimpedance using probe electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qunhe; Wang, Jianping; Ye, Zunzhong; Ying, Yibin; Li, Yanbin

    2005-11-01

    The fruit impedance is related to fruit internal quality. Differences in impedance of various quality of apples were measured by use of solartron 1294 impedance interface and solartron 1260 impedance analyzer instrument, four brass-wire probes electrodes, personal computer and the software of bioimpedance measurement of fruits. Apples as examples were experimented at frequency range (1 Hz ~ 1M Hz), and the relation between their impedance parameters and their quality was studied. The results of experiment indicate that the increasing of the frequency could constantly lead to the decreasing of the impedance. When the frequency was increased from 1Hz to 1MHz, the two points impedance of apples' surface decreased 12-15 times. The impedance of good quality apples was nearly constant at both low and high frequency. When detected the rot apples, the impedance was similar to the good apples' at high frequency, and different at low frequency. It was 60-100 ohm lower than normal for the rot apple detection of various rot area. At 1Hz frequency, the impedance measured of 10cm2 rot area was 397ohm, which was about 200ohm lower than normal. The conclusion is it feasible that the bioimpedance can be adopted to distinguishing the internal quality of fruit.

  7. A Bioimpedance Analysis Platform for Amputee Residual Limb Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Moehring, MM; Rothlisberger, TM; Phillips, RH; Hartley, T; Dietrich, CR; Redd, CB; Gardner, DW; Cagle, JC

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this research was to develop a bioimpedance platform for monitoring fluid volume in residual limbs of people with trans-tibial limb loss using prostheses. Methods A customized multi-frequency current stimulus profile was sent to thin flat electrodes positioned on the thigh and distal residual limb. The applied current signal and sensed voltage signals from four pairs of electrodes located on the anterior and posterior surfaces were demodulated into resistive and reactive components. An established electrical model (Cole) and segmental limb geometry model were used to convert results to extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes. Bench tests and testing on amputee participants were conducted to optimize the stimulus profile and electrode design and layout. Results The proximal current injection electrode needed to be at least 25 cm from the proximal voltage sensing electrode. A thin layer of hydrogel needed to be present during testing to ensure good electrical coupling. Using a burst duration of 2.0 ms, intermission interval of 100 μs, and sampling delay of 10 μs at each of 24 frequencies except 5 kHz which required a 200 μs sampling delay, the system achieved a sampling rate of 19.7 Hz. Conclusion The designed bioimpedance platform allowed system settings and electrode layouts and positions to be optimized for amputee limb fluid volume measurement. Significance The system will be useful towards identifying and ranking prosthetic design features and participant characteristics that impact residual limb fluid volume. PMID:26595906

  8. PREFACE: First Latin-American Conference on Bioimpedance (CLABIO 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertemes Filho, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented growth in medical technologies and a new generation of diagnostics, characterized by mobility, virtualization, homecare and costs. The ever growing demand and the rapid need for low cost tools for characterizing human tissue, and supporting intelligence and technologies for non-invasive tissue cancer investigation raise unique and evolving opportunities for research in Electrical Bioimpedance. The CLABIO2012 - First Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance is a premier Latin-American conference on Bioimpedance for research groups working on Electrical Bioimpedance. It allows Latin American researchers to share their experiences with other groups from all over the world by presenting scientific work and potential innovations in this research area and also in the social events promoting informal get togethers in the Brazilian style. The work covers a broad range including Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. Also, the Conference is intended to give students and research groups the opportunity to learn more about Bioimpedance as an important tool in biological material characterization and also in diagnosis. The conference is designed to showcase cutting edge research and accomplishments, and to enrich the educational and industrial experience in this field. It also represents a unique opportunity to meet colleagues and friends, exchanging ideas, and learning about new developments and best practice, while working to advance the understanding of the knowledge base that we will collectively draw upon in the years ahead to meet future challenges. Participants will attend presentations by scholars representing both institutes and academia. The CLABIO2012 proceedings include over 25 papers selected via a peer review process. The conference program features tutorial talks by world-leading scholars and five sessions for regular paper oral presentations

  9. Comparison of two bioimpedance spectroscopy techniques in the assessment of body fluid volumes.

    PubMed

    Neves, E B; Pino, A V; Souza, M N

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the estimates of body liquid volumes performed by two bioimpedance spectrometry techniques. One based on a step response technique (BIS-PEB) and second one based on multifrequency Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment (Xitron Technologies, San Diego, CA, USA). The convenience sample was initially composed of 422 students from a military parachuting course of the Brazilian Army. From such sample 42 male students were randomly selected to be evaluated during three weeks. The anthropometrical characteristics of the sample can be summarized as: 25.18 +/- 4.10 years old; weight equals of 76.77 +/- 7.84 kg; height equals to 174.96 +/- 5.67 cm; body mass index (BMI) equal to 25.05 +/- 2.11 kg m(-2). Bland-Altman graphics were used to compare the two methods in what concerns to estimate of extracellular fluid (ECF), intracellular fluid (ICF), and total body water (TBW). One can observe that the estimates of the two techniques present a good correlation, especially in the case of ECF (r = 0.975). The present study indicates that BIS-PEB technique associated with De Lorenzo equation can supply noninvasive estimates of body fluid volumes comparable to Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment.

  10. Theoretical estimate on tensor-polarization asymmetry in proton-deuteron Drell-Yan process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, S.; Song, Qin-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Tensor-polarized parton distribution functions are new quantities in spin-1 hadrons such as the deuteron, and they could probe new quark-gluon dynamics in hadron and nuclear physics. In charged-lepton deep inelastic scattering, they are studied by the twist-2 structure functions b1 and b2. The HERMES Collaboration found unexpectedly large b1 values compared to a naive theoretical expectation based on the standard deuteron model. The situation should be significantly improved in the near future by an approved experiment to measure b1 at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). There is also an interesting indication in the HERMES result that finite antiquark tensor polarization exists. It could play an important role in solving a mechanism on tensor structure in the quark-gluon level. The tensor-polarized antiquark distributions are not easily determined from the charged-lepton deep inelastic scattering; however, they can be measured in a proton-deuteron Drell-Yan process with a tensor-polarized deuteron target. In this article, we estimate the tensor-polarization asymmetry for a possible Fermilab Main-Injector experiment by using optimum tensor-polarized parton distribution functions to explain the HERMES measurement. We find that the asymmetry is typically a few percent. If it is measured, it could probe new hadron physics, and such studies could create an interesting field of high-energy spin physics. In addition, we find that a significant tensor-polarized gluon distribution should exist due to Q2 evolution, even if it were zero at a low Q2 scale. The tensor-polarized gluon distribution has never been observed, so it is an interesting future project.

  11. Single-frequency and multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis: What is the difference?

    PubMed

    Yalın, Serkan Feyyaz; Gulcicek, Sibel; Avci, Suna; Erkalma Senates, Banu; Altıparmak, Mehmet Riza; Trabulus, Sinan; Alagoz, Selma; Yavuzer, Hakan; Doventas, Alper; Seyahi, Nurhan

    2017-03-10

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis is a promising method in determining the body compartments in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the agreement between two widely used methods: the single-frequency and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyses. Maintenance hemodialysis patients were enrolled in the study. Single-frequency and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyses were performed consecutively before hemodialysis. A second bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed right after the hemodialysis session. A third bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed one hour after hemodialysis. We used weight change as a measure of fluid removal during hemodialysis session. Bioelectrical impedance analysis estimates from both devices had significant differences. Best agreement was observed between single frequency and multifrequency device at the immediate post hemodialysis extracellular water estimates (mean difference 0,076 L). We found the best agreement between weight change and extracellular water change using single-frequency bioimpedance analysis. Moreover, one hour waiting time did not improve the agreement between weight and extracellular water changes for both devices. Different estimates seem to be caused by different raw impedance data measured by both devices and device specific equations. There are significant differences among bioelectrical impedance measurements performed with different bioelectrical impedance analyzers. Using open source software might be an important step forward in the development of standardized measurements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. On the correct use of stepped-sine excitations for the measurement of time-varying bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Louarroudi, E; Sanchez, B

    2017-02-01

    When a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance is measured using stepped-sine excitations, a compromise must be made: the temporal distortions affecting the data depend on the experimental time, which in turn sets the data accuracy and limits the temporal bandwidth of the system that needs to be measured. Here, the experimental time required to measure linear time-invariant bioimpedance with a specified accuracy is analyzed for different stepped-sine excitation setups. We provide simple equations that allow the reader to know whether LTV bioimpedance can be measured through repeated time- invariant stepped-sine experiments. Bioimpedance technology is on the rise thanks to a plethora of healthcare monitoring applications. The results presented can help to avoid distortions in the data while measuring accurately non-stationary physiological phenomena. The impact of the work presented is broad, including the potential of enhancing bioimpedance studies and healthcare devices using bioimpedance technology.

  13. A high accuracy broadband measurement system for time resolved complex bioimpedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, S; Malhotra, A; Ardelt, G; Ryschka, M

    2014-06-01

    Bioimpedance measurements are useful tools in biomedical engineering and life science. Bioimpedance is the electrical impedance of living tissue and can be used in the analysis of various physiological parameters. Bioimpedance is commonly measured by injecting a small well known alternating current via surface electrodes into an object under test and measuring the resultant surface voltages. It is non-invasive, painless and has no known hazards. This work presents a field programmable gate array based high accuracy broadband bioimpedance measurement system for time resolved bioimpedance measurements. The system is able to measure magnitude and phase of complex impedances under test in a frequency range of about 10-500 kHz with excitation currents from 10 µA to 5 mA. The overall measurement uncertainties stay below 1% for the impedance magnitude and below 0.5° for the phase in most measurement ranges. Furthermore, the described system has a sample rate of up to 3840 impedance spectra per second. The performance of the bioimpedance measurement system is demonstrated with a resistor based system calibration and with measurements on biological samples.

  14. Application of longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurements in peritoneal dialysis at 50 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nescolarde, L.; Doñate, T.; Casañas, R.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    More relevant information of the fluid changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) might be obtained with segmental bioimpedance measurements rather than whole-body measurement, who hidden information of body composition. Whole-body and segmental bioimpedance measurements were obtained using 5 configurations (whole-body or right-side (RS), longitudinal-leg (L-LEG), longitudinal-abdomen (L-AB), transversal-abdomen (T-AB), and transversal-leg (T-LEG)) in 20 patients: 15 males (56.5 ± 9.4 yr, 24.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2) and 5 females (58.4 ± 7.1 yr, 28.2 ± 5.9 kg/m2) in peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between whole-body, longitudinal-segmental (L-LEG and L-AB) and transversal-segmental (TAB and TLEG) bioimpedance measurement at 50 kHz, with clinical parameters of cardiovascular risk, dyslipidemia, nutrition and hydration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for the normality test of all variables. Longitudinal bioimpedance parameters were normalized by the height of the patients. The Spearman correlation was used to analyze the correlation between bioimpedance and clinical parameters. The statistical significance was considered with P < 0.05. Transversal bioimpedance measurements have higher correlation with clinical parameters than longitudinal measurements.

  15. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Das, Soumen; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cytosensors over a frequency range offers instantaneous and quantitative means to monitor cellular events and is an upcoming technique in real time to classify cells as normal and abnormal ones. This technology is exploited for label-free detection of diseases by identifying and measuring nonbiological parameters of the cell which may carry the disease signature. PMID:27006939

  16. The limits of crop productivity: validating theoretical estimates and determining the factors that limit crop yields in optimal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.

    1992-01-01

    Plant scientists have sought to maximize the yield of food crops since the beginning of agriculture. There are numerous reports of record food and biomass yields (per unit area) in all major crop plants, but many of the record yield reports are in error because they exceed the maximal theoretical rates of the component processes. In this article, we review the component processes that govern yield limits and describe how each process can be individually measured. This procedure has helped us validate theoretical estimates and determine what factors limit yields in optimal environments.

  17. The limits of crop productivity: validating theoretical estimates and determining the factors that limit crop yields in optimal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.

    1992-01-01

    Plant scientists have sought to maximize the yield of food crops since the beginning of agriculture. There are numerous reports of record food and biomass yields (per unit area) in all major crop plants, but many of the record yield reports are in error because they exceed the maximal theoretical rates of the component processes. In this article, we review the component processes that govern yield limits and describe how each process can be individually measured. This procedure has helped us validate theoretical estimates and determine what factors limit yields in optimal environments.

  18. Circular motion analysis of time-varying bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, B; Louarroudi, E; Rutkove, S B; Pintelon, R

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a step forward towards the analysis of a linear periodically time-varying (PTV) bioimpedance ZPTV(jw, t), which is an important subclass of a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance. Similarly to the Fourier coefficients of a periodic signal, a PTV impedance can be decomposed into frequency dependent impedance phasors, [Formula: see text], that are rotating with an angular speed of wr = 2πr/TZ. The vector length of these impedance phasors corresponds to the amplitude of the rth-order harmonic impedance |Zr( jw)| and the initial phase is given by Φr(w, t0) = [Symbol: see text]Zr( jw) + 2πrt0/TZ, with t0∈[0, T] being a time instant within the measurement time T. The impedance period TZ stands for the cycle length of the bio-system under investigation; for example, the elapsed time between two consecutive R-waves in the electrocardiogram or the breathing periodicity in case of the heart or lungs, respectively. First, it is demonstrated that the harmonic impedance phasor [Formula: see text], at a particular measured frequency k, can be represented by a rotating phasor, leading to the so-called circular motion analysis technique. Next, the two dimensional (2D) representation of the harmonic impedance phasors is then extended to a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system by taking into account the frequency dependence. Finally, we introduce a new visualizing tool to summarize the frequency response behavior of ZPTV( jw, t) into a single 3D plot using the local Frenet-Serret frame. This novel 3D impedance representation is then compared with the 3D Nyquist representation of a PTV impedance. The concepts are illustrated through real measurements conducted on a PTV RC-circuit.

  19. Theoretical Estimation of the Processes While Using Casting Methods of Obtaining MMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V.

    2017-08-01

    It is a well-known problem that silicone carbide particles are poorly wetted by aluminum melt, which is a main limiting factor for wide use of metal matrix composites within linear technologies. This paper seeks to find a theoretical explanation of this problem. As result, paper recommends to use solid methods for preparation of MMC with nanoreinforcements.

  20. Theoretical implications for the estimation of dinitrogen fixation by large perennial plant species using isotope dilution

    Treesearch

    Dwight D. Baker; Maurice Fried; John A. Parrotta

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of symbiotic N2 fixation associated with large perennial plant species, especially trees, poses special problems because the process must be followed over a potentially long period of time to integrate the total amount of fixation. Estimations using isotope dilution methodology have begun to be used for trees in field studies. Because...

  1. An implantable bioimpedance monitor using 2.45 GHz band for telemetry.

    PubMed

    Bogónez-Franco, Paco; Nescolarde, Lexa; Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Bragós, Ramon; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-frequency single-channel electrical implantable bioimpedance monitor (35 mm × 35 mm × 10 mm, weight 52 g) powered by a NiMH battery. By using the tetrapolar method and injecting 10 µA(peak), the monitor is capable of measuring at 14 different frequencies, from 100 Hz to 200 kHz. It contains a ZigBee transceiver to monitor the measurements performed, and has an embedded memory for backing up the data. RC networks and in-situ heart excised tissues were used to test the system. When measuring a full spectrum every 5 min, 35 days of autonomy are possible due to the low power consumption of the monitor. Temperature drift was estimated by short-term and long-term measurements. Temperature cycling was used to measure modulus and phase angle stability. The result was a very low effect on a modulus decrease of 2.34 Ω, with respect to an impedance of 322 Ω, at 100 Hz and a phase angle increase of 1.1°, at 200 kHz. In addition, measurement errors were bigger at low frequencies because of the high impedance of the electrodes used, which was higher than 10 kΩ at frequencies below 1 kHz.

  2. Uncertainty in Multifractal Estimates : a Bottleneck for Applications and a Stimulating Theoretical Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lojveoy, S.

    2009-05-01

    A fundamental and attractive feature of multifractal fields is that they are extremely variable over a wide range of scale and have long range dependencies. They are therefore at odd with the usual statistical estimator framework and this may explain the limited achievements in defining robust and accurate multifractal estimators. We believe that the lack of the latter has become a stronger and stronger bottleneck for practical applications of multifractals. For instance, rather inconsistent estimates of multifractal parameters of geophysical fields can be easily pointed out. Nevertheless, we also point out the irrelevance of hasty claims that the uncertainty of multifractal attributes should be definitively large. We recall a few general and non parametric results, e.g. non gaussian convergence of the estimators, limitations induced by the length, number and resolution of samples, which have been obtained by various authors in somewhat different frameworks. We then focus on the parametric case study of the universal multifractals and more particularly the Double Trace Moment technique to estimate their parameters. We illustrate a few possible numerical pitfalls, such as those induced by number representation limitations, which depend on the used programming language. We present optimization procedures to take care of the above mentioned limitations, which otherwise may lead to paradoxical results, e.g. parameters of a weakly multifractal field would be harder to estimate than those of a strongly multifractal field. Finally, we discuss and quantify the intrinsic variability of the "best estimates", in particular in relationship with the notion of equifinality, which has been often used in hydrology.

  3. The MOM tunneling diode - Theoretical estimate of its performance at microwave and infrared frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, A.; Davis, C. F., Jr.; Liu, K. C.; Javan, A.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the metal-oxide-metal (MOM) antenna/diode as a detector of microwave and infrared radiation is presented with the experimental verification conducted in the far infrared. It is shown that the detectivity at room temperature can be as high as 10 to the 10th per W Hz exp 1/2 at frequencies of 10 to the 14th Hz in the infrared. As a result, design guidelines are obtained for the lithographic fabrication of thin-film MOM structures that are to operate in the 10-micron region of the infrared spectrum.

  4. The MOM tunneling diode - Theoretical estimate of its performance at microwave and infrared frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, A.; Davis, C. F., Jr.; Liu, K. C.; Javan, A.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the metal-oxide-metal (MOM) antenna/diode as a detector of microwave and infrared radiation is presented with the experimental verification conducted in the far infrared. It is shown that the detectivity at room temperature can be as high as 10 to the 10th per W Hz exp 1/2 at frequencies of 10 to the 14th Hz in the infrared. As a result, design guidelines are obtained for the lithographic fabrication of thin-film MOM structures that are to operate in the 10-micron region of the infrared spectrum.

  5. Comparison of Bioimpedance and Underwater Weighing Body Fat Percentage Before and Acutely After Exercise at Varying Intensities.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Brett S; Esco, Michael R; Kliszczewicz, Brian M; Freeborn, Todd J

    2017-05-01

    Nickerson, BS, Esco, MR, Kliszczewicz, BM, and Freeborn, TJ. Comparison of bioimpedance and underwater weighing body fat percentage before and acutely after exercise at varying intensities. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1395-1402, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) with underwater weighing (UWW) body fat percentage (BF%) before (PRE), immediately post (IP), and 60 minutes post (60P) an acute bout of moderate and vigorous aerobic exercise. Nine men (age = 24.6 ± 3.7 years) volunteered for this study. Subjects visited the laboratory on 3 separate occasions. Testing included two 30-minute exercise sessions at 60 and 80% heart rate reserve (HRR) and a 30-minute control (CON) trial. The constant error (CE) was significantly higher for BIA at each time point and exercise session (CE = 3.0-4.9% for 60% HRR; 2.5-4.7% for 80% HRR). Conversely, BIS yielded a nonsignificant CE at each time point and exercise session (CE = -0.9 to 1.1% for 60% HRR; -0.3 to 1.2% for 80% HRR). The standard error of estimate (SEE) for both exercise sessions ranged from 2.7 to 3.1% and 3.8-4.3% for BIA and BIS, respectively. The 95% limits of agreement were narrower for BIA (60% HRR = ±5.5 to 7.8%; 80% HRR = ±6.6 to 8.5%) than BIS (60% HRR = ±8.4 to 9.4%; 80% HRR = ±8.1 to 10.2%). Results indicate that BIS can be used for mean group BF% in men at PRE, IP, and 60P time periods. However, BIA yielded a lower SEE and 95% limits of agreement than BIS. Therefore, BIA provides better individual estimates of BF% in men, but the CE should be taken into consideration.

  6. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis as a tool to simultaneously assess circulation and nervous control.

    PubMed

    Mudraya, I S; Revenko, S V; Nesterov, A V; Gavrilov, I Yu; Kirpatovsky, V I

    2011-07-01

    Multicycle harmonic (Fourier) analysis of bioimpedance was employed to simultaneously assess circulation and neural activity in visceral (rat urinary bladder) and somatic (human finger) organs. The informative value of the first cardiac harmonic of the bladder impedance as an index of bladder circulation is demonstrated. The individual reactions of normal and obstructive bladders in response to infusion cystometry were recorded. The potency of multicycle harmonic analysis of bioimpedance to assess sympathetic and parasympathetic neural control in urinary bladder is discussed. In the human finger, bioimpedance harmonic analysis revealed three periodic components at the rate of the heart beat, respiration and Mayer wave (0.1 Hz), which were observed under normal conditions and during blood flow arrest in the hand. The revealed spectrum peaks were explained by the changes in systemic blood pressure and in regional vascular tone resulting from neural vasomotor control. During normal respiration and circulation, two side cardiac peaks were revealed in a bioimpedance amplitude spectrum, whose amplitude reflected the depth of amplitude respiratory modulation of the cardiac output. During normal breathing, the peaks corresponding to the second and third cardiac harmonics were split, reflecting frequency respiratory modulation of the heart rate. Multicycle harmonic analysis of bioimpedance is a novel potent tool to examine the interaction between the respiratory and cardiovascular system and to simultaneously assess regional circulation and neural influences in visceral and somatic organs.

  7. Estimation of acoustical streaming: theoretical model, Doppler measurements and optical visualisation.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, A; Kowalewski, T; Secomski, W; Wójcik, J

    1998-02-01

    An approximate solution for the streaming velocity generated by flat and weakly focused transducers was derived by directly solving the Dirichlet boundary conditions for the Poisson equation, the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for the axial components of the streaming velocity. The theoretical model was verified experimentally using a 32 MHz pulsed Doppler unit. The experimental acoustical fields were produced by three different 4 mm diameter flat and focused transducers driven by the transmitter generating the average acoustic power within the range from 1 microW to 6 mW. The streaming velocity was measured along the ultrasonic beam from 0 to 2 cm. Streaming was induced in a solution of water and corn starch. The experimental results showed that for a given acoustic power the streaming velocity was independent of the starch density in water, changed from 0.3 to 40 grams of starch in 1 l of distilled water. For applied acoustic powers, the streaming velocity changed linearly from 0.2 to 40 mm/s. Both, the theoretical solutions for plane and focused waves and the experimental results were in good agreement. The streaming velocity field was also visualised using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) and two different evaluation methods. The first based on the FFT-based cross-correlation analysis between small sections for each pair of images and the second employing the algorithm of searching for local displacements between several images.

  8. Theoretical estimates of photoproduction cross sections for neutral subthreshold pions in carbon-carbon collisions.

    PubMed

    Norbury, J W; Townsend, L W

    1986-01-01

    Using the Weizsacher-Williams method of virtual quanta, total cross section estimates for the photoproduction of neutral subthreshold pions in carbon-carbon collisions at incident energies below 300 MeV/nucleon are made. Comparisons with recent experimental data indicate that the photoproduction mechanism makes an insignificant contribution to these measured cross sections.

  9. Theoretical estimation of the optical bandgap in a series of poly(aryl-ethynylene)s: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granadino-Roldán, José M.; Garzón, Andrés; Moral, Mónica; García, Gregorio; Peña-Ruiz, Tomás; Paz Fernández-Liencres, M.; Navarro, Amparo; Fernández-Gómez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Aimed to optimize the ratio accuracy/computational cost, in this work we study the performance of three different theoretical methodologies in the calculation of the optical bandgap for a test set made of a number of poly(aryl-ethynylene)s related polymers. Infinite, ideal polymer chains were first optimized by means of periodic calculations. Different length oligomers were afterward generated by direct replication of the corresponding periodic structure and their optical bandgaps were calculated by means of different time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) methodologies. These results were fitted to an exponential function for each oligomer family in order to get a theoretical estimation of the optical bandgap for each polymer to be compared to the experimental reported values. The best result was obtained for TD-M06-2X yielding an average deviation of 3.4% with respect to the experimental values.

  10. Bioimpedance Measurement of Segmental Fluid Volumes and Hemodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Wu, Yi-Chang; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Gerth, Wayne A.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Bioimpedance has become a useful tool to measure changes in body fluid compartment volumes. An Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) system is described that extends the capabilities of conventional fixed frequency impedance plethysmographic (IPG) methods to allow examination of the redistribution of fluids between the intracellular and extracellular compartments of body segments. The combination of EIS and IPG techniques was evaluated in the human calf, thigh, and torso segments of eight healthy men during 90 minutes of six degree head-down tilt (HDT). After 90 minutes HDT the calf and thigh segments significantly (P < 0.05) lost conductive volume (eight and four percent, respectively) while the torso significantly (P < 0.05) gained volume (approximately three percent). Hemodynamic responses calculated from pulsatile IPG data also showed a segmental pattern consistent with vascular fluid loss from the lower extremities and vascular engorgement in the torso. Lumped-parameter equivalent circuit analyses of EIS data for the calf and thigh indicated that the overall volume decreases in these segments arose from reduced extracellular volume that was not completely balanced by increased intracellular volume. The combined use of IPG and EIS techniques enables noninvasive tracking of multi-segment volumetric and hemodynamic responses to environmental and physiological stresses.

  11. Bioimpedance vector analysis as a measure of muscle function.

    PubMed

    Norman, Kristina; Pirlich, Matthias; Sorensen, Janice; Christensen, Pia; Kemps, Martin; Schütz, Tatjana; Lochs, Herbert; Kondrup, Jens

    2009-02-01

    The impedance vector produced by an alternating current in the bioimpedance analysis can be seen as a standardised test of cellular mass and function since reactance is believed to reflect the mass and integrity of cell membranes. This study investigated the association between resistance and reactance normalised for height (R/H and Xc/H), and muscle function as assessed by hand grip strength. 363 patients (172 male, 191 female) from Berlin and Copenhagen were included in the analysis. Whole body impedance was determined by BIA 2000M (Berlin) or EFG2.0 (Copenhagen). Hand grip strength was measured with Digimax electronic hand dynamometer (Berlin) or Jamar dynamometer (Copenhagen). The general linear model was used to assess the association between R/H, Xc/H and hand grip strength. We observed a significant association between the impedance parameters R/H and Xc/H and hand grip strength after adjusting for confounding variables (hand grip strength= -36.9 - 0.063 x R/H + 0.573 x Xc/H + 40.7 x Height + 0.115 x Weight - 0.09 x Age + 3.41 (gender=male) + 1.87 (Centre Berlin); Weight: P=0.04, all other coefficients: P<0.0005. r(2)=0.708). The impedance parameters R/H and Xc/H are related to hand grip strength and might therefore be used as a cooperation-independent method to reproducibly assess muscle function.

  12. Diuretics and bioimpedance-measured fluid spaces in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Tapolyai, Mihály; Faludi, Mária; Dossabhoy, Neville R; Barna, István; Lengvárszky, Zsolt; Szarvas, Tibor; Berta, Klára; Fülöp, Tibor

    2014-12-01

    The authors examined the relationship between thiazide-type diuretics and fluid spaces in a cohort of hypertensive patients in a retrospective study of 60 stable hypertensive patients without renal abnormalities who underwent whole-body bioimpedance analysis. Overhydration was greater in the diuretic group, but only to a nonsignificant degree (5.9 vs. 2.9%; P=.21). The total body water did not differ in the two groups (41.8 L vs. 40.5 L; P=.64). Extracellular fluid volume (ECV) (19.7 L vs. 18.5 L; P=.35) and intracellular fluid volume (ICV) spaces (20.8 L vs. 21.3 L; P=.75) were also not significantly different in the two groups. The ratio of ICV:ECV, however, appeared different: 1.05 vs 1.15 (P=.017) and the effect was maintained in the linear regression-adjusted model (β coefficient: -0.143; P=.001). The diuretic-related distortion of ICV:ECV ratio indicates potential fluid redistribution in hypertensive patients, with ICV participating in the process.

  13. Bioimpedance for the spot measurement of tissue density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dylke, E. S.; Ward, L. C.; Stannard, C.; Leigh, A.; Kilbreath, S. L.

    2013-04-01

    Long-standing lymphoedema is characterised by tissues changes which are currently not detectable using bioimpedance spectroscopy. It has been suggested that a combination of bipolar and tetrapolar measurements may be used to detect these tissues changes for a single site in the transverse direction. This was technique was trialled in a group of control participants with no history of lymphoedema or recent upper limb trauma. Repeated spot measurements were done without removal of electrodes to determine biological variability as well as with removal of electrodes to determine technical reproducibility. The inter-limb spot ratio of the controls was then compared to that of a number of women previously diagnosed with secondary lymphoedema in the forearm. Biological variability was not found to greatly influence repeated measures but only moderate technical reliability was found despite excellent co-efficient of variation for the majority of the measurements. A difference was seen between those with more severe swelling and the controls. This novel technique shows promise in detecting tissue changes associated with long-standing lymphoedema.

  14. Theoretical estimate of the sensitivity of the CUORE detector to solar axions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dawei; Creswick, R.J.; III, F.T. Avignone; Wang, Yuanxu E-mail: creswick.rj@sc.edu E-mail: wangyx@henu.edu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we calculate the potential sensitivity of the CUORE detector to axions produced in the Sun through the Primakoff process and detected by the inverse coherent Bragg-Primakoff process. The conversion rate is calculated using density functional theory for the electron density and realistic expectations for the energy resolution and background of CUORE. Monte Carlo calculations for 5 y × 741 kg = 3705 kg y of exposure are analyzed using time correlation of individual events with the theoretical time-dependent counting rate and lead to an expected limit on the axion-photon coupling g{sub aγγ}<3.83 × 10{sup −10} GeV{sup −1} for axion masses less than 100 eV.

  15. Estimation of leaf area index and its sunlit portion from DSCOVR EPIC data: Theoretical basis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline; Yan, Lei; Chen, Chi; Yan, Kai; Choi, Sungho; Park, Taejin; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical basis of the algorithm designed for the generation of leaf area index and diurnal course of its sunlit portion from NASA’s Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). The Look-up-Table (LUT) approach implemented in the MODIS operational LAI/FPAR algorithm is adopted. The LUT, which is the heart of the approach, has been significantly modified. First, its parameterization incorporates the canopy hot spot phenomenon and recent advances in the theory of canopy spectral invariants. This allows more accurate decoupling of the structural and radiometric components of the measured Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF), improves scaling properties of the LUT and consequently simplifies adjustments of the algorithm for data spatial resolution and spectral band compositions. Second, the stochastic radiative transfer equations are used to generate the LUT for all biome types. The equations naturally account for radiative effects of the three-dimensional canopy structure on the BRF and allow for an accurate discrimination between sunlit and shaded leaf areas. Third, the LUT entries are measurable, i.e., they can be independently derived from both below canopy measurements of the transmitted and above canopy measurements of reflected radiation fields. This feature makes possible direct validation of the LUT, facilitates identification of its deficiencies and development of refinements. Analyses of field data on canopy structure and leaf optics collected at 18 sites in the Hyytiälä forest in southern boreal zone in Finland and hyperspectral images acquired by the EO-1 Hyperion sensor support the theoretical basis. PMID:28867834

  16. Experimental and theoretical analysis on the procedure for estimating geo-stresses by the Kaiser effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan-Hui; Yang, Yu-Jiang; Liu, Jian-Po; Zhao, Xing-Dong

    2010-10-01

    Acoustic emission tests of the core specimens retrieved from boreholes at the depth over 1000 m in Hongtoushan Copper Mine were carried out under uniaxial compressive loading, and the numerical test was also done by using the rock failure process analysis (RFPA2D) code, based on the procedure for estimating geo-stresses by the Kaiser effect under uniaxial compression. According to the statistical damage mechanics theory, the Kaiser effect mechanism was analyzed. Based on these analyses, it is indicted that the traditional method of estimating geo-stresses by the Kaiser effect is not appropriate, and the result is usually smaller than the real one. Furthermore, the greater confining compression in the rock mass may result in a larger difference between the Kaiser effect stresses acquired from uniaxial loading in laboratory and the real in-situ stresses.

  17. Vehicle dynamic estimation with road bank angle consideration for rollover detection: theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmani, H.; Chadli, M.; Rabhi, A.; El Hajjaji, A.

    2013-12-01

    This article describes a method of vehicle dynamics estimation for impending rollover detection. This method is evaluated via a professional vehicle dynamics software and then through experimental results using a real test vehicle equipped with an inertial measurement unit. The vehicle dynamic states are estimated in the presence of the road bank angle (as a disturbance in the vehicle model) using a robust observer. The estimated roll angle and roll rate are used to compute the rollover index which is based on the prediction of the lateral load transfer. In order to anticipate the rollover detection, a new method is proposed in order to compute the time-to-rollover using the load transfer ratio. The used nonlinear model is deduced from the vehicle lateral dynamics and is represented by a Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model. This representation is used in order to take into account the nonlinearities of lateral cornering forces. The proposed TS observer is designed with unmeasurable premise variables in order to consider the non-availability of the slip angles measurement. Simulation results show that the proposed observer and rollover detection method exhibit good efficiency.

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of DOA estimation using AML algorithm for an isotropic and non-isotropic 3D array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Shadnaz; Ali, Andreas M.; Collier, Travis C.; Yao, Yuan; Hudson, Ralph E.; Yao, Kung; Taylor, Charles E.

    2007-09-01

    The focus of most direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation problems has been based mainly on a two-dimensional (2D) scenario where we only need to estimate the azimuth angle. But in various practical situations we have to deal with a three-dimensional scenario. The importance of being able to estimate both azimuth and elevation angles with high accuracy and low complexity is of interest. We present the theoretical and the practical issues of DOA estimation using the Approximate-Maximum-Likelihood (AML) algorithm in a 3D scenario. We show that the performance of the proposed 3D AML algorithm converges to the Cramer-Rao Bound. We use the concept of an isotropic array to reduce the complexity of the proposed algorithm by advocating a decoupled 3D version. We also explore a modified version of the decoupled 3D AML algorithm which can be used for DOA estimation with non-isotropic arrays. Various numerical results are presented. We use two acoustic arrays each consisting of 8 microphones to do some field measurements. The processing of the measured data from the acoustic arrays for different azimuth and elevation angles confirms the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. Simulation data for an estimation of the maximum theoretical value and confidence interval for the correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Paolo; Cilurzo, Francesco; Minghetti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Pedretti, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the article titled "Molecular Dynamics as a tool for in silico screening of skin permeability" (Rocco et al., 2017) [1]. Knowledge of the confidence interval and maximum theoretical value of the correlation coefficient r can prove useful to estimate the reliability of developed predictive models, in particular when there is great variability in compiled experimental datasets. In this Data in Brief article, data from purposely designed numerical simulations are presented to show how much the maximum r value is worsened by increasing the data uncertainty. The corresponding confidence interval of r is determined by using the Fisher r→Z transform.

  20. Non-invasive determination of cardiac output by Doppler echocardiography and electrical bioimpedance.

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, D B; Findlay, I N; Wilson, J; Henderson, E; Dargie, H J

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac output measured by thermodilution in 25 patients within 24 hours of acute myocardial infarction was compared with cardiac output measured by Doppler echocardiography (24 patients) and electrical bioimpedance (25 patients). The mean (range) cardiac outputs measured by Doppler (4.03 (2.2-6.0) 1/min) and electrical bioimpedance (3.79 (1.1-6.2) 1/min) were similar to the mean thermodilution value (3.95 (2.1-6.2) 1/min). Both non-invasive techniques agreed closely with thermodilution in most patients. None the less, three results with each method disagreed with thermodilution by more than 1 1/min. Both non-invasive techniques were reproducible and accurate in most patients with acute myocardial infarction. Doppler echocardiography was time consuming and technically demanding. Electrical bioimpedance was simple to use and had the additional advantage of allowing continuous monitoring of the cardiac output. PMID:2317415

  1. On the use of The Bio-Impedance technique for Body Composition Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; González-Solís, J. L.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.

    2003-09-01

    Reviewing the methods and physical principles used in body composition measurements (BCM), it is evident that more accurate, reliable, and easily handled methods are required. The use of bio-impedance analysis (BIA) has been very useful in BCM. This technique, in the single frequency mode, has some commercial versions to perform BCM. However these apparatus have significant variability in the BCM values. The multi-frequency option of the bio-impedance technique has still a lot of challenges to overcome. We studied the variability of the body impedance spectrum (from 1 Hz to 1 MHz) in a group of subjects compared to the values obtained from commercial apparatus. We compared different anatomical body regions, some of them with less subcutaneous body fat (frontal, anterior tibial, knee, and frontal regions); others with more subcutaneous body fat (pectoral, abdominal, and internal calf regions). In order to model the bio-impedance spectrum, we analyzed layered samples with different thickness and material composition.

  2. Integrated cervical smear screening using liquid based cytology and bioimpedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Tandra; Maiti, Ashok K.; Naskar, Sukla; Das, Soumen; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To minimize the false negativity in cervical cancer screening with Papanicolaou (Pap) test, there is a need to explore novel cytological technique and identification of unique and important cellular features from the perspectives of morphological as well as biophysical properties. Materials and Methods: The present study explores the feasibility of low-cost cervical monolayer techniques in extracting cyto-pathological features to classify normal and abnormal conditions. The cervical cells were also analyzed in respect to their electrical bioimpedance. Result: The results show that newly developed monolayer technique for cervical smears is cost effective, capable of cyto-pathological evaluation. Electrical bioimpedance study evidenced distinction between abnormal and normal cell population at more than two order of magnitude difference. Conclusion: The integration of bioimpedance observation along with the proposed low-cost monolayer technology could increase the efficiency of the cervical screening to a greater extent thereby reducing the rates of faulty diagnosis. PMID:25745281

  3. Theoretical, observational, and isotopic estimates of the lifetime of the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, Frank A.; Cassen, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of isotopic data for meteorites which suggest that the protostellar nebula existed and was involved in making planetary materials for some 10(exp 7) yr or more. Many cosmochemists, however, advocate alternative interpretations of such data in order to comply with a perceived constraint, from theoretical considerations, that the nebula existed only for a much shorter time, usually stated as less than or equal to 10(exp 6) yr. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to solar nebula duration which is available through three different disciplines: theoretical modeling of star formation, isotopic data from meteorites, and astronomical observations of T Tauri stars. Theoretical models based on observations of present star-forming regions indicate that stars like the Sun form by dynamical gravitational collapse of dense cores of cold molcular clouds in the interstellar clouds in the interstellar medium. The collapse to a star and disk occurs rapidly, on a time scale of the order 10(exp 5) yr. Disks evolve by dissipating energy while redistributing angular momentum, but it is difficult to predict the rate of evolution, particularly for low mass (compared to the star) disks which nonetheless still contain enough material to account for the observed planetary system. There is no compelling evidence, from available theories of disk structure and evolution, that the solar nebula must have evolved rapidly and could not have persisted for more than 1 Ma. In considering chronoloically relevant isotopic data for meteorites, we focus on three methodologies: absolute ages by U-Pb/Pb-Pb, and relative ages by short-lived radionuclides (especially Al-26) and by evolution of Sr-87/Sr-86. Two kinds of meteoritic materials-refractory inclusions such as CAIs and differential meteorites (eucrites and augrites) -- appear to have experienced potentially dateable nebular events. In both cases, the most straightforward interpretations of the available data indicate

  4. Theoretical, observational, and isotopic estimates of the lifetime of the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, Frank A.; Cassen, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of isotopic data for meteorites which suggest that the protostellar nebula existed and was involved in making planetary materials for some 10(exp 7) yr or more. Many cosmochemists, however, advocate alternative interpretations of such data in order to comply with a perceived constraint, from theoretical considerations, that the nebula existed only for a much shorter time, usually stated as less than or = 10(exp 6) yr. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to solar nebula duration which is available through three different disciplines: theoretical modelling of star formation, isotopic data from meteorites, and astronomical observations of T Tauri stars. Theoretical models based on observations of present star-forming regions indicate that stars like the Sun form by dynamical gravitational collapse of dense cores of cold molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. The collapse to a star and disk occurs rapidly on a time scale of the order 10(exp 5) yr. Disks evolve by dissipating energy while redistributing angular momentum, but it is difficult to predict the rate of evolution, particularly for low mass (compared to the star) disks which nonetheless still contain enough material to account for the observed planetary system. There is no compelling evidence, from available theories of disk structure and evolution, that the solar nebula must have evolved rapidly and could not have persisted for more than 1 Ma. In considering chronologically relevant isotopic data for meteorites, we focus on three methodologies: absolute ages by U-Pb/Pb-Pb, and relative ages by short-lived radionuclides (especially Al-26) and by evolution of Sr-87/Sr-86. Two kinds of meteoritic materials-refractory inclusions such as CAIs and differentiated meteorites (eucrites and angrites) - appear to have experience potentially dateable nebular events. In both case, the most straightforward interpretations of the available data indicate nebular events spanning several Ma. We

  5. Theoretical, observational, and isotopic estimates of the lifetime of the solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podosek, Frank A.; Cassen, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of isotopic data for meteorites which suggest that the protostellar nebula existed and was involved in making planetary materials for some 107 yr or more. Many cosmochemists, however, advocate alternative interpretations of such data in order to comply with a perceived constraint, from theoretical considerations, that the nebula existed only for a much shorter time, usually stated as less than or = 106 yr. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to solar nebula duration which is available through three different disciplines: theoretical modelling of star formation, isotopic data from meteorites, and astronomical observations of T Tauri stars. Theoretical models based on observations of present star-forming regions indicate that stars like the Sun form by dynamical gravitational collapse of dense cores of cold molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. The collapse to a star and disk occurs rapidly on a time scale of the order 105 yr. Disks evolve by dissipating energy while redistributing angular momentum, but it is difficult to predict the rate of evolution, particularly for low mass (compared to the star) disks which nonetheless still contain enough material to account for the observed planetary system. There is no compelling evidence, from available theories of disk structure and evolution, that the solar nebula must have evolved rapidly and could not have persisted for more than 1 Ma. In considering chronologically relevant isotopic data for meteorites, we focus on three methodologies: absolute ages by U-Pb/Pb-Pb, and relative ages by short-lived radionuclides (especially Al-26) and by evolution of Sr-87/Sr-86. Two kinds of meteoritic materials-refractory inclusions such as CAIs and differentiated meteorites (eucrites and angrites) - appear to have experience potentially dateable nebular events. In both case, the most straightforward interpretations of the available data indicate nebular events spanning several Ma. We also consider

  6. Theoretical, observational, and isotopic estimates of the lifetime of the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, Frank A.; Cassen, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of isotopic data for meteorites which suggest that the protostellar nebula existed and was involved in making planetary materials for some 10(exp 7) yr or more. Many cosmochemists, however, advocate alternative interpretations of such data in order to comply with a perceived constraint, from theoretical considerations, that the nebula existed only for a much shorter time, usually stated as less than or equal to 10(exp 6) yr. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to solar nebula duration which is available through three different disciplines: theoretical modeling of star formation, isotopic data from meteorites, and astronomical observations of T Tauri stars. Theoretical models based on observations of present star-forming regions indicate that stars like the Sun form by dynamical gravitational collapse of dense cores of cold molcular clouds in the interstellar clouds in the interstellar medium. The collapse to a star and disk occurs rapidly, on a time scale of the order 10(exp 5) yr. Disks evolve by dissipating energy while redistributing angular momentum, but it is difficult to predict the rate of evolution, particularly for low mass (compared to the star) disks which nonetheless still contain enough material to account for the observed planetary system. There is no compelling evidence, from available theories of disk structure and evolution, that the solar nebula must have evolved rapidly and could not have persisted for more than 1 Ma. In considering chronoloically relevant isotopic data for meteorites, we focus on three methodologies: absolute ages by U-Pb/Pb-Pb, and relative ages by short-lived radionuclides (especially Al-26) and by evolution of Sr-87/Sr-86. Two kinds of meteoritic materials-refractory inclusions such as CAIs and differential meteorites (eucrites and augrites) -- appear to have experienced potentially dateable nebular events. In both cases, the most straightforward interpretations of the available data indicate

  7. Theoretical, observational, and isotopic estimates of the lifetime of the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, Frank A.; Cassen, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of isotopic data for meteorites which suggest that the protostellar nebula existed and was involved in making planetary materials for some 10(exp 7) yr or more. Many cosmochemists, however, advocate alternative interpretations of such data in order to comply with a perceived constraint, from theoretical considerations, that the nebula existed only for a much shorter time, usually stated as less than or = 10(exp 6) yr. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to solar nebula duration which is available through three different disciplines: theoretical modelling of star formation, isotopic data from meteorites, and astronomical observations of T Tauri stars. Theoretical models based on observations of present star-forming regions indicate that stars like the Sun form by dynamical gravitational collapse of dense cores of cold molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. The collapse to a star and disk occurs rapidly on a time scale of the order 10(exp 5) yr. Disks evolve by dissipating energy while redistributing angular momentum, but it is difficult to predict the rate of evolution, particularly for low mass (compared to the star) disks which nonetheless still contain enough material to account for the observed planetary system. There is no compelling evidence, from available theories of disk structure and evolution, that the solar nebula must have evolved rapidly and could not have persisted for more than 1 Ma. In considering chronologically relevant isotopic data for meteorites, we focus on three methodologies: absolute ages by U-Pb/Pb-Pb, and relative ages by short-lived radionuclides (especially Al-26) and by evolution of Sr-87/Sr-86. Two kinds of meteoritic materials-refractory inclusions such as CAIs and differentiated meteorites (eucrites and angrites) - appear to have experience potentially dateable nebular events. In both case, the most straightforward interpretations of the available data indicate nebular events spanning several Ma. We

  8. SU-E-J-188: Theoretical Estimation of Margin Necessary for Markerless Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R; Block, A; Harkenrider, M; Roeske, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the margin necessary to adequately cover the target using markerless motion tracking (MMT) of lung lesions given the uncertainty in tracking and the size of the target. Methods: Simulations were developed in Matlab to determine the effect of tumor size and tracking uncertainty on the margin necessary to achieve adequate coverage of the target. For simplicity, the lung tumor was approximated by a circle on a 2D radiograph. The tumor was varied in size from a diameter of 0.1 − 30 mm in increments of 0.1 mm. From our previous studies using dual energy markerless motion tracking, we estimated tracking uncertainties in x and y to have a standard deviation of 2 mm. A Gaussian was used to simulate the deviation between the tracked location and true target location. For each size tumor, 100,000 deviations were randomly generated, the margin necessary to achieve at least 95% coverage 95% of the time was recorded. Additional simulations were run for varying uncertainties to demonstrate the effect of the tracking accuracy on the margin size. Results: The simulations showed an inverse relationship between tumor size and margin necessary to achieve 95% coverage 95% of the time using the MMT technique. The margin decreased exponentially with target size. An increase in tracking accuracy expectedly showed a decrease in margin size as well. Conclusion: In our clinic a 5 mm expansion of the internal target volume (ITV) is used to define the planning target volume (PTV). These simulations show that for tracking accuracies in x and y better than 2 mm, the margin required is less than 5 mm. This simple simulation can provide physicians with a guideline estimation for the margin necessary for use of MMT clinically based on the accuracy of their tracking and the size of the tumor.

  9. Hierarchical Bayesian estimates of distributed MEG sources: theoretical aspects and comparison of variational and MCMC methods.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Aapo; Auranen, Toni; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Lampinen, Jouko; Sams, Mikko; Vehtari, Aki

    2007-04-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides millisecond-scale temporal resolution for noninvasive mapping of human brain functions, but the problem of reconstructing the underlying source currents from the extracranial data has no unique solution. Several distributed source estimation methods based on different prior assumptions have been suggested for the resolution of this inverse problem. Recently, a hierarchical Bayesian generalization of the traditional minimum norm estimate (MNE) was proposed, in which the variance of distributed current at each cortical location is considered as a random variable and estimated from the data using the variational Bayesian (VB) framework. Here, we introduce an alternative scheme for performing Bayesian inference in the context of this hierarchical model by using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategies. In principle, the MCMC method is capable of numerically representing the true posterior distribution of the currents whereas the VB approach is inherently approximative. We point out some potential problems related to hyperprior selection in the previous work and study some possible solutions. A hyperprior sensitivity analysis is then performed, and the structure of the posterior distribution as revealed by the MCMC method is investigated. We show that the structure of the true posterior is rather complex with multiple modes corresponding to different possible solutions to the source reconstruction problem. We compare the results from the VB algorithm to those obtained from the MCMC simulation under different hyperparameter settings. The difficulties in using a unimodal variational distribution as a proxy for a truly multimodal distribution are also discussed. Simulated MEG data with realistic sensor and source geometries are used in performing the analyses.

