Science.gov

Sample records for biological community baselines

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT GENES USING A DATABASE OF RAT LIVER AND KIDNEY BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray data from independent labs and studies can be compared to potentially identify toxicologically and biologically relevant genes. The Baseline Animal Database working group of HESI was formed to assess baseline gene expression from microarray data derived from control or...

  2. Systems biology of Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

    2008-04-11

    Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

  3. Exposure pathways and biological receptors: baseline data for the canyon uranium mine, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Darrah, Abigail J.; Drost, Charles A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Méndez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Nowak, Erika M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Van Riper, Charles; Wolff, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent restrictions on uranium mining within the Grand Canyon watershed have drawn attention to scientific data gaps in evaluating the possible effects of ore extraction to human populations as well as wildlife communities in the area. Tissue contaminant concentrations, one of the most basic data requirements to determine exposure, are not available for biota from any historical or active uranium mines in the region. The Canyon Uranium Mine is under development, providing a unique opportunity to characterize concentrations of uranium and other trace elements, as well as radiation levels in biota, found in the vicinity of the mine before ore extraction begins. Our study objectives were to identify contaminants of potential concern and critical contaminant exposure pathways for ecological receptors; conduct biological surveys to understand the local food web and refine the list of target species (ecological receptors) for contaminant analysis; and collect target species for contaminant analysis prior to the initiation of active mining. Contaminants of potential concern were identified as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, thallium, uranium, and zinc for chemical toxicity and uranium and associated radionuclides for radiation. The conceptual exposure model identified ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and dietary transfer (bioaccumulation or bioconcentration) as critical contaminant exposure pathways. The biological survey of plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals is the first to document and provide ecological information on .200 species in and around the mine site; this study also provides critical baseline information about the local food web. Most of the species documented at the mine are common to ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and pinyon–juniper Pinus–Juniperus spp. forests in northern Arizona and are not considered to have special conservation status by state or federal agencies; exceptions

  4. Testing Communities That Care: The Rationale, Design and Behavioral Baseline Equivalence of the Community Youth Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F; Arthur, Michael W.; Egan, Elizabeth; Brown, Eric C.; Abbott, Robert D.; Murray, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in prevention science provide evidence that adolescent health and behavior problems can be prevented by high-quality prevention services. However, many communities continue to use prevention strategies that have not been shown to be effective. Studying processes for promoting the dissemination and high-quality implementation of prevention strategies found to be effective in controlled research trials has become an important focus for prevention science. The Communities That Care prevention operating system provides manuals, tools, training, and technical assistance to activate communities to use advances in prevention science to plan and implement community prevention services to reduce adolescent substance use, delinquency, and related health and behavior problems. This paper describes the rationale, aims, intervention, and design of the Community Youth Development Study, a randomized controlled community trial of the Communities That Care system, and investigates the baseline comparability of the 12 intervention and 12 control communities in the study. Results indicate baseline similarity of the intervention and control communities in levels of adolescent drug use and antisocial behavior prior to the Communities That Care intervention. Strengths and limitations of the study’s design are discussed. PMID:18516681

  5. Community College Biology Lesson Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Kathie G.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; bioenergetics - enzymes and cellular metabolism;…

  6. Community College Biology Lesson Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manteuffel, Mary S., Comp.; Herrick, Kathie, Comp.

    This catalog contains lesson descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: introductory material on experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; reproduction and…

  7. Conservation of Forest Birds: Evidence of a Shifting Baseline in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Albright, Thomas P.; Culbert, Patrick D.; Clayton, Murray K.; Flather, Curtis H.; Huang, Chengquan; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Stewart, Susan I.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance. Methodology/Principal Findings We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period) and modest losses in abundance (−28.7–−10.2 individuals per route) that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States. Conclusions/Significance Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., ∼22 years). Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these

  8. Marine reserve recovery rates towards a baseline are slower for reef fish community life histories than biomass

    PubMed Central

    McClanahan, T. R.; Graham, N. A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological baselines are disappearing and it is uncertain how marine reserves, here called fisheries closures, simulate pristine communities. We tested the influence of fisheries closure age, size and compliance on recovery of community biomass and life-history metrics towards a baseline. We used census data from 324 coral reefs, including 41 protected areas ranging between 1 and 45 years of age and 0.28 and 1430 km2, and 36 sites in a remote baseline, the Chagos Archipelago. Fish community-level life histories changed towards larger and later maturing fauna with increasing closure age, size and compliance. In high compliance closures, community biomass levelled at approximately 20 years and 10 km2 but was still only at approximately 30% of the baseline and community growth rates were projected to slowly decline for more than 100 years. In low compliance and young closures, biomass levelled at half the value and time as high compliance closures and life-history metrics were not predicted to reach the baseline. Biomass does not adequately reflect the long-time scales for full recovery of life-history characteristics, with implications for coral reef management. PMID:26702040

  9. Project Shikamana: Baseline Findings From a Community Empowerment–Based Combination HIV Prevention Trial Among Female Sex Workers in Iringa, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah; Mwampashi, Ard; Shembilu, Catherine; Mantsios, Andrea; Leddy, Anna; Davis, Wendy; Galai, Noya

    2017-01-01

    Background: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment–based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs. Cohort members were recruited from entertainment venues across 2 communities in the region using time-location sampling. All study participants gave consent, and were surveyed and screened for HIV at baseline. Primary biological study outcomes are viral suppression among the HIV-infected and remaining free of HIV among HIV-uninfected women. Results: A cohort of 496 FSWs was established and is currently under follow-up. Baseline HIV prevalence was 40.9% (203/496). Among HIV-infected FSWs, 30.5% (62/203) were previously aware of their HIV status; among those who were aware, 69.4% were on antiretroviral therapy (43/62); and for those on antiretroviral therapy, 69.8% (30/43) were virally suppressed. Factors associated with both HIV infection and viral suppression at baseline included community, age, number of clients, and substance use. Amount of money charged per client and having tested for sexually transmitted infection in the past 6 months were protective for HIV infection. Social cohesion among FSWs was protective for viral suppression. Conclusions: Significant gaps exist in HIV service coverage and progress toward reaching the 90-90-90 goals among FSWs in Iringa, Tanzania. Community empowerment approaches hold promise given the high HIV prevalence, limited services and stigma, discrimination, and violence. PMID:27930613

  10. Genome Annotation in a Community College Cell Biology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagley, C. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning…

  11. Exploring community structure in biological networks with random graphs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community structure is ubiquitous in biological networks. There has been an increased interest in unraveling the community structure of biological systems as it may provide important insights into a system’s functional components and the impact of local structures on dynamics at a global scale. Choosing an appropriate community detection algorithm to identify the community structure in an empirical network can be difficult, however, as the many algorithms available are based on a variety of cost functions and are difficult to validate. Even when community structure is identified in an empirical system, disentangling the effect of community structure from other network properties such as clustering coefficient and assortativity can be a challenge. Results Here, we develop a generative model to produce undirected, simple, connected graphs with a specified degrees and pattern of communities, while maintaining a graph structure that is as random as possible. Additionally, we demonstrate two important applications of our model: (a) to generate networks that can be used to benchmark existing and new algorithms for detecting communities in biological networks; and (b) to generate null models to serve as random controls when investigating the impact of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and modularity in empirical biological networks. Conclusion Our model allows for the systematic study of the presence of community structure and its impact on network function and dynamics. This process is a crucial step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural properties of biological systems and uncovering the mechanisms that drive these systems. PMID:24965130

  12. COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

  13. How-to-Do-It. Community Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stencel, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a project in which students find a living population in their community and either study it in the field or bring it into the laboratory for study. Seven example projects are suggested. (CW)

  14. Monitoring biological impacts of space shuttle launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base: Establishment of baseline conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmaizer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Space shuttle launches produce environmental impacts resulting from the formation of an exhaust cloud containing hydrogen chloride aerosols and aluminum oxide particulates. Studies have shown that most impacts occur near-field (within 1.5 km) of the launch site while deposition from launches occurs far-field (as distant as 22 km). In order to establish baseline conditions of vegetation and soils in the areas likely to be impacted by shuttle launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), vegetation and soils in the vicinity of Space Launch Complex-6 (SLC-6) were sampled and a vegetation map prepared. The areas likely to be impacted by launches were determined considering the structure of the launch complex, the prevailing winds, the terrain, and predictions of the Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model (REEDM). Fifty vegetation transects were established and sampled in March 1986 and resampled in September 1986. A vegetation map was prepared for six Master Planning maps surrounding SLC-6 using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery as well as color and color infrared aerial photography. Soil samples were collected form the 0 to 7.5 cm layer at all transects in the wet season and at a subsample of the transects in the dry season and analyzed for pH, organic matter, conductivity, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Ca, Mg, Na, K, and Al, available NH3-N, PO4-P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and TKN.

  15. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  16. Oil, biological communities and contingency planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Frink, Lynne; Ball-Weir, Katherine; Smith, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandates the inclusion of a fish and wildlife response plan in the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the creation of Area Committees that must develop an Area Contingency Plan (ACP). Area Contingency Plans must include a detailed annex containing a Fish and Wildlife and Sensitive Environments Plan. Tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities must have response plans consistent with the requirements of the NCP and the ACP. New regulations to supersede the Type A and B procedures of the Natural Resources Damage Assessment Regulations are being developed for oil spills. Currently, four assessment methods have been proposed: (1) Type A, (2) comprehensive (Type B), (3) intermediate (between types A and B), and (4) compensation tables. The Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund is approaching its ceiling of $1 billion, but only $50 million has been appropriated. Effective biological contingency planning requires extensive knowledge of (1) the environmental fate of petroleum, (2) the effects of petroleum on organisms, (3) the existing biological resources, and (4) the establishment of a system of biological priorities. The characteristics and fate of petroleum and the biological effects of petroleum are reviewed. Assessment of biological resources includes plant and animal distributions, important habitat, endangered or threatened species, and economic considerations. The establishment by Area Committees of priorities for environmental protection, injury assessment, and restoration will promote efficient spill response. Three special issues are discussed: (1) improving our ability to restore natural resources, (2) the potential role of biological diversity in spill response planning, and (3) planning for animal rehabilitation.

  17. A baseline study of benthic community associated with Amphioxus Sand in subtropical Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Cheung, S G; Shin, P K S

    2013-07-15

    An annual investigation on the seasonal changes of benthic community structure associated with Amphioxus Sand was conducted at two sites in the eastern waters of subtropical Hong Kong, where three species of amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, B. japonicum and B. malayanum coexist. A total of 84 species and 4169 individuals were recorded at Tai Long Wan, whereas a total of 87 species and 3915 individuals were recorded at Pak Lap Wan. Benthic polychaetes were dominant, including high abundance of Onuphis eremita and Prionospio malmgreni. Results of cluster analysis showed significant community structures between the two areas because of difference in sediment granulometry. However, temporal changes within these Amphioxus Sand communities were minimal. In general, the Amphioxus Sand communities in Hong Kong showed higher species richness of Polychaeta as compared with similar studies elsewhere, possibly implying an increased level of organic pollution in Hong Kong waters.

  18. Healthy Immigrant Families: Participatory Development and Baseline Characteristics of a Community-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Mark L.; Weis, Jennifer A.; Hanza, Marcelo M.K.; Meiers, Sonja J.; Patten, Christi A.; Clark, Matthew M.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Novotny, Paul J.; Njeru, Jane W.; Abbenyi, Adeline; Levine, James A.; Goodson, Miriam; Capetillo, Maria Graciela D. Porraz; Osman, Ahmed; Hared, Abdullah; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2015-01-01

    Background US immigrants often have escalating cardiovascular risk. Barriers to optimal physical activity and diet have a significant role in this risk accumulation. Methods We developed a physical activity and nutrition intervention with immigrant and refugee families through a community-based participatory research approach. Work groups of community members and health scientists developed an intervention manual with 12 content modules that were based on social-learning theory. Family health promoters from the participating communities (Hispanic, Somali, Sudanese) were trained to deliver the intervention through 12 home visits during the first 6 months and up to 12 phone calls during the second 6 months. The intervention was tested through a randomized community-based trial with a delayed-intervention control group, with measurements at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Primary measurements included accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and 24-hour dietary recall. Secondary measures included biometrics and theory-based instruments. Results One hundred fifty-one individuals (81 adolescents, 70 adults; 44 families) were randomized. At baseline, mean (SD) time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 64.7 (30.2) minutes/day for adolescents and 43.1 (35.4) minutes/day for adults. Moderate dietary quality was observed in both age groups. Biometric measures showed that 45.7% of adolescents and 80.0% of adults were overweight or obese. Moderate levels of self-efficacy and social support were reported for physical activity and nutrition. Discussion Processes and products from this program are relevant to other communities aiming to reduce cardiovascular risk and negative health behaviors among immigrants and refugees. Trial Registration This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01952808). PMID:26655431

  19. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  20. Developing a wintering waterfowl community baseline for environmental monitoring of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Kreakie, Betty J.; Winiarski, Kristopher; McKinney, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, the Atlantic Ecology Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development began an annual winter waterfowl survey of Rhode Island’s Narragansett Bay. Herein, we explore the survey data gathered from 2004 to 2011 in order to establish a benchmark understanding of our waterfowl communities and to establish a statistical framework for future environmental monitoring. The abundance and diversity of wintering waterfowl were relatively stable during the initial years of this survey, except in 2010 when there was a large spike in abundance and a reciprocal fall in diversity. There was no significant change in ranked abundance of most waterfowl species, with only Bufflehead ( Bucephala albeola) and Hooded Merganser ( Lophodytes cucllatus) showing a slight yet significant upward trend during the course of our survey period. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to examine the community structure of wintering waterfowl. The results of the NMDS indicate that there is a spatial structure to the waterfowl communities of Narragansett Bay and this structure has remained relatively stable since the survey began. Our NMDS analysis helps to solidify what is known anecdotally about the bay’s waterfowl ecology, and provides a formalized benchmark for long-term monitoring of Narragansett Bay’s waterfowl communities. Birds, including waterfowl, are preferred bioindicators and we propose using our multivariate approach to monitor the future health of the bay. While this research focuses on a specific area of New England, these methods can be easily applied to novel areas of concern and provide a straightforward nonparametric approach to community-level monitoring. The methods provide a statistic test to examine potential drivers of community turnover and well-suited visualization tools. PMID:27019692

  1. Genome annotation in a community college cell biology lab.

    PubMed

    Beagley, C Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning skills. Additionally, the project strengthens student understanding of the scientific method and contributes to student learning gains in curricular objectives centered around basic molecular biology, specifically, the Central Dogma. Importantly, inclusion of this project in the laboratory course provides students with a positive learning environment and allows for the use of cooperative learning strategies to increase overall student success.

  2. Biological diversity of fish communities: pattern and process.

    PubMed

    Magurran, A E; Khachonpisitsak, S; Ahmad, A B

    2011-12-01

    For over 150 years, ecologists have been striving to explain fundamental patterns of biological diversity, such as the observation that communities invariably consist of common and rare species, and to unravel the processes that underpin these patterns. This task is increasingly urgent given the accelerating loss of biological diversity. Although fishes are the most diverse vertebrate taxon and fish communities occur in a wide range of habitats, they have been relatively little studied in the quest to elucidate the processes that shape patterns of biological diversity. Here, some of the topics that investigations of fish assemblages can illuminate are highlighted. These include the characteristics of ecological communities and the role that dispersal limitation plays in structuring them, the distinction between core and occasional species, the insights that evaluating abundance in different currencies can bring and the assessment of community capacity. Questions are identified that future investigations of fish communities might tackle and a case study of a biodiverse ecoregion (Thailand and Peninsula Malaysia) is used to illustrate the need for better links between these ecological questions and effective conservation practice.

  3. Effects of Communities That Care on Males’ and Females’ Drug Use and Delinquency 9 Years After Baseline in a Community-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Kuklinski, Margaret R.; Fagan, Abigail A.; Fleming, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac C.; Brown, Eric C.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested sustained effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on health-risking behaviors 9 years after baseline in a community-randomized trial involving 24 towns in seven states. Earlier analyses found sustained effects on abstinence from drug use and delinquency through Grade 12 in a panel of fifth graders. At age 19, 91 % (n = 3986) of the living panel completed the survey. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. The prevalence of lifetime and current substance use and delinquency were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included substance use disorders, major depression, suicidality, educational attainment, and sexual risk behaviors. CTC had a significant overall effect across lifetime measures of the primary outcomes for males, but not for females or the full sample, although lifetime abstinence from delinquency in the full sample was significantly higher in CTC communities (ARR = 1.16). Males in CTC communities also continued to show greater lifetime abstinence from cigarette smoking (ARR = 1.22). CTC did not have a sustained effect on current substance use and delinquency nor did it improve the secondary outcomes at age 19 for either gender. Communities using CTC may need to extend their prevention planning to include the high school years to sustain effects on drug use and delinquency beyond high school for both genders. PMID:26377418

  4. Baseline assessment of fish communities, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and stream habitat and land use, Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2003-01-01

    The Big Thicket National Preserve comprises 39,300 hectares in the form of nine preserve units connected by four stream corridor units (with two more corridor units proposed) distributed over the lower Neches and Trinity River Basins of southeastern Texas. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate data were collected at 15 stream sites (reaches) in the preserve during 1999–2001 for a baseline assessment and a comparison of communities among stream reaches. The fish communities in the preserve were dominated by minnows (family Cyprinidae) and sunfishes (family Centrarchidae). Reaches with smaller channel sizes generally had higher fish species richness than the larger reaches in the Neches River and Pine Island Bayou units of the preserve. Fish communities in geographically adjacent reaches were most similar in overall community structure. The blue sucker, listed by the State as a threatened species, was collected in only one reach—a Neches River reach a few miles downstream from the Steinhagen Lake Dam. Riffle beetles (family Elmidae) and midges (family Chironomidae) dominated the aquatic insect communities at the 14 reaches sampled for aquatic insects in the preserve. The Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) Index, an index sensitive to water-quality degradation, was smallest at the Little Pine Island Bayou near Beaumont reach that is in a State 303(d)-listed stream segment on Little Pine Island Bayou. Trophic structure of the aquatic insect communities is consistent with the river continuum concept with shredder and scraper insect taxa more abundant in reaches with smaller stream channels and filter feeders more abundant in reaches with larger channels. Aquatic insect community metrics were not significantly correlated to any of the stream-habitat or land-use explanatory variables. The percentage of 1990s urban land use in the drainage areas upstream from 12 bioassessment reaches were negatively correlated to the reach structure index, which indicates

  5. Reef communities in the Dry Tortugas (Florida, USA): Baseline surveys for the new no-take area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2008-01-01

    To understand the current community structure on reefs in the Dry Tortugas, we conducted specieslevel surveys of macroalgae, coral diversity, herbivorous and game fishes, urchins, and substratum composition (e.g., rugosity) in shallow (3- to 5-m depth) low-relief reef and hardbottom habitats in October 2007. We had particular interest in the ecological process of herbivory inside and outside of the “no-take” Research Natural Area (RNA) designated by the U.S. National Park Service in 2007, and establishing a baseline to assess future changes to trophic functioning. Diadema antillarum and herbivorous fish abundance, percent cover of macroalgae, and species richness of corals and gorgonians at the 18 randomly selected survey sites were not significantly different inside vs. outside of the RNA. Mean densities of D. antillarum ranged from 0.01 to 0.54 individuals m-2, with 11 of the 18 sites having densities above 0.10 individuals m-2. Both D. antillarum density and coral species richness were positively correlated to rugosity of the substratum. Diadema antillarum density was also positively related to percentage of the substratum composed of Acropora cervicornis rubble. Improved trophic functioning and increases in D. antillarum can improve reef condition in the Dry Tortugas, and the RNA is an important management tool to achieve increases in reef resilience to global-scale stressors.

  6. Communities advancing the studies of Tribal nations across their lifespan: Design, methods, and baseline of the CoASTAL cohort.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Kate; Boushey, Carol; Roberts, Sparkle M; Morris, J Glenn; Grattan, Lynn M

    2016-07-01

    The CoASTAL cohort represents the first community cohort assembled to study a HAB related illness. It is comprised of three Native American tribes in the Pacific NW for the purpose of studying the health impacts of chronic, low level domoic acid (DA) exposure through razor clam consumption. This cohort is at risk of domoic acid (DA) toxicity by virtue of their geographic location (access to beaches with a history of elevated DA levels in razor clams) and the cultural and traditional significance of razor clams in their diet. In this prospective, longitudinal study, Wave 1 of the cohort is comprised of 678 members across the lifespan with both sexes represented within child, adult and geriatric age groups. All participants are followed annually with standard measures of medical and social history; neuropsychological functions, psychological status, and dietary exposure. DA concentration levels are measured at both public and reservation beaches where razor clams are sourced and multiple metrics have been piloted to further determine exposure. Baseline data indicates that all cognitive and psychological functions are within normal limits. In addition there is considerable variability in razor clam exposure. Therefore, the CoASTAL cohort offers a unique opportunity to investigate the potential health effects of chronic, low level exposure to DA over time.

  7. Communities advancing the studies of Tribal nations across their lifespan: Design, methods, and baseline of the CoASTAL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Kate; Boushey, Carol; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Morris, J.Glenn; Grattan, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    The CoASTAL cohort represents the first community cohort assembled to study a HAB related illness. It is comprised of three Native American tribes in the Pacific NW for the purpose of studying the health impacts of chronic, low level domoic acid (DA) exposure through razor clam consumption. This cohort is at risk of domoic acid (DA) toxicity by virtue of their geographic location (access to beaches with a history of elevated DA levels in razor clams) and the cultural and traditional significance of razor clams in their diet. In this prospective, longitudinal study, Wave 1 of the cohort is comprised of 678 members across the lifespan with both sexes represented within child, adult and geriatric age groups. All participants are followed annually with standard measures of medical and social history; neuropsychological functions, psychological status, and dietary exposure. DA concentration levels are measured at both public and reservation beaches where razor clams are sourced and multiple metrics have been piloted to further determine exposure. Baseline data indicates that all cognitive and psychological functions are within normal limits. In addition there is considerable variability in razor clam exposure. Therefore, the CoASTAL cohort offers a unique opportunity to investigate the potential health effects of chronic, low level exposure to DA over time. PMID:27616972

  8. Coastal Mapping for Baseline Geoscience Knowledge to Support Community Hazard Assessment and Sustainable Development, Eastern Baffin Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, D. L.; Bell, T.; Campbell, D. C.; Cowan, B.; Deering, R. L.; Hatcher, S. V.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Irvine, M.; Manson, G. K.; Smith, I. R.; Edinger, E.

    2015-12-01

    reversal from falling to rising relative sea levels. Overall, the coastal mapping results constitute baseline geoscience knowledge infrastructure for navigation, fisheries, port engineering, municipal planning, and informing sustainability initiatives in the isolated coastal communities of this Arctic region.

  9. The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

  10. A natural experiment opportunity in two low-income urban food desert communities: research design, community engagement methods, and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ncube, Collette; Leuschner, Kristin; Tharp-Gilliam, Shannah

    2015-04-01

    A growing body of evidence has highlighted an association between a lack of access to nutritious, affordable food (e.g., through full-service grocery stores [FSGs]), poor diet, and increased risk for obesity. In response, there has been growing interest among policy makers in encouraging the siting of supermarkets in "food deserts," that is, low-income geographic areas with low access to healthy food options. However, there is limited research to evaluate the impact of such efforts, and most studies to date have been cross-sectional. The Pittsburgh Hill/Homewood Research on Eating, Shopping, and Health (PHRESH) is a longitudinal quasi-experimental study of a dramatic change (i.e., a new FSG) in the food landscape of a low-income, predominantly Black neighborhood. The study is following a stratified random sample of households (n = 1,372), and all food venues (n = 60) in both intervention and control neighborhoods, and the most frequently reported food shopping venues outside both neighborhoods. This article describes the study design and community-based methodology, which focused simultaneously on the conduct of scientifically rigorous research and the development and maintenance of trust and buy-in from the involved neighborhoods. Early results have begun to define markers for success in creating a natural experiment, including strong community engagement. Baseline data show that the vast majority of residents already shop at a FSG and do not shop at the nearest one. Follow-up data collection will help determine whether and how a new FSG may change behaviors and may point to the need for additional interventions beyond new FSGs alone.

  11. A community trial of the impact of improved sexually transmitted disease treatment on the HIV epidemic in rural Tanzania: 2. Baseline survey results.

    PubMed

    Grosskurth, H; Mosha, F; Todd, J; Senkoro, K; Newell, J; Klokke, A; Changalucha, J; West, B; Mayaud, P; Gavyole, A

    1995-08-01

    To measure the impact of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) treatment program on the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Zimbabwe's Mwanza Region, a pre-intervention baseline survey was conducted. Included in the survey were approximately 1000 randomly selected adults from each of the six intervention communities (defined as the population served by a health center and its satellite dispensaries) and six matched comparison communities. Overall HIV seroprevalence was 4.1% (3.7% in men and 4.4% in women), with a range of 1.6-8.6% and no significant differences between intervention and control communities. Peak prevalences for both sexes were found in the 25-34 year age groups and in roadside communities. The following factors were associated with an increased likelihood of HIV infection: separation, divorce, or widowhood; multiple injections in the preceding year; educational achievement of at least Standard 4; travel out of the district in the prior year; history of genital ulcers or discharge; and past or present infection with syphilis. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in circumcised men, but not when adjustment was made for other risk factors. Syphilis prevalence ranged from a low of 4.2% in island communities to a high of 11.1% in roadside communities. The baseline survey indicates that intervention and control populations are generally comparable, and that the goal of locating a study area with a relatively low incidence of HIV and high rates of other STDs has been achieved.

  12. Occurrence and Potential Biological Effects of Amphetamine on Stream Communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sylvia S; Paspalof, Alexis M; Snow, Daniel D; Richmond, Erinn K; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kelly, John J

    2016-09-06

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs in aquatic systems, is a topic of environmental significance because of their global occurrence and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, but few studies have examined the ecological effects of illicit drugs. We conducted a survey of several drug residues, including the potentially illicit drug amphetamine, at 6 stream sites along an urban to rural gradient in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. We detected numerous drugs, including amphetamine (3 to 630 ng L(-1)), in all stream sites. We examined the fate and ecological effects of amphetamine on biofilm, seston, and aquatic insect communities in artificial streams exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (1 μg L(-1)) of amphetamine. The amphetamine parent compound decreased in the artificial streams from less than 1 μg L(-1) on day 1 to 0.11 μg L(-1) on day 22. In artificial streams treated with amphetamine, there was up to 45% lower biofilm chlorophyll a per ash-free dry mass, 85% lower biofilm gross primary production, 24% greater seston ash-free dry mass, and 30% lower seston community respiration compared to control streams. Exposing streams to amphetamine also changed the composition of bacterial and diatom communities in biofilms at day 21 and increased cumulative dipteran emergence by 65% and 89% during the first and third weeks of the experiment, respectively. This study demonstrates that amphetamine and other biologically active drugs are present in urban streams and have the potential to affect both structure and function of stream communities.

  13. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobi, James; F. R. Warshauer, frwvolcano@hotmail.com; Jonathan Price, jpprice@hawaii.edu

    2010-01-01

    Non-zero baseline values are proposed for the one listed plant species found within the Lupea Project area, one species that is a candidate for listing, and the four other rare species we found that may be considered for listing in the future. Additionally, a zero baseline is proposed for 23 other species that were predicted, but not found within the project area. These include 14 Endangered species, one Threatened species, two candidates for listing, and six species of concern. Subsequent monitoring of the site will be necessary to determine if the populations of these species have increased or decreased relative to their baseline values. It is presumed that the management activities Kamehameha Schools has proposed for this area, particularly removal of the ungulates and weed control, will provide a benefit to the habitat as a whole and allow for natural regeneration and maintenance of the all elements of the plant communities found there.

  14. Longitudinal studies of cardiac troponin-I concentrations in serum from male Sprague Dawley rats: baseline reference ranges and effects of handling and placebo dosing on biological variability.

    PubMed

    Schultze, A Eric; Carpenter, Kent H; Wians, Frank H; Agee, Sara J; Minyard, Jennifer; Lu, Quynh Anh; Todd, John; Konrad, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    Serum cardiac troponin-I has been validated as a biomarker for cardiotoxicity in numerous animal models; however, baseline reference ranges for cTnI concentration in a healthy population of laboratory rats, as well as an investigation of biological cTnI variability in rats with respect to time, handling, and placebo dosing methods, have not been reported. In this study, we used an ultrasensitive cTnI immunoassay to quantify hourly concentrations of cTnI in live rats handled under standard laboratory conditions using 15 microL of serum per determination. The baseline reference range (mean 4.94 pg/mL, range 1-15 pg/mL, 99% confidence interval [CI]) of cTnI concentration in rats was consistent with previously reported reference ranges for cTnI in humans (1-12 pg/mL) and with preliminary studies in dogs (1-4 pg/mL) and monkeys (4-5 pg/mL) using the same cTnI assay method. In addition, cTnI concentrations in individual rat serum samples show minimal biological variability over a twenty-four-hour interval when compared to a meaningful reference change value of 193% to 206%. Furthermore, measurements of cTnI concentration were consistent within the reference limits in individual rats over long periods and under three different standard laboratory handling conditions. Thus, using this new method, rats can be followed longitudinally at hourly intervals, and a doubling of cTnI concentration would be significant above biological variability. This is a new paradigm for preclinical testing, which allows transient changes in cTnI concentration to be accurately quantified. This understanding of baseline and biological variability in rats will be fundamental for designing and analyzing future studies that assess potential cardiotoxicity in drug development.

  15. Relevance of ammonium oxidation within biological soil crust communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.L.; Budinoff, C.R.; Belnap, J.; Garcia-Pichel, F.

    2005-01-01

    Thin, vertically structured topsoil communities that become ecologically important in arid regions (biological soil crusts or BSCs) are responsible for much of the nitrogen inputs into pristine arid lands. We studied N2 fixation and ammonium oxidation (AO) at subcentimetre resolution within BSCs from the Colorado Plateau. Pools of dissolved porewater nitrate/ nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in wetted BSCs were high in comparison with those typical of aridosoils. They remained stable during incubations, indicating that input and output processes were of similar magnitude. Areal N2 fixation rates (6.5-48 ??mol C2H2 m-2 h -1) were high, the vertical distribution of N2 fixation peaking close to the surface if populations of heterocystous cyanobacteria were present, but in the subsurface if they were absent. Areal AO rates (19-46 ??mol N m-2 h-1) were commensurate with N2 fixation inputs. When considering oxygen availability, AO activity invariably peaked 2-3 mm deep and was limited by oxygen (not ammonium) supply. Most probable number (MPN)-enumerated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (6.7-7.9 ?? 103 cells g-1 on average) clearly peaked at 2-3 mm depth. Thus, AO (hence nitrification) is a spatially restricted but important process in the nitrogen cycling of BSC, turning much of the biologically fixed nitrogen into oxidized forms, the fate of which remains to be determined.

  16. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Ziegler, Maren; Kremb, Stephan G.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29–33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2–4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region. PMID:27828965

  17. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Ziegler, Maren; Kremb, Stephan G; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29-33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2-4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.

  18. Effects of a spill of bunker oil on the marine biological communities in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, P.K. )

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a recent bunker oil spill on the marine environment were assessed through investigation of the rocky shore fauna, phytoplankton population and macrobenthic communities over a study period of 150 days. In addition, toxicity experiments were carried out in the laboratory to ascertain the toxic effects of the oil-plus-dispersant on selected test organisms. The impacts of the spill on the marine fauna were minimal with no visible reduction in species and individual numbers. Possible reasons were the small amount of oil spilled, the rapid containment and dispersion in the clean-up operations, and the less toxic effects of the heavy bunker oil. On Hong Kong shores, the limpets can be identified as indicator species to oil pollution. A quick survey of the limpet fauna on the rocky shores immediately after a spill provides an initial assessment of the impacts on the shoreline. However, faunal recovery over a long-term period may be difficult to assess in view of the lack of baseline data on most of the marine biological communities in Hong Kong waters.

  19. Enabling a next generation of synthetic biology community organization and leadership.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Megan J; Jewett, Michael C

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology seeks to make engineering of complex biological functions more efficient, reliable, and predictable. Advancing the process of engineering biology requires community organization and leadership. As synthetic biology matures into a globally significant enterprise, the community needs to enable a next generation of leaders to organize the field's responsible advancement. We discuss key points raised at a community meeting on these issues at SB6.0--the Sixth International Meeting on Synthetic Biology--and highlight opportunities to carry forward the conversation.

  20. Community-driven computational biology with Debian Linux

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Open Source movement and its technologies are popular in the bioinformatics community because they provide freely available tools and resources for research. In order to feed the steady demand for updates on software and associated data, a service infrastructure is required for sharing and providing these tools to heterogeneous computing environments. Results The Debian Med initiative provides ready and coherent software packages for medical informatics and bioinformatics. These packages can be used together in Taverna workflows via the UseCase plugin to manage execution on local or remote machines. If such packages are available in cloud computing environments, the underlying hardware and the analysis pipelines can be shared along with the software. Conclusions Debian Med closes the gap between developers and users. It provides a simple method for offering new releases of software and data resources, thus provisioning a local infrastructure for computational biology. For geographically distributed teams it can ensure they are working on the same versions of tools, in the same conditions. This contributes to the world-wide networking of researchers. PMID:21210984

  1. Functional outcomes of maltreated children and adolescents in a community-based rehabilitation program in Brazil: six-month improvement and baseline predictors.

    PubMed

    Stefanovics, Elina A; Filho, Mauro V M; Rosenheck, Robert A; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    This study sought to implement outcomes monitoring and to review outcome data from a community-based rehabilitation program for maltreated children and adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil. Maltreated children and adolescents (N=452) were enrolled in The Equilibrium Program (TEP), a multidisciplinary community-based rehabilitation program. About half (n=230) of the participants were successfully evaluated using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) at entry, 3, and/or 6 months later. Analysis of outcomes used hierarchical linear modeling of functional change from baseline. With a baseline C-GAS score of 51.7 (SD=14.22), average improvement was 2.8 and 5.5 points at 3 and 6 months, respectively (reflecting small to moderate effect sizes=0.20 and 0.39). Improvement was associated with Problems related to upbringing (p<.02) at entry and absence of Physical abuse (p<.05) and Negative life events in childhood (p<.05) but was not associated with sociodemographics or any specific psychiatric diagnosis. This study showed that outcomes monitoring is feasible in a community-based program in a developing country. Although there was no untreated control group for comparison and specific evidence-based treatments were not used, it is notable that significant improvement, with small to moderate effect size, was observed.

  2. Re-evaluating the health of coral reef communities: baselines and evidence for human impacts across the central Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer E.; Brainard, Rusty; Carter, Amanda; Grillo, Saray; Edwards, Clinton; Harris, Jill; Lewis, Levi; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest; Sala, Enric; Vroom, Peter S.; Sandin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented declines in the abundance of reef-building corals over the last several decades and in some but not all cases, phase shifts to dominance by macroalgae have occurred. These assessments, however, often ignore the remainder of the benthos and thus provide limited information on the present-day structure and function of coral reef communities. Here, using an unprecedentedly large dataset collected within the last 10 years across 56 islands spanning five archipelagos in the central Pacific, we examine how benthic reef communities differ in the presence and absence of human populations. Using islands as replicates, we examine whether benthic community structure is associated with human habitation within and among archipelagos and across latitude. While there was no evidence for coral to macroalgal phase shifts across our dataset we did find that the majority of reefs on inhabited islands were dominated by fleshy non-reef-building organisms (turf algae, fleshy macroalgae and non-calcifying invertebrates). By contrast, benthic communities from uninhabited islands were more variable but in general supported more calcifiers and active reef builders (stony corals and crustose coralline algae). Our results suggest that cumulative human impacts across the central Pacific may be causing a reduction in the abundance of reef builders resulting in island scale phase shifts to dominance by fleshy organisms. PMID:26740615

  3. Re-evaluating the health of coral reef communities: baselines and evidence for human impacts across the central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer E; Brainard, Rusty; Carter, Amanda; Grillo, Saray; Edwards, Clinton; Harris, Jill; Lewis, Levi; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest; Sala, Enric; Vroom, Peter S; Sandin, Stuart

    2016-01-13

    Numerous studies have documented declines in the abundance of reef-building corals over the last several decades and in some but not all cases, phase shifts to dominance by macroalgae have occurred. These assessments, however, often ignore the remainder of the benthos and thus provide limited information on the present-day structure and function of coral reef communities. Here, using an unprecedentedly large dataset collected within the last 10 years across 56 islands spanning five archipelagos in the central Pacific, we examine how benthic reef communities differ in the presence and absence of human populations. Using islands as replicates, we examine whether benthic community structure is associated with human habitation within and among archipelagos and across latitude. While there was no evidence for coral to macroalgal phase shifts across our dataset we did find that the majority of reefs on inhabited islands were dominated by fleshy non-reef-building organisms (turf algae, fleshy macroalgae and non-calcifying invertebrates). By contrast, benthic communities from uninhabited islands were more variable but in general supported more calcifiers and active reef builders (stony corals and crustose coralline algae). Our results suggest that cumulative human impacts across the central Pacific may be causing a reduction in the abundance of reef builders resulting in island scale phase shifts to dominance by fleshy organisms.

  4. Awareness of Biologically Confirmed HCV Among a Community Residing Sample of Drug Users in Baltimore City

    PubMed Central

    Hearn, Lauren E.; Marsiske, Michael; Kahn, Maria R.; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to examine: (1) the prevalence and correlates of biologically confirmed Hepatitis C (HCV) and (2) the prevalence and correlates of prior HCV diagnosis and an unmet need for HCV treatment, among a community residing sample of drug users. The current study used a subset of HCV tested participants from the larger NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study from Baltimore, Maryland (Mage = 34.81, SD = 9.25; 46 % female). All participants were tested for HCV at baseline. Self-report was used to assess awareness of an HCV diagnosis and participation in treatment. Of the 782 participants tested for HCV, 19 % reported having received an HCV diagnosis in the past while 48 % tested positive for HCV. Only 6 % reported having received treatment for any form of hepatitis. Of those who tested HCV positive, 63 % reported never being diagnosed, and only 13 % received any treatment for HCV. We found that only 35 % of those who reported a prior HCV diagnosis received any treatment. The findings regarding lack of HCV awareness and diagnosis were considerable as expected. These deficits suggest that there are numerous gaps in patients' knowledge and beliefs regarding HCV that may interfere at multiple steps along the path from diagnosis to treatment. This study clearly demonstrates that a critical need exists to improve public knowledge of HCV risk factors, the need for testing, and the availability of effective treatment. PMID:24173529

  5. Proximate environmental drivers of coral communities at Palmyra Atoll: establishing baselines prior to removing a WWII military causeway.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Knapp, Ingrid S; Maragos, James E; Davy, Simon K

    2011-08-01

    A management proposal aims to partly remove a WWII military causeway at Palmyra Atoll to improve lagoon water circulation and alleviate sedimentation stress on the southeast backreef, an area of high coral cover and diversity. This action could result in a shift in sedimentation across reef sites. To provide management advice, we quantified the proximate environmental factors driving scleractinian coral cover and community patterns at Palmyra. The proportion of fine sedimentation was the optimal predictor of coral cover and changes in community structure, explaining 23.7% and 24.7% of the variation between sites, respectively. Scleractinian coral cover was negatively correlated with increases in fine sedimentation. Removing the causeway could negatively affect the Montipora corals that dominate the western reef terrace, as this genus was negatively correlated with levels of fine sedimentation. The tolerance limits of corals, and sediment re-distribution patterns, should be determined prior to complete removal of the causeway.

  6. Historical macrobenthic community assemblages in the Avilés Canyon, N Iberian Shelf: Baseline biodiversity information for a marine protected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louzao, Maite; Anadón, Nuria; Arrontes, Julio; Álvarez-Claudio, Consuelo; Fuente, Dulce María; Ocharan, Francisco; Anadón, Araceli; Acuña, José Luis

    2010-02-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems are highly diverse, and European countries seek to protect these environments by identifying conservation targets. One of these is the Avilés Canyon, southern Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic, Spain. We present the first analysis of historical benthic communities (1987-1988) of this canyon ecosystem, which is a valuable source of biodiversity baseline information. We found 810 taxa divided in five main macrobenthic assemblages, showing a highly diverse benthic community. Bathymetry was the major structuring agent of benthic community, separating shallow (assemblages I and II, 31 to 307 m depth) from deep stations (assemblages III, IV and V, 198 to 1400 m depth). Especially diverse was assemblage IV, located at the easternmost part of the continental slope (378-1100 m depth) where we found reef-forming corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. These and other communities (sea-pens [Order Pennatulacea, Phylum Cnidaria] and burrowing macrofauna) represent key habitats in NE Atlantic continental slopes, which are currently threatened. The present dataset has produced the most comprehensive assessment of diversity in this area to date, focusing on the taxonomic groups which may best reflect the health of the marine ecosystem and supporting previous studies which indicate that the continental slope of the southern Bay of Biscay hosts key benthic habitats.

  7. Coral community change on a turbid-zone reef complex: developing baseline records for the central Great Barrier Reef's nearshore coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jamie; Perry, Chris; Smithers, Scott; Morgan, Kyle; Johnson, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Understanding past coral community development and reef growth is crucial for placing contemporary ecological and environmental change within appropriate reef-building timescales. Coral reefs located within coastal inner-shelf zones are widely perceived to be most susceptible to declining water quality due to their proximity to modified river catchments. On the inner-shelf of Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) the impacts and magnitude of declining water quality since European settlement (c. 1850 A.D.) still remain unclear. This relates to ongoing debates concerning the significance of increased sediment yields against the naturally high background sedimentary regimes and the paucity of long-term (>decadal) ecological datasets. To provide baseline records for interpreting coral community change within the turbid inner-shelf waters of the GBR, 21 cores were recovered from five nearshore reefs spanning an evolutionary spectrum of reef development. Discrete intervals pre- and post-dating European settlement, but deposited at equivalent water depths, were identified by radiocarbon dating, enabling the discrimination of extrinsic and intrinsic driven shifts within the coral palaeo-record. We report no discernible evidence of anthropogenically-driven disturbance on the coral community records at these sites. Instead, significant transitions in coral community assemblages relating to water depth and vertical reef accretion were observed. We suggest that these records may be used to contextualise observed contemporary ecological change within similar environments on the GBR.