  10. Estimating Young's modulus of zona pellucida by micropipette aspiration in combination with theoretical models of ovum

    PubMed Central

    Khalilian, Morteza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

    2010-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is the spherical layer that surrounds the mammalian oocyte. The physical hardness of this layer plays a crucial role in fertilization and is largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate measuring and modelling methods. The aim of this study is to measure the biomechanical properties of the ZP of human/mouse ovum and to test the hypothesis that Young's modulus of the ZP varies with fertilization. Young's moduli of ZP are determined before and after fertilization by using the micropipette aspiration technique, coupled with theoretical models of the oocyte as an elastic incompressible half-space (half-space model), an elastic compressible bilayer (layered model) or an elastic compressible shell (shell model). Comparison of the models shows that incorporation of the layered geometry of the ovum and the compressibility of the ZP in the layered and shell models may provide a means of more accurately characterizing ZP elasticity. Evaluation of results shows that although the results of the models are different, all confirm that the hardening of ZP will increase following fertilization. As can be seen, different choices of models and experimental parameters can affect the interpretation of experimental data and lead to differing mechanical properties. PMID:19828504

  11. Theoretical estimation of punch velocities and displacements of single-punch and rotary tablet machines.

    PubMed

    Charlton, B; Newton, J M

    1984-10-01

    The speed of travel of punches during compaction by a Manesty F3 single punch and D3B Rotary punch tablet machine has been derived from machine dimensions, normal operating speeds and by consideration of the consolidation of a theoretical compact. The analysis may also be used for machines with other dimensions, operating at different speeds with other materials, but would require modification if the punch head design on the rotary machine differed significantly. Punch speeds at the beginning of the compression cycle were similar for the two types of machines, namely 10.36 and 10.24 cm s-1 for the single and rotary machines. The time to reach maximum compression and the total time of contact between punches and powder for the single punch machine was 0.1 s for a compaction force of approximately 40 KN. For the rotary machine operating at approximately the same force, these two parameters were found to be 0.052 and 0.083 s respectively. The additional contact time is associated with a period during which there is no vertical movement of the punch, providing a 'dwell' time of 0.0314 s when the powder is held at a constant volume.

  12. A theoretical estimate of intrinsic ellipticity bispectra induced by angular momenta alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2014-12-01

    Intrinsically aligned galaxy shapes are one of the most important systematics in cosmic shear measurements. So far, theoretical studies of intrinsic alignments almost exclusively focus on their statistics at the two-point level. Results from numerical simulations, however, suggest that third-order measures might be even stronger affected. We therefore investigate the (angular) bispectrum of intrinsic alignments. In our fully analytical study, we describe intrinsic galaxy ellipticities by a physical alignment model, which makes use of tidal torque theory. We derive expressions for the various combinations of intrinsic and gravitationally induced ellipticities, i.e. III-, GII- and GGI-alignments, and compare our results to the shear bispectrum, the GGG-term. The latter is computed using hyperextended perturbation theory. Considering equilateral and squeezed configurations, we find that for a Euclid-like survey intrinsic alignments (III-alignments) start to dominate on angular scales smaller than 20 and 13 arcmin, respectively. This sensitivity to the configuration-space geometry may allow us to exploit the cosmological information contained in both the intrinsic and gravitationally induced ellipticity field. On smallest scales (ℓ ˜ 3000), III-alignments exceed the lensing signal by at least one order of magnitude. The amplitude of the GGI-alignments is the weakest. It stays below that of the shear field on all angular scales irrespective of the wavevector configuration.

  13. Estimating Young's modulus of zona pellucida by micropipette aspiration in combination with theoretical models of ovum.

    PubMed

    Khalilian, Morteza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

    2010-04-06

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is the spherical layer that surrounds the mammalian oocyte. The physical hardness of this layer plays a crucial role in fertilization and is largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate measuring and modelling methods. The aim of this study is to measure the biomechanical properties of the ZP of human/mouse ovum and to test the hypothesis that Young's modulus of the ZP varies with fertilization. Young's moduli of ZP are determined before and after fertilization by using the micropipette aspiration technique, coupled with theoretical models of the oocyte as an elastic incompressible half-space (half-space model), an elastic compressible bilayer (layered model) or an elastic compressible shell (shell model). Comparison of the models shows that incorporation of the layered geometry of the ovum and the compressibility of the ZP in the layered and shell models may provide a means of more accurately characterizing ZP elasticity. Evaluation of results shows that although the results of the models are different, all confirm that the hardening of ZP will increase following fertilization. As can be seen, different choices of models and experimental parameters can affect the interpretation of experimental data and lead to differing mechanical properties.

  14. Theoretical Estimation of Thermal Effects in Drilling of Woven Carbon Fiber Composite.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Álvarez, José; Olmedo, Alvaro; Santiuste, Carlos; Miguélez, María Henar

    2014-06-12

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRPs) composites are extensively used in structural applications due to their attractive properties. Although the components are usually made near net shape, machining processes are needed to achieve dimensional tolerance and assembly requirements. Drilling is a common operation required for further mechanical joining of the components. CFRPs are vulnerable to processing induced damage; mainly delamination, fiber pull-out, and thermal degradation, drilling induced defects being one of the main causes of component rejection during manufacturing processes. Despite the importance of analyzing thermal phenomena involved in the machining of composites, only few authors have focused their attention on this problem, most of them using an experimental approach. The temperature at the workpiece could affect surface quality of the component and its measurement during processing is difficult. The estimation of the amount of heat generated during drilling is important; however, numerical modeling of drilling processes involves a high computational cost. This paper presents a combined approach to thermal analysis of composite drilling, using both an analytical estimation of heat generated during drilling and numerical modeling for heat propagation. Promising results for indirect detection of risk of thermal damage, through the measurement of thrust force and cutting torque, are obtained.

  15. Theoretical Estimation of Thermal Effects in Drilling of Woven Carbon Fiber Composite

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Álvarez, José; Olmedo, Alvaro; Santiuste, Carlos; Miguélez, María Henar

    2014-01-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRPs) composites are extensively used in structural applications due to their attractive properties. Although the components are usually made near net shape, machining processes are needed to achieve dimensional tolerance and assembly requirements. Drilling is a common operation required for further mechanical joining of the components. CFRPs are vulnerable to processing induced damage; mainly delamination, fiber pull-out, and thermal degradation, drilling induced defects being one of the main causes of component rejection during manufacturing processes. Despite the importance of analyzing thermal phenomena involved in the machining of composites, only few authors have focused their attention on this problem, most of them using an experimental approach. The temperature at the workpiece could affect surface quality of the component and its measurement during processing is difficult. The estimation of the amount of heat generated during drilling is important; however, numerical modeling of drilling processes involves a high computational cost. This paper presents a combined approach to thermal analysis of composite drilling, using both an analytical estimation of heat generated during drilling and numerical modeling for heat propagation. Promising results for indirect detection of risk of thermal damage, through the measurement of thrust force and cutting torque, are obtained. PMID:28788685

  16. Temperature mapping in bread dough using SE and GE two-point MRI methods: experimental and theoretical estimation of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Tiphaine; Musse, Maja; Bornert, Mélanie; Davenel, Armel; Quellec, Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D)-SE, 2D-GE and tri-dimensional (3D)-GE two-point T(1)-weighted MRI methods were evaluated in this study in order to maximize the accuracy of temperature mapping of bread dough during thermal processing. Uncertainties were propagated throughout each protocol of measurement, and comparisons demonstrated that all the methods with comparable acquisition times minimized the temperature uncertainty to similar extent. The experimental uncertainties obtained with low-field MRI were also compared to the theoretical estimations. Some discrepancies were reported between experimental and theoretical values of uncertainties of temperature; however, experimental and theoretical trends with varying parameters agreed to a large extent for both SE and GE methods. The 2D-SE method was chosen for further applications on prefermented dough because of its lower sensitivity to susceptibility differences in porous media. It was applied for temperature mapping in prefermented dough during chilling prior to freezing and compared locally to optical fiber measurements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mesh generation and computational modeling techniques for bioimpedance measurements: an example using the VHP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, A. A.; Salamatova, V. Yu; Vassilevski, Yu V.

    2012-12-01

    Here, a workflow for high-resolution efficient numerical modeling of bioimpedance measurements is suggested that includes 3D image segmentation, adaptive mesh generation, finite-element discretization, and the analysis of simulation results. Using the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral meshes enables to decrease significantly a number of mesh elements while keeping model accuracy. The numerical results illustrate current, potential, and sensitivity field distributions for a conventional Kubicek-like scheme of bioimpedance measurements using segmented geometric model of human torso based on Visible Human Project data. The whole body VHP man computational mesh is constructed that contains 574 thousand vertices and 3.3 million tetrahedrons.

  18. Bio-Impedance Characterization Technique with Implantable Neural Stimulator Using Biphasic Current Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Kai; Chang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Wentai

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the bio-impedance and its equivalent circuit model at the electrode-electrolyte/tissue interface is important in the application of functional electrical stimulation. Impedance can be used as a merit to evaluate the proximity between electrodes and targeted tissues. Understanding the equivalent circuit parameters of the electrode can further be leveraged to set a safe boundary for stimulus parameters in order not to exceed the water window of electrodes. In this paper, we present an impedance characterization technique and implement a proof-of-concept system using an implantable neural stimulator and an off-the-shelf microcontroller. The proposed technique yields the parameters of the equivalent circuit of an electrode through large signal analysis by injecting a single low-intensity biphasic current stimulus with deliberately inserted inter-pulse delay and by acquiring the transient electrode voltage at three well-specified timings. Using low-intensity stimulus allows the derivation of electrode double layer capacitance since capacitive charge-injection dominates when electrode overpotential is small. Insertion of the inter-pulse delay creates a controlled discharge time to estimate the Faradic resistance. The proposed method has been validated by measuring the impedance of a) an emulated Randles cells made of discrete circuit components and b) a custom-made platinum electrode array in-vitro, and comparing estimated parameters with the results derived from an impedance analyzer. The proposed technique can be integrated into implantable or commercial neural stimulator system at low extra power consumption, low extra-hardware cost, and light computation. PMID:25569999

  19. Bio-impedance characterization technique with implantable neural stimulator using biphasic current stimulus.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yi-Kai; Chang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Wentai

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the bio-impedance and its equivalent circuit model at the electrode-electrolyte/tissue interface is important in the application of functional electrical stimulation. Impedance can be used as a merit to evaluate the proximity between electrodes and targeted tissues. Understanding the equivalent circuit parameters of the electrode can further be leveraged to set a safe boundary for stimulus parameters in order not to exceed the water window of electrodes. In this paper, we present an impedance characterization technique and implement a proof-of-concept system using an implantable neural stimulator and an off-the-shelf microcontroller. The proposed technique yields the parameters of the equivalent circuit of an electrode through large signal analysis by injecting a single low-intensity biphasic current stimulus with deliberately inserted inter-pulse delay and by acquiring the transient electrode voltage at three well-specified timings. Using low-intensity stimulus allows the derivation of electrode double layer capacitance since capacitive charge-injection dominates when electrode overpotential is small. Insertion of the inter-pulse delay creates a controlled discharge time to estimate the Faradic resistance. The proposed method has been validated by measuring the impedance of a) an emulated Randles cells made of discrete circuit components and b) a custom-made platinum electrode array in-vitro, and comparing estimated parameters with the results derived from an impedance analyzer. The proposed technique can be integrated into implantable or commercial neural stimulator system at low extra power consumption, low extra-hardware cost, and light computation.

  20. Theoretical estimation and experimental studies on gas dissociation in TEA CO2 laser for long term arc free operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Biswas, A. K.; Bhargav, Pankaj; Reghu, T.; Sahu, Shashikiran; Pakhare, J. S.; Bhagat, M. S.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-11-01

    Gas dissociation in a high energy, high repetition rate Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser in both sealed-off and gas replenishment modes were studied for nitrogen lean gas mixture. A comprehensive theoretical model based on the Boltzmann transport equation and the discharge excitation circuit equations was adopted to calculate the amount of CO2 dissociated during a single discharge pulse. Theoretically it is shown that inclusion of superelastic collisions in the Boltzmann transport equation is necessary for precise estimation of dissociation per pulse, particularly at high discharge energy loadings and for nitrogen rich gas mixtures. Gas lifetime for repetitively pulsed operations was found experimentally by measuring the amount of CO formed when frequent arcing sets in under sealed off operation. Using this model, the optimum replenishment rate of CO2 either by gas purging and/or by catalytic regeneration needed for arc free long term operation of the laser was estimated. The measured saturation values of CO concentration in the laser chamber agreed well with the calculated values for various operating conditions. Arc free, long term repetitively pulsed operation of the laser was achieved in the gas replenishment mode with gas purging and/or catalytic regeneration.

  1. Theoretical estimate of the effect of thermal agitation on ribosome motion generated by stochastic microswimming.

    PubMed

    González-García, José S

    2016-11-04

    The effect of thermal agitation on ribosome motion is evaluated through the Péclet number, assuming that the ribosome is self-propelled along the mRNA during protein synthesis by a swimming stroke consisting of a cycle of stochastically-generated ribosome configurations involving its two subunits. The ribosome velocity probability distribution function is obtained, giving an approximately normal distribution. Its mean and variance together with an estimate of the in vivo free diffusion coefficient of the ribosome and using only configuration changes of small size, give a Péclet number similar to motor proteins and microorganisms. These results suggest the feasibility of the stochastic microswimming hypothesis to explain ribosome motion.

  2. Impact of a financial risk-sharing scheme on budget-impact estimations: a game-theoretic approach.

    PubMed

    Gavious, Arieh; Greenberg, Dan; Hammerman, Ariel; Segev, Ella

    2014-06-01

    As part of the process of updating the National List of Health Services in Israel, health plans (the 'payers') and manufacturers each provide estimates on the expected number of patients that will utilize a new drug. Currently, payers face major financial consequences when actual utilization is higher than the allocated budget. We suggest a risk-sharing model between the two stakeholders; if the actual number of patients exceeds the manufacturer's prediction, the manufacturer will reimburse the payers by a rebate rate of α from the deficit. In case of under-utilization, payers will refund the government at a rate of γ from the surplus budget. Our study objective was to identify the optimal early estimations of both 'players' prior to and after implementation of the risk-sharing scheme. Using a game-theoretic approach, in which both players' statements are considered simultaneously, we examined the impact of risk-sharing within a given range of rebate proportions, on players' early budget estimations. When increasing manufacturer's rebate α to be over 50 %, then manufacturers will announce a larger number, and health plans will announce a lower number of patients than they would without risk sharing, thus substantially decreasing the gap between their estimates. Increasing γ changes players' estimates only slightly. In reaction to applying a substantial risk-sharing rebate α on the manufacturer, both players are expected to adjust their budget estimates toward an optimal equilibrium. Increasing α is a better vehicle for reaching the desired equilibrium rather than increasing γ, as the manufacturer's rebate α substantially influences both players, whereas γ has little effect on the players behavior.

  3. Theoretical estimation of the radiative cooling rate in the Jovian troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuto; Hashimoto, George L.; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Onishi, Masanori; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    Jupiter exhibits characteristic cloud activities but their physical mechanism remains poorly understood. Recently, Sugiyama et al. (2014) demonstrated that the Jovian cloud convection may have a significant intermittency in the generation of cumulonimbus clouds with the typical interval length controlled by the radiative cooling rate in the upper troposphere. In spite of such importance as a controlling factor of cloud activity, the tropospheric radiative cooling rate profile has never been systematically quantified for the Jovian system. In the Jovian troposphere, condensable species (NH3, H2S, H2O) and their condensates might significantly contribute to radiative transfer.Here we show numerical estimates of radiative cooling rate profile under Jovian troposphere condition by using our non-gray radiative transfer model that contains optical properties of gas species (H2, He, H2O, CH4, NH3, H2S, and PH3) and cloud layers made of H2O, NH4SH, and NH3 ice particles. The temperature profile is determined by the radiative-convective equilibrium state satisfying an observed potential temperature of Jovian troposphere. The mean vertical distributions of gas and cloud are given on the basis of the latest hydrodynamic simulation of Jovian cloud convection (Sugiyama et al., 2014) and cosmochemical consideration.The modeled atmosphere has the tropopause at ~0.38 bar level. The radiative cooling rate reaches the maximum 15 x 10-3 K/Jovian day at ~0.5 bar level, then decreases with depth and approaches zero below 5 bar level. This profile is largely determined by the thermal absorption and emission due to gaseous NH3 and H2 with a slight modification by solar heating due to CH4. The cloud layers are found to have only a weak effect on either radiative cooling or heating because their opacities in the longwave radiation are estimated to be very small, which agrees with the observed 5-micron spectrum with high brightness temperatures. The uncertainty in H2O abundance in deep

  4. Alternate electrode placement for whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grisbrook, T L; Kenworthy, P; Phillips, M; Gittings, P M; Wood, F M; Edgar, D W

    2015-10-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is frequently used to monitor body fluid and body composition in healthy and clinical populations. BIS guidelines state that there should be no skin lesions at the site of electrodes, and if lesions are present, electrode positions should be changed. However, alternate electrode positions are yet to be reported. This study aimed to determine if ventral electrode placements were suitable alternatives for whole body and segmental BIS measurements. Three alternate electrode placements were assessed for whole body BIS using a combination of ventral hand and foot electrode placements. An alternate position was assessed for upper and lower body segmental BIS. The results demonstrated that for whole body BIS, if drive and sense electrodes on the hand are moved to ventral positions, but foot electrodes remain in standard positions, then whole body BIS variables were comparable to standard electrode positioning (percentage difference range  =  0.01 to 1.65%, p  =  0.211-0.937). The alternate electrode placement for upper limb segmental BIS, results in BIS variables that are comparable to that of the standard positioning (percentage difference range  =  0.24-3.51%, p  =  0.393-0.604). The alternate lower limb electrode position significantly altered all resistance and predicted BIS variables for whole body and lower limb segmental BIS (percentage difference range  =  1.06-12.09%, p  <  0.001). If wounds are present on the hands and/or wrist, then the alternate electrode position described in this study is valid, for whole body and upper limb segmental BIS.

  5. In vivo characterization of ischemic small intestine using bioimpedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Strand-Amundsen, R J; Tronstad, C; Kalvøy, H; Gundersen, Y; Krohn, C D; Aasen, A O; Holhjem, L; Reims, H M; Martinsen, Ø G; Høgetveit, J O; Ruud, T E; Tønnessen, T I

    2016-02-01

    The standard clinical method for the assessment of viability in ischemic small intestine is still visual inspection and palpation. This method is non-specific and unreliable, and requires a high level of clinical experience. Consequently, viable tissue might be removed, or irreversibly damaged tissue might be left in the body, which may both slow down patient recovery. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to measure changes in electrical parameters during ischemia in various tissues. The physical changes in the tissue at the cellular and structural levels after the onset of ischemia lead to time-variant changes in the electrical properties. We aimed to investigate the use of bioimpedance measurement to assess if the tissue is ischemic, and to assess the ischemic time duration. Measurements were performed on pigs (n = 7) using a novel two-electrode setup, with a Solartron 1260/1294 impedance gain-phase analyser. After induction of anaesthesia, an ischemic model with warm, full mesenteric arterial and venous occlusion on 30 cm of the jejunum was implemented. Electrodes were placed on the serosal surface of the ischemic jejunum, applying a constant voltage, and measuring the resulting electrical admittance. As a control, measurements were done on a fully perfused part of the jejunum in the same porcine model. The changes in tan δ (dielectric parameter), measured within a 6 h period of warm, full mesenteric occlusion ischemia in seven pigs, correlates with the onset and duration of ischemia. Tan δ measured in the ischemic part of the jejunum differed significantly from the control tissue, allowing us to determine if the tissue was ischemic or not (P < 0.0001, F = (1,75.13) 188.19). We also found that we could use tan δ to predict ischemic duration. This opens up the possibility of real-time monitoring and assessment of the presence and duration of small intestinal ischemia.

  6. Bioimpedance for oedema evaluation after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Pichonnaz, Claude; Bassin, Jean-Philippe; Currat, Damien; Martin, Estelle; Jolles, Brigitte M

    2013-09-01

    Electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) allows the evaluation of limb extracellular fluid (R0) and total fluid (Rinf). BIS could facilitate post-surgical oedema evaluation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), as it is easily performed and is non-invasive. However, neither its applicability in this context nor the influence of metallic implants on measurement has been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TKA implants on the BIS R0 and Rinf variables used for oedema evaluation. This was a prospective non-randomized comparative clinical trial. One oedema-free group of patients with TKA was compared with a group presenting similar characteristics except for the arthroplasty, to assess the influence of the implant on BIS measurement in the absence of oedema. The TKA group included 15 patients who had undergone surgery more than a year previously, and the control group included 19 patients awaiting TKA surgery. Volume and perimeter measurements served as reference criterions. The lower limb percentage differences for BIS, knee perimeter and volume were calculated. The significance of differences between groups was calculated for all measurement methods, using the Mann-Whitney test. The setting was a Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology in a university hospital. The differences between groups were not significant for R0, Rinf, volume and perimeter. R0 showed the smallest mean difference in limb percentage difference between groups [means (SD): TKA 3.98 (8.09), controls 3.97 (5.16)]. The lower-leg percentage difference in the TKA group is comparable with that of healthy subjects. R0 can be used for oedema evaluation following TKA surgery, as there was no sign of alteration from the metallic implant. These findings indicate the potential for early oedema evaluation after TKA. More research is warranted to extensively validate the application of BIS for oedema evaluation after TKA. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    PubMed Central

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repeatability for the BIA method was established from duplicate measurements. Body composition was then determined by BIA in 1139 girls and 1243 boys aged 7-16 years, who were randomly sampled in eight local primary and secondary schools to establish reference ranges.
RESULTS—The 95% limits of agreement between BIA and DXA methods were considered acceptable (−3.3 kg to −0.5 kg fat mass and −3.9 to 0.6% body fat). The percentage body fat increased with increasing age. Compared to the 1993 Hong Kong growth survey, these children had higher body mass index. Mean (SD) percentage body fat at 7years of age was 17.2% (4.4%) and 14.0% (3.4%) respectively for boys and girls, which increased to 19.3% (4.8%) and 27.8% (6.3%) at age 16.
CONCLUSION—Leg to leg BIA is a valid alternative method to DXA for the measurement of body fat. Provisional reference ranges for percentage body fat for Hong Kong Chinese children aged 7-16 years are provided.

 PMID:11517118

  8. Why Earth-like Plate-Recycling Cannot Operate on Venus at Present: A Theoretical Estimation of Trench Pull and Ridge Push

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, J. J.; Firneis, M. G.

    2005-03-01

    The theoretical power of trench pull and ridge push forces on Venus has been estimated from a 2D model and resulted in an explanation for the lack of recent plate-recycling processes during the last 500 million years.

  9. On differences in radiosensitivity estimation: TCP experiments versus survival curves. A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadejda; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Nahum, Alan

    2015-08-01

    We have compared two methods of estimating the cellular radiosensitivity of a heterogeneous tumour, namely, via cell-survival and via tumour control probability (TCP) pseudo-experiments. It is assumed that there exists intra-tumour variability in radiosensitivity and that the tumour consists predominantly of radiosensitive cells and a small number of radio-resistant cells. Using a multi-component, linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell kill, a pseudo-experimental cell-survival versus dose curve is derived. This curve is then fitted with a mono-component LQ model describing the response of a homogeneous cell population. For the assumed variation in radiosensitivity it is shown that the composite pseudo-experimental survival curve is well approximated by the survival curve of cells with uniform radiosensitivity. For the same initial cell radiosensitivity distribution several pseudo-experimental TCP curves are simulated corresponding to different fractionation regimes. The TCP model used accounts for clonogen proliferation during a fractionated treatment. The set of simulated TCP curves is then fitted with a mono-component TCP model. As in the cell survival experiment the fit with a mono-component model assuming uniform radiosensitivity is shown to be highly acceptable. However, the best-fit values of cellular radiosensitivity produced via the two methods are very different. The cell-survival pseudo-experiment yields a high radiosensitivity value, while the TCP pseudo-experiment shows that the dose-response is dominated by the most resistant sub-population in the tumour, even when this is just a small fraction of the total.

  10. On differences in radiosensitivity estimation: TCP experiments versus survival curves. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadejda; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Nahum, Alan

    2015-08-07

    We have compared two methods of estimating the cellular radiosensitivity of a heterogeneous tumour, namely, via cell-survival and via tumour control probability (TCP) pseudo-experiments. It is assumed that there exists intra-tumour variability in radiosensitivity and that the tumour consists predominantly of radiosensitive cells and a small number of radio-resistant cells.Using a multi-component, linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell kill, a pseudo-experimental cell-survival versus dose curve is derived. This curve is then fitted with a mono-component LQ model describing the response of a homogeneous cell population. For the assumed variation in radiosensitivity it is shown that the composite pseudo-experimental survival curve is well approximated by the survival curve of cells with uniform radiosensitivity.For the same initial cell radiosensitivity distribution several pseudo-experimental TCP curves are simulated corresponding to different fractionation regimes. The TCP model used accounts for clonogen proliferation during a fractionated treatment. The set of simulated TCP curves is then fitted with a mono-component TCP model. As in the cell survival experiment the fit with a mono-component model assuming uniform radiosensitivity is shown to be highly acceptable.However, the best-fit values of cellular radiosensitivity produced via the two methods are very different. The cell-survival pseudo-experiment yields a high radiosensitivity value, while the TCP pseudo-experiment shows that the dose-response is dominated by the most resistant sub-population in the tumour, even when this is just a small fraction of the total.

  11. Experimental and Theoretical Estimation of Excited Species Generation in Pulsed Electron Beam-Generated Plasmas Produced in Pure Argon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Their Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-13

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6750--11-9333 Experimental and Theoretical Estimation of Excited Species Generation in ...Pulsed Electron Beam–Generated Plasmas Produced in Pure Argon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Their Mixtures May 13, 2011 Approved for public release...PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Experimental and Theoretical Estimation of Excited Species Generation in Pulsed Electron Beam

  12. Theoretical Model and Experimental Validation of the estimated proportions of common and independent input to motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Castronovo, A Margherita; Negro, Francesco; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Motor neurons in the spinal cord receive synaptic input that comprises common and independent components. The part of synaptic input that is common to all motor neurons is the one regulating the production of force. Therefore, its quantification is important to assess the strategy used by Central Nervous System (CNS) to control and regulate movements, especially in physiological conditions such as fatigue. In this study we present and validate a method to estimate the ratio between strengths of common and independent inputs to motor neurons and we apply this method to investigate its changes during fatigue. By means of coherence analysis we estimated the level of correlation between motor unit spike trains at the beginning and at the end of fatiguing contractions of the Tibialis Anterior muscle at three different force targets. Combining theoretical modeling and experimental data we estimated the strength of the common synaptic input with respect to the independent one. We observed a consistent increase in the proportion of the shared input to motor neurons during fatigue. This may be interpreted as a strategy used by the CNS to counteract the occurrence of fatigue and the concurrent decrease of generated force.

  13. Theoretical model for diffusive greenhouse gas fluxes estimation across water-air interfaces measured with the static floating chamber method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shangbin; Wang, Chenghao; Wilkinson, Richard Jeremy; Liu, Defu; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Wennian; Yang, Zhengjian; Wang, Yuchun; Lei, Dan

    2016-07-01

    Aquatic systems are sources of greenhouse gases on different scales, however the uncertainty of gas fluxes estimated using popular methods are not well defined. Here we show that greenhouse gas fluxes across the air-water interface of seas and inland waters are significantly underestimated by the currently used static floating chamber (SFC) method. We found that the SFC CH4 flux calculated with the popular linear regression (LR) on changes of gas concentration over time only accounts for 54.75% and 35.77% of the corresponding real gas flux when the monitoring periods are 30 and 60 min respectively based on the theoretical model and experimental measurements. Our results do manifest that nonlinear regression models can improve gas flux estimations, while the exponential regression (ER) model can give the best estimations which are close to true values when compared to LR. However, the quadratic regression model is proved to be inappropriate for long time measurements and those aquatic systems with high gas emission rate. The greenhouse gases effluxes emitted from aquatic systems may be much more than those reported previously, and models on future scenarios of global climate changes should be adjusted accordingly.

  14. Effects of Ventilation on Segmental Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Measures Using Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, A. Allan; Lozano-Nieto, Albert; Bouffard, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of three ventilation conditions (i.e., normal, regimented, and no-ventilation) on the reproducibility of bioimpedance scores in humans for the forearm and trunk segments. One hundred able-bodied North American men and women, from 18 to 71 years of age, volunteered as participants. The…

  15. Effects of Ventilation on Segmental Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Measures Using Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, A. Allan; Lozano-Nieto, Albert; Bouffard, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of three ventilation conditions (i.e., normal, regimented, and no-ventilation) on the reproducibility of bioimpedance scores in humans for the forearm and trunk segments. One hundred able-bodied North American men and women, from 18 to 71 years of age, volunteered as participants. The…

  16. New production in the equatorial Pacific: a comparison of field data with estimates derived from empirical and theoretical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Edward A.

    2004-02-01

    Measurements of new production based on uptake of 15N-labeled nitrate in the equatorial Pacific are compared with estimates derived from empirical and theoretical models. Average f-ratios and new production are predicted to within 10-20% by a theoretical steady-state model in which temperature and primary production are the independent variables that determine new production. Examination of the results reveals that the theoretical model gives a very accurate representation of the pattern in new production at primary production rates below ˜60-70 mmol C m -2 d -1 but systematically underestimates new production at higher primary production rates. The discrepancy between measured and predicted new production rates is significantly ( p<0.005) correlated with mean euphotic zone nitrate concentrations and drops to zero at nitrate concentrations less than 3 μM. A likely explanation for the bias is the imbalance between primary production and herbivore grazing that occurs in recently upwelled water. This imbalance cannot be taken into account in a steady-state model. At nitrate concentrations less than 3 μM, the new production characteristics of the system closely resemble those predicted by the steady-state model. An empirical model, based on data collected prior to 1979, significantly overestimates new production in the equatorial Pacific at primary production rates above roughly 20 mmol C m -2 d -1. Likely causes of the bias in the empirical model are the need to take temperature effects into account and artifacts in rate measurements made prior to the widespread acceptance of the need to use clean sampling and incubation techniques.

  17. A theoretical model to estimate the oil burial depth on sandy beaches: A new oil spill management tool.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, Ana M; Fernández-Fernández, Sandra; Rey, Daniel

    2016-08-15

    In oiled sandy beaches, unrecovered fuel can be buried up to several metres. This study proposes a theoretical approach to oil burial estimation along the intertidal area. First, our results revealed the existence of two main patterns in seasonal beach profile behaviour. Type A is characterized by intertidal slopes of time-constant steepness which advance/recede parallel to themselves in response to changing wave conditions. Type B is characterized by slopes of time-varying steepness which intersect at a given point in the intertidal area. This finding has a direct influence on the definition of oil depth. Type A pattern exhibits oil burial along the entire intertidal area following decreasing wave energy, while the type B pattern combines burial in high intertidal and exhumation in mid and/or low intertidal zones, depending on the position of the intersection point. These outcomes should be incorporated as key tools in future oil spill management programs.

  18. A Thorax Simulator for Complex Dynamic Bioimpedance Measurements With Textile Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Mark; Muhlsteff, Jens; Teichmann, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian

    2015-06-01

    Bioimpedance measurements on the human thorax are suitable for assessment of body composition or hemodynamic parameters, such as stroke volume; they are non-invasive, easy in application and inexpensive. When targeting personal healthcare scenarios, the technology can be integrated into textiles to increase ease, comfort and coverage of measurements. Bioimpedance is generally measured using two electrodes injecting low alternating currents (0.5-10 mA) and two additional electrodes to measure the corresponding voltage drop. The impedance is measured either spectroscopically (bioimpedance spectroscopy, BIS) between 5 kHz and 1 MHz or continuously at a fixed frequency around 100 kHz (impedance cardiography, ICG). A thorax simulator is being developed for testing and calibration of bioimpedance devices and other new developments. For the first time, it is possible to mimic the complete time-variant properties of the thorax during an impedance measurement. This includes the dynamic real part and dynamic imaginary part of the impedance with a peak-to-peak value of 0.2 Ω and an adjustable base impedance (24.6 Ω ≥ Z0 ≥ 51.6 Ω). Another novelty is adjustable complex electrode-skin contact impedances for up to 8 electrodes to evaluate bioimpedance devices in combination with textile electrodes. In addition, an electrocardiographic signal is provided for cardiographic measurements which is used in ICG devices. This provides the possibility to generate physiologic impedance changes, and in combination with an ECG, all parameters of interest such as stroke volume (SV), pre-ejection period (PEP) or extracellular resistance (Re) can be simulated. The speed of all dynamic signals can be altered. The simulator was successfully tested with commercially available BIS and ICG devices and the preset signals are measured with high correlation (r = 0.996).

  19. Body composition in dialysis patients: a functional assessment of bioimpedance using different prediction models.

    PubMed

    Broers, Natascha J H; Martens, Remy J H; Cornelis, Tom; Diederen, Nanda M P; Wabel, Peter; van der Sande, Frank M; Leunissen, Karel M L; Kooman, Jeroen P

    2015-03-01

    The assessment of body composition (BC) in dialysis patients is of clinical importance given its role in the diagnosis of malnutrition and sarcopenia. Bioimpedance techniques routinely express BC as a 2-compartment (2-C) model distinguishing fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM), which may be influenced by the hydration of adipose tissue and fluid overload (OH). Recently, the BC monitor was introduced which applies a 3-compartment (3-C) model, distinguishing OH, adipose tissue mass, and lean tissue mass. The aim of this study was to compare BC between the 2-C and 3-C models and assess their relation with markers of functional performance (handgrip strength [HGS] and 4-m walking test), as well as with biochemical markers of nutrition. Forty-seven dialysis patients (30 males and 17 females) (35 hemodialysis, 12 peritoneal dialysis) with a mean age of 64.8 ± 16.5 years were studied. 3-C BC was assessed by BC monitor, whereas the obtained resistivity values were used to calculate FM and FFM according to the Xitron Hydra 4200 formulas, which are based on a 2-C model. FFM (3-C) was 0.99 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 1.71, P = .008) higher than FFM (2-C). FM (3-C) was 2.43 kg (95% CI, 1.70-3.15, P < .001) lower than FM (2-C). OH was 1.4 ± 1.8 L. OH correlated significantly with ΔFFM (FFM 3-C - FFM 2-C) (r = 0.361; P < .05) and ΔFM (FM 3-C - FM 2-C) (r = 0.387; P = .009). HGS correlated significantly with FFM (2-C) (r = 0.713; P < .001), FFM (3-C) (r = 0.711; P < .001), body cell mass (2-C) (r = 0.733; P < .001), and body cell mass (3-C) (r = 0.767; P < .001). Both physical activity (r = 0.456; P = .004) and HGS (r = 0.488; P = .002), but not BC, were significantly related to walking speed. Significant differences between 2-C and 3-C models were observed, which are partly explained by the presence of OH. OH, which was related to ΔFFM and ΔFM of the 2-C and 3-C models, is therefore an important parameter for the differences in estimation of BC parameters

  20. A game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchaser's willingness-to-pay for health and for expansion.

    PubMed

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Roberts, Stephen D

    2010-12-01

    A health purchaser's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for health is defined as the amount of money the health purchaser (e.g. a health maximizing public agency or a profit maximizing health insurer) is willing to spend for an additional unit of health. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchaser's WTP for health in markets where the health purchaser offers a menu of medical interventions, and each individual in the population selects the intervention that maximizes her prospect. We discuss how the WTP for health can be employed to determine medical guidelines, and to price new medical technologies, such that the health purchaser is willing to implement them. The framework further introduces a measure for WTP for expansion, defined as the amount of money the health purchaser is willing to pay per person in the population served by the health provider to increase the consumption level of the intervention by one percent without changing the intervention price. This measure can be employed to find how much to invest in expanding a medical program through opening new facilities, advertising, etc. Applying the proposed framework to colorectal cancer screening tests, we estimate the WTP for health and the WTP for expansion of colorectal cancer screening tests for the 2005 US population.

  1. Prediction of fatness by standing 8-electrode bioimpedance: a multiethnic adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, John D; Schaaf, David; Scragg, Robert K R; Plank, Lindsay D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an 8-electrode bioimpedance analysis (BIA(8)) device (BC-418; Tanita, Tokyo, Japan) for use in populations of European, Maori, Pacific Island, and Asian adolescents. Healthy adolescents (215 M, 216 F; 129 Pacific Island, 120 Asian, 91 Maori, and 91 European; age range 12-19 years) were recruited by purposive sampling of high schools in Auckland, New Zealand. Weight, height, sitting height, leg length, waist circumference, and whole-body impedance were measured. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) derived from the BIA(8) manufacturer's equations were compared with measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). DXA-measured FFM was used as the reference to develop prediction equations based on impedance. A double cross-validation technique was applied. BIA(8) underestimated FM by 2.06 kg (P < 0.0001) and percent body fat (%BF) by 2.84% (P < 0.0001), on average. However, BIA(8) tended to overestimate FM and %BF in lean and underestimate FM and %BF in fat individuals. Sex-specific equations developed showed acceptable accuracy on cross-validation. In the total sample, the best prediction equations were, for boys: FFM (kg) = 0.607 height (cm)(2)/impedance ( ohm) + 1.542 age (y) + 0.220 height (cm) + 0.096 weight (kg) + 1.836 ethnicity (0 = European or Asian, 1 = Maori or Pacific) - 47.547, R(2) = 0.93, standard error of estimate (SEE) = 3.09 kg; and, for girls: FFM (kg) = 0.531 height (cm)(2)/impedance ( ohm) + 0.182 height (cm) + 0.096 weight (kg) + 1.562 ethnicity (0 = non-Pacific, 1 = Pacific) - 15.782, R(2) = 0.91, SEE = 2.19 kg. In conclusion, equations for fatness estimation using BIA(8) developed for our sample perform better than reliance on the manufacturer's estimates. The relationship between BIA and body composition in adolescents is ethnicity dependent.

  2. [Whole body versus segmental bioimpedance measurements (BIS) of electrical resistance (Re) and extracellular volume (ECV) for assessment of dry weight in end-stage renal patients treated by hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Załuska, Wojciech; Małecka, Teresa; Mozul, Sławomir; Ksiazek, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The precise estimation of the hydration status of the human body has a great meaning in the assessment of dry weight in end-stage renal disease patients treated by hemodialysis. The bioimpedance technique (BIS) is postulated as easy in use and as a non-invasive method in monitoring the size of hydrate space such as total body water (TBW) and extracellular volume (ECV). However, the precision of the method (Whole Body Bioimpedance Technique) has been questioned in several research papers. One of the problems lies in fluid transfer from peripheral spaces (limbs) to the central space (trunk) while changing the position of the body (orthostatic effect). This phenomena can be eliminated using segmental bioimpedance technique (4200 Hydra, Analyzer, Xitron, San Diego, CA, U.S.A.). The purpose of the study was to estimate the changes of electrical resistance (Re) the extracellular volume (ECV) at the time -pre, and -post 10 hemodialysis sessions using whole body bioimpedance technique (WBIS) in comparison to BIS measurements in specific segments of the body; arm (ECVarm), leg (ECVleg), trunk (ECVtrunk). The sum of changes in extracellular volume (ECV) in segments (2ECVarm+ ECVtrunk + 2ECVleg) was 13.26 +/- 1.861 L in comparison to 17.29 +/- 2.07 L (p < 0.01) as measured by WBIS technique at the time before HD. The changes in electrical resistance Re was of 558 +/- 68 W as calculated from the sum of segments versus 560 +/- 70 W (p < 0.05) as measured by WBIS. At the time after hemodialysis the sum of segmental ECV volume measurement was of 11.42 +/- 1.28 L in comparison to 14.84 +/- 1.31 (p < 0.001) from WBIS the whole body technique (WBIS) and changes in electrical resistance Re was of 674 +/- 67 W as calculated from the sum of segments versus 677 +/- 64 (p < 0.05) W respectively. The observed difference between the identical electrical resistance Re as measured by WBIS in comparison to the sum of segment measurements and important difference between ECV volume as measured

  3. THEORETICAL ESTIMATES OF STELLAR e {sup -} CAPTURES. I. THE HALF-LIFE OF {sup 7}Be IN EVOLVED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Simonucci, S.; Taioli, S.; Busso, M.; Palmerini, S. E-mail: taioli@fbk.eu

    2013-02-20

    The enrichment of Li in the universe is still unexplained, presenting various puzzles to astrophysics. One open issue is that of obtaining reliable estimates for the rate of e {sup -} captures on {sup 7}Be for T and {rho} conditions that are different from the solar ones. This is of crucial importance for modeling the Galactic nucleosynthesis of Li. In this framework, we present here a new theoretical method for calculating the e {sup -} capture rate in typical conditions for evolved stars. Furthermore, we show how our approach compares with state-of-the-art techniques for solar conditions, where various estimates are available. Our computations include (1) 'traditional' calculations of the electronic density at the nucleus, to which the e {sup -} capture rate for {sup 7}Be is proportional, for different theoretical approaches including the Thomas-Fermi, Poisson-Boltzmann, and Debye-Hueckel (DH) models of screening; and (2) a new computation, based on a formalism that goes beyond the previous ones, adopting a mean-field 'adiabatic' approximation to the scattering process. The results obtained with the new approach as well as with traditional ones and their differences are discussed in some detail, starting from solar conditions, where our approach and the DH model essentially converge to the same solution. We then analyze the applicability of both our method and the DH model to a rather broad range of T and {rho} values, embracing those typical of red giant stars, where both bound and continuum states contribute to the capture. We find that over a wide region of the parameter space explored, the DH approximation does not really stand, so that the more general method we suggest should be preferred. As a first application, we briefly reanalyze the {sup 7}Li abundances in red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch stars of the Galactic disk in light of a revision in the Be decay only; however, we emphasize that the changes we find in the electron density at the

  4. Mass balance approaches for estimating the intestinal absorption and metabolism of peptides and analogues: theoretical development and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinko, P. J.; Leesman, G. D.; Amidon, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical analysis for estimating the extent of intestinal peptide and peptide analogue absorption was developed on the basis of a mass balance approach that incorporates convection, permeability, and reaction. The macroscopic mass balance analysis (MMBA) was extended to include chemical and enzymatic degradation. A microscopic mass balance analysis, a numerical approach, was also developed and the results compared to the MMBA. The mass balance equations for the fraction of a drug absorbed and reacted in the tube were derived from the general steady state mass balance in a tube: [formula: see text] where M is mass, z is the length of the tube, R is the tube radius, Pw is the intestinal wall permeability, kr is the reaction rate constant, C is the concentration of drug in the volume element over which the mass balance is taken, VL is the volume of the tube, and vz is the axial velocity of drug. The theory was first applied to the oral absorption of two tripeptide analogues, cefaclor (CCL) and cefatrizine (CZN), which degrade and dimerize in the intestine. Simulations using the mass balance equations, the experimental absorption parameters, and the literature stability rate constants yielded a mean estimated extent of CCL (250-mg dose) and CZN (1000-mg dose) absorption of 89 and 51%, respectively, which was similar to the mean extent of absorption reported in humans (90 and 50%). It was proposed previously that 15% of the CCL dose spontaneously degraded systematically; however, our simulations suggest that significant CCL degradation occurs (8 to 17%) presystemically in the intestinal lumen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    Ganot, Noam; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; Sagiv, Ilan; Waxman, Eli; Lapid, Ofer; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Chelouche, Doron; Rafter, Stephen; Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari; Poznanski, Dovi; Nakar, Ehud; Maoz, Dan; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Neill, James D.; Barlow, Thomas A.; Martin, Christofer D.; Collaboration: ULTRASAT Science Team; WTTH consortium; GALEX Science Team; Palomar Transient Factory; and others

    2016-03-20

    The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early ultraviolet (UV) emission from SNe. Six SNe II and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX near-UV (NUV) data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R{sub ⊙}, explosion energies of 10{sup 51} erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M{sub ⊙}. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf–Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition, and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (<1 day after explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission is expected to find >85 SNe per year (∼0.5 SN per deg{sup 2}), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5 mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.

  6. The Detection Rate of Early UV Emission from Supernovae: A Dedicated Galex/PTF Survey and Calibrated Theoretical Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganot, Noam; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran. O.; Sagiv, Ilan; Waxman, Eli; Lapid, Ofer; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; The ULTRASAT Science Team; Chelouche, Doron; Rafter, Stephen; Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari; Poznanski, Dovi; Nakar, Ehud; Maoz, Dan; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; WTTH Consortium, The; Neill, James D.; Barlow, Thomas A.; Martin, Christofer D.; Gezari, Suvi; the GALEX Science Team; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua S.; Nugent, Peter E.; Sullivan, Mark; Palomar Transient Factory, The

    2016-03-01

    The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early ultraviolet (UV) emission from SNe. Six SNe II and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX near-UV (NUV) data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R ⊙, explosion energies of 1051 erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M ⊙. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf-Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition, and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (<1 day after explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission is expected to find >85 SNe per year (˜0.5 SN per deg2), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5 mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.

  7. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Franciane Rocha; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Barbosa Júnior, Djalma Adão; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1) and overweight group (G2). The percentage of body fat (% BF) was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.001), insulin, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5) was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5) and (9) was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5) was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:23762051

  8. Landfill mining: Development of a theoretical method for a preliminary estimate of the raw material potential of landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Nispel, Jörg; Sarc, Renato; Aldrian, Alexia; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Pomberger, Roland; Budischowsky, Andreas; Ragossnig, Arne

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the rising need for raw materials by emerging economies (e.g. China) has led to a change in the availability of certain primary raw materials, such as ores or coal. The accompanying rising demand for secondary raw materials as possible substitutes for primary resources, the soaring prices and the global lack of specific (e.g. metallic) raw materials pique the interest of science and economy to consider landfills as possible secondary sources of raw materials. These sites often contain substantial amounts of materials that can be potentially utilised materially or energetically. To investigate the raw material potential of a landfill, boreholes and excavations, as well as subsequent hand sorting have proven quite successful. These procedures, however, are expensive and time consuming as they frequently require extensive construction measures on the landfill body or waste mass. For this reason, this article introduces a newly developed, affordable, theoretical method for the estimation of landfill contents. The article summarises the individual calculation steps of the method and demonstrates this using the example of a selected Austrian sanitary landfill. To assess the practicality and plausibility, the mathematically determined raw material potential is compared with the actual results from experimental studies of excavated waste from the same landfill (actual raw material potential). © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Theoretical estimation of the vibrational temperatures of N2 molecules in the ionosphere and in the laboratory simulated plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpuri, K. S.; Oyama, K.-I.

    1991-06-01

    The vibrational temperature of excited nitrogen molecules (N2) are estimated theoretically for the case of ionosphere as well as for the lab simulated plasma, considering the various chemical reactions leading to the production and loss of N2 molecules. It was found that even in the case when quenching of the excited molecules by O and CO2 is considered, the vibrational temperature, T sub v, is higher than the neutral temperature, T sub n, below about 105 km but the difference decreases and about 120 km, the value of T sub v is less than T sub n. However, for no quenching case, the vibrational temperature can be as high as 1600 K at 150 km. The vibrational temperature for the lab simulated plasma on the other hand was found to be high (1500 K or more), the absolute value being dependent upon the concentration of O2 in the gas mixture taken and the intensity of UV light used for excitation of nitrogen molecules.

  10. Volume estimation of low-contrast lesions with CT: a comparison of performances from a phantom study, simulations and theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Zeng, Rongping; Myers, Kyle J.; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of lung nodule volume with multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) have been shown to be more accurate and precise compared to conventional lower dimensional measurements. Quantifying the size of lesions is potentially more difficult when the object-to-background contrast is low as with lesions in the liver. Physical phantom and simulation studies are often utilized to analyze the bias and variance of lesion size estimates because a ground truth or reference standard can be established. In addition, it may also be useful to derive theoretical bounds as another way of characterizing lesion sizing methods. The goal of this work was to study the performance of a MDCT system for a lesion volume estimation task with object-to-background contrast less than 50 HU, and to understand the relation among performances obtained from phantom study, simulation and theoretical analysis. We performed both phantom and simulation studies, and analyzed the bias and variance of volume measurements estimated by a matched-filter-based estimator. We further corroborated results with a theoretical analysis to estimate the achievable performance bound, which was the Cramer-Rao’s lower bound (CRLB) of minimum variance for the size estimates. Results showed that estimates of non-attached solid small lesion volumes with object-to-background contrast of 31-46 HU can be accurate and precise, with less than 10.8% in percent bias and 4.8% in standard deviation of percent error (SPE), in standard dose scans. These results are consistent with theoretical (CRLB), computational (simulation) and empirical phantom bounds. The difference between the bounds is rather small (for SPE less than 1.9%) indicating that the theoretical- and simulation-based performance bounds can be good surrogates for physical phantom studies.

  11. [Bioimpedance means of skin condition monitoring during therapeutic and cosmetic procedures].

    PubMed

    Alekseenko, V A; Kus'min, A A; Filist, S A

    2008-01-01

    Engineering and technological problems of bioimpedance skin surface mapping are considered. A typical design of a device based on a PIC 16F microcontroller is suggested. It includes a keyboard, LCD indicator, probing current generator with programmed frequency tuning, and units for probing current monitoring and bioimpedance measurement. The electrode matrix of the device is constructed using nanotechnology. A microcontroller-controlled multiplexor provides scanning of interelectrode impedance, which makes it possible to obtain the impedance image of the skin surface under the electrode matrix. The microcontroller controls the probing signal generator frequency and allows layer-by-layer images of skin under the electrode matrix to be obtained. This makes it possible to use reconstruction tomography methods for analysis and monitoring of the skin condition during therapeutic and cosmetic procedures.