  8. Communities of the Biological Crossroads: An Extraordinary Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Provides rich description of the biological diversity found in a 30-mile section of Nebraska known as the "biological crossroads." Argues that the seven major associations of the Niobrara River valley provide a great classroom. Includes a complete listing of plant species. (DDR)

  9. Phylogeny, phylogeography, phylobetadiversity and the molecular analysis of biological communities

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Brent C.; Cicconardi, Francesco; Fanciulli, Pietro P.; Shaw, Peter J. A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been much recent interest and progress in the characterization of community structure and community assembly processes through the application of phylogenetic methods. To date most focus has been on groups of taxa for which some relevant detail of their ecology is known, for which community composition is reasonably easily quantified and where the temporal scale is such that speciation is not likely to feature. Here, we explore how we might apply a molecular genetic approach to investigate community structure and assembly at broad taxonomic and geographical scales, where we have little knowledge of species ecology, where community composition is not easily quantified, and where speciation is likely to be of some importance. We explore these ideas using the class Collembola as a focal group. Gathering molecular evidence for cryptic diversity suggests that the ubiquity of many species of Collembola across the landscape may belie greater community complexity than would otherwise be assumed. However, this morphologically cryptic species-level diversity poses a challenge for attempts to characterize diversity both within and among local species assemblages. Recent developments in high throughput parallel sequencing technology, combined with mtDNA barcoding, provide an advance that can bring together the fields of phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis to bear on this problem. Such an approach could be standardized for analyses at any geographical scale for a range of taxonomic groups to quantify the formation and composition of species assemblages. PMID:21768154

  10. Baseline determination in social, health, and genetic areas in communities affected by glyphosate aerial spraying on the northeastern Ecuadorian border.

    PubMed

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Muñoz, María José; Maldonado, Adolfo; Valladares, Carolina; Cumbal, Nadia; Herrera, Catalina; Robles, Paulo; Sánchez, María Eugenia; López-Cortés, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Ecuadorian border has undergone aerial spraying with an herbicide mix that contains surfactants and adjuvants, executed by the Colombian Government. The purpose of this study was to diagnose social, health, and genetic aspects of the people affected by glyphosate. For this objective to be achieved, 144 people were interviewed, and 521 medical diagnoses and 182 peripheral blood samples were obtained. Genotyping of GSTP1 Ile105Val, GPX-1 Pro198Leu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms were analyzed, using PCR-RFLP technique. The assessment of chromosomal aberrations was performed, obtaining 182 karyotypes. Malnutrition in children was 3%. Of the total population, 7.7% had children with malformations, and the percentage of abortions was 12.7%. Concerning genotyping, individuals with GSTP1 Val/Val obtained an odds ratio of 4.88 (p < 0.001), and Ile/Val individuals, together with Val/Val individuals, had an odds ratio of 2.6 (p < 0.05). In addition, GPX-1 Leu/Leu individuals presented an odds ratio (OR) of 8.5 (p < 0.05). Regarding karyotyping, the 182 individuals had normal karyotypes. In conclusion, the study population did not present significant chromosomal and DNA alterations. The most important social impact was fear. We recommend future prospective studies to assess the communities.

  11. Distribution and habitat use of the Missouri River and Lower Yellowstone River benthic fishes from 1996 to 1998: A baseline for fish community recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Arab, A.

    2011-01-01

    Past and present Missouri River management practices have resulted in native fishes being identified as in jeopardy. In 1995, the Missouri River Benthic Fishes Study was initiated to provide improved information on Missouri River fish populations and how alterations might affect them. The study produced a baseline against which to evaluate future changes in Missouri River operating criteria. The objective was to evaluate population structure and habitat use of benthic fishes along the entire mainstem Missouri River, exclusive of reservoirs. Here we use the data from this study to provide a recent-past baseline for on-going Missouri River fish population monitoring programmes along with a more powerful method for analysing data containing large percentages of zero values. This is carried out by describing the distribution and habitat use of 21 species of Missouri River benthic fishes based on catch-per-unit area data from multiple gears. We employ a Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson model expanded to include continuous measures of habitat quality (i.e. substrate composition, depth, velocity, temperature, turbidity and conductivity). Along with presenting the method, we provide a relatively complete picture of the Missouri River benthic fish community and the relationship between their relative population numbers and habitat conditions. We demonstrate that our single model provides all the information that is often obtained by a myriad of analytical techniques. An important advantage of the present approach is reliable inference for patterns of relative abundance using multiple gears without using gear efficiencies.

  12. The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

  13. Baseline program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Vonputtkamer, Jesco

    1992-01-01

    This assumed program was developed from several sources of information and is extrapolated over future decades using a set of reasonable assumptions based on incremental growth. The assumptions for the NASA baseline program are as follows: balanced emphasis in four domains; a constant level of activity; low to moderate real budget growth; maximum use of commonality; and realistic and practical technology development. The first domain is low Earth Orbit (LEO). Activities there are concentrated on the space station but extend on one side to Earth-pointing sensors for unmanned platforms and on the other to the launch and staging of unmanned solar system exploration missions. The second domain is geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cislunar space. Activities here include all GEO missions and operations, both unmanned and manned, and all transport of materials and crews between LEO and the vicinity of the Moon. The third domain is the Moon itself. Lunar activities are to include both orbiting and landing missions; the landings may be either unmanned or manned. The last domain is Mars. Missions to Mars will initially be unmanned but they will eventually be manned. Program elements and descriptions are discussed as are critiques of the NASA baseline.

  14. Island biology and ecosystem functioning in epiphytic soil communities.

    PubMed

    Wardle, David A; Yeates, Gregor W; Barker, Gary M; Bellingham, Peter J; Bonner, Karen I; Williamson, Wendy M

    2003-09-19

    Although island attributes such as size and accessibility to colonizing organisms can influence community structure, the consequences of these for ecosystem functioning are little understood. A study of the suspended soils of spatially discrete epiphytes or treetop "islands" in the canopies of New Zealand rainforest trees revealed that different components of the decomposer community responded either positively or negatively to island size, as well as to the tree species that the islands occurred in. This in turn led to important differences between islands in the rates of ecosystem processes driven by the decomposer biota. This system serves as a model for better understanding how attributes of both real and habitat islands may affect key ecosystem functions through determining the community structure of organisms that drive these functions.

  15. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste

    Optical Long Baseline Interferometry provides unrivalled angular resolution on bright and compact astrophysical sources. The link between the observables (interferometric phase and contrast) and the image of the source is a Fourier transform expressed first by van Cittert and Zernike. Depending on the source size and the amount of information collected, the analysis of these Fourier components allows a measurement of the typical source size, a parametric modelling of its spatial structures, or a model-independent image reconstruction to be carried. In the past decades, optical long baseline interferometry provided fundamental measurements for astronomy (ex. Cepheids distances, surface-brightness relations) as well as iconic results such as the first images of stellar surfaces other than the Sun. Optical long baseline interferometers exist in the Northern and Southern hemisphere and are open to the astronomical community with modern level of support. We provide in this chapter an introduction to the fundamental principles of optical interferometry and introduce the currently available facilities.

  16. Vision and Change in the Biology Community: Snapshots of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasaly, Helen L.; Feser, Jason; Lettrich, Matthew D.; Correa, Kevin; Denniston, Katherine J.

    2014-01-01

    When the authors were first invited to write these columns, the editors felt it would be an interesting way to give the readers of "CBE - Life Sciences Education" an agency's-eye view of its concerns, workings, and accomplishments. This column is written with that charge in mind. It is intended to inform the community about outreach…

  17. The Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics of PREVENT-DM: A Community-Based Comparative Effectiveness Trial of Lifestyle Intervention and Metformin among Latinas with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Alberly; Alos, Victor A.; Scanlan, Adam; Maia, Catarina M.; Davey, Adam; Whitaker, Robert C.; Foster, Gary D.; Ackermann, Ronald T.; O’Brien, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Promotora Effectiveness Versus Metformin Trial (PREVENT-DM) is a randomized comparative effectiveness trial of a lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program delivered by community health workers (or promotoras), metformin, and standard care. Eligibility criteria are Hispanic ethnicity, female sex, age ≥20 years, fluent Spanish-speaking status, BMI ≥23kg/m2, and prediabetes. We enrolled 92 participants and randomized them to one of the following three groups: standard care, DPP-based lifestyle intervention, or metformin. The primary outcome of the trial is the 12-month difference in weight between groups. Secondary outcomes include the following cardiometabolic markers: BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. PREVENT-DM participants are socioeconomically disadvantaged Latinas with a mean annual household income of $15,527 ± 9,922 and educational attainment of 9.7 ± 3.6 years. Eighty-six percent of participants are foreign born, 20% have a prior history of gestational diabetes, and 71% have a first-degree relative with diagnosed diabetes. At baseline, PREVENT-DM participants had a mean age of 45.1 ± 12.5 years, weight of 178.8 ± 39.3lbs, BMI of 33.3 ± 6.5kg/m2, HbA1c of 5.9 ± 0.2%, and waist circumference of 97.4 ± 11.1cm. Mean baseline levels of other cardiometabolic markers were normal. The PREVENT-DM study successfully recruited and randomized an understudied population of Latinas with prediabetes. This trial will be the first U.S. study to test the comparative effectiveness of metformin and lifestyle intervention versus standard care among prediabetic adults in a “real-world” setting. PMID:26597415

  18. The rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of PREVENT-DM: A community-based comparative effectiveness trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among Latinas with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Perez, Alberly; Alos, Victor A; Scanlan, Adam; Maia, Catarina M; Davey, Adam; Whitaker, Robert C; Foster, Gary D; Ackermann, Ronald T; O'Brien, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Promotora Effectiveness Versus Metformin Trial (PREVENT-DM) is a randomized comparative effectiveness trial of a lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program delivered by community health workers (or promotoras), metformin, and standard care. Eligibility criteria are Hispanic ethnicity, female sex, age ≥ 20 years, fluent Spanish-speaking status, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2), and prediabetes. We enrolled 92 participants and randomized them to one of the following three groups: standard care, DPP-based lifestyle intervention, or metformin. The primary outcome of the trial is the 12-month difference in weight between groups. Secondary outcomes include the following cardiometabolic markers: BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. PREVENT-DM participants are socioeconomically disadvantaged Latinas with a mean annual household income of $15,527 ± 9922 and educational attainment of 9.7 ± 3.6 years. Eighty-six percent of participants are foreign born, 20% have a prior history of gestational diabetes, and 71% have a first-degree relative with diagnosed diabetes. At baseline, PREVENT-DM participants had a mean age of 45.1 ± 12.5 years, weight of 178.8 ± 39.3 lbs, BMI of 33.3 ± 6.5 kg/m(2), HbA1c of 5.9 ± 0.2%, and waist circumference of 97.4 ± 11.1cm. Mean baseline levels of other cardiometabolic markers were normal. The PREVENT-DM study successfully recruited and randomized an understudied population of Latinas with prediabetes. This trial will be the first U.S. study to test the comparative effectiveness of metformin and lifestyle intervention versus standard care among prediabetic adults in a "real-world" setting.

  19. Environmental conditions and community evenness determine the outcome of biological invasion.

    PubMed

    De Roy, Karen; Marzorati, Massimo; Negroni, Andrea; Thas, Olivier; Balloi, Annalisa; Fava, Fabio; Verstraete, Willy; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasion is widely studied, however, conclusions on the outcome of this process mainly originate from observations in systems that leave a large number of experimental variables uncontrolled. Here using a fully controlled system consisting of assembled bacterial communities, we evaluate the degree of invasion and the effect on the community functionality in relation to the initial community evenness under specific environmental stressors. We show that evenness influences the level of invasion and that the introduced species can promote functionality under stress. The evenness-invasibility relationship is negative in the absence and neutral in the presence of stress. Under these conditions, the introduced species is able to maintain the functionality of uneven communities. These results indicate that communities, initially having the same genetic background, in the presence of the same invader, react in a different way with respect to invasibility and functionality depending on specific environmental conditions and community evenness.

  20. Maternal and Newborn Health in Karnataka State, India: The Community Level Interventions for Pre-Eclampsia (CLIP) Trial’s Baseline Study Results

    PubMed Central

    Bellad, Mrutynjaya B.; Vidler, Marianne; Honnungar, Narayan V.; Mallapur, Ashalata; Ramadurg, Umesh; Charanthimath, Umesh; Katageri, Geetanjali; Bannale, Shashidhar; Kavi, Avinash; Karadiguddi, Chandrashekhar; Lee, Tang; Li, Jing; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura; von Dadelszen, Peter; Derman, Richard; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

    2017-01-01

    Existing vital health statistics registries in India have been unable to provide reliable estimates of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity, and region-specific health estimates are essential to the planning and monitoring of health interventions. This study was designed to assess baseline rates as the precursor to a community-based cluster randomized control trial (cRCT)–Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial (NCT01911494; CTRI/2014/01/004352). The objective was to describe baseline demographics and health outcomes prior to initiation of the CLIP trial and to improve knowledge of population-level health, in particular of maternal and neonatal outcomes related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in northern districts the state of Karnataka, India. The prospective population-based survey was conducted in eight clusters in Belgaum and Bagalkot districts in Karnataka State from 2013–2014. Data collection was undertaken by adapting the Maternal and Newborn Health registry platform, developed by the Global Network for Women’s and Child Health Studies. Descriptive statistics were completed using SAS and R. During the period of 2013–2014, prospective data was collected on 5,469 pregnant women with an average age of 23.2 (+/-3.3) years. Delivery outcomes were collected from 5,448 completed pregnancies. A majority of the women reported institutional deliveries (96.0%), largely attended by skilled birth attendants. The maternal mortality ratio of 103 (per 100,000 livebirths) was observed during this study, neonatal mortality ratio was 25 per 1,000 livebirths, and perinatal mortality ratio was 50 per 1,000 livebirths. Despite a high number of institutional deliveries, rates of stillbirth were 2.86%. Early enrollment and close follow-up and monitoring procedures established by the Maternal and Newborn Health registry allowed for negligible lost to follow-up. This population-level study provides regional rates of maternal and newborn

  1. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P.; Bader, Gary D.; Bergmann, Frank T.; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J.; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE’s aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models. PMID:25759811

  2. Biological and clinical manifestations of Huntington’s disease in the longitudinal TRACK-HD study: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Sarah J; Langbehn, Douglas R; Leavitt, Blair R; Roos, Raymund A C; Durr, Alexandra; Craufurd, David; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L; Fox, Nick C; Scahill, Rachael I; Borowsky, Beth; Tobin, Allan J; Rosas, H Diana; Johnson, Hans; Reilmann, Ralf; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Stout, Julie C

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, fully penetrant, neurodegenerative disease that most commonly affects adults in mid-life. Our aim was to identify sensitive and reliable biomarkers in premanifest carriers of mutated HTT and in individuals with early HD that could provide essential methodology for the assessment of therapeutic interventions. Methods This multicentre study uses an extensive battery of novel assessments, including multi-site 3T MRI, clinical, cognitive, quantitative motor, oculomotor, and neuropsychiatric measures. Blinded analyses were done on the baseline cross-sectional data from 366 individuals: 123 controls, 120 premanifest (pre-HD) individuals, and 123 patients with early HD. Findings The first participant was enrolled in January, 2008, and all assessments were completed by August, 2008. Cross-sectional analyses identified significant changes in whole-brain volume, regional grey and white matter differences, impairment in a range of voluntary neurophysiological motor, and oculomotor tasks, and cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunction in premanifest HD gene carriers with normal motor scores through to early clinical stage 2 disease. Interpretation We show the feasibility of rapid data acquisition and the use of multi-site 3T MRI and neurophysiological motor measures in a large multicentre study. Our results provide evidence for quantifiable biological and clinical alterations in HTT expansion carriers compared with age-matched controls. Many parameters differ from age-matched controls in a graded fashion and show changes of increasing magnitude across our cohort, who range from about 16 years from predicted disease diagnosis to early HD. These findings might help to define novel quantifiable endpoints and methods for rapid and reliable data acquisition, which could aid the design of therapeutic trials. Funding CHDI/High Q Foundation. PMID:19646924

  3. Estimating size and composition of biological communities by modeling the occurrence of species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model that uses repeated observations of a biological community to estimate the number and composition of species in the community. Estimators of community-level attributes are constructed from model-based estimators of occurrence of individual species that incorporate imperfect detection of individuals. Data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey are analyzed to illustrate the variety of ecologically important quantities that are easily constructed and estimated using our model-based estimators of species occurrence. In particular, we compute site-specific estimates of species richness that honor classical notions of species-area relationships. We suggest extensions of our model to estimate maps of occurrence of individual species and to compute inferences related to the temporal and spatial dynamics of biological communities.

  4. Marriage patterns in a Mesoamerican peasant community are biologically adaptive.

    PubMed

    Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M

    2010-12-01

    Differential investment in offspring by parental and progeny gender has been discussed and periodically analyzed for the past 80 years as an evolutionary adaptive strategy. Parental investment theory suggests that parents in poor condition have offspring in poor condition. Conversely, parents in good condition give rise to offspring in good condition. As formalized in the Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH), investment in daughters will be greater under poor conditions while sons receive greater parental investment under good conditions. Condition is ultimately equated to offspring reproductive fitness, with parents apparently using a strategy to maximize their genetic contribution to future generations. Analyses of sex ratio have been used to support parental investment theory and in many instances, though not all, results provide support for TWH. In the present investigation, economic strategies were analyzed in the context of offspring sex ratio and survival to reproductive age in a Zapotec-speaking community in the Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Growth status of children, adult stature, and agricultural resources were analyzed as proxies for parental and progeny condition in present and prior generations. Traditional marriage practice in Mesoamerican peasant communities is patrilocal postnuptial residence with investments largely favoring sons. The alternative, practiced by ∼25% of parents, is matrilocal postnuptial residence which is an investment favoring daughters. Results indicated that sex ratio of offspring survival to reproductive age was related to economic strategy and differed significantly between the patrilocal and matrilocal strategies. Variance in sex ratio was affected by condition of parents and significant differences in survival to reproductive age were strongly associated with economic strategy. While the results strongly support TWH, further studies in traditional anthropological populations are needed.

  5. The Burden of Non-Communicable Disease in Transition Communities in an Asian Megacity: Baseline Findings from a Cohort Study in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Faisal S.; Lotia-Farrukh, Ismat; Khan, Aamir J.; Siddiqui, Saad Tariq; Sajun, Sana Zehra; Malik, Amyn Abdul; Burfat, Aziza; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Codlin, Andrew J.; Reininger, Belinda M.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Afridi, Nadeem; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The demographic transition in South Asia coupled with unplanned urbanization and lifestyle changes are increasing the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) where infectious diseases are still highly prevalent. The true magnitude and impact of this double burden of disease, although predicted to be immense, is largely unknown due to the absence of recent, population-based longitudinal data. The present study was designed as a unique ‘Framingham-like’ Pakistan cohort with the objective of measuring the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection in a multi-ethnic, middle to low income population of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We selected two administrative areas from a private charitable hospital’s catchment population for enrolment of a random selection of cohort households in Karachi, Pakistan. A baseline survey measured the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection. Results Six hundred and sixty-seven households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011. A majority of households lived in permanent structures (85%) with access to basic utilities (77%) and sanitation facilities (98%) but limited access to clean drinking water (68%). Households had high ownership of communication technologies in the form of cable television (69%) and mobile phones (83%). Risk factors for NCD, such as tobacco use (45%), overweight (20%), abdominal obesity (53%), hypertension (18%), diabetes (8%) and pre-diabetes (40%) were high. At the same time, infectious diseases such as hepatitis B (24%) and hepatitis C (8%) were prevalent in this population. Conclusion Our findings highlight the need to monitor risk factors and disease trends through longitudinal research in high-burden transition communities in the context of rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. They also demonstrate the urgency of public

  6. Baseline health situation of communities affected by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao PDR and indicators for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Erlanger, Tobias E; Sayasone, Somphou; Krieger, Gary R; Kaul, Surinder; Sananikhom, Pany; Tanner, Marcel; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jurg

    2008-06-01

    Hydroelectric projects offer opportunities for infrastructure development and economic growth; yet, if not well designed, implemented and operated, they have the potential to negatively affect the health and well-being of local and distant downstream communities. Remote rural populations are particularly vulnerable to the sudden influx of men, materials and money, and associated population mixing that accompany project construction phases. Two large-scale baseline health surveys, carried out in 2001/2002 in two communities that were affected by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao PDR, were analysed. For the population to be resettled on the Nakai plateau it was observed that access to clean water and basic sanitation facilities was lacking. Faecal examinations revealed a high infection prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides (67.7%), but relatively low prevalences for hookworm (9.7%), Taenia spp. (4.8%), Enterobius vermicularis (4.4%), Trichuris trichiura (3.9%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.4%) and Opisthorchis viverrini (0.9%). For the population in the Xe Bang Fai downstream area, rapid diagnostic tests for malaria carried out in the rainy season found a prevalence below 1%, which might be explained by the complete coverage of households with insecticide-treated nets (99.8%). Anthropometric measurements in both populations suggest that wasting, stunting and underweight in under 5-year-old children were moderate to high; 15.9-17.5%, 40.4-55.7% and 35.8-55.7%, respectively. One out of six individuals aged above 14 years were malnourished, most likely as a result of early childhood wasting. Moderate anaemia, assessed by age- and sex-specific haemoglobin levels, was present in 43.8% (Nakai) and 54.9% of the individuals examined (Xe Bang Fai). Several indicators were extracted that can be utilised for monitoring changes in health, well-being and equity, as the project is implemented and operated.

  7. Temporal change in biological community structure in the Fountain Creek basin, Colorado, 2001-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Stogner, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to better understand the relations between environmental characteristics and biological communities in the Fountain Creek basin in order to aide water-resource management and guide future monitoring activities. To accomplish this task, environmental (streamflow, habitat, and water chemistry) and biological (fish and macroinvertebrate) data were collected annually at 24 sites over a 6- or 8-year period (fish, 2003 to 2008; macroinvertebrates, 2001 to 2008). For this report, these data were first analyzed to determine the presence of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure among years using nonparametric multivariate statistics. Where temporal change in the biological communities was found, these data were further analyzed using additional nonparametric multivariate techniques to determine which subset of selected streamflow, habitat, or water-chemistry variables best described site-specific changes in community structure relative to a gradient of urbanization. This study identified significant directional patterns of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure at 15 of 24 sites in the Fountain Creek basin. At four of these sites, changes in environmental variables were significantly correlated with the concurrent temporal change identified in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure (Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Monument Creek at Bijou Street at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Bear Creek near Colorado Springs, Colo.; Fountain Creek at Security, Colo.). Combinations of environmental variables describing directional temporal change in the biota appeared to be site specific as no single variable dominated the results; however, substrate composition variables (percent substrate composition composed of sand, gravel, or cobble) collectively were present in 80 percent of the environmental

  8. Biology, chance, or history? The predictable reassembly of temperate grassland communities.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Jana S; Fergus, Alexander J F; Roscher, Christiane; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Weigelt, Alexandra; Schmid, Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    Many studies have examined invasion resistance in plant communities, but few have explored the mechanisms of invasion and how subsequent community reassembly affects community functioning. Using natural dispersal and deliberate seed addition into grassland communities with different compositional and richness histories, we show that invaders establish in a nonrandom manner due to negative effects of resident functional groups on invading species from the same functional group. Invaders hence complement communities with originally low richness levels. Consequently, communities converge toward similar levels of species richness, high functional richness, and evenness, but not always maximum productivity. Invasion processes are faster but qualitatively similar when the effect of chance, in the form of dispersal stochasticity, is reduced by seed addition. Thus, dispersal limitation may influence community assembly, but it does not override functionally predictable assembly mechanisms. Some of the most productive communities prior to invasion are unstable in the face of invasion, leading to decreased productivity following invasion. We suggest that invasion into such communities occurs possibly because a pathogen-free niche is available rather than a resource niche. Thus, pathogens in addition to resource niches may be important biological drivers of community assembly.

  9. Seasonal bacterial community dynamics in a full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal plant.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Jason J; Cadkin, Tracey A; McMahon, Katherine D

    2013-12-01

    Activated sludge is one of the most abundant and effective wastewater treatment process used to treat wastewater, and has been used in developed countries for nearly a century. In all that time, several hundreds of studies have explored the bacterial communities responsible for treatment, but most studies were based on a handful of samples and did not consider temporal dynamics. In this study, we used the DNA fingerprinting technique called automated ribosomal intergenic spacer region analysis (ARISA) to study bacterial community dynamics over a two-year period in two different treatment trains. We also used quantitative PCR to measure the variation of five phylogenetically-defined clades within the Accumulibacter lineage, which is a model polyphosphate accumulating organism. The total bacterial community exhibited seasonal patterns of change reminiscent of those observed in lakes and oceans. Surprisingly, all five Accumulibacter clades were present throughout the study, and the total Accumulibacter community was relatively stable. However, the abundance of each clade did fluctuate through time. Clade IIA dynamics correlated positively with temperature (ρ = 0.65, p < 0.05) while Clade IA dynamics correlated negatively with temperature (ρ = -0.35, p < 0.05). This relationship with temperature hints at the mechanisms that may be driving the seasonal patterns in overall bacterial community dynamics and provides further evidence for ecological differentiation among clades within the Accumulibacter lineage. This work provides a valuable baseline for activated sludge bacterial community variation.

  10. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  11. Two Year Community: Exploring Student Engagement in an Introductory Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysne, Steven J.; Miller, Brant G.; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Successfully engaging students with a community college's introductory biology curriculum is a challenging endeavor. Students have numerous distractions competing with faculty for their attention. Traditional presentation of information may leave students longing for something more engaging to do, and the place where most college-level instruction…

  12. Hydrogeomorphology explains acidification-driven variation in aquatic biological communities in the Neversink Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harpold, Adrian A.; Burns, Douglas A.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2013-01-01

    Describing the distribution of aquatic habitats and the health of biological communities can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, simple, inexpensive methods to scale observations of aquatic biota to watersheds that lack data would be useful. In this study, we explored the potential of a simple “hydrogeomorphic” model to predict the effects of acid deposition on macroinvertebrate, fish, and diatom communities in 28 sub-watersheds of the 176-km2 Neversink River basin in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The empirical model was originally developed to predict stream-water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) using the watershed slope and drainage density. Because ANC is known to be strongly related to aquatic biological communities in the Neversink, we speculated that the model might correlate well with biotic indicators of ANC response. The hydrogeomorphic model was strongly correlated to several measures of macroinvertebrate and fish community richness and density, but less strongly correlated to diatom acid tolerance. The model was also strongly correlated to biological communities in 18 sub-watersheds independent of the model development, with the linear correlation capturing the strongly acidic nature of small upland watersheds (2). Overall, we demonstrated the applicability of geospatial data sets and a simple hydrogeomorphic model for estimating aquatic biological communities in areas with stream-water acidification, allowing estimates where no direct field observations are available. Similar modeling approaches have the potential to complement or refine expensive and time-consuming measurements of aquatic biota populations and to aid in regional assessments of aquatic health.

  13. Metagenomes obtained by 'deep sequencing' - what do they tell about the enhanced biological phosphorus removal communities?

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Mads; Saunders, Aaron M; Nielsen, Kåre L; Nielsen, Per H

    2013-01-01

    Metagenomics enables studies of the genomic potential of complex microbial communities by sequencing bulk genomic DNA directly from the environment. Knowledge of the genetic potential of a community can be used to formulate and test ecological hypotheses about stability and performance. In this study deep metagenomics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to study a full-scale wastewater treatment plant with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), and the results were compared to an existing EBPR metagenome. EBPR is a widely used process that relies on a complex community of microorganisms to function properly. Insight into community and species level stability and dynamics is valuable for knowledge-driven optimization of the EBPR process. The metagenomes of the EBPR communities were distinct compared to metagenomes of communities from a wide range of other environments, which could be attributed to selection pressures of the EBPR process. The metabolic potential of one of the key microorganisms in the EPBR process, Accumulibacter, was investigated in more detail in the two plants, revealing a potential importance of phage predation on the dynamics of Accumulibacter populations. The results demonstrate that metagenomics can be used as a powerful tool for system wide characterization of the EBPR community as well as for a deeper understanding of the function of specific community members. Furthermore, we discuss and illustrate some of the general pitfalls in metagenomics and stress the need of additional DNA extraction independent information in metagenome studies.

  14. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure.

  15. Marine protected communities against biological invasions: A case study from an offshore island.

    PubMed

    Gestoso, I; Ramalhosa, P; Oliveira, P; Canning-Clode, J

    2017-03-21

    Biological invasions are a major threat to the world's biota and are considered a major cause of biodiversity loss. Therefore, world marine policy has recognized the need for more marine protected areas (MPAs) as a major tool for biodiversity conservation. The present work experimentally evaluated how protected communities from an offshore island can face the settlement and/or expansion of nonindigenous species (NIS). First, NIS colonization success in marine protected and marina communities was compared by deploying PVC settling plates at the Garajau MPA and Funchal marina (SW Madeira Island). Then, the settling plates from the MPA were transferred to Funchal marina to test their resistance to NIS invasion under high levels of NIS pressure. Results indicated that the structure and composition of fouling communities from the MPA differed from those collected in the marina. Interestingly, communities from the protected area showed lower NIS colonization success, suggesting some degree of biotic resistance against NIS invasion.

  16. Impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil microfaunal community composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen are supplied by a variety of sources in the desert food web; both vascular and non-vascular plants and cyanobacteria supply carbon, and cyanobacteria and plant-associated rhizosphere bacteria are sources of biological nitrogen fixation. The objective of this study was to compare the relative influence of vascular plants and biological soil crusts on desert soil nematode and protozoan abundance and community composition. In the first experiment, biological soil crusts were removed by physical trampling. Treatments with crust removed had fewer nematodes and a greater relative ratio of bacterivores to microphytophages than treatments with intact crust. However, protozoa composition was similar with or without the presence of crusts. In a second experiment, nematode community composition was characterized along a spatial gradient away from stems of grasses or shrubs. Although nematodes generally occurred in increasing abundance nearer to plant stems, some genera (such as the enrichment-type Panagrolaimus) increased disproportionately more than others (such as the stress-tolerant Acromoldavicus). We propose that the impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil microfauna, as reflected in the community composition of microbivorous nematodes, is a combination of carbon input, microclimate amelioration, and altered soil hydrology. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.

  17. The Mexican-American Trial of Community Health workers (MATCH): Design and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing a culturally tailored community diabetes self-management intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Steven K.; Martin, Molly A.; Swider, Susan M.; Lynas, Carmen T.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been recommended to reduce diabetes disparities, but few robust trials of this approach have been conducted. Limitations of prior studies include: unspecified a priori outcomes; lack of blinded outcome assessments; high participant attrition rates; and lack of attention to intervention fidelity. These limitations reflect challenges in balancing methodologic rigor with the needs of vulnerable populations. The Mexican-American Trial of Community Health workers (MATCH) was a blinded randomized controlled trial testing CHW efficacy in improving physiologic outcomes and self-management behaviors among Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes. This paper describes methods used to overcome limitations of prior studies. Research Design and Methods The primary aim was to determine if a CHW intervention would result in significant reductions in Hemoglobin A1c and rates of uncontrolled blood pressure. 144 Mexican-Americans with diabetes were randomized. The intervention consisted of self-management training delivered by CHWs over a 24-month period; the comparison population received identical information via bilingual newsletter. Blinded research assistants completed assessments at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months post-randomization. Results The MATCH cohort was characterized by low acculturation and socioeconomic status. Study participants had low rates of medication adherence and glucose monitoring. 70% had poor glycemic control with A1c levels over 7.0, and 57.3% had blood pressures worse than ADA target levels (<130/80). Conclusions MATCH preserved community sensitivity and methodologic rigor. The study’s attention to intervention fidelity, behavioral attention control, blinded outcomes assessment, and strategies to enhance participant retention can be replicated by researchers testing culturally-tailored CHW interventions. PMID:22115970

  18. Towards BioDBcore: a community-defined information specification for biological databases

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Field, Dawn; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Taylor, Chris; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bateman, Alex; Blake, Judith A.; Bult, Carol J.; Cherry, J. Michael; Chisholm, Rex L.; Cochrane, Guy; Cook, Charles E.; Eppig, Janan T.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Gentleman, Robert; Goble, Carole A.; Gojobori, Takashi; Hancock, John M.; Howe, Douglas G.; Imanishi, Tadashi; Kelso, Janet; Landsman, David; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Mizrachi, Ilene Karsch; Orchard, Sandra; Ouellette, B. F. Francis; Ranganathan, Shoba; Richardson, Lorna; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Schofield, Paul N.; Smedley, Damian; Southan, Christopher; Tan, Tin Wee; Tatusova, Tatiana; Whetzel, Patricia L.; White, Owen; Yamasaki, Chisato

    2011-01-01

    The present article proposes the adoption of a community-defined, uniform, generic description of the core attributes of biological databases, BioDBCore. The goals of these attributes are to provide a general overview of the database landscape, to encourage consistency and interoperability between resources and to promote the use of semantic and syntactic standards. BioDBCore will make it easier for users to evaluate the scope and relevance of available resources. This new resource will increase the collective impact of the information present in biological databases. PMID:21097465

  19. Towards BioDBcore: a community-defined information specification for biological databases.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Field, Dawn; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Taylor, Chris; Attwood, Teresa K; Bateman, Alex; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Cherry, J Michael; Chisholm, Rex L; Cochrane, Guy; Cook, Charles E; Eppig, Janan T; Galperin, Michael Y; Gentleman, Robert; Goble, Carole A; Gojobori, Takashi; Hancock, John M; Howe, Douglas G; Imanishi, Tadashi; Kelso, Janet; Landsman, David; Lewis, Suzanna E; Mizrachi, Ilene Karsch; Orchard, Sandra; Ouellette, B F Francis; Ranganathan, Shoba; Richardson, Lorna; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Schofield, Paul N; Smedley, Damian; Southan, Christopher; Tan, Tin Wee; Tatusova, Tatiana; Whetzel, Patricia L; White, Owen; Yamasaki, Chisato

    2011-01-01

    The present article proposes the adoption of a community-defined, uniform, generic description of the core attributes of biological databases, BioDBCore. The goals of these attributes are to provide a general overview of the database landscape, to encourage consistency and interoperability between resources and to promote the use of semantic and syntactic standards. BioDBCore will make it easier for users to evaluate the scope and relevance of available resources. This new resource will increase the collective impact of the information present in biological databases.

  20. Science Identity's Influence on Community College Students' Engagement, Persistence, and Performance in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccitelli, Melinda

    In the United States (U.S.), student engagement, persistence, and academic performance levels in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs have been unsatisfactory over the last decade. Low student engagement, persistence, and academic performance in STEM disciplines have been identified as major obstacles to U.S. economic goals and U.S. science education objectives. The central and salient science identity a college student claims can influence his engagement, persistence, and academic achievement in college science. While science identity studies have been conducted on four-year college populations there is a gap in the literature concerning community college students' science identity and science performance. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between community college students claimed science identities and engagement, persistence, and academic performance. A census sample of 264 community college students enrolled in biology during the summer of 2015 was used to study this relationship. Science identity and engagement levels were calculated using the Science Identity Centrality Scale and the Biology Motivation Questionnaire II, respectively. Persistence and final grade data were collected from institutional and instructor records. Engagement significantly correlated to, r =.534, p = .01, and varied by science identity, p < .001. Percent final grade also varied by science identity (p < .005), but this relationship was weaker (r = .208, p = .01). Results for science identity and engagement and final grade were consistent with the identity literature. Persistence did not vary by science identity in this student sample (chi2 =2.815, p = .421). This result was inconsistent with the literature on science identity and persistence. Quantitative results from this study present a mixed picture of science identity status at the community college level. It is suggested, based on the findings

  1. Climate change and physical disturbance cause similar community shifts in biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts)—communities of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophs living at the soil surface—are fundamental components of drylands worldwide, and destruction of biocrusts dramatically alters biogeochemical processes, hydrology, surface energy balance, and vegetation cover. While there has been long-standing concern over impacts of 5 physical disturbances on biocrusts (e.g., trampling by livestock, damage from vehicles), there is also increasing concern over the potential for climate change to alter biocrust community structure. Using long-term data from the Colorado Plateau, USA, we examined the effects of 10 years of experimental warming and altered precipitation (in full-factorial design) on biocrust communities, and compared the effects of altered climate with those of long-term physical 10 disturbance (>10 years of replicated human trampling). Surprisingly, altered climate and physical disturbance treatments had similar effects on biocrust community structure. Warming, altered precipitation frequency [an increase of small (1.2 mm) summer rainfall events], and physical disturbance from trampling all promoted early successional community states marked by dramatic declines in moss cover and increased cyanobacteria cover, with more variable effects 15 on lichens. While the pace of community change varied significantly among treatments, our results suggest that multiple aspects of climate change will affect biocrusts to the same degree as physical disturbance. This is particularly disconcerting in the context of warming, as temperatures for drylands are projected to increase beyond those imposed by the climate treatments used in our study.

  2. Organizing Community-Based Data Standards: Lessons from Developing a Successful Open Standard in Systems Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hucka, M.

    2015-09-01

    In common with many fields, including astronomy, a vast number of software tools for computational modeling and simulation are available today in systems biology. This wealth of resources is a boon to researchers, but it also presents interoperability problems. Despite working with different software tools, researchers want to disseminate their work widely as well as reuse and extend the models of other researchers. This situation led in the year 2000 to an effort to create a tool-independent, machine-readable file format for representing models: SBML, the Systems Biology Markup Language. SBML has since become the de facto standard for its purpose. Its success and general approach has inspired and influenced other community-oriented standardization efforts in systems biology. Open standards are essential for the progress of science in all fields, but it is often difficult for academic researchers to organize successful community-based standards. I draw on personal experiences from the development of SBML and summarize some of the lessons learned, in the hope that this may be useful to other groups seeking to develop open standards in a community-oriented fashion.

  3. Integrated omics for the identification of key functionalities in biological wastewater treatment microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Narayanasamy, Shaman; Muller, Emilie E L; Sheik, Abdul R; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Biological wastewater treatment plants harbour diverse and complex microbial communities which prominently serve as models for microbial ecology and mixed culture biotechnological processes. Integrated omic analyses (combined metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics) are currently gaining momentum towards providing enhanced understanding of community structure, function and dynamics in situ as well as offering the potential to discover novel biological functionalities within the framework of Eco-Systems Biology. The integration of information from genome to metabolome allows the establishment of associations between genetic potential and final phenotype, a feature not realizable by only considering single 'omes'. Therefore, in our opinion, integrated omics will become the future standard for large-scale characterization of microbial consortia including those underpinning biological wastewater treatment processes. Systematically obtained time and space-resolved omic datasets will allow deconvolution of structure-function relationships by identifying key members and functions. Such knowledge will form the foundation for discovering novel genes on a much larger scale compared with previous efforts. In general, these insights will allow us to optimize microbial biotechnological processes either through better control of mixed culture processes or by use of more efficient enzymes in bioengineering applications.