  12. Time dependence of electrical bioimpedance on porcine liver and kidney under a 50 Hz ac current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spottorno, J.; Multigner, M.; Rivero, G.; Álvarez, L.; de la Venta, J.; Santos, M.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the changes of the bioimpedance from its 'in vivo' value to the values measured in a few hours after the excision from the body. The evolution of electrical impedance with time after surgical extraction has been studied on two porcine organs: the liver and the kidney. Both in vivo and ex vivo measurements of electrical impedance, measuring its real and imaginary components, have been performed. The in vivo measurements have been carried out with the animal anaesthetized. The ex vivo measurements have been made more than 2 h after the extraction of the organ. The latter experiment has been carried out at two different stabilized temperatures: at normal body temperature and at the standard preservation temperature for transplant surgery. The measurements show a correlation between the biological evolution and the electrical bioimpedance of the organs, which increases from its in vivo value immediately after excision, multiplying its value by 2 in a few hours.

  13. Time dependence of electrical bioimpedance on porcine liver and kidney under a 50 Hz ac current.

    PubMed

    Spottorno, J; Multigner, M; Rivero, G; Alvarez, L; de la Venta, J; Santos, M

    2008-03-21

    The purpose of this work is to study the changes of the bioimpedance from its 'in vivo' value to the values measured in a few hours after the excision from the body. The evolution of electrical impedance with time after surgical extraction has been studied on two porcine organs: the liver and the kidney. Both in vivo and ex vivo measurements of electrical impedance, measuring its real and imaginary components, have been performed. The in vivo measurements have been carried out with the animal anaesthetized. The ex vivo measurements have been made more than 2 h after the extraction of the organ. The latter experiment has been carried out at two different stabilized temperatures: at normal body temperature and at the standard preservation temperature for transplant surgery. The measurements show a correlation between the biological evolution and the electrical bioimpedance of the organs, which increases from its in vivo value immediately after excision, multiplying its value by 2 in a few hours.

  14. Studying the Performance of Conductive Polymer Films as Textile Electrodes for Electrical Bioimpedance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunico, F. J.; Marquez, J. C.; Hilke, H.; Skrifvars, M.; Seoane, F.

    2013-04-01

    With the goal of finding novel biocompatible materials suitable to replace silver in the manufacturing of textile electrodes for medical applications of electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy, three different polymeric materials have been investigated. Films have been prepared from different polymeric materials and custom bracelets have been confectioned with them. Tetrapolar total right side electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy (EBIS) measurements have been performed with polymer and with standard gel electrodes. The performance of the polymer films was compared against the performance of the gel electrodes. The results indicated that only the polypropylene 1380 could produce EBIS measurements but remarkably tainted with high frequency artefacts. The influence of the electrode mismatch, stray capacitances and large electrode polarization impedance are unclear and they need to be clarified with further studies. If sensorized garments could be made with such biocompatible polymeric materials the burden of considering textrodes class III devices could be avoided.

  15. Congestive heart failure patient monitoring using wearable Bio-impedance sensor technology.

    PubMed

    Seulki Lee; Squillace, Gabriel; Smeets, Christophe; Vandecasteele, Marianne; Grieten, Lars; de Francisco, Ruben; Van Hoof, Chris

    2015-08-01

    A new technique to monitor the fluid status of congestive heart failure (CHF) patients in the hospital is proposed and verified in a clinical trial with 8 patients. A wearable Bio-impedance (BioZ) sensor allows a continuous localized measurement which can be complement clinical tools in the hospital. Thanks to the multi-parametric approach and correlation analysis with clinical reference, BioZ is successfully shown as a promising parameter for continuous and wearable CHF patient monitoring application.

  16. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguaña, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Guerrero, Rachael T Leon

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast Densitometer™ (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31–82 years and 41 girls aged 8–18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women’s most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=−0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=−0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=−0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=−0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10–25, 26–50, 51–75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1–4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography. PMID:26838256

  17. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguana, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast DensitometerTM (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31-82 years and 41 girls aged 8-18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women's most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=-0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=-0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=-0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=-0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10-25, 26-50, 51-75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1-4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography.

  18. A new model for the determination of fluid status and body composition from bioimpedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, M

    2006-09-01

    In patients with end stage renal failure, control of the fluid status of the body is lost and fluid accumulates continuously. By dialysis therapy, excess fluid can be removed, but there are no reliable methods to establish the amount of excess fluid to be removed. Severe and even lethal complications may be the consequence of longer term deviations from a normal fluid status in dialysis patients, but also in other patient groups. Therefore, a large medical need exists for a precise and pragmatic method to determine fluid status. Bioimpedance measurement, today mainly used for nutrition status assessment, is regarded as an interesting candidate method for fluid status determination. This paper presents a four-compartment model of the human body, developed to derive information on fluid status from extra- and intracellular volumes measured by bioimpedance spectroscopy. The model allows us to determine weights of each of four compartments (overhydration, fat, muscle and remaining 'basic' components) by analyzing extra- and intracellular water volumes in different tissues of the body. Thereby fluid status (overhydration volume, normohydrated weight of the patient) as well as nutrition and fitness status (lean body, fat and muscle mass) can be determined quantitatively from a single measurement. A preliminary evaluation of the performance of a system consisting of a bioimpedance spectrum analyzer and the four-compartment model is also provided.

  19. Performance evaluation of wideband bio-impedance spectroscopy using constant voltage source and constant current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamadou, Youssoufa; In Oh, Tong; Wi, Hun; Sohal, Harsh; Farooq, Adnan; Woo, Eung Je; McEwan, Alistair Lee

    2012-10-01

    Current sources are widely used in bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement systems to maximize current injection for increased signal to noise while keeping within medical safety specifications. High-performance current sources based on the Howland current pump with optimized impedance converters are able to minimize stray capacitance of the cables and setup. This approach is limited at high frequencies primarily due to the deteriorated output impedance of the constant current source when situated in a real measurement system. For this reason, voltage sources have been suggested, but they require a current sensing resistor, and the SNR reduces at low impedance loads due to the lower current required to maintain constant voltage. In this paper, we compare the performance of a current source-based BIS and a voltage source-based BIS, which use common components. The current source BIS is based on a Howland current pump and generalized impedance converters to maintain a high output impedance of more than 1 MΩ at 2 MHz. The voltage source BIS is based on voltage division between an internal current sensing resistor (Rs) and an external sample. To maintain high SNR, Rs is varied so that the source voltage is divided more or less equally. In order to calibrate the systems, we measured the transfer function of the BIS systems with several known resistor and capacitor loads. From this we may estimate the resistance and capacitance of biological tissues using the least-squares method to minimize error between the measured transimpedance excluding the system transfer function and that from an impedance model. When tested on realistic loads including discrete resistors and capacitors, and saline and agar phantoms, the voltage source-based BIS system had a wider bandwidth of 10 Hz to 2.2 MHz with less than 1% deviation from the expected spectra compared to more than 10% with the current source. The voltage source also showed an SNR of at least 60 dB up to 2.2 MHz in

  20. Fluid and electrolyte balance after major thoracic surgery by bioimpedance and endocrine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cagini, Lucio; Capozzi, Rosanna; Tassi, Valentina; Savignani, Claudia; Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Puma, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    Weight gain with oedema development is a complication of major surgical procedures with an incidence as high as 40%. Fluid retention is not always clinically evident and it is reported despite fluid-restriction regime. The causes are several and not totally clear. We performed a prospective study to assess the amount of fluid accumulation and redistribution observed after major thoracic surgery. In 49 patients submitted to lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection for lung cancer, we measured preoperatively and on the postoperative days 1, 2, 4 and 7, body weight, fluid balance, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA)-derived parameters resistance (R) and reactance (X(c)). The postoperative course was characterised by significant changes. Mean increase in body weight was 2.7 kg ((1.9-3.4); p<0.001) on postoperative day 2. Most of the patients had a negative basal fluid balance (-244 ml (-520 to -50)), whereas, on postoperative day 2, we observed a positive and significant change (+968 ml (646-1456), p<0.001)). Total body R and X(c) fell on the first day (p<0.001), anticipating the changes in weight and fluid balance. BNP increased on day 1, immediately after surgery, and remained significantly above basal values for the entire observation period (p<0.001), in the absence of clinical signs of heart failure. The three methods used consistently showed a significant fluid retention over the course of the study. BIA was an easy, reproducible and non-invasive method for the estimation and early detection of fluid retention. Increase in BNP may be related to the systemic reaction to stress and to the decreased pulmonary vascular bed. We found no correlation between fluid retention and length of anaesthesia, sex, age, blood loss and body mass index. The clinical and prognostic implication of weight gain may be relevant to patient's health. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Theoretical estimation of equilibrium sulfur isotope fractionations among aqueous sulfite species: Implications for isotope models of microbial sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldridge, D. L.; Farquhar, J.; Guo, W.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfite (sensu lato), an intermediate in a variety sulfur redox processes, plays a particularly important role in microbial sulfate reduction. It exists intracellularly as multiple species between sets of enzymatic reactions that transform sulfate to sulfide, with the exact speciation depending on pH, T, and ionic strength. However, the complex speciation of sulfite is ignored in current isotope partitioning models of microbial sulfate reduction and simplified solely to the pyramidal SO32- (sulfite sensu stricto), due to a lack of appropriate constraints. We theoretically estimated the equilibrium sulfur isotope fractionations (33S/32S, 34S/32S, 36S/32S) among all documented sulfite species in aqueous solution, including sulfite (SO32-), bisulfite isomers and dimers ((HS)O3-, (HO)SO2-, S2O52-), and SO2(aq), through first principles quantum mechanical calculations. The calculations were performed at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level using cluster models with 30-40 water molecules surrounding the solute. Our calculated equilibrium fractionation factors compare well to the available experimental constraints and suggest that the minor and often-ignored tetrahedral (HS)O3- isomer of bisulfite strongly influences isotope partitioning behavior in the sulfite system under most environmentally relevant conditions, particularly fractionation magnitudes and unusual temperature dependence. For example, we predict that sulfur isotope fractionation between sulfite and bulk bisulfite in solution should have an apparent inverse temperature dependence due to the influence of (HS)O3- and its increased stability at higher temperatures. Our findings highlight the need to appropriately account for speciation/isomerization of sulfur species in sulfur isotope studies. We will also present similar calculation results of other aqueous sulfur compounds (e.g., H2S/HS-, SO42-, S2O32-, S3O62-, and poorly documented SO22- species), and discuss the implication of our results for microbial sulfate

  2. Comparison of Bioimpedance and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for Measurement of Fat Mass in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Molfino, Alessio; Don, Burl R.; Kaysen, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat mass (FM) is measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), but is expensive and not portable. Multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measures total body water (TBW) and intracellular and extracellular water (ICW, ECW). Fat mass (FM) is calculated subtracting Fat Free Mass (FFM) from weight assuming fractional hydration of FFM of 0.73. Hemodialysis patients (HD), however, have non physiologic expansion of ECW. Our aim was to apply a model to estimate FM in HD and controls. Methods We estimated the hydration of FFM in healthy subjects (C) and HD with BIS (Impedimed multifrequency) assuming hydration of 0.73 or using a formula allowing ECW and ICW to vary, deriving a value for FM accounting for variances in ECW and ICW. FM was measured by DXA (Hologic Discovery W) in 25 C and in 11 HD. We measured TBW, ECW and ICW with BIS and calculated FM using either Weight - TBW/.73 or with a formula accounting for variations in ECW/ICW to estimate FM. Results ECW/ICW was greater in HD than in C (0.83±0.08 vs 0.76± 0.04; p=0.001). FM (Kg) measured by DXA, or estimated from TBW using constant hydration or accounting for variations in ECW/ICW were not significantly different in C or in HD. Values obtained by all methods correlated (p<0.001) and none of the Bland-Altman plots regressed (r2=0.00). FM measured by DXA and by BIS in both C and HD combined correlated (r2=0.871). Conclusion Expansion of ECW in HD is statistically significant, however the effect on hydration of FFM is insufficient to cause significant deviation from values derived using a hydration value of 0.73 within the range of expansion of ECW in the HD population studied here. PMID:23689544

  3. Theoretical estimation of nonlinear optical force on dielectric spherical particles of arbitrary size under femtosecond pulsed excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Anita; De, Arijit K.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that high-repetition-rate ultrafast pulsed excitation is more efficient in optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles as compared with continuous-wave excitation at the same average power. The physics behind the different nature of force under these two excitation conditions remained deceptive until quite recently when it was theoretically explained, in the dipole limit, as a combined effect of (1) repetitive instantaneous momentum transfer and (2) optical Kerr nonlinearity. The role of optical Kerr effect was theoretically studied for larger dielectric spherical particles, in the ray optics limit, also. However, a theoretical underpinning is yet to be established as to whether the effect of optical nonlinearity is omnipresent across different particle sizes, which we investigate here. Using localized approximation of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, we theoretically analyze the nature of force (and potential) and provide a detailed comparative discussion between this generalized scattering formulation with dipole scattering formulation for dielectric nanoparticles.

  4. Evaluation of bioimpedance for the measurement of physiologic variables as related to hemodynamic studies in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bruce C.

    1993-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance, following space flight, has received substantial attention because of the possibility that it compromises astronaut safety and reduces the ability of astronauts to function at peak performance levels upon return to a one-g environment. Many pre- and post-flight studies are performed to evaluate changes in hemodynamic responses to orthostatic challenges after shuttle missions. The purpose of this present project is to validate bioimpedance as a means to acquire stroke volume and other hemodynamic information in these studies. In this study, ten male and ten female subjects were subjected to simultaneous measurements of thoracic bioimpedance and Doppler ultrasonic velocimetry under supine, 10 degree head down and 30 degree head up conditions. Paired measurements were made during six periods of five seconds breath holding, over a two minute period, for each of the three positions. Stroke volume was calculated by three bioimpedance techniques and ultrasonic Doppler.

  5. Reduction of anisotropy influence and contacting effects in in-vitro bioimpedance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guermazi, M.; Kanoun, O.; Derbel, N.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental procedure is a decisive part in in-vitro bioimpedance measurement in order to get reproducible measurements. An electrode configuration is proposed to avoid several disadvantages produced by needle electrodes and circular non-penetrating electrode. The proposed electrode geometry reduces the influence of anisotropy and allows simultaneously a good probe contacting. We propose an experimental method to avoid the appearance of bacteria and to reduce water loss in meat during experiment post-mortem. The results show that electrode configuration with the developed experimental method have ensured reproducible measurements during a long period of 14 days post-mortem.

  6. Subepidermal moisture (SEM) and bioimpedance: a literature review of a novel method for early detection of pressure-induced tissue damage (pressure ulcers).

    PubMed

    Moore, Zena; Patton, Declan; Rhodes, Shannon L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Current detection of pressure ulcers relies on visual and tactile changes at the skin surface, but physiological changes below the skin precede surface changes and have a significant impact on tissue health. Inflammatory and apoptotic/necrotic changes in the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin, such as changes in interstitial fluid (also known as subepidermal moisture (SEM)), may precede surface changes by 3-10 days. Those same epidermal and subepidermal changes result in changes in the electrical properties (bioimpedance) of the tissue, thereby presenting an objective, non-invasive method for assessing tissue damage. Clinical studies of bioimpedance for the detection of pressure ulcers have demonstrated that changes in bioimpedance correlate with increasing severity of pressure ulcer stages. Studies have also demonstrated that at anatomical locations with pressure ulcers, bioimpedance varies with distance from the centre of the pressure ulcers. The SEM Scanner, a handheld medical device, offers an objective and reliable method for the assessment of local bioimpedance, and therefore, assessment of tissue damage before signs become visible to the unaided eye. This literature review summarises pressure ulcer pathophysiology, principles of bioimpedance and clinical research using bioimpedance technology to assess pressure ulcers. © 2016 The Authors. International Wound Journal published by Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prediction of limb lean tissue mass from bioimpedance spectroscopy in persons with chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; La Fountaine, Michael F.; Emmons, Racine; Kirshblum, Steven C.; Asselin, Pierre; Spungen, Ann M.; Bauman, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive, simple, and inexpensive modality that uses 256 frequencies to determine the extracellular volume impedance (ECVRe) and intracellular volume impedance (ICVRi) in the total body and regional compartments. As such, it may have utility as a surrogate measure to assess lean tissue mass (LTM). Objective To compare the relationship between LTM from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BIS impedance values in spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) control subjects using a cross-sectional research design. Methods In 60 subjects (30 AB and 30 SCI), a total body DXA scan was used to obtain total body and leg LTM. BIS was performed to measure the impedance quotient of the ECVRe and ICVRi in the total body and limbs. Results BIS-derived ECVRe yielded a model for LTM in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control for the right leg (RL) (R2 = 0.75, standard errors of estimation (SEE) = 1.02 kg, P < 0.0001; R2 = 0.65, SEE = 0.91 kg, P = 0.0006; and R2 = 0.54, SEE = 1.31 kg, P < 0.0001, respectively) and left leg (LL) (R2 = 0.76, SEE = 1.06 kg, P < 0.0001; R2 = 0.64, SEE = 0.83 kg, P = 0.0006; and R2 = 0.54, SEE = 1.34 kg, P < 0.0001, respectively). The ICVRi was similarly predictive of LTM in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and AB controls for the RL (R2 = 0.85, SEE = 1.31 kg, P < 0.0001; R2 = 0.52, SEE = 0.95 kg, P = 0.003; and R2 = 0.398, SEE = 1.46 kg, P = 0.0003, respectively) and LL (R2 = 0.62, SEE = 1.32 kg, P = 0.0003; R2 = 0.57, SEE = 0.91 kg, P = 0.002; and R2 = 0.42, SEE = 1.31 kg, P = 0.0001, respectively). Conclusion Findings demonstrate that the BIS-derived impedance quotients for ECVRe and ICVRi may be used as surrogate markers to track changes in leg LTM in persons with SCI. PMID:23941792

  8. Bioimpedance Harmonic Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Assess Regional Circulation and Neural Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Markosyan, T. G.; Dudareva, A. A.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Romich, V. V.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.

    2013-04-01

    The novel technique based on harmonic analysis of bioimpedance microvariations with original hard- and software complex incorporating a high-resolution impedance converter was used to assess the neural activity and circulation in human urinary bladder and penis in patients with pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, and overactive bladder. The therapeutic effects of shock wave therapy and Botulinum toxin detrusor injections were evaluated quantitatively according to the spectral peaks at low 0.1 Hz frequency (M for Mayer wave), respiratory (R) and cardiac (C) rhythms with their harmonics. Enhanced baseline regional neural activity identified according to M and R peaks was found to be presumably sympathetic in pelvic pain patients, and parasympathetic - in patients with overactive bladder. Total pulsatile activity and pulsatile resonances found in the bladder as well as in the penile spectrum characterised regional circulation and vascular tone. The abnormal spectral parameters characteristic of the patients with genitourinary diseases shifted to the norm in the cases of efficient therapy. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis seems to be a potent tool to assess regional peculiarities of circulatory and autonomic nervous activity in the course of patient treatment.

  9. Stroke volume obtained by electrical interrogation of the brachial artery: transbrachial electrical bioimpedance velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Donald P; Henry, Isaac C; Banet, Mathew J; Dittrich, Teri

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study is to measure left ventricular stroke volume (SV) from the brachial artery (BA) using electrical bioimpedance. Doppler-derived SV was used for comparison. Twenty-nine healthy adults were recruited for study. Doppler echocardiographic-derived SV was obtained from the product of distal left ventricular outflow tract cross-sectional area and systolic velocity integral. SV from the BA was obtained by transbrachial electrical bioimpedance velocimetry (TBEV). Application of a current field across the left brachium was effected by injection of a constant magnitude, high frequency, low amperage, alternating current. Therein, a static voltage (U(0)) and pulsatile voltage change (ΔU(t)) were measured and converted to their corresponding impedances, Z(0) and ΔZ(t). TBEV-derived SV was obtained by multiplying a square root value of the normalized, acceleration-based, peak first time derivative of ΔZ(t) by a volume conductor and systolic flow time. Inter-method agreement was determined by the Bland-Altman method. To assess the contribution of blood resistivity variations to ΔZ(t), BA diameters were measured at end-diastole and peak systolic expansion. Results indicate that since the BA demonstrates parabolic, laminar flow, with minimal diameter changes, blood resistivity variations are likely responsible for the derived impedance changes. Bland-Altman analysis shows that SV is obtainable by TBEV from healthy humans at rest. © 2012 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine

  10. Real-Time Electrical Bioimpedance Characterization of Neointimal Tissue for Stent Applications.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Marchena, David; Olmo, Alberto; Miguel, José A; Martínez, Mar; Huertas, Gloria; Yúfera, Alberto

    2017-07-28

    To follow up the restenosis in arteries stented during an angioplasty is an important current clinical problem. A new approach to monitor the growth of neointimal tissue inside the stent is proposed on the basis of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensors and the oscillation-based test (OBT) circuit technique. A mathematical model was developed to analytically describe the histological composition of the neointima, employing its conductivity and permittivity data. The bioimpedance model was validated against a finite element analysis (FEA) using COMSOL Multiphysics software. A satisfactory correlation between the analytical model and FEA simulation was achieved in most cases, detecting some deviations introduced by the thin "double layer" that separates the neointima and the blood. It is hereby shown how to apply conformal transformations to obtain bioimpedance electrical models for stack-layered tissues over coplanar electrodes. Particularly, this can be applied to characterize the neointima in real-time. This technique is either suitable as a main mechanism for restenosis follow-up or it can be combined with proposed intelligent stents for blood pressure measurements to auto-calibrate the sensibility loss caused by the adherence of the tissue on the micro-electro-mechanical sensors (MEMSs).

  11. Bioimpedance measurements in dentistry to detect inflammation: numerical modelling and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Cosoli, G; Scalise, L; Tricarico, G; Russo, P; Cerri, G

    2017-06-01

    Bioimpedance measurements represent an advantageous method to evaluate the physio-pathological conditions of biological tissues and their use is spreading in different application fields, from the evaluation of body composition to the vital signs monitoring, passing through the individuation of cancer tissues and the detection of different substances (e.g. glucose measurements in people affected by diabetes). In fact, tissues electric properties vary with their conditions; for example, electrical conductivity increases when there is an inflammatory process, because of the presence of oedema, hyperaemia and infiltration. Inflammatory phenomena are frequent in dentistry, in diseases like periodontitis and peri-implantitis; however, at present the diagnosis is mainly done with the naked eye, by observing the gingiva redness and swelling. The aim of this work is to prove the feasibility of the inflammation detection by means of bioimpedance measurements. Both numerical simulations and preliminary experimental measurements provide significant outcomes in differentiating between healthy and inflamed tissues. Percentage differences in the impedance modulus equal to 4-20% (numerical simulations) and 35-56% (experimental measurements), respectively, depending on the considered conditions (e.g. electrodes characteristics and inflammation severity), were found. Such a measure could be integrated in electromedical devices designed, for example, for the therapy of peri-implantitis, in order to personalise the therapeutic dose in terms of intensity and duration and focusing it on the impaired area, minimising the effects on the surrounding tissues.

  12. Extraction of Cole parameters from the electrical bioimpedance spectrum using stochastic optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Boroujeny, Shiva; Bolic, Miodrag

    2016-04-01

    Fitting the measured bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) data to the Cole model and then extracting the Cole parameters is a common practice in BIS applications. The extracted Cole parameters then can be analysed as descriptors of tissue electrical properties. To have a better evaluation of physiological or pathological properties of biological tissue, accurate extraction of Cole parameters is of great importance. This paper proposes an improved Cole parameter extraction based on bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) algorithm. We employed simulated datasets to test the performance of the BFO fitting method regarding parameter extraction accuracy and noise sensitivity, and we compared the results with those of a least squares (LS) fitting method. The BFO method showed better robustness to the noise and higher accuracy in terms of extracted parameters. In addition, we applied our method to experimental data where bioimpedance measurements were obtained from forearm in three different positions of the arm. The goal of the experiment was to explore how robust Cole parameters are in classifying position of the arm for different people, and measured at different times. The extracted Cole parameters obtained by LS and BFO methods were applied to different classifiers. Two other evolutionary algorithms, GA and PSO were also used for comparison purpose. We showed that when the classifiers are fed with the extracted feature sets by BFO fitting method, higher accuracy is obtained both when applying on training data and test data.

  13. Method and device for bio-impedance measurement with hard-tissue applications.

    PubMed

    Guimerà, A; Calderón, E; Los, P; Christie, A M

    2008-06-01

    Bio-impedance measurements can be used to detect and monitor several properties of living hard-tissues, some of which include bone mineral density, bone fracture healing or dental caries detection. In this paper a simple method and hardware architecture for hard tissue bio-impedance measurement is proposed. The key design aspects of such architecture are discussed and a commercial handheld ac impedance device is presented that is fully certified to international medical standards. It includes a 4-channel multiplexer and is capable of measuring impedances from 10 kOmega to 10 MOmega across a frequency range of 100 Hz to 100 kHz with a maximum error of 5%. The device incorporates several user interface methods and a Bluetooth link for bi-directional wireless data transfer. Low-power design techniques have been implemented, ensuring the device exceeds 8 h of continuous use. Finally, bench test results using dummy cells consisting of parallel connected resistors and capacitors, from 10 kOmega to 10 MOmega and from 20 pF to 100 pF, are discussed.

  14. Gastric Tissue Damage Analysis Generated by Ischemia: Bioimpedance, Confocal Endomicroscopy, and Light Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Nohra E.; Garcia, Laura E.; Garcia-Lorenzana, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The gastric mucosa ischemic tissular damage plays an important role in critical care patients' outcome, because it is the first damaged tissue by compensatory mechanism during shock. The aim of the study is to relate bioimpedance changes with tissular damage level generated by ischemia by means of confocal endomicroscopy and light microscopy. Bioimpedance of the gastric mucosa and confocal images were obtained from Wistar male rats during basal and ischemia conditions. They were anesthetized, and stain was applied (fluorescein and/or acriflavine). The impedance spectroscopy catheter was inserted and then confocal endomicroscopy probe. After basal measurements and biopsy, hepatic and gastric arteries clamping induced ischemia. Finally, pyloric antrum tissue was preserved in buffered formaldehyde (10%) for histology processing using light microscopy. Confocal images were equalized, binarized, and boundary defined, and infiltrations were quantified. Impedance and infiltrations increased with ischemia showing significant changes between basal and ischemia conditions (P < 0.01). Light microscopy analysis allows detection of general alterations in cellular and tissular integrity, confirming gastric reactance and confocal images quantification increments obtained during ischemia. PMID:23841094

  15. Longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurements in addition to diagnosis of heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, N.; Nescolarde, L.; Domingo, M.; Gastelurrutia, P.; Bayés-Genis, A.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterised by signs of systemic and pulmonary fluid retention, shortness of breath and/or fatigue. There is a lack of reliable indicators of disease state. Benefits and applicability of non-invasive bioimpedance measurement in the hydration state of soft tissues have been validated, fundamentally, in dialysis patients. Four impedance configurations (2 longitudinal and 2 transversal) were analyzed in 48 HF patients (M=28, F=20) classified according to a clinical disease severity score (CDSS) derived from the Framingham criteria: CDSS<=2 (G1: M = 23, F = 14) and CDSS>2 (G2: M = 5, F = 6). The aim of this study is to analyze longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurement at 50 kHz, in addition to clinical diagnosis parameters of heart failure, including: clinical disease severity score (CDSS) and a biomarker concentrations (NT-proBNP). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for the normality test of all variables. The CDSS, NTproBNP and impedance parameters between groups (G1 and G2) were compared by mean of Mann Withney U-test. The statistical significance was considered with P < 0.05. Whole-body impedance measured was analyzed using RXc graph.

  16. Active metabolic weight estimation using bioimpedance, indirect calorimetry and the clino-ortho maneuver.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Miguel; Azpiroz, Joaquin; Borja, Gisella; Medel, Humberto; Sandoval, Hector; Rodriguez, Fausto; Flores, Francisco; Flores, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    The resting energy expenditure (REE) and substrate utilization are computed by indirect calorimetry technique (ICT). The REE represents 80-85% of the total energy expenditure (TEE) but only accounts for the 7% of the actual body weight (ABW). The TEE is produced by the organs plus muscles, whereas the REE accounts only for the main organs. An important problem comes up when the REE is computed throughout the fat free mass (FFM) computation or anthropometric measurements because they do not explain the tremendous catabolic variability by ICT when subjects show the same body composition. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a method to compute the metabolic active weight (MAW) as a new form that may help to understand the catabolic activity of the body composition. The premise was the clino-ortho maneuver can split the ABW in two parts: one in which the MAW reflects the FFM catabolism while the second part was not considered since there is not energy requirement in it. The experiment design studied 37 young volunteers undergoing the clino-ortho maneuver during fast and postprandial conditions. The results showed REE increments of 21% during phase I (fast), while in phase II (postprandial) only 14% was achieved in ortho-postprandial. Therefore, the computed MAWs were 65.5Kg and 58Kg, respectively, when the ABW average was 70 Kg and the FFM was 50 Kg. One first conclusion was that the 15.5 Kg of the MAW above the FFM could explain a catabolic equivalence which can be exclusively related to the fast-ortho position which can help to classify exclusively the dynamic over activity of the FFM.

  17. Estimating associations of mobile phone use and brain tumours taking into account laterality: a comparison and theoretical evaluation of applied methods.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Kirsten; Deltour, Isabelle; Schüz, Joachim

    2012-12-10

    Estimating exposure-outcome associations using laterality information on exposure and on outcome is an issue, when estimating associations of mobile phone use and brain tumour risk. The exposure is localized; therefore, a potential risk is expected to exist primarily on the side of the head, where the phone is usually held (ipsilateral exposure), and to a lesser extent at the opposite side of the head (contralateral exposure). Several measures of the associations with ipsilateral and contralateral exposure, dealing with different sampling designs, have been presented in the literature. This paper presents a general framework for the analysis of such studies using a likelihood-based approach in a competing risks model setting. The approach clarifies the implicit assumptions required for the validity of the presented estimators, particularly that in some approaches the risk with contralateral exposure is assumed to be zero. The performance of the estimators is illustrated in a simulation study showing for instance that while in some scenarios there is a loss of statistical power, others - in case of a positive ipsilateral exposure-outcome association - would result in a negatively biased estimate of the contralateral exposure parameter, irrespective of any additional recall bias. In conclusion, our theoretical evaluations and results from the simulation study emphasize the importance of setting up a formal model, which furthermore allows for estimation in more complicated and perhaps more realistic exposure settings, such as taking into account exposure to both sides of the head.

  18. Non-contact multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy system for industrial-scale bio-impedance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, M. D.; Marsh, L. A.; Davidson, J. L.; Tan, Y. M.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Biological tissues have a complex impedance, or bio-impedance, profile which changes with respect to frequency. This is caused by dispersion mechanisms which govern how the electromagnetic field interacts with the tissue at the cellular and molecular level. Measuring the bio-impedance spectra of a biological sample can potentially provide insight into the sample’s properties and its cellular structure. This has obvious applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and food-based industrial domains. However, measuring the bio-impedance spectra non-destructively and in a way which is practical at an industrial scale presents substantial challenges. The low conductivity of the sample requires a highly sensitive instrument, while the demands of industrial-scale operation require a fast high-throughput sensor of rugged design. In this paper, we describe a multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) system suitable for industrial-scale, non-contact, spectroscopic bio-impedance measurement over a bandwidth of 156 kHz-2.5 MHz. The system sensitivity and performance are investigated using calibration and known reference samples. It is shown to yield rapid and consistently sensitive results with good long-term stability. The system is then used to obtain conductivity spectra of a number of biological test samples, including yeast suspensions of varying concentration and a range of agricultural produce, such as apples, pears, nectarines, kiwis, potatoes, oranges and tomatoes.

  19. Evaluating the reliability of different preprocessing steps to estimate graph theoretical measures in resting state fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Aurich, Nathassia K; Alves Filho, José O; Marques da Silva, Ana M; Franco, Alexandre R

    2015-01-01

    With resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) there are a variety of post-processing methods that can be used to quantify the human brain connectome. However, there is also a choice of which preprocessing steps will be used prior to calculating the functional connectivity of the brain. In this manuscript, we have tested seven different preprocessing schemes and assessed the reliability between and reproducibility within the various strategies by means of graph theoretical measures. Different preprocessing schemes were tested on a publicly available dataset, which includes rs-fMRI data of healthy controls. The brain was parcellated into 190 nodes and four graph theoretical (GT) measures were calculated; global efficiency (GEFF), characteristic path length (CPL), average clustering coefficient (ACC), and average local efficiency (ALE). Our findings indicate that results can significantly differ based on which preprocessing steps are selected. We also found dependence between motion and GT measurements in most preprocessing strategies. We conclude that by using censoring based on outliers within the functional time-series as a processing, results indicate an increase in reliability of GT measurements with a reduction of the dependency of head motion.

  20. Utility theoretic approach to estimating the demand for and benefits from recreational fishing: the impact of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Adirondack State Park has been hit especially hard by acid precipitation. Acid precipitation impacts particular species of fish at various high altitudes sites in the park. The author estimates consumer surplus measures for changes in a variable to proxy the stock size of these species at specific sites. To do this he first estimates the individual's demand for a recreation site as a function of site prices and the site's characteristics. The demand function for the individual is derived from a utility function. A travel cost approach is used to estimate an individual's share of total fishing time spent at a five fishing site. The shares are estimated by maximum likelihood and the results indicate that price and the three characteristics do explain the allocation of the individual's time spent at the various sites selected for the analysis. Finally, consumer surplus measures for a reduction in the catch rates of the species most likely to be affected by Acid Precipitation are calculated. The meaning of these measures in the context of a model that assumes weak separability is examined. These reductions in catch rates can be linked to changes in the level of Acid Precipitation in the Park, and this provides us with a method for quantifying the impact of acid precipitation on recreation fishing.

  1. Estimation of the rotamerization constants of different conformations of N-acetylalanine: a theoretical and matrix-isolation FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Boeckx, Bram; Maes, Guido

    2012-02-01

    The conformational landscape of N-acetylalanine has been investigated by a theoretical and matrix-isolation FT-IR study. Optimizations of N-acetylalanine structures has been conducted at successive higher levels of theory HF/3-21G, DFT(B3LYP)/6-31++G** and MP2/6-31++G**. This resulted in three stable conformations. Among these, one conformation contains an intramolecular H-bond. The vibrational properties of these conformations were calculated and used to identify the conformations in a cryogenic argon matrix. The intensities of some bands assigned to a particular conformation were used to estimate the rotamerization constants K(r12) and K(r13) for the equilibria NAA1 NAA2 and NAA1 NAA3, respectively. The obtained experimental values were in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved estimates of the pion-photon transition form factor in the (1 ≤ Q2 ≤ 5) GeV2 range and their theoretical uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2017-03-01

    We consider the pion-photon transition form factor at low to intermediate spacelike momenta within the theoretical framework of light-cone sum rules. We derive predictions which take into account all currently known contributions stemming from QCD perturbation theory up to the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) and by including all twist terms up to order six. In order to enable a more detailed comparison with forthcoming high-precision data, we also estimate the main systematic theoretical uncertainties, stemming from various sources, and discuss their influence on the calculations — in particular the dominant one related to the still uncalculated part of the NNLO contribution. The analysis addresses, in broad terms, also the role of the twist-two pion distribution amplitude derived with different approaches.

  3. Electrode placement in bioimpedance spectroscopy: evaluation of alternative positioning of electrodes when measuring relative dehydration in athletes.

    PubMed

    Birkemose, M; Møller, A J; Madsen, M L; Brantlov, S; Sørensen, H; Overgaard, K; Johansen, P

    2013-01-01

    In order to maintain a homeostatic environment in human cells, the balance between absorption and separation of water must be retained. Imbalance will have consequences on both the cellular and organ levels. Studies performed on athletes have shown coherence between their hydration status and ability to perform. A dehydration of 2-7% of total body weight resulted in a marked decrease in performance. Measurement and monitoring of hydration status may be used to optimize athlete performance. Therefore, in this current study bioimpedance spectroscopy is used to determine the hydration status of athletes. Trials were made to investigate alternative ways of electrode placement when performing bioimpedance spectroscopy in order to measure relative dehydration. A total of 14 test subjects underwent measurements before, during, and after a cycle test of 3×25min. Electrodes where placed to measure body impedance in three different ways: wrist-ankle (recommended method), wrist-wrist, and transthoracic. Furthermore, the relative loss in weight of the subjects during the trial was registered. The study showed no relation between relative weight loss and the wrist-wrist and transthoracic placement method, using bioimpedance spectroscopy to measure relative dehydration. The inability of the method to detect such relative changes in hydration may be due to the bioimpedance spectroscopy technology being extremely sensitive to changes in skin temperature, movement artifacts, thoroughness in placing the electrodes, and the physiological impact on the human body when performing exercise. Therefore, further research into the area of bioimpedance spectroscopy is needed before this methodology can be applied in monitoring active athletes. Hence, a simple weight measurement still seems a more useful way of determining a relative change of hydration in an active setting.

  4. Theoretical estimation of the transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a supercritical-wing transport model with trailing-edge controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Mann, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    A method for rapidly estimating the overall forces and moments at supercritical speeds, below drag divergence, of transport configurations with supercritical wings is presented. The method was also used for estimating the rolling moments due to the deflection of wing trailing-edge controls. This analysis was based on a vortex-lattice technique modified to approximate the effects of wing thickness and boundary-layer induced camber. Comparisons between the results of this method and experiment indicate reasonably good correlation of the lift, pitching moment, and rolling moment. The method required much less storage and run time to compute solutions over an angle-of-attack range than presently available transonic nonlinear methods require for a single angle-of-attack solution.

  5. Removing respiratory artefacts from transthoracic bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuba-Gyllensten, I.; Abtahi, F.; Bonomi, A. G.; Lindecrantz, K.; Seoane, F.; Amft, O.

    2013-04-01

    Transthoracic impedance spectroscopy (TIS) measurements from wearable textile electrodes provide a tool to remotely and non-invasively monitor patient health. However, breathing and cardiac processes inevitably affect TIS measurements, since they are sensitive to changes in geometry and air or fluid volumes in the thorax. This study aimed at investigating the effect of respiration on Cole parameters extracted from TIS measurements and developing a method to suppress artifacts. TIS data were collected from 10 participants at 16 frequencies (range: 10 kHz - 1 MHz) using a textile electrode system (Philips Technologie Gmbh). Simultaneously, breathing volumes and frequency were logged using an electronic spirometer augmented with data from a breathing belt. The effect of respiration on TIS measurements was studied at paced (10 and 16 bpm) deep and shallow breathing. These measurements were repeated for each subject in three different postures (lying down, reclining and sitting). Cole parameter estimation was improved by assessing the tidal expiration point thus removing breathing artifacts. This leads to lower intra-subject variability between sessions and a need for less measurements points to accurately assess the spectra. Future work should explore algorithmic artifacts compensation models using breathing and posture or patient contextual information to improve ambulatory transthoracic impedance measurements.

  6. Estimating pathway-specific contributions to biodegradation in aquifers based on dual isotope analysis: theoretical analysis and reactive transport simulations.

    PubMed

    Centler, Florian; Heße, Falk; Thullner, Martin

    2013-09-01

    At field sites with varying redox conditions, different redox-specific microbial degradation pathways contribute to total contaminant degradation. The identification of pathway-specific contributions to total contaminant removal is of high practical relevance, yet difficult to achieve with current methods. Current stable-isotope-fractionation-based techniques focus on the identification of dominant biodegradation pathways under constant environmental conditions. We present an approach based on dual stable isotope data to estimate the individual contributions of two redox-specific pathways. We apply this approach to carbon and hydrogen isotope data obtained from reactive transport simulations of an organic contaminant plume in a two-dimensional aquifer cross section to test the applicability of the method. To take aspects typically encountered at field sites into account, additional simulations addressed the effects of transverse mixing, diffusion-induced stable-isotope fractionation, heterogeneities in the flow field, and mixing in sampling wells on isotope-based estimates for aerobic and anaerobic pathway contributions to total contaminant biodegradation. Results confirm the general applicability of the presented estimation method which is most accurate along the plume core and less accurate towards the fringe where flow paths receive contaminant mass and associated isotope signatures from the core by transverse dispersion. The presented method complements the stable-isotope-fractionation-based analysis toolbox. At field sites with varying redox conditions, it provides a means to identify the relative importance of individual, redox-specific degradation pathways.

  7. Theoretical geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Andrzej; Kosek, Wiesław

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a summary of research activities concerning theoretical geodesy performed in Poland in the period of 2011-2014. It contains the results of research on new methods of the parameter estimation, a study on robustness properties of the M-estimation, control network and deformation analysis, and geodetic time series analysis. The main achievements in the geodetic parameter estimation involve a new model of the M-estimation with probabilistic models of geodetic observations, a new Shift-Msplit estimation, which allows to estimate a vector of parameter differences and the Shift-Msplit(+) that is a generalisation of Shift-Msplit estimation if the design matrix A of a functional model has not a full column rank. The new algorithms of the coordinates conversion between the Cartesian and geodetic coordinates, both on the rotational and triaxial ellipsoid can be mentioned as a highlights of the research of the last four years. New parameter estimation models developed have been adopted and successfully applied to the control network and deformation analysis. New algorithms based on the wavelet, Fourier and Hilbert transforms were applied to find time-frequency characteristics of geodetic and geophysical time series as well as time-frequency relations between them. Statistical properties of these time series are also presented using different statistical tests as well as 2nd, 3rd and 4th moments about the mean. The new forecasts methods are presented which enable prediction of the considered time series in different frequency bands.

  8. Data-based theoretical identification of subcellular calcium compartments and estimation of calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Livshitz, Leonid; Acsai, Karoly; Antoons, Gudrun; Sipido, Karin; Rudy, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    In cardiac cells, Ca2+ release flux (Jrel) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) has a complex effect on the action potential (AP). Coupling between Jrel and the AP occurs via L-type Ca2+ channels (ICa) and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (INCX). We used a combined experimental and modelling approach to study interactions between Jrel, ICa and INCX in porcine ventricular myocytes. We tested the hypothesis that during normal uniform Jrel, the interaction between these fluxes can be represented as occurring in two myoplasmic subcompartments for Ca2+ distribution, one (T-space) associated with RyR and enclosed by the junctional portion of the SR membrane and corresponding T-tubular portion of the sarcolemma, the other (M-space) encompassing the rest of the myoplasm. ICa and INCX were partitioned into subpopulations in the T-space and M-space sarcolemma. We denoted free Ca2+ concentrations in T-space and M-space Cat and Cam, respectively. Experiments were designed to allow separate measurements of ICa and INCX as a function of Jrel. Inclusion of T-space in the model allowed us to reproduce in silico the following important experimental results: (1) hysteresis of INCX dependence on Cam; (2) delay between peak INCX and peak Cam during caffeine application protocol; (3) delay between INCX and Cam during Ca2+-induced-Ca2+-release; (4) rapid ICa inactivation (within 2 ms) due to Jrel, with magnitude graded as a function of the SR Ca2+ content; (5) time delay between ICa inactivation due to Jrel and Cam. Partition of 25% NCX in T-space and 75% in M-space provided the best fit to the experimental data. Measured Cam and ICa or INCX were used as input to the model for estimating Cat. The actual model-computed Cat, obtained by simulating specific experimental protocols, was used as a gold standard for comparison. The model predicted peak Cat in the range of 6–25 μm, with time to equilibrium of Cat with Cam of ∼350 ms. These Cat values are in the range

  9. Theoretical assessment and targeted modeling of TiO2 in reactor towards the scandium radioisotopes estimation.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Aboudzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-09-01

    (47)Sc radioisotope with beta particle emission can be used for targeted radionuclide therapy in nuclear medicine and can be produced by nuclear reactor (with high activities) and accelerator. In this work, the specific activity of (47)Sc with the isotopic impurities produced through irradiating the enriched (47)Tio2 and natural TiO2 targets have been calculated by the MCNPX-2.6 and the TALYS-1.8 codes and also theoretical approach in a fast neutron flux 3×10(13)ncm(-2)s(-1) in the reactor. In addition, the cross sections of (46)Ti(n,p)(46)Sc reaction have been interpolated in the 1-10MeV energy range and compared with the corresponding experimental data, as well. Moreover, the average cross sections of (46)Ti(n,p)(46)Sc, (47)Ti(n,p)(47)Sc and (48)Ti(n,p)(48)Sc reactions were reproduced. Acceptable agreement between the experimental data and calculated results confirms the ability of the used methods to design and predict the production process in reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cooperative dry-electrode sensors for multi-lead biopotential and bioimpedance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rapin, M; Proença, M; Braun, F; Meier, C; Solà, J; Ferrario, D; Grossenbacher, O; Porchet, J-A; Chételat, O

    2015-04-01

    Cooperative sensors is a novel measurement architecture that allows the acquiring of biopotential signals on patients in a comfortable and easy-to-integrate manner. The novel sensors are defined as cooperative in the sense that at least two of them work in concert to measure a target physiological signal, such as a multi-lead electrocardiogram or a thoracic bioimpedance.This paper starts by analysing the state-of-the-art methods to simultaneously measure biopotential and bioimpedance signals, and justifies why currently (1) passive electrodes require the use of shielded or double-shielded cables, and (2) active electrodes require the use of multi-wired cabled technologies, when aiming at high quality physiological measurements.In order to overcome the limitations of the state-of-the-art, a new method for biopotential and bioimpedance measurement using the cooperative sensor is then presented. The novel architecture allows the acquisition of the aforementioned biosignals without the need of shielded or multi-wire cables by splitting the electronics into separate electronic sensors comprising each of two electrodes, one for voltage measurement and one for current injection. The sensors are directly in contact with the skin and connected together by only one unshielded wire. This new configuration requires one power supply per sensor and all sensors need to be synchronized together to allow them to work in concert.After presenting the working principle of the cooperative sensor architecture, this paper reports first experimental results on the use of the technology when applied to measuring multi-lead ECG signals on patients. Measurements performed on a healthy patient demonstrate the feasibility of using this novel cooperative sensor architecture to measure biopotential signals and compliance with common mode rejection specification accordingly to international standard (IEC 60601-2-47) has also been assessed.By reducing the need of using complex wiring setups, and

  11. Effects of metoclopramide on gastric motility measured by short-term bio-impedance

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Franco, María-Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Capaccione, Kathleen M; Yañez-Roldán, Etna; Hernández-Ledezma, Ulises; Morales-Mata, Ismael; Córdova-Fraga, Teodoro

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the accuracy of short-term bio-impedance as a means of measuring gastric motility. METHODS: We evaluated differences in the short-term electrical bio-impedance signal from the gastric region in the following conditions: (1) fasting state, (2) after the administration of metoclopramide (a drug that induces an increase in gastric motility) and (3) after food ingestion in 23 healthy volunteers. We recorded the real component of the electrical impedance signal from the gastric region for 1000 s. We performed a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on this data and then compared the signal among the fasting, medicated, and postprandial conditions using the median of the area under the curve, the relative area under the curve and the main peak activity. RESULTS: The median of the area under the curve of the frequency range in the region between 2-8 cycles per minute (cpm) decreased from 4.7 cpm in the fasting condition to 4.0 cpm in the medicated state (t = 3.32, P = 0.004). This concurred with the decrease seen in the relative area under the FFT curve in the region from 4 to 8 cpm from 38.3% to 26.6% (t = 2.81, P = 0.012) and the increase in area in the region from 2 to 4 cpm from 22.4% to 27.7%, respectively (t = -2.5, P = 0.022). Finally the main peak position also decreased in the region from 2 to 8 cpm. Main peak activity in the fasting state was 4.72 cpm and declined to 3.45 cpm in the medicated state (t = 2.47, P = 0.025). There was a decrease from the fasting state to the postprandial state at 3.02 cpm (t = 4.0, P = 0.0013). CONCLUSION: Short-term electrical bio-impedance can assess gastric motility changes in individuals experiencing gastric stress by analyzing the area medians and relative areas under the FFT curve. PMID:19824108

  12. Theoretical and phantom based investigation of the impact of sound speed and backscatter variations on attenuation slope estimation

    PubMed Central

    Omari, Eenas; Lee, Heichang; Varghese, Tomy

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound features such as the attenuation slope, sound speed and scatterer size, have been utilized to evaluate pathological variations in soft tissues such as the liver and breast. However, the impact of variations in the sound speed and backscatter due to underlying fat content or fibrotic changes, on the attenuation slope has not been addressed. Both numerical and acoustically uniform tissue-mimicking experimental phantoms are used to demonstrate the impact of sound speed variations on attenuation slope using clinical real-time ultrasound scanners equipped with linear array transducers. Radiofrequency data at center frequencies of 4 and 5 MHz are acquired for the experimental and numerical phantoms respectively. Numerical phantom sound speeds between 1480 to 1600 m/s in increments of 20 m/s for attenuation coefficients of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 dB/cm/MHz are simulated. Variations in the attenuation slope when the backscatter intensity of the sample is equal, 3dB higher, and 3 dB lower than the reference is also evaluated. The sound speed for the experimental tissue-mimicking phantoms were 1500, 1540, 1560 and 1580 m/s respectively, with an attenuation coefficient of 0.5 dB/cm/MHz. Radiofrequency data is processed using three different attenuation estimation algorithms, i.e. the reference phantom, centroid downshift, and a hybrid method. In both numerical and experimental phantoms our results indicate a bias in attenuation slope estimates when the reference phantom sound speed is higher (overestimation) or lower (underestimation than that of the sample. This bias is introduced via a small spectral shift in the normalized power spectra of the reference and sample with different sound speeds. The hybrid method provides the best estimation performance, especially for sample attenuation coefficient values lower than that of the reference phantom. The performance of all the methods deteriorates when the attenuation coefficient of the reference

  13. Theoretical and phantom based investigation of the impact of sound speed and backscatter variations on attenuation slope estimation.

    PubMed

    Omari, Eenas; Lee, Heichang; Varghese, Tomy

    2011-08-01

    Quantitative ultrasound features such as the attenuation slope, sound speed and scatterer size, have been utilized to evaluate pathological variations in soft tissues such as the liver and breast. However, the impact of variations in the sound speed and backscatter due to underlying fat content or fibrotic changes, on the attenuation slope has not been addressed. Both numerical and acoustically uniform tissue-mimicking experimental phantoms are used to demonstrate the impact of sound speed variations on attenuation slope using clinical real-time ultrasound scanners equipped with linear array transducers. Radiofrequency data at center frequencies of 4 and 5 MHz are acquired for the experimental and numerical phantoms respectively. Numerical phantom sound speeds between 1480 and 1600 m/s in increments of 20 m/s for attenuation coefficients of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 dB/cm/MHz are simulated. Variations in the attenuation slope when the backscatter intensity of the sample is equal, 3 dB higher, and 3 dB lower than the reference is also evaluated. The sound speed for the experimental tissue-mimicking phantoms were 1500, 1540, 1560 and 1580 m/s respectively, with an attenuation coefficient of 0.5 dB/cm/MHz. Radiofrequency data is processed using three different attenuation estimation algorithms, i.e. the reference phantom, centroid downshift, and a hybrid method. In both numerical and experimental phantoms our results indicate a bias in attenuation slope estimates when the reference phantom sound speed is higher (overestimation) or lower (underestimation) than that of the sample. This bias is introduced via a small spectral shift in the normalized power spectra of the reference and sample with different sound speeds. The hybrid method provides the best estimation performance, especially for sample attenuation coefficient values lower than that of the reference phantom. The performance of all the methods deteriorates when the attenuation coefficient of the reference

  14. Operational research in primary health care planning: a theoretical model for estimating the coverage achieved by different distributions of staff and facilities

    PubMed Central

    Kemball-Cook, D.; Vaughan, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    This report outlines a basic operational research model for estimating the coverage achieved by different distributions of primary health care staff and facilities, using antenatal home visiting as an illustrative example. Coverage is estimated in terms of the average number of patient contacts achieved per annum. The model takes into account such features as number of facilities and health workers per 10 000 population, the radius of the health facility area, the overall population density in the region, the number of working days in the year, and the health worker's travelling time and work rate. A theoretical planning situation is also presented, showing the application of the model in defining various possible strategies, using certain planning norms for new levels of staff and facilities. This theoretical model is presented as an example of the use of operational research in primary health care, but it requires to be tested and validated in known situations before its usefulness can be assessed. Some indications are given of the ways in which the model could be adapted and improved for application to a real planning situation. PMID:6602666

  15. Photophysical properties of thiadiazoles derivative: Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments by theoretical and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muddapur, G. V.; Koppal, V. V.; Patil, N. R.; Melavanki, R. M.

    2016-05-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of newly synthesized thiadiazole derivative namely 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(naphthalene-1-ylmethyl) imidazo [2, 1-b][1,3,4] thiadiazole [6CNMT] have been recorded in various solvents of different polarities. The ground state dipole moment of 6CNMT was obtained from quantum chemical calculations. Solvatochromic correlations were used to estimate the ground state (μg) and excited state (μe) dipole moments. The excited state dipole moments are observed to be greater than the ground state dipole moment. Further, the changes in dipole moment (Δμ) were calculated both from solvatochromic shift method and microscopic solvent polarity parameter (ETN ) and the values are compared. The spectral variations were also analyzed by Kamlet-Taft parameters.

  16. Consistency of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity estimates with respect to the Bramwell-Hill theoretical model: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is considered as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality, and is increasingly used in clinical practice. This study aimed at evaluating the consistency of the automated estimation of regional and local aortic stiffness indices from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data. Results Forty-six healthy subjects underwent carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements (CF_PWV) by applanation tonometry and CMR with steady-state free-precession and phase contrast acquisitions at the level of the aortic arch. These data were used for the automated evaluation of the aortic arch pulse wave velocity (Arch_PWV), and the ascending aorta distensibility (AA_Distc, AA_Distb), which were estimated from ascending aorta strain (AA_Strain) combined with either carotid or brachial pulse pressure. The local ascending aorta pulse wave velocity AA_PWVc and AA_PWVb were estimated respectively from these carotid and brachial derived distensibility indices according to the Bramwell-Hill theoretical model, and were compared with the Arch_PWV. In addition, a reproducibility analysis of AA_PWV measurement and its comparison with the standard CF_PWV was performed. Characterization according to the Bramwell-Hill equation resulted in good correlations between Arch_PWV and both local distensibility indices AA_Distc (r = 0.71, p < 0.001) and AA_Distb (r = 0.60, p < 0.001); and between Arch_PWV and both theoretical local indices AA_PWVc (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and AA_PWVb (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the Arch_PWV was well related to CF_PWV (r = 0.69, p < 0.001) and its estimation was highly reproducible (inter-operator variability: 7.1%). Conclusions The present work confirmed the consistency and robustness of the regional index Arch_PWV and the local indices AA_Distc and AA_Distb according to the theoretical model, as well as to the well established measurement of CF_PWV, demonstrating the relevance of the regional and local CMR indices. PMID

  17. Automatic control of a drop-foot stimulator based on angle measurement using bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Nahrstaedt, Holger; Schauer, Thomas; Shalaby, Raafat; Hesse, Stefan; Raisch, Jörg

    2008-08-01

    The topic of this contribution is iterative learning control of a drop-foot stimulator in which a predefined angle profile during the swing phase is realized. Ineffective dorsiflexion is compensated by feedback-controlled stimulation of the muscle tibialis anterior. The ankle joint measurement is based on changes in the bioimpedance (BI) caused by leg movements. A customized four-channel BI measurement system was developed. The suggested control approach and the new measurement method for the joint angle were successfully tested in preliminary experiments with a neurologically intact subject. Reference angle measurements were taken with a marker-based optical system. An almost linear relation between joint angle and BI was found for the angle range applicable during gait. The desired angle trajectory was closely tracked by the iterative learning controller after three gait cycles. The final root mean square tracking error was below 5 degrees.

  18. Bioimpedance spectroscopy can precisely discriminate human breast carcinoma from benign tumors.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhenggui; Wan, Hangyu; Chen, Yu; Pu, Yang; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative frozen pathology is critical when a breast tumor is not diagnosed before surgery. However, frozen tumor tissues always present various microscopic morphologies, leading to a high misdiagnose rate from frozen section examination. Thus, we aimed to identify breast tumors using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), a technology that measures the tissues' impedance. We collected and measured 976 specimens from breast patients during surgery, including 581 breast cancers, 190 benign tumors, and 205 normal mammary gland tissues. After measurement, Cole-Cole curves were generated by a bioimpedance analyzer and parameters R0/R∞, fc, and α were calculated from the curve. The Cole-Cole curves showed a trend to differentiate mammary gland, benign tumors, and cancer. However, there were some curves overlapped with other groups, showing that it is not an ideal model. Subsequent univariate analysis of R0/R∞, fc, and α showed significant differences between benign tumor and cancer. However, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated the diagnostic value of fc and R0/R∞ were not superior to frozen sections (area under curve [AUC] = 0.836 and 0.849, respectively), and α was useless in diagnosis (AUC = 0.596). After further research, we found a scatter diagram that showed a synergistic effect of the R0/R∞ and fc, in discriminating cancer from benign tumors. Thus, we used multivariate analysis, which revealed that these two parameters were independent predictors, to combine them. A simplified equation, RF = 0.2fc + 3.6R0/R∞, based on multivariate analysis was developed. The ROC curve for RF' showed an AUC = 0.939, and the sensitivity and specificity were 82.62% and 95.79%, respectively. To match a clinical setting, the diagnostic criteria were set at 6.91 and 12.9 for negative and positive diagnosis, respectively. In conclusion, RF' derived from BIS can discriminate benign tumor and cancers, and integrated criteria were developed for

  19. Bioimpedance spectroscopy for the detection of fluid overload in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Chow, Kai-Ming; Law, Man-Ching; Cheng, Mei Shan; Leung, Chi-Bon; Pang, Wing-Fai; Kwong, Vickie Wai-Ki; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2014-06-01

    Fluid overload probably contributes to the cardiovascular risk of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We studied the relationship between over-hydration as determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dialysis adequacy, nutritional status, and arterial stiffness in Chinese PD patients. We studied 122 asymptomatic prevalent PD patients: bioimpedance spectroscopy, arterial pulse wave velocity, dialysis adequacy and nutritional status were determined. Of the 122 patients, 88 (72.1%) had over-hydration of ≥ 1 L, while 25 (20.5%) were ≥ 5 L. Over-hydration significantly correlated with total body water (r = 0.474, p < 0.001) and extracellular water (r = 0.755, p < 0.001). Over-hydration was more severe in male and diabetic patients, and significantly correlated with Charlson's comorbidity score, blood pressure, body mass index, body weight, peritoneal transport characteristics, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Over-hydration significantly correlated with Kt/V (r = -0.287, p = 0.016), serum albumin level (r = -0.465, p < 0.001) and malnutrition inflammation score (r = 0.410, p = 0.006), but not residual renal function. Over-hydration is common in asymptomatic Chinese PD patients. The degree of over-hydration is particularly pronounced in patients who are inadequately dialyzed, have multiple comorbid conditions and low serum albumin levels. Over-hydration is associated with high blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and may contribute to the excessive risk of cardiovascular disease in this group of patients. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  20. Bioimpedance monitoring of 3D cell culturing--complementary electrode configurations for enhanced spatial sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir; Høyum, Per; Pettersen, Fred-Johan; Hemmingsen, Mette; Wolff, Anders; Dufva, Martin; Martinsen, Ørjan Grøttem; Emnéus, Jenny

    2015-01-15

    A bioimpedance platform is presented as a promising tool for non-invasive real-time monitoring of the entire process of three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing in a hydrogel scaffold. In this study, the dynamics involved in the whole process of 3D cell culturing, starting from polymerisation of a bare 3D gelatin scaffold, to human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation and proliferation, was monitored over time. The platform consists of a large rectangular culture chamber with four embedded vertical gold plate electrodes that were exploited in two- and three terminal (2T and 3T) measurement configurations. By switching between the different combinations of electrode couples, it was possible to generate a multiplexing-like approach, which allowed for collecting spatially distributed information within the 3D space. Computational finite element (FE) analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) characterisation were used to determine the configurations' sensitivity field localisation. The 2T setup gives insight into the interfacial phenomena at both electrode surfaces and covers the central part of the 3D cell culture volume, while the four 3T modes provide focus on the dynamics at the corners of the 3D culture chamber. By combining a number of electrode configurations, complementary spatially distributed information on a large 3D cell culture can be obtained with maximised sensitivity in the entire 3D space. The experimental results show that cell proliferation can be monitored within the tested biomimetic environment, paving the way to further developments in bioimpedance tracking of 3D cell cultures and tissue engineering.

  1. Empirical estimates and theoretical predictions of the shorting factor for the THEMIS double-probe electric field instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califf, S.; Cully, C. M.

    2016-07-01

    Double-probe electric field measurements on board spacecraft present significant technical challenges, especially in the inner magnetosphere where the ambient plasma characteristics can vary dramatically and alter the behavior of the instrument. We explore the shorting factor for the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms electric field instrument, which is a scale factor error on the measured electric field due to coupling between the sensing spheres and the long wire booms, using both an empirical technique and through simulations with varying levels of fidelity. The empirical data and simulations both show that there is effectively no shorting when the spacecraft is immersed in high-density plasma deep within the plasmasphere and that shorting becomes more prominent as plasma density decreases and the Debye length increases outside the plasmasphere. However, there is a significant discrepancy between the data and theory for the shorting factor in low-density plasmas: the empirical estimate indicates ~0.7 shorting for long Debye lengths, but the simulations predict a shorting factor of ~0.94. This paper systematically steps through the empirical and modeling methods leading to the disagreement with the intention of motivating further study on the topic.

  2. Theoretical estimation for equilibrium Mo isotope fractionations between dissolved Mo species and the adsorbed complexes on (Fe,Mn)-oxyhydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, M.; Liu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Although Mo isotopes have been increasingly used as a paleoredox proxy in the study of paleo-oceanographic condition changes (Barling et al., 2001; Siebert et al., 2003, 2005,2006; Arnold et al., 2004; Poulson et al., 2006), some very basic aspects of Mo isotopes geochemistry have not been obtained yet. First, although there are several previous studies on equilibrium Mo isotope fractionation factors(Tossell,2005; Weeks et al.,2007; Wasylenki et al.,2008), these studies were dealing with situations in vacuum and we find unfortunately the solvation effects for Ge species in solution cannot be ignored. Therefore, accurate Ge fractionation factors are actually not determined yet. Second, except the dominant dissolved Mo species in seawater which is known as molybdate ion (MoO42-), the forms of possible other minor species remain elusive. Third, the Mo removal mechanisms from seawater are only known for the anoxia and euxinic conditions (e.g. Helz et al., 1996; Zheng et al., 2000), the Mo removal mechanism under oxic condition are still arguing. Fourth, the adsorption effects on Mo isotope fractionation are almost completely unknown. Especially, without the adsorption fractionation knowledge, it is difficult to understand many distinct fractionations found in a number of geologic systems and it is difficult to explain the exceptionally long residence time of Mo in seawater. Urey model or Bigeleisen-Mayer equation based theoretical method and the super-molecule clusters are used to precisely evaluate the fractionation factors. The B3LYP/(6-311+G(2df,p),LANL2DZ) level method is used for frequencies calculation. 24 water molecules are used to form the supermolecues surrounding the Mo species. At least 4 different conformers for each supermolecule are used to prevent the errors from the diversity of configurations in solution. This study provides accurate equilibrium Mo isotope fractionation factors between possible dissolved Mo species and the adsorbed Mo species on the

  3. Theoretical estimation of (64)Cu production with neutrons emitted during (18)F production with a 30MeV medical cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Auditore, Lucrezia; Amato, Ernesto; Baldari, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    This work presents the theoretical estimation of a combined production of (18)F and (64)Cu isotopes for PET applications. (64)Cu production is induced in a secondary target by neutrons emitted during a routine (18)F production with a 30MeV cyclotron: protons are used to produce (18)F by means of the (18)O(p,n)(18)F reaction on a [(18)O]-H2O target (primary target) and the emitted neutrons are used to produce (64)Cu by means of the (64)Zn(n,p)(64)Cu reaction on enriched zinc target (secondary target). Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using Monte Carlo N Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code to evaluate flux and energy spectra of neutrons produced in the primary (Be+[(18)O]-H2O) target by protons and the attenuation of neutron flux in the secondary target. (64)Cu yield was estimated using an analytical approach based on both TENDL-2015 data library and experimental data selected from EXFOR database. Theoretical evaluations indicate that about 3.8 MBq/μA of (64)Cu can be obtained as a secondary, 'side' production with a 30MeV cyclotron, for 2h of irradiation of a proper designed zinc target. Irradiating for 2h with a proton current of 120 μA, a yield of about 457 MBq is expected. Moreover, the most relevant contaminants result to be (63,65)Zn, which can be chemically separated from (64)Cu contrarily to what happens with proton irradiation of an enriched (64)Ni target, which provides (64)Cu mixed to other copper isotopes as contaminants. The theoretical study discussed in this paper evaluates the potential of the combined production of (18)F and (64)Cu for medical purposes, irradiating a properly designed target with 30MeV protons. Interesting yields of (64)Cu are obtainable and the estimation of contaminants in the irradiated zinc target is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative study of nano-scale coatings on gold electrodes for bioimpedance studies of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Srinivasaraghavan, Vaishnavi; Strobl, Jeannine; Wang, Dong; Heflin, James R; Agah, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    The relative sensitivity of standard gold microelectrodes for electric cell-substrate impedance sensing was compared with that of gold microelectrodes coated with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, or electroplated gold to introduce nano-scale roughness on the surface of the electrodes. For biological solutions, the electroplated gold coated electrodes had significantly higher sensitivity to changes in conductivity than electrodes with other coatings. In contrast, the carbon nanotube coated electrodes displayed the highest sensitivity to MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cells. There was also a significant shift in the peak frequency of the cancer cell bioimpedance signal based on the type of electrode coating. The results indicate that nano-scale coatings which introduce varying degrees of surface roughness can be used to modulate the frequency dependent sensitivity of the electrodes and optimize electrode sensitivity for different bioimpedance sensing applications.

  5. Systematic estimation of theoretical uncertainties in the calculation of the pion-photon transition form factor using light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the calculation of the pion-photon transition form factor Fγ*γπ0(Q2) within light-cone sum rules focusing attention to the low-mid region of momenta. The central aim is to estimate the theoretical uncertainties which originate from a wide variety of sources related to (i) the relevance of next-to-next-to-leading order radiative corrections (ii) the influence of the twist-four and the twist-six term (iii) the sensitivity of the results on auxiliary parameters, like the Borel scale M2, (iv) the role of the phenomenological description of resonances, and (v) the significance of a small but finite virtuality of the quasireal photon. Predictions for Fγ*γπ0(Q2) are presented which include all these uncertainties and found to comply within the margin of experimental error with the existing data in the Q2 range between 1 and 5 GeV2 , thus justifying the reliability of the applied calculational scheme. This provides a solid basis for confronting theoretical predictions with forthcoming data bearing small statistical errors.

  6. Bioimpedance analysis and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide assay may cooperate in diagnosing and managing heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tamagno, Gianluca; Guzzon, Samuele

    2006-06-01

    We describe the case of an obese patient presenting leg oedema, progressive oliguria, orthopnoea and mild increased B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) provided additional data for the interpretation of the plasma BNP values, contributing to the diagnosis of heart failure and the appropriate management of the patient. In our mind, BIA could represent a useful tool for integrating the plasma BNP assay in both diagnosis and management of heart failure.

  7. Comparison of Skinfold Thicknesses and Bioimpedance Spectroscopy to Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for the Body Fat Measurement in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rymarz, Aleksandra; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the amount of body fat measured by skinfold thickness (SFT) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Methods: Forty-eight patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment thrice-weekly for at least 3 months (HD group) with a mean age of 59.8 ± 15.5 years, 61 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and a mean age of 60.1 ± 17.7 years (predialysis group, PreD), and 33 individuals without kidney disease with an eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and a mean age of 58.7 ± 17.0 years (control group) were included. Results: Mean percentages of body fat measured by SFT did not significantly differ from those measured by DXA in the HD group (P = .249) and the PreD group (P = .355). In the control group, mean percentage of fat mass measured by SFT was significantly higher than measured by DXA (P = .004). Mean difference was 1.99% ± 3.65%. The measurements of body fat performed by BIS were significantly higher than those performed by DXA in all studied groups (P < .001). Age was statistically significant and the strongest factor that influenced the variability of measurements obtained by BIS and DXA in all studied groups (R2 = 0.302, 0.153, and 0.250, respectively, for HD, PreD, and control groups). Conclusions: SFT as a method of fat mass assessment in daily routine practice seems to be more reliable then BIS in patients treated with hemodialysis and in patients with stage IV/V CKD. However, methods based on bioimpedance techniques can potentially offer more data such as overhydration or an amount of lean tissue mass, but further investigations are needed to establish method the most suitable for patients with CKD. PMID:28466665

  8. Comparison of Skinfold Thicknesses and Bioimpedance Spectroscopy to Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for the Body Fat Measurement in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Rymarz, Aleksandra; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the amount of body fat measured by skinfold thickness (SFT) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Forty-eight patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment thrice-weekly for at least 3 months (HD group) with a mean age of 59.8 ± 15.5 years, 61 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and a mean age of 60.1 ± 17.7 years (predialysis group, PreD), and 33 individuals without kidney disease with an eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and a mean age of 58.7 ± 17.0 years (control group) were included. Mean percentages of body fat measured by SFT did not significantly differ from those measured by DXA in the HD group ( P = .249) and the PreD group ( P = .355). In the control group, mean percentage of fat mass measured by SFT was significantly higher than measured by DXA ( P = .004). Mean difference was 1.99% ± 3.65%. The measurements of body fat performed by BIS were significantly higher than those performed by DXA in all studied groups ( P < .001). Age was statistically significant and the strongest factor that influenced the variability of measurements obtained by BIS and DXA in all studied groups ( R(2) = 0.302, 0.153, and 0.250, respectively, for HD, PreD, and control groups). SFT as a method of fat mass assessment in daily routine practice seems to be more reliable then BIS in patients treated with hemodialysis and in patients with stage IV/V CKD. However, methods based on bioimpedance techniques can potentially offer more data such as overhydration or an amount of lean tissue mass, but further investigations are needed to establish method the most suitable for patients with CKD.

  9. Theoretical study on the amplitude ratio of the seismoelectric field to the Stoneley wave and the formation tortuosity estimation from seismoelectric logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Wei; Yin, Chenggang; Wang, Jun; Cui, Naigang; Hu, Hengshan; Wang, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Seismoelectric logging has potential applications in exploring the porous formation characteristics. In this study, we theoretically address how the amplitudes of the Stoneley wave and its accompanying borehole seismoelectric field depend on the porous formation parameters such as porosity, permeability and tortuosity. We calculate the ratio of the electric field amplitude to the pressure amplitude (REP amplitude) for the low-frequency Stoneley wave of different formations and find that the REP amplitude is sensitive to porosity and tortuosity but insensitive to permeability. To confirm this conclusion, we derive the approximate expression of the REP amplitude in the wavenumber-frequency domain which shows that the REP amplitude is dependent on tortuosity but independent of permeability. This contradicts the result concluded by previous researchers from experiments that the REP amplitude is directly proportional to the permeability. The reason is probably attributed to the fact that the rock samples with different permeabilities typically have different tortuosities. Since the REP amplitude is sensitive to tortuosity, we propose a method of estimating formation tortuosity from seismoelectric logs. It is implemented by using the REP amplitude and the wavenumber of the Stoneley wave at a given frequency when the porosity and the pore fluid viscosity and salinity are known. We test the method by estimating the tortuosities from the synthetic seismoelectric waveforms in different formations. The result shows that the errors relative to the input tortuosities are lower than 5.0 per cent without considering the uncertainties of other input parameters.

  10. A theoretical discussion of the use of the Lineweaver-Burk plot to estimate kinetic parameters of intestinal transport in the presence of unstirred water layers.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A B

    1981-09-01

    Transport of a solute molecule from the bulk phase in the intestinal lumen into the mucosal cells is determined by the rate of movement of the solute molecule across two barriers, the unstirred water layers (UWL) and the microvillus membrane. Failure to account for the effect of the resistance offered by the UWL introduces significant errors into the estimate of kinetic constants of carrier-mediated transport, and these errors may be further magnified by the use of the Lineweaver-Burk plot. This study was under taken to determine use of this plot under conditions that depict the effect of varying the effective resistance of the UWL, the distribution of transport sites along the villus (fn), the passive permeability coefficient (P), the maximal transport rate (Jdm), and the Michaelis constant (Km). Theoretical curves derived from a new equation demonstrate that (1) the Lineweaver-Burk plot is linear under only a limited number of conditions, and even then may lead to serous over- or under-estimation of Jdm and Km; (2) failure to correct for passive permeation may give rise to additional quantitative discrepancies between the true and apparent values of Jdm and Km; and (3) the qualitative characteristics of a carrier-mediated intestinal transport system may be ascertained only after correction for the contribution of passive permeation, and after correction for the effective resistance of the UWL.

  11. Methods and reproducibility of measurement of resistivity in the calf using regional bioimpedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fansan; Sarkar, Shubho; Kaitwatcharachai, Charoen; Greenwood, Roger; Ronco, Claudio; Levin, Nathan W

    2003-01-01

    The usefulness of regional bioimpedance analysis (RBIA) in determining the dry weight in dialysis patients is currently being investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of measurement of resistivity in the calf. Twenty-five normal subjects and 10 patients undergoing regular hemodialysis were studied. Four electrodes inserted into a blood pressure cuff were placed on the calf. Bioimpedance was continuously measured over 3- to 5-min periods (Xitron Hydra). After a resting period of 1 min, cuff pressure was increased to above the systolic blood pressure (SBP) for a few seconds to expel excess ECF fluid and then deflated. The effect on recordings of moving the electrodes 2 cm higher and then 2 cm lower than the normal position was studied in 8 normal subjects. In a second study of reproducibility, post-dialysis measurements were made twice in 10 patients who maintained the same post-dialysis target weight throughout the study period. The mean resting resistivity rho(0) in normal subjects was 532.6 +/- 95 omega.cm rising to 583.9 +/- 99.7 omega.cm when cuff pressure was applied rho(p). The average values of rho(0) and rho(p) in patients post-dialysis were 489 +/- 74 and 537 +/- 77 respectively showing that there were no significant differences in rho(0) and rho(p) between normal subjects and patients post-dialysis. The mean values of change in resistivity when the electrodes were shifted between the lowest and highest positions on the calf were -3.66 +/- 4.45 and -1.44 +/- 3.82%, respectively. Repeat measurement of resistivity in patients post-dialysis varied by 2.04 +/- 2.29% while post-dialysis body weight varied by 0.17 +/- 0.47%. In this study, resistivity measurement by RBIA at the calf showed similar levels of fluid loading in patients post-dialysis as in normal subjects. This study also showed that change in electrode position resulted in a mean change in resistivity of <5% and repeated measurements showed a change in resistivity <3

  12. Bioimpedance spectroscopy can precisely discriminate human breast carcinoma from benign tumors

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhenggui; Wan, Hangyu; Chen, Yu; Pu, Yang; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intraoperative frozen pathology is critical when a breast tumor is not diagnosed before surgery. However, frozen tumor tissues always present various microscopic morphologies, leading to a high misdiagnose rate from frozen section examination. Thus, we aimed to identify breast tumors using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), a technology that measures the tissues’ impedance. We collected and measured 976 specimens from breast patients during surgery, including 581 breast cancers, 190 benign tumors, and 205 normal mammary gland tissues. After measurement, Cole-Cole curves were generated by a bioimpedance analyzer and parameters R0/R∞, fc, and α were calculated from the curve. The Cole-Cole curves showed a trend to differentiate mammary gland, benign tumors, and cancer. However, there were some curves overlapped with other groups, showing that it is not an ideal model. Subsequent univariate analysis of R0/R∞, fc, and α showed significant differences between benign tumor and cancer. However, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated the diagnostic value of fc and R0/R∞ were not superior to frozen sections (area under curve [AUC] = 0.836 and 0.849, respectively), and α was useless in diagnosis (AUC = 0.596). After further research, we found a scatter diagram that showed a synergistic effect of the R0/R∞ and fc, in discriminating cancer from benign tumors. Thus, we used multivariate analysis, which revealed that these two parameters were independent predictors, to combine them. A simplified equation, RF′ = 0.2fc + 3.6R0/R∞, based on multivariate analysis was developed. The ROC curve for RF′ showed an AUC = 0.939, and the sensitivity and specificity were 82.62% and 95.79%, respectively. To match a clinical setting, the diagnostic criteria were set at 6.91 and 12.9 for negative and positive diagnosis, respectively. In conclusion, RF′ derived from BIS can discriminate benign tumor and cancers, and integrated criteria

  13. Theoretical framework to estimate spatially averaged rainfalls conditional on river discharges and point rainfall measurements from a single location: an application to Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langousis, A.; Kaleris, V.

    2012-11-01

    We focus on the special case of catchments covered by a single raingauge, and develop a theoretical framework to obtain estimates of spatial rainfall averages conditional on rainfall measurements from a single location, and the flow conditions at the catchment outlet. In doing so we use: (a) statistical tools to identify and correct inconsistencies between daily rainfall occurrence and amount and the flow conditions at the outlet of the basin, (b) concepts from multifractal theory to relate the fraction of wet intervals in point rainfall measurements and that in spatial rainfall averages, while accounting for the shape and size of the catchment, the size, lifetime and advection velocity of rainfall generating features and the location of the raingauge inside the basin, and (c) semi-theoretical arguments to assure consistency between rainfall and runoff volumes at an inter-annual level, implicitly accounting for spatial heterogeneities of rainfall caused by orographic influences. In an application study, using point rainfall records from Glafkos river basin in Western Greece, we find the suggested approach to demonstrate significant skill in resolving rainfall-runoff incompatibilities at a daily level, while reproducing the statistics of spatial rainfall averages at both monthly and annual time scales, independently of the location of the raingauge and the magnitude of the observed deviations between point rainfall measurements and spatial rainfall averages. The developed scheme should serve as an important tool for the effective calibration of rainfall-runoff models in basins covered by a single raingauge and, also, improve hydrologic impact assessment at a river basin level under changing climatic conditions.

  14. Theoretical framework to estimate spatial rainfall averages conditional on river discharges and point rainfall measurements from a single location: an application to western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langousis, A.; Kaleris, V.

    2013-03-01

    We focus on the special case of catchments covered by a single rain gauge and develop a theoretical framework to obtain estimates of spatial rainfall averages conditional on rainfall measurements from a single location, and the flow conditions at the catchment outlet. In doing so we use (a) statistical tools to identify and correct inconsistencies between daily rainfall occurrence and amount and the flow conditions at the outlet of the basin; (b) concepts from multifractal theory to relate the fraction of wet intervals in point rainfall measurements and that in spatial rainfall averages, while accounting for the shape and size of the catchment, the size, lifetime and advection velocity of rainfall-generating features and the location of the rain gauge inside the basin; and (c) semi-theoretical arguments to assure consistency between rainfall and runoff volumes at an inter-annual level, implicitly accounting for spatial heterogeneities of rainfall caused by orographic influences. In an application study, using point rainfall records from the Glafkos river basin in western Greece, we find the suggested approach to demonstrate significant skill in resolving rainfall-runoff incompatibilities at a daily level, while reproducing the statistics of spatial rainfall averages at both monthly and annual time scales, independent of the location of the rain gauge and the magnitude of the observed deviations between point rainfall measurements and spatial rainfall averages. The developed scheme should serve as an important tool for the effective calibration of rainfall-runoff models in basins covered by a single rain gauge and, also, improve hydrologic impact assessment at a river basin level under changing climatic conditions.

  15. Theoretically Guided Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Rifampicin in a Mixture of Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide by UV Spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad F; Rita, Shamima A; Kayser, Md Shahidulla; Islam, Md Shariful; Asad, Sharmeen; Bin Rashid, Ridwan; Bari, Md Abdul; Rahman, Muhammed M; Al Aman, D A Anwar; Setu, Nurul I; Banoo, Rebecca; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2017-01-01

    A simple, rapid, economic, accurate, and precise method for the estimation of rifampicin in a mixture of isoniazid and pyrazinamide by UV spectrophotometeric technique (guided by the theoretical investigation of physicochemical properties) was developed and validated. Theoretical investigations revealed that isoniazid and pyrazinamide both were freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethyl acetate whereas rifampicin was practically insoluble in water but freely soluble in ethyl acetate. This indicates that ethyl acetate is an effective solvent for the extraction of rifampicin from a water mixture of isoniazid and pyrazinamide. Computational study indicated that pH range of 6.0-8.0 would favor the extraction of rifampicin. Rifampicin is separated from isoniazid and pyrazinamide at pH 7.4 ± 0.1 by extracting with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate was then analyzed at λmax of 344.0 nm. The developed method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision according to ICH guidelines. The proposed method exhibited good linearity over the concentration range of 2.5-35.0 μg/mL. The intraday and inter-day precision in terms of % RSD ranged from 1.09 to 1.70% and 1.63 to 2.99%, respectively. The accuracy (in terms of recovery) of the method varied from of 96.7 ± 0.9 to 101.1 ± 0.4%. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.83 and 2.52 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the developed method was successfully applied to determine rifampicin combination (isoniazid and pyrazinamide) brands available in Bangladesh.

  16. Theoretically guided analytical method development and validation for the estimation of rifampicin in a mixture of isoniazid and pyrazinamide by UV spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad F.; Rita, Shamima A.; Kayser, Md. Shahidulla; Islam, Md. Shariful; Asad, Sharmeen; Bin Rashid, Ridwan; Bari, Md. Abdul; Rahman, Muhammed M.; Al Aman, D. A. Anwar; Setu, Nurul I.; Banoo, Rebecca; Rashid, Mohammad A.

    2017-04-01

    A simple, rapid, economic, accurate and precise method for the estimation of rifampicin in a mixture of isoniazid and pyrazinamide by UV spectrophotometeric technique (guided by the theoretical investigation of physicochemical properties) was developed and validated. Theoretical investigations revealed that isoniazid and pyrazinamide both were freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethyl acetate whereas rifampicin was practically insoluble in water but freely soluble in ethyl acetate. This indicates that ethyl acetate is an effective solvent for the extraction of rifampicin from a water mixture of isoniazid and pyrazinamide. Computational study indicated that pH range of 6.0-8.0 would favor the extraction of rifampicin. Rifampicin is separated from isoniazid and pyrazinamide at pH 7.4 ± 0.1 by extracting with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate was then analyzed at λmax of 344.0 nm. The developed method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision according to ICH guidelines. The proposed method exhibited good linearity over the concentration range of 2.5 - 35.0 µg/mL. The intraday and inter-day precision in terms of % RSD ranged from 1.09 - 1.70% and 1.63 - 2.99%, respectively. The accuracy (in terms of recovery) of the method varied from of 96.7 ± 0.9 to 101.1 ± 0.4%. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.83 and 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the developed method was successfully applied to assay rifampicin combination (isoniazid and pyrazinamide) brands available in Bangladesh.

  17. Comparison of resting energy equations and total energy expenditure in haemodialysis patients and body composition measured by multi-frequency bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ben; Sridharan, Sivakumar; Farrington, Ken; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-07-13

    Waste products of metabolism are retained in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Cellular metabolism generates energy, and patients with greater energy expenditure may therefore require more dialysis. To determine the amount of dialysis required, equations estimating resting and total energy expenditure (REE,TEE) are required. We compared estimates of REE in HD patients using established equations with a novel equation recently validated in HD patients (HD equation). TEE was derived from REE (HD equation) and estimates of physical activity obtained by questionnaire. REE and TEE relationships with bioimpedance measured body composition were then determined. We studied 317 HD patients; 195 males (61.5%), 123 diabetic (38.9%), mean age 65.0 ± 15.3 and weight 73.1 ± 16.8 kg. REE from HD Equation was 1509 ± 241 kcal/day, which was greater than for Mifflin St Joer 1384 ± 259, Harris-Benedict 1437 ± 244, Katch-McArdle 1345 ± 232 (all p < 0.05 vs HD Equation), but less than Cunningham 1557 ± 236 kcal/day. Bland Altman mean bias ranged from -263 to 55 kcal/day. TEE was 1727 (1558-1976) kcal/day, and on multi-variable analysis was positively associated with skeletal muscle mass (β 23.3, p < 0.001), employment (β 406.5, p < 0.001), low co-morbidity (β 105.1, p = 0.006), and protein nitrogen appearance (β 2.7, p = 0.015), and negatively with age (β -7.9, p < 0.001), and dialysis vintage (β -121.2, p = 0.002). Most standard equations underestimate REE in HD patients compared to the HD Equation. TEE was greater in those with higher skeletal muscle mass and protein nitrogen appearance, lower co-morbidity, age, and dialysis vintage, and the employed. More metabolically active patients may require greater dialytic clearances. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Segmental bioimpedance analysis in professional cyclists during a three week stage race.

    PubMed

    Marra, Maurizio; Da Prat, Barbara; Montagnese, Concetta; Caldara, Annarita; Sammarco, Rosa; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Corsetti, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis has been widely used in the clinical and sport areas because it is a safe, non-invasive, rapid and inexpensive technique that evaluates some electrical properties of the body, such as resistance (R), reactance (X c ) and phase angle (PhA). The aim of this study is to evaluate body composition changes in professional cyclists, participating at the Giro D'Italia 2012, a three week stage race, and in particular PhA modifications as an expression of fat free mass nutritional status. Data were collected at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the competition. Body weight, circumferences, skinfold thickness and BIA variables (total and segmental body) were measured. Body composition, measured by skinfold thickness, changed during the competition: fat free mass increased, but not significantly, in the middle and at the end of the competition, whereas fat mass significantly decreased versus the baseline in the middle and at the end of the competition. The total PhA did not significantly change in the middle of the competition but was significantly reduced at the end. The arm PhA did not change significantly at both times of the competition, whereas a significant reduction was reported for leg PhA in the middle and at the end of the competition. These results suggest the use of bioimpedance analysis, in particular PhA measurement, to monitor athletes' fat free mass characteristics during medium- and long-term competitions.

  19. Development of Bio-impedance Analyzer (BIA) for Body Fat Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyadi, Munawar A.; Nugraha, A.; Santoso, M. B.; Septaditya, D.; Prakoso, T.

    2017-04-01

    Common weight scales cannot assess body composition or determine fat mass and fat-fress mass that make up the body weight. This research propose bio-impedance analysis (BIA) tool capable to body composition assessment. This tool uses four electrodes, two of which are used for 50 kHz sine wave current flow to the body and the rest are used to measure the voltage produced by the body for impedance analysis. Parameters such as height, weight, age, and gender are provided individually. These parameters together with impedance measurements are then in the process to produce a body fat percentage. The experimental result shows impressive repeatability for successive measurements (stdev ≤ 0.25% fat mass). Moreover, result on the hand to hand node scheme reveals average absolute difference of total subjects between two analyzer tools of 0.48% (fat mass) with maximum absolute discrepancy of 1.22% (fat mass). On the other hand, the relative error normalized to Omron’s HBF-306 as comparison tool reveals less than 2% relative error. As a result, the system performance offers good evaluation tool for fat mass in the body.

  20. Segmental measurement of breast cancer-related arm lymphoedema using perometry and bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Czerniec, Sharon A; Ward, Leigh C; Lee, Mi-Joung; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Beith, Jane; Kilbreath, Sharon L

    2011-05-01

    To determine if bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) could detect localised lymphoedema of the arm and to compare BIS measurements with equivalent measures of limb volume by perometry. Women with mild to severe upper limb lymphoedema (n = 29) and women with no history of lymphoedema (n = 11) participated. Commencing at the ulnar styloid of the wrist, 4 × 10 cm segment measurements were made of each arm using both BIS and perometry. Average BIS inter-limb ratios for the total arm and each arm segment were higher than comparable perometry measures in women with lymphoedema, but similar to perometry measures for women without lymphoedema. Limits of agreement analysis showed that the mean difference between methods varied according to segment measured, ranging from 8.5% for the uppermost segment of the arm to 16.6% for the forearm segment just below the elbow. For all limb segments, there was a positive bias towards BIS measurements, which increased as lymphoedema severity increased. BIS can be used for localised measurement of lymphoedema. Because it is specific to extracellular fluid, BIS is more sensitive to localised lymphoedema than perometry.

  1. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  2. Body composition following stem cell transplant: comparison of bioimpedance and air-displacement plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yun-Chi; Bauer, Judith D; Horsely, Pamela; Ward, Leigh C; Bashford, John; Isenring, Elisabeth A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between detected changes in body composition determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) among patients with cancer undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT); and to assess the agreement of absolute values of BIS with ADP and dual energy x-ray (DXA). Forty-four adult hematologic cancer patients undergoing PBSCT completed both BIS and ADP assessment at preadmission and at 3 mo after transplantation. A subsample (n = 11) was assessed by DXA at 3 mo after transplantation. Results were examined for the BIS instrument's default setting and three alternative predictive equations from the literature. Agreement was assessed by the Bland-Altman limits of agreement analysis while correlation was examined using the Lin's concordance correlation. Changes in body composition parameters assessed by BIS were comparable with those determined by ADP regardless of the predictive equations used. Bias of change in fat-free mass was clinically acceptable (all <1 kg), although limits of agreement were wide (more than ±6 kg). Overall, the BIS predictive equation accounting for body mass index performed the best. Absolute body composition parameters predicted by the alternative predictive equations agreed with DXA and ADP better than the BIS instrument's default setting. Changes predicted by BIS were similar to those determined by ADP on a group level; however, agreement of predicted changes at an individual level should be interpreted with caution due to wide limits of agreement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Process techniques for human thoracic electrical bio-impedance signal in remote healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Muhammad Zia Ur; Mirza, Shafi Shahsavar

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of thoracic electrical bio-impedance (TEB) facilitates heart stroke volume in sudden cardiac arrest. This Letter proposes several efficient and computationally simplified adaptive algorithms to display high-resolution TEB component. In a clinical environment, TEB signal encounters with various physiological and non-physiological phenomenon, which masks the tiny features that are important in identifying the intensity of the stroke. Moreover, computational complexity is an important parameter in a modern wearable healthcare monitoring tool. Hence, in this Letter, the authors propose a new signal conditioning technique for TEB enhancement in remote healthcare systems. For this, the authors have chosen higher order adaptive filter as a basic element in the process of TEB. To improve filtering capability, convergence speed, to reduce computational complexity of the signal conditioning technique, the authors apply data normalisation and clipping the data regressor. The proposed implementations are tested on real TEB signals. Finally, simulation results confirm that proposed regressor clipped normalised higher order filter is suitable for a practical healthcare system.

  4. Monitoring lung resistivity changes in congestive heart failure patients using the bioimpedance technique.

    PubMed

    Zlochiver, Sharon; Radai, Michal M; Barak-Shinar, Deganit; Ben-Gal, Tuiva; Yaari, Vicky; Strasberg, Boris; Abboud, Shimon

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of a novel, dedicated system for monitoring lung resistivity in congestive heart failure patients, implementing a hybrid approach of the bioimpedance technique, was assessed in this preliminary study. Thirty-three healthy volunteers and 34 congestive heart failure patients were measured with the PulmoTrace system (CardioInspect, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel) during tidal respiration, and the ability to monitor the respective lung resistivity values was assessed. Mean left and right lung resistivity values of 1205+/-163 and 1200+/-165 ohm.cm for the control group and 888+/-193 and 943+/-187 ohm.cm for the congestive heart failure group were found, indicating a significant (p<2.10(-7)) difference between the two groups. The results of long-term monitoring of two patients during medical treatment are also shown. This hybrid approach system is believed to improve diagnostic capabilities and help physicians to better adjust medication dosage on a frequent basis.

  5. Pulse wave detection method based on the bio-impedance of the wrist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianman; Wang, Mengjun; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2016-05-01

    The real-time monitoring of pulse rate can evaluate the heart health to some extent, and the measurement of bio-impedance has the potential in wearable health monitoring system. In this paper, an effective method, which contains self-balancing bridge, flexible electrode, and high-speed digital lock-in algorithm (DLIA) with over-sampling, was designed to detect the impedance pulse wave at the wrist. By applying the self-balancing bridge, the basic impedance can be compensated as much as possible, and the low amplitude of impedance variation related to heart pulse can be obtained more easily. And the flexible conductive rubber electrode used in our experiment is human-friendly. Besides, the over-sampling method and high-speed DLIA are used to enhance the effective resolution of the existing data sampled by analog to digital converter. With the high-speed data process and simple circuit above, this proposed method has the potential in wrist-band wearable systems and it can satisfy quests of small volume and low power consumption.

  6. The differential Howland current source with high signal to noise ratio for bioimpedance measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jinzhen; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Mengjun; Zhang, Weibo

    2014-05-15

    The stability and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the current source circuit are the important factors contributing to enhance the accuracy and sensitivity in bioimpedance measurement system. In this paper we propose a new differential Howland topology current source and evaluate its output characters by simulation and actual measurement. The results include (1) the output current and impedance in high frequencies are stabilized after compensation methods. And the stability of output current in the differential current source circuit (DCSC) is 0.2%. (2) The output impedance of two current circuits below the frequency of 200 KHz is above 1 MΩ, and below 1 MHz the output impedance can arrive to 200 KΩ. Then in total the output impedance of the DCSC is higher than that of the Howland current source circuit (HCSC). (3) The SNR of the DCSC are 85.64 dB and 65 dB in the simulation and actual measurement with 10 KHz, which illustrates that the DCSC effectively eliminates the common mode interference. (4) The maximum load in the DCSC is twice as much as that of the HCSC. Lastly a two-dimensional phantom electrical impedance tomography is well reconstructed with the proposed HCSC. Therefore, the measured performance shows that the DCSC can significantly improve the output impedance, the stability, the maximum load, and the SNR of the measurement system.

  7. Portable Bioimpedance Spectroscopy device and textile electrodes for mobile monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, L.; Jacob, M.; Hoog Antink, C.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Jungbecker, N.; Gries, T.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    A balanced body composition is necessary for a person's health and performance. Therefore, it is important to control the body composition continuously since complications and diseases due to dehydration often appear gradually. Based on these facts a miniaturized mobile Bioimpedance Spectroscopy device was developed that can be integrated into clothing and allows the continuous monitoring of a person's body water. The implemented system has been tested using different body models. The first measurements showed very precise and stable results. Besides the portable measurement system, textile electrodes are needed for continuous long term monitoring. Therefore, special textile electrodes were developed, tested and evaluated. The electrodes are structured in a specific way leading to a rougher surface. Such a surface improves the interface impedance and therefore optimizes the connection between electronic hardware and body. For comparison, five different structured electrodes were manufactured and tested on a special test setup that allows reproducible interface-impedance measurements using a dummy made of agar-agar to simulate the skin. It could be shown that the surface structure significantly influences the interface impedance in a positive way as compared to standard plane textile electrodes. In the future, a combination of the miniaturized BIS electronic and the structured textile electrodes could allow reproducible long term monitoring of a person's body composition.

  8. Design and construction of the artificial patient module for testing bioimpedance measuring devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Młyńczak, Marcel; Pariaszewska, Katarzyna; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Cybulski, Gerard

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the design of the electronic module for testing bioimpedance measuring devices, for example impedance cardiographs or impedance pneumographs. Artificial Patient was conceived as an electronic equivalent of the impedance of skin-electrode interface and the impedance between electrodes - measured one. Different approaches in imitating a resistance of skin and an impedance of electrode-skin connection were presented. The module was adapted for frequently applied tetrapolar electrode configuration. Therefore the design do not enclose the elements simulating impedance between skin and receiver electrodes due to negligible effect of this impedance on the current flow through the receiver. The Artificial Patient enables testing either application generators, or receiver parts, particularly the level of noise and distortions of the signal. Use of digitally controlled potentiometer allows simulating different tissue resistances changes such as constant values, very-low-frequency and low-frequency changes corresponding to those caused by breathing or heart activity. Also it allows distorting signals in order to test algorithms of artifacts attenuation.

  9. Towards intraoperative surgical margin assessment and visualization using bioimpedance properties of the tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shadab; Mahara, Aditya; Hyams, Elias S.; Schned, Alan; Halter, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) has a high 10-year recurrence rate, making PCa the second leading cause of cancer-specific mortality among men in the USA. PCa recurrences are often predicted by assessing the status of surgical margins (SM) with positive surgical margins (PSM) increasing the chances of biochemical recurrence by 2-4 times. To this end, an SM assessment system using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was developed with a microendoscopic probe. This system measures the tissue bioimpedance over a range of frequencies (1 kHz to 1MHz), and computes a Composite Impedance Metric (CIM). CIM can be used to classify tissue as benign or cancerous. The system was used to collect the impedance spectra from excised prostates, which were obtained from men undergoing radical prostatectomy. The data revealed statistically significant (p<0.05) differences in the impedance properties of the benign and tumorous tissues, and between different tissue morphologies. To visualize the results of SM-assessment, a visualization tool using da Vinci stereo laparoscope is being developed. Together with the visualization tool, the EIS-based SM assessment system can be potentially used to intraoperatively classify tissues and display the results on the surgical console with a video feed of the surgical site, thereby augmenting a surgeon's view of the site and providing a potential solution to the intraoperative SM assessment needs.

  10. Development of a Stair-Step Multifrequency Synchronized Excitation Signal for Fast Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bian, He; Du, Fangling; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Wideband excitation signal with finite prominent harmonic components is desirable for fast bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements. This work introduces a simple method to synthesize and realize a type of periodical stair-step multifrequency synchronized (MFS) signal. The Fourier series analysis shows that the p-order MFS signal f(p, t) has constant 81.06% energy distributed equally on its p  2nth primary harmonics. The synthesis principle is described firstly and then two examples of the 4-order and 5-order MFS signals, f(4, t) and f(5, t), are synthesized. The method to implement the MFS waveform based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital to analog converter (DAC) is also presented. Both the number and the frequencies of the expected primary harmonics can be adjusted as needed. An impedance measurement experiment on a RC three-element equivalent model is performed, and results show acceptable precision, which validates the feasibility of the MFS excitation. PMID:24701563

  11. Respiration monitoring by Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) Technique in a group of healthy males. Calibration equations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balleza, M.; Vargas, M.; Kashina, S.; Huerta, M. R.; Delgadillo, I.; Moreno, G.