  4. Impact of Substratum Surface on Microbial Community Structure and Treatment Performance in Biological Aerated Filters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lavane; Pagaling, Eulyn; Zuo, Yi Y.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of substratum surface property change on biofilm community structure was investigated using laboratory biological aerated filter (BAF) reactors and molecular microbial community analysis. Two substratum surfaces that differed in surface properties were created via surface coating and used to develop biofilms in test (modified surface) and control (original surface) BAF reactors. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the surface property change consistently resulted in distinct profiles of microbial populations during replicate reactor start-ups. Pyrosequencing of the bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons surveyed more than 90% of the microbial diversity in the microbial communities and identified 72 unique bacterial species within 19 bacterial orders. Among the 19 orders of bacteria detected, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales of the Betaproteobacteria class were numerically dominant and accounted for 90.5 to 97.4% of the sequence reads, and their relative abundances in the test and control BAF reactors were different in consistent patterns during the two reactor start-ups. Three of the five dominant bacterial species also showed consistent relative abundance changes between the test and control BAF reactors. The different biofilm microbial communities led to different treatment efficiencies, with consistently higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the test reactor than in the control reactor. Further understanding of how surface properties affect biofilm microbial communities and functional performance would enable the rational design of new generations of substrata for the improvement of biofilm-based biological treatment processes. PMID:24141134

  5. Community Structure Reveals Biologically Functional Modules in MEF2C Transcriptional Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Corona, Sergio A.; Velázquez-Caldelas, Tadeo E.; Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks are useful to understand the activity behind the complex mechanisms in transcriptional regulation. A main goal in contemporary biology is using such networks to understand the systemic regulation of gene expression. In this work, we carried out a systematic study of a transcriptional regulatory network derived from a comprehensive selection of all potential transcription factor interactions downstream from MEF2C, a human transcription factor master regulator. By analyzing the connectivity structure of such network, we were able to find different biologically functional processes and specific biochemical pathways statistically enriched in communities of genes into the network, such processes are related to cell signaling, cell cycle and metabolism. In this way we further support the hypothesis that structural properties of biological networks encode an important part of their functional behavior in eukaryotic cells. PMID:27252657

  6. An eQTL biological data visualization challenge and approaches from the visualization community.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Christopher W; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Hou, Liping; Paquette, Jesse; Lum, Pek Yee; Jäger, Günter; Battke, Florian; Vehlow, Corinna; Heinrich, Julian; Nieselt, Kay; Sakai, Ryo; Aerts, Jan; Ray, William C

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the IEEE VisWeek conferences inaugurated a symposium on Biological Data Visualization. Like other domain-oriented Vis symposia, this symposium's purpose was to explore the unique characteristics and requirements of visualization within the domain, and to enhance both the Visualization and Bio/Life-Sciences communities by pushing Biological data sets and domain understanding into the Visualization community, and well-informed Visualization solutions back to the Biological community. Amongst several other activities, the BioVis symposium created a data analysis and visualization contest. Unlike many contests in other venues, where the purpose is primarily to allow entrants to demonstrate tour-de-force programming skills on sample problems with known solutions, the BioVis contest was intended to whet the participants' appetites for a tremendously challenging biological domain, and simultaneously produce viable tools for a biological grand challenge domain with no extant solutions. For this purpose expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) data analysis was selected. In the BioVis 2011 contest, we provided contestants with a synthetic eQTL data set containing real biological variation, as well as a spiked-in gene expression interaction network influenced by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA variation and a hypothetical disease model. Contestants were asked to elucidate the pattern of SNPs and interactions that predicted an individual's disease state. 9 teams competed in the contest using a mixture of methods, some analytical and others through visual exploratory methods. Independent panels of visualization and biological experts judged entries. Awards were given for each panel's favorite entry, and an overall best entry agreed upon by both panels. Three special mention awards were given for particularly innovative and useful aspects of those entries. And further recognition was given to entries that correctly answered a bonus question about how a

  7. Biological soil crusts from arctic environments: characterization of the prokaryotic community and exopolysaccharidic matrix analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, Gianmarco; Ventura, Stefano; Mascalchi, Cristina; Rossi, Federico; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are highly specialized topsoil microbial communities widespread in many ecosystems, from deserts to polar regions. BSCs play an active role in promoting soil fertility and plant growth. In Arctic environments BSCs are involved in promoting primary succession after deglaciation, increasing moisture availability and nutrient immission at the topsoil. The organisms residing on BSCs produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in response to the environmental characteristics, thus contributing to the increase of constraint tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities, together with the analysis of the chemical features of EPS, from BSC samples collected in several sites near Ny-Ǻlesund, Norway. The phylogenetic composition of the prokaryotic community was assessed through a metagenomic approach. Exopolysaccharidic fractions were quantified using ion-exchange chromatography to determine the monosaccharidic composition. Size exclusion chromatography was used to determine the distribution of the EPS fractions. Abundance of phototrophic microorganisms, which are known to contribute to EPS excretion, was also evaluated. Results underlined the complexity of the microbial communities, showing a high level of diversity within the BSC sampled analyzed. The analysis of the polysaccharide composition displayed a high number of constituent sugars; the matrix was found to be constituted by two main fractions, a higher molecular weight (2 10 exp(6) Da) and a lower molecular weight fraction (< 100 10 exp(3) Da). This study presents novel data concerning EPS of BSCs matrix in relationship with the microbial communities in cold environments.

  8. Self-optimization, community stability, and fluctuations in two individual-based models of biological coevolution.

    PubMed

    Rikvold, Per Arne

    2007-11-01

    We compare and contrast the long-time dynamical properties of two individual-based models of biological coevolution. Selection occurs via multispecies, stochastic population dynamics with reproduction probabilities that depend nonlinearly on the population densities of all species resident in the community. New species are introduced through mutation. Both models are amenable to exact linear stability analysis, and we compare the analytic results with large-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, obtaining the population size as a function of an average interspecies interaction strength. Over time, the models self-optimize through mutation and selection to approximately maximize a community potential function, subject only to constraints internal to the particular model. If the interspecies interactions are randomly distributed on an interval including positive values, the system evolves toward self-sustaining, mutualistic communities. In contrast, for the predator-prey case the matrix of interactions is antisymmetric, and a nonzero population size must be sustained by an external resource. Time series of the diversity and population size for both models show approximate 1/f noise and power-law distributions for the lifetimes of communities and species. For the mutualistic model, these two lifetime distributions have the same exponent, while their exponents are different for the predator-prey model. The difference is probably due to greater resilience toward mass extinctions in the food-web like communities produced by the predator-prey model.

  9. Quantifying biological integrity of California sage scrub communities using plant life-form cover.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Y.; Stow, D. A.; Franklin, J.

    2010-01-01

    The California sage scrub (CSS) community type in California's Mediterranean-type ecosystems supports a large number of rare, threatened, and endangered species, and is critically degraded and endangered. Monitoring ecological variables that provide information about community integrity is vital to conserving these biologically diverse communities. Fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground should fill information gaps between generalized vegetation type maps and detailed field-based plot measurements of species composition and provide an effective means for quantifying CSS community integrity. Remote sensing is the only tool available for estimating spatially comprehensive fractional cover over large extent, and fractional cover of plant life-form types is one of the measures of vegetation state that is most amenable to remote sensing. The use of remote sensing does not eliminate the need for either field surveying or vegetation type mapping; rather it will likely require a combination of approaches to reliably estimate life-form cover and to provide comprehensive information for communities. According to our review and synthesis, life-form fractional cover has strong potential for providing ecologically meaningful intermediate-scale information, which is unattainable from vegetation type maps and species-level field measurements. Thus, we strongly recommend incorporating fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herb, and bare ground in CSS community monitoring methods. Estimating life-form cover at a 25 m x 25 m spatial scale using remote sensing would be an appropriate approach for initial implementation. Investigation of remote sensing techniques and an appropriate spatial scale; collaboration of resource managers, biologists, and remote sensing specialists, and refinement of protocols are essential for integrating life-form fractional cover mapping into strategies for sustainable long-term CSS community management.

  10. Baseline assessment of instream and riparian-zone biological resources on the Rio Grande in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, James Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Five study sites, and a sampling reach within each site, were established on the Rio Grande in and near Big Bend National Park in 1999 to provide the National Park Service with data and information on the status of stream habitat, fish communities, and benthic macroinvertebrates. Differences in stream-habitat conditions and riparian vegetation reflect differences in surface geology among the five sampling reaches. In the most upstream reach, Colorado Canyon, where igneous rock predominates, streambed material is larger; and riparian vegetation is less diverse and not as dense as in the four other, mostly limestone reaches. Eighteen species of fish and a total of 474 individuals were collected among the five reaches; 348 of the 474 were minnows. The most fish species (15) were collected at the Santa Elena reach and the fewest species (9) at the Colorado Canyon and Johnson Ranch reaches. The fish community at Colorado Canyon was least like the fish communities at the four other reaches. Fish trophic structure reflected fish-community structure among the five reaches. Invertivores made up at least 60 percent of the trophic structure at all reaches except Colorado Canyon. Piscivores dominated the trophic structure at Colorado Canyon. At the four other reaches, piscivores were the smallest trophic group. Eighty percent of the benthic macroinvertebrate taxa collected were aquatic insects. Two species of blackfly were the most frequently collected invertebrate taxon. Net-spinning caddisflies were common at all reaches except Santa Elena. The aquatic-insect community at the Boquillas reach was least similar to the aquatic-insect community at the other reaches.

  11. Effects of anthropogenic salinization on biological traits and community composition of stream macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Szöcs, Eduard; Coring, Eckhard; Bäthe, Jürgen; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2014-01-15

    Salinization of rivers resulting from industrial discharge or road-deicing can adversely affect macroinvertebrates. Trait-based approaches are a promising tool in ecological monitoring and may perform better than taxonomy-based approaches. However only little is known how and which biological traits are affected by salinization. We investigated the effects of anthropogenic salinization on macroinvertebrate communities and biological traits in the Werra River, Germany and compared the taxonomic and trait response. We found a change in macroinvertebrate community and trait composition. Communities at saline sites were characterized by the three exotic species Gammarus tigrinus, Apocorophium lacustre and Potamopyrgus antipodarum. The frequencies of trait modalities long life cycle duration, respiration by gill, ovoviviparity, shredder and multivoltinism were statistically significantly increased at saline sites. The trait-based ordination resulted in a higher explained variance than the taxonomy-based ordination, indicating a better performance of the trait-based approach, resulting in a better discrimination between saline and non-saline sites. Our results are in general agreement with other studies from Europe, indicating a trait convergence for saline streams, being dominated by the traits ovoviviparity and multivoltinism. Three further traits (respiration by gill, life cycle duration and shredders) responded strongly to salinization, but this may primarily be attributed to the dominance of a single invasive species, G. tigrinus, at the saline sites in the Werra River.

  12. Comparative metagenomics reveals microbial community differentiation in a biological heap leaching system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi; Guo, Xue; Liang, Yili; Hao, Xiaodong; Ma, Liyuan; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-01-01

    The microbial community in a biological heap leaching (BHL) system is crucial for the decomposition of ores. However, the microbial community structure and functional differentiation in different parts of a biological heap leaching system are still unknown. In this study, metagenomic sequencing was used to fully illuminate the microbial community differentiation in the pregnant leach solution (PLS) and leaching heap (LH) of a BHL system. Long-read sequences (1.3 million) were obtained for the two samples, and the MG_RAST server was used to perform further analysis. The taxa analysis results indicated that the dominant genera of PLS is autotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus, but heterotrophic bacterium Acidiphilium is predominant in LH. Furthermore, functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different reference samples showed that the abundant presence of genes was involved in transposition, DNA repair and heavy metal transport. The sequences related to transposase, which is important for the survival of the organism in the hostile environment, were both mainly classified into Acidiphilium for PLS and LH. These results indicated that not only autotrophic bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus, but also heterotrophic bacteria such as Acidiphilium, were essential participants in the bioleaching process. This new meta-view research will further facilitate the effective application of bioleaching.

  13. Impact of roadside ditch dredging on bacterial communities and biological contamination of a tidal creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Chance E.; Barkovskii, Andrei L.

    2017-03-01

    Tidal creek networks form the primary hydrologic link between estuaries and land-based activities on barrier islands. A possible impact from the excavation of drainage ditch systems on bacterial communities and biological contamination was studied in the water column and sediments of headwater, mid-stream, and mouth sites of the intertidal Oakdale Creek on Sapelo Island, GA. Community analysis was performed using the MiSeq Illumina platform and revealed that dredging was the cause of a significant rise in Proteobacteria, especially γ-proteobacteria. Targeted biological contaminants included fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus spp. (Entero-1), pathogens, Shigella spp. (ipaH), and Salmonella spp (invA), virulence associated genes (VG's) of pathogenic E. coli (eaeA, hlyD, stx1, stx2, and set1B), integrons (intI1, intI2), and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs). Incidence and gene concentrations of Shigella spp., eaeA and set1B, and of TRGs increased 3-20 folds after the onset of dredging, and followed the dredging schedule. Principal Component Analysis suggested possible common carriers for Shigella spp., some TRGs, and the pathogenic E. coli eaeA gene. At the site of dredging, all of the above contaminants were detected at high concentrations. We concluded that excavation of roadside ditches caused significant changes in bacterial composition and a rise in incidence and concentrations of biological contaminants in the creek. The authors suggest a different approach for the maintenance of this material be explored.

  14. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations.

  15. Breeding biology of an afrotropical forest understory bird community in northeastern Tanzania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mkongewa, Victor J.; Newmark, William D.; Stanley, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of the breeding biology of Afrotropical forest birds are poorly known. Here we provide a description based on the monitoring of 1461 active nests over eight breeding seasons about one or more aspects of the breeding biology for 28 coexisting understory bird species on the Amani Plateau in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Mean nest height and mean distance of nest from forest edge varied widely among species with most species constructing nests across a broad vertical and forest edge to interior gradient. However, there were important exceptions with all sunbird species and several dove and waxbill species constructing nests in close proximity to the forest edge. For 17 common species for which we recorded two or more active nests, mean clutch size across species was 1.9 eggs per clutch, the lowest site-specific mean clutch size yet reported for a tropical forest bird community. For nine bird species, a subset of the 17 common species, length of breeding season, defined as the difference between the earliest and latest recorded incubation onset date, ranged from 88–139 days. Most of these nine species displayed a unimodal distribution in incubation onset dates across a breeding season which extended from the end of August through middle January. In summary, a wide variation exists in most aspects of the breeding biology within an understory forest bird community in the East Usambara Mountains.

  16. [Effects of biological organic fertilizer on microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Gu, Jie; Hu, Ting; Gao, Hua; Chen, Zhi-Xue; Qin, Qing-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Zhashui County of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China in 2011 to study the effects of biological organic fertilizer on the microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Three treatments were installed, i. e., control, compound fertilizer, and biological organic fertilizer. Soil samples were collected at harvest, and the metabolic activity was tested by Biolog method. In the treatment of biological organic fertilizer, the average well color development, Shannon evenness, richness, and McIntosh indices of microbial community were all significantly higher than the other two treatments. As compared with the control, applying biological organic fertilizer improved the ability of soil microbes in utilizing the carbon sources of carbohydrates and polymers, while applying compound fertilizer was in opposite. The principal component analysis demonstrated that there was an obvious difference in the soil microbial community among different treatments, mainly depending on the species of carbohydrates and amino acids.

  17. Using molecular biology to study mycorrhizal fungal community ecology: Limits and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chagnon, Pierre-Luc; Bainard, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    Molecular tools have progressively replaced morphological approaches to characterize microbial communities in nature. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are no exception to this rule. Yet, one challenge posed by these symbionts is that they colonize simultaneously both plant roots and soil, which complicates their detection and quantification. In most studies conducted to date, AM fungal communities have been characterized from roots only, soil only or spores only. Here, we discuss the pitfalls associated to drawing ecological inferences using such datasets. We also conclude by arguing that molecular biology will contribute most to advance knowledge in AM fungal ecology if it is integrated into broader perspectives taking into account the natural history of these organisms. This calls for a better merging of molecular and morphological approaches, and the establishment of intensive, long-term research programs.

  18. Geochemistry of the Tenryu Canyon deep-sea fan biological community (Kaiko)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dron, Dominique; Boulègue, Jacques; Taira, Asahiko; Rangin, Claude

    1987-05-01

    The Tenryu Canyon deep-sea fan biological community is characterized by both reduced and oxidized sediments in the immediate vicinity of the pore water vents. The upper sediments in contact with the clams are reduced, the organic matter is enriched in sulfur, and inorganic sulfides (Fe, Cu, Zn) are forming. Towards the outer fringes of the communities the sediment is oxidized and metals generally associated with ferro-manganese oxides are concentrated. Several metals, Cd, Pb, Mo show distributions which are strongly influenced by the metabolism of the clam colony. Comparison of water and sediment geochemistry leads to the conclusion that there should be a downward flux of oxygenated seawater on the boundaries of the colony and an upward flux of chemically more reduced deep pore water at the location of the colony. Trace metals anomalies as well asδ 15N anomalies of organic matter may be useful to prospect for extinct venting areas in ancient subduction zones.

  19. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  20. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B. H.

    2016-05-01

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions.

  1. Climate change and physical disturbance manipulations result in distinct biological soil crust communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Blaire; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) colonize plant interspaces in many drylands and are critical to soil nutrient cycling. Multiple climate change and land use factors have been shown to detrimentally impact biocrusts on a macroscopic (i.e., visual) scale. However, the impact of these perturbations on the bacterial components of the biocrusts remain poorly understood. We employed multiple long-term field experiments to assess the impacts of chronic physical (foot trampling) and climatic changes (2 °C soil warming, altered summer precipitation (wetting), and combined warming and wetting) on biocrust bacterial biomass, composition, and metabolic profile. The biocrust bacterial communities adopted distinct states based on the mechanism of disturbance. Chronic trampling decreased biomass and caused small community compositional change. Soil warming had little effect on biocrust biomass or composition, while wetting resulted in an increase in cyanobacterial biomass and altered bacterial composition. Warming combined with wetting dramatically altered bacterial composition and decreased cyanobacteria abundance. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing identified four functional gene categories that differed in relative abundance among the manipulations, suggesting that climate and land use changes affected soil bacterial functional potential. This study illustrates that different types of biocrust disturbance damage biocrusts in macroscopically similar ways, but they differentially impact the resident soil bacterial communities and the community functional profile can differ depending on the disturbance type. Therefore, the nature of the perturbation and the microbial response are important considerations for management and restoration of drylands.

  2. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions. PMID:27193869

  3. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B H

    2016-05-19

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions.

  4. The epidemiology and population biology of Necator americanus infection in a rural community in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M; Chandiwana, S K; Bundy, D A; Medley, G F

    1992-01-01

    Baseline data from an epidemiological study of hookworm infection in a rural community in Zimbabwe are presented. The infection status of an age-stratified sample of the community was assessed using anthelmintic expulsion techniques. Necator americanus was the only helminth parasite found to be present. The age-prevalence and intensity profiles rose asymptotically to an adult prevalence of about 80% and adult mean burden of 7.7 worms per host. The overall mean burden was 4.8 worms per host. The frequency distribution of N. americanus was overdispersed and well described by the negative binomial distribution with a value for the aggregation parameter, k, of 0.346. Separate estimates of k were lower in males and older hosts. The distribution patterns were difficult to reconcile with any simple process of age-dependent acquisition of an effective immune response. A significant negative correlation was recorded between per caput fecundity and worm burden, providing evidence for a density-dependent regulation of female worm fecundity. The basic reproductive rate (R0 congruent to 2) was found to be similar to estimates from other geographical areas.

  5. Edge effects in the primate community of the biological dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Bryan B; Jack, Katharine M; Spironello, Wilson R

    2014-11-01

    While much is known about abiotic and vegetative edge effects in tropical forests, considerably less is known about the impact of forest edges on large mammals. In this study, we examine edge effects in a primate community to determine: 1) the distance from the edge over which edge effects in primate density are detectable, 2) whether individual species exhibit edge effects in their density, and 3) whether biological characteristics can be used to predict primate presence in edge habitats. Given their importance to many primate species, we also examine the influence of the number of large trees. We found edge penetration distances of 150 m for the five species that experienced edge effects, suggesting that primates respond to edge-related changes in the plant community that are known to be strongest over the first 150 m. Four species had higher edge densities: Alouatta macconnelli (folivore-frugivore), Chiropotes chiropotes (frugivorous seed predator), Saguinus midas (frugivore-faunivore), and Sapajus apella apella (frugivore-faunivore); one species' density was lower: Ateles paniscus (frugivore); and the final species, Pithecia chrysocephala (frugivorous seed predator), did not show an edge-related pattern. The lone significant relationship between the biological characteristics examined (body weight, diet, group size, and home range size) and primate presence in edge habitats was a negative relationship with the amount of fruit consumed. Though we did not examine primate responses to edges that border a denuded matrix, we have shown that edges influence primate distribution even following decades of secondary forest regeneration at habitat edges.

  6. Microbial communities involved in biological ammonium removal from coal combustion wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Fisher, L Suzanne; Brodie, Greg A; Phelps, Tommy J

    2013-07-01

    The efficiency of a novel integrated treatment system for biological removal of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and heavy metals from fossil power plant effluent was evaluated. Microbial communities were analyzed using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (Sanger sequences) and 454 pyrosequencing technology. While seasonal changes in microbial community composition were observed, the significant (P = 0.001) changes in bacterial and archaeal communities were consistent with variations in ammonium concentration. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed an increase of potential ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, Planctomycetes, and OD1, in samples with elevated ammonium concentration. Other bacteria, such as Nitrospira, Nitrococcus, Nitrobacter, Thiobacillus, ε-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Acidobacteria, which play roles in nitrification and denitrification, were also detected. The AOB oxidized 56 % of the ammonium with the concomitant increase in nitrite and ultimately nitrate in the trickling filters at the beginning of the treatment system. Thermoprotei within the phylum Crenarchaeota thrived in the splitter box and especially in zero-valent iron extraction trenches, where an additional 25 % of the ammonium was removed. The potential ammonium-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) (Candidatus Nitrosocaldus) were detected towards the downstream end of the treatment system. The design of an integrated treatment system consisting of trickling filters, zero-valent iron reaction cells, settling pond, and anaerobic wetlands was efficient for the biological removal of ammonium and several other contaminants from wastewater generated at a coal burning power plant equipped with selective catalytic reducers for nitrogen oxide removal.

  7. Chemical, mineralogical and molecular biological characterization of the rocks and fluids from a natural gas storage deep reservoir as a baseline for the effects of geological hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Kasina, Monika; Weigt, Jennifer; Merten, Dirk; Pudlo, Dieter; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Planned transition to renewable energy production from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation brings the necessity for large scale energy storage capacities. One possibility to store excessive energy produced is to transfer it to chemical forms like hydrogen which can be subsequently injected and stored in subsurface porous rock formations like depleted gas reservoirs and presently used gas storage sites. In order to investigate the feasibility of the hydrogen storage in the subsurface, the collaborative project H2STORE ("hydrogen to store") was initiated. In the scope of this project, potential reactions between microorganism, fluids and rocks induced by hydrogen injection are studied. For the long-term experiments, fluids of natural gas storage are incubated together with rock cores in the high pressure vessels under 40 bar pressure and 40° C temperature with an atmosphere containing 5.8% He as a tracer gas, 3.9% H2 and 90.3% N2. The reservoir is located at a depth of about 2 000 m, and is characterized by a salinity of 88.9 g l-1 NaCl and a temperature of 80° C and therefore represents an extreme environment for microbial life. First geochemical analyses showed a relatively high TOC content of the fluids (about 120 mg l-1) that were also rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Remarkable amounts of heavy metals like zinc and strontium were also detected. XRD analyses of the reservoir sandstones revealed the major components: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, anhydrite and analcime. The sandstones were intercalated by mudstones, consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, analcime, chlorite, mica and carbonates. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes was applied to characterize the microbial community composition by PCR-SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results indicate the presence of microorganisms belonging to the phylotypes alfa-, beta- and gamma

  8. A comparative study of the bacterial community in denitrifying and traditional enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Shao, Ming-Fei; Li, Chao-Lin; Li, Ji; Gao, Xin-Lei; Sun, Fei-Yun

    2014-09-17

    Denitrifying phosphorus removal is an attractive wastewater treatment process due to its reduced carbon source demand and sludge minimization potential. Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated in alternating anaerobic-anoxic (A-A) or anaerobic-oxic (A-O) conditions to achieve denitrifying enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) and traditional EBPR. No significant differences were observed in phosphorus removal efficiencies between A-A SBR and A-O SBR, with phosphorus removal rates being 87.9% and 89.0% respectively. The community structures in denitrifying and traditional EBPR processes were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of the PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes from each sludge. The results obtained showed that the bacterial community was more diverse in A-O sludge than in A-A sludge. Taxonomy and β-diversity analyses indicated that a significant shift occurred in the dominant microbial community in A-A sludge compared with the seed sludge during the whole acclimation phase, while a slight fluctuation was observed in the abundance of the major taxonomies in A-O sludge. One Dechloromonas-related OTU outside the 4 known Candidatus "Accumulibacter" clades was detected as the main OTU in A-A sludge at the stationary operation, while Candidatus "Accumulibacter" dominated in A-O sludge.

  9. Baseline autoantibodies preferentially impact abatacept efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are biologic naïve: 6-month results from a real-world, international, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nüßlein, Hubert G; Mariette, Xavier; Galeazzi, Mauro; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Cantagrel, Alain; Chartier, Melanie; Poncet, Coralie; Rauch, Christiane; Le Bars, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the impact of baseline rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) status on the clinical efficacy of intravenous abatacept in biologic-naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) enrolled in the real-world ACTION study. Methods Clinical outcomes (European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response, mean Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Boolean remission) at 6 months were compared by baseline RF and anti-CCP status. Results Of 672 biologic-naïve patients, RF status was reported in 577 (86%) (412 (71%) positive) and anti-CCP status in 552 (82%) (364 (66%) positive); of 511 patients for whom data were available, 308/511 (60%) were double positive and 127/511 (25%) were double negative. Clinical outcomes were improved with RF-positive or anti-CCP-positive versus RF-negative/anti-CCP-negative status—good or moderate EULAR response: RF: 84.6 vs 72.9%, p=0.012; anti-CCP: 85.2 vs 74.2%, p=0.015; mean CDAI (calculated): RF: 10.8 vs 15.3, p<0.001; anti-CCP: 10.9 vs 14.3, p=0.002; and Boolean remission: RF: 13.3 vs 4.0%, p=0.008; anti-CCP: 12.5 vs 6.3%, p=0.096. Clinical outcomes were also improved with single or double RF-positive/anti-CCP-positive versus double-negative status. Conclusions In biologic-naïve patients with RA, RF-positive and/or anti-CCP-positive status is associated with greater efficacy of intravenous abatacept than seronegative status. Trial registration number NCT02109666. PMID:28243468

  10. Baseline levels of bioaerosols and volatile organic compounds around a municipal waste incinerator prior to the construction of a mechanical-biological treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Marti; Inza, Isabel; Figueras, Maria J.; Domingo, Jose L.

    2009-09-15

    New waste management programs are currently aimed at developing alternative treatment technologies such as mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) and composting plants. However, there is still a high uncertainty concerning the chemical and microbiological risks for human health, not only for workers of these facilities, but also for the population living in the neighborhood. A new MBT plant is planned to be constructed adjacently to a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). In order to evaluate its potential impact and to differentiate the impacts of MSWI from those of the MBT when the latter is operative, a pre-operational survey was initiated by determining the concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols (total bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus) in airborne samples around the MSWI. The results indicated that the current concentrations of bioaerosols (ranges: 382-3882, 18-790, 44-926, and <1-7 CFU/m{sup 3} for fungi at 25 deg. C, fungi at 37 deg. C, total bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively) and VOCs (ranging from 0.9 to 121.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) are very low in comparison to reported levels in indoor and outdoor air in composting and MBT plants, as well in urban and industrial zones. With the exception of total bacteria, no correlations were observed between the environmental concentrations of biological agents and the direction/distance from the facility. However, total bacteria presented significantly higher levels downwind. Moreover, a non-significant increase of VOCs was detected in sites closer to the incinerator, which means that the MSWI could have a very minor impact on the surrounding environment.

  11. Trait-Based Representation of Biological Nitrification: Model Development, Testing, and Predicted Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Tang, Jinyun; Riley, William J.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2012-01-01

    Trait-based microbial models show clear promise as tools to represent the diversity and activity of microorganisms across ecosystem gradients. These models parameterize specific traits that determine the relative fitness of an “organism” in a given environment, and represent the complexity of biological systems across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we introduce a microbial community trait-based modeling framework (MicroTrait) focused on nitrification (MicroTrait-N) that represents the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) using traits related to enzyme kinetics and physiological properties. We used this model to predict nitrifier diversity, ammonia (NH3) oxidation rates, and nitrous oxide (N2O) production across pH, temperature, and substrate gradients. Predicted nitrifier diversity was predominantly determined by temperature and substrate availability, the latter was strongly influenced by pH. The model predicted that transient N2O production rates are maximized by a decoupling of the AOB and NOB communities, resulting in an accumulation and detoxification of nitrite to N2O by AOB. However, cumulative N2O production (over 6 month simulations) is maximized in a system where the relationship between AOB and NOB is maintained. When the reactions uncouple, the AOB become unstable and biomass declines rapidly, resulting in decreased NH3 oxidation and N2O production. We evaluated this model against site level chemical datasets from the interior of Alaska and accurately simulated NH3 oxidation rates and the relative ratio of AOA:AOB biomass. The predicted community structure and activity indicate (a) parameterization of a small number of traits may be sufficient to broadly characterize nitrifying community structure and (b) changing decadal trends in climate and edaphic conditions could impact nitrification rates in ways that are not captured by extant biogeochemical models. PMID

  12. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wallace M.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B.; Brantley, Sandra L.; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E.; Hall, W. Eugene; Olson, Carl A.; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M.; Brusca, Richard C.; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11–25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  13. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  14. The perspectives of nonscience-major students on success in community college biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim-Rajab, Oriana Sharon

    With more than 36% of nonscience-major community college students unable to successfully complete their general life science courses, graduation and transfer rates to four-year universities are negatively affected. Many students also miss important opportunities to gain some level of science proficiency. In an effort to address the problem of poor science achievement, this research project determined which factors were most significantly related to student success in a community college biology course. It also aimed to understand the student perspectives on which modifications to the course would best help them in the pursuit of success. Drawing heavily on the educational psychology schools of thought on motivation and self-efficacy of science learning, this study surveyed and interviewed students on their perceptions of which factors were related to success in biology and the changes they believed were needed in the course structure to improve success. The data revealed that the primary factors related to student success are the students' study skills and their perceived levels of self-efficacy. The findings also uncovered the critical nature of the professor's role in influencing the success of the students. After assessing the needs of the community college population, meaningful and appropriate curriculum and pedagogical reforms could be created to improve student learning outcomes. This study offered recommendations for reforms that can be used by science practitioners to provide a more nurturing and inspiring environment for all students. These suggestions revolved around the role of the instructor in influencing the self-efficacy and study skills of students. Providing more opportunities for students to interact in class, testing more frequently, establishing peer assistance programs, managing better the course material, and making themselves more available to students were at the forefront of the list. Examples of the potential benefits of increasing

  15. Baseline surveys to detect trophic changes in shallow hard-bottom communities induced by the Dry Tortugas National Park Research Natural Area: Chapter 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Paul, Valerie J.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Hickey, T. Don; Walters, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    A study was initiated to examine the potential impacts of reduced abundance of exploited reef fish species on herbivores, macroalgae, and corals. Surveys were performed inside and outside of the RNA to characterize relationships between different trophic level organisms inhabiting the coral reef ecosystem. No significant differences in the abundance of herbivorous fish and urchins or in the abundance of exploited fish species in the shallow, lowrelief hard-bottom communities were observed inside vs. outside the RNA. Evaluating and understanding trophic changes that may occur related to the RNA will require a long-term research and monitoring effort. Future surveys will be necessary to determine if changes have occurred in the proportions of major coral reef ecosystem components and to help determine if the implementation of the RNA results in balanced benthic communities at DRTO.

  16. Estimating the Effects of Habitat and Biological Interactions in an Avian Community

    PubMed Central

    Dorazio, Robert M.; Connor, Edward F.; Askins, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)) that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus), House Wren (Troglodytes aedon), Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina), and Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)) that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we suspect that

  17. Estimating the Effects of Habitat and Biological Interactions in an Avian Community.

    PubMed

    Dorazio, Robert M; Connor, Edward F; Askins, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)) that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus), House Wren (Troglodytes aedon), Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina), and Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)) that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we suspect that

  18. Estimating the effects of habitat and biological interactions in an avian community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, Robert M.; Connor, Edward F.; Askins, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow and Red-winged Blackbird) that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo, House Wren, Hooded Warbler, and Prairie Warbler) that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we suspect that the correlations may have been associated with species-specific responses to habitat components not adequately measured by

  19. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek have been increasing in recent years. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the water quality and biological communities in Fish Creek. Water-quality samples were collected for analyses of physical properties and water chemistry (nutrients, nitrate isotopes, and wastewater chemicals) between March 2007 and October 2008 from seven surface-water sites and three groundwater wells. During this same period, aquatic plant and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and habitat characteristics were measured at the surface-water sites. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate nutrient concentrations (that influence biological indicators of eutrophication) and potential sources of nutrients by using stable isotope analysis and other indicator chemicals (such as caffeine and disinfectants) that could provide evidence of anthropogenic sources, such as wastewater or septic tank contamination in Fish Creek and adjacent groundwater, and (2) characterize the algal, macrophyte, and macroinvertebrate communities and habitat of Fish Creek. Nitrate was the dominant species of dissolved nitrogen present in all samples and was the only bioavailable species detected at concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level in all surface-water samples. Average concentrations of dissolved nitrate in surface water were largest in samples collected from the two sites with seasonal flow near Teton Village and decreased downstream; the smallest concentration was at downstream site A-Wck. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in groundwater were consistently greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event

  20. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) as a model system in community, landscape and ecosystem ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Eldridge, David; Belnap, Jayne; Castillo-Monroy, Andrea; Escolar, Cristina; Soliveres, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Model systems have had a profound influence on the development of ecological theory and general principles. Compared to alternatives, the most effective models share some combination of the following characteristics: simpler, smaller, faster, general, idiosyncratic or manipulable. We argue that biological soil crusts (biocrusts) have unique combinations of these features that should be more widely exploited in community, landscape and ecosystem ecology. In community ecology, biocrusts are elucidating the importance of biodiversity and spatial pattern for maintaining ecosystem multifunctionality due to their manipulability in experiments. Due to idiosyncrasies in their modes of facilitation and competition, biocrusts have led to new models on the interplay between environmental stress and biotic interactions and on the maintenance of biodiversity by competitive processes. Biocrusts are perhaps one of the best examples of micro-landscapes—real landscapes that are small in size. Although they exhibit varying patch heterogeneity, aggregation, connectivity and fragmentation, like macro-landscapes, they are also compatible with well-replicated experiments (unlike macro-landscapes). In ecosystem ecology, a number of studies are imposing small-scale, low cost manipulations of global change or state factors in biocrust micro-landscapes. The versatility of biocrusts to inform such disparate lines of inquiry suggests that they are an especially useful model system that can enable researchers to see ecological principles more clearly and quickly.

  1. Microbial community analysis involved in the aerobic/extended-idle process performing biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tian-jing; Yang, Guo-jing; Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that biological phosphorus removal can be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process using both glucose and acetate as the sole substrate. However, the microbial consortiums involved in glucose-fed and acetate-fed systems have not yet been characterized. Thus the aims of this paper were to investigate the diversities and dynamics of bacterial communities during the acclimation period, and to quantify polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in the systems. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the microbial communities were mainly composed of phylum Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi and another six kinds of unclassified bacteria. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that PAOs and GAOs accounted for 43 ± 7 and 16 ± 3% of all bacteria in the glucose-fed system, and 19 ± 4 and 35 ± 5% of total bacteria in the acetate-fed system, respectively. The results showed that the conventional PAOs could thrive in the AEI process, and a defined anaerobic zone was not necessarily required for putative PAOs growth.

  2. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity. PMID:22170425

  3. Biological soil crusts across disturbance-recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

  4. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of 'Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity.

  5. Learning style and concept acquisition of community college students in introductory biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobick, Sandra Burin

    This study investigated the influence of learning style on concept acquisition within a sample of community college students in a general biology course. There are two subproblems within the larger problem: (1) the influence of demographic variables (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to scientific information) on learning style, and (2) the correlations between prior scientific knowledge, learning style and student understanding of the concept of the gene. The sample included all students enrolled in an introductory general biology course during two consecutive semesters at an urban community college. Initial data was gathered during the first week of the semester, at which time students filled in a short questionnaire (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to science information either through reading/visual sources or a prior biology course). Subjects were then given the Inventory of Learning Processes-Revised (ILP-R) which measures general preferences in five learning styles; Deep Learning; Elaborative Learning, Agentic Learning, Methodical Learning and Literal Memorization. Subjects were then given the Gene Conceptual Knowledge pretest: a 15 question objective section and an essay section. Subjects were exposed to specific concepts during lecture and laboratory exercises. At the last lab, students were given the Genetics Conceptual Knowledge Posttest. Pretest/posttest gains were correlated with demographic variables and learning styles were analyzed for significant correlations. Learning styles, as the independent variable in a simultaneous multiple regression, were significant predictors of results on the gene assessment tests, including pretest, posttest and gain. Of the learning styles, Deep Learning accounted for the greatest positive predictive value of pretest essay and pretest objective results. Literal Memorization was a significant negative predictor for posttest essay, essay gain and objective gain. Simultaneous

  6. Designing a biological monitoring program to assess community exposure to chromium: conclusions of an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A; Colton, T; Doull, J; Marks, J G; Smith, R G; Bruce, G M; Finley, B L; Paustenbach, D J

    1993-12-01

    The possible benefits of biological monitoring of large groups of people potentially exposed to environmental contaminants has become an area of much interest in recent years. Because chromite-ore processing residue has been found in some soils in northern New Jersey, urinary chromium monitoring of people in the community was evaluated as a potentially useful tool. In an attempt to identify those who could be exposed and to quantify the magnitude of exposure to the chromium in these soils, the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) initiated a public health screening project. In 1992, the NJDOH proposed to evaluate over 4000 people who lived or worked near these sites. Volunteers were administered a questionnaire and were given a limited physical examination, and a single spot urine sample was collected. Because of the difficulties in using urinary chromium to assess low-level exposure and the potential implications of any regulatory decisions that could be based on the results of this project, a panel of experts was convened to evaluate the protocol. The panel consisted of five scientists and physicians with expertise in toxicology, dermatology, epidemiology, biological monitoring, and analytical chemistry. Like a World Health Organization group, the panel concluded that although urine biomonitoring can be useful in evaluating high levels of exposure to chromium, it is not reliable for assessing low-level exposure similar to that which may have occurred in northern New Jersey. The panel also noted that when urinary biomonitoring is to be used to assess the public's possible exposure, a large number of precautions must be taken to ensure the accuracy and usefulness of the results. The single most important recommendation was to collect a second, and perhaps a third, spot urine (or 24-h urine) sample before concluding that a person may be routinely overexposed. These suggestions are applicable to designing a biomonitoring program for nearly any environmental

  7. A continuation of base-line studies for environmentally monitoring Space Transportation System (STS) at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 1: Terrestrial community analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, I. J.

    1979-01-01

    Vegetation and small mammal populations in or around the Merritt Island area were studied. Thirty sites were selected from plant communities which were relatively free of logging, grazing, and clearing operations. The vegetative analysis was designed to yield a quantitative description and ecological explanation of the major types of upland vegetation in order to determine the possible future effects of NASA space activities on them. Changes in the relative abundance of small mammal populations, species diversity, standing crop biomass, reproductive activity, and other demographic features were documented in order to gather sufficient information on these populations so that it would be possible to detect even the smaller nonnatural behavior changes in the mammals which might be attributable to NASA space activities.

  8. Mapping marine debris across coastal communities in Belize: developing a baseline for understanding the distribution of litter on beaches using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Bennett-Martin, Paulita; Visaggi, Christy C; Hawthorne, Timothy L

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of marine debris (also known as marine litter) is an essential step in the process to eradicate ecological dangers in marine ecosystems caused by humans. This study examines marine debris in the Caribbean country of Belize using geographic information systems (GIS) to develop (1) a detailed data library for use on handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) units and tablets with mobile mapping applications for deployment in the field and (2) a freely available, online mapping portal to share data with Belizeans to encourage future citizen science efforts. Four diverse communities were targeted ranging from larger more populated towns, to smaller villages across central and southern Belize: San Pedro, Caye Caulker, Punta Gorda, and Monkey River. Fieldwork was conducted over 1 month, during which data points were collected in 50-m surveys followed by debris cleanup and removal. Features in our database included material, quantity, item, brand, and condition. Over 6000 pieces of debris were recorded in GIS for further analysis, and 299 gal of debris were removed from the shores of Belize. The most abundant form of debris observed was plastic (commonly bottles) across all locations; plastic comprised 77.6 % of all debris items observed. Through GIS, a detailed snapshot understanding of debris patterns across multiple settings in Belize was documented. Ongoing collaborations with local organizations in Belize have demonstrated significant interest and utility for such GIS approaches in analyzing and managing marine debris. The data, methodology, visual representations, and online mapping platform resulting from this research are a first step in directly supporting local Belizean community advocacy and policy, while contributing to larger institutional strategies for addressing marine debris issues in the Caribbean.

  9. Metagenomic systems biology and metabolic modeling of the human microbiome: from species composition to community assembly rules.

    PubMed

    Levy, Roie; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2014-01-01

    The human microbiome is a key contributor to health and development. Yet little is known about the ecological forces that are at play in defining the composition of such host-associated communities. Metagenomics-based studies have uncovered clear patterns of community structure but are often incapable of distinguishing alternative structuring paradigms. In a recent study, we integrated metagenomic analysis with a systems biology approach, using a reverse ecology framework to model numerous human microbiota species and to infer metabolic interactions between species. Comparing predicted interactions with species composition data revealed that the assembly of the human microbiome is dominated at the community level by habitat filtering. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this habitat filtering cannot be accounted for by known host phenotypes or by the metabolic versatility of the various species. Here we provide a summary of our findings and offer a brief perspective on related studies and on future approaches utilizing this metagenomic systems biology framework.

  10. Biological Communities and Geomorphology of Patch Reefs in Biscayne National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Brock, John C.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Hickey, T. Don; Bonito, Victor; Bracone, Jeremy E.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystem management benefits from continual, quantitative assessment of the resources being managed, plus assessment of factors that affect distribution patterns of organisms in the ecosystem. In this study, we investigated the relationships among physical, benthic, and fish variables in effort to help explain the distribution patterns of ecologically and economically important species on twelve patch reefs within Biscayne National Park (BNP), Florida, U.S.A. We visited 196 randomly-located sampling stations across twelve shallow (< 10m) patch reefs, using SCUBA to conduct our surveys. We measured physical variables (e.g., substratum type), estimated the percent cover of benthic community members (e.g., coral, algae), and counted and estimated mean size for each fish species observed. We also used high-density bathymetric data collected remotely via airborne laser surveying (Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL)) to calculate rugosity (bumpiness) of the reef habitat. Here we present our findings visually by graphing our quantitative community and physical structure data simultaneously in a GIS map format. You will see that biological organisms arrange themselves on each patch reef in a non-random manner. For example, many species of fish prefer to locate themselves in areas of the reef where the rugosity index is high. Rugose parts of the reef provide them with good hiding places from predators. These maps (and the data used to create them) are permanent records of the status of reef resources found on these twelve patch reefs in BNP as of September, 2003. The survey data found in the shapefile located on this CD product includes benthic percent cover data for algae, coral, encrusting invertebrates, and substratum type, in addition to gorgonian abundance and volume, total fish abundance and species richness, and specific counts for Acanthurids (surgeonfish), Scarids (parrotfish), Lutjanids (snappers), Haemulids (grunts), Serranids

  11. Expanding biological data standards development processes for US IOOS: visual line transect observing community for mammal, bird, and turtle data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fornwall, M.; Gisiner, R.; Simmons, S. E.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Canonico, G.; Halpin, P.; Goldstein, P.; Fitch, R.; Weise, M.; Cyr, N.; Palka, D.; Price, J.; Collins, D.