    2017-01-01

    Several research groups have proposed the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in order to analyse lung ventilation. With the use of 16 electrodes, the EIT is capable to obtain a set of transversal section images of thorax. In previous works, we have obtained an alternating signal in terms of impedance corresponding to respiration from EIT images. Then, in order to transform those impedance changes into a measurable volume signal a set of calibration equations has been obtained. However, EIT technique is still expensive to attend outpatients in basics hospitals. For that reason, we propose the use of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) technique to monitor respiration behaviour. The aim of this study was to obtain a set of calibration equations to transform EBI impedance changes determined at 4 different frequencies into a measurable volume signal. In this study a group of 8 healthy males was assessed. From obtained results, a high mathematical adjustment in the group calibrations equations was evidenced. Then, the volume determinations obtained by EBI were compared with those obtained by our gold standard. Therefore, despite EBI does not provide a complete information about impedance vectors of lung compared with EIT, it is possible to monitor the respiration.

  12. A wireless multi-channel bioimpedance measurement system for personalized healthcare and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Javier; Ausín, José Luis; Lorido, Antonio Manuel; Redondo, Francisco; Duque-Carrillo, Juan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Miniaturized, noninvasive, wearable sensors constitute a fundamental prerequisite for pervasive, predictive, and preventive healthcare systems. In this sense, this paper presents the design, realization, and evaluation of a wireless multi-channel measurement system based on a cost-effective high-performance integrated circuit for electrical bioimpedance (EBI) measurements in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The resulting on-chip spectrometer provides high measuring EBI capabilities and together with a low-cost, commercially available radio frequency transceiver device. It provides reliable wireless communication, constitutes the basic node to build EBI wireless sensor networks (EBI-WSNs). The proposed EBI-WSN behaves as a high-performance wireless multi-channel EBI spectrometer, where the number of channels is completely scalable and independently configurable to satisfy specific measurement requirements of each individual. A prototype of the EBI node leads to a very small printed circuit board of approximately 8 cm2 including chip-antenna, which can operate several years on one 3-V coin cell battery and make it suitable for long-term preventive healthcare monitoring.

  13. Reference Ranges Using Bioimpedance for Detection of Lymphedema in Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hewei; Li, Ding; Liuya, Jiang; Dylke, Elizabeth S; Ward, Leigh C; Jia, Jie; Kilbreath, Sharon L

    2017-09-01

    Bioimpedance is a commonly used technique for detection of early lymphedema. The thresholds used for detection are based on impedance measurements obtained in Western populations. It is unknown whether these thresholds are applicable to a Chinese population. Impedance measurements were obtained for both arms in 391 women, ranging in age from 20 to 84 years, using a standardized protocol. Frequency distributions of interlimb impedance arm ratios for both dominant:non-dominant and non-dominant:dominant were used to determine thresholds at two and three standard deviations (SDs) above the mean. Absolute impedance was significantly higher in the youngest group (20-39 years) compared to other age groups. However, there was no significant effect of age on impedance ratios. Similarly, there was no significant difference between impedance ratios determined in this study and those from recent studies in the Australia and the United States, which used similar protocols. New two and three SDs above the mean thresholds, using a weighted average from the pooled data of these studies are 1.108 and 1.153 for use when the dominant limb is at-risk and 1.072 and 1.116 when the non-dominant limb is at-risk. There was no effect of ethnicity on impedance ratios. Consequently, the proposed pooled thresholds can be used, irrespective of ethnicity.

  14. Stroke damage detection using classification trees on electrical bioimpedance cerebral spectroscopy measurements.

    PubMed

    Atefi, Seyed Reza; Seoane, Fernando; Thorlin, Thorleif; Lindecrantz, Kaj

    2013-08-07

    After cancer and cardio-vascular disease, stroke is the third greatest cause of death worldwide. Given the limitations of the current imaging technologies used for stroke diagnosis, the need for portable non-invasive and less expensive diagnostic tools is crucial. Previous studies have suggested that electrical bioimpedance (EBI) measurements from the head might contain useful clinical information related to changes produced in the cerebral tissue after the onset of stroke. In this study, we recorded 720 EBI Spectroscopy (EBIS) measurements from two different head regions of 18 hemispheres of nine subjects. Three of these subjects had suffered a unilateral haemorrhagic stroke. A number of features based on structural and intrinsic frequency-dependent properties of the cerebral tissue were extracted. These features were then fed into a classification tree. The results show that a full classification of damaged and undamaged cerebral tissue was achieved after three hierarchical classification steps. Lastly, the performance of the classification tree was assessed using Leave-One-Out Cross Validation (LOO-CV). Despite the fact that the results of this study are limited to a small database, and the observations obtained must be verified further with a larger cohort of patients, these findings confirm that EBI measurements contain useful information for   assessing on the health of brain tissue after stroke and supports the hypothesis that classification features based on Cole parameters, spectral information and the geometry of EBIS measurements are useful to differentiate between healthy and stroke damaged brain tissue.

  15. Estimates of the theoretical maximum daily intake of erythorbic acid, gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Italy: a stepwise approach.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, C; Arcella, D; Turrini, A

    2000-12-01

    The three recent EU directives which fixed maximum permitted levels (MPL) for food additives for all member states also include the general obligation to establish national systems for monitoring the intake of these substances in order to evaluate their use safety. In this work, we considered additives with primary antioxidant technological function for which an acceptable daily intake (ADI) was established by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF): gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and erythorbic acid. The potential intake of these additives in Italy was estimated by means of a hierarchical approach using, step by step, more refined methods. The likelihood of the current ADI to be exceeded was very low for erythorbic acid, BHA and gallates. On the other hand, the theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) of BHT was above the current ADI. The three food categories found to be main potential sources of BHT were "pastry, cake and biscuits", "chewing gums" and "vegetables oils and margarine"; they overall contributed 74% of the TMDI. Actual use of BHT in these food categories is discussed, together with other aspects such as losses of this substance in the technological process and percentage of ingestion in the case of chewing gums.

  16. Estimation of relative regional neuroreceptor concentration by PET or SPECT: Theoretical comparisons of using a single late image or a late plus early image

    SciTech Connect

    Zeeberg, B.R.; Kim, Hee Joung; Reba, R.C. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-09-01

    The potential for using a single SPECT or PET image to estimate quantitatively the relative regional neuroreceptor concentration was previously analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The success of this approach depends upon acquiring the image at a time when changes in the regional radioactivity localization are much more sensitive to changes in receptor concentration than to changes in delivery. Using the binding of [[sup 11]C]carfentanil to the opiate receptor as a model, the authors have applied a computer simulation approach to determine the joint and marginal probability distributions for the ipsilateral/contralateral ratio of receptor concentrations and delivery. The authors have studied the effect, upon the probability distributions, of (1) the values of the sensitivities to receptor and delivery, (2) the selection of a particular operational procedure for interpreting the observed ipsilateral and contralateral radioactivity localizations, and (3) the inclusion of radioactivity localizations at an early time point in addition to those at the later time point. The authors have found that the probability distributions depend upon the sensitivities for both delivery and receptor. Incorporation of data at an early time point results in a significant sharpening of the probability distributions. There is an insignificant effect of subtraction of the radioactivity localization in a control region.

  17. Four probe architecture using high spatial resolution single multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes for electrophysiology and bioimpedance monitoring of whole tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Asis, Edward D.; Leung, Joseph; Wood, Sally; Nguyen, Cattien V.

    2010-03-01

    We report the application of a sensor with a multielectrode architecture consisting of four single multiwalled carbon nanotube electrodes (sMWNT electrodes) with nanotube tip diameters of approximately 30 nm to stimulation, recording, and bioimpedance characterization of whole muscle. Parallel pairs of sMWNT electrodes achieve improved stimulation efficiency from a reduction in electrode impedance and enhanced signal-to-noise ratio by detecting endogenic signals from a larger population of electrically active cells. The sensor with a four sMWNT electrode configuration can monitor changes in whole tissue bioimpedance.

  18. A Prospective Validation Study of Bioimpedance with Volume Displacement in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients at Risk for Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Andrea V.; Eaton, Anne; Frazier, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although volume displacement (VD) is considered the gold standard for diagnosing breast cancer (BC)-related lymphedema, it is inconvenient. We compared bioimpedance (L-Dex) and VD measurements in a prospective cohort of BC patients at risk for lymphedema. METHODS Between 2010–2014, 223 BC patients were enrolled. Following exclusions (n=37), 186 received baseline VD and L-Dex; follow-up measurements were performed at 3–6 month intervals for 3 years. At each visit, patients fit into one of three categories: normal (normal VD and L-Dex); abnormal L-Dex (L-Dex>10 or increase in 10 from baseline and normal VD); or lymphedema (relative arm volume difference of >10% by VD +/− abnormal L-Dex). Change in L-Dex was plotted against change in VD; correlation was assessed using Pearson correlation. RESULTS At a median follow-up of 18.2mos, 152 patients were normal; 25 had an abnormal L-Dex; and 9 developed lymphedema without a prior L-Dex abnormality. Of 25 abnormal L-Dex patients, 4 progressed to lymphedema for a total of 13 patients with lymphedema. Evaluating all time points, 186 patients had 829 follow-up measurements. Sensitivity and specificity of L-Dex compared to VD were 75% and 93%, respectively. There was no correlation between change in VD and change in L-Dex at 3mos (R=0.31) or 6mos (R=0.21). CONCLUSIONS VD and bioimpedance demonstrated poor correlation with inconsistent overlap of measurements considered abnormal. Of patients with an abnormal L-Dex, few progressed to lymphedema; most with lymphedema did not have a prior L-Dex abnormality. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical significance of bioimpedance. PMID:26085222

  19. Efficiency assessment of shock wave therapy in patients with pelvic pain employing harmonic analysis of penile bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Khodyreva, L A; Dudareva, A A; Mudraya, I S; Markosyan, T G; Revenko, S V; Kumachev, K V; Logvinov, L A

    2013-06-01

    In searching for novel objective methods to diagnosticate pelvic pain and assess efficiency of analgesic therapy, 37 male patients were examined prior to and after the course of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (5-10 sessions) with the waves directed to projections of prostate and/or crura and shaft of the penis. The repetition rate of mechanical pulses was 3-5 Hz. The range of energy pulse density was 0.09-0.45 mJ/mm(2). The overall number of pulses in a session was 1500-3000 in any treated zone with total energy smaller than 60 J. The applicator was relocated every other series of 300-500 pulses. Effect of the shock wave therapy was assessed according to subjective symptomatic scales: International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function, Quality of Life, and nociceptive Visual Analog Scale. The objective assessment of shock wave therapy was performed with harmonic analysis of penile bioimpedance variability, which quantitatively evaluated the low-frequency rhythmic and asynchronous activities at rest as well as the total pulsatile activity of the penis. The magnitude of spectrum components of bioimpedance variations was assessed with a novel parameter, the effective impedance. The spectral parameters were measured in 16 patients prior to and after the treatment course. The corresponding control values were measured in the group of healthy patients. Prior to the shock wave therapy course, all spectrum parameters of penile bioimpedance significantly differed from the control (p<0.05). After this course, low-frequency rhythmic and the total pulsatile activity decreased to normal, while asynchronous activity remained significantly different from the normal. The novel objective physiological criteria of pelvic pain diagnostics and efficiency of its treatment reflecting the regional features of circulation and neural activity corresponded to the clinical symptom scaling prior to and after the shock wave course, and on the whole, these

  20. Theoretical estimates of equilibrium sulfur isotope effects in aqueous sulfur systems: Highlighting the role of isomers in the sulfite and sulfoxylate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldridge, D. L.; Guo, W.; Farquhar, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present theoretical calculations for all three isotope ratios of sulfur (33S/32S, 34S/32S, 36S/32S) at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory for aqueous sulfur compounds modeled in 30-40H2O clusters spanning the range of sulfur oxidation state (Sn, n = -2 to +6) for estimating equilibrium fractionation factors in aqueous systems. Computed 34β values based on major isotope (34S/32S) reduced partition function ratios (RPFRs) scale to a first order with sulfur oxidation state and coordination, where 34β generally increase with higher oxidation state and increasing coordination of the sulfur atom. Exponents defining mass dependent relationships based on β values (x/34κ = ln(xβ)/ln(34β), x = 33 or 36) conform to tight ranges over a wide range of temperature for all aqueous compounds (33/34κ ≈ 0.5148-0.5159, 36/34κ ≈ 1.89-1.90 from T ⩾ 0 °C). The exponents converge near a singular value for all compounds at the high temperature limit (33/34κT→∞ = 0.51587 ± 0.00003 and 36/34κT→∞ = 1.8905 ± 0.0002; 1 s.d. of all computed compounds), and typically follow trends based on oxidation state and coordination similar to those seen in 34β values at lower temperatures. Theoretical equilibrium fractionation factors computed from these β-values are compared to experimental constraints for HSO3-T(aq)/SO2(g, aq), SO2(aq)/SO2(g), H2S(aq)/H2S(g), H2S(aq)/HS-(aq), SO42-(aq)/H2ST(aq), S2O32-(aq) (intramolecular), and S2O32-(aq)/H2ST(aq), and generally agree within a reasonable estimation of uncertainties. We make predictions of fractionation factors where other constraints are unavailable. Isotope partitioning of the isomers of protonated compounds in the sulfite and sulfoxylate systems depend strongly on whether protons are bound to either sulfur or oxygen atoms. The magnitude of the HSO3-T/SO32- major isotope (34S/32S) fractionation factor is predicted to increase with temperature from 0 to 70 °C due to the combined effects of the large magnitude (HS)O3

  1. Theoretical aspects for estimating anisotropic saturated hydraulic conductivity from in-well or direct-push probe injection tests in uniform media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Harald; Layton, Leif; Nemer, Bassel; Hatfield, Kirk; Mohseni, Ana

    2017-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivity and its anisotropy are fundamental aquifer properties for groundwater flow and transport modeling. Current in-well or direct-push field measurement techniques allow for relatively quick determination of general conductivity profiles with depth. However, capabilities for identifying local scale conductivities in the horizontal and vertical directions are very limited. Here, we develop the theoretical basis for estimating horizontal and vertical conductivities from different types of steady-state single-well/probe injection tests under saturated conditions and in the absence of a well skin. We explore existing solutions and a recent semi-analytical solution approach to the flow problem under the assumption that the aquifer is locally homogeneous. The methods are based on the collection of an additional piece of information in the form of a second injection (or recirculation) test at a same location, or in the form of an additional head or flow observation along the well/probe. Results are represented in dimensionless charts for partial validation against approximate solutions and for practical application to test interpretation. The charts further allow for optimization of a test configuration to maximize sensitivity to anisotropy ratio. The two methods most sensitive to anisotropy are found to be (1) subsequent injection from a lateral screen and from the bottom of an otherwise cased borehole, and (2) single injection from a lateral screen with an additional head observation along the casing. Results may also be relevant for attributing consistent divergences in conductivity measurements from different testing methods applied at a same site or location to the potential effects of anisotropy. Some practical aspects are discussed and references are made to existing methods, which appear easily compatible with the proposed procedures.

  2. Theoretical estimation of quench occurrence and propagation based on generalized thermoelasticity for LTS/HTS tapes triggered by a spot heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yujin; Guan, Mingzhi; Wang, Xingzhe

    2017-04-01

    The present study deals with the thermal characteristics and mechanical behaviors of low/high temperature superconducting (LTS/HTS) composite tapes during quench processes triggered by a spot heater. Based on the generalized thermoelastic theory, a dynamic thermoelastic model with a relaxation time is developed which takes into account the temperature dependence and finite speed of heat propagation for the superconducting tapes under cryogenic condition. The analyses were performed using the finite element method to solve the coupled differential equations of dynamic heat conduction and elastic equilibrium. The results show that the thermoelastic behaviors exhibit a strong relevance to quench characteristics of the superconductors. As a quench occurs, the thermoelastic strain-rate has an obvious jumping variation with the instant of time of its peak being fortunately coincident with the time at which the critical temperature is reached. Such a jumping change of strain-rate could be a way of estimation and detection of quench occurrence, and the theoretical predictions coincide with the existing experimental observations on thermoelastic strain-rate in LTS magnets. For a HTS tape, the thermoelastic strain-rate or temperature-rate variation and a small jump also are illustrated as the quench occurrence is determined. Additionally, the normal zone propagation velocities for the LTS/HTS tapes are predicted by the critical temperature and thermoelastic strain-rate to show quite good agreements with the results evaluated by Wilson’s formula for a LTS tape or the experimental measurements for a HTS tape. The influences of the relaxation time of heat conduction and thermoelastic coupling on the thermal distribution and strain profile are also discussed in details.

  3. Use of Bioimpedance to Assess Changes in Hemodynamics During Acute Administration of CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Digby, Genevieve C.; Driver, Helen S.; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Ropchan, Glorianne; Parker, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Attempts to investigate the mechanisms by which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy improves heart function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been limited by the lack of non-invasive methods to assess cardiac performance. We used transthoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) to assess acute hemodynamic changes including heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and cardiac index (CI) during PAP titration in (1) post-operative cardiac surgery patients, (2) patients with severe OSA, and (3) normal healthy volunteers. Methods Post-operative cardiac surgery patients were studied via TEB and pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) during acute titration of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) while mechanically ventilated. Patients with severe OSA were studied non-invasively by TEB during acute CPAP titration in supine stage 2 sleep, and normal subjects while awake and recumbent. Results In post-operative cardiac surgery patients (n = 3), increasing PEEP to 18 cmH2O significantly reduced SV and CI relative to baseline. There was no difference between TEB and PAC in terms of ability to assess variations in hemodynamic parameters. In patients with severe OSA (n = 3), CPAP titration to optimal pressure to alleviate obstructive apneas reduced HR, SV, CO and CI significantly compared to without CPAP. In three healthy subjects, maximal tolerated CPAP reduced SV and CO significantly compared to baseline. Conclusions Acute administration of CPAP causes a decrease in CO and CI, apparently a consequence of a reduction in SV. TEB appears to be an accurate and reproducible non-invasive method of detecting changes in hemodynamics.

  4. Comparison of dry-textile electrodes for electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, J. C.; Seoane, F.; Välimäki, E.; Lindecrantz, K.

    2010-04-01

    Textile Electrodes have been widely studied for biopotentials recordings, specially for monitoring the cardiac activity. Commercially available applications, such as Adistar T-shirt and Textronics Cardioshirt, have proved a good performance for heart rate monitoring and are available worldwide. Textile technology can also be used for Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy measurements enabling home and personalized health monitoring applications however solid ground research about the measurement performance of the electrodes must be done prior to the development of any textile-enabled EBI application. In this work a comparison of the measurement performance of two different types of dry-textile electrodes and manufacturers has been performed against standardized RedDot 3M Ag/AgCl electrolytic electrodes. 4-Electrode, whole body, Ankle-to-Wrist EBI measurements have been taken with the Impedimed spectrometer SFB7 from healthy subjects in the frequency range of 3kHz to 500kHz. Measurements have been taken with dry electrodes at different times to study the influence of the interaction skin-electrode interface on the EBI measurements. The analysis of the obtained complex EBI spectra shows that the measurements performed with textile electrodes produce constant and reliable EBI spectra. Certain deviation can be observed at higher frequencies and the measurements obtained with Textronics and Ag/AgCl electrodes present a better resemblance. Textile technology, if successfully integrated it, may enable the performance of EBI measurements in new scenarios allowing the rising of novel wearable monitoring applications for home and personal care as well as car safety.

  5. Prediction of body fat percentage from skinfold and bio-impedance measurements in Indian school children

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, Sarah H.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Lubree, Himangi G.; Wills, Andrew K.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Kishore, Ravi; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Kurpad, Anura

    2011-01-01

    Background Few equations for calculating body fat percentage (BF%) from field methods have been developed in South Asian children. Objective To assess agreement between BF% derived from primary reference methods and that from skinfold equations and bio-impedance analysis (BIA) in Indian children. Methods We measured BF% in two groups of Indian children. In Pune, 570 rural children aged 6-8 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. In Mysore 18O was administered to 59 urban children aged 7-9 years. We conducted BIA at 50kHz and anthropometry including subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses. We used the published equations of Wickramasinghe, Shaikh, Slaughter and Dezenburg to calculate BF% from anthropometric data and the manufacturer’s equation for BIA measurements. We assessed agreement with values derived from DXA and DLW using Bland Altman analysis. Results Children were light and thin compared to international standards. There was poor agreement between the reference BF% values and those from all equations. Assumptions for Bland Altman analysis were not met for Wickramasinghe, Shaikh and Slaughter equations. The Dezenberg equations under-predicted BF% for most children (mean difference in Pune −13.4, LOA −22.7, −4.0 and in Mysore −7.9, LOA −13.7 and −2.2). The mean bias for the BIA equation in Pune was +5.0% and in Mysore +1.95% and the LOA were wide; −5.0, 15.0 and −7.8, 11.7 respectively. Conclusions Currently available skinfold equations do not accurately predict BF% in Indian children. We recommend development of BIA equations in this population using a 4-compartment model. PMID:21731039

  6. Assessment of degree of hydration in dialysis patients using whole body and calf bioimpedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, F.; Kotanko, P.; Handelman, G. J.; Raimann, J.; Liu, L.; Carter, M.; Kuhlmann, M. K.; Siebert, E.; Leonard, E. F.; Levin, N. W.

    2010-04-01

    Prescription of an appropriate post hemodialysis (HD) dialysis target weight requires accurate evaluation of the degree of hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a state of normal hydration as defined by calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) could be characterized in HD and normal subjects (NS). cBIS was performed in 62 NS (33 m/29 f) and 30 HD patients (16 m /14 f) pre- and post-dialysis to measure extracellular resistance. Normalized calf resistivity at 5 kHz (ρN,5) was defined as resistivity divided by body mass index. Measurements were made at baseline (BL) and at a state of normal hydration (NH) established following the progressive reduction of post-HD weight over successive dialysis treatments until the ρN,5 was in the range of NS. Blood pressures were measured pre- and post-HD treatment. ρN,5 in males and females differed significantly in NS (20.5±1.99 vs 21.7±2.6 10-2 Ωm3/kg, p>0.05). In patients, ρN,5 notably increased and reached NH range due to progressive decrease in body weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased pre- and post-HD between BL and NBH respectively. This establishes the use of ρN,5 as a new comparator allowing the clinician to incrementally monitor the effect of removal of extracellular fluid from patients over a course of dialysis treatments.

  7. Bioimpedance Identifies Body Fluid Loss after Exercise in the Heat: A Pilot Study with Body Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Gatterer, Hannes; Schenk, Kai; Laninschegg, Lisa; Schlemmer, Philipp; Lukaski, Henry; Burtscher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI) is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower. Methods Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H): 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg) exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG) in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity), then had a cold shower (15 min). Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again. Results Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05) with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001). Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = −0.564, p = 0.036) and changes in Xc/H (r = −0.577, p = 0.041). Conclusions Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R) indicated greater Posm increase. PMID:25279660

  8. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    PubMed

    Gatterer, Hannes; Schenk, Kai; Laninschegg, Lisa; Schlemmer, Philipp; Lukaski, Henry; Burtscher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI) is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower. Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H): 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg) exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG) in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity), then had a cold shower (15 min). Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again. Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05) with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001). Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036) and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041). Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R) indicated greater Posm increase.

  9. Reliability of peak VO(2) and maximal cardiac output assessed using thoracic bioimpedance in children.

    PubMed

    Welsman, Joanne; Bywater, Katie; Farr, Colin; Welford, Deborah; Armstrong, Neil

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a thoracic electrical bioimpedance based device (PhysioFlow) for the determination of cardiac output and stroke volume during exercise at peak oxygen uptake (peak VO(2) in children. The reliability of peak VO(2) is also reported. Eleven boys and nine girls aged 10-11 years completed a cycle ergometer test to voluntary exhaustion on three occasions each 1 week apart. Peak VO(2) was determined and cardiac output and stroke volume at peak VO(2) were measured using a thoracic bioelectrical impedance device (PhysioFlow). The reliability of peak VO(2) cardiac output and stroke volume were determined initially from pairwise comparisons and subsequently across all three trials analysed together through calculation of typical error and intraclass correlation. The pairwise comparisons revealed no consistent bias across tests for all three measures and there was no evidence of non-uniform errors (heteroscedasticity). When three trials were analysed together typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation was 4.1% for peak VO(2) 9.3% for cardiac output and 9.3% for stroke volume. Results analysed by sex revealed no consistent differences. The PhysioFlow method allows non-invasive, beat-to-beat determination of cardiac output and stroke volume which is feasible for measurements during maximal exercise in children. The reliability of the PhysioFlow falls between that demonstrated for Doppler echocardiography (5%) and CO(2) rebreathing (12%) at maximal exercise but combines the significant advantages of portability, lower expense and requires less technical expertise to obtain reliable results.

  10. Intradialytic hypertension during chronic haemodialysis and subclinical fluid overload assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Sajith; Filmalter, Christelle; Harvey, Justin; Chothia, Mogamat-Yazied

    2016-08-01

    Intradialytic hypertension (IDH) increases morbidity and mortality. The prevalence in South Africa is unknown. The pathogenesis is unclear, but it has been suggested that IDH may be due to subclinical fluid overload. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IDH and to evaluate its association with fluid overload using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). A cross-sectional study involving 190 chronic haemodialysis patients in the Western Cape province of South Africa was conducted between January 2013 and May 2014. IDH was defined as a >10 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure in at least four of six prior consecutive haemodialysis sessions. The prevalence of IDH was 28.4% (n = 54). There was a trend towards pre-dialysis overhydration in the IDH group when compared with controls {2.6 L [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.4] versus 1.8 L [95% CI 1.4-2.1], respectively; P = 0.06} as measured by BIS, but no difference in mean ultrafiltration (UF) volume (2.4 versus 2.6 L; P = 0.30). A trend towards greater use of antihypertensive drugs was noted in the IDH group [2.5 drugs (95% CI 2.15-2.87) versus 2.1 (95% CI 1.82-2.30); P = 0.05]. More participants in the IDH group received calcium channel blockers (54 versus 36; P = 0.03). The prevalence of IDH in our treatment centres is much higher than previously reported. Subclinical fluid overload may be a major contributing factor to the mechanism of this condition. The use of BIS identifies patients who may benefit from additional UF.

  11. Intradialytic hypertension during chronic haemodialysis and subclinical fluid overload assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Sajith; Filmalter, Christelle; Harvey, Justin; Chothia, Mogamat-Yazied

    2016-01-01

    Background Intradialytic hypertension (IDH) increases morbidity and mortality. The prevalence in South Africa is unknown. The pathogenesis is unclear, but it has been suggested that IDH may be due to subclinical fluid overload. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IDH and to evaluate its association with fluid overload using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Methods A cross-sectional study involving 190 chronic haemodialysis patients in the Western Cape province of South Africa was conducted between January 2013 and May 2014. IDH was defined as a >10 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure in at least four of six prior consecutive haemodialysis sessions. Results The prevalence of IDH was 28.4% (n = 54). There was a trend towards pre-dialysis overhydration in the IDH group when compared with controls {2.6 L [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7–3.4] versus 1.8 L [95% CI 1.4–2.1], respectively; P = 0.06} as measured by BIS, but no difference in mean ultrafiltration (UF) volume (2.4 versus 2.6 L; P = 0.30). A trend towards greater use of antihypertensive drugs was noted in the IDH group [2.5 drugs (95% CI 2.15–2.87) versus 2.1 (95% CI 1.82–2.30); P = 0.05]. More participants in the IDH group received calcium channel blockers (54 versus 36; P = 0.03). Conclusions The prevalence of IDH in our treatment centres is much higher than previously reported. Subclinical fluid overload may be a major contributing factor to the mechanism of this condition. The use of BIS identifies patients who may benefit from additional UF. PMID:27478611

  12. Evaluation of the predictive capacity of vertical segmental tetrapolar bioimpedance for excess weight detection in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Neves, Felipe Silva; Leandro, Danielle Aparecida Barbosa; Silva, Fabiana Almeida da; Netto, Michele Pereira; Oliveira, Renata Maria Souza; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the predictive capacity of the vertical segmental tetrapolar bioimpedance apparatus in the detection of excess weight in adolescents, using tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance as a reference. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 411 students aged between 10 and 14 years, of both genders, enrolled in public and private schools, selected by a simple and stratified random sampling process according to the gender, age, and proportion in each institution. The sample was evaluated by the anthropometric method and underwent a body composition analysis using vertical bipolar, horizontal tetrapolar, and vertical segmental tetrapolar assessment. The ROC curve was constructed based on calculations of sensitivity and specificity for each point of the different possible measurements of body fat. The statistical analysis used Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and McNemar's chi-squared test. Subsequently, the variables were interpreted using SPSS software, version 17.0. Of the total sample, 53.7% were girls and 46.3%, boys. Of the total, 20% and 12.5% had overweight and obesity, respectively. The body segment measurement charts showed high values of sensitivity and specificity and high areas under the ROC curve, ranging from 0.83 to 0.95 for girls and 0.92 to 0.98 for boys, suggesting a slightly higher performance for the male gender. Body fat percentage was the most efficient criterion to detect overweight, while the trunk segmental fat was the least accurate indicator. The apparatus demonstrated good performance to predict excess weight. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of equations of resting and total energy expenditure in peritoneal dialysis patients using body composition measurements determined by multi-frequency bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    El-Kateb, Sally; Sridharan, Sivakumar; Farrington, Ken; Fan, Stanley; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-02-17

    Waste products of metabolism accumulate in patients with kidney failure and it has been proposed that the amount of dialysis treatment patients require be adjusted for energy expenditure. This requires validation of methods to estimate energy expenditure in dialysis patients. We compared values of resting energy expenditure (REE) estimated in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using a selection of available equations with estimates derived using a novel equation recently validated in chronic kidney disease patients (CKD equation). We also determined the relationship of these estimates of REE and of total energy expenditure (TEE - which is REE plus physical activity associated energy expenditure (PAEE) estimated using the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire) - to bioimpedance-derived parameters of body composition. We studied 118 adult PD patients; 75 male (63.6%), 33 diabetic (28.5%), Caucasoid (42.4%), mean age 59.3 ± 18.2 years and weight 73.1 ± 16.6 kg. REE with the CKD equation was 1532 ± 237 kcal/day, which was more than that for Mifflin-St. Joer 1425 ± 254, Harris-Benedict 1489 ± 267, Katch-McArdle 1492 ± 243, but less than Cunningham 1648 ± 248 kcal/day. Bland Altman mean bias ranged from -107 to 111 kcal/day. TEE was 1924 (1700-2262) kcal/day, and on multi-variate analysis was associated with appendicular muscle mass and nitrogen appearance rate (β 34.3, p < 0.001 and β 5.6, p = 0.002, respectively). With reference to the CKD equation, the majority of standard equations underestimate REE in PD patients. Whereas the Cunningham equation overestimates REE. TEE was associated with appendicular muscle mass and estimated dietary protein intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Model-based correction of the influence of body position on continuous segmental and hand-to-foot bioimpedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Guillermo; Eitner, Frank; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2010-06-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is suitable for continuous monitoring of body water content. The combination of body posture and time is a well-known source of error, which limits the accuracy and therapeutic validity of BIS measurements. This study evaluates a model-based correction as a possible solution. For this purpose, an 11-cylinder model representing body impedance distribution is used. Each cylinder contains a nonlinear two-pool model to describe fluid redistribution due to changing body position and its influence on segmental and hand-to-foot (HF) bioimpedance measurements. A model-based correction of segmental (thigh) and HF measurements (Xitron Hydra 4200) in nine healthy human subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, 40 min supine) has been evaluated. The model-based compensation algorithm represents a compromise between accuracy and simplicity, and reduces the influence of changes in body position on the measured extracellular resistance and extracellular fluid by up to 75 and 70%, respectively.

  15. Wavelet-based multiscale analysis of bioimpedance data measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing for classification of cancerous and normal cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Debanjan; Shiladitya, Kumar; Biswas, Karabi; Dutta, Pranab Kumar; Parekh, Aditya; Mandal, Mahitosh; Das, Soumen

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a study to differentiate normal and cancerous cells using label-free bioimpedance signal measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The real-time-measured bioimpedance data of human breast cancer cells and human epithelial normal cells employs fluctuations of impedance value due to cellular micromotions resulting from dynamic structural rearrangement of membrane protrusions under nonagitated condition. Here, a wavelet-based multiscale quantitative analysis technique has been applied to analyze the fluctuations in bioimpedance. The study demonstrates a method to classify cancerous and normal cells from the signature of their impedance fluctuations. The fluctuations associated with cellular micromotion are quantified in terms of cellular energy, cellular power dissipation, and cellular moments. The cellular energy and power dissipation are found higher for cancerous cells associated with higher micromotions in cancer cells. The initial study suggests that proposed wavelet-based quantitative technique promises to be an effective method to analyze real-time bioimpedance signal for distinguishing cancer and normal cells.

  16. Wavelet-based multiscale analysis of bioimpedance data measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing for classification of cancerous and normal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Debanjan; Shiladitya, Kumar; Biswas, Karabi; Dutta, Pranab Kumar; Parekh, Aditya; Mandal, Mahitosh; Das, Soumen

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a study to differentiate normal and cancerous cells using label-free bioimpedance signal measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The real-time-measured bioimpedance data of human breast cancer cells and human epithelial normal cells employs fluctuations of impedance value due to cellular micromotions resulting from dynamic structural rearrangement of membrane protrusions under nonagitated condition. Here, a wavelet-based multiscale quantitative analysis technique has been applied to analyze the fluctuations in bioimpedance. The study demonstrates a method to classify cancerous and normal cells from the signature of their impedance fluctuations. The fluctuations associated with cellular micromotion are quantified in terms of cellular energy, cellular power dissipation, and cellular moments. The cellular energy and power dissipation are found higher for cancerous cells associated with higher micromotions in cancer cells. The initial study suggests that proposed wavelet-based quantitative technique promises to be an effective method to analyze real-time bioimpedance signal for distinguishing cancer and normal cells.

  17. Evaluation of bioimpedance spectroscopy for the measurement of body fluid compartment volumes in rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lufei; Maslanik, Tom; Zerebeckyj, Mykolai; Plato, Craig F

    2012-03-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been used in human and large animal research to assess body fluid compartment volumes (BFC) such as total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and intracellular fluid volume (ICFV). To date, the application of BIS for determination of BFC in small research animals has been limited. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity and consistency of BIS for the determination of BFC in male SD rats. Thus, in separate series of experiments, we a) compared BFC values determined using BIS to BFC values obtained using radioisotope indicator dilution methods; b) examined day-to-day intra- and inter-rat BFC variability in small (267.8±5.4 g) and large (372.6±5.6 g) rats (n=8/group) as compared to empirical normative mammalian values; c) evaluated the sensitivity of BIS to detect time-dependent responses to repeated administration of a potent diuretic; and d) compared empirically generated BFC data to predicted osmotically-induced ECFV and ICFV shifts in response to i.v. administration of hypotonic (0.3%), isotonic (0.9%) or hypertonic (3.0%) saline (n=6/concentration). BFC values generated using radioisotope dilution agreed with those generated using BIS. BIS reliably detected differences between small and large rats (p<0.001), and was associated with low (<3.5%) day-to-day, intra-animal coefficient of variation (%=Standard Deviation/mean). BIS detected small reductions (~10%) in ECFV induced by as few as 2 days of the loop diuretic, furosemide, relative to vehicle treatment (70.8±1.5 ml vs. 84.0±1.5 ml; respectively, p<0.05). BIS rapidly detected shifts between ECFV and ICFV in response to osmotic saline challenge, and these responses were similar to physiologically predicted responses. The current studies support using BIS as a means of sensitively and reliably performing repeated measurements of BFC in rats of a) differing sizes, b) in response to therapeutic agents known to influence renal sodium handling and c) in response

  18. Electrical bioimpedance gastric motility measurement based on an electrical-mechanical composite mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu; Sha, Hong; Li, Zhang-Yong; Ren, Chao-Shi

    2012-07-07

    To introduce a bioimpedance gastric motility measurement method based on an electrical-mechanical composite concept and a preliminary clinical application. A noninvasive gastric motility measurement method combining electrogastrogram (EGG) and impedance gastric motility (IGM) test was used. Preliminary clinical application studies of patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and gastritis, as well as healthy controls, were carried out. Twenty-eight FD patients (mean age 40.9 ± 9.7 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (mean age 30.9 ± 7.9 years) were involved. IGM spectrum was measured for both the healthy subjects and FD patients, and outcomes were compared in the FD patients before treatment and 1 wk and 3 wk after treatment. IGM parameters were obtained from 30 erosive gastritis patients (mean age 50.5 ± 13.0 years) and 40 healthy adults, and IGM and EGG results were compared in the gastritis patients before treatment and 1 wk after treatment. There were significant differences in the IGM parameters between the FD patients and healthy subjects, and FD patients had a poorer gastric motility [percentage of normal frequency (PNF) 70.8 ± 25.5 in healthy subjects and 28.3 ± 16.9 in FD patients, P < 0.01]. After 1 wk administration of domperidone 10 mg, tid, the gastric motility of FD patients was not improved, although the EGG of the patients had returned to normal. After 3 wk of treatment, the IGM rhythm of the FD patients became normal. There was a significant difference in IGM parameters between the two groups (PNF 70.4 ± 25.5 for healthy subjects and 36.1 ± 21.8 for gastritis patients, P < 0.05). The EGG rhythm of the gastritis patients returned to normal (frequency instability coefficient 2.22 ± 0.43 before treatment and 1.77 ± 0.19 one wk after treatment, P < 0.05) after 1 wk of treatment with sodium rabeprazole tablets, 10 mg, qd, po, qm, while some IGM parameters showed a tendency toward improvement but had not reached statistical significance. The

  19. Electrical bioimpedance gastric motility measurement based on an electrical-mechanical composite mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu; Sha, Hong; Li, Zhang-Yong; Ren, Chao-Shi

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To introduce a bioimpedance gastric motility measurement method based on an electrical-mechanical composite concept and a preliminary clinical application. METHODS: A noninvasive gastric motility measurement method combining electrogastrogram (EGG) and impedance gastric motility (IGM) test was used. Preliminary clinical application studies of patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and gastritis, as well as healthy controls, were carried out. Twenty-eight FD patients (mean age 40.9 ± 9.7 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (mean age 30.9 ± 7.9 years) were involved. IGM spectrum was measured for both the healthy subjects and FD patients, and outcomes were compared in the FD patients before treatment and 1 wk and 3 wk after treatment. IGM parameters were obtained from 30 erosive gastritis patients (mean age 50.5 ± 13.0 years) and 40 healthy adults, and IGM and EGG results were compared in the gastritis patients before treatment and 1 wk after treatment. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the IGM parameters between the FD patients and healthy subjects, and FD patients had a poorer gastric motility [percentage of normal frequency (PNF) 70.8 ± 25.5 in healthy subjects and 28.3 ± 16.9 in FD patients, P < 0.01]. After 1 wk administration of domperidone 10 mg, tid, the gastric motility of FD patients was not improved, although the EGG of the patients had returned to normal. After 3 wk of treatment, the IGM rhythm of the FD patients became normal. There was a significant difference in IGM parameters between the two groups (PNF 70.4 ± 25.5 for healthy subjects and 36.1 ± 21.8 for gastritis patients, P < 0.05). The EGG rhythm of the gastritis patients returned to normal (frequency instability coefficient 2.22 ± 0.43 before treatment and 1.77 ± 0.19 one wk after treatment, P < 0.05) after 1 wk of treatment with sodium rabeprazole tablets, 10 mg, qd, po, qm, while some IGM parameters showed a tendency toward improvement but had not reached statistical

  20. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy in the 1200--1300 cm-1 Region and Accurate Theoretical Estimates for the Structure and Ring-Puckering Barrier of Perfluorocyclobutane

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Thomas A; Glendening, Eric D; Sams, Robert L; Sharpe, Steven W; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2007-11-08

    We present experimental infrared (IR) spectra and theoretical electronic structure results for the geometry, anharmonic vibrational frequencies and accurate estimates of the magnitude and the origin of the ring puckering barrier in C4F8. High-resolution (0.0015 cm-1) spectra of the ν12 and ν13 parallel bands of perfluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8) were recorded for the fist time by expanding a 10% c-C4F8 in helium mixture in a supersonic jet. Both bands are observed to be rotationally resolved in a jet with a rotational temperature of 15 K. The ν12 mode has b2 symmetry under D2d that correlates to a2u symmetry under D4h and consequently has ± ← ± ring puckering selection rules. A rigid rotor fit of the ν12 band yields the origin at 1292.56031(2) cm-1 with B' = 0.0354137(3) cm-1 and B" = 0.0354363(3) cm-1. The ν13 mode is of b2 symmetry under D2d that correlates to b2g under D4h and in this case the ring puckering selection rules are ± ! m. Rotational transitions from the ground and first excited torsional states will be separated by the torsional splitting in the ground and excited vibrational states and indeed we observe a splitting of each transition into strong and weak intensity components with a separation of approximately 0.0018 cm-1. The strong and weak sets of transitions were fit separately again using a rigid rotor model to give ν13(strong) = 1240.34858(4) cm-1, B' = 0.0354192(7) cm-1 and B" = 0.0354355(7) cm-1 and ν13(weak) = 1240.34674(5) cm-1, B' = 0.0354188(9) cm-1 and B" = 0.0354360(7) cm-1. High level electronic structure calculations at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory with the family of correlation consistent basis sets of quadruple-ζ quality, developed by Dunning and coworkers, yield best estimates for the vibrationally averaged structural parameters r(C-C)=1.568 Å, r(C-F)α=1.340 Å, r(C-F)β=1.329 Å, α(F-C-F)=110.3°, θz(C-C-C)=89.1° and δ(C-C-CC)=14.6° and rotational constants of A=B=0.03543 cm-1, C=0.02898 cm-1, the latter

  1. Effects of elevated vacuum on in-socket residual limb fluid volume: Case study results using bioimpedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure residual limb fluid volume on seven trans-tibial amputee subjects using elevated vacuum sockets and non-elevated vacuum sockets. Fluid volume changes were assessed during sessions with the subjects sitting, standing, and walking. In general, fluid volume losses during 3 or 5 min walks and losses over the course of the 30-min test session were less for elevated vacuum than for suction. A number of variables including the time of day data were collected, soft tissue consistency, socket-to-limb size differences and shape differences, and subject health may have affected the results and had an equivalent or greater impact on limb fluid volume compared with elevated vacuum. Researchers should well consider these variables in study design of future investigations on the effects of elevated vacuum on residual limb volume. PMID:22234667

  2. PREFACE: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pliquett, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Over recent years advanced measurement methods have facilitated outstanding achievements not only in medical instrumentation but also in biotechnology. Impedance measurement is a simple and innocuous way to characterize materials. For more than 40 years biological materials, most of them based on cells, have been characterized by means of electrical impedance for quality control of agricultural products, monitoring of biotechnological or food processes or in health care. Although the list of possible applications is long, very few applications successfully entered the market before the turn of the century. This was, on the one hand, due to the low specificity of electrical impedance with respect to other material properties because it is influenced by multiple factors. On the other hand, equipment and methods for many potential applications were not available. With the appearance of microcontrollers that could be easily integrated in applications at the beginning of the 1980s, impedance measurement advanced as a valuable tool in process optimization and lab automation. However, established methods and data processing were mostly used in a new environment. This has changed significantly during the last 10 years with a dramatic growth of the market for medical instrumentation and also for biotechnological applications. Today, advanced process monitoring and control require fast and highly parallel electrical characterization which in turn yields incredible data volumes that must be handled in real time. Many newer developments require miniaturized but precise sensing methods which is one of the main parts of Lab-on-Chip technology. Moreover, biosensors increasingly use impedometric transducers, which are not compatible with the large expensive measurement devices that are common in the laboratory environment. Following the achievements in the field of bioimpedance measurement, we will now witness a dramatic development of new electrode structures and electronics

  3. Comparison of hydration and nutritional status between young and elderly hemodialysis patients through bioimpedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Eun; Jo, In Young; Lee, Song Mi; Kim, Woo Jeong; Choi, Hoon Young; Ha, Sung Kyu; Kim, Hyung Jong; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2015-01-01

    The number of elderly people on dialysis is increasing rapidly. Fluid overload and malnutrition status are serious problems in elderly dialysis patients. We aimed to compare the hydration and nutritional status through bioimpedance analysis (BIA) between young and elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients and to analyze risk factors related to fluid overload and malnutrition status in these patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study, in which 82 HD (males 42, mean age 58.7±12.9 years) patients were enrolled. We collected different types of data: laboratory data, such as serum creatinine, albumin, total iron-binding capacity, hemoglobin, total cholesterol; anthropometric data, such as hand grip strength (HGS); BIA data, such as intracellular water, skeletal muscle mass, body cell mass, bone mineral content, phase angle (PhA), extra cellular water (ECW)/total body water (TBW) ratio; and malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), which is a traditional nutritional parameter for dialysis patients. All patients were stratified into two groups according to their age: young (<65 years [n=54]) and elderly (≥65 years [n=28]). Total iron-binding capacity and HGS were significantly lower in elderly HD patients than in young HD patients (198.9±35.6 vs 221.4±52.1 mcg/dL; and 22.4±10.3 vs 36.4±23.2 kg, respectively) (P<0.05). Also, intracellular water and PhA measured by BIA were significantly lower (18.3±4.0 vs 20.3±4.2 L [P=0.043]; and 4.0±1.0 vs 4.9±1.2° [P=0.002], respectively), and ECW/TBW were higher in elderly HD patients (0.40±0.01 vs 0.39±0.01 [P=0.001]). ECW/TBW was positively associated with age (P<0.001) and the presence of diabetes (P<0.001) and was negatively associated with sex (P=0.001), albumin (P<0.001), urine volume (P=0.042), HGS (P<0.001), and PhA by BIA (P<0.001). MIS was negatively related to sex (P=0.001), albumin (P<0.001), HGS (P=0.001), and PhA (P<0.001) in HD patients. On multivariate analysis, older age (P=0.031), the presence of diabetes (P=0

  4. Effect of change in fluid distribution in segments in hemodialysis patients at different ultrafiltration rates on accuracy of whole body bioimpedance measurement.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samer R; Zhu, Fansan; Kaysen, George A; Kotanko, Peter; Levin, Nathan W

    2014-06-01

    This study explored divergence (error) between ultrafiltration volumes (UFV) and intradialytic changes in extracellular volume (ΔECV) in hemodialysis (HD) patients measured by whole body (wBIS) and sum of segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy (sBIS). The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrafiltration rates (UFR) on error of estimation of ΔECV by changes in their distribution in body segments (arm, trunk, and leg). Forty-four HD patients (26 men, age 63.5 ± 14.3 yr) were studied twice in the same week following high and low UFR treatments. ΔECV and distributions (segmental ΔECV/Σsegmental ΔECV, %) in arm, trunk, and leg were measured. ΔECV by wBIS underestimated UFV (0.58 ± 0.43 in high vs. 0.36 ± 0.5 liters at low UFR; P < 0.001, respectively); however, using sBIS no significant difference between UFV and ΔECV was present. Divergence using wBIS but not sBIS correlated positively with UFR. ΔECV distribution in trunk and leg at high UFR (44.1 ± 8.3, 47.2 ± 8.5, %) differed significantly (P < 0.01) from low UFR (36 ± 15.7, 53.8 ± 14.7) respectively, but in arm did not differ between UFR. Primary sources of whole body resistance are arms and legs. Due to different cross-sectional areas between trunk and limbs, wBIS is insensitive to detection of changes in trunk volume. At higher UFR, plasma water was rapidly and largely removed from the trunk but with only a small change in whole body resistance. As a result, accuracy of estimation of ECV by wBIS is further decreased by high UFR, while sBIS remains accurate using separate measurements of segmental volumes. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Novel monitoring method for the management of heart failure: combined measurement of body weight and bioimpedance index of body fat percentage.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2009-11-01

    Although body weight scales are most commonly used to evaluate body fluid status during follow-up of definite heart failure (HF) patients, bioimpedance measurement methods have become increasingly available in the clinical setting. These monitoring methods, however, are typically used separately to evaluate body fluid status in HF patients. Kataoka developed a novel method for monitoring HF patients using a digital weight scale that incorporated a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. This method combines the well-known advantages of body weighing with a refined bioimpedance technique to monitor HF status and provides valid information regarding a change in a patient's body fluid status during follow-up for HF, such as predominant fluid versus fat weight gain or loss. This special report describes examples of the practical use of this method for monitoring and treating definite HF patients.

  6. [Determination of cardiac output under PEEP-respiration with the "NCCOM 3" non-invasive bioimpedence monitor in comparison with the thermodilution method. A study in anesthetized dogs].