    2012-01-01

    The US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has recently adopted standards for biological core variables in collaboration with the US Geological Survey/Ocean Biogeographic Information System (USGS/OBIS-USA) and other federal and non-federal partners. In this Community White Paper (CWP) we provide a process to bring into IOOS a rich new source of biological observing data, visual line transect surveys, and to establish quality data standards for visual line transect observations, an important source of at-sea bird, turtle and marine mammal observation data. The processes developed through this exercise will be useful for other similar biogeographic observing efforts, such as passive acoustic point and line transect observations, tagged animal data, and mark-recapture (photo-identification) methods. Furthermore, we suggest that the processes developed through this exercise will serve as a catalyst for broadening involvement by the larger marine biological data community within the goals and processes of IOOS.

  12. Development of a Model, Metal-reducing Microbial Community for a System Biology Level Assessment of Desulfovibrio vulgaris as part of a Community

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne; Schadt, Christopher; Miller, Lance; Phelps, Tommy; Brown, S. D.; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Drake, Megin; Yang, Z.K.; Podar, Mircea

    2010-05-17

    One of the largest experimental gaps is between the simplicity of pure cultures and the complexity of open environmental systems, particularly in metal-contaminated areas. These microbial communities form ecosystem foundations, drive biogeochemical processes, and are relevant for biotechnology and bioremediation. A model, metal-reducing microbial community was constructed as either syntrophic or competitive to study microbial cell to cell interactions, cell signaling and competition for resources. The microbial community was comprised of the metal-reducing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Additionally, Methanococcus maripaludis S2 was added to study complete carbon reduction and maintain a low hydrogen partial pressure for syntrophism to occur. Further, considerable work has been published on D. vulgaris and the D. vulgaris/ Mc. maripaludis co-culture both with and without stress. We are extending this work by conducting the same stress conditions on the model community. Additionally, this comprehensive investigation includes physiological and metabolic analyses as well as specially designed mRNA microarrays with the genes for all three organisms on one slide so as to follow gene expression changes in the various cultivation conditions as well as being comparable to the co- and individual cultures. Further, state-of -the-art comprehensive AMT tag proteomics allows for these comparisons at the protein level for a systems biology assessment of a model, metal-reducing microbial community. Preliminary data revealed that lactate oxidation by D. vulgaris was sufficient to support both G. sulfurreducens and M. maripaludis via the excretion of H2 and acetate. Fumarate was utilized by G. sulfurreducens and reduced to succinate since neither of the other two organisms can reduce fumarate. Methane was quantified, suggesting acetate and H2 concentrations were sufficient for M. maripaludis. Steady state community cultivation will allow for

  13. Design, methodology and baseline characteristics of Tai Chi and its protective effect against ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guohua; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Duan, Tingjin; Qi, Dalu; Ling, Kun; He, Jian; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Controlling risk factors with regular exercise is effective and cost-effective for the primary prevention of ischaemic stroke. As a traditional Chinese form of exercise, Tai Chi might be beneficial in decreasing ischaemic stroke, but the evidence remains insufficient. We hypothesise that elderly community adults with risk factors for ischaemic stroke will decrease their ischaemic stroke risk by improving cerebral haemodynamic parameters, cardiopulmonary function, motor function, plasma risk indices, physical parameters or psychological outcomes after receiving 12 weeks of regular Tai Chi training compared with those who maintained their original physical activities. Therefore, we designed a randomised controlled trial that will systematically evaluate the protective effects of Tai Chi exercise on ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Methods and analysis A total of 170 eligible participants were randomly allocated into either the Tai Chi training group or the usual physical activity group. This paper reports on the design, intervention development and baseline characteristics of the participants. There were no significant differences between comparison groups in demographic characteristics or the baseline data of primary or secondary outcomes. Participants in the Tai Chi training group will receive 12 weeks of Tai Chi training with a frequency of 5 days/week and 60 min/day, while those in the usual physical activities group will maintain their original activities. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Medical Ethics Committee of The Affiliated People's Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (number 2013-020-02). The findings of this study will be communicated to healthcare professionals, participants and the public through peer

  14. Two-Year Community: Time for Action: Vision and Change Implementation in an Online Biology Course at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The author discusses an Introduction to Biology course they created. The course was designed by following the recommendations from the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action report, which stresses the need for engaging students through hands-on and student-centered activities. In the course, students perform…

  15. Selection of diazotrophic bacterial communities in biological sand filter mesocosms used for the treatment of phenolic-laden wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Welz, Pamela J; Tuffin, Marla I; Burton, Stephanie G; Cowan, Don A

    2013-10-01

    Agri effluents such as winery or olive mill wastewaters are characterized by high phenolic concentrations. These compounds are highly toxic and generally refractory to biodegradation. Biological sand filters (BSFs) represent inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and sustainable wastewater treatment systems which rely vastly on microbial catabolic processes. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, this study aimed to assess the impact of increasing concentrations of synthetic phenolic-rich wastewater, ranging from 96 mg L(-1) gallic acid and 138 mg L(-1) vanillin (i.e., a total chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 234 mg L(-1)) to 2,400 mg L(-1) gallic acid and 3,442 mg L(-1) vanillin (5,842 mg COD L(-1)), on bacterial communities and the specific functional diazotrophic community from BSF mesocosms. This amendment procedure instigated efficient BSF phenolic removal, significant modifications of the bacterial communities, and notably led to the selection of a phenolic-resistant and less diverse diazotrophic community. This suggests that bioavailable N is crucial in the functioning of biological treatment processes involving microbial communities, and thus that functional alterations in the bacterial communities in BSFs ensure provision of sufficient bioavailable nitrogen for the degradation of wastewater with a high C/N ratio.

  16. Spatial heterogeneity of eukaryotic microbial communities in an unstudied geothermal diatomaceous biological soil crust: Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA.

    PubMed

    Meadow, James F; Zabinski, Catherine A

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of microbial communities and their inherent heterogeneity has dramatically increased with the widespread use of high-throughput sequencing technologies, and we are learning more about the ecological processes that structure microbial communities across a wide range of environments, as well as the relative scales of importance for describing bacterial communities in natural systems. Little work has been carried out to assess fine-scale eukaryotic microbial heterogeneity in soils. Here, we present findings from a bar-coded 18S rRNA survey of the eukaryotic microbial communities in a previously unstudied geothermal diatomaceous biological soil crust in Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA, in which we explicitly compare microbial community heterogeneity at the particle scale within soil cores. Multivariate analysis of community composition showed that while subsamples from within the same soil core clustered together, community dissimilarity between particles in the same core was high. This study describes a novel soil microbial environment and also adds to our growing understanding of microbial heterogeneity and the scales relevant to the study of soil microbial communities.

  17. Geotaxis baseline data for Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnebel, E. M.; Bhargava, R.; Grossfield, J.

    1987-01-01

    Geotaxis profiles for 20 Drosophila species and semispecies at different ages have been examined using a calibrated, adjustable slant board device. Measurements were taken at 5 deg intervals ranging from 0 deg to 85 deg. Clear strain and species differences are observed, with some groups tending to move upward (- geotaxis) with increasing angles, while others move downward (+ geotaxis). Geotactic responses change with age in some, but not all experimental groups. Sample geotaxis profiles are presented and their application to ecological and aging studies are discussed. Data provide a baseline for future evaluations of the biological effects of microgravity.

  18. Exploring the Shift in Structure and Function of Microbial Communities Performing Biological Phosphorus Removal

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Liguan; Jiang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Xuxiang; Ren, Hongqiang; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor fed mainly by acetate was operated to perform enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). A short-term pH shock from 7.0 to 6.0 led to a complete loss of phosphate-removing capability and a drastic change of microbial communities. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed that large proportions of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) (accounted for 16% of bacteria) bloomed, including Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus-related tetrad-forming organism, causing deteriorated EBPR performance. The EBPR performance recovered with time and the dominant Candidatus Accumulibacter (Accumulibacter) clades shifted from Clade IIC to IIA while GAOs populations shrank significantly. The Accumulibacter population variation provided a good opportunity for genome binning using a bi-dimensional coverage method, and a genome of Accumulibacter Clade IIC was well retrieved with over 90% completeness. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that Accumulibacter clades had different abilities in nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation, which shed light on enriching different Accumulibacter populations selectively. PMID:27547976

  19. Community-based inquiry improves critical thinking in general education biology.

    PubMed

    Quitadamo, Ian J; Faiola, Celia L; Johnson, James E; Kurtz, Martha J

    2008-01-01

    National stakeholders are becoming increasingly concerned about the inability of college graduates to think critically. Research shows that, while both faculty and students deem critical thinking essential, only a small fraction of graduates can demonstrate the thinking skills necessary for academic and professional success. Many faculty are considering nontraditional teaching methods that incorporate undergraduate research because they more closely align with the process of doing investigative science. This study compared a research-focused teaching method called community-based inquiry (CBI) with traditional lecture/laboratory in general education biology to discover which method would elicit greater gains in critical thinking. Results showed significant critical-thinking gains in the CBI group but decreases in a traditional group and a mixed CBI/traditional group. Prior critical-thinking skill, instructor, and ethnicity also significantly influenced critical-thinking gains, with nearly all ethnicities in the CBI group outperforming peers in both the mixed and traditional groups. Females, who showed decreased critical thinking in traditional courses relative to males, outperformed their male counterparts in CBI courses. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who value both research and critical thinking will consider using the CBI method.

  20. The Childhood Solid Tumor Network: A new resource for the developmental biology and oncology research communities.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Federico, Sara; Karlstrom, Asa; Shelat, Anang; Sablauer, Andras; Pappo, Alberto; Dyer, Michael A

    2016-03-15

    Significant advances have been made over the past 25 years in our understanding of the most common adult solid tumors such as breast, colon, lung and prostate cancer. Much less is known about childhood solid tumors because they are rare and because they originate in developing organs during fetal development, childhood and adolescence. It can be very difficult to study the cellular origins of pediatric solid tumors in developing organs characterized by rapid proliferative expansion, growth factor signaling, developmental angiogenesis, programmed cell death, tissue reorganization and cell migration. Not only has the etiology of pediatric cancer remained elusive because of their developmental origins, but it also makes it more difficult to treat. Molecular targeted therapeutics that alter developmental pathway signaling may have devastating effects on normal organ development. Therefore, basic research focused on the mechanisms of development provides an essential foundation for pediatric solid tumor translational research. In this article, we describe new resources available for the developmental biology and oncology research communities. In a companion paper, we present the detailed characterization of an orthotopic xenograft of a pediatric solid tumor derived from sympathoadrenal lineage during development.

  1. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for the analysis of microbial community in biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to isolate DNA from biological activated carbon (BAC) samples used in water treatment plants, owing to the scarcity of microorganisms in BAC samples. The aim of this study was to identify DNA extraction methods suitable for a long-term, comprehensive ecological analysis of BAC microbial communities. To identify a procedure that can produce high molecular weight DNA, maximizes detectable diversity and is relatively free from contaminants, the microwave extraction method, the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) extraction method, a commercial DNA extraction kit, and the ultrasonic extraction method were used for the extraction of DNA from BAC samples. Spectrophotometry, agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) analysis were conducted to compare the yield and quality of DNA obtained using these methods. The results showed that the CTAB method produce the highest yield and genetic diversity of DNA from BAC samples, but DNA purity was slightly less than that obtained with the DNA extraction-kit method. This study provides a theoretical basis for establishing and selecting DNA extraction methods for BAC samples.

  2. Exploring the Shift in Structure and Function of Microbial Communities Performing Biological Phosphorus Removal.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Liguan; Jiang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Xuxiang; Ren, Hongqiang; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor fed mainly by acetate was operated to perform enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). A short-term pH shock from 7.0 to 6.0 led to a complete loss of phosphate-removing capability and a drastic change of microbial communities. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed that large proportions of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) (accounted for 16% of bacteria) bloomed, including Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus-related tetrad-forming organism, causing deteriorated EBPR performance. The EBPR performance recovered with time and the dominant Candidatus Accumulibacter (Accumulibacter) clades shifted from Clade IIC to IIA while GAOs populations shrank significantly. The Accumulibacter population variation provided a good opportunity for genome binning using a bi-dimensional coverage method, and a genome of Accumulibacter Clade IIC was well retrieved with over 90% completeness. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that Accumulibacter clades had different abilities in nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation, which shed light on enriching different Accumulibacter populations selectively.

  3. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  4. Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature beneath well-developed, late-successional stage crusts than immature, early-successional stage crusts. We identified and enumerated nematodes by genus from beneath early- and late-stage crusts from both the Colorado Plateau, Utah (cool, winter rain desert) and Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico (hot, summer rain desert) at 0-10 and 10-30 cm depths. As hypothesized, nematode abundance, richness, diversity, and successional maturity were greater beneath well-developed crusts than immature crusts. The mechanism of this aboveground-belowground link between biological soil crusts and nematode community composition is likely the increased food, habitat, nutrient inputs, moisture retention, and/or environmental stability provided by late-successional crusts. Canonical correspondence analysis of nematode genera demonstrated that nematode community composition differed greatly between geographic locations that contrast in temperature, precipitation, and soil texture. We found unique assemblages of genera among combinations of location and crust type that reveal a gap in scientific knowledge regarding empirically derived characterization of dominant nematode genera in deserts soils and their functional role in a crust-associated food web. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecological baseline studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, D.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental studies of Merritt Island are discussed. Five areas of the island's ecology are examined. They include: a terrestrial community analyses, a plant community study, a small mammal population study, a rainfall study, and an ichthyological analyses.

  6. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments.

  7. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in

  8. Project FIT: Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a school- and community-based intervention to address physical activity and healthy eating among low-income elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper describes Project FIT, a collaboration between the public school system, local health systems, physicians, neighborhood associations, businesses, faith-based leaders, community agencies and university researchers to develop a multi-faceted approach to promote physical activity and healthy eating toward the general goal of preventing and reducing childhood obesity among children in Grand Rapids, MI, USA. Methods/design There are four overall components to Project FIT: school, community, social marketing, and school staff wellness - all that focus on: 1) increasing access to safe and affordable physical activity and nutrition education opportunities in the schools and surrounding neighborhoods; 2) improving the affordability and availability of nutritious food in the neighborhoods surrounding the schools; 3) improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors regarding nutrition and physical activity among school staff, parents and students; 4) impacting the 'culture' of the schools and neighborhoods to incorporate healthful values; and 5) encouraging dialogue among all community partners to leverage existing programs and introduce new ones. Discussion At baseline, there was generally low physical activity (70% do not meet recommendation of 60 minutes per day), excessive screen time (75% do not meet recommendation of < 2 hours per day), and low intake of vegetables and whole grains and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries and chips and desserts as well as a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (48.5% including 6% with severe obesity) among low income, primarily Hispanic and African American 3rd-5th grade children (n = 403). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01385046 PMID:21801411

  9. Subsets of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis in community-dwelling older adults in the United Kingdom: prevalence, inter-relationships, risk factor profiles and clinical characteristics at baseline and 3-years

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M.; Peat, G.; Nicholls, E.; van der Windt, D.; Myers, H.; Dziedzic, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To compare the population prevalence, inter-relationships, risk factor profiles and clinical characteristics of subsets of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (OA) with a view to understanding their relative frequency and distinctiveness. Method 1076 community-dwelling adults with hand symptoms (60% women, mean age 64.7 years) were recruited and classified into pre-defined subsets using physical examination and standardised hand radiographs, scored with the Kellgren & Lawrence (K&L) and Verbruggen–Veys grading systems. Detailed information on selected risk factors was obtained from direct measurement (Body Mass Index (BMI)), self-complete questionnaires (excessive use of hands, previous hand injury) and medical record review (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes). Hand pain and disability were self-reported at baseline and 3-year follow-up using Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN). Results Crude population prevalence estimates for symptomatic hand OA subsets in the adult population aged 50 years and over were: thumb base OA (22.4%), nodal interphalangeal joint (IPJ) OA (15.5%), generalised hand OA (10.4%), non-nodal IPJ OA (4.9%), erosive OA (1.0%). Apart from thumb base OA, there was considerable overlap between the subsets. Erosive OA appeared the most distinctive with the highest female: male ratio, and the most disability at baseline and 3-years. A higher frequency of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and metabolic syndrome was observed in this subset. Conclusion Overlap in the occurrence of hand OA subsets poses conceptual and practical challenges to the pursuit of distinct phenotypes. Erosive OA may nevertheless provide particular insight into the role of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in the pathogenesis of OA. PMID:23954700

  10. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    PubMed Central

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  11. Two-Year Community: Using Formative Assessment to Improve Microscope Skills among Urban Community College General Biology I Lab Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Community colleges serve the noble mission of making higher education accessible to a broader spectrum of society than traditional 4-year institutions. A side effect of this broad access is a lower level of student preparedness for success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. This work describes our efforts to…

  12. The Southern Community Cohort Study: Investigating Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Over 73,700 adults age 40–79, nearly 70% African American, were recruited at community health centers across 12 southeastern states; individual characteristics were recorded and biologic specimens collected at baseline for later follow-up. The Southern Community Cohort Study is a unique national resource for assessing determinants of racial/ethnic differentials in diseases. PMID:20173283

  13. Benthic Community Response to Hypoxia: Baseline Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    were represented by six different phyla, namely Annelida , Sipuncula, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Mollusca and Echinodermata (Table II). The phylum Annelida ...stomatopods. The category "miscellaneous" was comprised of small fishes, unidentified worm-like fauna, and invertebrate larvae. Annelida is the dominant

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography of respiratory quinones for microbial community analysis in environmental and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-05

    Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA) detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ) and menaquinones (MK) without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost) and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces).

  15. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  16. Nutrient removal, microbial community and sludge settlement in anaerobic/aerobic sequencing batch reactors without enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangxue; Rodgers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient removal, microbial community and sludge settlement were examined in two 3-litre laboratory-scale anaerobic/aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). One SBR was operated at 10 degrees C and the other SBR at 20 degrees C. Different from conventional enhanced biological phosphorus removal, most of the soluble sodium acetate was removed in the aerobic phase and no organic carbon uptake or biological phosphorus release occurred in the anaerobic phase. In this type of anaerobic/aerobic SBR, the phosphorus removal and sludge settlement seemed to be unstable, and the dominant microorganism was Zoogloea sp. Although no excess biological phosphorus removal occurred, extracellular phosphorus precipitation contributed a significant proportion to total phosphorus removed. Sludge volume index decreased with increasing phosphorus contents in the biomass under all conditions. The functions of extracellular polymeric substances in sludge settlement and phosphorus removal depended on the environmental conditions applied.

  17. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions.

  18. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Soil Communities by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis Fingerprints: Biological and Methodological Variability

    PubMed Central

    Ranjard, L.; Poly, F.; Lata, J.-C.; Mougel, C.; Thioulouse, J.; Nazaret, S.

    2001-01-01

    Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was used to characterise bacterial (B-ARISA) and fungal (F-ARISA) communities from different soil types. The 16S-23S intergenic spacer region from the bacterial rRNA operon was amplified from total soil community DNA for B-ARISA. Similarly, the two internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8S rRNA gene (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) from the fungal rRNA operon were amplified from total soil community DNA for F-ARISA. Universal fluorescence-labeled primers were used for the PCRs, and fragments of between 200 and 1,200 bp were resolved on denaturing polyacrylamide gels by use of an automated sequencer with laser detection. Methodological (DNA extraction and PCR amplification) and biological (inter- and intrasite) variations were evaluated by comparing the number and intensity of peaks (bands) between electrophoregrams (profiles) and by multivariate analysis. Our results showed that ARISA is a high-resolution, highly reproducible technique and is a robust method for discriminating between microbial communities. To evaluate the potential biases in community description provided by ARISA, we also examined databases on length distribution of ribosomal intergenic spacers among bacteria (L. Ranjard, E. Brothier, and S. Nazaret, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:5334–5339, 2000) and fungi. PMID:11571146

  19. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  20. Current challenges and approaches for the synergistic use of systems biology data in the scientific community.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Christian H; Wagner, Ulrich; Rehrauer, Hubert K; Türker, Can; Schlapbach, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Today's rapid development and broad application of high-throughput analytical technologies are transforming biological research and provide an amount of data and analytical opportunities to understand the fundamentals of biological processes undreamt of in past years. To fully exploit the potential of the large amount of data, scientists must be able to understand and interpret the information in an integrative manner. While the sheer data volume and heterogeneity of technical platforms within each discipline already poses a significant challenge, the heterogeneity of platforms and data formats across disciplines makes the integrative management, analysis, and interpretation of data a significantly more difficult task. This challenge thus lies at the heart of systems biology, which aims at a quantitative understanding of biological systems to the extent that systemic features can be predicted. In this chapter, we discuss several key issues that need to be addressed in order to put an integrated systems biology data analysis and mining within reach.

  1. Do biotic interactions modulate ecosystem functioning along stress gradients? Insights from semi-arid plant and biological soil crust communities

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Escolar, Cristina; Puche, María D.; Soliveres, Santiago; Maltez-Mouro, Sara; García-Palacios, Pablo; Castillo-Monroy, Andrea P.; Martínez, Isabel; Escudero, Adrián

    2010-01-01

    Climate change will exacerbate the degree of abiotic stress experienced by semi-arid ecosystems. While abiotic stress profoundly affects biotic interactions, their potential role as modulators of ecosystem responses to climate change is largely unknown. Using plants and biological soil crusts, we tested the relative importance of facilitative–competitive interactions and other community attributes (cover, species richness and species evenness) as drivers of ecosystem functioning along stress gradients in semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems. Biotic interactions shifted from facilitation to competition along stress gradients driven by water availability and temperature. These changes were, however, dependent on the spatial scale and the community considered. We found little evidence to suggest that biotic interactions are a major direct influence upon indicators of ecosystem functioning (soil respiration, organic carbon, water-holding capacity, compaction and the activity of enzymes related to the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles) along stress gradients. However, attributes such as cover and species richness showed a direct effect on ecosystem functioning. Our results do not agree with predictions emphasizing that the importance of plant–plant interactions will be increased under climate change in dry environments, and indicate that reductions in the cover of plant and biological soil crust communities will negatively impact ecosystems under future climatic conditions. PMID:20513714

  2. Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms are a biological disturbance to Western Lake Erie bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Berry, Michelle A; Davis, Timothy W; Cory, Rose M; Duhaime, Melissa B; Johengen, Thomas H; Kling, George W; Marino, John A; Den Uyl, Paul A; Gossiaux, Duane; Dick, Gregory J; Denef, Vincent J

    2017-03-01

    Human activities are causing a global proliferation of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs), yet we have limited understanding of how these events affect freshwater bacterial communities. Using weekly data from western Lake Erie in 2014, we investigated how the cyanobacterial community varied over space and time, and whether the bloom affected non-cyanobacterial (nc-bacterial) diversity and composition. Cyanobacterial community composition fluctuated dynamically during the bloom, but was dominated by Microcystis and Synechococcus OTUs. The bloom's progression revealed potential impacts to nc-bacterial diversity. Nc-bacterial evenness displayed linear, unimodal, or no response to algal pigment levels, depending on the taxonomic group. In addition, the bloom coincided with a large shift in nc-bacterial community composition. These shifts could be partitioned into components predicted by pH, chlorophyll a, temperature, and water mass movements. Actinobacteria OTUs showed particularly strong correlations to bloom dynamics. AcI-C OTUs became more abundant, while acI-A and acI-B OTUs declined during the bloom, providing evidence of niche partitioning at the sub-clade level. Thus, our observations in western Lake Erie support a link between CHABs and disturbances to bacterial community diversity and composition. Additionally, the short recovery of many taxa after the bloom indicates that bacterial communities may exhibit resilience to CHABs.

  3. Community-Reviewed Biological Network Models for Toxicology and Drug Discovery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Namasivayam, Aishwarya Alex; Morales, Alejandro Ferreiro; Lacave, Ángela María Fajardo; Tallam, Aravind; Simovic, Borislav; Alfaro, David Garrido; Bobbili, Dheeraj Reddy; Martin, Florian; Androsova, Ganna; Shvydchenko, Irina; Park, Jennifer; Calvo, Jorge Val; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Racero, Manuel González Vélez; Biryukov, Maria; Talikka, Marja; Pérez, Modesto Berraquero; Rohatgi, Neha; Díaz-Díaz, Noberto; Mandarapu, Rajesh; Ruiz, Rubén Amián; Davidyan, Sergey; Narayanasamy, Shaman; Boué, Stéphanie; Guryanova, Svetlana; Arbas, Susana Martínez; Menon, Swapna; Xiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biological network models offer a framework for understanding disease by describing the relationships between the mechanisms involved in the regulation of biological processes. Crowdsourcing can efficiently gather feedback from a wide audience with varying expertise. In the Network Verification Challenge, scientists verified and enhanced a set of 46 biological networks relevant to lung and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The networks were built using Biological Expression Language and contain detailed information for each node and edge, including supporting evidence from the literature. Network scoring of public transcriptomics data inferred perturbation of a subset of mechanisms and networks that matched the measured outcomes. These results, based on a computable network approach, can be used to identify novel mechanisms activated in disease, quantitatively compare different treatments and time points, and allow for assessment of data with low signal. These networks are periodically verified by the crowd to maintain an up-to-date suite of networks for toxicology and drug discovery applications. PMID:27429547

  4. The activity and community structure of total bacteria and denitrifying bacteria across soil depths and biological gradients in estuary ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of soil microorganisms often shows variations along soil depth, and even in the same soil layer, each microbial group has a specific niche. In particular, the estuary soil is intermittently flooded, and the characteristics of the surface soil layer are different from those of other terrestrial soils. We investigated the microbial community structure and activity across soil depths and biological gradients composed of invasive and native plants in the shallow surface layer of an estuary ecosystem by using molecular approaches. Our results showed that the total and denitrifying bacterial community structures of the estuarine wetland soil differed according to the short depth gradient. In growing season, gene copy number of 16S rRNA were 1.52(±0.23) × 10(11), 1.10(±0.06) × 10(11), and 4.33(±0.16) × 10(10) g(-1) soil; nirS were 5.41(±1.25) × 10(8), 4.93(±0.94) × 10(8), and 2.61(±0.28) × 10(8) g(-1) soil; and nirK were 9.67(±2.37) × 10(6), 3.42(±0.55) × 10(6), and 2.12(±0.19) × 10(6) g(-1) soil in 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm depth layer, respectively. The depth-based difference was distinct in the vegetated sample and in the growing season, evidencing the important role of plants in structuring the microbial community. In comparison with other studies, we observed differences in the microbial community and functions even across very short depth gradients. In conclusion, our results suggested that (i) in the estuary ecosystem, the denitrifying bacterial community could maintain its abundance and function within shallow surface soil layers through facultative anaerobiosis, while the total bacterial community would be both quantitatively and qualitatively affected by the soil depth, (ii) the nirS gene community, rather than the nirK one, should be the first candidate used as an indicator of the microbial denitrification process in the estuary system, and (iii) as the microbial community is distributed and plays a certain niche role according to

  5. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  6. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News (OLBIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Malbet, Fabien

    2010-07-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News (OLBIN) is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share a common interest in long-baseline stellar interferometry. Through OLBIN you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, as well as news items, recent papers and preprints, notices of upcoming meetings, and resources for further research. This paper describes the history of the website, how it has evolved to serve the community, and the current plans for its future development. The website can be found at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov/.

  7. Removal of Exogenous Materials from the Outer Portion of Frozen Cores to Investigate the Ancient Biological Communities Harbored Inside.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Robyn A; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Foley, Karen; Jones, Robert; Courville, Zoe; Douglas, Thomas; Perkins, Edward; Reynolds, Charles M

    2016-07-03

    The cryosphere offers access to preserved organisms that persisted under past environmental conditions. In fact, these frozen materials could reflect conditions over vast time periods and investigation of biological materials harbored inside could provide insight of ancient environments. To appropriately analyze these ecosystems and extract meaningful biological information from frozen soils and ice, proper collection and processing of the frozen samples is necessary. This is especially critical for microbial and DNA analyses since the communities present may be so uniquely different from modern ones. Here, a protocol is presented to successfully collect and decontaminate frozen cores. Both the absence of the colonies used to dope the outer surface and exogenous DNA suggest that we successfully decontaminated the frozen cores and that the microorganisms detected were from the material, rather than contamination from drilling or processing the cores.

  8. Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established.

  9. Using Service Learning in a Course Entitled "Biology of Women" to Promote Student Engagement and Awareness of Community Needs and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.

    2008-01-01

    Service learning projects were incorporated into the curriculum of an undergraduate course entitled "Biology of Women". The goals of the service learning projects were: 1) to provide students with the opportunity to consider issues pertaining to human biology in real-world settings; 2) to foster student engagement with the community; and…

  10. H2S gas biological removal efficiency and bacterial community diversity in biofilter treating wastewater odor.

    PubMed

    Omri, Ilhem; Bouallagui, Hassib; Aouidi, Fathia; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a biofilter system to treat hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contaminated air and to characterize its microbial community. The biofilter system was packed with peat. During the experimental work, the peat was divided in three layers (down, middle, and up). Satisfactory removal efficiencies of H2S were proved and reached 99% for the majority of the run time at an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 60 s. The polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method was used to uncover the changes in the microbial community between the different layers. Analysis of SSCP profiles demonstrated significant differences in community structure from a layer to another with a strong decrease in species diversity towards the up layer. It was found that the used support was suitable for microorganism growth, and may have a potential application in H2S biofiltration system.

  11. Groundwater's significance to changing hydrology, water chemistry, and biological communities of a floodplain ecosystem, Everglades, South Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; McCormick, P.V.

    2009-01-01

    The Everglades (Florida, USA) is one of the world's larger subtropical peatlands with biological communities adapted to waters low in total dissolved solids and nutrients. Detecting how the pre-drainage hydrological system has been altered is crucial to preserving its functional attributes. However, reliable tools for hindcasting historic conditions in the Everglades are limited. A recent synthesis demonstrates that the proportion of surface-water inflows has increased relative to precipitation, accounting for 33% of total inputs compared with 18% historically. The largest new source of water is canal drainage from areas of former wetlands converted to agriculture. Interactions between groundwater and surface water have also increased, due to increasing vertical hydraulic gradients resulting from topographic and water-level alterations on the otherwise extremely flat landscape. Environmental solute tracer data were used to determine groundwater's changing role, from a freshwater storage reservoir that sustained the Everglades ecosystem during dry periods to a reservoir of increasingly degraded water quality. Although some of this degradation is attributable to increased discharge of deep saline groundwater, other mineral sources such as fertilizer additives and peat oxidation have made a greater contribution to water-quality changes that are altering mineral-sensitive biological communities. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  12. Biological Mass Spectrometry and Shotgun Proteomics of Microbial Systems: Methods for studying microbial physiology from isolates to environmental communities

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, Brian; Young, Jacque C; Carey, Patricia A; Verberkmoes, Nathan C

    2010-01-01

    Microbial ecology is currently experiencing a renaissance spurred by the rapid development of molecular techniques and omics technologies in particular. As never before, these tools have allowed researchers in the field to produce a massive amount of information through in situ measurements and analysis of natural microbial communities, both vital approaches to the goal of unraveling the interactions of microbes with their environment and with one another. While genomics can provide information regarding the genetic potential of microbes, proteomics characterizes the primary end-stage product, proteins, thus conveying functional information concerning microbial activity. Advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation and methodologies, along with bioinformatic approaches, have brought this analytic chemistry technique to relevance in the biological realm due to its powerful applications in proteomics. Mass spectrometry-enabled proteomics, including bottom-up and top-down approaches, is capable of supplying a wealth of biologically-relevant information, from simple protein cataloging of the proteome of a microbial community to identifying post-translational modifications of individual proteins.

  13. Avian community response to lowland tropical rainforest isolation: 40 years of change at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sigel, Bryan J; Sherry, Thomas W; Young, Bruce E

    2006-02-01

    Since 1960, most of the forest surrounding the La Selva Biological Station, an intensively studied tropical research facility in Costa Rica, has been converted to agricultural uses. We used quantitative censuses and analysis of previously published categorical abundances to assess changes in the bird community, and we evaluated potential causes of species-specific changes by assessing their association with habitat, diet, participation in mixed-species flocks, and nest type. Approximately the same percentage of species increased as decreased in abundance from 1960 to 1999 (10-20% of all species, depending on method of assessment). Diet was the single most important trait associated with declining species. At least 50% of the species that declined have insectivorous diets. Use of forest habitat and participation in mixed-species flocks were also significant factors associated with declines, but nest type was unrelated to change in abundance. The species that increased in abundance tended to occur in open habitats and have omnivorous diets. These results reinforce the importance of several population risk factors associated with tropical understory insectivory and mixed-species flocking: patchy spatial distribution, low population density, large home range, and dietary specialization. La Selva's protected area (1611 ha), despite a forested connection on one boundary with a higher elevation national park, is apparently too small to maintain at least one major guild (understory insectivores). This first quantitative assessment of bird community change at La Selva highlights the need to intensify study of the mechanisms and consequences of biological diversity change in tropical forest fragments.

  14. Comparing Community College Students' Learning Styles in General and Advanced Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Elsa C.

    This paper reports on an investigation into individual differences and group differences in learning styles, test anxiety levels, task performance, and students' attitudes regarding cooperative learning in beginning and advanced biology classes. The Transactional Analysis Inventory (TAI) and Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) were administered to two groups…

  15. QUANTIFYING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LANDSCAPE IMPERVIOUSNESS AND AQUATIC BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between landscape impervious surface area and instream biological integrity was investigated for watersheds in the Eastern CornBelt Plains ecoregion (ECBP) in western Ohio. Landsat TM imagery was classified to create an impervious surface map for the ECBP. The ac...

  16. Diazotrophic Community Structure and Function in Two Successional Stages of Biological Soil Crusts from the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeager, C.M.; Kornosky, J.L.; Housman, D.C.; Grote, E.E.; Belnap, J.; Kuske, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the community structure and activity of N2-fixing microorganisms in mature and poorly developed biological soil crusts from both the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert. Nitrogenase activity was approximately 10 and 2.5 times higher in mature crusts than in poorly developed crusts at the Colorado Plateau site and Chihuahuan Desert site, respectively. Analysis of nifH sequences by clone sequencing and the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism technique indicated that the crust diazotrophic community was 80 to 90% heterocystous cyanobacteria most closely related to Nostoc spp. and that the composition of N2-fixing species did not vary significantly between the poorly developed and mature crusts at either site. In contrast, the abundance of nifH sequences was approximately 7.5 times greater (per microgram of total DNA) in mature crusts than in poorly developed crusts at a given site as measured by quantitative PCR. 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing and microscopic analysis of the cyanobacterial community within both crust types demonstrated a transition from a Microcoleus vaginatus-dominated, poorly developed crust to mature crusts harboring a greater percentage of Nostoc and Scytonema spp. We hypothesize that ecological factors, such as soil instability and water stress, may constrain the growth of N2-fixing microorganisms at our study sites and that the transition to a mature, nitrogen-producing crust initially requires bioengineering of the surface microenvironment by Microcoleus vaginatus.

  17. Microbial communities involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater--a model system in environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Larsen, Poul; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is one of the most advanced and complicated wastewater treatment processes applied today, and it is becoming increasingly popular worldwide as a sustainable way to remove and potentially reuse P. It is carried out by complex microbial communities consisting primarily of uncultured microorganisms. The EBPR process is a well-studied system with clearly defined boundaries which makes it very suitable as a model ecosystem in microbial ecology. Of particular importance are the transformations of C, N, and P, the solid-liquid separation properties and the functional and structural stability. A range of modern molecular methods has been used to study these communities in great detail including single cell microbiology, various -omics methods, flux analyses, and modeling making this one of the best studied microbial ecosystems so far. Recently, an EBPR core microbiome has been described and we present in this article some highlights and show how this complex microbial community can be used as model ecosystem in environmental biotechnology.

  18. Common and distinguishing features of the bacterial and fungal communities in biological soil crusts and shrub root zone soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbial communities in dryland ecosystems play important roles as root associates of the widely spaced plants and as the dominant members of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) colonizing the plant interspaces. We employed rRNA gene sequencing (bacterial 16S/fungal large subunit) and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to compare the microbial communities inhabiting the root zones of the dominant shrub, Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), and the interspace biocrusts in a Mojave desert shrubland within the Nevada Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Most of the numerically abundant bacteria and fungi were present in both the biocrusts and root zones, although the proportional abundance of those members differed significantly between habitats. Biocrust bacteria were predominantly Cyanobacteria while root zones harbored significantly more Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Pezizomycetes fungi dominated the biocrusts while Dothideomycetes were highest in root zones. Functional gene abundances in metagenome sequence datasets reflected the taxonomic differences noted in the 16S rRNA datasets. For example, functional categories related to photosynthesis, circadian clock proteins, and heterocyst-associated genes were enriched in the biocrusts, where populations of Cyanobacteria were larger. Genes related to potassium metabolism were also more abundant in the biocrusts, suggesting differences in nutrient cycling between biocrusts and root zones. Finally, ten years of elevated atmospheric CO2 did not result in large shifts in taxonomic composition of the bacterial or fungal communities or the functional gene inventories in the shotgun metagenomes.