    PubMed

    Weber, J; Heidelmeyer, C F; Kubatz, E; Brückner, J B

    1986-12-01

    A new noninvasive cardiac output (CO) computer ("NCCOM 3") based on the bioimpedance principle was compared to a CO computer based on standard thermodilution measurements. Simultaneous measurements were made on dogs who were ventilated with or without positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). There was no correlation of cardiac output measurements with the two methods (r = 0.10, n = 60). Comparing only measurements without PEEP yielded r = 0.41. Thermodilution measurements showed the well-known decline in cardiac output during PEEP, whereas the bioimpedance device recorded an increase in cardiac output. These differences were statistically significant. We conclude that the NCCOM 3 cannot at present replace the invasive standard methods of CO measurement in ventilated patients. A lack of differentiation of circulatory effects, thoracic gas volume, and intrathoracic fluid content is the most likely cause of the discrepancies seen.

  7. Mean Expected Error in Prediction of Total Body Water: A True Accuracy Comparison between Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Single Frequency Regression Equations

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Shirin; Abtahi, Farhad; Ellegård, Lars; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Bosaeus, Ingvar

    2015-01-01

    For several decades electrical bioimpedance (EBI) has been used to assess body fluid distribution and body composition. Despite the development of several different approaches for assessing total body water (TBW), it remains uncertain whether bioimpedance spectroscopic (BIS) approaches are more accurate than single frequency regression equations. The main objective of this study was to answer this question by calculating the expected accuracy of a single measurement for different EBI methods. The results of this study showed that all methods produced similarly high correlation and concordance coefficients, indicating good accuracy as a method. Even the limits of agreement produced from the Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the performance of single frequency, Sun's prediction equations, at population level was close to the performance of both BIS methods; however, when comparing the Mean Absolute Percentage Error value between the single frequency prediction equations and the BIS methods, a significant difference was obtained, indicating slightly better accuracy for the BIS methods. Despite the higher accuracy of BIS methods over 50 kHz prediction equations at both population and individual level, the magnitude of the improvement was small. Such slight improvement in accuracy of BIS methods is suggested insufficient to warrant their clinical use where the most accurate predictions of TBW are required, for example, when assessing over-fluidic status on dialysis. To reach expected errors below 4-5%, novel and individualized approaches must be developed to improve the accuracy of bioimpedance-based methods for the advent of innovative personalized health monitoring applications. PMID:26137489

  8. Clinical usefulness of abdominal bioimpedance (ViScan) in the determination of visceral fat and its application in the diagnosis and management of obesity and its comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; González-Crespo, Ignacio; Catalán, Victoria; Rodríguez, Amaia; Moncada, Rafael; Valentí, Víctor; Romero, Sonia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Silva, Camilo; Gil, María J; Salvador, Javier; Benito, Alberto; Colina, Inmaculada; Frühbeck, Gema

    2017-01-28

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been shown to be profoundly responsible of most of the obesity-associated metabolic derangements. The measurement of VAT usually implies the use of imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography (CT). Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of the determination of VAT by means of abdominal bioimpedance (BIA) with the ViScan device in comparison with CT and its clinical usefulness in the management of obesity. We studied a sample of 140 subjects (73 males/67 females) with BMI ranging from 17.7 to 50.4 kg/m(2) to evaluate the accuracy of the ViScan in comparison to CT to determine VAT. To further analyze ViScan's clinical usefulness we studied a separate cohort (n = 2849) analyzing cardiometabolic risk factors. Furthermore, we studied the ability of the ViScan to detect changes in VAT after weight gain (n = 107) or weight loss (n = 335). The study was performed from October 2009 through June 2015. ViScan determines VAT with a good accuracy in individuals with a CT-VAT up to 200 cm(2), and then with lower precision with increasing body mass, exhibiting a moderate-high correlation with CT-VAT (r = 0.75, P < 0.001). Importantly, VAT determination with the ViScan exhibits better correlations with several cardiometabolic risk factors such as glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and markers of fatty liver than anthropometric measurements such as BMI or waist circumference. ViScan is able to detect VAT variations after body weight changes. Since the possibility of measuring VAT by imaging techniques is not always available, abdominal BIA represents a good alternative to estimate VAT, allowing the identification of patients with increased VAT-related cardiometabolic risk and a better management of obese patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01055626 and NCT01572090. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. An information-theoretic approach to estimating the composite genetic effects contributing to variation among generation means: Moving beyond the joint-scaling test for line cross analysis.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Heath; Demuth, Jeffery P

    2016-02-01

    The pace and direction of evolution in response to selection, drift, and mutation are governed by the genetic architecture that underlies trait variation. Consequently, much of evolutionary theory is predicated on assumptions about whether genes can be considered to act in isolation, or in the context of their genetic background. Evolutionary biologists have disagreed, sometimes heatedly, over which assumptions best describe evolution in nature. Methods for estimating genetic architectures that favor simpler (i.e., additive) models contribute to this debate. Here we address one important source of bias, model selection in line cross analysis (LCA). LCA estimates genetic parameters conditional on the best model chosen from a vast model space using relatively few line means. Current LCA approaches often favor simple models and ignore uncertainty in model choice. To address these issues we introduce Software for Analysis of Genetic Architecture (SAGA), which comprehensively assesses the potential model space, quantifies model selection uncertainty, and uses model weighted averaging to accurately estimate composite genetic effects. Using simulated data and previously published LCA studies, we demonstrate the utility of SAGA to more accurately define the components of complex genetic architectures, and show that traditional approaches have underestimated the importance of epistasis.

  10. Theoretical and experimental synthesis of turbulence estimation spectral methods for aerodynamic computations. Part 4: Study of entrainment mechanisms using simulations and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladhari, F.; Morel, R.; Bertoglio, J. P.

    1986-07-01

    Turbulence estimation spectral methods were tested in a low velocity Eiffel type wind tunnel. Turbulence generation and visualization techniques were used. The results include average velocities, velocity fluctuations, and Reynolds stresses. The study shows the role of a deterministic structure on the essential characteristics of a sheared flow. Numerical simulations were also carried out using a pseudo-spectral code. Details of the method are given. The evolution of the velocity fields is shown. The results obtained over 16-cubed networks are insufficient for this type of study. The expansion to 32-cubed shows a much better accuracy.

  11. Bioimpedance-derived differences in cardiac physiology during exercise stress testing in low-risk chest pain patients.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Steven J; Ernst, Amy A; Godorov, Gary; Diercks, Deborah B; Jergenson, Josh; Kirk, J Douglas

    2003-11-01

    Little has been written about the utility of thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB)-derived cardiac physiologic variables in evaluating patients with low-risk chest pain syndromes. Noninvasive bioimpedance can monitor cardiac physiology while a patient is performing an exercise stress test. In addition, the demographics of patients with chest pain, the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and the methods used for evaluation have well-documented sex differences. The objectives are to show that there are different cardiac physiologic responses to exercise stress test in Chest Pain Evaluation Unit patients with and without true CAD that could be used to stratify patients and that there is a sex difference in TEB results. Patients 18 to 65 years of age with low-risk chest pain were eligible. Patients were attached to the TEB throughout the exercise stress test procedure. Heart rate (HR) was monitored. Primary dependent variables were TEB-measured cardiac output (CO, L/min) and stroke volume (SV, ml) at peak exercise. Secondary variables were TEB-measured ejection fraction (%), end-diastolic volume (EDV, ml), ventricular ejection time (ms), and thoracic fluid index (omega) at peak exercise. Outcome variables were either proved CAD or patient sex. CAD was proved by angiography, stress scintigraphy, or stress echocardiogram. Results were compared using a Student's t test assuming equal variances, with significance considered at a P < 0.05, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for significant results. Nine patients had proved CAD, 82 patients did not. Forty-three women and 48 men were included in the study. At peak exercise, patients with CAD had a significantly smaller increase in EDV than patients without CAD (32.8 +/- 59.5 ml versus 89.3 +/- 101.8 ml) without a significant change in CO, SV, or HR. At peak exercise, women had a significantly smaller increase in CO and SV without a significant change in HR. In addition, women had a significantly smaller

  12. Theoretical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  13. Influence of crystalloid and colloid fluid infusion and blood withdrawal on pulmonary bioimpedance in an animal model of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bodenstein, Marc; Wang, Hemei; Boehme, Stefan; Vogt, Andreas; Kwiecien, Robert; David, Matthias; Markstaller, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is considered useful for monitoring regional ventilation and aeration in intensive-care patients during mechanical ventilation. Changes in their body fluid state modify the electrical properties of lung tissue and may interfere with the EIT measurements of lung aeration. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of crystalloid and colloid infusion and blood withdrawal on bioimpedance determined by EIT in a chest cross-section. Fourteen anaesthetized mechanically ventilated pigs were subjected to interventions affecting the volume state (crystalloid and colloid infusion, blood withdrawal). Six animals received additional crystalloid fluids (fluid group) whereas eight did not (no-fluid group). Global and regional relative impedance changes (RIC, dimensionless unit) were determined by backprojection at end-expiration. Regional ventilation distribution was analyzed by calculating the tidal RIC in the same regions. Colloid infusion led to a significant fall in the global end-expiratory RIC (mean differences: fluid: -91.2, p < 0.001, no-fluid: -38.9, p < 0.001), which was partially reversed after blood withdrawal (mean differences, fluid: +45.1, p = 0.047 and no-fluid: +26.2, p = 0.009). The RIC was significantly lower in the animals with additional crystalloids (mean group difference: 45.5, p < 0.001). Global and regional tidal volumes were not significantly affected by the fluid and volume states.

  14. Continuous monitoring of plasma, interstitial, and intracellular fluid volumes in dialyzed patients by bioimpedance and hematocrit measurements.

    PubMed

    Jaffrin, Michel Y; Fenech, Marianne; de Fremont, Jean-François; Tolani, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) permits evaluation of extra- and intracellular fluid volumes in patients. We wished to examine whether this technique, used in combination with hematocrit measurement, can reliably monitor fluid transfers during dialysis. Ankle to wrist BIS measurements were collected during 21 dialysis runs while hematocrit was continuously monitored in the blood line by an optical device. Extracellular (ECW) and intracellular (ICW) water volumes were calculated using Hanai's electrical model of suspensions. Plasma volume variations were calculated from hematocrit, and changes in interstitial volume were calculated as the difference between ECW and plasma volume changes. Because accuracy of ICW was too low, changes in ICW were calculated as the difference between ultrafiltered volume and ECW changes. Total body water (TBW) volumes calculated pre- and postdialysis were, respectively, 3.25+/-3.2 and 1.95+/-2.5 liters lower on average than TBW given by Watson et al.'s correlation. Average decreases in fluid compartments expressed as percentage of ultrafiltered volume were as follows: plasma, 18%; interstitial, 28%, and ICW, 54%. When the ultrafiltered volume was increased in a patient in successive runs, the relative contributions of ICW and interstitial fluid were augmented so as to reduce the relative drop in plasma volume.

  15. Development of a single-frequency bioimpedance prediction equation for fat-free mass in an adult Indigenous Australian population.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J T; Maple-Brown, L J; Piers, L S; Meerkin, J; O'Dea, K; Ward, L C

    2015-01-01

    To describe the development of a single-frequency bioimpedance prediction equation for fat-free mass (FFM) suitable for adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with and without diabetes or indicators of chronic kidney disease (CKD). FFM was measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 147 adult Indigenous Australians. Height, weight, body circumference and resistance were also measured. Adults with and without diabetes and indicators of CKD were examined. A random split sample with internal cross-validation approach was used to predict and subsequently validate FFM using resistance, height, weight, age and gender against measured FFM. Among 147 adults with a median body mass index of 31 kg/m(2), the final model of FFM was FFM (kg)=0.432 (height, cm(2)/resistance, ohm)-0.086 (age, years)+0.269 (weight, kg)-6.422 (if female)+16.429. Adjusted R(2) was 0.94 and the root mean square error was 3.33 kg. The concordance was high (rc=0.97) between measured and predicted FFM across a wide range of FFM (31-85 kg). In the context of the high burden of diabetes and CKD among adult Indigenous Australians, this new equation for FFM was both accurate and precise and based on easily acquired variables (height, weight, age, gender and resistance) among a heterogeneous adult cohort.

  16. Body composition in diabetic subjects with chronic kidney disease: interest of bio-impedance analysis, and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Rigalleau, V; Lasseur, C; Chauveau, P; Barthes, N; Raffaitin, C; Combe, C; Perlemoine, C; Baillet-Blanco, L; Gin, H

    2004-01-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is reduced in uremia, but this has not been reported in diabetic nephropathy. We compared predicted % LBM to DEXA measurements in 10 non-diabetic uremic, 10 non-uremic diabetic and 10 uremic diabetic subjects matched for age, gender and BMI. We also measured % LBM by anthropometry, bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and compared them with DEXA in 49 diabetic subjects with a wide range of renal failure. The results were compared and a Bland & Altman procedure was performed. Associations between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and % LBM were tested. In matched groups, predicted % LBM values were overestimated in non-diabetic uremic subjects, and underestimated in non-uremic diabetic subjects. In uremic diabetic subjects, the error was intermediary. As compared to DEXA (% LBM: 69.0 +/- 7.1%), measurement of % LBM by anthropometry (71.4 +/- 8.0%, p < 0.05) and BIA (67.2 +/- 7.6%, p < 0.05) were biased in the 49 diabetic subjects. The mean of anthropometric and BIA (Ant+BIA) were similar to DEXA results (69.3 +/- 6.8%, p = 0.64), with best correlation coefficients and Bland & Altman plots. GFR was correlated to % LBM assessed by DEXA, BIA and Ant+BIA. In diabetic subjects with chronic kidney disease, LBM should be measured, rather than predicted. A good evaluation is possible, even without DEXA. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. H.; Leonhardt, S.

    2013-04-01

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  18. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  19. Theoretical estimation of mesogenic characteristics of 4-methyl (2‧-hydroxy,4‧-n-hexadecyloxy) azobenzene - a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaurav, Pankaj Kumar; Roychoudhury, Mihir

    2014-03-01

    The compound 4-methyl (2‧-hydroxy,4‧-n-hexadecyloxy) azobenzene was synthesized by Prajapati and co-workers (Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 369 (2001), pp. 37-46). Subsequent experiments (D. Pal, [PhD thesis], University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India, 2007) confirmed that the compound exists in nematic phase for a small range of temperature (72°C-80°C). In the present work, optimization of molecular geometry has been carried out by employing the Gaussian 03 suit of programs without any constraint using density functional B3LYP along with 6-31G** basis set and checked for imaginary frequencies. A detailed investigation on intermolecular interaction energy at various interacting configurations has been carried out. In order to study the mesogenic characteristics of the molecule, an attempt has been made to estimate the variation of order parameter with respect to the change in temperature as well as degrees of freedom. These studies will be helpful to understanding the mesogenic character of any molecule prior to synthesis and promises future application in molecular engineering.

  20. Theoretical Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  1. Comparison of bioimpedance spectroscopy and X-Ray micro-computed tomography for total fat volume measurement in mice.

    PubMed

    Aubertin, Gaelle; Sayeh, Amira; Dillenseger, Jean-Philippe; Ayme-Dietrich, Estelle; Choquet, Philippe; Niederhoffer, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are two pathologies whose prevalence are in a constant increase. Evaluation of the total fat mass but also of the distribution between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue are important factors while assessing the pathophysiology of these two pathologies. Computed tomography (CT) and bioimpedance (BIS) are the translational methods the most frequently used in human beings as well as in rodent models in longitudinal studies on adiposity and obesity. Surprisingly, no direct comparison of micro-CT and BIS was reported yet in mice. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the accuracy and the uncertainty of measurement of micro-CT and BIS in this species. The proportion of fat mass was measured with BIS, micro-CT and direct post-mortem tissue weight, and correlations between the data were established to evaluate the accuracy of the methods but also the uncertainty of BIS and micro-CT. There were significant correlations between weights of fat tissues on scale and proportion of total fat mass determined by BIS or micro-CT (r = 0.81 and 0.86 respectively) but both methods overestimated the total fat mass, especially in the smallest animals; overestimation of fat mass was amplified with BIS compared to micro-CT. In addition BIS and micro-CT were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Test-test reliability showed a greater variability of the BIS with respect to the micro-CT (coefficient of variation = 17.2 vs 5.6% respectively). Hence, as far as subtle differences between groups or changes within one group are awaited, micro-CT may appear as the most reliable method for determination of fat mass in mice. Micro-CT, unlike BIS, will also allow to qualitatively and quantitatively differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, which is of major importance in studies on adiposity and its complications.

  2. Can Bioimpedance Measurements of Lean and Fat Tissue Mass Replace Subjective Global Assessments in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients?

    PubMed

    Paudel, Klara; Visser, Annemarie; Burke, Sinead; Samad, Nasreen; Fan, Stanley L

    2015-11-01

    Malnutrition and protein energy wasting (PEW) determined by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is associated with increased mortality. There is an inverse relationship between body mass and overhydration in dialysis patients. Is the predictive accuracy of SGA (for death) independent of hydration status? Can bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis of lean tissue index (LTI) and fat tissue index (FTI) accurately identify dialysis patients with protein energy wasting and increased mortality? We report an observational study of 455 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We found that 96 patients (21%) were malnourished (SGA score between 1 and 5), and 192 (42%) had LTI values below 10th centile (age, gender adjusted). FTI was significantly lower in the SGA-defined malnourished cohort. By contrast, there was an inverse relationship between LTI and FTI. Malnourished (by SGA) patients were significantly more overhydrated (P < .0001), but SGA remained highly predictive of survival in multivariate analysis that included hydration status (hazard ratio: 3.12, 95% confidence interval 1.86-5.23, P < .0001). Obesity (patients with the highest 20% FTI) predicted survival (hazard ratio of death was 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.85, P < .02) on univariate but not multivariate analysis. We have confirmed that SGA is an accurate predictor of mortality in PD patients, and its predictive value is independent of the hydration status. Predictive power of SGA was not affected when LTI and FTI were included in multivariate analysis. Patients with low LTI were different from patients with low SGA (associated with high FTI). Sensitivity and specificity of Body Composition Monitor to diagnose patients with low SGA readings were poor (area under the curve for receiver operator characteristics analysis 0.66). The phenomenon of reverse epidemiology (high FTI predicting a survival advantage) was found in our PD cohort. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier

  3. Are serum to dialysate sodium gradient and segmental bioimpedance volumes associated with the fall in blood pressure with hemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Khosravi, Maryam; Massart, Annick; Potluri, Madhu; Davenport, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A fall in blood pressure is the most common complication of outpatient hemodialysis. Several factors have been implicated, including serum sodium to dialysate gradient, ultrafiltration rate, and the amount of fluid to be removed during dialysis. We prospectively audited 400 adult patients attending for their routine midweek hemodialysis session, and recorded changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Mean age 58.4 ± 16.6 years, 60.9% male, 30.7% diabetic, 36.8% Caucasoid, single pool Kt/V 1.57 ± 0.4, and median percentage change in MAP -6.7% (-14.1 to + 2.8). The percentage fall in MAP was greatest for those starting with higher MAPs (β 0.448 , F 67.5, p<0.001), greater serum sodium to dialysate sodium gradient (β 0.676, F 5.59, p = 0.019), and age (β 0.163, F 5.15, p = 0.024). In addition, the percentage fall in MAP was greater in those with the lowest segmental extracellular water/total body water (ECW/TBW) ratios in the right arm prior to dialysis (β -477.5, F 7.11, p = 0.008). Falls in blood pressure are common during dialysis, and greater for those starting dialysis with the highest systolic pressures, greater dialysate to serum sodium concentration gradient, and also those with the least ECW in the arm. As such, segmental bioimpedance may be useful in highlighting patients at greatest risk for a fall in blood pressure with dialysis.

  4. Number Theoretic Methods in Parameter Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 /29/98 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final- 1 April 97- 31 May 98 4. TITLE AND...American University Department of Mathematics and Statistics 4400 Massachusetts Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20016- 8050 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING...AGENCY NAMES(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Office of Naval Research 800 North Quincy Street Arlington, VA 22217-5660 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS (g) ONR Grant Number

  5. Towards the development of a wearable Electrical Impedance Tomography system: A study about the suitability of a low power bioimpedance front-end.

    PubMed

    Menolotto, Matteo; Rossi, Stefano; Dario, Paolo; Della Torre, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Wearable systems for remote monitoring of physiological parameter are ready to evolve towards wearable imaging systems. The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) allows the non-invasive investigation of the internal body structure. The characteristics of this low-resolution and low-cost technique match perfectly with the concept of a wearable imaging device. On the other hand low power consumption, which is a mandatory requirement for wearable systems, is not usually discussed for standard EIT applications. In this work a previously developed low power architecture for a wearable bioimpedance sensor is applied to EIT acquisition and reconstruction, to evaluate the impact on the image of the limited signal to noise ratio (SNR), caused by low power design. Some anatomical models of the chest, with increasing geometric complexity, were developed, in order to evaluate and calibrate, through simulations, the parameters of the reconstruction algorithms provided by Electrical Impedance Diffuse Optical Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) project. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements taken with our bioimpedance device on a phantom reproducing chest tissues properties. The comparison was both qualitative and quantitative through the application of suitable figures of merit; in this way the impact of the noise of the low power front-end on the image quality was assessed. The comparison between simulation and measurement results demonstrated that, despite the limited SNR, the device is accurate enough to be used for the development of an EIT based imaging wearable system.

  6. Early Indication of Decompensated Heart Failure in Patients on Home-Telemonitoring: A Comparison of Prediction Algorithms Based on Daily Weight and Noninvasive Transthoracic Bio-impedance

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G; Goode, Kevin M; Reiter, Harald; Habetha, Joerg; Amft, Oliver; Cleland, John GF

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart Failure (HF) is a common reason for hospitalization. Admissions might be prevented by early detection of and intervention for decompensation. Conventionally, changes in weight, a possible measure of fluid accumulation, have been used to detect deterioration. Transthoracic impedance may be a more sensitive and accurate measure of fluid accumulation. Objective In this study, we review previously proposed predictive algorithms using body weight and noninvasive transthoracic bio-impedance (NITTI) to predict HF decompensations. Methods We monitored 91 patients with chronic HF for an average of 10 months using a weight scale and a wearable bio-impedance vest. Three algorithms were tested using either simple rule-of-thumb differences (RoT), moving averages (MACD), or cumulative sums (CUSUM). Results Algorithms using NITTI in the 2 weeks preceding decompensation predicted events (P<.001); however, using weight alone did not. Cross-validation showed that NITTI improved sensitivity of all algorithms tested and that trend algorithms provided the best performance for either measurement (Weight-MACD: 33%, NITTI-CUSUM: 60%) in contrast to the simpler rules-of-thumb (Weight-RoT: 20%, NITTI-RoT: 33%) as proposed in HF guidelines. Conclusions NITTI measurements decrease before decompensations, and combined with trend algorithms, improve the detection of HF decompensation over current guideline rules; however, many alerts are not associated with clinically overt decompensation. PMID:26892844

  7. Revealing membrane potential by advanced impedance spectroscopy: theoretical and experimental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghiu, M.; Bratu, D.; Olaru, A.; Polonschii, C.; Gheorghiu, E.

    2013-04-01

    In spite of recent advancement of novel optical and electrical techniques, availability of non-invasive, label-free methods to assess membrane potential of living cells is still an open issue. The theory linking membrane potential to the low frequency α dispersion exhibited by suspensions of spherical shelled particles (presenting a net charge distribution on the inner side of the shell) has been pioneered in our previous studies with emphasis on the permittivity spectra. We now report on both theoretical and experimental aspects showing that whereas α dispersion is related to a rather large variation exhibited by the permittivity spectrum the decrement presented by impedance magnitude spectrum is either extremely small, or occurs (for large cells) at very low frequencies (~mHz) explaining the lack of experimental bioimpedance data on the matter. Based on the microscopic model we indicate that an appropriate design of the experiment may enable access to membrane potential as well as to other relevant parameters when investigating living cells and charged lipid vesicles. We discuss the effect on the low frequency of permittivity and impedance spectra of: I. Parameters pertaining to cell membrane i.e. (i) membrane potential, (ii) size of the cells/vesicles, (iii) conductivity; II. Conductivity of the outer medium. A novel measuring set-up has recently been developed within the International Centre of Biodynamics allowing for sensitive low frequency (~10mHz) four point (bio)impedance assays. Its capability to test theoretical predictions is reported as well. The far reaching implications of this study applicability for life sciences (noninvasive access to the dynamics of relevant cell parameters) as well as for biosensing applications, e.g. assess the cytotoxicity of a wide range of stimuli, will be outlined.

  8. Impact of demographic, genetic, and bioimpedance factors on gestational weight gain and birth weight in a Romanian population

    PubMed Central

    Mărginean, Claudiu; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Bănescu, Claudia; Meliţ, Lorena; Tripon, Florin; Iancu, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study had 2 objectives, first, to investigate possible relationships between increased gestational weight gain and demographic, clinical, paraclinical, genetic, and bioimpedance (BIA) characteristics of Romanian mothers, and second, to identify the influence of predictors (maternal and newborns characteristics) on our outcome birth weight (BW). We performed a cross-sectional study on 309 mothers and 309 newborns from Romania, divided into 2 groups: Group I—141 mothers with high gestational weight gain (GWG) and Group II—168 mothers with normal GWG, that is, control group. The groups were evaluated regarding demographic, anthropometric (body mass index [BMI], middle upper arm circumference, tricipital skinfold thickness, weight, height [H]), clinical, paraclinical, genetic (interleukin 6 [IL-6]: IL-6 -174G>C and IL-6 -572C>G gene polymorphisms), and BIA parameters. We noticed that fat mass (FM), muscle mass (MM), bone mass (BM), total body water (TBW), basal metabolism rate (BMR) and metabolic age (P < 0.001), anthropometric parameters (middle upper arm circumference, tricipital skinfold thickness; P < 0.001/P = 0.001) and hypertension (odds ratio = 4.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.27–17.03) were higher in mothers with high GWG. BW was positively correlated with mothers’ FM (P < 0.001), TBW (P = 0.001), BMR (P = 0.02), while smoking was negatively correlated with BW (P = 0.04). Variant genotype (GG+GC) of the IL-6 -572C>G polymorphism was higher in the control group (P = 0.042). We observed that high GWG may be an important predictor factor for the afterward BW, being positively correlated with FM, TBW, BMR, metabolic age of the mothers, and negatively with the mother's smoking status. Variant genotype (GG+GC) of the IL-6 -572C>G gene polymorphism is a protector factor against obesity in mothers. All the variables considered explained 14.50% of the outcome variance. PMID:27399105

  9. Comparison of Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpedance in Assessing Body Composition and Nutrition in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Velena; Zerahn, Bo; Heaf, James Goya

    2017-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are characterized by protein malnutrition and muscle wasting. Reliable, easy, and cheap methods for evaluating nutrition are desirable. Three methods are commonly available: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioimpedance (BI), and subjective global assessment (SGA).The objective of the study was to compare the previously mentioned methods for assessment of body composition and nutritional status in PD patients. The study is cross-sectional and consisted of 72 PD patients from a single center PD ambulatorium. Participants were measured twice by DXA, twice by BI, and once by SGA. Measurements included lean tissue mass (LTM), fat tissue mass (FT) and, for BI, overhydration (OH), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW). LTM and FT were indexed to body area (Lean Tissue Index [LTI] and Fat Tissue Index [FTI], respectively), and ICW for height (ICW/ht). We assessed conventional biochemical and clinical variables, using values for normal individuals as a reference. There was good overall agreement between BI and DXA but considerable intra-individual variation (1 standard deviation: FT 5.7 kg; LTM 5.6 kg). Factors affecting the differences were FT, ICW, LTM, and ICW. Obesity (DXA 43%; BI 54%) and muscle wasting (BI 28%; SGA 53%) were common. Agreement between BI and SGA was poor. Thirty-eight percent of patients judged malnourished by SGA also had a low LTI; 23% with normal SGA had low LTI. SGA was closer related to LTI (BI) than LTI (DXA). Plasma albumin was correlated to LTI, FTI, and ICW/ht, and comorbidity to OH, clinical malnutrition, reduced FTI, but not LTI. Agreement between DXA and BI was high on a population basis but not at an individual level. Obesity and muscle wasting were common in this population. OH might reduce DXA accuracy in PD patients. LTI and ICW may be useful measures to supplement SGA in assessing nutrition. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  10. Comparison of bioimpedance spectroscopy and the Watson formula for measuring body volume in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez Fernández, Gonzalo; Ortega Cerrato, Agustín; de la Vara Iniesta, Lourdes; Oliver Galera, Eva; Gómez Roldán, Carmen; Pérez Martínez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Knowing total body volume (V) is crucial in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). It is usually calculated by the Watson anthropometric formula, although the use of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is becoming increasingly widespread. Measuring V with both methods can at times produce quite different results. We aimed to identify differences between the 2 forms of measuring volume in a PD unit and determine which clinical factors are associated with these differences. Ours is an observational study of 74 patients on PD. We measured V using BIS (Vbis) and the Watson formula (Vw); 271 measurements were made with each method. We calculated the difference between Vbis and Vw in each patient and classified them into 2 groups: Difference between volumes ≥10% or <10% Vbis. We assessed the presence of several clinical parameters in our patients. We assessed whether there were any differences between Vbis and Vw (Student t-test). We determined whether there was any association between the difference in volumes and the presence of the clinical parameters analysed (chi square test). V was 2.15 l higher measured by the Watson formula than with BIS (P<.01). In 58.67% of the measurements, the difference between Vbis and Vw was ≥10%. Significant differences were found when comparing the presence of difference between volumes and the presence or not of diabetes mellitus (DM) (p=0,03), hypertension (HTN) (p=0,036), hypoalbuminemia (p<0,01), hypoprealbuminemia (p<0,01), low phase angle at 50 Hz (p<0,01), high C reactive protein (p<0,01), obesity (p=0,027), E/I ratio (ratio between extracellular and intracellular water) ≥1 (p<0.01) and residual diuresis (p=0.029). There are significant differences in the V of PD Unit patients when obtained by Watson formula or by BIS. A difference between the measurements is associated with the presence of DM, HTN, hypoalbuminaemia, obesity, malnutrition, inflammation, E/I ratio ≥1 and the absence of residual diuresis. Copyright © 2015

  11. Pre-procedural bioimpedance vectorial analysis of fluid status and prediction of contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Mauro; Toso, Anna; Leoncini, Mario; Musilli, Nicola; Bellandi, Francesco; Rosner, Mitchell H; McCullough, Peter A; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pre-procedural fluid status assessed by bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) and development of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Accurate fluid management in patients undergoing angiographic procedures is of critical importance in limiting the risk of CI-AKI. Therefore, establishing peri-procedural fluid volume related to increased risk of CI-AKI development is essential. We evaluated the fluid status by BIVA of 900 consecutive patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) immediately before coronary angiography, measuring the resistance/height (R/H) ratio and impedance/height (Z/H) vector. CI-AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dl above baseline within 3 days after contrast administration (iodixanol). CI-AKI occurred in 54 patients (6.0%). Pre-procedural R/H ratios were significantly higher in patients with CI-AKI than without CI-AKI (395 ± 71 Ohm/m vs. 352 ± 58 Ohm/m, p = 0.001 for women; 303 ± 59 Ohm/m vs. 279 ± 45 Ohm/m, p = 0.009 for men), indicating lower fluid volume in the patients with CI-AKI. When patients were stratified according to R/H ratio, there was an almost 3-fold higher risk in patients with higher values (odds ratio [OR]: 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5 to 5.5; p = 0.002). The optimal receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis threshold values of R/H ratio for predicting CI-AKI were 380 Ohm/m for women and 315 Ohm/m for men. R/H ratio above these thresholds was found to be a significant and independent predictor of CI-AKI (OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.8 to 5.5; p = 0.001). Lower fluid status evaluated by BIVA immediately before contrast medium administration resulted in a significant and independent predictor of CI-AKI in patients with stable CAD. This simple noninvasive analysis should be tested in guiding tailored volume repletion. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. New Theoretical Estimates of the Contribution of Unresolved Star-Forming Galaxies to the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background (EGB) as Measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, Tonia M.

    2011-01-01

    We present new theoretical estimates of the contribution of unresolved star-forming galaxies to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) as measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT. We employ several methods for determining the star-forming galaxy contribution the the EGB, including a method positing a correlation between the gamma-ray luminosity of a galaxy and its rate of star formation as calculated from the total infrared luminosity, and a method that makes use of a model of the evolution of the galaxy gas mass with cosmic time. We find that depending on the model, unresolved star-forming galaxies could contribute significantly to the EGB as measured by the Fermi-LAT at energies between approx. 300 MeV and approx. few GeV. However, the overall spectrum of unresolved star-forming galaxies can explain neither the EGRET EGB spectrum at energies between 50 and 200 MeV nor the Fermi-LAT EGB spectrum at energies above approx. few GeV.

  13. Bioimpedance as a tool for evaluating the body composition of suruvi (Steindachneridion scriptum).

    PubMed

    Zaniboni-Filho, E; Hermes-Silva, S; Weingartner, M; Jimenez, J E; Borba, M R; Fracalossi, D M

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is regarded as an important tool for evaluating the body composition of different animals in a rapid, non-destructive, and low-cost manner. A South American fish species, Steindachneridion scriptum, known as suruvi, was selected for study in this investigation. A protocol to produce fish with different body composition was used to allow BIA to adequately predict the body composition of suruvi. The fish were fed twice each day with two different diets; a low lipid diet (8.90%), and a high lipid diet (18.68%). These dietary differences allowed suruvi specimens with different body compositions to be produced. The BIA readings were determined using a Quantum X Bioelectrical Body Composition Analyzer. Two readings (dorsal and ventral) were obtained for each fish. After BIA readings were obtained, the proximate composition of the fish bodies for each individual was determined. All of the study data were used to establish correlation equations between proximate analyses and BIA values. Strong correlations were found for S. scriptum. The highest correlations were obtained for the following pairs of quantities, using BIA data from dorsal readings: moisture and resistance in series (R2 = 0.87); protein and resistance in series (R2 = 0.87); and ash and reactance in parallel (R2 = 0.82). We conclude that BIA is an effective method in determining the body composition of S. scriptum without sacrificing the fish. However, to expand the use of this new technology it is important to define strict BIA protocols to guarantee accurate estimates.

  14. Intracranial hemorrhage alters scalp potential distribution in bioimpedance cerebral monitoring: Preliminary results from FEM simulation on a realistic head model and human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Atefi, Seyed Reza; Seoane, Fernando; Kamalian, Shervin; Rosenthal, Eric S.; Lev, Michael H.; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current diagnostic neuroimaging for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is limited to fixed scanners requiring patient transport and extensive infrastructure support. ICH diagnosis would therefore benefit from a portable diagnostic technology, such as electrical bioimpedance (EBI). Through simulations and patient observation, the authors assessed the influence of unilateral ICH hematomas on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions in order to establish the feasibility of EBI technology as a potential tool for early diagnosis. Methods: Finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental left–right hemispheric scalp potential differences of healthy and damaged brains were compared with respect to the asymmetry caused by ICH lesions on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. In numerical simulations, this asymmetry was measured at 25 kHz and visualized on the scalp as the normalized potential difference between the healthy and ICH damaged models. Proof-of-concept simulations were extended in a pilot study of experimental scalp potential measurements recorded between 0 and 50 kHz with the authors’ custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer. Mean left–right scalp potential differences recorded from the frontal, central, and parietal brain regions of ten healthy control and six patients suffering from acute/subacute ICH were compared. The observed differences were measured at the 5% level of significance using the two-sample Welch t-test. Results: The 3D-anatomically accurate FEM simulations showed that the normalized scalp potential difference between the damaged and healthy brain models is zero everywhere on the head surface, except in the vicinity of the lesion, where it can vary up to 5%. The authors’ preliminary experimental results also confirmed that the left–right scalp potential difference in patients with ICH (e.g., 64 mV) is significantly larger than in healthy subjects (e.g., 20.8 mV; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Realistic

  15. Predictive abilities of baseline measurements of fluid overload, assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, for mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Siriopol, Ianis; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    Fluid overload is one of the most important, yet modifiable, risk factors associated with worse outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, its precise assessment in clinical practice is still under investigation. This is an observational prospective study which included 285 stable patients with end-stage renal disease on standard thrice-weekly HD therapy. Overhydration was assessed by the combination of relative fluid overload (RFO), using bioimpedance spectroscopy, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. The median values for NT-proBNP and RFO were 4595 pg/ml and 6.9%, respectively. We divided the study population into four groups according to these median levels: group 1 - low NT-proBNP and low RFO; group 2 - high NT-proBNP and low RFO; group 3 - low NT-proBNP and high RFO; group 4 - high NT-proBNP and high RFO. During the follow-up (mean: 41.1, median: 48.7 months), 89 (31.2%) patients died. In the univariable Cox survival analysis only patients in group 4, and not those from group 2 or 3, had significantly higher HRs as compared to those in group 1 (HR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8-2.8, HR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.8-2.9 and HR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2, for group 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Furthermore, these results were maintained in the multivariable Cox analysis. Including both bioimpedance and NT-proBNP monitoring in a more comprehensive fluid status assessment could improve the diagnosis of fluid overload with a final improvement in patients' outcome.

  16. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy in the 1,200-1,300 cm(-1) region and accurate theoretical estimates for the structure and ring-puckering barrier of perfluorocyclobutane.

    PubMed

    Blake, Thomas A; Glendening, Eric D; Sams, Robert L; Sharpe, Steven W; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2007-11-08

    We present experimental infrared spectra and theoretical electronic structure results for the geometry, anharmonic vibrational frequencies, and accurate estimates of the magnitude and the origin of the ring-puckering barrier in C4F8. High-resolution (0.0015 cm-1) spectra of the nu12 and nu13 parallel bands of perfluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8) were recorded for the first time by expanding a 10% c-C4F8 in helium mixture in a supersonic jet. Both bands are observed to be rotationally resolved in a jet with a rotational temperature of 15 K. The nu12 mode has b2 symmetry under D2d that correlates to a2u symmetry under D4h and consequently has +/- <-- +/- ring-puckering selection rules. A rigid rotor fit of the nu12 band yields the origin at 1292.56031(2) cm-1 with B' = 0.0354137(3) cm-1 and B' ' = 0.0354363(3) cm-1. The nu13 mode is of b2 symmetry under D2d that correlates to b2g under D4h, and in this case, the ring-puckering selection rules are +/- <-- -/+ . Rotational transitions from the ground and first excited torsional states will be separated by the torsional splitting in the ground and excited vibrational states, and indeed, we observe a splitting of each transition into strong and weak intensity components with a separation of approximately 0.0018 cm-1. The strong and weak sets of transitions were fit separately again using a rigid rotor model to give nu13(strong) = 1240.34858(4) cm-1, B' = 0.0354192(7) cm-1, and B' ' = 0.0354355(7) cm-1 and nu13(weak) = 1240.34674(5) cm-1, B' = 0.0354188(9) cm-1, and B' ' = 0.0354360(7) cm-1. High-level electronic structure calculations at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory with the family of correlation consistent basis sets of quadruple-zeta quality, developed by Dunning and co-workers, yield best estimates for the vibrationally averaged structural parameters r(C-C) = 1.568 A, r(C-F)alpha = 1.340 A, r(C-F)beta = 1.329 A, alpha(F-C-F) = 110.3 degrees , thetaz(C-C-C) = 89.1 degrees , and delta(C-C-C-C) = 14.6 degrees and

  17. Rationale and design of BISTRO: a randomized controlled trial to determine whether bioimpedance spectroscopy-guided fluid management maintains residual kidney function in incident haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Davies, Simon J; Caskey, Fergus J; Coyle, David; Lindley, Elizabeth; Macdonald, Jamie; Mitra, Sandip; Wilkie, Martin; Davenport, Andrew; Farrington, Ken; Dasgupta, Indranil; Ormandy, Paula; Andronis, Lazaros; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Sim, Julius

    2017-04-26

    Preserved residual kidney function (RKF) and normal fluid status are associated with better patient outcomes in incident haemodialysis patients. The objective of this trial is to determine whether using bioimpedance technology in prescribing the optimal post-dialysis weight can reduce the rate of decline of RKF and potentially improve patient outcomes. 516 pateints commencing haemodialysis, aged >18 with RKF of > 3 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or a urine volume >500 ml per day or per the shorter inter-dialytic period will be consented and enrolled into a pragmatic, open-label, randomized controlled trial. The intervention is incorporation of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BI) determination of normally hydrated weight to set a post-dialysis target weight that limits volume depletion, compared to current standard practice. Clinicians and participants will be blinded to BI measures in the control group and a standardized record capturing management of fluid status will be used in all participants. Primary outcome is preservation of residual kidney function assessed as time to anuria (≤100 ml/day or ≤200 ml urine volume in the short inter-dialytic period). A sample size of 516 was based upon a cumulative incidence of 30% anuria in the control group and 20% in the treatment group and 11% competing risks (death, transplantation) over 10 months, with up to 2 years follow-up. Secondary outcomes include rate of decline in small solute clearance, significant adverse events, hospitalization, loss of vascular access, cardiovascular events and interventions, dialysis efficacy and safety, dialysis-related symptoms and quality of life. Economic evaluation will be carried out to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Analyses will be adjusted for patient characteristics and dialysis unit practice patterns relevant to fluid management. This trial will establish the added value of undertaking BI measures to support clinical management of fluid status and establish the

  18. Nutritional status evaluated by multi-frequency bioimpedance is not associated with quality of life or depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Barros, Annerose; da Costa, Bartira E Pinheiro; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E; Antonello, Ivan C; d'Avila, Domingos O

    2011-02-01

    Hemodialysis therapy significantly impacts on patients' physical, psychological, and social performances. Such reduced quality of life depends on several factors, such as malnutrition, depression, and metabolic derangements. This study aims to evaluate the current nutritional status, quality of life and depressive symptoms, and determine the possible relationships with other risk factors for poor outcomes, in stable hemodialysis patients. This was a single-center, cross-sectional study that enrolled 59 adult patients undergoing hemodialysis. Laboratory tests that included high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (CRP), and quality of life and depressive symptom evaluation, as well as malnutrition-inflammation score, nutritional status and body composition (by direct segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis) determinations were performed. Patients were classified as "underfat", "standard", "overfat", or "obese" by multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis. Seven patients were underfat, 19 standard, 19 overfat, and 14 obese. Triglyceride levels significantly differed between the underfat, standard, overfat, and obese groups (1.06 [0.98-1.98]; 1.47 [1.16-1.67]; 2.53 [1.17-3.13]; 2.12 [1.41-2.95] mmol/L, respectively; P=0.026), as did Kt/V between the underfat, overfat, and obese groups (1.49 ± 0.14; 1.23 ± 0.19; 1.19 ± 0.22; P=0.015 and P=0.006, respectively). Depressive symptoms, quality of life, and CRP and phosphate levels did not diverge among nutritional groups. Creatinine, albumin, and phosphate strongly correlated, as well as percent body fat, body mass index, and waist circumference (r=0.859 [P<0.001], and r=0.716 [P<0.001], respectively). Depressive symptoms and physical and psychological quality-of-life domains also strongly correlated (r(s) = -0.501 [P<0.001], r(s) = -0.597 [P<0.001], respectively). The majority of patients were overfat or obese and very few underfat. Inflammation was prevalent, overall. No association of nutritional status with

  19. Disagreement between standard transthoracic impedance cardiography and the automated transthoracic electrical bioimpedance method in estimating the cardiovascular responses to phenylephrine and isoprenaline in healthy man.

    PubMed Central

    De Mey, C; Enterling, D

    1993-01-01

    1. Impedance cardiography is a well-established noninvasive method to assess within-subject changes of cardiovascular function. We compared the standard approach (ZCG) which requires tedious signal analysis with an automated approach (TEB: NCCOM 3) with its own specific equipment, algorithms and equations in order to assess agreement of the method-specific measurements and calculations. 2. Ten healthy men were studied on two occasions with either ZCG or TEB, at rest and at the end of 5 min i.v.-infusions with 1 microgram min-1 isoprenaline and 100 micrograms min-1 phenylephrine. 3. There was good agreement for the method-independent changes (HR, SBP/DBP), but there were large differences for method-specific measurements: dZ/dtmax [TEB-ZCG] = -0.68, CI: -0.83 to -0.53 ohm s-1, PEP [TEB-ZCG] = -22.1, CI: -35.0 to -9.2 ms and QS2c [TEB-ZCG] = -16.5, CI: -32.4 to -0.6 ms and for the calculated stroke volume SV [TEB-ZCG] = 30.3, CI: 15.5 to 45.2 ml. The responses of dZ/dtmax and SV to isoprenaline and phenylephrine, although qualitatively similar, reached no quantitative agreement either. A substantial disagreement was evident for the STI responses to isoprenaline where TEB failed to detect the expected reduction of VETc and thus grossly underestimated the shortening of QS2c. 4. It is concluded that TEB-measurements and -calculations did not agree with standard ZCG, that the methods, albeit related, cannot be considered as interchangeable and that suspicion is justified that TEB might yield erroneous results under specific circumstances. PMID:8485014

  20. A current-excited triple-time-voltage oversampling method for bio-impedance model for cost-efficient circuit system.

    PubMed

    Yan Hong; Yong Wang; Wang Ling Goh; Yuan Gao; Lei Yao

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a mathematic method and a cost-efficient circuit to measure the value of each component of the bio-impedance model at electrode-electrolyte interface. The proposed current excited triple-time-voltage oversampling (TTVO) method deduces the component values by solving triple simultaneous electric equation (TSEE) at different time nodes during a current excitation, which are the voltage functions of time. The proposed triple simultaneous electric equations (TSEEs) allows random selections of the time nodes, hence numerous solutions can be obtained during a single current excitation. Following that, the oversampling approach is engaged by averaging all solutions of multiple TSEEs acquired after a single current excitation, which increases the practical measurement accuracy through the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition, a print circuit board (PCB) that consists a switched current exciter and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is designed for signal acquisition. This presents a great cost reduction when compared against other instrument-based measurement data reported [1]. Through testing, the measured values of this work is proven to be in superb agreements on the true component values of the electrode-electrolyte interface model. This work is most suited and also useful for biological and biomedical applications, to perform tasks such as stimulations, recordings, impedance characterizations, etc.

  1. Volume overload and its risk factors in South African chronic kidney disease patients: an appraisal of bioimpedance spectroscopy and inferior vena cava measurements.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muzamil Olamide; Duarte, Raquel; Dix-Peek, Therese; Vachiat, Ahmed; Dickens, Caroline; Grinter, Sacha; Naidoo, Sagren; Manga, Pravin; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2016-07-01

    Fluid retention occurs early in chronic kidney disease (CKD) resulting in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to assess volume and nutritional status among South African CKD participants and determine the relationship between malnutrition, inflammation, atherosclerosis, and volume overload using a body composition monitor (BCM). We also evaluated the usefulness of BCM measurement in assessing volume overload. 160 participants comprising hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, stage 3 CKD patients, and healthy controls (40 in each group) were studied. A BCM was used to assess fluid and nutritional status. Cardiac dimension measurements, and inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD) and carotid intima media thickness were assessed by echocardiography and ultrasonography, respectively. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured as markers of inflammation. Fluid overload and malnutrition were present in 68% and 63% of studied patients, respectively. Using physical examination findings as the reference measurements for volume overload, the area under the concentration curves for BCM and IVCD measurements were 0.866 (sensitivity 82%, specificity 74%, p < 0.001) and 0.727 (sensitivity 57%, specificity 70%, p < 0.001), respectively. Lean tissue index, inflammation, and atherosclerosis were associated with volume overload. Volume overload and malnutrition were common across the spectrum of South African CKD cohorts; volume overload was associated with malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a useful and sensitive tool for the assessment of fluid status in clinically euvolumic nondialytic CKD patients.

  2. Experimental (FT-IR, NMR and UV) and theoretical (M06-2X and DFT) investigation, and frequency estimation analyses on (E)-3-(4-bromo-5-methylthiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sert, Yusuf; Balakit, Asim A.; Öztürk, Nuri; Ucun, Fatih; El-Hiti, Gamal A.

    2014-10-01

    The spectroscopic properties of (E)-3-(4-bromo-5-methylthiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile have been investigated by FT-IR, UV, 1H and 13C NMR techniques. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and angles) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and DFT/M06-2X (the highly parameterized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 03 software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been carried out by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies were in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with the results in the literature. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, oscillator strength wavelengths were performed by B3LYP methods. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and the other related molecular energy values have been calculated and depicted.

  3. Experimental (FT-IR, NMR and UV) and theoretical (M06-2X and DFT) investigation, and frequency estimation analyses on (E)-3-(4-bromo-5-methylthiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Sert, Yusuf; Balakit, Asim A; Öztürk, Nuri; Ucun, Fatih; El-Hiti, Gamal A

    2014-10-15

    The spectroscopic properties of (E)-3-(4-bromo-5-methylthiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile have been investigated by FT-IR, UV, (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and angles) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and DFT/M06-2X (the highly parameterized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 03 software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been carried out by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies were in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with the results in the literature. (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, oscillator strength wavelengths were performed by B3LYP methods. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and the other related molecular energy values have been calculated and depicted.

  4. Theoretical considerations in measurement of time discrepancies between input and myocardial time-signal intensity curves in estimates of regional myocardial perfusion with first-pass contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Takahiro; Ishida, Masaki; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Nagata, Motonori; Sakuma, Hajime; Ichihara, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to determine time discrepancies between input and myocardial time-signal intensity (TSI) curves for accurate estimation of myocardial perfusion with first-pass contrast-enhanced MRI. Estimation of myocardial perfusion with contrast-enhanced MRI using kinetic models requires faithful recording of contrast content in the blood and myocardium. Typically, the arterial input function (AIF) is obtained by setting a region of interest in the left ventricular cavity. However, there is a small delay between the AIF and the myocardial curves, and such time discrepancies can lead to errors in flow estimation using Patlak plot analysis. In this study, the time discrepancies between the arterial TSI curve and the myocardial tissue TSI curve were estimated based on the compartment model. In the early phase after the arrival of the contrast agent in the myocardium, the relationship between rate constant K1 and the concentrations of Gd-DTPA contrast agent in the myocardium and arterial blood (LV blood) can be described by the equation K1={dCmyo(tpeak)/dt}/Ca(tpeak), where Cmyo(t) and Ca(t) are the relative concentrations of Gd-DTPA contrast agent in the myocardium and in the LV blood, respectively, and tpeak is the time corresponding to the peak of Ca(t). In the ideal case, the time corresponding to the maximum upslope of Cmyo(t), tmax, is equal to tpeak. In practice, however, there is a small difference in the arrival times of the contrast agent into the LV and into the myocardium. This difference was estimated to correspond to the difference between tpeak and tmax. The magnitudes of such time discrepancies and the effectiveness of the correction for these time discrepancies were measured in 18 subjects who underwent myocardial perfusion MRI under rest and stress conditions. The effects of the time discrepancies could be corrected effectively in the myocardial perfusion estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Comparison of multi-frequency bioimpedance with perometry for the early detection and intervention of lymphoedema after axillary node clearance for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bundred, Nigel J; Stockton, Charlotte; Keeley, Vaughan; Riches, Katie; Ashcroft, Linda; Evans, Abigail; Skene, Anthony; Purushotham, Arnie; Bramley, Maria; Hodgkiss, Tracey

    2015-05-01

    The importance of early detection of lymphoedema by arm volume measurements before surgery and repeated measurements after surgery in women undergoing axillary node clearance (ANC) in order to enable early intervention is recognised. A prospective multi-centre study was performed which studied the difference between multi-frequency bioimpedance electrical analysis (BIS) and perometer arm measurement in predicting the development of lymphoedema. Women undergoing ANC underwent pre-operative and regular post-operative measurements of arm volume by both methods. The primary endpoint is the incidence of lymphoedema (≥10 % arm volume increase compared to contralateral arm by perometer) at 2 and 5 years after ANC. The threshold for intervention in lymphoedema was also assessed. Out of 964 patients recruited, 612 had minimum 6 months follow-up data. Using 1-month post-operative measurements as baseline, perometer detected 31 patients with lymphoedema by 6 months (BIS detected 53). By 6 months, 89 % of those with no lymphoedema reported at least one symptom. There was moderate correlation between perometer and BIS at 3 months (r = 0.40) and 6 months (r = 0.60), with a sensitivity of 73 % and specificity of 84 %. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a threshold for early intervention of ≥5 to <10 % (p = 0.03). Threshold for early intervention to prevent progression to lymphoedema is ≥5 to <10 % but symptoms alone do not predict lymphoedema. The modest correlation between methods at 6 months indicates arm volume measurements remain gold standard, although longer term follow-up is required.

  6. Experimental and Analytical Comparisons of Tissue Dielectric Constant (TDC) and Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (BIS) in Assessment of Early Arm Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Patients after Axillary Surgery and Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Tapani; Seppälä, Jan; Viren, Tuomas; Johansson, Karin

    2015-09-01

    Early diagnosis of breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL) is of great importance for longstanding treatment results. Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) both have a potential for early diagnosis, but have not been compared. One hundred women, treated for breast cancer with breast surgery, axillary dissection, and radiotherapy, were examined within one year after breast cancer treatment, as part of the follow-up procedure. Affected/at-risk and contralateral arms were measured with the TDC technique specific to localized skin water content and the BIS technique assessing arm extracellular fluid (ECF). Thirty-eight patients were clinically diagnosed for lymphedema (38.0%). The sensitivity and specificity for the TDC method were 65.8% and 83.9%, and for BIS method 42.1% and 93.5%, (p < 0.001 and NS), respectively. Of all lymphedema, 18.4% were detected only by TDC and 2.6% by BIS. Affected arm to contralateral arm TDC ratios for upper arm and forearm, 1.56 ± 0.49 and 1.28 ± 0.33, demonstrating the localized feature of the TDC measurements were significantly greater than the BIS arm ratio 1.12 ± 0.12 (both p < 0.001). Discrepancies between TDC and BIS techniques in assessing lymphedema are related to different measurement techniques and assessed tissue water components. Independently of selected technique-specific threshold limit, the TDC technique was more sensitive than the BIS technique in the early assessment of BCRL and demonstrated that nearly 20% of early lymphedema are only superficially localized. The results further supported the complementary role of TDC and arm volume measurements as a highly diagnostic method for early lymphedema.

  7. Precision and reliability of strength (Jamar vs. Biodex handgrip) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry vs. bioimpedance analysis) measurements in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Trutschnigg, Barbara; Kilgour, Robert D; Reinglas, Jason; Rosenthall, Leonard; Hornby, Laura; Morais, José A; Vigano, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Important deteriorations in body composition and strength occur and need to be accurately measured in advanced cancer patients (ACPs). The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between a single-frequency bioimpedance analyzer (BIA) and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DXA), as well as the Jamar handgrip dynometer and the Biodex handgrip attachment, and to determine the precision of each of these instruments in ACPs. Eighty-one ACPs with non-small-cell lung cancer and gastrointestinal cancer were recruited from the McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, Que.). Consecutive paired measurements, with repositioning between measurements, were obtained for total-body DXA, BIA, Biodex handgrip, and BIA plus Jamar handgrip. The total-body percent coefficient of variation (%CV) for the BIA and DXA were 1.34 and 1.56 for fat mass (FM), respectively, and 0.42 and 0.72 for fat free mass (FFM), respectively. The %CV for the Jamar and Biodex handgrips were 6.3 and 16.7, respectively. Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize the limits of agreement between DXA and BIA for FM (4.60 +/- 7.80 (-3.19 to 12.39) kg) and FFM (-1.87 +/- 7.16 (-9.03 to 5.29) kg). Both DXA and BIA demonstrate good short-term precision in ACPs. However, given its poor accuracy, it remains to be determined if BIA can be used to monitor ACPs for changes in total-body tissue composition as a function of time, whether for observation or response to treatment. Furthermore, because of wide limits of agreement, the DXA and BIA cannot be used interchangeably in research or clinical settings. The Jamar handgrip dynamometer shows more consistency than the Biodex handgrip attachment in ACPs, and should therefore be the preferred measure of changes in strength over time.

  8. Intrarater Reliability of Tonometry and Bioimpedance Spectroscopy to Measure Tissue Compressibility and Extracellular Fluid in the Legs of Healthy Young People in Australia and Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Janet; Graves, Patricia; Gordon, Susan

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of tissue compressibility and extracellular fluid (ECF) are used to monitor progression of lymphedema, a chronic swelling of the subcutaneous tissue. Later stages of lymphedema are characterized by fibrotic induration in the subcutis and hyperkeratosis of the skin. Several devices are available to measure these changes, but previous reliability and validity studies have been conducted primarily on adult women with unilateral arm lymphedema using contralateral limbs as controls. To date, no studies have included either adolescents or measurement of leg tissue. An intrarater reliability study was conducted to compare three devices measuring skin and subcutaneous tissue compressibility; a mechanical Tonometer, a digital Indurometer, and a SkinFibroMeter. ECF loads were measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Two populations of tropical-dwelling young people were included; Australian residents in North Queensland aged 8-21 years (n = 34) and people aged 10-21 years residing in Central Myanmar (n = 38). Neither cohort had any clinical sign of lymphedema or other leg abnormality. The mechanical Tonometer and the digital Indurometer had excellent intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) scores between 0.792 (95% CI 0.055-0.901) and 0.964 (95% CI 0.945-0.984) and the SkinFibroMeter had good to excellent reliability with ICC scores of between 0.565 (95% CI 0.384-0.747) and 0.877 (95% CI 0.815-0.840). BIS exhibited the highest reliability with ICC scores approaching 1.0. These results support the reliable use of tonometry and BIS to assess tissue compressibility and ECF loads in the legs of adolescent populations in developed and developing tropical countries.

  9. Increased extracellular water measured by bioimpedance and by increased serum levels of atrial natriuretic peptide in RA patients-signs of volume overload.

    PubMed

    Straub, Rainer H; Ehrenstein, Boris; Günther, Florian; Rauch, Luise; Trendafilova, Nadezhda; Boschiero, Dario; Grifka, Joachim; Fleck, Martin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate water compartments in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Acute inflammatory episodes such as infection stimulate water retention, chiefly implemented by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This is an important compensatory mechanism due to expected water loss (sweating etc.). Since SNS and HPA axis are activated in RA, inflammation might be accompanied by water retention. Using bioimpedance analysis, body composition was investigated in 429 controls and 156 treatment-naïve RA patients between January 2008 and December 2014. A group of 34 RA patients was tested before and after 10 days of intensified therapy. Levels of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) and expression of atrial natriuretic peptide in synovial tissue were investigated in 15 controls and 14 RA patients. Extracellular water was higher in RA patients than controls (mean ± SEM: 49.5 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.1, % of total body water, p < 0.0001). Plasma levels of proANP were higher in RA than controls. RA patients expressed ANP in synovial tissue, but synovial fluid levels and synovial tissue superfusate levels were much lower than plasma levels indicating systemic origin. Systolic/diastolic blood pressure was higher in RA patients than controls. Extracellular water levels did not change in RA patients despite 10 days of intensified treatment. This study demonstrates signs of intravascular overload in RA patients. Short-term intensification of anti-inflammatory therapy induced no change of a longer-lasting imprinting of water retention indicating the requirement of additional treatment. The study can direct attention to the area of volume overload.

  10. Estimation of body fatness from body mass index and bioelectrical impedance: comparison of New Zealand European, Maori and Pacific Island children.

    PubMed

    Rush, E C; Puniani, K; Valencia, M E; Davies, P S W; Plank, L D

    2003-11-01

    To compare percentage body fat (%BF) for a given body mass index (BMI) among New Zealand European, Maori and Pacific Island children. To develop prediction equations based on bioimpedance measurements for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate to children in these three ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study. Purposive sampling of schoolchildren aimed at recruiting three children of each sex and ethnicity for each year of age. Double cross-validation of FFM prediction equations developed by multiple regression. Local schools in Auckland. Healthy European, Maori and Pacific Island children (n=172, 83 M, 89 F, mean age 9.4+/-2.8(s.d.), range 5-14 y). Height, weight, age, sex and ethnicity were recorded. FFM was derived from measurements of total body water by deuterium dilution and resistance and reactance were measured by bioimpedance analysis. For fixed BMI, the Maori and Pacific Island girls averaged 3.7% lower %BF than European girls. For boys a similar relation was not found since BMI did not significantly influence %BF of European boys (P=0.18). Based on bioimpedance measurements a single prediction equation was developed for all children: FFM (kg)=0.622 height (cm)(2)/resistance+0.234 weight (kg)+1.166, R(2)=0.96, s.e.e.=2.44 kg. Ethnicity, age and sex were not significant predictors. A robust equation for estimation of FFM in New Zealand European, Maori and Pacific Island children in the 5-14 y age range that is more suitable than BMI for the determination of body fatness in field studies has been developed.

  11. Consensus theoretic classification methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benediktsson, Jon A.; Swain, Philip H.

    1992-01-01

    Consensus theory is adopted as a means of classifying geographic data from multiple sources. The foundations and usefulness of different consensus theoretic methods are discussed in conjunction with pattern recognition. Weight selections for different data sources are considered and modeling of non-Gaussian data is investigated. The application of consensus theory in pattern recognition is tested on two data sets: 1) multisource remote sensing and geographic data and 2) very-high-dimensional remote sensing data. The results obtained using consensus theoretic methods are found to compare favorably with those obtained using well-known pattern recognition methods. The consensus theoretic methods can be applied in cases where the Gaussian maximum likelihood method cannot. Also, the consensus theoretic methods are computationally less demanding than the Gaussian maximum likelihood method and provide a means for weighting data sources differently.

  12. A New Theoretical Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longuet-Higgins, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that the study of artificial intelligence can provide ways of thinking about the human mind that are potentially valuable in formulating cognitive theories. Theoretical psychology is proposed as an appropriate classification for this branch of theory. (MSE)

  13. Information Theoretic Causal Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-12

    his 1969 paper, Clive Granger , British economist and Nobel laureate, proposed a statistical def- inition of causality between stochastic processes. It...showed that the directed infor- mation, an information theoretic quantity, quantifies Granger causality . We also explored a more pessimistic setup...Final Technical Report Project Title: Information Theoretic Causal Coordination AFOSR Award Number: AF FA9550-10-1-0345 Reporting Period: July 15

  14. Theoretical and computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Meuwly, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Computer-based and theoretical approaches to chemical problems can provide atomistic understanding of complex processes at the molecular level. Examples ranging from rates of ligand-binding reactions in proteins to structural and energetic investigations of diastereomers relevant to organo-catalysis are discussed in the following. They highlight the range of application of theoretical and computational methods to current questions in chemical research.

  15. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  16. [Once again: theoretical pathology].

    PubMed

    Bleyl, U

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical pathology refers to the attempt to reintroduce methodical approaches from the humanities, philosophical logic and "gestalt philosophy" into medical research and pathology. Diseases, in particular disease entities and more complex polypathogenetic mechanisms of disease, have a "gestalt quality" due to the significance of their pathophysiologic coherence: they have a "gestalt". The Research group Theoretical Pathology at the Academy of Science in Heidelberg are credited with having revitalized the philosophical notion of "gestalt" for morphological and pathological diagnostics. Gestalt means interrelated schemes of pathophysiological significance in the mind of the diagnostician. In pathology, additive and associative diagnostic are simply not possible without considering the notion of synthetic entities in Kant's logic.

  17. Body Fat Analysis in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: Multifrequency Bioimpedance Assay and Anthropometry Compared With Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Jayasurya; Pillai, Priyamvada P Sivan; Parameswaran, Sreejith; Kamalanathan, Sadish Kumar; Pal, Gopal Krushna

    2016-09-01

    Body composition analysis is required for accurate assessment of nutritional status in patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). The reference method for assessing body fat is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), but it is relatively expensive and often not available for widespread clinical use. There is only limited data on the utility of less expensive and easily available alternatives such as multifrequency bioimpedance assay (BIA) and skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements for assessing body fat in predialysis CKD. The study intends to assess the utility of BIA and SFT in measuring body fat compared to the reference method DXA in subjects with predialysis CKD. Body composition analysis was done in 50 subjects with predialysis CKD using multifrequency BIA, SFT, and DXA. The agreement between the body fat percentages measured by reference method DXA and BIA/SFT was assessed by paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Percentage of body fat measured by BIA was higher compared to the measurements by DXA, but the difference was not significant (30.44 ± 9.34 vs. 28.62 ± 9.00; P = .071). The ICC between DXA and BIA was 0.822 (confidence interval: 0.688, 0.899; P = .000). The mean values of body fat percentages measured by anthropometry (SFT) was considerably lower when compared to DXA (23.62 ± 8.18 vs. 28.62 ± 9.00; P = .000). The ICC between DXA and SFT was .851 (confidence interval: 0.739, 0.915; P = .000). Bland-Altman plots showed that BIA overestimated body fat by a mean of 1.8% (standard deviation, 6.98), whereas SFT underestimated body fat by 5% (standard deviation, 4.01). Regression plots showed a better agreement between SFT and DXA (R(2) = .79) than BIA (R(2) = .50). Overall, SFT showed better agreement with the DXA. Body mass index (BMI) showed a moderate positive correlation with body fat measured by DXA whereas serum albumin failed to show good correlation. SFT

  18. Efficacy of dialysis in peritoneal dialysis: utility of bioimpedance to calculate Kt/V and the search for a target Kt.

    PubMed

    Martínez Fernández, G; Ortega Cerrato, A; Masiá Mondéjar, J; Pérez Rodríguez, A; Llamas Fuentes, F; Gómez Roldán, C; Pérez-Martínez, Juan

    2013-04-01

    To calculate Kt/V, volume (V) is usually obtained by Watson formula, but bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a simple and applicable technique to determinate V, along with other hydration and nutrition parameters, in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Dialysis efficacy can also be measured with Kt, but no experience exists in PD, so there is no reference/target value for Kt that must be achieved in these patients to be considered adequately dialyzed. We evaluated the efficacy of PD with Kt/V using Watson formula and BIS for V calculation, assessed hydration status in a PD unit by data obtained by BIS, and attempted to find a reference Kt from the Kt/V previously obtained by BIS. In this observational prospective study of 78 PD patients, we measured V using BIS (V bis) and Watson formula (V w) and calculated weekly Kt/V using both volumes (Kt/V bis/V bis and Kt/V w). With the BIS technique, we obtained and subsequently analyzed other hydration status parameters. We achieved a reference Kt, extrapolating the value desired (weekly Kt/V 1.7) to the target Kt using the simple linear regression statistical technique, basing it on the results of the previously calculated Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. Volume was 1.8 l higher by Watson formula than with BIS (p < 0.001). Weekly Kt/V bis was 2.33 ± 0.68, and mean weekly Kt/V w was 2.20 ± 0.63 (p < 0.0001); 60.25 % of patients presented overhydration according to the BIS study (OH >1.1 l). The target value of Kt for the reference weekly Kt/V bis (1.7) was 64.87 l. BIS is a simple, applicable technique for calculating V in dialysis that can be especially useful in PD patients compared with the anthropometric formulas, by the abnormally distributed body water in these patients. Other parameters obtained by BIS will serve to assess both the distribution of body volume and nutritional status in the clinical setting. The target Kt value obtained from Kt/V bis allowed us to measure the efficacy of PD in a practical way

  19. The association between bioimpedance analysis and quality of life in pre-dialysis stage 5 chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Yongsiri, Somchai; Thammakumpee, Jiranuch; Prongnamchai, Suriya; Dinchuthai, Pakaphan; Chueansuwan, Rachaneeporn; Tangjaturonrasme, Siriporn; Chaivanit, Pechngam

    2014-03-01

    Protein-energy wasting is a significant problem in End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Furthermore, it compromises the patient's Quality of life (QOL). Multifrequency Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (BIS) is a validated method to assess body composition in dialysis patients. There has been no data on the relationship between body composition and QOL in ESRD patients who were treated with different modalities. To explore the association between body composition as assessed by BIS and QOL in ESRD patients who received different treatment modalities. The present study is a cross sectional, descriptive analytic study of the association between QOL and BIS in ESRD patients in Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand. QOL was assessed by WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, body composition was measured by BIS technique. The difference between groups was tested by one-way ANOVA test, relationship between groups was tested with Pearson correlation test. Eighteen predialysis-CKD5, 26 peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 34 hemodialysis (HD) patients were included in the present study. All PD patients had weekly Kt/V > or = 1.7 per week and all HD patients had weekly Kt/V > or = 3.6 per week. There were no statistically difference in baseline characteristics including Charlson comorbidity index, dietary intake, BMI, and blood pressure between groups. Mean QOL scores in each group were in the middle range and not significantly difference. PD patients had more over hydration when compare to HD patients (16.18 +/- 11.24 vs. 2.36 +/- 11.07 %OH/ECW p < 0.0001). There were inversed correlation between overhydration and physical health in HD patients (r = -0.372, p = 0.033) but not in PD and CKD5 patients. CKD5 patients had more lean tissue index (LTI) than PD and HD patients (LTI = 14.34 +/- 3.13, 12.26 +/- 3.65, 11.48 +/- 3.48 kg/m2 respectively, p = 0.023). There were correlation between LTI and overall QOL in CKD5 (r = 0.690, p = 0.002) and PD patients (r = 0.498, p = 0.010). In HD patients, LTI

  20. Poor accuracy of noninvasive cardiac output monitoring using bioimpedance cardiography [PhysioFlow(R)] compared to magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katherine; Manlhiot, Cedric; McCrindle, Brian; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Holtby, Helen

    2012-04-01

    Identification of low cardiac output (CO) states in anesthesia is important because preoperative hemodynamic optimization may improve outcome in surgery. Accurate real-time CO measurement would be useful in optimizing "goal-directed" therapy. We sought to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of CO measurement using bioimpedance cardiography (PhysioFlow®, NeuMeDx, Bristol, PA) in pediatric patients with and without cardiac disease undergoing anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All consenting patients undergoing anesthesia for cardiac MRI were enrolled. After equilibration of anesthesia for ≥10 minutes, 6 PhysioFlow electrodes were applied to the patient's chest for continuous real-time monitoring for 10 minutes. Data were stored in 15-second epochs and later averaged offline to obtain CO. Phase contrast MRI measurements of flow volumes in the superior vena cava and ascending and descending aorta were made from a single imaging plane through all 3 vessels at the level of the right pulmonary artery. Both CO measurements were indexed to body surface area. The anesthetic technique was the same for both measurements. Agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Thirty-one patients were enrolled and 23 were analyzed. The median age at study was 2.8 years (range, 0.02-8.02 years) and median body surface area was 0.54 m(2) (range, 0.21-1.00 m(2)). Eleven of the 23 patients (48%) were males. Patients were grouped into those with univentricular physiology, 6 of 23 (26%); biventricular physiology with shunt, 3 of 23 (13%); biventricular without shunt, 10 of 23 (43%); and no structural heart disease, 4 of 23 (17%). The mean bias was -0.34 ± 1.50 L/min/m(2) (P = 0.29). The 95% limits of agreement were -3.21 to +2.69 L/min/m(2). Only 8 of 23 measurements (35%) were within 20% and 14 of 23 measurements (61%) were within 30% of each other. PhysioFlow performance was not sufficiently accurate in this population. Modifications of the algorithm and further

  1. A Theoretical Trombone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    What follows is a description of a theoretical model designed to calculate the playing frequencies of the musical pitches produced by a trombone. The model is based on quantitative treatments that demonstrate the effects of the flaring bell and cup-shaped mouthpiece sections on these frequencies and can be used to calculate frequencies that…

  2. A Theoretical Trombone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    What follows is a description of a theoretical model designed to calculate the playing frequencies of the musical pitches produced by a trombone. The model is based on quantitative treatments that demonstrate the effects of the flaring bell and cup-shaped mouthpiece sections on these frequencies and can be used to calculate frequencies that…

  3. Utility-Theoretic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patrick

    1979-01-01

    Responds to W. S. Cooper's article on utility-theoretic indexing (Journal of the American Society for Information Science, v29 n3) and posits that the method's claim to predictive success rests solely on its appeal to the consequences of decisions. (FM)

  4. Estimating Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  5. Estimating Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  6. Maximum likelihood signature estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    Maximum-likelihood estimates are discussed which are based on an unlabeled sample of observations, of unknown parameters in a mixture of normal distributions. Several successive approximation procedures for obtaining such maximum-likelihood estimates are described. These procedures, which are theoretically justified by the local contractibility of certain maps, are designed to take advantage of good initial estimates of the unknown parameters. They can be applied to the signature extension problem, in which good initial estimates of the unknown parameters are obtained from segments which are geographically near the segments from which the unlabeled samples are taken. Additional problems to which these methods are applicable include: estimation of proportions and adaptive classification (estimation of mean signatures and covariances).

  7. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Bours, Madelon

    2013-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of Type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of different research groups and conclude that, although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this alone cannot explain all the differences.

  8. A theoretical trombone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2014-09-01

    What follows is a description of a theoretical model designed to calculate the playing frequencies of the musical pitches produced by a trombone. The model is based on quantitative treatments that demonstrate the effects of the flaring bell and cup-shaped mouthpiece sections on these frequencies and can be used to calculate frequencies that compare well to both the desired frequencies of the musical pitches and those actually played on a real trombone.

  9. Theoretical Approaches to Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, Krzysztof

    Nanoparticles can be viewed as wave resonators. Involved waves are, for example, carrier waves, plasmon waves, polariton waves, etc. A few examples of successful theoretical treatments that follow this approach are given. In one, an effective medium theory of a nanoparticle composite is presented. In another, plasmon polaritonic solutions allow to extend concepts of radio technology, such as an antenna and a coaxial transmission line, to the visible frequency range.

  10. Silicene: Recent theoretical advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2016-12-01

    Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon with a puckered hexagonal structure closely related to the structure of graphene and that has been predicted to be stable. To date, it has been successfully grown in solution (functionalized) and on substrates. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of recent theoretical advances in the properties of both free-standing silicene as well as in interaction with molecules and substrates, and of proposed device applications.

  11. Panorama of theoretical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimouni, J.

    2012-06-01

    We shall start this panorama of theoretical physics by giving an overview of physics in general, this branch of knowledge that has been taken since the scientific revolution as the archetype of the scientific discipline. We shall then proceed in showing in what way theoretical physics from Newton to Maxwell, Einstein, Feynman and the like, in all modesty, could be considered as the ticking heart of physics. By its special mode of inquiry and its tantalizing successes, it has capturing the very spirit of the scientific method, and indeed it has been taken as a role model by other disciplines all the way from the "hard" ones to the social sciences. We shall then review how much we know today of the world of matter, both in term of its basic content and in the way it is structured. We will then present the dreams of today's theoretical physics as a way of penetrating into its psyche, discovering in this way its aspirations and longing in much the same way that a child's dreams tell us about his yearning and craving. Yet our understanding of matter has been going in the past decades through a crisis of sort. As a necessary antidote, we shall thus discuss the pitfalls of dreams pushed too far….

  12. Theoretical Developments in SUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I will review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry.

  13. An intelligent control framework for robot-aided resistance training using hybrid system modeling and impedance estimation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guozheng; Guo, Xiaobo; Zhai, Yan; Li, Huijun

    2015-08-01

    This study presents a novel therapy control method for robot-assisted resistance training using the hybrid system modeling technology and the estimated patient's bio-impedance changes. A new intelligent control framework based on hybrid system theory is developed, to automatically generate the desired resistive force and to make accommodating emergency behavior, when monitoring the changes of the impaired limb's muscle strength or the unpredictable safety-related occurrences during the execution of the training task. The impaired limb's muscle strength progress is online evaluated using its bio-damping and bio-stiffness estimation results. The proposed method is verified with a custom constructed therapeutic robot system featuring a Barrett WAM™ compliant manipulator. A typical inpatient stroke subject was recruited and enrolled in a ten-week resistance training program. Preliminary results show that the proposed therapeutic strategy can enhance the impaired limb's muscle strength and has practicability for robot-aided rehabilitation training.

  14. Age-related extracellular to total body water volume ratio (Ecv/TBW)--can it be used for "dry weight" determination in dialysis patients? Application of multifrequency bioimpedance measurement.

    PubMed

    Lopot, F; Nejedlý, B; Novotná, H; Macková, M; Sulková, S

    2002-08-01

    The article suggests a novel method for quantitative determination of optimal dry weight in dialysis patient based on their extracellular volume (ECV) to total body water (TBW) ratio and its relation to age. Values of ECV and TBW are evaluated by means of whole body multifrequency bioimpedometry. In an effort to find a suitable marker of hydration status in an individual from bioimpedance data, significant correlation has been found between ECV/TBW ratio and age in health. Assuming that all excess fluid in dialysis patients is stored exclusively in ECV and that distribution of their TBW at the state of optimal dry weight corresponds to that of a healthy person of the same age, the pre-dialysis ECV/TBW could be used for quantitative determination of optimal dry weight and/or of the ultrafiltration to reach this weight. Practical bioimpedance measurement of ECV/TBW in a group of dialysis patients both pre- and post-dialysis confirmed both above assumptions, i.e. nearly exclusively extracellular origin of ultrafiltration as well as normalisation of the ECV/TBW ratio towards the end of dialysis. Supporting evidence of increasing ECV/TBW value with age was also found in literature. Although the suggested method needs detailed analysis of possible disturbing factors (ethnic "specificity" of the reference ECV/TBW vs. age characteristics in health, possible difference in "biological" and "physical" age of dialysis patient and others), the article is published at this early stage to enable wider testing of the proposed novel method by different investigators.

  15. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO), bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (US) in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM) and lean (LM) body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females) in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals), after 10% of weight loss (T1) and after 20% of weight loss (T2). Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM) determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p < 0.005) with the dependent variables (FM and LM) were BW (body weight), TC (thoracic circumference), PC (pelvic circumference), R (resistance) and SFLT (subcutaneous fat layer thickness). Using Mallows’Cp statistics, p value and r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM); however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed. PMID:22781317

  16. Theoretical Astrophysics at Fermilab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Theoretical Astrophysics Group works on a broad range of topics ranging from string theory to data analysis in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The group is motivated by the belief that a deep understanding of fundamental physics is necessary to explain a wide variety of phenomena in the universe. During the three years 2001-2003 of our previous NASA grant, over 120 papers were written; ten of our postdocs went on to faculty positions; and we hosted or organized many workshops and conferences. Kolb and collaborators focused on the early universe, in particular and models and ramifications of the theory of inflation. They also studied models with extra dimensions, new types of dark matter, and the second order effects of super-horizon perturbations. S tebbins, Frieman, Hui, and Dodelson worked on phenomenological cosmology, extracting cosmological constraints from surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They also worked on theoretical topics such as weak lensing, reionization, and dark energy. This work has proved important to a number of experimental groups [including those at Fermilab] planning future observations. In general, the work of the Theoretical Astrophysics Group has served as a catalyst for experimental projects at Fennilab. An example of this is the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Fennilab is now a member of SNAP, and much of the work done here is by people formerly working on the accelerator. We have created an environment where many of these people made transition from physics to astronomy. We also worked on many other topics related to NASA s focus: cosmic rays, dark matter, the Sunyaev-Zel dovich effect, the galaxy distribution in the universe, and the Lyman alpha forest. The group organized and hosted a number of conferences and workshop over the years covered by the grant. Among them were:

  17. Institute for Theoretical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, S.B.; Ooguri, H.; Peet, A.W.; Schwarz, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    String theory is the only serious candidate for a unified description of all known fundamental particles and interactions, including gravity, in a single theoretical framework. Over the past two years, activity in this subject has grown rapidly, thanks to dramatic advances in understanding the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories and string theories. The cornerstone of these new developments is the discovery of duality which relates apparently different string theories and transforms difficult strongly coupled problems of one theory into weakly coupled problems of another theory.

  18. M dwarfs: Theoretical work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, Dermott J.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical work on the atmospheres of M dwarfs has progressed along lines parallel to those followed in the study of other classes of stars. Such models have become increasingly sophisticated as improvements in opacities, in the equation of state, and in the treatment of convection were incorporated during the last 15 to 20 years. As a result, spectrophotometric data on M dwarfs can now be fitted rather well by current models. The various attempts at modeling M dwarf photospheres in purely thermal terms are summarized. Some extensions of these models to include the effects of microturbulence and magnetic inhomogeneities are presented.

  19. Theoretical Optics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, Hartmann

    2005-02-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researchers.

  20. Theoretical Aspects of Dromedaryfoil.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    Seginer were taken on a Yoshihara "A" supercritical airfoil. Steinle and Gross used a 64A010 airfoil. All the data points lie within the theoretical...experimental data that for the same airfoil, either 64A410 or 64A010 , the higher the angle of attack, the sooner the limiting pressure is reached. The...shock 13 Stivers, L.S., Jr., "Effects of Subsonic Mach Numbers on the Forces and Pressure Distributions on Four NACA 64A-Series Airfoil Sections at

  1. Theoretical estimation of static charge fluctuation in amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugler, Sándor; Surján, Péter R.; Náray-Szabó, Gábor

    1988-05-01

    A quantum-chemical method has been developed to determine charge fluctuations in finite aperiodic clusters of amorphous silicon. Calculated atomic net charges are in a close linear relationship to bond-angle distortions involving first and second neighbors. Applying this relationship to a continuous-random-network model of 216 silicon atoms proposed by Wooten et al., we obtained 0.021 electron units for the rms deviation from charge neutrality.

  2. Numerical Estimation of Information Theoretic Measures for Large Data Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-30

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract iii  List of Illustrations vii  List of Tables ix  1. INTRODUCTION 1  2. EVALUATION OF MULTI-TARGET TRACKERS AND...This page intentionally left blank. 1 1. INTRODUCTION A problem that has plagued the tracking community for decades has been...JNIMIJMN EEE EEE   2 JNINIJM IJNIJMN EEE EE   2 IMIN IJNIJMIJMN EE EEE   2 IMJNIN IJMIJNIJMN EEE EEE   2 332  yxH

  3. Theoretical analysis of ARC constriction

    SciTech Connect

    Stoenescu, M.L.; Brooks, A.W.; Smith, T.M.

    1980-12-01

    The physics of the thermionic converter is governed by strong electrode-plasma interactions (emissions surface scattering, charge exchange) and weak interactions (diffusion, radiation) at the maximum interelectrode plasma radius. The physical processes are thus mostly convective in thin sheaths in front of the electrodes and mostly diffusive and radiative in the plasma bulk. The physical boundaries are open boundaries to particle transfer (electrons emitted or absorbed by the electrodes, all particles diffusing through some maximum plasma radius) and to convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. In a first approximation the thermionic converter may be described by a one-dimensional classical transport theory. The two-dimensional effects may be significant as a result of the sheath sensitivity to radial plasma variations and of the strong sheath-plasma coupling. The current-voltage characteristic of the converter is thus the result of an integrated current density over the collector area for which the boundary conditions at each r determine the regime (ignited/unignited) of the local current density. A current redistribution strongly weighted at small radii (arc constriction) limits the converter performance and opens questions on constriction reduction possibilities. The questions addressed are the followng: (1) what are the main contributors to the loss of current at high voltage in the thermionic converter; and (2) is arc constriction observable theoretically and what are the conditions of its occurrence. The resulting theoretical problem is formulated and results are given. The converter electrical current is estimated directly from the electron and ion particle fluxes based on the spatial distribution of the electron/ion density n, temperatures T/sub e/, T/sub i/, electrical voltage V and on the knowledge of the transport coefficients. (WHK)

  4. Dark matter: theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, M S

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the "standard model" of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for "new physics." The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10(-6)-10(-4) eV), a light neutrino (20-90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV-2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. PMID:11607395

  5. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. . Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  6. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. |

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  7. Theoretical ecology without species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail

    The sequencing-driven revolution in microbial ecology demonstrated that discrete ``species'' are an inadequate description of the vast majority of life on our planet. Developing a novel theoretical language that, unlike classical ecology, would not require postulating the existence of species, is a challenge of tremendous medical and environmental significance, and an exciting direction for theoretical physics. Here, it is proposed that community dynamics can be described in a naturally hierarchical way in terms of population fluctuation eigenmodes. The approach is applied to a simple model of division of labor in a multi-species community. In one regime, effective species with a core and accessory genome are shown to naturally appear as emergent concepts. However, the same model allows a transition into a regime where the species formalism becomes inadequate, but the eigenmode description remains well-defined. Treating a community as a black box that expresses enzymes in response to resources reveals mathematically exact parallels between a community and a single coherent organism with its own fitness function. This coherence is a generic consequence of division of labor, requires no cooperative interactions, and can be expected to be widespread in microbial ecosystems. Harvard Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications;John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  8. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1993-06-01

    The author both reviews and makes the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the [open quotes]standard model[close quotes] of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for [open quotes]new physics.[close quotes] The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10[sup [minus]6]--10[sup [minus]4] eV), a light neutrino (20--90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. The author briefly mentions more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. 119 refs.

  9. Theoretical basis for the Beale number

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1981-08-01

    Th Beale number is an empirically derived figure relating the power output of a Stirling engine to working gas pressure, operating frequency, and piston displacement. It is widely used to make preliminary estimates of performance of new designs and to compare the performance of existing engines. Two separate areas of investigation are combined to give a theoretical value for the Beale number and a straightforward explanation of its physical significance. 5 refs.

  10. Theoretical percussion force of the periotest diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T

    1998-01-01

    The Periotest percussion force acting on a dental implant was estimated by assuming a mass-spring-dashpot model of the implant-bone system constructed on the basis of a clinical experiment. A theoretical value of about 10 N, comparable to hitherto reported experimental values, was obtained for an osseointegrated implant of about 1 g. The percussion force would probably be smaller for a heavier implant.

  11. Estimating crop proportions from remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The classification/pixel-count method for estimating the proportion of wheat in each segment is theoretically biased even if all distributional assumptions are met. Alternative ways to estimate crop proportions are examined and their performance testing is considered. Topics covered include general linear functional estimates, the method of moments, and maximum likelihood estimators.

  12. Theoretical Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    2013-08-07

    Abstract: Theoretical Particle Astrophysics The research carried out under this grant encompassed work on the early Universe, dark matter, and dark energy. We developed CMB probes for primordial baryon inhomogeneities, primordial non-Gaussianity, cosmic birefringence, gravitational lensing by density perturbations and gravitational waves, and departures from statistical isotropy. We studied the detectability of wiggles in the inflation potential in string-inspired inflation models. We studied novel dark-matter candidates and their phenomenology. This work helped advance the DoE's Cosmic Frontier (and also Energy and Intensity Frontiers) by finding synergies between a variety of different experimental efforts, by developing new searches, science targets, and analyses for existing/forthcoming experiments, and by generating ideas for new next-generation experiments.

  13. Theoretical and experimental methods to select aircraft handling qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaichik, L. E.; Yashin, Y. P.; Perebatov, V. S.; Desyatnik, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    A theoretical-experimental method is developed to analyze and adequately select aircraft handling qualities (HQ). A review is presented of the criteria developed by the authors to estimate the role of motion cues in controlling of an aircraft, and criteria to estimate the on-ground simulation fidelity. The method is presented to translate on-ground simulation results into real flight conditions.

  14. Topics in theoretical astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao

    This thesis presents a study of various interesting problems in theoretical astrophysics, including gravitational wave astronomy, gamma ray bursts and cosmology. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 explore prospects for detecting gravitational waves from stellar-mass compact objects spiraling into intermediate-mass black holes with ground-based observatories. It is shown in chapter 2 that if the central body is not a BH but its metric is stationary, axisymmetric, reflection symmetric and asymptotically flat, then the waves will likely be triperiodic, as for a BH. Chapters 3 and 4 show that the evolutions of the waves' three fundamental frequencies and of the complex amplitudes of their spectral components encode (in principle) details of the central body's metric, the energy and angular momentum exchange between the central body and the orbit, and the time-evolving orbital elements. Chapter 5 studies a local readout method to enhance the low frequency sensitivity of detuned signal-recycling interferometers. We provide both the results of improvement in quantum noise and the implementation details in Advanced LIGO. Chapter 6 applies and generalizes causal Wiener filter to data analysis in macroscopic quantum mechanical experiments. With the causal Wiener filter method, we demonstrate that in theory we can put the test masses in the interferometer to its quantum mechanical ground states. Chapter 7 presents some analytical solutions for expanding fireballs, the common theoretical model for gamma ray bursts and soft gamma ray repeaters. We apply our results to SGR 1806-20 and rediscover the mismatch between the model and the afterglow observations. Chapter 8 discusses the reconstruction of the scalar-field potential of the dark energy. We advocate direct reconstruction of the scalar field potential as a way to minimize prior assumptions on the shape, and thus minimize the introduction of bias in the derived potential. Chapter 9 discusses gravitational lensing modifications to cosmic

  15. Theoretical Aspect of Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Václav, Štefan; Jurko, Jozef; Božek, Pavol; Lecký, Šimon

    2016-09-01

    Assembly plays a decisive role in global production in terms of its share in the total costs of the products assembled and in terms of the number of people working in the field. The author of (1) indicates that the percentage of the workers in assembly out of the total number of the workers in manufacturing in the U.S.A. ranged from 26.3% (bicycles) to 45.6% (automobiles), while the cost of the product assembly represented typically more than 50% of the total costs. Despite the above-mentioned importance of assembly in the industry, the discontinuous production processes have not been paid adequate attention until recently. It was sufficient to manufacture parts and then an operative reasonably and inexpensively assembled each product manually. The authors of this paper would like to emphasise "the method of a systemic approach" which focuses upon identifying the key activities to meet the objective. Harmonious interrelations of the activities are often a source of greater profit than in a system where some activities are of the top level while the others are neglected (2). The aim of this paper is to describe theoretical aspects of all the typical activities of the assembly system.

  16. Information Theoretic Shape Matching.

    PubMed

    Hasanbelliu, Erion; Giraldo, Luis Sanchez; Príncipe, José C

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we describe two related algorithms that provide both rigid and non-rigid point set registration with different computational complexity and accuracy. The first algorithm utilizes a nonlinear similarity measure known as correntropy. The measure combines second and high order moments in its decision statistic showing improvements especially in the presence of impulsive noise. The algorithm assumes that the correspondence between the point sets is known, which is determined with the surprise metric. The second algorithm mitigates the need to establish a correspondence by representing the point sets as probability density functions (PDF). The registration problem is then treated as a distribution alignment. The method utilizes the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence to measure the similarity/distance between the point sets and recover the spatial transformation function needed to register them. Both algorithms utilize information theoretic descriptors; however, correntropy works at the realizations level, whereas Cauchy-Schwarz divergence works at the PDF level. This allows correntropy to be less computationally expensive, and for correct correspondence, more accurate. The two algorithms are robust against noise and outliers and perform well under varying levels of distortion. They outperform several well-known and state-of-the-art methods for point set registration.

  17. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  18. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  19. Adventures in theoretical astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Alison Jane

    This thesis is a tour of topics in theoretical astrophysics, unified by their diversity and their pursuit of physical understanding of astrophysical phenomena. In the first chapter, we raise the possibility of the detection of white dwarfs in transit surveys for extrasolar Earths, and discuss the peculiarities of detecting these more massive objects. A population synthesis calculation of the gravitational wave background from extragalactic binary stars is then presented. In this study, we establish a firm understanding of the uncertainties in such a calculation and provide a valuable reference for planning the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission. The long-established problem of cosmic ray confinement to the Galaxy is addressed in another chapter. We introduce a new wave damping mechanism, due to the presence of background turbulence, that prevents the confinement of cosmic rays by the resonant streaming instability. We also investigate the spokes in Saturn's B ring, an electrodynamic mystery that is being illuminated by new data sent back from the Cassini spacecraft. In particular, we present assessments of the presence of charged dust near the rings, and the size of currents and electric fields in the ring system. We make inferences from the Cassini discovery of oxygen ions above the rings. In addition, the previous leading theory for spoke formation is demonstrated to be unphysical. In the final chapter, we explain the wayward motions of Prometheus and Pandora, two small moons of Saturn. Previously found to be chaotic as a result of mutual interactions, we account for their behavior by analogy with a parametric pendulum. We caution that this behavior may soon enter a new regime.

  20. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Andrew; Schmaltz, Martin; Katz, Emmanuel; Rebbi, Claudio; Glashow, Sheldon; Brower, Richard; Pi, So-Young

    2016-09-30

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  1. The Basic Theoretical Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Abraham

    Cosmology is by now a mature experimental science. We are privileged to live at a time when the story of genesis (how the Universe started and developed) can be critically explored by direct observations. Looking deep into the Universe through powerful telescopes, we can see images of the Universe when it was younger because of the finite time it takes light to travel to us from distant sources. Existing data sets include an image of the Universe when it was 0.4 million years old (in the form of the cosmic microwave background), as well as images of individual galaxies when the Universe was older than a billion years. But there is a serious challenge: in between these two epochs was a period when the Universe was dark, stars had not yet formed, and the cosmic microwave background no longer traced the distribution of matter. And this is precisely the most interesting period, when the primordial soup evolved into the rich zoo of objects we now see. The observers are moving ahead along several fronts. The first involves the construction of large infrared telescopes on the ground and in space, that will provide us with new photos of the first galaxies. Current plans include ground-based telescopes which are 24-42 m in diameter, and NASA's successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, called the James Webb Space Telescope. In addition, several observational groups around the globe are constructing radio arrays that will be capable of mapping the three-dimensional distribution of cosmic hydrogen in the infant Universe. These arrays are aiming to detect the long-wavelength (redshifted 21-cm) radio emission from hydrogen atoms. The images from these antenna arrays will reveal how the non-uniform distribution of neutral hydrogen evolved with cosmic time and eventually was extinguished by the ultra-violet radiation from the first galaxies. Theoretical research has focused in recent years on predicting the expected signals for the above instruments and motivating these ambitious

  2. Theoretical models for supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1981-09-21

    The results of recent numerical simulations of supernova explosions are presented and a variety of topics discussed. Particular emphasis is given to (i) the nucleosynthesis expected from intermediate mass (10sub solar less than or equal to M less than or equal to 100 Msub solar) Type II supernovae and detonating white dwarf models for Type I supernovae, (ii) a realistic estimate of the ..gamma..-line fluxes expected from this nucleosynthesis, (iii) the continued evolution, in one and two dimensions, of intermediate mass stars wherein iron core collapse does not lead to a strong, mass-ejecting shock wave, and (iv) the evolution and explosion of vary massive stars (M greater than or equal to 100 Msub solar of both Population I and III. In one dimension, nuclear burning following a failed core bounce does not appear likely to lead to a supernova explosion although, in two dimensions, a combination of rotation and nuclear burning may do so. Near solar proportions of elements from neon to calcium and very brilliant optical displays may be created by hypernovae, the explosions of stars in the mass range 100 M/sub solar/ to 300 M/sub solar/. Above approx. 300 M/sub solar/ a black hole is created by stellar collapse following carbon ignition. Still more massive stars may be copious producers of /sup 4/He and /sup 14/N prior to their collapse on the pair instability.

  3. Missing Data and IRT Item Parameter Estimation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine

    The situation of nonrandomly missing data has theoretically different implications for item parameter estimation depending on whether joint maximum likelihood or marginal maximum likelihood methods are used in the estimation. The objective of this paper is to illustrate what potentially can happen, under these estimation procedures, when there is…

  4. Systolic Time Interval Estimation using Continuous Wave Radar with On-body Antennas.

    PubMed

    Buxi, Dilpreet; Hermeling, Evelien; Mercuri, Marco; Beutel, Fabian; van der Westen, Roberto Garcia; Torfs, Tom; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-07-25

    The estimation of systolic time interval (STI)s is done using continuous wave (CW) radar at 2.45GHz with an on-body antenna. In the state of the art, typically bioimpedance, heart sounds and / or ultrasound is used to measure STIs. All three methods suffer from insufficient accuracy of STI estimation due to various reasons. CW radar is investigated for its ability to overcome the deficiencies in the state of the art. Ten healthy male subjects aged 25-45 were asked to lie down at a 30 degree incline. 60 second recordings were taken without breathing and with paced breathing. Heart Sounds, Electrocardiogram, respiration and Impedance cardiogram were measured simultaneously as reference. The radar antennas were placed at three positions on the chest. The antennas were placed directly on the body as well as with cotton textile in-between. The beat to beat STIs have been determined from the reference signals as well as CW radar signals. The results indicate that CW radar can be used to estimate STIs in ambulatory monitoring. The results can be used for a potentially more compact method of estimating STIs in an ambulatory setting, which can be integrated into a wearable device.

  5. Theoretical basis for the Beale number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, C. D.

    The Beale number is an important, empirically derived figure relating the power output of a Stirling engine to working gas pressure, operating frequency, and piston displacement. It is widely used to make preliminary estimates of performance of new designs and to compare the performance of existing engines. Two separate areas of investigation (the simplified formula for power output of an ideal machine first derived by Cooke-Yarborough, and the actual performance ratings of several real engines collected by Martini) are combined to give a theoretical value for the Beale number and a straightforward explanation of its physical significance. The derived value is in good agreement with the empirical figure and is consistent with Walker's estimates of the temperature dependence of the Beale number.

  6. Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.

  7. Estimating Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Margaret; Scott, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss mass as one of the three fundamental measurements (the others being length and time), noting that estimation of mass is little taught and assessed in primary schools. This article briefly explores the reasons for this in terms of culture, practice, and the difficulty of assessing estimation of mass. An activity using the…

  8. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the historical and contemporary theoretical underpinnings of learning communities and argues that there is a need for more complex models in conceptualizing and assessing their effectiveness.

  9. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore);…

  10. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the historical and contemporary theoretical underpinnings of learning communities and argues that there is a need for more complex models in conceptualizing and assessing their effectiveness.

  11. An integrative nursing theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Schmieding, N J

    1990-04-01

    The use of an integrative nursing theoretical framework for both clinical and administrative practice has recently been suggested. The author developed a theoretical framework which incorporates key concepts from the writings of Ida J. Orlando and Virginia Henderson and proposes it to be used as an integrative framework. The rationale for using a framework is discussed along with clinical and administrative examples of how to integrate concepts from the proposed framework. The reasons for using an integrative theoretical framework are that it: serves as a guide for both clinical and administrative decisions; forms the basis of the nursing philosophy; facilitates communication with patients and colleagues; helps identify congruent supporting theories and concepts; provides a basis for educational programmes; helps to differentiate nursing from non-nursing activities; and enhances nurse unity and self-esteem. The premise of the article is that benefits are derived from the use of a nursing theoretical framework because it provides a specific vision of nursing.