  19. Diazotrophic Community Structure and Function in Two Successional Stages of Biological Soil Crusts from the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, Chris M.; Kornosky, Jennifer L.; Housman, David C.; Grote, Edmund E.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the community structure and activity of N2-fixing microorganisms in mature and poorly developed biological soil crusts from both the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert. Nitrogenase activity was approximately 10 and 2.5 times higher in mature crusts than in poorly developed crusts at the Colorado Plateau site and Chihuahuan Desert site, respectively. Analysis of nifH sequences by clone sequencing and the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism technique indicated that the crust diazotrophic community was 80 to 90% heterocystous cyanobacteria most closely related to Nostoc spp. and that the composition of N2-fixing species did not vary significantly between the poorly developed and mature crusts at either site. In contrast, the abundance of nifH sequences was approximately 7.5 times greater (per microgram of total DNA) in mature crusts than in poorly developed crusts at a given site as measured by quantitative PCR. 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing and microscopic analysis of the cyanobacterial community within both crust types demonstrated a transition from a Microcoleus vaginatus-dominated, poorly developed crust to mature crusts harboring a greater percentage of Nostoc and Scytonema spp. We hypothesize that ecological factors, such as soil instability and water stress, may constrain the growth of N2-fixing microorganisms at our study sites and that the transition to a mature, nitrogen-producing crust initially requires bioengineering of the surface microenvironment by Microcoleus vaginatus. PMID:14766579

  20. Physical-chemical determinant properties of biological communities in continental semi-arid waters.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Francisco Cleiton; de Andrade, Eunice Maia; Lopes, Fernando Bezerra; de Paula Filho, Francisco José; Filho, José Hamilton Costa; da Silva, Merivalda Doroteu

    2016-08-01

    Throughout human history, water has undergone changes in quality. This problem is more serious in dry areas, where there is a natural water deficit due to climatic factors. The aims of this study, therefore, were (i) to verify correlations between physical attributes, chemical attributes and biological metrics and (ii) from the biological attributes, to verify the similarity between different points of a body of water in a tropical semi-arid region. Samples were collected every 2 months, from July 2009 to July 2011, at seven points. Four physical attributes, five chemical attributes and four biological metrics were investigated. To identify the correlations between the physicochemical properties and the biological metrics, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were applied. Nine classes of phytoplankton were identified, with the predominance of species of cyanobacteria, and ten families of macroinvertebrates. The use of HCA resulted in the formation of three similar groups, showing that it was possible to reduce the number of sampling points when monitoring water quality with a consequent reduction in cost. Group I was formed from the waters at the high end of the reservoir (points P1, P2 and P3), group II by the waters from the middle third (points P4 and P5), and group III by the waters from the lower part of the reservoir (points P6 and P7). Richness of the phytoplanktons Cyanophyceae, Chorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae was the attribute which determined dissimilarity in water quality. Using CCA, it was possible to identify the spatial variability of the physicochemical attributes (TSS, TKN, nitrate and total phosphorus) that most influence the metrics of the macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton present in the water. Low macroinvertebrate diversity, with a predominance of indicator families for deterioration in water quality, and the composition of phytoplankton showing a predominance of cyanobacteria, suggests greater

  1. RIA use in a community orthopedic trauma practice: applying technology, respecting biology.

    PubMed

    Cobbs, Kenneth F

    2010-11-01

    The RIA (Reamer Irrigator Aspirator) device is an incredibly powerful tool. It can be used to obtain biologically active tissue for healing at local or distant sites. Additionally, it can be used to lower the negative bioburden of disease and even to assist in diagnosis. As with any powerful tool, it should be used with detailed pre-planning and great respect. Once properly understood and implemented, the device can be used in many ways:

  2. Association of a complement receptor 1 gene variant with baseline erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels in patients starting anti-TNF therapy in a UK rheumatoid arthritis cohort: results from the Biologics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Genetics and Genomics Study Syndicate cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bluett, J; Ibrahim, I; Plant, D; Hyrich, K L; Morgan, A W; Wilson, A G; Isaacs, J D; Gaston, H; Mulherin, D; Price, T; Sheeran, T; Chalam, V; Baskar, S; Emery, P; Morgan, A; Buch, M; Bingham, S; O'Reilly, S; Badcock, L; Regan, M; Ding, T; Deighton, C; Summers, G; Raj, N; Stevens, R; Williams, N; Isaacs, J; Platt, P; Walker, D; Kay, L; Griffiths, B; Ng, W-F; Peterson, P; Lorenzi, A; Foster, H; Friswell, M; Thompson, B; Lee, M; Griffiths, I; Hassell, A; Dawes, P; Dowson, C; Kamath, S; Packham, J; Shadforth, M; Brownfield, Ann; Williams, R; Mukhtyar, C; Harrison, B; Snowden, N; Naz, S; Ledingham, J; Hull, R; McCrae, F; Thomas, A; Min, S Young; Shaban, R; Wong, E; Kelly, C; Heycock, C; Hamilton, J; Saravanan, V; Wilson, G; Bax, D; Dunkley, L; Akil, M; Tattersall, R; Kilding, R; Till, S; Boulton, J; Tait, T; Bukhari, M; Halsey, J; Ottewell, L; Buckley, C; Situnayake, D; Carruthers, D; Grindulis, K; Khatack, F; Elamanchi, S; Raza, K; Filer, A; Jubb, R; Abernathy, R; Plant, M; Pathare, S; Clarke, F; Tuck, S; Fordham, J; Paul, A; Bridges, M; Hakim, A; O'Reilly, D; Rajagopal, V; Bhagat, S; Edwards, C; Prouse, P; Moitra, R; Shawe, D; Bamji, A; Klimiuk, P; Bowden, A; Mitchell, W; Bruce, I; Barton, A; Gorodkin, R; Ho, P; Hyrich, K; Dixon, W; Rai, A; Kitas, G; Erb, N; Klocke, R; Douglas, K; Pace, A; Sandhu, R; Whallett, A; Birrell, F; Allen, M; Chaudhuri, K; Chattopadhyay, C; McHale, J; Jones, A; Gupta, A; Pande, I; Gaywood, I; Lanyon, P; Courtney, P; Doherty, M; Chinoy, H; O'Neill, T; Herrick, A; Jones, A; Cooper, R; Bucknall, R; Marguerie, C; Rigby, S; Dunn, N; Green, S; Al-Ansari, A; Webber, S; Hopkinson, N; Dunne, C; Quilty, B; Szebenyi, B; Green, M; Quinn, M; Isdale, A; Brown, A; Saleem, B; Samanta, A; Sheldon, P; Hassan, W; Francis, J; Kinder, A; Neame, R; Moorthy, A; Al-Allaf, W; Taggart, A; Fairburn, K; McKenna, F; Green, M; Gough, A; Lawson, C; Piper, M; Korendowych, E; Jenkinson, T; Sengupta, R; Bhalla, A; McHugh, N; Bond, Debbie; Luqmani, R; Bowness, B; Wordsworth, P; David, J; Smith, W; Mewar, D; Tunn, E; Nelson, K; Kennedy, T; Nixon, J; Woolf, A; Davis, M; Hutchinson, D; Endean, A; Coady, D; Wright, D; Morley, C; Raftery, G; Bracewell, C; Kidd, L; Abbas, I; Filer, C; Kallarackal, G; Barton, A

    2014-01-01

    Eligibility for anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in most European countries is restricted to severe, active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The DAS28 score is a marker of disease severity and incorporates one of two inflammatory markers, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C-reactive protein. We aimed to determine the relation between genetic variants known to affect ESR and levels of ESR in patients with active RA. DNA samples were genotyped for four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7527798 (CR1L), rs6691117 (CR1), rs10903129 (TMEM57) and rs1043879 (C1orf63). The association between SNPs and baseline ESR, baseline DAS28-ESR, and change in DAS28-ESR was evaluated. Baseline ESR was significantly associated with CR1 rs6691117 genotype (P=0.01). No correlation was identified between baseline DAS28-ESR or change in DAS28-ESR. In conclusion, genetic variation in the gene encoding CR1 may alter ESR levels but not DAS28-ESR, indicating no adjustment for CR1 genotype is required in the assessment of patients with severe active RA. PMID:23856853

  3. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  4. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  5. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  6. Modern and fossilized biological communities from sediments of Bolshoy Harbei lake (Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia) and their response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanov, Oleg; Nazarova, Larisa; Fefilova, Elena; Baturina, Maria; Loskutova, Olga; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga

    2013-04-01

    High-altitude regions are subjected to the threats of global warming. During the last decade the depth of seasonal melting of permafrost in Northern Russia, significantly increased. Investigation of lake sediments from polar regions has an extreme importance for understanding of the modern environmental processes and their influence on northern ecosystems and biological diversity of these regions. Invertebrate communities are used for diagnostic of lake ecosystems because they have a great sensitivity to climatic changes (Andronnikova, 1996; Lazareva, 2008; O'Brien et al., 2005). The data can be used as well as a basis for inference models for reconstruction of the paleoclimatic conditions. Chironomid-based, Cladocera-based and diatom models have successfully been developed (Nazarova et al., 2008, 2011; Self et al., 2011) and can be used for precise paleotemperature reconstructions (Kienast et al., 2011). In summer 2012, we investigated complex of Kharbei lakes, located in the interfluve of Korotaiha and Bolshaya Rogovaya rivers in the east side of Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia (67°33'22″ N, 62°53'23″ E). Six different lakes were investigated using modern hydrobiological and palaeoecological methods. In total 9 cores were obtained, cut, dated and further investigated using sedimenthological, geochemical, and paleobiological methods. The standard hydrobiological methods have shown that the modern zooplankton communities did not change significantly during the last 40 years. Taxonomic composition and structure of planktonic communities didn't change, except for appearance of crustaceans Polyarthra euryptera and Daphnia cucullata. In planktonic communities of Bolshoy Harbei lake we revealed 39 species and forms of Rotifera, 19 - Cladocera and 11 - Copepoda. In zoobenthic communities we registered 24 taxonomical groups characteristic for large tundra lakes of the North East of Russia. Chironomids and Oligochaeta are dominant groups of invertebrates. 103 taxa of

  7. Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p <= 0.05). Females scored higher in the preference elements of (a) light, (b) temperature (warmth), (c) authority and (d) auditory (p <= 0.05). Significant differences were found for the elements of sound, warmth, motivation, several ways, and intake between the students with no prior science coursework and those who completed more than one (p <= 0.05). No significant learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p <= 0.05). Students who frequently read science articles scored higher for the elements of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and tactile (p <= 0.05). Conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions were that Latino/Hispanic students need detailed guidance and clearly stated course objectives. The

  8. Climate-driven regime shifts in the biological communities of arctic lakes

    PubMed Central

    Smol, John P.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Birks, H. John B.; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Jones, Vivienne J.; Korhola, Atte; Pienitz, Reinhard; Rühland, Kathleen; Sorvari, Sanna; Antoniades, Dermot; Brooks, Stephen J.; Fallu, Marie-Andrée; Hughes, Mike; Keatley, Bronwyn E.; Laing, Tamsin E.; Michelutti, Neal; Nazarova, Larisa; Nyman, Marjut; Paterson, Andrew M.; Perren, Bianca; Quinlan, Roberto; Rautio, Milla; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Siitonen, Susanna; Solovieva, Nadia; Weckström, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-five paleolimnological records from lakes in the circumpolar Arctic reveal widespread species changes and ecological reorganizations in algae and invertebrate communities since approximately anno Domini 1850. The remoteness of these sites, coupled with the ecological characteristics of taxa involved, indicate that changes are primarily driven by climate warming through lengthening of the summer growing season and related limnological changes. The widespread distribution and similar character of these changes indicate that the opportunity to study arctic ecosystems unaffected by human influences may have disappeared. PMID:15738395

  9. Nitric oxide and nitrous oxide turnover in natural and engineered microbial communities: biological pathways, chemical reactions, and novel technologies

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Frank; Wunderlin, Pascal; Udert, Kai M.; Wells, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an environmentally important atmospheric trace gas because it is an effective greenhouse gas and it leads to ozone depletion through photo-chemical nitric oxide (NO) production in the stratosphere. Mitigating its steady increase in atmospheric concentration requires an understanding of the mechanisms that lead to its formation in natural and engineered microbial communities. N2O is formed biologically from the oxidation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) or the reduction of nitrite (NO−2) to NO and further to N2O. Our review of the biological pathways for N2O production shows that apparently all organisms and pathways known to be involved in the catabolic branch of microbial N-cycle have the potential to catalyze the reduction of NO−2 to NO and the further reduction of NO to N2O, while N2O formation from NH2OH is only performed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In addition to biological pathways, we review important chemical reactions that can lead to NO and N2O formation due to the reactivity of NO−2, NH2OH, and nitroxyl (HNO). Moreover, biological N2O formation is highly dynamic in response to N-imbalance imposed on a system. Thus, understanding NO formation and capturing the dynamics of NO and N2O build-up are key to understand mechanisms of N2O release. Here, we discuss novel technologies that allow experiments on NO and N2O formation at high temporal resolution, namely NO and N2O microelectrodes and the dynamic analysis of the isotopic signature of N2O with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS). In addition, we introduce other techniques that use the isotopic composition of N2O to distinguish production pathways and findings that were made with emerging molecular techniques in complex environments. Finally, we discuss how a combination of the presented tools might help to address important open questions on pathways and controls of nitrogen flow through complex microbial communities that eventually lead to N2O build

  10. Spatial variation in the littoral vertebrate community of a reservoir relative to physical and biological gradients

    PubMed Central

    Soski, Jessica J.; Roosenburg, Willem M.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs possess gradients in conditions and resources along their long (deep-shallow) axis, but the response of littoral vertebrates (fish and turtles) to these gradients is poorly understood. We have quantified the littoral vertebrate communities throughout a small reservoir in Southeastern Ohio during July and August using traps, and related community composition to environmental variables using NMDS ordination. Ordination revealed that fish and turtles were broadly separated in ordination space, and three distinctly different environmental gradients were significantly associated with the underlying observed species abundances. Observed turtle abundance was explained by measurements of bathymetry, turbidity, and benthic resources, but none of these environmental variables were a reliable predictor of observed fish abundance. Temperature was a poor predictor of observed abundance for both fish and turtles independently, but when fish and turtles were considered together, it became apparent that there were cold areas of the reservoir where observed fish and turtle abundances were different than in other areas of the reservoir. These results suggest that the predictor (environmental) variables we used were appropriate for investigating turtle ecology in reservoirs, but that observed fish abundance is mediated by factors that were not modeled. The efficacy of using traps, the ecological implications of considering fish and turtles together as sympatric and potentially competing species, and directions for future study are discussed. PMID:25538870

  11. Biologic interactions determining geographic range size: a one species response to phylogenetic community structure

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Alsina, Leonel; Villegas-Patraca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Range size variation in closely related species suggests different responses to biotic and abiotic heterogeneity across large geographic regions. Species turnover generates a wide spectrum of species assemblages, resulting in different competition intensities among taxa, creating restrictions as important as environmental constraints. We chose to adopt the widely used phylogenetic relatedness (NRI) measurement to define a metric that depicts competition strength (via phylogenetic similarity), which one focal species confronts in its environment. This new approach (NRIfocal) measures the potential of the community structure effect over performance of a single species. We chose two ecologically similar Peucaea sparrows, which co-occur and have highly dissimilar range size to test whether the population response to competition intensity is different between species. We analyzed the correlation between both Peucaea species population sizes and NRIfocal using data from point counts. Results indicated that the widespread species population size was not associated with NRIfocal, whereas the population of restricted-sized species exhibited a negative relationship with competition intensity. Consequently, a species' sensitivity to competition might be a limiting factor to range expansion, which provides new insights into geographic range analysis and community ecology. PMID:24772275

  12. Effects of heat treatment on microbial communities of granular sludge for biological hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Luca; Favaro, Lorenzo; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Basaglia, Marina; Casella, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Dark fermentation shares many features with anaerobic digestion with the exception that to maximize hydrogen production, methanogens and hydrogen-consuming bacteria should be inhibited. Heat treatment is widely applied as an inoculum pre-treatment due to its effectiveness in inhibiting methanogenic microflora but it may not exclusively select for hydrogen-producing bacteria. This work evaluated the effects of heat treatment on microbial viability and structure of anaerobic granular sludge. Heat treatment was carried out on granular sludge at 100 °C with four residence times (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h). Hydrogen production of treated sludges was studied from glucose by means of batch test at different pH values. Results indicated that each heat treatment strongly influenced the granular sludge resulting in microbial communities having different hydrogen productions. The highest hydrogen yields (2.14 moles of hydrogen per mole of glucose) were obtained at pH 5.5 using the sludge treated for 4 h characterized by the lowest CFU concentration (2.3 × 10(3)CFU/g sludge). This study demonstrated that heat treatment should be carefully defined according to the structure of the sludge microbial community, allowing the selection of highly efficient hydrogen-producing microbes.

  13. From biological to program efficacy: promoting dialogue among the research, policy, and program communities.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most.

  14. From Biological to Program Efficacy: Promoting Dialogue among the Research, Policy, and Program Communities12

    PubMed Central

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most. PMID:24425719

  15. Development of a Knowledgebase to Integrate, Analyze, Distribute, and Visualize Microbial Community Systems Biology Data

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, Jillian

    2015-01-15

    We have developed a flexible knowledgebase system, ggKbase, (http://gg.berkeley.edu), to enable effective data analysis and knowledge generation from samples from which metagenomic and other ‘omics’ data are obtained. Within ggKbase, data can be interpreted, integrated and linked to other databases and services. Sequence information from complex metagenomic samples can be quickly and effectively resolved into genomes and biologically meaningful investigations of an organism’s metabolic potential can then be conducted. Critical features make analyses efficient, allowing analysis of hundreds of genomes at a time. The system is being used to support research in multiple DOE-relevant systems, including the LBNL SFA subsurface science biogeochemical cycling research at Rifle, Colorado. ggKbase is supporting the research of a rapidly growing group of users. It has enabled studies of carbon cycling in acid mine drainage ecosystems, biologically-mediated transformations in deep subsurface biomes sampled from mines and the north slope of Alaska, to study the human microbiome and for laboratory bioreactor-based remediation investigations.

  16. Diversity patterns, ecology and biological activities of fungal communities associated with the endemic macroalgae across the Antarctic peninsula.

    PubMed

    Furbino, Laura E; Godinho, Valéria M; Santiago, Iara F; Pellizari, Franciane M; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Junior, Policarpo A S; Romanha, Alvaro J; Carvalho, Amanda G O; Gil, Laura H V G; Rosa, Carlos A; Minnis, Andrew M; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed diversity patterns and engaged in bioprospecting for bioactive compounds of fungi associated with the endemic macroalgae, Monostroma hariotii and Pyropia endiviifolia, in Antarctica. A total of 239 fungal isolates were obtained, which were identified to represent 48 taxa and 18 genera using molecular methods. The fungal communities consisted of endemic, indigenous and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, which displayed high diversity and richness, but low dominance indices. The extracts of endemic and cold-adapted fungi displayed biological activities and may represent sources of promising prototype molecules to develop drugs. Our results suggest that macroalgae along the marine Antarctic Peninsula provide additional niches where fungal taxa can survive and coexist with their host in the extreme conditions. We hypothesise that the dynamics of richness and dominance among endemic, indigenous and cold-adapted cosmopolitan fungal taxa might be used to understand and model the influence of climate change on the maritime Antarctic mycota.

  17. Icecolors`93: Biological weighting function for the ultraviolet inhibition of carbon fixation in a natural antarctic phytoplankton community

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, N.; Prezelin, B.B.; Evens, T.

    1994-12-31

    The goals of the Icecolors 1993 expedition were (1) to develop a space/time climatology of incident and penetrating spectral irradiance for the southern oceans, (2) to quantify the ultraviolet (UV) dependency of primary production for pelagic and substrate-associated antarctic phytoplankton communities, and (3) to determine the UV inhibition effects on key target sites. The study was conducted at Palmer Station, Antarctica, prior to the opening of the ozone `hole` and during the onset of depletion of ozone, the most severe ever recorded over the Antarctic Peninsula. This paper discusses results from an experiment designed to estimate a biological weight function for primary production inhibition in Antarctic phytoplankton under natural irradiance. The newly derived function is presented and it is shown that the sensitivity of in situ phytoplankton to ambient UV-B at the end of winter was greater than that measured under artificial light conditions for temperate marine phytoplankton and terrestrial plants. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Community proteogenomics highlights microbial strain-variant protein expression within activated sludge performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmes, P; Andersson, Anders F.; Lefsrud, Mark G; Wexler, Margaret; Shah, Manesh B; Zhang, B; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Bond, P. L.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2008-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) selects for polyphosphate accumulating organisms to achieve phosphate removal from wastewater. We used highresolution community proteomics to identify key metabolic pathways in "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis"-mediated EBPR and to evaluate the contributions of co- 5 existing strains within the dominant population. Results highlight the importance of denitrification, fatty acid cycling and the glyoxylate bypass in EBPR. Despite overall strong similarity in protein profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, fatty acid degradation proteins were more abundant during the anaerobic phase. By comprehensive genome-wide alignment of orthologous proteins, we uncovered strong 10 functional partitioning for enzyme variants involved in both core-metabolism and EBPR-specific pathways among the dominant strains. These findings emphasize the importance of genetic diversity in maintaining the stable performance of EBPR systems and demonstrate the power of integrated cultivation-independent genomics and proteomics for analysis of complex biotechnological systems.

  19. Some Like it High! Phylogenetic Diversity of High-Elevation Cyanobacterial Community from Biological Soil Crusts of Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Čapková, Kateřina; Hauer, Tomáš; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The environment of high-altitudinal cold deserts of Western Himalaya is characterized by extensive development of biological soil crusts, with cyanobacteria as dominant component. The knowledge of their taxonomic composition and dependency on soil chemistry and elevation is still fragmentary. We studied the abundance and the phylogenetic diversity of the culturable cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae in soil crusts along altitudinal gradients (4600-5900 m) at two sites in the dry mountains of Ladakh (SW Tibetan Plateau and Eastern Karakoram), using both microscopic and molecular approaches. The effects of environmental factors (altitude, mountain range, and soil physico-chemical parameters) on the composition and biovolume of phototrophs were tested by multivariate redundancy analysis and variance partitioning. Both phylogenetic diversity and composition of morphotypes were similar between Karakorum and Tibetan Plateau. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed strains belonging to at least five genera. Besides clusters of common soil genera, e.g., Microcoleus, Nodosilinea, or Nostoc, two distinct clades of simple trichal taxa were newly discovered. The most abundant cyanobacterial orders were Oscillatoriales and Nostacales, whose biovolume increased with increasing elevation, while that of Chroococales decreased. Cyanobacterial species richness was low in that only 15 morphotypes were detected. The environmental factors accounted for 52 % of the total variability in microbial data, 38.7 % of which was explained solely by soil chemical properties, 14.5 % by altitude, and 8.4 % by mountain range. The elevation, soil phosphate, and magnesium were the most important predictors of soil phototrophic communities in both mountain ranges despite their different bedrocks and origin. The present investigation represents a first record on phylogenetic diversity of the cyanobacterial community of biological soil crusts from Western Himalayas and first record

  20. Effects of Altered Temperature & Precipitation on Soil Bacterial & Microfaunal Communities as Mediated by Biological Soil Crusts

    SciTech Connect

    Neher, Deborah A.

    2004-08-31

    With increased temperatures in our original pot study we observed a decline in lichen/moss crust cover and with that a decline in carbon and nitrogen fixation, and thus a probable decline of C and N input into crusts and soils. Soil bacteria and fauna were affected negatively by increased temperature in both light and dark crusts, and with movement from cool to hot and hot to hotter desert climates. Crust microbial biomass and relative abundance of diazotrophs was reduced greatly after one year, even in pots that were not moved from their original location, although no change in diazotroph community structure was observed. Populations of soil fauna moved from cool to hot deserts were affected more negatively than those moved from hot to hotter deserts.

  1. Biological community structure on patch reefs in Biscayne National Park, FL, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Brock, John C.; Hickey, T. Don

    2010-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystem management benefits from continual quantitative assessment of the resources being managed, plus assessment of factors that affect distribution patterns of organisms in the ecosystem. In this study, we investigate the relationships among physical, benthic, and fish variables in an effort to help explain the distribution patterns of organisms on patch reefs within Biscayne National Park, FL, USA. We visited a total of 196 randomly selected sampling stations on 12 shallow (<10 m) patch reefs and measured physical variables (e.g., substratum rugosity, substratum type) and benthic and fish community variables. We also incorporated data on substratum rugosity collected remotely via airborne laser surveying (Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar—EAARL). Across all stations, only weak relationships were found between physical, benthic cover, and fish assemblage variables. Much of the variance was attributable to a “reef effect,” meaning that community structure and organism abundances were more variable at stations among reefs than within reefs. However, when the reef effect was accounted for and removed statistically, patterns were detected. Within reefs, juvenile scarids were most abundant at stations with high coverage of the fleshy macroalgae Dictyota spp., and the calcified alga Halimeda tuna was most abundant at stations with low EAARL rugosity. Explanations for the overwhelming importance of “reef” in explaining variance in our dataset could include the stochastic arrangement of organisms on patch reefs related to variable larval recruitment in space and time and/or strong historical effects due to patchy disturbances (e.g., hurricanes, fishing), as well as legacy effects of prior residents (“priority” effects).

  2. Biological Filtration Limits Carbon Availability and Affects Downstream Biofilm Formation and Community Structure†

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chee Meng; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2006-01-01

    Carbon removal strategies have gained popularity in the mitigation of biofouling in water reuse processes, but current biofilm-monitoring practices based on organic-carbon concentrations may not provide an accurate representation of the in situ biofilm problem. This study evaluated a submerged microtiter plate assay for direct and rapid monitoring of biofilm formation by subjecting the plates to a continuous flow of either secondary effluent (SE) or biofilter-treated secondary effluent (BF). This method was very robust, based on a high correlation (R2 = 0.92) between the biomass (given by the A600 in the microtiter plate assay) and the biovolume (determined from independent biofilms developed on glass slides under identical conditions) measurements, and revealed that the biomasses in BF biofilms were consistently lower than those in SE biofilms. The influence of the organic-carbon content on the biofilm community composition and succession was further evaluated using molecular tools. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed a group of pioneer colonizers, possibly represented by Sphingomonadaceae and Caulobacter organisms, to be common in both SE and BF biofilms. However, differences in organic-carbon availabilities in the two water samples eventually led to the selection of distinct biofilm communities. Alphaproteobacterial populations were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization to be enriched in SE biofilms, while Betaproteobacteria were dominant in BF biofilms. Cloning analyses further demonstrated that microorganisms adapted for survival under low-substrate conditions (e.g., Aquabacterium, Caulobacter, and Legionella) were preferentially selected in the BF biofilm, suggesting that carbon limitation strategies may not achieve adequate biofouling control in the long run. PMID:16957184

  3. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  4. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C.; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L.; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally-trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. Despite intrinsic constraints on our study imposed by a community setting, these findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making) to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity and may inform the

  5. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally-trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. Despite intrinsic constraints on our study imposed by a community setting, these findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making) to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity and may inform the

  6. Impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the bacterial communities of biological activated carbon filter intended for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhiyuan, Liu; Shuili, Yu; Heedeung, Park; Qingbin, Yuan; Guicai, Liu; Qi, Li

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are inevitably present in the aquatic environment owing to their increasing production and use. However, knowledge of the potential effects of TiO2 NPs on the treatment of drinking water is scarce. Herein, the effects of two types of anatase TiO2 NPs (TP1, 25 nm; TP2, 100 nm) on the bacterial community in a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter were investigated via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis, ATP quantification, and 454 pyrosequencing analysis. Both TP1 and TP2 significantly inhibited the bacterial ATP level (p < 0.01) and induced a decrease in the abundance of bacterial 16S rDNA gene copies at doses of 0.1 and 100 mg L(-1). Simultaneously, the diversity and evenness of the bacterial communities were considerably reduced. The relative abundances of bacteria annotated to OTUs from Nitrospira class and Betaproteobacteria class decreased upon TiO2 NP treatment, whereas those of Bacilli class and Gammaproteobacteria class increased. TiO2 NP size showed a greater effect on the bacterial composition than did the dose based on Bray-Curtis distances. These findings identified negative effects of TiO2 NPs on the bacterial community in the BAC filter. Given the fact that BAC filters are used widely in drinking water treatment plants, these results suggested a potential threat by TiO2 NP to drinking water treatment system.

  7. Identification of migratory bird flyways in North America using community detection on biological networks.

    PubMed

    Buhnerkempe, Michael G; Webb, Colleen T; Merton, Andrew A; Buhnerkempe, John E; Givens, Geof H; Miller, Ryan S; Hoeting, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Migratory behavior of waterfowl populations in North America has traditionally been broadly characterized by four north-south flyways, and these flyways have been central to the management of waterfowl populations for more than 80 yr. However, previous flyway characterizations are not easily updated with current bird movement data and fail to provide assessments of the importance of specific geographical regions to the identification of flyways. Here, we developed a network model of migratory movement for four waterfowl species, Mallard (Anas platyrhnchos), Northern Pintail (A. acuta), American Green-winged Teal (A. carolinensis), and Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), in North America, using bird band and recovery data. We then identified migratory flyways using a community detection algorithm and characterized the importance of smaller geographic regions in identifying flyways using a novel metric, the consolidation factor. We identified four main flyways for Mallards, Northern Pintails, and American Green-winged Teal, with the flyway identification in Canada Geese exhibiting higher complexity. For Mallards, flyways were relatively consistent through time. However, consolidation factors revealed that for Mallards and Green-winged Teal, the presumptive Mississippi flyway was potentially a zone of high mixing between other flyways. Our results demonstrate that the network approach provides a robust method for flyway identification that is widely applicable given the relatively minimal data requirements and is easily updated with future movement data to reflect changes in flyway definitions and management goals.

  8. Accessing novel conoidean venoms: Biodiverse lumun-lumun marine communities, an untapped biological and toxinological resource.

    PubMed

    Seronay, Romell A; Fedosov, Alexander E; Astilla, Mary Anne Q; Watkins, Maren; Saguil, Noel; Heralde, Francisco M; Tagaro, Sheila; Poppe, Guido T; Aliño, Porfirio M; Oliverio, Marco; Kantor, Yuri I; Concepcion, Gisela P; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2010-12-15

    Cone snail venoms have yielded pharmacologically active natural products of exceptional scientific interest. However, cone snails are a small minority of venomous molluscan biodiversity, the vast majority being tiny venomous morphospecies in the family Turridae. A novel method called lumun-lumun opens access to these micromolluscs and their venoms. Old fishing nets are anchored to the sea bottom for a period of 1-6months and marine biotas rich in small molluscs are established. In a single lumun-lumun community, we found a remarkable gastropod biodiversity (155 morphospecies). Venomous predators belonging to the superfamily Conoidea (36 morphospecies) were the largest group, the majority being micromolluscs in the family Turridae. We carried out an initial analysis of the most abundant of the turrid morphospecies recovered, Clathurella (Lienardia) cincta (Dunker, 1871). In contrast to all cDNA clones characterized from cone snail venom ducts, one of the C. cincta clones identified encoded two different peptide precursors presumably translated from a single mRNA. The prospect of easily accessing so many different morphospecies of venomous marine snails raises intriguing toxinological possibilities: the 36 conoidean morphospecies in this one net alone have the potential to yield thousands of novel pharmacologically active compounds.

  9. Biological monitoring for mercury within a community with soil and fish contamination.

    PubMed Central

    Harnly, M; Seidel, S; Rojas, P; Fornes, R; Flessel, P; Smith, D; Kreutzer, R; Goldman, L

    1997-01-01

    To assess the impact of elevated levels of inorganic mercury in soil and dust and organic mercury in fish, biological monitoring was conducted among Native Americans living next to an inactive mercury mine in Clear Lake, California. Of resident tribal members, 46% (n = 56) participated in biomonitoring. Urine mercury levels are equivalent to background, indicating that soil and dust exposures among study participants are not substantial. The average blood organic mercury level among study participants is 15.6 +/- 8.8 micrograms/l (n = 44), which is higher than levels reported by others among those who do not consume fish (2 micrograms/l). Consistent with results from other studies, a correlation between fish consumption and blood organic mercury is observed (p = 0.03). The margin between observed and established adverse effect levels for adults is examined for blood organic mercury and found to be less than 10-fold for 20% of the study population. Protective public health efforts for the study population and other similarly exposed populations, notably those who consume commercial fish products, are considered. Images Figure 1. PMID:9189708

  10. Geochemistry of pore-fluids related to the distribution of the biological communities on the giant Regab pockmark, off Gabon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Prunelé, A.; Caprais, J.; Ruffine, L.; Cassarino, L.; Guyader, V.; Bollinger, C.; Ondréas, H.; Donval, J.; Olu, K.; Geli, L. B.; Cunningham, K. L.; Cauquil, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Regab pockmark is a giant structure located at 3200 m water depth offshore Gabon and ~ 10 km north to the deep Congo channel (Zaïre canyon) (Gay et al. 2006; Ondréas et al. 2005). It has been visited for the first time in 2000 during the Zairov cruise. Since that time, several scientific cruises have allowed further investigations of this pockmark. The last cruise, WACS, for West Africa Cold Seeps, in January- February 2010, was undertaken on board the R/V ';Pourquoi Pas?' with the aim of identifying changes which can occur over time on this pockmark. Besides intensive ROV dives, three calypso cores and several push cores have been collected to better understand the relationships between the distribution of the living communities and the pore-fluids chemistry. In two calypso cores one collected within the pockmark and one outside, and both in areas without visible biological communities, pore-fluids profiles of dissolved elements (Alk, SO42-, Mn2+, Fe2+) show that degradation of organic matter is occurring and likely plays an important role in the sulfate reduction (Froelich et al. 1979). Methane was not detected. The Analysis of the pore-fluids by Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) has shown the presence of alcohols, acid and phenol. These molecules are likely related to the degradation of organic matter and/or the production of the biological communities. Further investigations are ongoing to provide us with a clearer picture regarding the source of these molecules. The third calypso core collected in the northeast part of the pockmark containing gas hydrates. Sulfate profiles from the push cores show significant difference from one community to another. The analyses of both major and minor dissolved elements, along with molecular and isotopic methane concentration measurements are in progress for the push cores. The latter was done using a new analyzer G2201-i from Picarro for which new methods applied to pore-fluids has

  11. Petroleum contamination impact on macrobenthic communities under the influence of an oil refinery: Integrating chemical and biological multivariate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, Natalia; Muniz, Pablo; Bícego, Márcia C.; Martins, César C.; Tommasi, Luiz Roberto

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum contamination impact on macrobenthic communities in the northeast portion of Todos os Santos Bay was assessed combining in multivariate analyses, chemical parameters such as aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon indices and concentration ratios with benthic ecological parameters. Sediment samples were taken in August 2000 with a 0.05 m 2 van Veen grab at 28 sampling locations. The predominance of n-alkanes with more than 24 carbons, together with CPI values close to one, and the fact that most of the stations showed UCM/resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons ratios (UCM:R) higher than two, indicated a high degree of anthropogenic contribution, the presence of terrestrial plant detritus, petroleum products and evidence of chronic oil pollution. The indices used to determine the origin of PAH indicated the occurrence of a petrogenic contribution. A pyrolytic contribution constituted mainly by fossil fuel combustion derived PAH was also observed. The results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis performed with chemical data and benthic ecological descriptors demonstrated that not only total PAH concentrations but also specific concentration ratios or indices such as ≥C24:communities within the study area. According to the BIO-ENV results petroleum related variables seemed to have a main influence on macrofauna community structure. The PCA ordination performed with the chemical data resulted in the formation of three groups of stations. The decrease in macrofauna density, number of species and diversity from groups III to I seemed to be related to the occurrence of high aliphatic hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations associated with fine sediments. Our results showed that macrobenthic communities in the northeast portion of Todos os Santos Bay are subjected to the impact of chronic oil pollution as was reflected by the reduction in the number of species and diversity. These results

  12. Regional constraints to biological nitrogen fixation in post-fire forest communities.

    PubMed

    Yelenik, Stephanie; Perakis, Steven; Hibbs, David

    2013-03-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key ecological process that can restore nitrogen (N) lost in wildfire and shape the pace and pattern of post-fire forest recovery. To date, there is limited information on how climate and soil fertility interact to influence different pathways of BNF in early forest succession. We studied asymbiotic (forest floor and soil) and symbiotic (the shrub Ceanothus integerrimus) BNF rates across six sites in the Klamath National Forest, California, USA. We used combined gradient and experimental phosphorus (P) fertilization studies to explore cross-site variation in BNF rates and then related these rates to abiotic and biotic variables. We estimate that our measured BNF rates 22 years after wildfire (6.1-12.1 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) are unlikely to fully replace wildfire N losses. We found that asymbiotic BNF is P limited, although this is not the case for symbiotic BNF in Ceanothus. In contrast, Ceanothus BNF is largely driven by competition from other vegetation: in high-productivity sites with high potential evapotranspiration (Et), shrub biomass is suppressed as tree biomass increases. Because shrub biomass governed cross-site variation in Ceanothus BNF, this competitive interaction led to lower BNF in sites with high productivity and Et. Overall, these results suggest that the effects of nutrients play a larger role in driving asymbiotic than symbiotic fixation across our post-fire sites. However, because symbiotic BNF is 8-90x greater than asymbiotic BNF, it is interspecific plant competition that governs overall BNF inputs in these forests.

  13. Regional constraints to biological nitrogen fixation in post-fire forest communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yelenik, Stephanie; Perakis, Steven S.; Hibbs, David

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key ecological process that can restore nitrogen (N) lost in wildfire and shape the pace and pattern of post-fire forest recovery. To date, there is limited information on how climate and soil fertility interact to influence different pathways of BNF in early forest succession. We studied asymbiotic (forest floor and soil) and symbiotic (the shrub Ceanothus integerrimus) BNF rates across six sites in the Klamath National Forest, California, USA. We used combined gradient and experimental phosphorus (P) fertilization studies to explore cross-site variation in BNF rates and then related these rates to abiotic and biotic variables. We estimate that our measured BNF rates 22 years after wildfire (6.1–12.1 kg N·ha-1·yr-1) are unlikely to fully replace wildfire N losses. We found that asymbiotic BNF is P limited, although this is not the case for symbiotic BNF in Ceanothus. In contrast, Ceanothus BNF is largely driven by competition from other vegetation: in high-productivity sites with high potential evapotranspiration (Et), shrub biomass is suppressed as tree biomass increases. Because shrub biomass governed cross-site variation in Ceanothus BNF, this competitive interaction led to lower BNF in sites with high productivity and Et. Overall, these results suggest that the effects of nutrients play a larger role in driving asymbiotic than symbiotic fixation across our post-fire sites. However, because symbiotic BNF is 8–90x greater than asymbiotic BNF, it is interspecific plant competition that governs overall BNF inputs in these forests.

  14. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  15. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  16. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  17. Life, Learning, and Community: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Biology. AAHE's Series on Service-Learning in the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, David C., Ed.; Ostroff, Joel H., Ed.

    This volume is the 18th in a series of monographs on service learning and the academic disciplines. The articles in this volume provide an array of service learning courses in biology that demonstrate active student participation in thoughtfully organized service experiences that meet real community needs and are integrated with the students'…

  18. Microfauna communities as performance indicators for an A/O Shortcut Biological Nitrogen Removal moving-bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Canals, O; Salvadó, H; Auset, M; Hernández, C; Malfeito, J J

    2013-06-01

    The microfauna communities present in the mixed liquor and biofilm of an Anoxic/Oxic Shortcut Biofilm Nitrogen Removal moving-bed biofilm process were characterised in order to optimise process control through the use of bioindicators. The system operated at high ammonium concentrations, with an average of 588 ± 220 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1) in the influent, 161 ± 80 mg L(-1) in the anoxic reactor and 74 ± 71.2 mg L(-1) in the aerobic reactor. Up to 20 different taxa were identified, including ciliates (4), flagellates (11), amoebae (4) and nematodes (1). Compared to conventional wastewater treatment processes (WWTPs), this process can be defined as a flagellates-predominant system with a low diversity of ciliates. Flagellates were mainly dominant in the mixed liquor, demonstrating high tolerance to ammonium and the capacity for survival over a long time under anoxic conditions. The data obtained provide interesting values of maximum and minimum tolerance ranges to ammonium, nitrates and nitrites for the ciliate species Cyclidium glaucoma, Colpoda ecaudata, Vorticella microstoma-complex and Epistylis cf. rotans. The last of these was the only ciliate species that presented a constant and abundant population, almost exclusively in the aerobic biofilm. Epistylis cf. rotans dynamics showed a high negative correlation with ammonium variations and a positive correlation with ammonium removal efficiency. Hence, the results indicate that Epistylis cf. rotans is a good bioindicator of the nitrification process in this system. The study of protozoan communities in unexplored WWTPs sheds light on species ecology and their role under conditions that have been little studied in WWTPs, and could offer new biological management tools.

  19. The effects of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve chitosan microspheres on sludge bacterial community structures during sewage biological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fei; Liu, Wen; Yu, Yang; Yin, Xianze; Wang, Qingrong; Zheng, Ziyan; Wu, Min; Zhao, Dongye; Zhang, Qiu; Lei, Xiaoman; Xia, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve chitosan microspheres (Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS) on anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities during sewage biological treatment. The addition of Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS (0.25 g/L) resulted in enhanced levels of operational performance for decolourization dye X-3B. However, degradation dye X-3B inhibition in the presence of Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS was recorded as greater than or equal to 1.00 g/L. Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene showed that 108 genera were observed during the anaerobic process, while only 71 genera were observed during the aerobic process. The largest genera (Aequorivita) decreased from 21.14% to 12.65% and the Pseudomonas genera increased from 10.57% to 12.96% according to the abundance in the presence of 0.25 g/L Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS during the anaerobic process. The largest Gemmatimonas genera decreased from 21.46% to 11.68% and the Isosphaerae genera increased from 5.8% to 11.98% according to the abundance in the presence of 0.25 g/L Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS during the aerobic process. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the valence states of Mn and Fe in Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS changed during sewage biological treatment. PMID:27869226

  20. The effects of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve chitosan microspheres on sludge bacterial community structures during sewage biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fei; Liu, Wen; Yu, Yang; Yin, Xianze; Wang, Qingrong; Zheng, Ziyan; Wu, Min; Zhao, Dongye; Zhang, Qiu; Lei, Xiaoman; Xia, Dongsheng

    2016-11-21

    This study examines the effects of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve chitosan microspheres (Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS) on anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities during sewage biological treatment. The addition of Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS (0.25 g/L) resulted in enhanced levels of operational performance for decolourization dye X-3B. However, degradation dye X-3B inhibition in the presence of Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS was recorded as greater than or equal to 1.00 g/L. Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene showed that 108 genera were observed during the anaerobic process, while only 71 genera were observed during the aerobic process. The largest genera (Aequorivita) decreased from 21.14% to 12.65% and the Pseudomonas genera increased from 10.57% to 12.96% according to the abundance in the presence of 0.25 g/L Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS during the anaerobic process. The largest Gemmatimonas genera decreased from 21.46% to 11.68% and the Isosphaerae genera increased from 5.8% to 11.98% according to the abundance in the presence of 0.25 g/L Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS during the aerobic process. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the valence states of Mn and Fe in Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS changed during sewage biological treatment.

  1. The effects of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve chitosan microspheres on sludge bacterial community structures during sewage biological treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Fei; Liu, Wen; Yu, Yang; Yin, Xianze; Wang, Qingrong; Zheng, Ziyan; Wu, Min; Zhao, Dongye; Zhang, Qiu; Lei, Xiaoman; Xia, Dongsheng

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the effects of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve chitosan microspheres (Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS) on anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities during sewage biological treatment. The addition of Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS (0.25 g/L) resulted in enhanced levels of operational performance for decolourization dye X-3B. However, degradation dye X-3B inhibition in the presence of Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS was recorded as greater than or equal to 1.00 g/L. Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene showed that 108 genera were observed during the anaerobic process, while only 71 genera were observed during the aerobic process. The largest genera (Aequorivita) decreased from 21.14% to 12.65% and the Pseudomonas genera increased from 10.57% to 12.96% according to the abundance in the presence of 0.25 g/L Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS during the anaerobic process. The largest Gemmatimonas genera decreased from 21.46% to 11.68% and the Isosphaerae genera increased from 5.8% to 11.98% according to the abundance in the presence of 0.25 g/L Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS during the aerobic process. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the valence states of Mn and Fe in Fe3O4@OMS-2@CTS changed during sewage biological treatment.

  2. Biological interactions and their role in community structure in the rocky intertidal of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janke, Klaus

    1990-06-01

    of F. serratus, herbivores such as L. littorea and L. mariae, and increasing number of predators such as Carcinus), the feeding activity of herbivores can neither prevent the settlement of the fucoid sporelings nor reduce the growth of macroalgae. F. serratus achieved a total canopy on the rock within one year. Doubled density of herbivores prevented the settlement of Fucus and most of the undercover algae. Predation by Carcinus on Littorina spp. had little influence on the herbivore community patterns. However, the crabs supported the establishment of macroalgae by excluding the mussels from the lower intertidal. In summary, the community organization and maintenance in the mid and lower intertidal is influenced to a high degree by biological interactions. Whereas both the relatively important herbivory by L. littorea and competition for space between mussels and macroalgae dominate in the mid intertidal, predation reaches its highest relative degree of importance for community structure in the lower intertidal.

  3. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  4. Ask the experts: chromatographic baselines.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; James, Christopher A; Scott, Rebecca; Woolf, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Bioanalysis invited a selection of leading researchers to express their views on chromatographic baseline assignment in the bioanalytical laboratory. The topics discussed include the challenges presented with ensuring automated baseline assignment is correct, when reintegration is necessary, regulation and consistency in terminology. Their enlightening responses provide a valuable insight into developing an industry consensus towards reintegration. An accompanying commentary article in this issue, authored by Howard Hill and colleagues (Huntingdon Life Sciences), provides background to this much debated topic.

  5. Parasites as Biological Tags for Stock Discrimination of Beaked Redfish (Sebastes mentella): Parasite Infra-Communities vs. Limited Resolution of Cytochrome Markers.

    PubMed

    Klapper, Regina; Kochmann, Judith; O'Hara, Robert B; Karl, Horst; Kuhn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The use of parasites as biological tags for discrimination of fish stocks has become a commonly used approach in fisheries management. Metazoan parasite community analysis and anisakid nematode population genetics based on a mitochondrial cytochrome marker were applied in order to assess the usefulness of the two parasitological methods for stock discrimination of beaked redfish Sebastes mentella of three fishing grounds in the North East Atlantic. Multivariate, model-based approaches demonstrated that the metazoan parasite fauna of beaked redfish from East Greenland differed from Tampen, northern North Sea, and Bear Island, Barents Sea. A joint model (latent variable model) was used to estimate the effects of covariates on parasite species and identified four parasite species as main source of differences among fishing grounds; namely Chondracanthus nodosus, Anisakis simplex s.s., Hysterothylacium aduncum, and Bothriocephalus scorpii. Due to its high abundance and differences between fishing grounds, Anisakis simplex s.s. was considered as a major biological tag for host stock differentiation. Whilst the sole examination of Anisakis simplex s.s. on a population genetic level is only of limited use, anisakid nematodes (in particular, A. simplex s.s.) can serve as biological tags on a parasite community level. This study confirmed the use of multivariate analyses as a tool to evaluate parasite infra-communities and to identify parasite species that might serve as biological tags. The present study suggests that S. mentella in the northern North Sea and Barents Sea is not sub-structured.

  6. Effects of water temperature and backwashing on bacterial population and community in a biological activated carbon process at a water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Yun, Jeonghee; Hong, Sung-Ho; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial community dynamics was examined in an actual biological activated carbon (BAC) process for four consecutive seasons, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. The BAC stably removed organic carbons for the period, although the water temperature substantially varied over the study period. Neither the population density nor community organization was correlated with time and temperature. However, the similarity degree between communities significantly reduced with time and temperature differences. Community analyses indicated that the community evolved over time, resulting in four distinct groups, and that the abundances of particular bacteria were significantly correlated with time and temperature, as well as their interaction. Additionally, backwashing did not affect the BAC bacterial population, community organization (diversity, evenness, and richness), or composition, although backwashing dislodged a large number of bacteria from the BAC (≈10(15) · m(-3)). These results suggest that water temperature is an important factor driving community dynamics and that backwashing is a harmless management option for biomass control.

  7. Case studies of community college non-science majors: Effects of self-regulatory interventions on biology self-efficacy and biological literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Matthew J.

    Science literacy has been at the heart of current reform efforts in science education. The focus on developing essential skills needed for individual ability to be literate in science has been at the forefront of most K--12 science curricula. Reform efforts have begun to stretch into the postsecondary arena as well, with an ever increasing dialogue regarding the need for attention to science literacy by college students, especially non-science majors. This study set out to investigate how the use of self-regulatory interventions (specifically, goal setting, concept mapping, and reflective writing) affected student biology self-efficacy and biological literacy. This study employed a qualitative research design, analyzing three case studies. Participants in the study received ten self-regulatory interventions as a set of portfolio assignments. Portfolio work was qualitatively analyzed and coded for self-efficacy, as well as evidence of biological literacy. A biology self-efficacy survey was administered pre- and post- to provide a means of self-efficacy data triangulation. Literacy data was supported via a biological literacy rubric, constructed specifically for this study. Results indicated that mastery experiences were the source of biology self-efficacy. Self-efficacy for specific tasks increased over time, and changes in self-efficacy were corroborated by the self-efficacy survey. Students were found to express biological literacy at nominal, functional, or conceptual levels depending on the specific task. This was supported by data from the biological literacy rubric scores. Final conclusions and implications for the study indicated the need for further research with more samples of students in similar and different contexts. Given the fact that the literature in this area is sparse, the results obtained here have only begun to delve into this area of research. Generalization to other biology courses or contexts outside of the one presented in this study was

  8. Study of biological communities subject to imperfect detection: Bias and precision of community N-mixture abundance models in small-sample situations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamaura, Yuichi; Kery, Marc; Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Community N-mixture abundance models for replicated counts provide a powerful and novel framework for drawing inferences related to species abundance within communities subject to imperfect detection. To assess the performance of these models, and to compare them to related community occupancy models in situations with marginal information, we used simulation to examine the effects of mean abundance (λ¯: 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5), detection probability (p¯: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5), and number of sampling sites (n site : 10, 20, 40) and visits (n visit : 2, 3, 4) on the bias and precision of species-level parameters (mean abundance and covariate effect) and a community-level parameter (species richness). Bias and imprecision of estimates decreased when any of the four variables (λ¯, p¯, n site , n visit ) increased. Detection probability p¯ was most important for the estimates of mean abundance, while λ¯ was most influential for covariate effect and species richness estimates. For all parameters, increasing n site was more beneficial than increasing n visit . Minimal conditions for obtaining adequate performance of community abundance models were n site  ≥ 20, p¯ ≥ 0.2, and λ¯ ≥ 0.5. At lower abundance, the performance of community abundance and community occupancy models as species richness estimators were comparable. We then used additive partitioning analysis to reveal that raw species counts can overestimate β diversity both of species richness and the Shannon index, while community abundance models yielded better estimates. Community N-mixture abundance models thus have great potential for use with community ecology or conservation applications provided that replicated counts are available.

  9. Changes in lake levels, salinity and the biological community of Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), 1847-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Great Salt Lake is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world, with an area of about 6000 square kilometers at its historic high elevation. Since its historic low elevation of 1277.52 meters in 1963, the lake has risen to a new historic high elevation of 1283.77 meters in 1986-1987, a net increase of about 6.25 meters. About 60 percent of this increase, 3.72 meters, has occurred since 1982 in response to greater than average precipitation and less than average evaporation. Variations in salinity have resulted in changes in the composition of the aquatic biological community which consists of bacteria, protozoa, brine shrimp and brine flies. These changes were particularly evident following the completion of a causeway in 1959 which divided the lake. Subsequent salinities in the north part of the lake have ranged from 16 to 29 percent and in the south part from 6 to 28 percent. Accompanying the rise in lake elevation from 1982 to 1987 have been large decreases in salinity of both parts of the lake. This has resulted in changes in the biota from obligate halophiles, such as Dunaliella salina and D. viridis, to opportunistic forms such as a blue-green alga (Nodularia spumigena). The distribution and abundance of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in the lake also have followed closely the salinity. In 1986, when the salinity of the south part of the lake was about 6 percent, a population of brackish-water killifish (Lucania parva) was observed along the shore near inflow from a spring. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  10. Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jing-Jy

    1995-12-31

    RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses.

  11. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    An Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) is a review of a supplier?s Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). It is conducted by Program/Project Managers and their technical staffs on contracts and in-house work requiring compliance with NASA Earned Value Management System (EVMS) policy as defined in program/project policy, NPR 7120.5, or in NASA Federal Acquisition Regulations. The IBR Handbook may also be of use to those responsible for preparing the Terms of Reference for internal project reviews. While risks may be identified and actions tracked as a result of the IBR, it is important to note that an IBR cannot be failed.

  12. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    registers in which the main spike of the MUAP occupies the central position) [1]; or else just give the BL a zero level (system ground). We regard...a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC

  13. Changing tides for Lake Erie: the biogeochemical evolution of a Laurentian Great Lake and implications for biological communities of the future (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, S.; Steffen, M.; Belisle, B. S.; Dearth, S.; Campbell, M.; Boyer, G. L.; Watson, S.; Bourbonniere, R. A.; DeBruyn, J.; Campagna, S.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Erie is perhaps the most anthropogenically influenced of all the Laurentian Great Lakes. The history of the lake clearly demonstrates one where external loads of phosphorous drove primary production to a point where the lake was declared dead in the 1970's. The lake however, is also one of the greatest environmental success stories, as abatement programs had seen this system begin to return to health until the mid-1990's. In recent years, however, new cyanobacterial blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis have dominated the water column in late-summer months. Driven by a combination of changes in water column chemistry and regional climate, Lake Erie is no longer predictably P-limited through summer months and in some cases experiments have clearly shown that within the lake primary productivity is now N-limited. Experimentally, our goal has been to couple water column geochemistry with biomolecular pathways in cells to have the biology tell us which elements are driving community structure and function. Using community level transcriptomics and metabolomics, our observations suggest that changes in the chemical species of nitrogen, and especially the presence of urea, may be controlling the biological community structure of microbial communities in Lake Erie and may in part shape the extent of toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Moreover, data from multiple sampling surveys now demonstrates that additives designed to shape nutrient use in terrestrial environments may be influencing nitrogen cycles within the lake. Coupled to historical data sets dating back decades, we will discuss how seemingly minor alterations in system geochemistry over time have major biological implications for regional stakeholders. MODIS image of Lake Erie algal bloom in 2012

  14. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-II: Assessing Community Awareness of Legionnaires' Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Shakra, Amal

    2012-01-01

    For a university service learning educational research project addressing Legionnaires' disease (LD), a Yes/No questionnaire on community awareness of LD was developed and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The 456 questionnaires completed by the participants were sorted into yes and no sets based on responses obtained to…

  15. Mujeres en Accion: Design and Baseline Data

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Julie; Perez, Adriana; Belyea, Michael; Castro, Felipe G.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of programs designed to promote physical activity in older Hispanic women includes few innovative theory-based interventions that address cultural relevant strategies. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and baseline data for Mujeres en Accion, a physical activity intervention to increase regular physical activity, and cardiovascular health outcomes among older Hispanic women. Mujeres en Accion [Women in Action for Health], a 12 month randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a social support physical activity intervention in midlife and older Hispanic women. This study tests an innovative intervention, Mujeres en Accion, and includes the use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, explores social support as a theoretical mediating variable, use of a Promotora model and a Community Advisory group to incorporate cultural and social approaches and resources, and use of objective measures of physical activity in Hispanic women. PMID:21298400

  16. The biology of Salt Wells Creek and its tributaries, southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engelke, Morris J.

    1978-01-01

    A description of aquatic organisms and biological communities is presented for Salt Wells Creek, a plains stream in the Green River basin. The description includes seasonal population fluctuations of benthic organisms and algae, the food pyramid, and nutrient relations between various types of plants and animals. The algae and stream invertebrates were studied to determine baseline data and biological indicators of water quality. (Woodard-USGS).

  17. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Malbet, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share an interest in long baseline stellar interferometry. It was established in 1995 and is the focus of activity of the IAU Working Group on Optical/Infrared Interferometry. Here you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, news items, recent papers and preprints, and resources for further research. The email news forum was established in 2001 to complement the website and to facilitate exchanges and collaborations. The forum includes an email exploder and an archived list of discussions. You are invited to explore the forum and website at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov. Work by PRL was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...Catalogue STK System Toolkit TA Technical Authority DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February 2015 F-1 5758-001

  19. Dilution and the elusive baseline.

    PubMed

    Likens, Gene E; Buso, Donald C

    2012-04-17

    Knowledge of baseline conditions is critical for evaluating quantitatively the effect of human activities on environmental conditions, such as the impact of acid deposition. Efforts to restore ecosystems to prior, "pristine" condition require restoration targets, often based on some presumed or unknown baseline condition. Here, we show that rapid and relentless dilution of surface water chemistry is occurring in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, following decades of acid deposition. Extrapolating measured linear trends using a unique data set of up to 47 years, suggest that both precipitation and streamwater chemistry (r(2) >0.84 since 1985) in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) will approximate demineralized water within one to three decades. Because such dilute chemistry is unrealistic for surface waters, theoretical baseline compositions have been calculated for precipitation and streamwater: electrical conductivity of 3 and 5 μS/cm, base cation concentrations of 7 and 39 μeq/liter, acid-neutralizing capacity values of <1 and 14 μeq/liter, respectively; and pH 5.5 for both. Significantly large and rapid dilution of surface waters to values even more dilute than proposed for Pre-Industrial Revolution (PIR) conditions has important ecological, biogeochemical and water resource management implications, such as for the success of early reproductive stages of aquatic organisms.

  20. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  1. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic

  2. Extracting data from the muck: deriving biological insight from complex microbial communities and non-model organisms with next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Kevin V; Haitjema, Charles H; Thompson, Dawn A; O'Malley, Michelle A

    2014-08-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that microbes within microbial communities, for which cultured isolates have not yet been obtained, have an immense, untapped reservoir of enzymes that could help address grand challenges in human health, energy, and sustainability. Despite the obstacles associated with culturing these microbes, recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have made it possible to explore complex microbial communities in their native context for the first time. Key to extracting meaning from rapidly growing NGS datasets are bioinformatics tools that assemble the sequence data, annotate homologous sequences and interrogate it to reveal regulatory patterns. Complementing this are advances in proteomics that can link NGS data to biological function. This combination of next generation sequencing, proteomics and bioinformatic analysis forms a powerful tool to study non-model microbes, which will transform what we know about these dynamic systems.

  3. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-19

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We will proceed from the rst evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research

  4. Environmental Baseline File: National Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-22

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipmnents of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

  5. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  6. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  7. The Bacterial Communities of Full-Scale Biologically Active, Granular Activated Carbon Filters Are Stable and Diverse and Potentially Contain Novel Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hope Wilkinson, Katheryn; Strait, Jacqueline M.; Hozalski, Raymond M.; Sadowksy, Michael J.; Hamilton, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition of the full-scale biologically active, granular activated carbon (BAC) filters operated at the St. Paul Regional Water Services (SPRWS) was investigated using Illumina MiSeq analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. These bacterial communities were consistently diverse (Shannon index, >4.4; richness estimates, >1,500 unique operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) throughout the duration of the 12-month study period. In addition, only modest shifts in the quantities of individual bacterial populations were observed; of the 15 most prominent OTUs, the most highly variable population (a Variovorax sp.) modulated less than 13-fold over time and less than 8-fold from filter to filter. The most prominent population in the profiles was a Nitrospira sp., representing 13 to 21% of the community. Interestingly, very few of the known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB; <0.07%) and no ammonia-oxidizing Archaea were detected in the profiles. Quantitative PCR of amoA genes, however, suggested that AOB were prominent in the bacterial communities (amoA/16S rRNA gene ratio, 1 to 10%). We conclude, therefore, that the BAC filters at the SPRWS potentially contained significant numbers of unidentified and novel ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms that possess amoA genes similar to those of previously described AOB. PMID:26209671

  8. Understanding the performance of microbial community induced by ZnO nanoparticles in enhanced biological phosphorus removal system and its recoverability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhetai; Lu, Xuanyu; Sun, Peide; Hu, Zhirong; Wang, Ruyi; Lou, Chengke; Han, Jingyi

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the impacts of ZnO Nanoparticles (NPs) on the microbial community in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system and its recoverability were investigated. High-throughput sequencing was applied to study the microbial community shift. Results show that the species richness in the EBPR system was reduced under the condition of ZnO NPs with high concentration (above 6mg/L). Evolution analysis suggests that higher concentration ZnO NPs induced more microbial community shift. According to the analysis on genus level, Competibacter was more impressionable than Accumulibacter after exposure to 2mg/L ZnO NPs. Nonetheless, this phenomenon could not be found as the concentration of ZnO NPs got higher (above 6mg/L). Accumulibacter could reach to the initial level after recover for 20days, whereas Competibacter could not recover even when the concentration of ZnO NPs was only 2mg/L. Interestingly, although the phosphorus removal (P-removal) process was re-achieved, the microbial community in reactors was irreversible.

  9. The Bacterial Communities of Full-Scale Biologically Active, Granular Activated Carbon Filters Are Stable and Diverse and Potentially Contain Novel Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    LaPara, Timothy M; Hope Wilkinson, Katheryn; Strait, Jacqueline M; Hozalski, Raymond M; Sadowksy, Michael J; Hamilton, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial community composition of the full-scale biologically active, granular activated carbon (BAC) filters operated at the St. Paul Regional Water Services (SPRWS) was investigated using Illumina MiSeq analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. These bacterial communities were consistently diverse (Shannon index, >4.4; richness estimates, >1,500 unique operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) throughout the duration of the 12-month study period. In addition, only modest shifts in the quantities of individual bacterial populations were observed; of the 15 most prominent OTUs, the most highly variable population (a Variovorax sp.) modulated less than 13-fold over time and less than 8-fold from filter to filter. The most prominent population in the profiles was a Nitrospira sp., representing 13 to 21% of the community. Interestingly, very few of the known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB; <0.07%) and no ammonia-oxidizing Archaea were detected in the profiles. Quantitative PCR of amoA genes, however, suggested that AOB were prominent in the bacterial communities (amoA/16S rRNA gene ratio, 1 to 10%). We conclude, therefore, that the BAC filters at the SPRWS potentially contained significant numbers of unidentified and novel ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms that possess amoA genes similar to those of previously described AOB.

  10. "Do I Need to Know This for the Exam?" Using Popular Media, Inquiry-based Laboratories, and a Community of Scientific Practice to Motivate Students to Learn Developmental Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuri, Marga; Broussard, Christine

    2008-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges instructors face is getting students to connect with the subject in a manner that encourages them to learn. In this essay, we describe the redesign of our Developmental Biology course to foster a deeper connection between students and the field of developmental biology. In our approach, we created a community of…

  11. Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Soil Biological Properties in Mined Dune Areas During Re-vegetation.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Indra Elena C; Santos, Vilma M; da Silva, Danielle Karla A; Fernandes, Marcelo F; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T; Maia, Leonor C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of re-vegetation on the restoration of microbial community structure and soil microbiological properties in sand dunes that had been affected by mining activity. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons from a chronosequence (1, 9, 21 years) of re-vegetated dunes using a single preserved dune as a reference. The composition of the fatty acid methyl esters and soil microbial properties were evaluated. The results showed that the changes in microbial community structure were related to seasonal variations: biomarkers of Gram-positive bacteria were higher than Gram-negative bacteria during the dry season, showing that this group of organisms is more tolerant to these stressful conditions. The microbial community structure in the natural dune was less affected by seasonal variation compared to the re-vegetated areas, whereas the opposite was observed for microbiological properties. Thus, in general, the proportion of saprobic fungi was higher in the natural dune, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were proportionally more common in the younger areas. Although over time the re-vegetation allows the recovery of the microbial community and the soil functions, these communities and functions are different from those found in the undisturbed areas.

  12. Baseline experiments in teleoperator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III; Mixon, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Studies have been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to establish baseline human teleoperator interface data and to assess the influence of some of the interface parameters on human performance in teleoperation. As baseline data, the results will be used to assess future interface improvements resulting from this research in basic teleoperator human factors. In addition, the data have been used to validate LaRC's basic teleoperator hardware setup and to compare initial teleoperator study results. Four subjects controlled a modified industrial manipulator to perform a simple task involving both high and low precision. Two different schemes for controlling the manipulator were studied along with both direct and indirect viewing of the task. Performance of the task was measured as the length of time required to complete the task along with the number of errors made in the process. Analyses of variance were computed to determine the significance of the influences of each of the independent variables. Comparisons were also made between the LaRC data and data taken earlier by Grumman Aerospace Corp. at their facilities.

  13. FED baseline engineering studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  14. Agricultural Baseline (BL0) scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Maggie R.; Hellwinckel, Chad M; Eaton, Laurence; Turhollow, Anthony; Brandt, Craig; Langholtz, Matthew H.

    2016-07-13

    Scientific reason for data generation: to serve as the reference case for the BT16 volume 1 agricultural scenarios. The agricultural baseline runs from 2015 through 2040; a starting year of 2014 is used. Date the data set was last modified: 02/12/2016 How each parameter was produced (methods), format, and relationship to other data in the data set: simulation was developed without offering a farmgate price to energy crops or residues (i.e., building on both the USDA 2015 baseline and the agricultural census data (USDA NASS 2014). Data generated are .txt output files by year, simulation identifier, county code (1-3109). Instruments used: POLYSYS (version POLYS2015_V10_alt_JAN22B) supplied by the University of Tennessee APAC The quality assurance and quality control that have been applied: • Check for negative planted area, harvested area, production, yield and cost values. • Check if harvested area exceeds planted area for annuals. • Check FIPS codes.

  15. Biological baseline of joint self-repair procedures.

    PubMed

    Di Nicola, Valerio; Pierpaoli, Walter

    2013-07-01

    Gel-Repairer is a biomaterial composed of Polydeoxyribonucleotides (Pdrn), Heat Shock Proteins (Hsps) and a thickening substance. It works as a local mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) stimulator, finally generating connective tissue renewal. Our research is within the field of regenerative medicine and has historically built its foundation from the studies carried out on non-vital amnion and placental membranes. Our end point is the activation and stimulation of the local mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the structural recovery of the joint involved in the degenerative process. Since 2003, we have been applying the Gel Repairer over more than 1200 patients, most of them elderly, affected by Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD). After 10 years of clinical experience, the results are really impressive, including the absence of toxicity, adverse reactions or side effects. Our clinical findings allowed the presentation of a clinical preliminary study performed on a large group of patients from 2003 to 2009 and recently published [1]. The following article is aimed at looking into the mechanism of action of the Joint Self-Repair procedure; furthermore some new technical opportunities are presented on tissue engineering advances in this fast evolving sector.

  16. Kootenai River Biological Baseline Status Report : Annual Report, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Diana

    1997-02-01

    The Kootenai River ecosystem in Idaho, Montana and British Columbia (B.C.) Canada has been severely degraded during the past 50 years. This aquatic ecosystem has changed from one that was culturally eutrophic, to one that is oligotrophic due to channelization, diking, impoundment (construction and operation of Libby Dam), and pollution abatement measures in the watershed. As a result of these influences, flow regimes, temperature patterns, and water quality were altered, resulting in changes in primary production and aquatic insect and fish populations. Construction of Libby Dam (creation of Lake Koocanusa) and closure of Cominco`s fertilizer plant resulted in decreased phosphorus load to the Kootenai River to below historical levels. Dissolved orthophosphorus concentrations averaged 0.383 mg/L in 1970 as compared to 0.039 mg/L in 1979. Total phosphorus concentrations followed a similar pattern. Both total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations remained below 0.05 mg/L from 1976 to 1994, characterizing the river as oligotrophic. Post Libby Dam primary productivity levels in the river represent an ultra-oligotrophic to mesotrophic system. Since the construction and operation of Libby Dam, invertebrate densities immediately downstream from the dam increased, but species diversity decreased. Insect diversity increased with increasing distance from the dam, but overall species diversity was lower than would be expected in a free-flowing river. Fish species composition and abundance has also changed as a result of the changes in the river and its watershed.

  17. The biology/disease-driven human proteome project (B/D-HPP): enabling protein research for the life sciences community.

    PubMed

    Aebersold, Ruedi; Bader, Gary D; Edwards, Aled M; van Eyk, Jennifer E; Kussmann, Martin; Qin, Jun; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2013-01-04

    The biology and disease oriented branch of the Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) was established by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) with the main goal of supporting the broad application of state-of the-art measurements of proteins and proteomes by life scientists studying the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and human disease. This will be accomplished through the generation of research and informational resources that will support the routine and definitive measurement of the process or disease relevant proteins. The B/D-HPP is highly complementary to the C-HPP and will provide datasets and biological characterization useful to the C-HPP teams. In this manuscript we describe the goals, the plans, and the current status of the of the B/D-HPP.

  18. Baseline Test Specimen Machining Report

    SciTech Connect

    mark Carroll

    2009-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. Establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis is one of the major fundamental objectives of the project. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al, 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing on

  19. Biological Treatment of Ammonia-Rich Wastewaters by Natural Microbial Communities in the ATOXIC/ASSET Purification System

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Fisher, L. Suzanne; Brodie, Greg A; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes along with high throughput 454 pyrosequencing technology were used to identify microbial communities present at a novel passive wastewater treatment system designed to remove ammonium, nitrate, and heavy metals from fossil plant effluents. Seasonal changes in microbial community composition were observed, however significant (p=0.001) changes were detected in bacterial and archaeal communities consistent with ammonium removal throughout the treatment systems. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed presence of potential ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, Planctomycetes, and OD1. Other bacteria, such as Nitrospira, Nitrococcus, Nitrobacter, Thiobacillus, -Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, which play roles in nitrification and denitrification, were also detected. The relative abundance of the potential ammonium-oxidizing archaea (AOA) (Thermoprotei within the phylum Crenarchaeota) increased with ammonium availability at the splitter box and zero-valent iron extraction trenches even though AOB removed half of the ammonium in the trickling filters at the beginning of the treatment system. The microbial community removed the ammonium from the wastewater within both pilot-scale treatment systems, thus the treatment system components provided an effective environment for the treatment of ammonium enriched wastewater from coal burning power plants equipped with selective catalytic reducers for nitrogen oxide removal.

  20. Null Models for Everyone: A Two-Step Approach to Teaching Null Model Analysis of Biological Community Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Declan J.; Knight, Evelyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Since being introduced by Connor and Simberloff in response to Diamond's assembly rules, null model analysis has been a controversial tool in community ecology. Despite being commonly used in the primary literature, null model analysis has not featured prominently in general textbooks. Complexity of approaches along with difficulty in interpreting…

  1. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  2. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, Fabien; Mella, Guillaume; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-07-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  3. Crusts: biological

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  4. IMPACTS OF VEGETATION DYNAMICS ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF LAND COVER CHANGE IN A BIOLOGICALLY COMPLEX COMMUNITY IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A land-cover (LC) change detection experiment was performed in the biologically complex landscape of the Neuse Rive Basin (NRB), NC using Landsat 5 and 7 imagery collected in May of 1993 and 2000. Methods included pixel-wise Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Mult...

  5. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O'Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  6. Insights into functional genes and taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities in biological heap leaching system and their correlation with functions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Xueduan; Liang, Yili; Niu, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Xian; Ma, Liyuan; Hao, Xiaodong; Gu, Yabin; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-11-01

    Although the taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities in biological heap leaching systems has been investigated, the diversity of functional genes was still unclear, and, especially, the differentiation and the relationships of diversity and functions of microbial communities in leaching heap (LH) and leaching solution (LS) were also still unclear. In our study, a functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) was employed to investigate the functional gene diversity, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to explore the taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities in LH and LS subsystems of Dexing copper mine (Jiangxi, China). Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) showed that both functional gene structure and taxonomical/phylogenetic structure of microbial communities were significantly different between LH and LS. Signal intensities of genes, including genes for sulfur oxidation (e.g., soxB), metal homeostasis (e.g., arsm), carbon fixation (e.g., rubisco), polyphosphate degradation (e.g., ppk), and organic remediation (e.g., hydrocarbons) were significantly higher in LH, while signal intensities of genes for carbon degradation (e.g., amyA), polyphosphate synthesis (e.g., ppx), and sulfur reduction (e.g., dsrA) were significantly higher in LS. Further inspection revealed that microbial communities in LS and LH were dominated by Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum. However, rare species were relatively higher abundant in LH. Additionally, diversity index of functional genes was significantly different in LS (9.915 ± 0.074) and LH (9.781 ± 0.165), and the taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity index was also significantly different in LH (4.398 ± 0.508) and LS (3.014 ± 0.707). Functional tests, including sulfur-oxidizing ability, iron-oxidizing ability, and pyrite bioleaching ability, showed that all abilities of microbial communities were significantly stronger in LH than those in LS. Further studies found that most key genes (e

  7. Nearshore biological communities prior to the removal of the Elwha River dams: Chapter 6 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Miller, Ian M.; Elder, Nancy; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    (3–18 m) near the mouth of the Elwha River, between the west end of Freshwater Bay and the base of Ediz Hook, were surveyed in August and September 2008, to establish baselines prior to dam removal. Density was estimated for 9 kelp taxa, 65 taxa of invertebrates larger than 2.5 cm any dimension and 24 fish taxa. Density averaged over all sites was 3.1 per square meter (/m2) for kelp, 2.7/m2 for invertebrates, and 0.1/m2 for fish. Community structure was partly controlled by substrate type, seafloor relief, and depth. On average, 12 more taxa occurred where boulders were present compared to areas lacking boulders but with similar base substrate. Four habitat types were identified: (1) Bedrock/boulder reefs had the highest kelp density and taxa richness, and were characterized by a canopy of Nereocystis leutkeana (bull kelp) at the water surface and a secondary canopy of perennial kelp 1–2 m above the seafloor; (2) Mixed sand and gravel-cobble habitats with moderate relief provided by boulders had the highest density of invertebrates and a taxa richness nearly equivalent to that for bedrock/boulder reefs; (3) Mixed sand and gravel-cobble habitats lacking boulders supported a moderate density of kelp, primarily annual species with low growth forms (blades close to the seafloor), and the lowest invertebrate density among habitats; and (4) Sand habitats had the lowest kelp density and taxa richness among habitats and a moderate density of invertebrates. Uncertainties about nearshore community responses to increases in deposited and suspended sediments highlight the opportunity to advance scientific understanding by measuring responses following dam removal.

  8. Urban-Related Environmental Variables and Their Relation with Patterns in Biological Community Structure in the Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Evans, Erin E.; Stogner, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to evaluate the influence of urbanization on stream ecosystems. To accomplish this task, invertebrate, fish, stream discharge, habitat, water-chemistry, and land-use data were collected from 13 sites in the Fountain Creek basin from 2003 to 2005. The Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate hydrologic indices known to be related to urbanization. Response of stream hydrology to urbanization was evident among hydrologic variables that described stormflow. These indices included one measurement of high-flow magnitude, two measurements of high-flow frequency, and one measurement of stream flashiness. Habitat and selected nonstormflow water chemistry were characterized at each site. Land-use data were converted to estimates of impervious surface cover and used as the measure of urbanization annually. Correlation analysis (Spearman?s rho) was used to identify a suite of nonredundant streamflow, habitat, and water-chemistry variables that were strongly associated (rho > 0.6) with impervious surface cover but not strongly related to elevation (rho < 0.60). An exploratory multivariate analysis (BIO-ENV, PRIMER ver 6.1, Plymouth, UK) was used to create subsets of eight urban-related environmental variables that described patterns in biological community structure. The strongest and most parsimonious subset of variables describing patterns in invertebrate community structure included high flood pulse count, lower bank capacity, and nutrients. Several other combinations of environmental variables resulted in competing subsets, but these subsets always included the three variables found in the most parsimonious list. This study found that patterns in invertebrate community structure from 2003 to 2005 in the Fountain Creek basin were associated with a variety of environmental characteristics influenced by urbanization. These patterns were explained by a combination of

  9. Benthic community and biological trait composition in respect to artificial coastal defence structures: a study case in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Munari, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) is a method for addressing ecological functioning based on traits exhibited by members of biological assemblages. This study explores and compares species and biological trait patterns on either side (landward and seaward) of coastal breakwater structures in northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy), with the aim of giving insights and knowledge for management of sandy beach systems affected by coastal development. Eight ecological traits of 96 benthic species were considered. Taxon composition evidenced differences in benthic assemblages across time and exposure: landward and seaward communities shared less than 50% of the total number of species. BTA suggested a no-management effect in the functioning of benthic assemblages. Dominant traits modalities were deposit-feeding, short life, small body size, short life span, iteroparity, gonocorism, with plankto-planktotrophic larvae. The results of BTA highlighted similarities and stability in trait composition contrary to species composition, suggesting a possible persistence in benthic functioning despite the occurrence of species replacements. To best of my knowledge, this study is one of the first attempts to investigate the effects of a management measure (submerged shore-parallel barriers with groynes) in a shallow marine system by means of BTA.

  10. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes.

    PubMed

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  11. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B.

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  12. A Call for a Community of Practice to Assess the Impact of Emerging Technologies on Undergraduate Biology Education †

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie L.; Dario-Becker, Juville; Hughes, Lee E.; Amburn, D. Sue Katz; Shaw, Joyce A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent recommendations for educational research encourage empirically tested, theory-based, completely transparent, and broadly applicable studies. In light of these recommendations, we call for a research standard and community of practice in the evaluation of technology use in the undergraduate life science classroom. We outline appropriate research methodology, review and critique the past research on technology usage and, lastly, suggest a new and improved focus for research on emerging technologies. PMID:23653777

  13. Characterization of the current biological communities within the Nanticoke River in the vicinity of the Vienna SES

    SciTech Connect

    Stroup, C.F.; Brindley, A.; Kazyak, P.F.

    1991-07-01

    Pursuant to a utility's intent to file for permission to build a generating station along the Nanticoke River, Maryland, a field program was conducted to update characterizations of major aquatic biota of the river in proximity to the existing power plant and a potential intake/discharge location. This characterization sampled five stations on the Nanticoke River, spanning 14 miles from Chapter Point to Riverton, between July 1988 and October 1989. During the study period, the juvenile and adult fish community was dominated by white perch, Atlantic menhaden, bay anchovy, hogchoker, and spot. Spring ichthyoplankton was composed of white perch, striped bass, yellow perch, and alosids, while summer ichthyoplankton was dominated by naked gobies and bay anchovy. Acartia tonsa, Eurytemora affinis and Bosmina longirostris dominated zooplankton samples. The phytoplankton community was composed primarily of diatoms, green algae, and monads. Polychaetes and crustaceans were the dominant macrobenthic taxa, with molluscs contributing to total abundance primarily during spring recruitment. The final report presents the results of fish, ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic surveys conducted between July 1988 and October 1989 in the middle portion of the Nanticoke River, Maryland. During the dry conditions of 1988, aquatic communities were dominated by estuarine species, while the lower saline environment of 1989 resulted in the presence of more freshwater species.

  14. The relative significance of biological and physical disturbance: an example from intertidal and subtidal sandy bottom communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, Thomas

    1991-10-01

    The effects of biological disturbance caused by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.) on the abundance of the macrobenthic fauna were investigated at three subtidal stations (0·5 m, 12 m and 19 m water depth) in Kiel Bay (western Baltic) and on an intertidal flat in the German Wadden Sea. Different effects of biological disturbance were observed (1) between funnel and cast of the lugworm burrow, (2) among stations, (3) between seasons, and (4) among taxa and groups of different living mode of the macrofauna. The strength of the impact of A. marina on the abundance of a certain macrobenthic species depends on three factors: (1) species behaviour and living mode, (2) A. marina activity, and (3) hydrodynamic conditions. In general, the most distinct effects were observed at the intertidal station during summer, followed by the two deeper subtidal stations. At the very shallow station, only weak effects were detected.

  15. Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet

    SciTech Connect

    Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the

  16. Biological-Community Composition in Small Streams and its Relations to Habitat, Nutrients, and Land Use in Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes in Indiana and Ohio, 2004, and Implications for Assessing Nutrient Conditions in Midwest Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caskey, Brian J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate algal-, invertebrate-, and fish-community composition to habitat, nutrients, and land-use variables in small streams in agriculturally dominated landscapes of the Midwest in Indiana and Ohio. Thirty sample locations were selected from a single ecoregion; all were small wadable streams within agriculturally dominated landscapes with similar substrate and canopy. Biological and nutrient samples were collected during stable flow conditions in August 2004. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine which variables most influenced each community. Total phosphorus concentrations significantly influenced the depositional-targeted habitat algal-diatom community and the richest-targeted habitat invertebrate community. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that habitat variables were more influential to the richest-targeted habitat algal-diatom and fish communities than nutrient concentrations. Although the nutrient concentrations measured during this study indicate that most streams were not eutrophic, the biological communities were dominated by eutrophic species, suggesting streams sampled were eutrophic. Consequently, it was concluded that biological relations to nutrients in agriculturally dominated landscapes are complex and habitat variables should be included in biological assessments of nutrient conditions in agriculturally dominated landscapes.

  17. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  18. SUGV baseline autonomy using ROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Ethan; Sadler, Laurel; Baran, David

    2011-05-01

    Currently, the 3000+ robotic systems fielded in theater are entirely teleoperated. This constant dependence on operator control introduces several problems, including a large cognitive load on the operator and a limited ability for the operator to maintain an appropriate level of situational awareness of his surroundings. One solution to reduce the dependence on teleoperation is to develop autonomous behaviors for the robot to reduce the strain on the operator. We consider mapping and navigation to be fundamental to the development of useful field autonomy for small unmanned ground vehicles (SUGVs). To this end, we have developed baseline autonomous capabilities for our SUGV platforms, making use of the open-source Robot Operating System (ROS) software from Willow Garage, Inc. Their implementations of mapping and navigation are drawn from the most successful published academic algorithms in robotics. In this paper, we describe how we bridged our previous work with the Packbot Explorer to incorporate a new processing payload, new sensors, and the ROS system configured to perform the high-level autonomy tasks of mapping and waypoint navigation. We document our most successful parameter selection for the ROS navigation software in an indoor environment and present results of a mapping experiment.

  19. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O'Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  20. Shifting Baselines, Science, and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    All of us have a deeply personal concept of nature based upon our childhood perceptions of the world around us, and of the subsequent degradation of nature by the experiences of our lifetimes. Yet even the most rudimentary knowledge of history clearly demonstrates that the modern rise of human population and consumption have wreaked havoc on global ecosystems to the extent that nowhere is close to natural or pristine and that most places have been increasingly degraded over many centuries. This disconnect between direct personal experience and abstract historical perspective is the problem of "shifting baselines" that is the fundamental impediment to basic scientific understanding and environmental policy, and affects scientists as much as the general public, business, and government. Scientists in particular suffer from the inability to directly observe and experimentally verify causes and effects of previous changes in ecosystems that now bear so little resemblance to their natural state. Under the circumstances, it is essential for scientists to draw scientific conclusions based on imperfect data and to publicly explain, defend, and discuss their conclusions as the best possible science given present information. The failure to do so makes science virtually irrelevant to social and environmental policy and government.

  1. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km2, which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought. PMID:28220895

  2. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; McCauley, Douglas J; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven D; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2017-02-21

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km(2), which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought.

  3. Biology Excursions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Provides many useful suggestions and cautions for planning and executing a biology field excursion. Specific procedures are outlined for investigating land communities and coastal areas, and a number of follow-up laboratory activities are described. The appendix provides an extensive bibliography with useful comments on the literature. (JR)

  4. Physical-biological coupling in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica: Influence of physical factors on phytoplankton community structure and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngju; Yang, Eun Jin; Park, Jisoo; Jung, Jinyoung; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-11-01

    To understand the spatial distribution of phytoplankton communities in various habitats in the Amundsen Sea, western Antarctica, a field survey was conducted at 15 stations during the austral summer, from December 2013 to January 2014. Water samples were analyzed by microscopy. We found high phytoplankton abundance and biomass in the Amundsen Sea polynya (ASP). Their strong positive correlation with water temperature suggests that phytoplankton biomass accumulated in the surface layer of the stratified polynya. In the ASP, the predominant phytoplankton species was Phaeocystis antarctica, while diatoms formed a major group in the sea ice zone, especially Fragilariopsis spp., Chaetoceros spp., and Proboscia spp. Although this large diatom abundance sharply decreased just off the marginal sea ice zone, weakly silicified diatoms, due to their high buoyancy, were distributed at almost all stations on the continental shelf. Dictyocha speculum appeared to favor the area between the marginal sea ice zone and the ASP in contrast to cryptophytes and picophytoplankton, whose abundance was higher in the area between the continental shelf and the open ocean of Amundsen Sea. Several environmental factors were found to affect the spatial variation of phytoplankton species, but the community structure appeared to be controlled mainly by the seawater density related to sea-ice melting and water circulation in the Amundsen Sea.

  5. Understanding the impact of influent nitrogen concentration on granule size and microbial community in a granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinte; Li, Yongmei; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Ruyi; Sun, Jing

    2015-02-01

    To better understand the effect of influent nitrogen concentration on granule size and microbial community in a granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system, three influent nitrogen concentrations were tested while carbon concentration was an unlimited factor. The results show that although ammonium and phosphate were well removed in the tested nitrogen concentration range (20-50 mg L(-1)), granule size, the amount of phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and microbial activity were affected significantly. A possible mechanism for the effect of influent nitrogen concentration on granule size is proposed based on the experimental results. The increase in proteins/polysaccharides ratio caused by high influent nitrogen concentration plays a crucial role in granule breakage. The small granule size then weakens simultaneous nitrification-denitrification, which further causes higher nitrate concentration in the effluent and lower amount of PAOs in sludge. Consequently, phosphate concentration in the anaerobic phase decreases, which plays the secondary role in granule breakage.

  6. Physical and biological control of protistan community composition, distribution and abundance in the seasonal ice zone of the Southern Ocean between 30 and 80°E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Andrew T.; Scott, Fiona J.; Nash, Geraldine V.; Wright, Simon W.; Raymond, Ben

    2010-05-01

    Protists are critical components of the Antarctic marine ecosystem as they comprise most of the living carbon and are the base of the Antarctic food web. They are also key determinants of vertical carbon flux and mediate draw-down of atmospheric CO 2 by the ocean. The community composition, abundance and distribution of marine protists (phytoplankton and protozoa) was studied during the Baseline Research on Oceanography, Krill and the Environment-West (BROKE-West) survey, in the seasonal ice zone during the 2005-2006 austral summer between 30°E and 80°E. Light and electron microscopy were used to determine the protistan composition and abundance in samples obtained at 30 sites from surface waters and at 26 sites from the depth of the maximum in situ chlorophyll fluorescence (Chl max). Cluster analysis was used to identify 5 groups of sample sites at the surface and 5 at the Chl max that were of similar protist composition and abundance. The physical characteristics, taxonomic composition, indicator taxa, and taxonomic diversity were determined for each group. In the southwest, a bloom of colonial Phaeocystis antarctica dominated the protistan community composition and biomass amongst the receding ice, but this was replaced by the flagellate life stage/s of this haptophyte in waters to the north. In the southeast, a diatom bloom had the highest diversity of protist taxa observed during the survey and centric diatoms dominated the biomass. Outside these blooms, grazing by krill probably reduced the composition and abundance of large diatoms and autotrophic dinoflagellates in coastal to mid-inshore waters. Only in offshore waters did large diatoms and dinoflagellates increase in abundance and diversity, despite low concentrations of iron and silicate at many of these sites. This increase was probably due to reduced top-down control by krill and other large zooplankton. Large diatoms dominated in offshore waters, despite other coincident studies showing that the

  7. Effects of free cyanide on microbial communities and biological carbon and nitrogen removal performance in the industrial activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mo; Lee, Dae Sung; Park, Chul; Park, Donghee; Park, Jong Moon

    2011-01-01

    The changes in process performance and microbial communities under free cyanide (CN(-)) were investigated in a lab-scale activated sludge process treating industrial wastewater. The performance of phenol degradation did not appear to be adversely affected by increases in CN(-) concentrations. In contrast, CN(-) was found to have an inhibitory effect on SCN(-) biodegradation, resulting in the increase of TOC and COD concentrations. Nitratation also appeared to be inhibited at CN(-) concentrations in excess of 1.0 mg/L, confirming that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) is more sensitive to the CN(-) toxicity than ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). After CN(-) loads were stopped, SCN(-) removal, denitrification, and nitrification inhibited by CN(-) were recovered to performance efficiency of more than 98%. The AOB and NOB communities in the aerobic reactor were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length (T-RFLP) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Nitrosomonas europaea lineage was the predominant AOB at all samples during the operation, but an obvious change was observed in the diversity of AOB at the shock loading of 30 and 50 mg/L CN(-), resulting in Nitrosospira sp. becoming dominant. We also observed coexisting Nitrospira and Nitrobacter genera for NOB. The increase of CN(-) loading seemed to change the balance between Nitrospira and Nitrobacter, resulting in the high dominance of Nitrobacter over Nitrospira. Meanwhile, through using the qPCR, it was observed that the nitrite-reducing functional genes (i.e., nirS) were dominant in the activated sludge of the anoxic reactor, regardless of CN(-) loads.