  12. Estimation of Fluid Properties and Phase Equilibria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herskowitz, M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course (given to junior/senior students with strong background in thermodynamics and transport phenomena) that covers the theoretical and practical aspects of properties estimation. An outline for the course is included. (JN)

  13. Estimation of Fluid Properties and Phase Equilibria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herskowitz, M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course (given to junior/senior students with strong background in thermodynamics and transport phenomena) that covers the theoretical and practical aspects of properties estimation. An outline for the course is included. (JN)

  14. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    A paper at the 1992 FCS showed how to express the modified Allan variance (mvar) in terms of the third difference of the cumulative sum of time residuals. Although this reformulated definition was presented merely as a computational trick for simplifying the calculation of mvar estimates, it has since turned out to be a powerful theoretical tool for deriving the statistical quality of those estimates in terms of their equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), defined for an estimator V by edf V = 2(EV)2/(var V). Confidence intervals for mvar can then be constructed from levels of the appropriate 2 distribution.

  15. Estimating groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding groundwater recharge is essential for successful management of water resources and modeling fluid and contaminant transport within the subsurface. This book provides a critical evaluation of the theory and assumptions that underlie methods for estimating rates of groundwater recharge. Detailed explanations of the methods are provided - allowing readers to apply many of the techniques themselves without needing to consult additional references. Numerous practical examples highlight benefits and limitations of each method. Approximately 900 references allow advanced practitioners to pursue additional information on any method. For the first time, theoretical and practical considerations for selecting and applying methods for estimating groundwater recharge are covered in a single volume with uniform presentation. Hydrogeologists, water-resource specialists, civil and agricultural engineers, earth and environmental scientists and agronomists will benefit from this informative and practical book. It can serve as the primary text for a graduate-level course on groundwater recharge or as an adjunct text for courses on groundwater hydrology or hydrogeology.

  16. Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2003-01-01

    The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

  17. Graph-theoretic algorithm for hierarchial decomposition of dynamic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pichai, V.; Sezer, M.E.; Siljak, D.D.

    1982-03-24

    A graph-theoretic scheme is proposed for partitioning of dynamic systems into hierarchially ordered subsystems having independent inputs and outputs. The resulting subsystems are input-output reachable as well as structurally controllable and observable, so that a piece-by-piece design of estimators and controllers can be accomplished for systems with large dimensions without excessive computer requirements.

  18. Impact of demographic, genetic, and bioimpedance factors on gestational weight gain and birth weight in a Romanian population: A cross-sectional study in mothers and their newborns: the Monebo study (STROBE-compliant article).

    PubMed

    Mărginean, Claudiu; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Bănescu, Claudia; Meliţ, Lorena; Tripon, Florin; Iancu, Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    The present study had 2 objectives, first, to investigate possible relationships between increased gestational weight gain and demographic, clinical, paraclinical, genetic, and bioimpedance (BIA) characteristics of Romanian mothers, and second, to identify the influence of predictors (maternal and newborns characteristics) on our outcome birth weight (BW).We performed a cross-sectional study on 309 mothers and 309 newborns from Romania, divided into 2 groups: Group I-141 mothers with high gestational weight gain (GWG) and Group II-168 mothers with normal GWG, that is, control group.The groups were evaluated regarding demographic, anthropometric (body mass index [BMI], middle upper arm circumference, tricipital skinfold thickness, weight, height [H]), clinical, paraclinical, genetic (interleukin 6 [IL-6]: IL-6 -174G>C and IL-6 -572C>G gene polymorphisms), and BIA parameters.We noticed that fat mass (FM), muscle mass (MM), bone mass (BM), total body water (TBW), basal metabolism rate (BMR) and metabolic age (P < 0.001), anthropometric parameters (middle upper arm circumference, tricipital skinfold thickness; P < 0.001/P = 0.001) and hypertension (odds ratio = 4.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.27-17.03) were higher in mothers with high GWG. BW was positively correlated with mothers' FM (P < 0.001), TBW (P = 0.001), BMR (P = 0.02), while smoking was negatively correlated with BW (P = 0.04). Variant genotype (GG+GC) of the IL-6 -572C>G polymorphism was higher in the control group (P = 0.042).We observed that high GWG may be an important predictor factor for the afterward BW, being positively correlated with FM, TBW, BMR, metabolic age of the mothers, and negatively with the mother's smoking status. Variant genotype (GG+GC) of the IL-6 -572C>G gene polymorphism is a protector factor against obesity in mothers. All the variables considered explained 14.50% of the outcome variance.

  19. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    PubMed

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n" setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  20. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    PubMed Central

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  1. Optimized tuner selection for engine performance estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L. (Inventor); Garg, Sanjay (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for minimizing the error in on-line Kalman filter-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications is presented. This technique specifically addresses the underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine which seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error. Theoretical Kalman filter estimation error bias and variance values are derived at steady-state operating conditions, and the tuner selection routine is applied to minimize these values. The new methodology yields an improvement in on-line engine performance estimation accuracy.

  2. Selected Theoretical Comparisons for Bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proukakis, Nick P.; Davis, Matthew J.; Gardiner, Simon A.

    2013-02-01

    One of the aims of the organisers of the FINESS conferences, and of the editors of this book, has been to encourage dialogue between researchers working in the general area of non-equilibrium superfluids. The researchers come from widely different backgrounds, and come with a broad array of favourite theoretical techniques. In this chapter we present an incomplete survey of figures from previously published papers that make a comparison between selected subsets of different theoretical methods. The goal is that this compilation of figures, when placed in a broader context, will provide some background for the reader to understand the physical conditions that determine when various theories are useful.

  3. Theoretical design of lightning panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emetere, M. E.; Olawole, O. F.; Sanni, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    The light trapping device (LTD) was theoretically designed to suggests the best way of harvesting the energy derived from natural lightning. The Maxwell's equation was expanded using a virtual experimentation via a MATLAB environment. Several parameters like lightning flash and temperature distribution were consider to investigate the ability of the theoretical lightning panel to convert electricity efficiently. The results of the lighting strike angle on the surface of the LTD shows the maximum power expected per time. The results of the microscopic thermal distribution shows that if the LTD casing controls the transmission of the heat energy, then the thermal energy storage (TES) can be introduced to the lightning farm.

  4. Theoretical Consolidation of Acoustic Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, M. J.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2012-01-01

    In many engineering problems, the effects of dissipation can be extremely important. Dissipation can be represented by several parameters depending on the context and the models that are used. Some examples of dissipation-related parameters are damping ratio, viscosity, resistance, absorption coefficients, pressure drop, or damping rate. This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the theoretical consolidation of the classic absorption coefficients with several other dissipation parameters including linearized resistance. The primary goal of this TM is to theoretically consolidate the linearized resistance with the absorption coefficient. As a secondary goal, other dissipation relationships are presented.

  5. Theoretical Biology: Organisms and Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landauer, Christopher; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    2002-09-01

    The Theoretical Biology Program initiated by Robert Rosen is intended to identify the key theoretical characteristics of organisms, especially those that distinguish organisms from mechanisms, by looking for the proper abstractions and defining the appropriate relationships. There are strong claims about the distinctions in Rosen's book "Life Itself", along with some purported proofs of these assertions. Unfortunately, the Mathematics is incorrect, and the assertions remain unproven (and some of them are simply false). In this paper, we present the ideas of Rosen's approach, demonstrate that his Mathematical formulations and proofs are wrong, and then show how they might be made more successful.

  6. Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, Leslie

    2013-10-15

    Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy

  7. Data, Methods, and Theoretical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannagan, Rebecca J.; Schneider, Monica C.; Greenlee, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    Within the subfields of political psychology and the study of gender, the introduction of new data collection efforts, methodologies, and theoretical approaches are transforming our understandings of these two fields and the places at which they intersect. In this article we present an overview of the research that was presented at a National…

  8. The Intelligent Infant: Theoretical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Joseph F.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical implications of individual differences among infants in responsiveness to visual novelty being predictive of later intelligence differences are discussed. Issues discussed include: continuity of intelligence over development, relation of aspects of information processing to intelligence, role of hereditary and environmental influences…

  9. Lightning Talks 2015: Theoretical Division

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, Jack S.

    2015-11-25

    This document is a compilation of slides from a number of student presentations given to LANL Theoretical Division members. The subjects cover the range of activities of the Division, including plasma physics, environmental issues, materials research, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and computational methods.

  10. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  11. Theoretical understanding of chromospheric inhomogeneities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delache, P.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed theoretical studies of chromospheric inhomogeneities consider dynamics as well as radiative transfer of mass flow as a consequence of energy deposition. It is shown that pressure is exerted by the heating waves, especially in inhomogeneous structures, where they can be defracted. A dynamical model is formulated that depicts the inhomogeneous structure of the chromosphere-corona transition region through mass flow regimes.

  12. Theoretical Framework. The Bartlesville System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Tommy L.; And Others

    The theoretical framework underlying the Total Guidance Information Support System is discussed under the following topics: (1) Review of Literature, (2) A Brief History of Guidance and Counseling, (3) Philosophies of Guidance, (4) Decision-Making in Relation to Guidance, (5) The Origins of Information Theory, (6) Various Uses of Information…

  13. Theoretical Perspectives for Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Dana Britt, Ed.; Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.

    This monograph from the University of Minnesota General College (GC) discusses theoretical perspectives on developmental education from both new and established standpoints. GC voluntarily eliminated its degree programs in order to focus on preparing under-prepared students for transfer to the university system. GC's curricular model includes a…

  14. Theoretical understanding of charm decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bigi, I.I.

    1986-08-01

    A detailed description of charm decays has emerged. The various concepts involved are sketched. Although this description is quite successful in reproducing the data the chapter on heavy flavour decays is far from closed. Relevant questions like on th real strength of weak annihilation, Penguin operators, etc. are still unanswered. Important directions in future work, both on the experimental and theoretical side are identified.

  15. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H., Ed.; Land, Susan M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" describes the most contemporary psychological and pedagogical theories that are foundations for the conception and design of open-ended learning environments and new applications of educational technologies. In the past decade, the cognitive revolution of the 60s and 70s has been…

  16. Theoretical predictions for exotic hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T. |

    1996-12-31

    In this contribution the authors discuss current theoretical expectations for the properties of light meson exotica, which are meson resonances outside the q{anti q} quark model. Specifically they discuss expectations for gluonic hadrons (glueballs and hybrids) and multiquark systems (molecules). Experimental candidates for these states are summarized, and the relevance of a TCF to these studies is stressed.

  17. Data, Methods, and Theoretical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannagan, Rebecca J.; Schneider, Monica C.; Greenlee, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    Within the subfields of political psychology and the study of gender, the introduction of new data collection efforts, methodologies, and theoretical approaches are transforming our understandings of these two fields and the places at which they intersect. In this article we present an overview of the research that was presented at a National…

  18. Number theoretical foundations in cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atan, Kamel Ariffin Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In recent times the hazards in relationships among entities in different establishments worldwide have generated exciting developments in cryptography. Central to this is the theory of numbers. This area of mathematics provides very rich source of fundamental materials for constructing secret codes. Some number theoretical concepts that have been very actively used in designing crypto systems will be highlighted in this presentation. This paper will begin with introduction to basic number theoretical concepts which for many years have been thought to have no practical applications. This will include several theoretical assertions that were discovered much earlier in the historical development of number theory. This will be followed by discussion on the "hidden" properties of these assertions that were later exploited by designers of cryptosystems in their quest for developing secret codes. This paper also highlights some earlier and existing cryptosystems and the role played by number theoretical concepts in their constructions. The role played by cryptanalysts in detecting weaknesses in the systems developed by cryptographers concludes this presentation.

  19. Space Service Market (Theoretical Aspect)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Prisniakova, L. M.

    The authors propose a mathematical model of the demand and supply in the market economics and in the market of space services, in particular. A theoretical demand formula and a real curve demand are compared. The market equilibrium price is defined. The space market dynamics is studied. The calculations are carried out for the parameters which are close to the market of space services.

  20. Theoretical Aspects of Speech Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Kenneth N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper on speech production in children and youth with hearing impairments summarizes theoretical aspects, including the speech production process, sound sources in the vocal tract, vowel production, and consonant production. Examples of spectra for several classes of vowel and consonant sounds in simple syllables are given. (DB)

  1. Non-invasive method for the aortic blood pressure waveform estimation using the measured radial EBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoshei, Andrei; Lamp, Jürgen; Min, Mart; Uuetoa, Tiina; Uuetoa, Hasso; Annus, Paul

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a method for the Central Aortic Pressure (CAP) waveform estimation from the measured radial Electrical Bio-Impedance (EBI). The method proposed here is a non-invasive and health-safe approach to estimate the cardiovascular system parameters, such as the Augmentation Index (AI). Reconstruction of the CAP curve from the EBI data is provided by spectral domain transfer functions (TF), found on the bases of data analysis. Clinical experiments were carried out on 30 patients in the Center of Cardiology of East-Tallinn Central Hospital during coronary angiography on patients in age of 43 to 80 years. The quality and reliability of the method was tested by comparing the evaluated augmentation indices obtained from the invasively measured CAP data and from the reconstructed curve. The correlation coefficient r = 0.89 was calculated in the range of AICAP values from 5 to 28. Comparing to the traditional tonometry based method, the developed one is more convenient to use and it allows long-term monitoring of the AI, what is not possible with tonometry probes.

  2. A Comparison of Methods for the Estimation of Body Composition in Highly Trained Wheelchair Games Players.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V; Keil, M; Brooke-Wavell, K; de Groot, S

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement in body composition measurements of wheelchair athletes using skinfolds, bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) relative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A secondary objective was to develop new skinfold prediction equations to estimate %fat for this sample. 30 wheelchair games players were recruited and the body composition outcomes of BIA, ADP, and skinfolds were compared to the DXA outcomes by a paired-samples t-test (systematic bias), intraclass correlation (ICC, relative agreement) and Bland-Altman plots (absolute agreement). Regression models to predict the %fat as measured by DXA by the sum of skinfolds or BIA were calculated. Results showed that the predictions of %fat when using BIA, ADP or skinfolds systematically underestimated the %fat mass as measured by the DXA. All ICC values, except for the measurement of fat (kg) by ADP (ICC=0.702), were below 0.7. New prediction models found the ∑7 skinfolds and calf circumference as the best model to predict %fat (R(2)=0.84). In conclusion, BIA, ADP and existing skinfolds equations should be used with caution when estimating %fat of wheelchair athletes with substantial body asymmetry, lower body muscular atrophy and upper body muscular development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Theoretical molecular studies of astrophysical interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George

    1991-01-01

    When work under this grant began in 1974 there was a great need for state-to-state collisional excitation rates for interstellar molecules observed by radio astronomers. These were required to interpret observed line intensities in terms of local temperatures and densities, but, owing to lack of experimental or theoretical values, estimates then being used for this purpose ranged over several orders of magnitude. A problem of particular interest was collisional excitation of formaldehyde; Townes and Cheung had suggested that the relative size of different state-to-state rates (propensity rules) was responsible for the anomalous absorption observed for this species. We believed that numerical molecular scattering techniques (in particular the close coupling or coupled channel method) could be used to obtain accurate results, and that these would be computationally feasible since only a few molecular rotational levels are populated at the low temperatures thought to prevail in the observed regions. Such calculations also require detailed knowledge of the intermolecular forces, but we thought that those could also be obtained with sufficient accuracy by theoretical (quantum chemical) techniques. Others, notably Roy Gordon at Harvard, had made progress in solving the molecular scattering equations, generally using semi-empirical intermolecular potentials. Work done under this grant generalized Gordon's scattering code, and introduced the use of theoretical interaction potentials obtained by solving the molecular Schroedinger equation. Earlier work had considered only the excitation of a diatomic molecule by collisions with an atom, and we extended the formalism to include excitation of more general molecular rotors (e.g., H2CO, NH2, and H2O) and also collisions of two rotors (e.g., H2-H2).

  4. Estimation Destinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threewit, Fran

    This book leads students through a journey of hands-on investigations of skill-based estimation. The 30 lessons in the book are grouped into four units: Holding Hands, The Real Scoop, Container Calculations, and Estimeasurements. In each unit children work with unique, real materials intended to build an awareness of number, quantity, and…

  5. Computational Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Maria G.; Latulippe, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    Elementary school teachers are responsible for constructing the foundation of number sense in youngsters, and so it is recommended that teacher-training programs include an emphasis on number sense to ensure the development of dynamic, productive computation and estimation skills in students. To better prepare preservice elementary school teachers…

  6. Theoretical calculation of polarizability isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Félix; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Reyes, Andrés

    2017-03-01

    We propose a scheme to estimate hydrogen isotope effects on molecular polarizabilities. This approach combines the any-particle molecular orbital method, in which both electrons and H/D nuclei are described as quantum waves, with the auxiliary density perturbation theory, to calculate analytically the polarizability tensor. We assess the performance of method by calculating the polarizability isotope effect for 20 molecules. A good correlation between theoretical and experimental data is found. Further analysis of the results reveals that the change in the polarizability of a X-H bond upon deuteration decreases as the electronegativity of X increases. Our investigation also reveals that the molecular polarizability isotope effect presents an additive character. Therefore, it can be computed by counting the number of deuterated bonds in the molecule.

  7. Theoretical analysis of the EWEC report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This analytic investigation shows how the electromagnetic wave energy conversion (EWEC) device, as used for solar-to-electric power conversion, is significantly different from solar cells, with respect to principles of operation. An optimistic estimate of efficiency is about 80% for a full-wave rectifying configuration with solar radiation normally incident. This compares favorably with the theoretical maximum for a CdTe solar cell (23.5%), as well as with the efficiencies of more familiar cells: Si (19.5%), InP (21.5%), and GaAs (23%). Some key technological issues that must be resolved before the EWEC device can be realized are identified. Those issues include: the fabrication of a pn semi-conductor junction with no permittivity resonances in the optical band; and the efficient channeling of the power received by countless microscopic horn antennas through a relatively few number of wires.

  8. High-accuracy theoretical thermochemistry of fluoroethanes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Balázs; Csontos, Botond; Csontos, József; Szakács, Péter; Kállay, Mihály

    2014-07-03

    A highly accurate coupled-cluster-based ab initio model chemistry has been applied to calculate the thermodynamic functions including enthalpies of formation and standard entropies for fluorinated ethane derivatives, C2HxF6-x (x = 0-5), as well as ethane, C2H6. The invoked composite protocol includes contributions up to quadruple excitations in coupled-cluster (CC) theory as well as corrections beyond the nonrelativistic and Born-Oppenheimer approximations. For species CH2F-CH2F, CH2F-CHF2, and CHF2-CHF2, where anti/gauche isomerism occurs due to the hindered rotation around the C-C bond, conformationally averaged enthalpies and entropies at 298.15 K are also calculated. The results obtained here are in reasonable agreement with previous experimental and theoretical findings, and for all fluorinated ethanes except CH2FCH3 and C2F6 this study delivers the best available theoretical enthalpy and entropy estimates.

  9. Electron microscopy and theoretical modeling of cochleates.

    PubMed

    Nagarsekar, Kalpa; Ashtikar, Mukul; Thamm, Jana; Steiniger, Frank; Schacher, Felix; Fahr, Alfred; May, Sylvio

    2014-11-11

    Cochleates are self-assembled cylindrical condensates that consist of large rolled-up lipid bilayer sheets and represent a novel platform for oral and systemic delivery of therapeutically active medicinal agents. With few preceding investigations, the physical basis of cochleate formation has remained largely unexplored. We address the structure and stability of cochleates in a combined experimental/theoretical approach. Employing different electron microscopy methods, we provide evidence for cochleates consisting of phosphatidylserine and calcium to be hollow tubelike structures with a well-defined constant lamellar repeat distance and statistically varying inner and outer radii. To rationalize the relation between inner and outer radii, we propose a theoretical model. Based on the minimization of a phenomenological free energy expression containing a bending, adhesion, and frustration contribution, we predict the optimal tube dimensions of a cochleate and estimate ratios of material constants for cochleates consisting of phosphatidylserines with varied hydrocarbon chain structures. Knowing and understanding these ratios will ultimately benefit the successful formulation of cochleates for drug delivery applications.

  10. The Problems of Multiple Feedback Estimation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulcock, Jeffrey W.

    The use of two-stage least squares (2SLS) for the estimation of feedback linkages is inappropriate for nonorthogonal data sets because 2SLS is extremely sensitive to multicollinearity. It is argued that what is needed is use of a different estimating criterion than the least squares criterion. Theoretically the variance normalization criterion has…

  11. Poisson sampling - The adjusted and unadjusted estimator revisited

    Treesearch

    Michael S. Williams; Hans T. Schreuder; Gerardo H. Terrazas

    1998-01-01

    The prevailing assumption, that for Poisson sampling the adjusted estimator "Y-hat a" is always substantially more efficient than the unadjusted estimator "Y-hat u" , is shown to be incorrect. Some well known theoretical results are applicable since "Y-hat a" is a ratio-of-means estimator and "Y-hat u" a simple unbiased estimator...

  12. An information theoretic approach to pedigree reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Almudevar, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Network structure is a dominant feature of many biological systems, both at the cellular level and within natural populations. Advances in genotype and gene expression screening made over the last few decades have permitted the reconstruction of these networks. However, resolution to a single model estimate will generally not be possible, leaving open the question of the appropriate method of formal statistical inference. The nonstandard structure of the problem precludes most traditional statistical methodologies. Alternatively, a Bayesian approach provides a natural methodology for formal inference. Construction of a posterior density on the space of network structures allows formal inference regarding features of network structure using specific marginal posterior distributions. An information theoretic approach to this problem will be described, based on the Minimum Description Length principle. This leads to a Bayesian inference model based on the information content of data rather than on more commonly used probabilistic models. The approach is applied to the problem of pedigree reconstruction based on genotypic data. Using this application, it is shown how the MDL approach is able to provide a truly objective control for model complexity. A two-cohort model is used for a simulation study. The MDL approach is compared to COLONY-2, a well known pedigree reconstruction application. The study highlights the problem of genotyping error modeling. COLONY-2 requires prior error rate estimates, and its accuracy proves to be highly sensitive to these estimates. In contrast, the MDL approach does not require prior error rate estimates, and is able to accurately adjust for genotyping error across the range of models considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ESTIMATING BASAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: THE VALUE OF THE HARRIS-BENEDICT EQUATION

    PubMed Central

    PINTO, Andressa S.; CHEDID, Marcio F.; GUERRA, Léa T.; ÁLVARES-DA-SILVA, Mario R.; de ARAÚJO, Alexandre; GUIMARÃES, Luciano S.; LEIPNITZ, Ian; CHEDID, Aljamir D.; KRUEL, Cleber R. P.; GREZZANA-FILHO, Tomaz J. M.; KRUEL, Cleber D. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. Aim: To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study including dyslipidemic LT recipients in follow-up at a 735-bed tertiary referral university hospital. Comparisons of BEE measured through IC to BEE estimated through each of the three alternative methods (HBE, BI and MSJ) were performed using Bland-Altman method and Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Results: Forty-five patients were included, aged 58±10 years. BEE measured using IC was 1664±319 kcal for males, and 1409±221 kcal for females. Average difference between BEE measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and BI (1584±377 kcal) was +50 kcal (p=0.0384). Average difference between the BEE measured using IC (1534±300 kcal) and MSJ (1479.6±375 kcal) was -55 kcal (p=0.16). Average difference between BEE values measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and HBE (1521±283 kcal) was -13 kcal (p=0.326). Difference between BEE estimated through IC and HBE was less than 100 kcal for 39 of all 43patients. Conclusions: Among the three alternative methods, HBE was the most reliable for estimating BEE in LT recipients. PMID:27759783

  14. A theoretical investigation of thermodynamic effects on developed cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of thermodynamic effects on developed cavitation are presented. An approximate solution to the conservation equations for a two-phase laminar boundary layer is obtained. This analysis produces an expression for the temperature difference between the liquid and vapor phases which can be applied to developed cavity flows. Experimental data of cavity temperature depressions are correlated using this result. In addition, a theoretical estimate of the Nusselt number for the cavity is made using a turbulent boundary layer cavity model proposed by Brennen. The result agrees in part with empirically determined expressions for the cavity Nusselt number.

  15. Theoretical Advanced Study Institute: 2014

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrand, Thomas

    2016-08-17

    The Theoretical Advanced Study Institute (TASI) was held at the University of Colorado, Boulder, during June 2-27, 2014. The topic was "Journeys through the Precision Frontier: Amplitudes for Colliders." The organizers were Professors Lance Dixon (SLAC) and Frank Petriello (Northwestern and Argonne). There were fifty-one students. Nineteen lecturers gave sixty seventy-five minute lectures. A Proceedings was published. This TASI was unique for its large emphasis on methods for calculating amplitudes. This was embedded in a program describing recent theoretical and phenomenological developments in particle physics. Topics included introductions to the Standard Model, to QCD (both in a collider context and on the lattice), effective field theories, Higgs physics, neutrino interactions, an introduction to experimental techniques, and cosmology.

  16. Theoretical issues in Spheromak research

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R. H.; Hooper, E. B.; LoDestro, L. L.; Mattor, N.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Ryutov, D. D.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the state of theoretical knowledge of several physics issues important to the spheromak. It was prepared as part of the preparation for the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX), which addresses these goals: energy confinement and the physics which determines it; the physics of transition from a short-pulsed experiment, in which the equilibrium and stability are determined by a conducting wall (``flux conserver``) to one in which the equilibrium is supported by external coils. Physics is examined in this report in four important areas. The status of present theoretical understanding is reviewed, physics which needs to be addressed more fully is identified, and tools which are available or require more development are described. Specifically, the topics include: MHD equilibrium and design, review of MHD stability, spheromak dynamo, and edge plasma in spheromaks.

  17. Theoretical Problems in Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, J. S.; Glicksman, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between theoretical physics and material sciences to identify problems of common interest in which some of the powerful theoretical approaches developed for other branches of physics may be applied to problems in materials science are presented. A unique structure was identified in rapidly quenched Al-14% Mn. The material has long-range directed bonds with icosahedral symmetry which does not form a regular structure but instead forms an amorphous-like quasiperiodic structure. Finite volume fractions of second phase material is advanced and is coupled with nucleation theory to describe the formation and structure of precipitating phases in alloys. Application of the theory of pattern formation to the problem of dendrite formation is studied.

  18. Migration, crisis and theoretical conflict.

    PubMed

    Bach, R L; Schraml, L A

    1982-01-01

    The nature of the distinction between the equilibrium and historical-structuralist positions on migration is examined. Theoretical and political differences in the two positions are considered both historically and in the context of the current global economic crisis. The proposal of Wood to focus on households as a strategy for integrating the two perspectives and for achieving a better understanding of migration and social change is discussed.

  19. Theoretical Issues in Software Engineering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    large software projects. It has been less successful in acquiring a solid theoretical foundation for these methods. The software development process...justification save practice that has evolved for large , concur- rently processed programs. Furthermore, each phase needs formal description and analysis. The...Abstract B Me discipline of software engineering has transferred the common-sense methods of good programing and management to large software projects. It

  20. Theoretical Studies of Silicon Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Molecular and Electronic Structure of Silyl Nitrene , M.S. Gordon, Chem. Phys. Lett., 146, 148 (1988). 18. A Theoretical Study of the Three-Membered Rings...phase and crystal structures. Of course, all three possibilities may contribute. B. The Electronic and Molecular Structure of Silyl Nitrene , M.S...a silaimine. An interesting question regarding the primary process is whether the silyl nitrene , R3SiN, is formed as an intermediate. As a first step

  1. Information theoretic description of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Hollunder, Jens

    2007-11-01

    We present a new information theoretic approach for network characterizations. It is developed to describe the general type of networks with n nodes and L directed and weighted links, i.e., it also works for the simpler undirected and unweighted networks. The new information theoretic measures for network characterizations are based on a transmitter-receiver analogy of effluxes and influxes. Based on these measures, we classify networks as either complex or non-complex and as either democracy or dictatorship networks. Directed networks, in particular, are furthermore classified as either information spreading and information collecting networks. The complexity classification is based on the information theoretic network complexity measure medium articulation (MA). It is proven that special networks with a medium number of links ( L∼n1.5) show the theoretical maximum complexity MA=(log n)2/2. A network is complex if its MA is larger than the average MA of appropriately randomized networks: MA>MAr. A network is of the democracy type if its redundancy RH(B/A), it is an information collecting network, otherwise an information spreading network. Finally, different real networks (directed and undirected, weighted and unweighted) are classified according to our general scheme.

  2. Identification of operational clues to dry weight prescription in hemodialysis using bioimpedance vector analysis. The Italian Hemodialysis-Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (HD-BIA) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, A

    1998-04-01

    In patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) cyclic body fluid changes are estimated by body weight variations, which may be misleading. Conventional bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) produces biased estimates of fluids in HD due to the assumption of constant tissue hydration. We used an assumption-free assessment of hydration based on direct measurements of the impedance vector. The impedance vector (standard BIA at 50 kHz frequency) was measured in 1367 HD patients, ages 16 to 89 years with BMI 17 to 31 kg/m2, 1116 asymptomatic (680 M and 436 F), and 251 with recurrent HD hypotension (118 M and 133 F) before and after two HD sessions (thrice weekly bicarbonate dialysis, 210 to 240 min) removing 2.7 kg fluid. The vector distribution of HD patients was compared to 726 healthy subjects with the same age and BMI range. Individual vector measurements (resistance and reactance components) were plotted on the gender specific 50th, 75th and 95th percentiles of the vector distribution in the healthy population (reference tolerance ellipses) as a resistance-reactance graph (RXc graph). The wet-dry weight cycling of HD patients was represented on the resistance-reactance plane with a definite, cyclical, backward-forward displacement of the impedance vector. The vectors of patients with HD hypotension were less steep and more often shifted to the right, out of the reference 75% tolerance ellipse, than asymptomatic patients. A wet-dry weight prescription, based on BIA indications, would bring the vectors of patients back into the 75% reference ellipse, where tissue electrical conductivity is restored. Whether HD patients with vector cycling within the normal third quartile ellipse have better outcome awaits confirmation by longitudinal evaluation.

  3. Cryptobiosis: a new theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair

    2006-10-01

    The tardigrade is a microscopic creature that under environmental stress conditions undergoes cryptobiosis [Feofilova, E.P., 2003. Deceleration of vital activity as a universal biochemical mechanism ensuring adaptation of microorganisms to stress factors: A review. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 39, 1-18; Nelson, D.R., 2002. Current status of the tardigrada: Evolution and ecology. Integrative Comp. Biol. 42, 652-659]-a temporary metabolic depression-which is considered to be a third state between life and death [Clegg, J.S., 2001. Cryptobiosis-a peculiar state of biological organization. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B 128, 613-624]. In contrast with death, cryptobiosis is a reversible state, and as soon as environmental conditions change, the tardigrade "returns to life." Cryptobiosis in general, and among the tardigrade in particular, is a phenomenon poorly understood [Guppy, M., 2004. The biochemistry of metabolic depression: a history of perceptions. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B 139, 435-442; Schill, R.O., et al., 2004. Stress gene (hsp70) sequences and quantitative expression in Milensium tardigradum (Tardigrade) during active and cryptobiotic stages. J. Exp. Biol. 207, 1607-1613; Watanabe, M., et al., 2002. Mechanisn allowing an insect to survive complete dehydration and extreme temperatures. J. Exp. Biol. 205, 2799-2802; Wright, J.C., 2001. Cryptobiosis 300 years on from van Leuwenhoek: what have we learned about tardigrades? Zool. Anz. 240, 563-582]. Moreover, the ability of the tardigrade to bootstrap itself and to return to life seems paradoxical like the legendary Baron von Munchausen who pulled himself out of the swamp by grabbing his own hair. Two theoretical obstacles prevent us from advancing our knowledge of cryptobiosis. First, we lack appropriate theoretical understanding of reversible processes of biological computation in living systems. Second, we lack appropriate theoretical understanding of bootstrapping in living systems. In this short opinion

  4. Site characterization: a spatial estimation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Mao, N.

    1980-10-01

    In this report the application of spatial estimation techniques or kriging to groundwater aquifers and geological borehole data is considered. The adequacy of these techniques to reliably develop contour maps from various data sets is investigated. The estimator is developed theoretically in a simplified fashion using vector-matrix calculus. The practice of spatial estimation is discussed and the estimator is then applied to two groundwater aquifer systems and used also to investigate geological formations from borehole data. It is shown that the estimator can provide reasonable results when designed properly.

  5. Influence of heart motion on cardiac output estimation by means of electrical impedance tomography: a case study.

    PubMed

    Proença, Martin; Braun, Fabian; Rapin, Michael; Solà, Josep; Adler, Andy; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Bohm, Stephan H; Lemay, Mathieu; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that can measure cardiac-related intra-thoracic impedance changes. EIT-based cardiac output estimation relies on the assumption that the amplitude of the impedance change in the ventricular region is representative of stroke volume (SV). However, other factors such as heart motion can significantly affect this ventricular impedance change. In the present case study, a magnetic resonance imaging-based dynamic bio-impedance model fitting the morphology of a single male subject was built. Simulations were performed to evaluate the contribution of heart motion and its influence on EIT-based SV estimation. Myocardial deformation was found to be the main contributor to the ventricular impedance change (56%). However, motion-induced impedance changes showed a strong correlation (r = 0.978) with left ventricular volume. We explained this by the quasi-incompressibility of blood and myocardium. As a result, EIT achieved excellent accuracy in estimating a wide range of simulated SV values (error distribution of 0.57 ± 2.19 ml (1.02 ± 2.62%) and correlation of r = 0.996 after a two-point calibration was applied to convert impedance values to millilitres). As the model was based on one single subject, the strong correlation found between motion-induced changes and ventricular volume remains to be verified in larger datasets.

  6. Theoretical study of the C-H bond dissociation energy of acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Peter R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a theoretical study of the convergence of the C-H bond dissociation energy (D sub o) of acetylene with respect to both the one- and n-particle spaces. Their best estimate for D sub o of 130.1 plus or minus 1.0 kcal/mole is slightly below previous theoretical estimates, but substantially above the value determined using Stark anticrossing spectroscopy that is asserted to be an upper bound.

  7. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  8. Theoretical insights into interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Hean, Sarah; Craddock, Deborah; Hammick, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the need for theory in the practice of interprofessional education. It highlights the range of theories available to interprofessional educators and promotes the practical application of these to interprofessional learning and teaching. It summarises the AMEE Guides in Medical Education publication entitled Theoretical Insights into Interprofessional Education: AMEE Guide No. 62, where the practical application of three theories, social capital, social constructivism and a sociological perspective of interprofessional education are discussed in-depth through the lens of a case study. The key conclusions of these discussions are presented in this article.

  9. Theoretical approaches to metal chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Halicioglu, Timur; Taylor, Peter R.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations on metals ranging from very accurate ab initio studies of diatomic and triatomic systems to model studies of larger clusters are presented. Recent improvements in the representation of one-particle and n-particle spaces have made possible the prediction that Al2 has a 3Pi(u) ground state, even though the 3Sigma(-)g state lies within 200/cm. Results suggest that cluster geometry varies dramatically with cluster size, and that rather large clusters are required before the bulk structure becomes optimal. Al cluster studies show that three-body terms are needed for quantitative agreement with ab initio calculations.

  10. Theoretical Studies on Cluster Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhenyang

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The Thesis describes some theoretical studies on ligated and bare clusters. Chapter 1 gives a review of the two theoretical models, Tensor Surface Harmonic Theory (TSH) and Jellium Model, accounting for the electronic structures of ligated and bare clusters. The Polyhedral Skeletal Electron Pair Theory (PSEPT), which correlates the structures and electron counts (total number of valence electrons) of main group and transition metal ligated clusters, is briefly described. A structural jellium model is developed in Chapter 2 which accounts for the electronic structures of clusters using a crystal-field perturbation. The zero-order potential we derive is of central-field form, depends on the geometry of the cluster, and has a well-defined relationship to the full nuclear-electron potential. Qualitative arguments suggest that this potential produces different energy level orderings for clusters with a nucleus with large positive charge at the centre of the cluster. Analysis of the effects of the non-spherical perturbation on the spherical jellium shell structures leads to the conclusion that for a cluster with a closed shell electronic structure a high symmetry arrangement which is approximately or precisely close packed will be preferred. It also provides a basis for rationalising those structures of clusters with incomplete shell electronic configurations. In Chapter 3, the geometric conclusions derived in the structural jellium model are developed in more detail. The group theoretical consequences of the Tensor Surface Harmonic Theory are developed in Chapter 4 for (ML_2) _{rm n}, (ML_4) _{rm n} and (ML_5 ) _{rm n} clusters where either the xz and yz or x^2 -y^2 and xy components to L_sp{rm d}{pi } and L_sp{rm d} {delta} do not contribute equally to the bonding. The closed shell requirements for such clusters are defined and the orbital symmetry constraints pertaining to the

  11. Some thoughts on theoretical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-12-01

    Some thoughts are presented on the inter-relation between beauty and truth in science in general and theoretical physics in particular. Some conjectural procedures that can be used to create new ideas, concepts and results are illustrated in both Boltzmann-Gibbs and nonextensive statistical mechanics. The sociological components of scientific progress and its unavoidable and benefic controversies are, mainly through existing literary texts, briefly addressed as well. Short essay based on the plenary talk given at the International Workshop on Trends and Perspectives in Extensive and Non-Extensive Statistical Mechanics, held in November 19-21, 2003, in Angra dos Reis, Brazil.

  12. Theoretical Studies of Reaction Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    31 Aug 97 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS AASERT93 THEORETICAL STUDIES OF REACTION SURFACES F49620-93-1-0556 3484/XS 6. AUTHOR(S) 61103D DR...DUNCAN AVE ROOM B115 BOLLING AFB DC 20332- 8050 DR MICHAEL R. BERMAN 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION i AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved f or pill...reaction14 , and solvation of electrolytes1 5 . The EFP method described in the previous section has one drawback: the repulsive 3 potential relies on

  13. CLIENT NARRATIVES: A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Deborah Dysart; Mitchell, Ann M.; Garand, Linda; Wesner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The role of subjective client narratives in health care represents a clinical and therapeutic tool, useful in complementing objective, scientific data. Of particular interest to mental health practitioners is the role narratives play as a therapeutic tool to guide clinical practice. This paper lays a foundation for understanding the importance of narrative in the psychotherapeutic process. It provides a brief overview of narrative theory and methods of structural analysis in order to provide a theoretical approach that can be utilized by nurses to address clients’ needs. PMID:12735076

  14. Theoretical evaluation of the optimal performance of a thermoacoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Minner, B.L.; Braun, J.E.; Mongeau, L.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical models were integrated with a design optimization tool to allow estimates of the maximum coefficient of performance for thermoacoustic cooling systems. The system model was validated using experimental results for a well-documented prototype. The optimization tool was then applied to this prototype to demonstrate the benefits of systematic optimization. A twofold increase in performance was predicted through the variation of component dimensions alone, while a threefold improvement was estimated when the working fluid parameters were also considered. Devices with a similar configuration were optimized for operating requirements representative of a home refrigerator. The results indicate that the coefficients of performance are comparable to those of existing vapor-compression equipment for this application. In addition to the choice of working fluid, the heat exchanger configuration was found to be a critical design factor affecting performance. Further experimental work is needed to confirm the theoretical predictions presented in this paper.

  15. Theoretical perspectives on narrative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Emden, C

    1998-04-01

    Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.

  16. Theoretical principles for biology: Variation.

    PubMed

    Montévil, Maël; Mossio, Matteo; Pocheville, Arnaud; Longo, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Darwin introduced the concept that random variation generates new living forms. In this paper, we elaborate on Darwin's notion of random variation to propose that biological variation should be given the status of a fundamental theoretical principle in biology. We state that biological objects such as organisms are specific objects. Specific objects are special in that they are qualitatively different from each other. They can undergo unpredictable qualitative changes, some of which are not defined before they happen. We express the principle of variation in terms of symmetry changes, where symmetries underlie the theoretical determination of the object. We contrast the biological situation with the physical situation, where objects are generic (that is, different objects can be assumed to be identical) and evolve in well-defined state spaces. We derive several implications of the principle of variation, in particular, biological objects show randomness, historicity and contextuality. We elaborate on the articulation between this principle and the two other principles proposed in this special issue: the principle of default state and the principle of organization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Theoretical Study on Seasonality

    PubMed Central

    Schmal, Christoph; Myung, Jihwan; Herzel, Hanspeter; Bordyugov, Grigory

    2015-01-01

    In addition to being endogenous, a circadian system must be able to communicate with the outside world and align its rhythmicity to the environment. As a result of such alignment, external Zeitgebers can entrain the circadian system. Entrainment expresses itself in coinciding periods of the circadian oscillator and the Zeitgeber and a stationary phase difference between them. The range of period mismatches between the circadian system and the Zeitgeber that Zeitgeber can overcome to entrain the oscillator is called an entrainment range. The width of the entrainment range usually increases with increasing Zeitgeber strength, resulting in a wedge-like Arnold tongue. This classical view of entrainment does not account for the effects of photoperiod on entrainment. Zeitgebers with extremely small or large photoperiods are intuitively closer to constant environments than equinoctial Zeitgebers and hence are expected to produce a narrower entrainment range. In this paper, we present theoretical results on entrainment under different photoperiods. We find that in the photoperiod-detuning parameter plane, the entrainment zone is shaped in the form of a skewed onion. The bottom and upper points of the onion are given by the free-running periods in DD and LL, respectively. The widest entrainment range is found near photoperiods of 50%. Within the onion, we calculated the entrainment phase that varies over a range of 12 h. The results of our theoretical study explain the experimentally observed behavior of the entrainment phase in dependence on the photoperiod. PMID:25999912

  18. Theoretical perspectives on strange physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.

    1983-04-01

    Kaons are heavy enough to have an interesting range of decay modes available to them, and light enough to be produced in sufficient numbers to explore rare modes with satisfying statistics. Kaons and their decays have provided at least two major breakthroughs in our knowledge of fundamental physics. They have revealed to us CP violation, and their lack of flavor-changing neutral interactions warned us to expect charm. In addition, K/sup 0/-anti K/sup 0/ mixing has provided us with one of our most elegant and sensitive laboratories for testing quantum mechanics. There is every reason to expect that future generations of kaon experiments with intense sources would add further to our knowledge of fundamental physics. This talk attempts to set future kaon experiments in a general theoretical context, and indicate how they may bear upon fundamental theoretical issues. A survey of different experiments which would be done with an Intense Medium Energy Source of Strangeness, including rare K decays, probes of the nature of CP isolation, ..mu.. decays, hyperon decays and neutrino physics is given. (WHK)

  19. Theoretical study of the litium dimer and its anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, Harry; Siegbahn, Charles W. Bauschlicher Per E. M., Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Theoretical potential energy curves are reported for the X 1 vg+ state of Li 2 and the X 2 vg+ state of Li 2-. The electron affinity of Li 2 is estimated to be 0.43 - 0.02 eV. In addition, we show that for Li 2 and Li 2- core correlation effects are small but shorten R e by 0.04 ao and slightly skew the potential curves.

  20. Generalized Centroid Estimators in Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Michiaki; Kiryu, Hisanori; Iwasaki, Wataru; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In a number of estimation problems in bioinformatics, accuracy measures of the target problem are usually given, and it is important to design estimators that are suitable to those accuracy measures. However, there is often a discrepancy between an employed estimator and a given accuracy measure of the problem. In this study, we introduce a general class of efficient estimators for estimation problems on high-dimensional binary spaces, which represent many fundamental problems in bioinformatics. Theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed estimators generally fit with commonly-used accuracy measures (e.g. sensitivity, PPV, MCC and F-score) as well as it can be computed efficiently in many cases, and cover a wide range of problems in bioinformatics from the viewpoint of the principle of maximum expected accuracy (MEA). It is also shown that some important algorithms in bioinformatics can be interpreted in a unified manner. Not only the concept presented in this paper gives a useful framework to design MEA-based estimators but also it is highly extendable and sheds new light on many problems in bioinformatics. PMID:21365017

  1. Estimating large numbers.

    PubMed

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-07-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions predict a log-to-linear shift: People will either place numbers linearly or will place numbers according to a compressive logarithmic or power-shaped function (Barth & Paladino, ; Siegler & Opfer, ). While about half of people did estimate numbers linearly over this range, nearly all the remaining participants placed 1 million approximately halfway between 1 thousand and 1 billion, but placed numbers linearly across each half, as though they believed that the number words "thousand, million, billion, trillion" constitute a uniformly spaced count list. Participants in this group also tended to be optimistic in evaluations of largely ineffective political strategies, relative to linear number-line placers. The results indicate that the surface structure of number words can heavily influence processes for dealing with numbers in this range, and it can amplify the possibility that analogous surface regularities are partially responsible for parallel phenomena in children. In addition, these results have direct implications for lawmakers and scientists hoping to communicate effectively with the public. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. 'Impulsar': Experimental and Theoretical Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2008-04-28

    The Objective of the 'Impulsar' project is to accomplish a circle of experimental, engineering and technological works on creation of a high efficiency laser rocket engine. The project includes many organizations of the rocket industry and Academy of Sciences of Russia. High repetition rate pulse-periodic CO{sub 2} laser system project for launching will be presented. Optical system for 15 MW laser energy delivery and optical matrix of laser engine receiver will by discussed as well. Basic characteristics of the laser-based engine will be compared with theoretical predictions and important stages of further technology implementation (low frequency resonance). Relying on a wide cooperation of different branches of science and industry organizations it is very possible to use the accumulated potential for launching of nano-vehicles during the upcoming 4-5 years.

  3. Theoretical motions of hydrofoil systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlay, Frederick H

    1948-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation that has been undertaken to develop theoretical methods of treating the motions of hydrofoil systems and to determine some of the important parameters. Variations of parameters include three distributions of area between the hydrofoils, two rates of change of downwash angle with angle of attack, three depths of immersion, two dihedral angles, two rates of change of lift with immersion, three longitudinal hydrofoil spacings, two radii of gyration in pitching, and various horizontal and vertical locations of the center of gravity. Graphs are presented to show locations of the center of gravity for stable motion, values of the stability roots, and motions following the sudden application of a vertical force or a pitching moment to the hydrofoil system for numerous sets of values of the parameters.

  4. Theoretical studies of solar oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldreich, P.

    1980-01-01

    Possible sources for the excitation of the solar 5 minute oscillations were investigated and a linear non-adiabatic stability code was applied to a preliminary study of the solar g-modes with periods near 160 minutes. Although no definitive conclusions concerning the excitation of these modes were reached, the excitation of the 5 minute oscillations by turbulent stresses in the convection zone remains a viable possibility. Theoretical calculations do not offer much support for the identification of the 160 minute global solar oscillation (reported by several independent observers) as a solar g-mode. A significant advance was made in attempting to reconcile mixing-length theory with the results of the calculations of linearly unstable normal modes. Calculations show that in a convective envelope prepared according to mixing length theory, the only linearly unstable modes are those which correspond to the turbulent eddies which are the basic element of the heuristic mixing length theory.

  5. Theoretical studies of molecular collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouri, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) total integral reactive cross sections and vibrationally resolved reaction probabilities for F + H2 = HF + H; (2) a theoretical study of inelastic O + N2 collisions; (3) body frame close coupling wave packet approach to gas phase atom-rigit rotor inelastic collisions; (4) wave packet study of gas phase atom-rigit motor scattering; (5) the application of optical potentials for reactive scattering; (6) time dependent, three dimensional body frame quantal wave packet treatment of the H + H2 exchange reaction; (7) a time dependent wave packet approach to atom-diatom reactive collision probabilities; (8) time dependent wave packet for the complete determination of s-matrix elements for reactive molecular collisions in three dimensions; (9) a comparison of three time dependent wave packet methods for calculating electron-atom elastic scattering cross sections; and (10) a numerically exact full wave packet approach to molecule-surface scattering.

  6. Theoretical microbial ecology without species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystems are commonly conceptualized as networks of interacting species. However, partitioning natural diversity of organisms into discrete units is notoriously problematic and mounting experimental evidence raises the intriguing question whether this perspective is appropriate for the microbial world. Here an alternative formalism is proposed that does not require postulating the existence of species as fundamental ecological variables and provides a naturally hierarchical description of community dynamics. This formalism allows approaching the species problem from the opposite direction. While the classical models treat a world of imperfectly clustered organism types as a perturbation around well-clustered species, the presented approach allows gradually adding structure to a fully disordered background. The relevance of this theoretical construct for describing highly diverse natural ecosystems is discussed.

  7. Theoretical Models of Astrochemical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Interstellar chemistry provides a natural laboratory for studying exotic species and processes at densities, temperatures, and reaction rates. that are difficult or impractical to address in the laboratory. Thus, many chemical reactions considered too sloe by the standards of terrestrial chemistry, can be 'observed and modeled. Curious proposals concerning the nature and chemistry of complex interstellar organic molecules will be described. Catalytic reactions on "rain surfaces can, in principle, lead to a lame variety of species and this has motivated many laboratory and theoretical studies. Gas phase processes may also build lame species in molecular clouds. Future laboratory data and computational tools needed to construct accurate chemical models of various astronomical sources to be observed by Herschel and ALMA will be outlined.

  8. Dental Photothermal Radiometry: Theo