  8. Community assembly of biological soil crusts of different successional stages in a temperate sand ecosystem, as assessed by direct determination and enrichment techniques.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Tanja Margrit; Storm, Christian; Schwabe, Angelika

    2009-08-01

    In temperate regions, biological soil crusts (BSCs: complex communities of cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, bryophytes, and lichens) are not well investigated regarding community structure and diversity. Furthermore, studies on succession are rare. For that reason, the community assembly of crusts representing two successional stages (initial, 5 years old; and stable, >20 years old) were analyzed in an inland sand ecosystem in Germany in a plot-based approach (2 x 18 plots, each 20 x 20 cm). Two different methods were used to record the cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae in these communities comprehensively: determination directly out of the soil and enrichment culture techniques. Additionally, lichens, bryophytes, and phanerogams were determined. We examine four hypotheses: (1) A combination of direct determination and enrichment culture technique is necessary to detect cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae comprehensively. In total, 45 species of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae were detected in the study area with both techniques, including 26 eukaryotic algae and 19 cyanobacteria species. With both determination techniques, 22 identical taxa were detected (11 eukaryotic algae and 11 cyanobacteria). Thirteen taxa were only found by direct determination, and ten taxa were only found in enrichment cultures. Hence, the hypothesis is supported. Additionally, five lichen species (three genera), five bryophyte species (five genera), and 24 vascular plant species occurred. (2) There is a clear difference between the floristic structure of initial and stable crusts. The different successional stages are clearly separated by detrended correspondence analysis, showing a distinct structure of the community assembly in each stage. In the initial crusts, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Klebsormidium cf. klebsii, and Stichococcus bacillaris were important indicator species, whereas the stable crusts are especially characterized by Tortella inclinata. (3) The biodiversity of BSC taxa

  9. Effects of different ratios of glucose to acetate on phosphorus removal and microbial community of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ting; Mo, Chuangrong; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jian; An, Hongxue; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Zhao, Jianwei; Zhong, Yu; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effects of different ratios of glucose to acetate on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) were investigated with regard to the changes of intercellular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen, as well as microbial community. The experiments were carried out in five sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with glucose and/or acetate as carbon sources at the ratios of 0:100 %, 25:75 %, 50:50 %, 75:25 %, and 100:0 %. The experimental results showed that a highest phosphorus removal efficiency of 96.3 % was obtained with a mixture of glucose and acetate at the ratio of 50:50 %, which should be attributed to more glycogen and polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) transformation in this reactor during the anaerobic condition. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of sludge samples taken from different anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) SBRs revealed that microbial community structures were distinctively different with a low similarity between each other.

  10. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%. PMID:15951847

  11. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  12. Student-generated illustrations and written narratives of biological science concepts: The effect on community college life science students' achievement in and attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Robert Christopher

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two conceptually based instructional strategies on science achievement and attitudes of community college biological science students. The sample consisted of 277 students enrolled in General Biology 1, Microbiology, and Human Anatomy and Physiology 1. Control students were comprised of intact classes from the 2005 Spring semester; treatment students from the 2005 Fall semester were randomly assigned to one of two groups within each course: written narrative (WN) and illustration (IL). WN students prepared in-class written narratives related to cell theory and metabolism, which were taught in all three courses. IL students prepared in-class illustrations of the same concepts. Control students received traditional lecture/lab during the entire class period and neither wrote in-class descriptions nor prepared in-class illustrations of the targeted concepts. All groups were equivalent on age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, and number of college credits earned and were blinded to the study. All interventions occurred in class and no group received more attention or time to complete assignments. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) via multiple regression was the primary statistical strategy used to test the study's hypotheses. The model was valid and statistically significant. Independent follow-up univariate analyses relative to each dependent measure found that no research factor had a significant effect on attitude, but that course-teacher, group membership, and student academic characteristics had a significant effect (p < .05) on achievement: (1) Biology students scored significantly lower in achievement than A&P students; (2) Microbiology students scored significantly higher in achievement than Biology students; (3) Written Narrative students scored significantly higher in achievement than Control students; and (4) GPA had a significant effect on achievement. In addition, given p < .08: (1

  13. Process of nitrogen transformation and microbial community structure in the Fe(0)-carbon-based bio-carrier filled in biological aerated filter.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Li, Jinlong

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen pollutants in low-organic carbon wastewater are difficult to biodegrade. Therefore, the Fe(0)-carbon-based bio-carrier (FCBC) was firstly used as hydrogen producer in a biological-aerated filter (BAF) to make up for the lack of organic carbon in biological nitrogen removal. Physical and chemical properties of FCBC were detected and compared in this study. The nitrogen removal rate for low COD/TN ratio wastewater, nitrogen transformation process, and microbial communities in the FCBC filled in BAF were investigated. Results showed that the nitrogen removal rates was 0.38-0.41 kg N m(-3) day(-1) in the FCBC filled BAF and reached 0.62 kg N m(-3) day(-1) within the filter depth of 60-80 cm, under the conditions of the dissolved oxygen 3.5 ± 0.2 mg L(-1) and the inlet pH 7.2 ± 0.1. Hydrogenophaga (using hydrogen as electron donor), Sphaerotilus (absorbing [Fe(3+)]), Nitrospira (nitrificaion), and Nitrosomonas (ammonia oxidation) were found to be the predominant genera in the reactor. The reaction schemes in the FCBC filled in BAF was calculated: hydrogen and [Fe(3+)] were produced by Fe(0)-C galvanic cells in the FCBC, ammonia was oxidized into nitrate by Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira genera, hydrogen was used as electron donors by Hydrogenophaga genus to reduce nitrate into N2, and [Fe(3+)] was partly absorbed by Sphaerotilus and diverted via sludge discharging.

  14. Evaluation of the metabolic diversity of microbial communities in four different filter layers of a constructed wetland with vertical flow by Biolog analysis.

    PubMed

    Salomo, S; Münch, C; Röske, I

    2009-10-01

    The community-level substrate utilization test based on direct incubation of environmental samples in Biolog EcoPlates is a suitable and sensitive tool to characterize microbial communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of plant roots and soil structure on the metabolic diversity of microorganisms in a constructed wetland with vertical flow. Sediment samples were taken from different filter depths representing specific filter layers. The color development representing the substrate utilization was measured with the samples over a period of 10 days. The average well color development (AWCD) for all carbon sources was calculated as an indicator of total activity and in order to compensate the influence of the inoculum's density on the color development in the plates. After transformation by dividing by the AWCD, the optical density data were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). An analysis of the kinetic profile of the AWCD was carried out to increase the analytical power of the method. The corrected data have been successfully fit to the logistic growth equation. Three kinetic model parameters, the asymptote (K), the exponential rate of color change (p) and the time to the midpoint of the exponential portion of the curve (s), were used for statistical analysis of the physiological profile of the microbial community in the different filter layers of the constructed wetland. We found out that in the upper two horizons, which were rooted most densely, mainly easily degradable materials like specific carbohydrates were utilized, while in the lower layers, where only single roots occur, more biochemically inert compounds, e.g. 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, were utilized. Furthermore it could be shown that microorganisms in the surface layer benefited from the plant litter because they can utilize decay products of these. In the lower filter layers specialists took advantage because they had to cope with the biochemically inert materials and

  15. Precision surveying using very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Clark, T. A.; Coates, R.; Ma, C.; Robertson, D. S.; Corey, B. E.; Counselman, C. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Wittels, J. J.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Radio interferometry measurements were used to measure the vector baselines between large microwave radio antennas. A 1.24 km baseline in Massachusetts between the 36 meter Haystack Observatory antenna and the 18 meter Westford antenna of Lincoln Laboratory was measured with 5 mm repeatability in 12 separate experiments. Preliminary results from measurements of the 3,928 km baseline between the Haystack antenna and the 40 meter antenna at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California are presented.

  16. Behind the (impedance) baseline in children.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, S; Salvatoni, A; Van Steen, K; Ummarino, D; Hauser, B; Vandenplas, Y

    2014-01-01

    Impedance baseline is a new parameter recently related to esophageal integrity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different factors on impedance baseline in pediatric patients. We analyzed the impedance baseline of 800 children with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Mean impedance baseline was automatically calculated throughout 24-hour tracings. The presence of different age groups and of esophagitis was evaluated. Unpaired t-test, Spearman rank correlation, polynomial, and regression plot were used for statistical analysis. Age-related percentile curves were created. We considered a P-value<0.05 as statistically significant. Impedance baseline was significantly (P<0.001) lower in younger compared to older children up to 48 months. The mean increase of baseline per month was much higher in the first 36 months of life (47.5 vs. 2.9 Ohm in Channel 1 and 29.9 vs. 2.3 Ohm in Channel 6, respectively) than in older ages. Patients with esophagitis showed significantly decreased impedance baseline (P<0.05). Infants (especially in the first months of life) and young children present a significantly lower impedance baseline compared to older children both in proximal and distal esophagus. The presence of esophagitis may also determine a decreased impedance baseline regardless of the age of the patients.

  17. Effects of land use, stream habitat, and water quality on biological communities of wadeable streams in the Illinois River Basin of Arkansas, 2011 and 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.; Meredith, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    The Illinois River Basin includes an area of diverse land use in northwestern Arkansas. Land-use data collected in 2006 indicate that most of the land in the basin is agricultural. The agricultural land is used primarily for production of poultry and cattle. Eighteen sites were selected from the list of candidate sites based on drainage area, land use, presence or absence of an upstream wastewater-treatment plant, water quality, and other information gathered during the reconnaissance. An important consideration in the process was to select sites along gradients of forest to urban land use and forest to agricultural land use. Water-quality samples were collected for analysis of nutrients, and a multiparameter field meter was used to measure water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Streamflow was measured immediately following the water-quality sampling. Macroalgae coverage was estimated and periphyton, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities were sampled at each site. Stream habitat also was assessed. Many types of land-use, water-quality, and habitat factors affected one or more aspects of the biological communities. Several macroinvertebrate and fish metrics changed in response to changes in percent forest; sites that would be considered most disturbed, based on these metrics, are sites with the highest percentages of urban land use in their associated basins. The presence of large mats of macroalgae was one of the most noticeable biological characteristics in several streams within the Illinois River Basin. The highest macroalgae percent cover values were recorded at four sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants. Macroalgae percent cover was strongly correlated only with bed substrate size, canopy closure, and specific conductance. Periphyton metrics were most often and most strongly correlated with riparian shading, specific conductance, substrate turbidity, percent agriculture, poultry house density, and unpaved road density

  18. Characterization of habitat and biological communities at fixed sites in the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, water years 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albano, Christine M.; Giddings, Elise M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat and biological communities were sampled at 10 sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program to assess the occurrence and distribution of biological organisms in relation to environmental conditions. Sites were distributed among the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River basins and were selected to represent stream conditions in different land-use settings that are prominent within the basins, including agriculture, rangeland, urban, and forested.High-gradient streams had more diverse habitat conditions with larger substrates and more dynamic flow characteristics and were typically lower in discharge than low-gradient streams, which had a higher degree of siltation and lacked variability in geomorphic channel characteristics, which may account for differences in habitat. Habitat scores were higher at high-gradient sites with high percentages of forested land use within their basins. Sources and causes of stream habitat impairment included effects from channel modifications, siltation, and riparian land use. Effects of hydrologic modifications were evident at many sites.Algal sites where colder temperatures, less nutrient enrichment, and forest and rangeland uses dominated the basins contained communities that were more sensitive to organic pollution, siltation, dissolved oxygen, and salinity than sites that were warmer, had higher degrees of nutrient enrichment, and were affected by agriculture and urban land uses. Sites that had high inputs of solar radiation and generally were associated with agricultural land use supported the greatest number of algal species.Invertebrate samples collected from sites where riffles were the richest-targeted habitat differed in species composition and pollution tolerance from those collected at sites that did not have riffle habitat (nonriffle sites), where samples were collected in depositional areas, woody snags, or macrophyte beds

  19. Assessment of Aquatic Biological Communities Along a Gradient of Urbanization in the Willamette Valley Ecoregion, Oregon and Washington.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, I. R.; Arnsberg, A.; Carpenter, K. D.; Rinella, F.; Sobieszczyk, S.; Wigger, I.; Sarantou, M.

    2005-05-01

    From late 2003 through summer 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program sampled 28 streams within the Willamette Basin to investigate effects of urbanization on aquatic biology (fish, macroinvertebrates and algae), habitat, and water chemistry. The 28 watersheds fall along an urban land use gradient index (0 to 100, lowest to highest) based on land use and census data developed for this region. Watershed areas range from 13 to 96 square kilometers and contain greater than 20 percent of the Willamette Valley ecoregion. Ten streams were sampled for water chemistry six times during study period. The other 18 streams were sampled twice for water chemistry-once during high sustained flow, and once during summer low flow. The data will be analyzed to determine relationships to the urban gradient index and for possible detection of threshold responses. Preliminary results indicate that 57 percent of the most urbanized streams contained nonnative fish species, but only 43 percent contained salmonids. Conversely, nonnative fish species were present in 14 percent of the least urbanized streams, whereas salmonids were present in 79 percent of these streams. Population density and water chemistry variables were highly correlated with fish assemblage patterns among sites.

  20. Impacts of nitrate and electron donor on perchlorate reduction and microbial community composition in a biologically activated carbon reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanping; Wu, Min; Gao, Naiyun; Chu, Wenhai; Wang, Shuaifeng

    2016-12-01

    The sensitivity of perchlorate reduction and microbial composition to varied nitrate and acetate loadings was studied in a biologically activated carbon reactor with perchlorate loading and empty bed contact time fixed at 5 mg/L and 226 min, respectively. In stage 1, the sole electron acceptor ClO4(-) realized complete removal with ≥21.95 mg C/L of acetate supply. As nitrate loading gradually increased to 5 mg/L (stage 2), perchlorate reduction was slightly promoted and both ClO4(-) and NO3(-) were completely removed at an acetate loading of 29.7 mg C/L. When nitrate loading continued increasing to 10-60 mg/L (stage 3), perchlorate reduction converted to be inhibited, along with nondetectable NO3(-) and approximately exhausted DOC in effluent. When acetate loading increased to 43.9 mg C/L in stage 4, both ClO4(-) and NO3(-) were again removed, though lags still existed in perchlorate reduction. β-Proteobacteria accounted for about 60%, 55%, 58%, 61% and 12% in samples from the base and top of the filter in stage 1 and those from the base, middle and top in stage 4, respectively. These findings implied that ratio of NO3(-) to ClO4(-) loadings and acetate loading were two key factors impacting ClO4(-) reduction and microbial structure along the filter.

  1. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  2. Physical-Biological Coupling in the Western South China Sea: The Response of Phytoplankton Community to a Mesoscale Cyclonic Eddy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Bangqin; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Liu, Xin; Chen, Bingzhang; Xie, Yuyuan; Xu, Yanping; Hu, Jianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the mesoscale eddies play an important part in the biogeochemical cycle in ocean ecosystem, especially in the oligotrophic tropical zones. So here a heterogeneous cyclonic eddy in its flourishing stage was detected using remote sensing and in situ biogeochemical observation in the western South China Sea (SCS) in early September, 2007. The high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to identify the photosynthetic pigments. And the CHEMical TAXonomy (CHEMTAX) was applied to calculate the contribution of nine phytoplankton groups to the total chlorophyll a (TChl a) biomass. The deep chlorophyll a maximum layer (DCML) was raised to form a dome structure in the eddy center while there was no distinct enhancement for TChl a biomass. The integrated TChl a concentration in the upper 100 m water column was also constant from the eddy center to the surrounding water outside the eddy. However the TChl a biomass in the surface layer (at 5 m) in the eddy center was promoted 2.6-fold compared to the biomass outside the eddy (p < 0.001). Thus, the slight enhancement of TChl a biomass of euphotic zone integration within the eddy was mainly from the phytoplankton in the upper mixed zone rather than the DCML. The phytoplankton community was primarily contributed by diatoms, prasinophytes, and Synechococcus at the DCML within the eddy, while less was contributed by haptophytes_8 and Prochlorococcus. The TChl a biomass for most of the phytoplankton groups increased at the surface layer in the eddy center under the effect of nutrient pumping. The doming isopycnal within the eddy supplied nutrients gently into the upper mixing layer, and there was remarkable enhancement in phytoplankton biomass at the surface layer with 10.5% TChl a biomass of water column in eddy center and 3.7% at reference stations. So the slight increasing in the water column integrated phytoplankton biomass might be attributed to the stimulated phytoplankton biomass at the

  3. Physical-Biological Coupling in the Western South China Sea: The Response of Phytoplankton Community to a Mesoscale Cyclonic Eddy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Bangqin; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Liu, Xin; Chen, Bingzhang; Xie, Yuyuan; Xu, Yanping; Hu, Jianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the mesoscale eddies play an important part in the biogeochemical cycle in ocean ecosystem, especially in the oligotrophic tropical zones. So here a heterogeneous cyclonic eddy in its flourishing stage was detected using remote sensing and in situ biogeochemical observation in the western South China Sea (SCS) in early September, 2007. The high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to identify the photosynthetic pigments. And the CHEMical TAXonomy (CHEMTAX) was applied to calculate the contribution of nine phytoplankton groups to the total chlorophyll a (TChl a) biomass. The deep chlorophyll a maximum layer (DCML) was raised to form a dome structure in the eddy center while there was no distinct enhancement for TChl a biomass. The integrated TChl a concentration in the upper 100 m water column was also constant from the eddy center to the surrounding water outside the eddy. However the TChl a biomass in the surface layer (at 5 m) in the eddy center was promoted 2.6-fold compared to the biomass outside the eddy (p < 0.001). Thus, the slight enhancement of TChl a biomass of euphotic zone integration within the eddy was mainly from the phytoplankton in the upper mixed zone rather than the DCML. The phytoplankton community was primarily contributed by diatoms, prasinophytes, and Synechococcus at the DCML within the eddy, while less was contributed by haptophytes_8 and Prochlorococcus. The TChl a biomass for most of the phytoplankton groups increased at the surface layer in the eddy center under the effect of nutrient pumping. The doming isopycnal within the eddy supplied nutrients gently into the upper mixing layer, and there was remarkable enhancement in phytoplankton biomass at the surface layer with 10.5% TChl a biomass of water column in eddy center and 3.7% at reference stations. So the slight increasing in the water column integrated phytoplankton biomass might be attributed to the stimulated phytoplankton biomass at the

  4. Dynamics of microbial community structure of and enhanced biological phosphorus removal by aerobic granules cultivated on propionate or acetate.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2011-11-01

    Aerobic granules are dense microbial aggregates with the potential to replace floccular sludge for the treatment of wastewaters. In bubble-column sequencing batch reactors, distinct microbial populations dominated propionate- and acetate-cultivated aerobic granules after 50 days of reactor operation when only carbon removal was detected. Propionate granules were dominated by Zoogloea (40%), Acidovorax, and Thiothrix, whereas acetate granules were mainly dominated by Thiothrix (60%). Thereafter, an exponential increase in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activity was observed in the propionate granules, but a linear and erratic increase was detected in the acetate ones. Besides Accumulibacter and Competibacter, other bacterial populations found in both granules were associated with Chloroflexus and Acidovorax. The EBPR activity in the propionate granules was high and stable, whereas EBPR in the acetate granules was erratic throughout the study and suffered from a deterioration period that could be readily reversed by inducing hydrolysis of polyphosphate in presumably saturated Accumulibacter cells. Using a new ppk1 gene-based dual terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach revealed that Accumulibacter diversity was highest in the floccular sludge inoculum but that when granules were formed, propionate readily favored the dominance of Accumulibacter type IIA. In contrast, acetate granules exhibited transient shifts between type I and type II before the granules were dominated by Accumulibacter type IIA. However, ppk1 gene sequences from acetate granules clustered separately from those of propionate granules. Our data indicate that the mere presence of Accumulibacter is not enough to have consistently high EBPR but that the type of Accumulibacter determines the robustness of the phosphate removal process.

  5. Carbon exchange in biological soil crust communities under differential temperatures and soil water contents: implications for global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grote, Edmund E.; Belnap, Jayne; Housman, David C.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2010-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are an integral part of the soil system in arid regions worldwide, stabilizing soil surfaces, aiding vascular plant establishment, and are significant sources of ecosystem nitrogen and carbon. Hydration and temperature primarily control ecosystem CO2 flux in these systems. Using constructed mesocosms for incubations under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined the effect of temperature (5-35 1C) and water content (WC, 20-100%) on CO2 exchange in light cyanobacterially dominated) and dark cyanobacteria/lichen and moss dominated) biocrusts of the cool Colorado Plateau Desert in Utah and the hot Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico. In light crusts from both Utah and New Mexico, net photosynthesis was highest at temperatures 430 1C. Net photosynthesis in light crusts from Utah was relatively insensitive to changes in soil moisture. In contrast, light crusts from New Mexico tended to exhibit higher rates of net photosynthesis at higher soil moisture. Dark crusts originating from both sites exhibited the greatest net photosynthesis at intermediate soil water content (40-60%). Declines in net photosynthesis were observed in dark crusts with crusts from Utah showing declines at temperatures 425 1C and those originating from New Mexico showing declines at temperatures 435 1C. Maximum net photosynthesis in all crust types from all locations were strongly influenced by offsets in the optimal temperature and water content for gross photosynthesis compared with dark respiration. Gross photosynthesis tended to be maximized at some intermediate value of temperature and water content and dark respiration tended to increase linearly. The results of this study suggest biocrusts are capable of CO2 exchange under a wide range of conditions. However, significant changes in the magnitude of this exchange should be expected for the temperature and precipitation changes suggested by current climate models.

  6. Assessing instructor intervention upon the perceptions, attitudes, and anxieties of community college biology students toward cooperative learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafford, Kenneth Allen

    The differences between two experimental groups using cooperative learning activities were examined during the initial eight weeks of a biology course. While both groups participated in the same cooperative learning activities, only one group received deliberate instructor interventions. These interventions were designed to help students think positively about working in cooperative learning groups while alleviating anxiety toward cooperative learning. Initially, all students were uncomfortable and reported trouble staying focused during cooperative learning. The final quantitative results indicated that the group who received the interventions had more positive perceptions toward cooperative learning but their attitudes and anxiety levels showed no significant difference from the non-intervention group; advantages occurred specifically for thinking on task, student engagement, perceptions of task importance, and best levels of challenge and skill. Intervention participants had a higher mean score on the class exam administered during the eight-week study but it was not significantly different. Qualitative data revealed that the intervention participants experienced greater overall consequence, mainly in the areas of engagement, believed skill, and self-worth. According to flow theory, when students are actively engaged, the probability of distraction by fears and unrelated ideas is reduced, for instance, how they are perceived by others. These findings corroborate constructivist theories, particularly the ones relative to students working in cooperative groups. Researchers should continue to use appropriate methods to further explore how students of various abilities and developmental levels are affected by their perceptions, attitudes, and anxieties relative to different instructional contexts. Given the highly contextual nature of students' learning and motivation, researchers need to examine a number of meaningful questions by comparing students' perceptions

  7. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and reaction time. During the baseline pre-season test, health care professionals should also assess for a prior history ... tests should only be conducted by a trained health care professional. Who should interpret baseline tests? Only a trained health care professional with experience ...

  8. The Very-Long-Baseline Array.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Thompson, A. Richard

    1988-01-01

    Describes the very-long-baseline array (VLBA) system of radio telescopes that will be completed in the early 1990s. Explains how the VLBA system works and the advantages over present technology. Compares associated international telescopes and very-long-baseline interferometers (VLBI). Illustrates applications for the VLBA and VLBI. (CW)

  9. Longer-baseline telescopes using quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Daniel; Jennewein, Thomas; Croke, Sarah

    2012-08-17

    We present an approach to building interferometric telescopes using ideas of quantum information. Current optical interferometers have limited baseline lengths, and thus limited resolution, because of noise and loss of signal due to the transmission of photons between the telescopes. The technology of quantum repeaters has the potential to eliminate this limit, allowing in principle interferometers with arbitrarily long baselines.

  10. Enhancement of denitrifying phosphorus removal and microbial community of long-term operation in an anaerobic anoxic oxic-biological contact oxidation system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Cong; Wang, Shuying; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-10-01

    A two-sludge system consisting of anaerobic anoxic oxic-biological contact oxidation (A(2)/O-BCO) was developed to treat domestic wastewater with a low carbon/nitrogen (COD/TN) ratio (around 3.21) by shortening sludge retention time (SRT) for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) in the A(2)/O reactor and prolonging SRT for nitrifiers in the BCO reactor. Specifically, the BCO reactor was composed of three stages in series (N1, N2 and N3), so that simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removals by denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs) was achieved in the A(2)/O reactor with [Formula: see text] as the electron acceptor from the BCO reactor. Long term operational tests (600 days) were conducted with various operational parameters [e.g., hydraulic retention time (HRTs), nitrate recycling ratio (Rs), volume ratio (Vs)] to examine the denitrifying phosphorus removal performance. The system exhibited the highest removal of TN and [Formula: see text] at the HRTs of 8 h, Rs of 300% and Vs of 2:4:1. The optimal TN and [Formula: see text] removals were 80.30% and 96.61% at low COD/TN of 3.21. The species diversity and microbial community examined by the Illumina MiSeq method demonstrated the fact of two-sludge system, and the improved community structure by long-term optimization was prominent comparing with the seed sludge. Additionally, Accumulibacter and Dechloromonas were the dominant functional PAOs with 25.74% in the A(2)/O reactor, while nitrifiers (including Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira) were gradually enriched with 13.10%, 21.33%, and 31.10% in the three stages of the BCO reactor.

  11. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    van Leerdam, Robin C; Bonilla-Salinas, Monica; de Bok, Frank A M; Bruning, H; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2008-11-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda lakes. MT degradation started after 32 days of incubation. During the first 252 days, complete degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 7.5 mmol MT/L/day, and sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide were the main reaction products. Temporary inhibition of MT degradation occurred after MT peak loads and in the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which is the autooxidation product of MT. From day 252 onwards, methanol was dosed to the reactor as co-substrate at a loading rate of 3-6 mmol/L/day to stimulate growth of methylotrophic methanogens. Methanol was completely degraded and also a complete MT degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 13 mmol MT/L/day (0.77 mmol MT/gVSS/day). However, from day 354 till the end of the experimental run (day 365), acetate was formed and MT was not completely degraded anymore, indicating that methanol-degrading homoacetogenic bacteria had partially outcompeted the methanogenic MT-degrading archea. The archeal community in the reactor sludge was analyzed by DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The methanogenic archea responsible for the degradation of MT in the reactor were related to Methanolobus oregonensis. A pure culture, named strain SODA, was obtained by serial dilutions in medium containing both trimethyl amine and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Strain SODA degraded MT, DMS, trimethyl amine, and methanol. Flow sheet simulations revealed that for sufficient MT removal from liquefied petroleum gas, the extraction and biological degradation process should be operated above pH 9.

  12. Novelty or knowledge? A study of using a student response system in non-major biology courses at a community college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thames, Tasha Herrington

    The advancement in technology integration is laying the groundwork of a paradigm shift in the higher education system (Noonoo, 2011). The National Dropout Prevention Center (n.d.) claims that technology offers some of the best opportunities for presenting instruction to engage students in meaningful education, addressing multiple intelligences, and adjusting to students' various learning styles. The purpose of this study was to investigate if implementing clicker technology would have a statistically significant difference on student retention and student achievement, while controlling for learning styles, for students in non-major biology courses who were and were not subjected to the technology. This study also sought to identify if students perceived the use of clickers as beneficial to their learning. A quantitative quasi-experimental research design was utilized to determine the significance of differences in pre/posttest achievement scores between students who participated during the fall semester in 2014. Overall, 118 students (n = 118) voluntarily enrolled in the researcher's fall non-major Biology course at a southern community college. A total of 71 students were assigned to the experimental group who participated in instruction incorporating the ConcepTest Process with clicker technology along with traditional lecture. The remaining 51 students were assigned to the control group who participated in a traditional lecture format with peer instruction embedded. Statistical analysis revealed the experimental clicker courses did have higher posttest scores than the non-clicker control courses, but this was not significant (p >.05). Results also implied that clickers did not statistically help retain students to complete the course. Lastly, the results indicated that there were no significant statistical difference in student's clicker perception scores between the different learning style preferences.

  13. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Patzak, T.

    2015-07-15

    Since about a decade the european physics community interested in neutrino and neutrino-astrophysics develops a plan to conceive the next generation large underground neutrino observatory. Recently, the LAGUNA-LBNO collaboration made the outcome of the FP7 design study public which shows a clear path for the realization of such experiment. In this paper the LAGUNA and LAGUNA-LBNO Design studies, resulting in a proposal for the LBNO experiment, will be discussed. The author will focus on the long baseline neutrino oscillation search, especially on the potential to discover the neutrino mass ordering and the search for CP violation in the lepton sector.

  14. TWRS technical baseline database manager definition document

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1997-08-13

    This document serves as a guide for using the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management Systems Engineering (SE) support tool in performing SE activities for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This document will provide a consistent interpretation of the relationships between the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management software and the present TWRS SE practices. The Database Manager currently utilized is the RDD-1000 System manufactured by the Ascent Logic Corporation. In other documents, the term RDD-1000 may be used interchangeably with TWRS Technical Baseline Database Manager.

  15. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the family. (c) Remanufacture the engine according to OEM specifications (or equivalent). The engine is considered “the baseline engine” at this point. If the OEM specifications include a range...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the family. (c) Remanufacture the engine according to OEM specifications (or equivalent). The engine is considered “the baseline engine” at this point. If the OEM specifications include a range...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the family. (c) Remanufacture the engine according to OEM specifications (or equivalent). The engine is considered “the baseline engine” at this point. If the OEM specifications include a range...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the family. (c) Remanufacture the engine according to OEM specifications (or equivalent). The engine is considered “the baseline engine” at this point. If the OEM specifications include a range...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the family. (c) Remanufacture the engine according to OEM specifications (or equivalent). The engine is considered “the baseline engine” at this point. If the OEM specifications include a range...

  20. Health related baseline millennium development goals indicators for local authorities in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kalanda, Boniface

    2007-03-01

    The Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) is implementing a 12 year programme to close service gaps in rural communities. These service gaps are primarily those in health, education, household food security, water and sanitation, transport and communications. The impact indicators of the Project are selected Millennium Development Goal indicators. MASAF conducted a baseline study of the MDG indicators for all districts in Malawi. This paper presents available health related MDG baseline indicators for all districts in Malawi. Other stakeholders implementing health interventions could use these baseline indicators for planning purposes.

  1. “Do I Need to Know This for the Exam?” Using Popular Media, Inquiry-based Laboratories, and a Community of Scientific Practice to Motivate Students to Learn Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Madhuri, Marga

    2008-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges instructors face is getting students to connect with the subject in a manner that encourages them to learn. In this essay, we describe the redesign of our Developmental Biology course to foster a deeper connection between students and the field of developmental biology. In our approach, we created a community of scientific practice focused on the investigation of environmental impacts on embryonic development and informed by popular and scientific media, the students' own questions, and the instructor. Our goals were to engage students in meaningful ways with the material, to develop students' science process skills, and to enhance students' understanding of broad principles of developmental biology. Though significant challenges arose during implementation, assessments indicate using this approach to teach undergraduate developmental biology was successful. PMID:18316806

  2. National INFOSEC technical baseline: multi-level secure systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J P

    1998-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a baseline description of the state of multilevel processor/processing to the INFOSEC Research Council and at their discretion to the R&D community at large. From the information in the report, it is hoped that the members of the IRC will be aware of gaps in MLS research. A primary purpose is to bring IRC and the research community members up to date on what is happening in the MLS arena. The review will attempt to cover what MLS products are still available, and to identify companies who still offer MLS products. We have also attempted to identify requirements for MLS by interviewing senior officers of the Intelligence community as well as those elements of DoD and DOE who are or may be interested in procuring MLS products for various applications. The balance of the report consists of the following sections; a background review of the highlights of the developments of MLS, a quick summary of where we are today in terms of products, installations, and companies who are still in the business of supplying MLS systems [or who are developing MLS system], the requirements as expressed by senior members of the Intelligence community and DoD and DOE, issues and unmet R&D challenges surrounding MLS, and finally a set of recommended research topics.

  3. Assessment of ecological conditions and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities in streams of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Foster, Katharine; Wright, Peter R.; Boughton, Gregory K.

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. The interagency task group developed a monitoring plan and conducted sampling of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities at 47 sites during 2005-08 to document current ecological conditions and determine existing and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities. Macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish community composition varied between drainage basins, among sites within drainage basins, and by year. Macroinvertebrate communities of the main-stem Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and higher abundance of Ephemeroptera, for example, compared to macroinvertebrate communities in plains tributaries of the Tongue River and the main-stem Powder River. Fish communities of the Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and abundance of introduced species compared to the Powder River where native species were dominant. Macroinvertebrate community metric values from sites in the middle reach of the main-stem Powder River, from below Willow Creek to below Crazy Woman Creek, differed from metric values in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River. Metrics indicative of communitywide differences included measures of taxa richness, relative abundance, feeding mode, and tolerance. Some of the variation in the macroinvertebrate communities could be explained by variation in environmental variables, including physical (turbidity, embeddedness, bed substrate size, and streamflow) and chemical (alkalinity and specific conductance) variables. Of these environmental variables, alkalinity was the best indicator of coalbed natural gas development because of the sodiumbicarbonate signature of the production water. Algal

  4. Baseline blood oxygenation modulates response amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hanzhang; Zhao, Chenguang; Ge, Yulin; Lewis-Amezcua, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Although BOLD fMRI provides a useful tool for probing neuronal activities, large inter-subject variations in signal amplitude are commonly observed. Understanding the physiologic basis for these variations will have a significant impact on many fMRI studies. First, the physiologic modulator can be used as a regressor to reduce variations across subjects, thereby improving statistical power for detecting group differences. Second, if a pathologic condition or a drug treatment is shown to change fMRI responses, monitoring this modulatory parameter is useful in correctly interpreting the fMRI changes to neuronal deficits/recruitments. Here we present evidence that the task-evoked fMRI signals are modulated by baseline blood oxygenation. To measure global blood oxygenation, we used a recently developed technique, T2-Relaxation-Under-Spin-Tagging MRI, yielding baseline oxygenation of 63.7±7.2% in sagittal sinus with an estimation error of 1.3%. It was found that individuals with higher baseline oxygenation tend to have a smaller fMRI signal and vice versa. For every 10% difference in baseline oxygenation across subjects, the BOLD and cerebral blood flow signal differ by -0.4% and -30.0%, respectively, when using visual stimulation. TRUST MRI is a useful measurement for fMRI studies to control for the modulatory effects of baseline oxygenation that are unique to each subject. PMID:18666103

  5. Baseline estimation from simultaneous satellite laser tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedes, George C.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous Range Differences (SRDs) to Lageos are obtained by dividing the observing stations into pairs with quasi-simultaneous observations. For each of those pairs the station with the least number of observations is identified, and at its observing epochs interpolated ranges for the alternate station are generated. The SRD observables are obtained by subtracting the actually observed laser range of the station having the least number of observations from the interpolated ranges of the alternate station. On the basis of these observables semidynamic single baseline solutions were performed. The aim of these solutions is to further develop and implement the SRD method in the real data environment, to assess its accuracy, its advantages and disadvantages as related to the range dynamic mode methods, when the baselines are the only parameters of interest. Baselines, using simultaneous laser range observations to Lageos, were also estimated through the purely geometric method. These baselines formed the standards the standards of comparison in the accuracy assessment of the SRD method when compared to that of the range dynamic mode methods. On the basis of this comparison it was concluded that for baselines of regional extent the SRD method is very effective, efficient, and at least as accurate as the range dynamic mode methods, and that on the basis of a simple orbital modeling and a limited orbit adjustment. The SRD method is insensitive to the inconsistencies affecting the terrestrial reference frame and simultaneous adjustment of the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) is not necessary.

  6. Detection of Invertebrate Suppressive Soils, and Identification of a Possible Biological Control Agent for Meloidogyne Nematodes Using High Resolution Rhizosphere Microbial Community Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nigel L.; Adam, Katharine H.; Jones, Rhys J.; Johnson, Richard D.; Mtandavari, Yeukai F.; Burch, Gabriela; Cave, Vanessa; Cameron, Catherine; Maclean, Paul; Popay, Alison J.; Fleetwood, Damien

    2016-01-01

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is the key legume component of New Zealand pastoral agriculture due to the high quality feed and nitrogen inputs it provides. Invertebrate pests constrain white clover growth and this study investigated rhizosphere-associated fungal controls for two of these pests and attempts to disentangle the underpinning mechanisms. The degree of suppressiveness of 10 soils, in a latitudinal gradient down New Zealand, to added Meloidogyne hapla and Costelytra zealandica scarab larvae was measured in untreated soil. Most of the soils showed no suppressive activity against these pests but two showed activity against M. hapla and two against C. zealandica. Rhizosphere fungi responsible for pest suppressive responses were elucidated via next-generation sequencing. In the M. hapla-suppressive soils nematode-trapping Orbiliomycetes fungi were present in significantly greater abundance than non-suppressive soils and their abundance increased further with addition of M. hapla. A comparison of plant growth and the rhizosphere fungal community between untreated and irradiated soil was carried out on 5 of the 10 soils using Pyronota as the scarab larvae. Soil irradiation either: reduced (by 60–70%); increased (16×) or made no difference to white clover growth across the five soils tested, illustrating the range of microbial impacts on plant production. In one of the M. hapla suppressive soils irradiation resulted in a significant increase in nematode galling suggesting that Orbiliomycetes fungi were indeed responsible for the suppressive effect. Lack of consistent changes in soil macronutrients and pH post-irradiation suggest these were not responsible for plant or invertebrate responses. The use of next generation sequencing in controlled pot trials has allowed identification of a potential biological control organism and bioindicator for M. hapla suppression. PMID:28082997

  7. Anaerobic glyoxylate cycle activity during simultaneous utilization of glycogen and acetate in uncultured Accumulibacter enriched in enhanced biological phosphorus removal communities.

    PubMed

    Burow, Luke C; Mabbett, Amanda N; Blackall, Linda L

    2008-10-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) communities protect waterways from nutrient pollution and enrich microorganisms capable of assimilating acetate as polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) under anaerobic conditions. Accumulibacter, an important uncultured polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) enriched in EBPR, was investigated to determine the central metabolic pathways responsible for producing PHA. Acetate uptake and assimilation to PHA in Accumulibacter was confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-microautoradiography and post-FISH chemical staining. Assays performed with enrichments of Accumulibacter using an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase inferred anaerobic glycolysis activity. Significant decrease in anaerobic acetate uptake and PHA production rates were observed using inhibitors targeting enzymes within the glyoxylate cycle. Bioinformatic analysis confirmed the presence of genes unique to the glyoxylate cycle (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) and gene expression analysis of isocitrate lyase demonstrated that the glyoxylate cycle is likely involved in PHA production. Reduced anaerobic acetate uptake and PHA production was observed after inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase and upregulation of a succinate dehydrogenase gene suggested anaerobic activity. Cytochrome b/b(6) activity inferred that succinate dehydrogenase activity in the absence of external electron acceptors may be facilitated by a novel cytochrome b/b(6) fusion protein complex that pushes electrons uphill to more electronegative electron carriers. Identification of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes in Accumulibacter demonstrated the potential for interconversion of C(3) intermediates of glycolysis and C(4) intermediates of the glyoxylate cycle. Our findings along with previous hypotheses from analysis of microbiome data and metabolic models for PAOs were used to develop a model for anaerobic carbon

  8. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  9. Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.

  10. The Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, Leslie

    2015-10-15

    The Fermilab short-baseline program is a multi-facetted one. Primarily it searches for evidence of sterile neutrinos as hinted at by the MiniBooNE and LSND results. It will also measure a whole suite of ν-Argon cross sections which will be very useful in future liquid argon long-baseline projects. The program is based on MicroBooNE, already installed in the beam line, the recently approved LAr1-ND and the future addition of the refurbished ICARUS.

  11. Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

  12. Community and Virtual Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Oldridge, Rachel; Vasconcelos, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to virtual communities: (1) information and virtual community; (2) virtual communities and communities of practice; (3) virtual communities and virtual arenas, including virtual community networks; and (4) networked virtual communities. (Contains 175 references.) (MES)

  13. 40 CFR 74.20 - Data for baseline and alternative baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.20 Data for baseline and alternative baseline. (a) Acceptable data. (1) The designated representative of a combustion... based on such data. (2) The following data shall be submitted for the combustion source for the...

  14. The Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline: A synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the Eighth Biennial Emergy Conference (January, 2014), the need for revisiting the procedures and assumptions used to compute the Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline (GEB) emerged as a necessity to strengthen the method of Emergy Accounting and remove sources of ambiguity and ...

  15. 75 FR 65010 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings October 14, 2010. Cranberry Pipeline Docket No. PR11-1-000 Corporation. New Mexico Gas Company, Inc.. Docket No. PR11-2-000 Peoples Natural Gas...

  16. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  17. Waste management project technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  18. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  19. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  20. Baseline Day: A Student Teaching Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Bette; Braught, Loran R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes Indiana State University's baseline day program, which helps establish a strong beginning upon which student teachers can build. Student teachers take full responsibility of the classroom for 1 day within the first 4-10 days of their assignment. Evaluations of student and cooperating teachers indicate the program benefits all involved.…

  1. On Internal Validity in Multiple Baseline Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Single-case designs are a class of research designs for evaluating intervention effects on individual cases. The designs are widely applied in certain fields, including special education, school psychology, clinical psychology, social work, and applied behavior analysis. The multiple baseline design (MBD) is the most frequently used single-case…

  2. 75 FR 47291 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings July 29, 2010. ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C Docket No. PR10-67-000. Atmos Energy--Kentucky/Mid-States Division Docket No. PR10-68-000. Magic Valley...

  3. How Valid Are the Portland Baseline Essays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Erich

    1991-01-01

    Portland, Oregon's "African-American Baseline Essays," widely used in creating multicultural curricula, inaccurately depicts ancient Egyptians as black people and Olmec civilization as derived from African influences. The authors advance racial theories long abandoned by mainline Africa scholars, attribute mystical powers to pyramids,…

  4. [An Algorithm for Correcting Fetal Heart Rate Baseline].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Yaosheng

    2015-10-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) baseline estimation is of significance for the computerized analysis of fetal heart rate and the assessment of fetal state. In our work, a fetal heart rate baseline correction algorithm was presented to make the existing baseline more accurate and fit to the tracings. Firstly, the deviation of the existing FHR baseline was found and corrected. And then a new baseline was obtained finally after treatment with some smoothing methods. To assess the performance of FHR baseline correction algorithm, a new FHR baseline estimation algorithm that combined baseline estimation algorithm and the baseline correction algorithm was compared with two existing FHR baseline estimation algorithms. The results showed that the new FHR baseline estimation algorithm did well in both accuracy and efficiency. And the results also proved the effectiveness of the FHR baseline correction algorithm.

  5. Baseline Q-values for streams in intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Wall, David; Mellander, Per-Erik; Mechan, Sarah; Shortle, Ger

    2010-05-01

    The effectiveness of regulations introduced in Ireland in 2006 in response to the European Union Nitrates Directives for minimising nutrient loss to waterways from farms is being studied by Teagasc, the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority as part of an Agricultural Catchments Programme from 2008 - 2011. The regulations in Ireland require that during winter, green cover is established and maintained on arable farms, manure is stored and not spread, ploughing is not conducted and that chemical fertiliser is not spread. The regulations also require buffer zones between fields and water courses when applying organic or chemical fertilisers and that nutrient application rates and timing match crop requirements. An upper limit for livestock manure loading of 170 kg ha-1 organic N each year is also set. The biophysical research component of the Agricultural Catchments Programme is focussed on quantifying nutrient source availability, surface and subsurface transport pathways and stream chemical water quality. A baseline description of stream ecological quality was also sought. Stream ecology was measured in autumn 2009 at 3-5 locations within four surface water catchments and at the spring emergence of a catchment underlain by karst limestone. Landuse in each catchment is dominated by medium to high intensity grassland or cereal farming and annual average rainfall ranges from 900 - 1200 mm. Surveys were conducted in 1st to 3rd order streams throughout each catchment at locations which had minimal observed point source inputs for 100m upstream, incomplete shade, a hard streambed substrate and riffle conditions suitable for the sampling methods. Benthic macroinvertebrates were identified and quantified and used to calculate the biological indices Small Stream Risk Score, Q-value, Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), Average Score Per Taxa (ASPT) and EQR (Observed Q-value/Reference Q-value). Diatom community assemblages were identified from samples

  6. The Employment Experiences of Public Housing Residents: Findings from the Jobs-Plus Baseline Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, John M.

    A survey collected baseline data about public housing communities and residents just prior to the start of the Jobs-Plus program. The data were from all working-age, nondisabled heads of households in eight public housing developments in seven cities with customarily high rates of joblessness and reliance on welfare. The developments were part of…

  7. Biology Bulletins "Revisited"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    In October 1981, an article appeared in "The American Biology Teacher" with the catchy title, "Bio-Bull." In it, author, Dale Carlson, described a powerful form of communication that he employed successfully in his community college classes. Each week students received what he called a "Bio-Bull" that included current biological topics,…

  8. Assessing trophic position from nitrogen isotope ratios: effective calibration against spatially varying baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Newton, Rob J.; Edwards, Felicity A.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen isotope signatures (δ15N) provide powerful measures of the trophic positions of individuals, populations and communities. Obtaining reliable consumer δ15N values depends upon controlling for spatial variation in plant δ15N values, which form the trophic `baseline'. However, recent studies make differing assumptions about the scale over which plant δ15N values vary, and approaches to baseline control differ markedly. We examined spatial variation in the δ15N values of plants and ants sampled from eight 150-m transects in both unlogged and logged rainforests. We then investigated whether ant δ15N values were related to variation in plant δ15N values following baseline correction of ant values at two spatial scales: (1) using `local' means of plants collected from the same transect and (2) using `global' means of plants collected from all transects within each forest type. Plant δ15N baselines varied by the equivalent of one trophic level within each forest type. Correcting ant δ15N values using global plant means resulted in consumer values that were strongly positively related to the transect baseline, whereas local corrections yielded reliable estimates of consumer trophic positions that were largely independent of transect baselines. These results were consistent at the community level and when three trophically distinct ant subfamilies and eight abundant ant species were considered separately. Our results suggest that assuming baselines do not vary can produce misleading estimates of consumer trophic positions. We therefore emphasise the importance of clearly defining and applying baseline corrections at a scale that accounts for spatial variation in plant δ15N values.

  9. Assessing trophic position from nitrogen isotope ratios: effective calibration against spatially varying baselines.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P; Newton, Rob J; Edwards, Felicity A; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H; Hamer, Keith C

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen isotope signatures (δ(15)N) provide powerful measures of the trophic positions of individuals, populations and communities. Obtaining reliable consumer δ(15)N values depends upon controlling for spatial variation in plant δ(15)N values, which form the trophic 'baseline'. However, recent studies make differing assumptions about the scale over which plant δ(15)N values vary, and approaches to baseline control differ markedly. We examined spatial variation in the δ(15)N values of plants and ants sampled from eight 150-m transects in both unlogged and logged rainforests. We then investigated whether ant δ(15)N values were related to variation in plant δ(15)N values following baseline correction of ant values at two spatial scales: (1) using 'local' means of plants collected from the same transect and (2) using 'global' means of plants collected from all transects within each forest type. Plant δ(15)N baselines varied by the equivalent of one trophic level within each forest type. Correcting ant δ(15)N values using global plant means resulted in consumer values that were strongly positively related to the transect baseline, whereas local corrections yielded reliable estimates of consumer trophic positions that were largely independent of transect baselines. These results were consistent at the community level and when three trophically distinct ant subfamilies and eight abundant ant species were considered separately. Our results suggest that assuming baselines do not vary can produce misleading estimates of consumer trophic positions. We therefore emphasise the importance of clearly defining and applying baseline corrections at a scale that accounts for spatial variation in plant δ(15)N values.

  10. Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in Professional Lacrosse Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Plancher, Kevin D.; Brooks-James, Ariana; Nissen, Carl W.; Diduch, B. Kent; Petterson, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concussions have become a major public health concern for both youth and professional athletes. The long-term consequences of concussion can be debilitating or even life threatening. To reduce these concerns, baseline neurocognitive performance can aid decision making in postconcussion recovery and return to play for athletes sustaining concussions. To date, these data are not available for lacrosse athletes. Purpose: To present baseline neurocognitive performance for Major League Lacrosse (MLL) players and to determine differences between athletes with and without a history of concussion. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores from MLL players who completed baseline testing from June 2010 to June 2011. Inclusion required a valid baseline test and no history of concussion in the 3 months prior to testing. Means ± standard deviations were computed for all demographic variables and ImPACT composite scores including visual and verbal memory, reaction time, and visual motor processing speed. Independent-samples t tests were used to determine differences between athletes with and without a history of concussion. Results: Valid baseline ImPACT testing was available for 235 MLL athletes (mean age, 25.1 ± 3.0 years). Forty percent of MLL athletes (n = 94) reported a history of concussion, with 14% of those (n = 13) reporting a history of 3 or more previous concussions. There were no differences on any demographic variables between MLL athletes with and without a history of concussion. MLL athletes with a history of concussion had lower ImPACT composite scores than those without a history of concussion, although only the verbal memory composite was found to be statistically significant (MLL with concussion, 83.2 ± 10.8 vs MLL without concussion, 86.9 ± 9.5; P = .007). Conclusion: This study establishes baseline Im

  11. Comparing Biology Grades Based on Instructional Delivery and Instructor at a Community College: Face-to-Face Course versus Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Amanda H.

    2012-01-01

    Through distance learning, the community college system has been able to serve more students by providing educational opportunities to students who would otherwise be unable to attend college. The community college of focus in the study increased its online enrollments and online course offerings due to the growth of overall enrollment. The need…

  12. Basewide environmental baseline survey, Reese Air Force Base, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    This Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) has been prepared to document the environmental condition of real property at Reese Air Force Base (AFB), Texas, resulting from the storage, release, and disposal of hazardous substances and petroleum products and their derivatives over the installation`s history. Although primarily a management tool, this EBS is also used by the Air Force to meet its obligations under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S. Code Section 9620(h), as amended by the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) (Public Law 102-426). Table ES-1 lists all Category 1 uncontaminated property associated with Reese AFB based on information obtained through a records search, interviews, and visual inspections at Reese AFB and Figures ES-1a and ES-1b depict their locations.

  13. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  14. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  15. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  16. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  17. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  18. Approach for environmental baseline water sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Samples collected during the exploration phase of mining represent baseline conditions at the site. As such, they can be very important in forecasting potential environmental impacts should mining proceed, and can become measurements against which future changes are compared. Constituents in stream water draining mined and mineralized areas tend to be geochemically, spatially, and temporally variable, which presents challenges in collecting both exploration and baseline water-quality samples. Because short-term (daily) variations can complicate long-term trends, it is important to consider recent findings concerning geochemical variability of stream-water constituents at short-term timescales in designing sampling plans. Also, adequate water-quality information is key to forecasting potential ecological impacts from mining. Therefore, it is useful to collect baseline water samples adequate tor geochemical and toxicological modeling. This requires complete chemical analyses of dissolved constituents that include major and minor chemical elements as well as physicochemical properties (including pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen) and dissolved organic carbon. Applying chemical-equilibrium and appropriate toxicological models to water-quality information leads to an understanding of the speciation, transport, sequestration, bioavailability, and aquatic toxicity of potential contaminants. Insights gained from geochemical and toxicological modeling of water-quality data can be used to design appropriate mitigation and for economic planning for future mining activities.

  19. Goldindec: A Novel Algorithm for Raman Spectrum Baseline Correction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juntao; Sun, Jianyang; Huang, Xiuzhen; Li, Guojun; Liu, Binqiang

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectra have been widely used in biology, physics, and chemistry and have become an essential tool for the studies of macromolecules. Nevertheless, the raw Raman signal is often obscured by a broad background curve (or baseline) due to the intrinsic fluorescence of the organic molecules, which leads to unpredictable negative effects in quantitative analysis of Raman spectra. Therefore, it is essential to correct this baseline before analyzing raw Raman spectra. Polynomial fitting has proven to be the most convenient and simplest method and has high accuracy. In polynomial fitting, the cost function used and its parameters are crucial. This article proposes a novel iterative algorithm named Goldindec, freely available for noncommercial use as noted in text, with a new cost function that not only conquers the influence of great peaks but also solves the problem of low correction accuracy when there is a high peak number. Goldindec automatically generates parameters from the raw data rather than by empirical choice, as in previous methods. Comparisons with other algorithms on the benchmark data show that Goldindec has a higher accuracy and computational efficiency, and is hardly affected by great peaks, peak number, and wavenumber. PMID:26037638

  20. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petitions EPA to exclude such data on the basis of data quality, per § 80.91(d)(6), and receives permission from EPA to exclude such data. (b)(1) A refinery's or importer's baseline toxics value is...

  1. Combined use of Daphnia magna in situ bioassays, biomarkers and biological indices to diagnose and identify environmental pressures on invertebrate communities in two Mediterranean urbanized and industrialized rivers (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Damásio, Joana; Tauler, Romà; Teixidó, Elisabeth; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcis; Riva, Maria Carmen; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos

    2008-05-30

    Environmental factors affecting aquatic invertebrate communities were assessed using Daphnia magna in situ bioassays and biological indices based on community assemblages of benthic macroinvertebrates. Investigations were carried out in two heavily industrialized and urbanized river basins from the NE of Spain (Llobregat and Besós). Measures of energy consumption (i.e. algal grazing), and of specific biochemical responses (biomarkers) were conducted on individuals transplanted upstream and downstream from effluent discharges of sewage treatment plants. In both rivers there was a clear deterioration of the ecological water quality parameters and benthic communities towards downstream reaches. In all but one of the 19 locations studied, transplanted organisms were affected in at least one of the five measured responses. In three of them, significant effects were detected in most of the traits considered. Principal Component and Partial Least Square Projections to Latent Structures regression analyses indicated that the measured responses in D. magna in situ bioassays and those of macroinvertebrate assemblages were affected by distinct environmental factors. From up to 20 environmental variables considered, seven of them including habitat degradation, suspended solids, nitrogenous and conductivity related parameters affected macroinvertebrate assemblages. On the other hand, levels of organophosphorus compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were high enough to trigger the responses of D. magna in situ bioassays. These results emphasize the importance of combining biological indices with biomarkers and more generalized and ecologically relevant (grazing) in situ responses to identify ecological effects of effluent discharges from sewage treatment plants in surface waters.

  2. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  3. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  4. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  5. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  6. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  7. A baseline study of the health status of the residents in Kalapana, Hawaii, January--June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David B.; Arbeit, William, R.

    1988-08-01

    A community health survey was conducted during the first five months of 1987 in Kalapana, Hawaii. Some 676 residents were interviewed during the study, which represents some 82% of all households in the community. The goal was to obtain base-line data on the health status of all community residents and ambient air quality, in order to evaluate any changes in health status of residents after geothermal development in the area.

  8. Baseline Chromatin Modification Levels May Predict ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Traditional toxicological paradigms have relied on factors such as age, genotype, and disease status to explain variability in responsiveness to toxicant exposure; however, these are neither sufficient to faithfully identify differentially responsive individuals nor are they modifiable factors that can be leveraged to mitigate the exposure effects. Unlike these factors, the epigenome is dynamic and shaped by an individual's environment. We sought to determine whether baseline levels of specific chromatin modifications correlated with the interindividual variability in their ozone (03)-mediated induction in an air-liquid interface model using primary human bronchial epithelial cells from a panel of 11 donors. We characterized the relationship between the baseline abundance of 6 epigenetic markers with established roles as key regulators of gene expression-histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac), pan­acetyl H4 (H4ac), histone H3K27 di/trimethylation (H3K27me2/3), unmodified H3, and5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC)-and the variability in the 03-induced expression of IL-8, IL-6, COX2, and HMOX1. Baseline levels of H3K4me3, H3K27me2/3, and 5-hmC, but not H3K27ac, H4ac, and total H3, correlated with the interindividual variability in 03-mediated induction of HMOX1 and COX2. In contrast, none of the chromatin modifications that we examined correlated with the induction of IL-8 and IL-6. From these findings, we propose an "epigenetic see

  9. APOC impact assessment studies: baseline ophthalmological findings in Morogoro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Babalola, O E; Maegga, B; Katenga, S; Ogbuagu, F K; Umeh, R E; Seketeli, E; Braide, E

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is to eliminate Onchocerciasis as a disease of public Health significance and an important constraint to socio-economic development in the 19 none OCP (Onchocerciasis Control Project) countries covered through Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin, CDTI. In 1998, impact assessment studies were carried out in Morogoro, Tanzania during which baseline ophthalmological parameters were established. The hypothesis being tested is that CDTI will prevent or delay progression of onchocercal eye lesions and blindness. A total of 425 subjects aged 10 years or more from 14 villages within Bwakira district ofMorogoro region in Tanzania were examined for Snellen visual acuity, ocular microfilaria, lens opacities, uveitis and posterior segment disease especially chorioretinitis and optic nerve disease. Motion Sensitivity Screening Test (MSST) was carried out as well. Microfilaria was present in the anterior chamber of nearly half (49.2%) of all subjects examined. Prevalence of blindness was extremely high at 15.2%. Onchocercal lesions were responsible for blindness in 41.5% of these, followed by cataracts (27.7%), glaucoma (10.8%) and trachoma (6.2%). The main pathway to onchocercal blindness in this population was anterior uveitis with or without secondary cataracts. There is an urgent need to get CDTI underway and institute other horizontal primary eye care measures, especially cataract backlog reduction, in order to reduce the excessive burden of avoidable blindness in this community.

  10. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  11. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  12. Baseline Graphite Initial Mechanical Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Carroll; Randy Lloyd

    2009-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. One of the major fundamental objectives of the project is establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing of

  13. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  14. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    SciTech Connect

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; Jackson, Frank; Dalena, Barbara; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas, Rogelio; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  15. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  16. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  17. Context dependency of baseline glucocorticoids as indicators of individual quality in a capital breeder.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Kim; Seltmann, Martin W; Hollmén, Tuula; Atkinson, Shannon; Mashburn, Kendall; Öst, Markus

    2013-09-15

    Identifying markers of individual quality is a central goal of life-history theory and conservation biology. The 'corticosterone (CORT)-fitness hypothesis' postulates that low fitness signals impaired ability to cope with the environment, resulting in elevated baseline CORT levels. CORT can, however, be negatively, positively or neutrally related to fitness, depending on the context. In order to clarify this controversial issue, we elucidate the utility of using baseline CORT as a correlate of individual fitness in incubating female eiders across variable environments. An increase in serum CORT with decreasing body condition was evident in older, more experienced breeders, while increased clutch mass was associated with elevated serum CORT in females breeding late in the season. For faecal CORT, the expected negative association with body condition was observed only in early breeders. We found a strong increase in faecal CORT with increasing baseline body temperature, indicating the utility of body temperature as a complementary stress indicator. Females in good body condition had a lower baseline body temperature, but this effect was only observed on open islands, a harsher breeding habitat less buffered against weather variability. Females with higher reproductive investment also maintained a lower baseline body temperature. Nest success strongly decreased with increasing serum and faecal CORT concentrations, and individual stress hormone and body temperature profiles were repeatable over years. Although our data support the tenet that baseline CORT is negatively related to fitness, the complex context-dependent effects call for cautious interpretation of relationships between stress physiology and phenotypic quality.

  18. Geodetic long baseline interferometry research in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, R. B.; Petrachenko, W. T.; Canon, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives and results of several studies using the Canadian long baseline interferometry system (LBI) are presented. The precision of measurements from radio telescopes at the Algonquin Radio Observatory (ARO), Lake Traverse, Ontario; the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), Big Pine, California; and the Chilbolton Observatory (CHIL), Chilbolton, England, is discussed. Also, since LBI is insensitive to the uncertainty in the geocentric gravitational constant, it is a very useful technique for determining the scales of the coordinate systems used by other precise techniques. Beginning in May 1977, a number of LBI observing sessions were accompanied by simultaneous satellite Doppler observations. The baseline components obtained from the satellite Doppler observations were compared to the LBI values. The weighted mean scale bias of the NSWC 9Z-2 satellite Doppler coordinate system relative to the LBI system was found to be 0.42 + or - 0.05 PPM. The weighted mean difference in the origin of longitude was found to be 0.87 sec + or - 0.01 while the difference in declination origin was found to be 0.06 sec + or - 0.01.

  19. Long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, D.; Goodman, M.

    1994-12-31

    There is no unambiguous definition for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The term is generally used for accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments which are sensitive to {Delta}m{sup 2} < 1.0 eV{sup 2}, and for which the detector is not on the accelerator site. The Snowmass N2L working group met to discuss the issues facing such experiments. The Fermilab Program Advisory Committee adopted several recommendations concerning the Fermilab neutrino program at their Aspen meeting immediately prior to the Snowmass Workshop. This heightened the attention for the proposals to use Fermilab for a long-baseline neutrino experiment at the workshop. The plan for a neutrino oscillation program at Brookhaven was also thoroughly discussed. Opportunities at CERN were considered, particularly the use of detectors at the Gran Sasso laboratory. The idea to build a neutrino beam from KEK towards Superkamiokande was not discussed at the Snowmass meeting, but there has been considerable development of this idea since then. Brookhaven and KEK would use low energy neutrino beams, while FNAL and CERN would plan have medium energy beams. This report will summarize a few topics common to LBL proposals and attempt to give a snapshot of where things stand in this fast developing field.

  20. Evaluation of novel ECG signal processing on quantification of transient ischemia and baseline wander suppression.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Marko N; Fakhar, Sina; Foxall, Tom; Drakulic, Budimir S; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2007-01-01

    The performance assessment of a novel ECG signal processing technology in Fidelity 100 (test) and four modern ECG systems (controls) was conducted. A quantitative evaluation for one control and a test system was done by simultaneous recordings on 54 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and on a biological reference signal from an ECG simulator. A qualitative performance of baseline wander suppression was done on all five systems. The results showed that the Fidelity 100 system provided excellent detection and quantification of transient ischemia and baseline wander suppression.

  1. Environmental baseline conditions for impact assessment of unconventional gas exploitation: the G-Baseline project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Mayer, Berhard; Millot, Romain; Parker, Beth L.; Gaucher, Eric; Clarkson, Christopher R.; Cherry, John A.; Humez, Pauline; Cahill, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    A major scientific challenge and an indispensible prerequisite for environmental impact assessment in the context of unconventional gas development is the determination of the baseline conditions against which potential environmental impacts on shallow freshwater resources can be accurately and quantitatively tested. Groundwater and surface water resources overlying the low-permeability hydrocarbon host rocks containing shale gas may be impacted to different extents by naturally occurring saline fluids and by natural gas emanations. Baseline assessments in areas of previous conventional hydrocarbon production may also reveal anthropogenic impacts from these activities not related to unconventional gas development. Once unconventional gas exploitation has started, the baseline may be irrevocably lost by the intricate superposition of geogenic and potential anthropogenic contamination by stray gas, formation waters and chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. The objective of the Franco-Canadian NSERC-ANR project G-Baseline is to develop an innovative and comprehensive methodology of geochemical and isotopic characterization of the environmental baseline for water and gas samples from all three essential zones: (1) the production zone, including flowback waters, (2) the intermediate zone comprised of overlying formations, and (3) shallow aquifers and surface water systems where contamination may result from diverse natural or human impacts. The outcome will be the establishment of a methodology based on innovative tracer and monitoring techniques, including traditional and non-traditional isotopes (C, H, O, S, B, Sr, Cl, Br, N, U, Li, Cu, Zn, CSIA...) for detecting, quantifying and modeling of potential leakage of stray gas and of saline formation water mixed with flowback fluids into fresh groundwater resources and surface waters taking into account the pathways and mechanisms of fluid and gas migration. Here we present an outline of the project as well as first

  2. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  3. Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, Basin-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the West Fork White River Basin, Indiana, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, Jeffrey W.; Caskey, Brian J.; Lowe, B. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Data were gathered from July through September 2001 at 34 randomly selected sites in the West Fork White River Basin, Indiana for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). Basin characteristics (drainage area and land use) and biological-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the basin of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related, using Spearman's rho, to the seasonal algal-biomass, basin-characteristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score, which was most influenced by ash-free dry mass, was negatively related to one (percent closed canopy) of nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metric scores examined, the periphyton PC1 was positively related to one fish-community attribute (percent tolerant). Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metric scores examined, the periphyton PC1 was positively related to one attribute (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index) and one metric score (EPT index metric score). The periphyton PC1 was not related to the five basin-characteristic or 12 nutrient variables examined. The seston PC1 site score, which was most influenced by particulate organic carbon, was negatively related to two of the 12 nutrient variables examined: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July) and total phosphorus (July). Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metric scores examined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent). Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metric scores examined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (EPT-to-total ratio). The seston PC1 was not related to the five basin-characteristics or nine habitat variables

  4. Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, Basin-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caskey, Brian J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Lowe, B. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Data were gathered from May through September 2002 at 76 randomly selected sites in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). Basin characteristics (land use and drainage area) and biolog-ical-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the basin of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Compo-nents Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related using Spearman's rho to the seasonal algal-biomass, basin-charac-teristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, and biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score was not significantly related to the nine habitat or 12 nutrient variables examined. One land-use variable, drainage area, was negatively related to the periphyton PC1. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the periphyton PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent) and one metric score (car-nivore percent metric score). It was positively related to three fish-community attributes (headwater percent, pioneer percent, and simple lithophil percent). The periphyton PC1 was not statistically related to any of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes or metric scores examined. Of the 12 nutrient variables examined two were nega-tively related to the seston PC1 site score in two seasons: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July and September), and TP (May and September). There were no statistically significant relations between the seston PC1 and the five basin-characteristics or nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the seston PC1 was positively related to one attribute (headwater percent) and negatively related to one metric score (large-river percent metric score) . Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes

  5. Analysis of the Microbial Community in an Acidic Hollow-Fiber Membrane Biofilm Reactor (Hf-MBfR) Used for the Biological Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methane

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Byoung Seung; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Hyun Wook; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Sang, Byoung-In

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogens can use gaseous substrates, such as H2 and CO2, in CH4 production. H2 gas is used to reduce CO2. We have successfully operated a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (Hf-MBfR) for stable and continuous CH4 production from CO2 and H2. CO2 and H2 were diffused into the culture medium through the membrane without bubble formation in the Hf-MBfR, which was operated at pH 4.5–5.5 over 70 days. Focusing on the presence of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, we analyzed the structure of the microbial community in the reactor. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was conducted with bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA primers. Real-time qPCR was used to track changes in the community composition of methanogens over the course of operation. Finally, the microbial community and its diversity at the time of maximum CH4 production were analyzed by pyrosequencing methods. Genus Methanobacterium, related to hydrogenotrophic methanogens, dominated the microbial community, but acetate consumption by bacteria, such as unclassified Clostridium sp., restricted the development of acetoclastic methanogens in the acidic CH4 production process. The results show that acidic operation of a CH4 production reactor without any pH adjustment inhibited acetogenic growth and enriched the hydrogenotrophic methanogens, decreasing the growth of acetoclastic methanogens. PMID:26694756

  6. Spacecraft attitude calibration/verification baseline study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    A baseline study for a generalized spacecraft attitude calibration/verification system is presented. It can be used to define software specifications for three major functions required by a mission: the pre-launch parameter observability and data collection strategy study; the in-flight sensor calibration; and the post-calibration attitude accuracy verification. Analytical considerations are given for both single-axis and three-axis spacecrafts. The three-axis attitudes considered include the inertial-pointing attitudes, the reference-pointing attitudes, and attitudes undergoing specific maneuvers. The attitude sensors and hardware considered include the Earth horizon sensors, the plane-field Sun sensors, the coarse and fine two-axis digital Sun sensors, the three-axis magnetometers, the fixed-head star trackers, and the inertial reference gyros.

  7. An automated approach to configuration baseline documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, G.D.; Khan, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) automated approach to configuration base-line documentation (CBD) for Salem units 1 and 2 and Hope Creek. The CBD project is a proactive project, similar to what is commonly termed a design basis documentation program in the nuclear utility industry. The data information management system (DIMS) element of the CBD project is expected to automate the CBD development, review/approval, control, maintenance, and distribution of CBD and the subsequent integration of the CBD into the day-to-day design processes of PSE and G's nuclear engineering department. The DIMS project scope emphasizes streamlined, swift, and accurate design information retrieval system hardware and software; proper and controlled screening of stored design information; legible storage of design information; and more efficient and user-friendly information handling. This paper discusses the selection and implementation of an integrated optical imaging and textual search technology.

  8. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  9. Intensity interferometry: optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-07-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  10. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study.

  11. The OPERA long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilquet, G.

    2008-05-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe the appearance of vτ in a pure vμ beam in the parameter space indicated by the atmospheric neutrinos oscillation signal. The detector is situated in the underground LNGS laboratory under 3 800 water meter equivalent at a distance of 730 km from CERN where the CNGS neutrino beam to which it is exposed originates. It consists of two identical 0.68 kilotons lead/nuclear emulsion targets, each instrumented with a tracking device and complemented by a muon spectrometer. The concept and the status of the detector are described and the first results obtained with cosmic rays and during two weeks of beam commissioning in 2006 are reported.

  12. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  13. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  14. The JLC/NLC Baseline Design

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, Peter G

    2003-05-28

    The JLC/NLC is a normal conducting linear collider based on X-band RF technology. The collider is designed to cover the center-of-mass energy range from 90 GeV to 1.3 TeV with a luminosity of 2 to 3 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} between 500 GeV and 1 TeV. The X-band RF system, which is based on the operating NLC Test Accelerator X-band RF system, was recently modified in a way that will ensure a less expensive and faster demonstration of a full RF sub-unit. In this paper, the baseline beam parameters and RF system design for the JLC/NLC will be described, along with the demonstration schedule.

  15. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes) indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Kinsella, John M; Di Prisco, Francesca; Troisi, Sabatino; D'Alessio, Nicola; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Aznar, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy) and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain). A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops) and little owls (Athene noctua) and tawny owls (Strix aluco). It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  16. Helminth Communities of Owls (Strigiformes) Indicate Strong Biological and Ecological Differences from Birds of Prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Kinsella, John M.; Di Prisco, Francesca; Troisi, Sabatino; D’Alessio, Nicola; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Aznar, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy) and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain). A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops) and little owls (Athene noctua) and tawny owls (Strix aluco). It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of ‘owl generalist’ helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of ‘owl specialist’ species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness. PMID:23300921

  17. A Manual of Mosquito Control Projects and Committee Assignments for 4-H and Scouts Biology Class Projects, Organized Community Service Programs, and Individuals Interested in Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Richard A.

    The mosquito control projects presented in this manual were prepared from an educational viewpoint and are intended for use by students in 4-H and Scouts and as a supplement to high school and college biology course work. The major emphasis of the projects is on integrated pest management, an approach utilizing cost-effective control methods which…

  18. An Analysis and Evaluation of an Audio-Tutorial Approach in the Biology Laboratory at the University Community and Technical College, the University of Toledo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Charles Leonard

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-developed audio-tutorial (A-T) system in biology at the college level. The basic design of the study was a variation of a compromise experimental group-control group design. The control group was instructed by lecture-laboratory method, and the experimental by the A-T system. Facutal…

  19. Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.

    2011-02-01

    This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

  20. Macroinvertebrate community as a biological indicator of ecological and toxicological factors in Lake Saint-François (Québec).

    PubMed

    Pinel-Alloul, B; Méthot, G; Lapierre, L; Willsie, A

    1996-01-01

    To assess the potential of the macroinvertebrate community for monitoring variation in the environmental quality of large rivers, the response of littoral macrobenthos in Lake Saint-François, a fluvial lake of the St Lawrence River (Québec) are described. First, the composition of total macroinvertebrate communities and important taxonomic groups as well as the biotic ICI-SL index in 16 littoral stations varying in sedimentology, water chemistry and contamination are described to define indicator species groups and environmental quality ranks. Thereafter, the relative contribution of ecological and toxicological factors in explaining the variation observed in macroinvertebrate assemblages and biotic index were quantified using partial canonical correspondence analysis. Cluster analyses based on taxonomic composition separated five groups of stations where macroinvertebrate assemblages varied in density, composition and tolerance to pollution. The ICI-SL biotic index varied from 7.2 to 27.2 with a mean value of 19 +/- 6. The ICI-SL values determined for the macroinvertebrate communities in Lake Saint-François did not reflect an important deterioration in environmental quality, and there was some agreement between the environmental quality ranking of the stations expressed either by the ICI-SL index or the community cluster analysis. Water conductivity and phosphorus concentration, followed by macrophyte types (Chara, Ceratophyllum) and sediment grain size, were the most significant ecological variables to explain variation in macroinvertebrate communities and derived ICI-SL index in Lake Saint-François. Among the toxicological factors, metals in water (Fe, Cr, Pb, Mn, Zn) and sediment (Mn, Pb, Se), as well as the composite indices of metal and organic contamination (water CI, sediment CI, sediment total PAHs) were the most important factors. The contamination factors selected in our models represented contaminant sorption processes rather than direct

  1. The Institutional Vision of Tribal Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This investigation provides a base-line measurement of the inspirational and pragmatic rhetoric in declarations of institutional vision at tribal community colleges. By comparing it to nontribal community colleges, this content analysis reveals the current state of utility of the mission and vision statements of tribal community colleges, their…

  2. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  3. Long term assessment of factors affecting nitrifying bacteria communities and N-removal in a full-scale biological process treating high strength hazardous wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mo; Park, Hongkeun; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-04-01

    Over a 3 year period, interactions between nitrifying bacterial communities and the operational parameters of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant were analyzed to assess their impact on nitrification performance. Throughout the study period, nitrification fluctuated while Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas nitrosa, the two major ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities, showed resistance to changes in operational and environmental conditions. Nitrobacter populations mostly exceeded those of Nitrospira within nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that a close association between Nitrobacter and nitrite concentration as well as a direct correlation between the quantity of AOB and influent SCN- concentration. The serial shifts of data points over time showed that the nitrification of a full-scale treatment plant has been gradually suppressed by the influence of influent COD and phenol concentrations.

  4. Effects of element complexes containing Fe, Zn and Mn on artificial morel’s biological characteristics and soil bacterial community structures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ciqiong; Wang, Jinmei; Han, Yu; Long, Zhangfu

    2017-01-01

    This study described the effects of elements (including Fe, Zn, Mn and their complexes) on the following factors in artificial morel cultivation: the characteristics of mycelia and sclerotia, soil bacterial community structures, yields and contents of microelements. The results indicated that the groups containing Mn significantly promoted mycelia growth rates, and all the experimental groups resulted in higher yields than the control (P<0.01), although their mycelia and sclerotia did not show obvious differences. It was also found that Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroides, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae were the dominated bacterial phyla. The Zn·Fe group had an unexpectedly high proportion (75.49%) of Proteobacteria during the primordial differentiation stage, while Pseudomonas also occupied a high proportion (5.52%) in this group. These results suggested that different trace elements clearly affected morel yields and soil bacterial community structures, particularly due to the high proportions of Pseudomonas during the primordial differentiation stage. PMID:28350840

  5. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of...

  6. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of...

  7. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of...

  8. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of...

  9. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of...

  10. 48 CFR 1334.202 - Integrated baseline reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integrated baseline... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.202 Integrated baseline reviews. An Integrated Baseline Review shall be conducted when an Earned Value Management...

  11. 48 CFR 1334.202 - Integrated baseline reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integrated baseline... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.202 Integrated baseline reviews. An Integrated Baseline Review shall be conducted when an Earned Value Management...

  12. 48 CFR 1334.202 - Integrated baseline reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integrated baseline... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.202 Integrated baseline reviews. An Integrated Baseline Review shall be conducted when an Earned Value Management...

  13. 48 CFR 1334.202 - Integrated baseline reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integrated baseline... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.202 Integrated baseline reviews. An Integrated Baseline Review shall be conducted when an Earned Value Management...

  14. 48 CFR 34.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integrated Baseline... Integrated Baseline Reviews. (a) When an EVMS is required, the Government will conduct an Integrated Baseline...) The degree to which the management process provides effective and integrated...

  15. 48 CFR 34.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integrated Baseline... Integrated Baseline Reviews. (a) When an EVMS is required, the Government will conduct an Integrated Baseline...) The degree to which the management process provides effective and integrated...

  16. 48 CFR 1334.202 - Integrated baseline reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integrated baseline... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.202 Integrated baseline reviews. An Integrated Baseline Review shall be conducted when an Earned Value Management...

  17. The First SLR Double-Difference Baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svehla, Drazen; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Sierk, Bernd; Kirchner, Georg; Rodriguez, Jose; Wilkinson, Matthew; Sherwood, Rob; Appleby, Graham

    2013-04-01

    We introduce the SLR double-difference approach of space geodesy. With real and simulated SLR measurements it is shown how common SLR biases are removed by forming SLR double-differences, i.e. station range biases, common retro-reflector effects and orbit errors (GNSS) for baselines up to e.g. 5000 km. In this way we obtain SLR observables of utmost precision and accuracy. We show how remaining noise in the SLR measurements nicely averages out, leading to orbit-free and bias-free estimation of station coordinates, local ties between different space geodesy techniques and precise comparison of optical/microwave tropospheric effects. It shall be noted that SLR scale is preserved by double-differencing. When ETALON and LAGEOS satellites are observed by SLR, any orbit error propagates directly into estimated station coordinates. However, by forming differences between two satellites and two ground stations this orbit error can be eliminated. Both satellites need to be observed quasi-simultaneously in the same tracking sessions in order that station range bias and common retro-reflector effects are removed by differencing. When SLR measurements from GRZL and HERL SLR stations are taken to GLONASS and LAGEOS satellites and processed in double-difference mode, clear common orbit errors are visible in the SLR residuals from both stations. The same stands for small range biases that are visible between the consecutive observing sessions and are removed by forming SLR baselines. Longer SLR passes reveal other interesting systematic effects common to both stations at mm-level. An error in the order of 4-6 cm RMS was introduced to GNSS orbits, however the effect on station coordinates in negligible over such a short SLR baseline. We show how with just one-two SLR double-difference passes one can estimate station coordinates at mm-level. When in parallel, both GNSS satellites are observed with microwave measurements, one can estimate very accurate local ties by comparing (or

  18. Why Microbial Communities?

    ScienceCinema

    Fredrickson, Jim (PNNL)

    2016-07-12

    The Microbial Communities Initiative is a 5-year investment by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that integrates biological/ecological experimentation, analytical chemistry, and simulation modeling. The objective is to create transforming technologies, elucidate mechanistic forces, and develop theoretical frameworks for the analysis and predictive understanding of microbial communities. Dr. Fredrickson introduces the symposium by defining microbial communities and describing their scientific relevance as they relate to solving problems in energy, climate, and sustainability.

  19. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  20. A Developmental Neuroscience of Borderline Pathology: Emotion Dysregulation and Social Baseline Theory

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Amy E.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Uyeji, Lauren; Coan, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research has linked poor emotion regulation abilities with dysfunctional frontolimbic circuitry. Consistent with this, research on borderline personality disorder (BPD) finds that frontolimbic dysfunction is a predominant neural substrate underlying the disorder. Emotion regulation is profoundly compromised in BPD. However, BPD is also associated with broad impairment across multiple domains, including impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and cognitive functioning. To date, BPD research has focused largely on single areas of dysfunction, failing to account for overlap at either the biological or behavioral levels of analysis. We examine the literature on frontolimbic dysfunction in BPD within the context of Coan’s social baseline theory. Social baseline theory proposes that healthy human functioning is dependent upon adequate social support and that, at baseline, biological systems are adapted to operate interdependently rather than independently. The social baseline perspective is particularly useful for understanding borderline personality development because the impulsive and emotionally dysregulated behaviors common among those with BPD occur almost invariably within an interpersonal context. We discuss clinical and research implications of this work. PMID:21845379

  1. Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte Count in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chel Hun; Kang, Heeseok; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Lee, Je-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: This study examined factors predicting tumor response and progression-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 143 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2 to IVA) treated with CCRT were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to retrospectively evaluate prognostic factors, including baseline lymphocyte count, that affect tumor response and progression-free survival. Results: Of the variables evaluated, greater baseline lymphocyte count was the factor most predictive of a complete clinical response, followed by smaller tumor size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed baseline lymphocyte count, which was treated as a continuous variable with every 1 x 10{sup 9} lymphocytes/L, to remain a prognostic factor with an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-7.23). In addition, a statistically significant association (p = 0.023) was found between baseline lymphocyte count and progression-free survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89) in the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and possible biologic variation existing in lymphocyte subset number and activity, these findings highlight the strong prognostic value of baseline lymphocyte count in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT. Therefore, a larger number of patients and analysis of lymphocyte subsets are needed.

  2. Space Station-Baseline Configuration With Callouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  3. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment Sensitivity Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrick, Anne; LBNE Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will address the neutrino mass hierarchy, leptonic CP violation, and the value of the mixing angle Theta13 with unprecedented sensitivity. Protons from the Fermilab Main Injector will impinge on a target to create intense fluxes of charged pions and other mesons. The mesons will be guided down a 250 m length of pipe where they will decay creating a muon neutrino beam. The beam will pass through a near detector and travel on to massive detectors located in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab (DUSEL) in Western South Dakota. The near detector at Fermilab will measure the absolute flux of neutrinos before oscillation, and measure signal and background processes in the poorly understood GeV neutrino energy range. To quantify the potential sensitivity of this experiment and the specific needs of the near detector, simulation work has been undertaken. In particular, results of studies using a more sophisticated understanding of various background processes will be presented. Additionally, hardware work for a possible near detector design will be presented.

  4. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  5. LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  6. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  7. Cryogenics Testbed Laboratory Flange Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, Marie Lei Ysabel D.

    2013-01-01

    As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), I was involved in research for the Fluids and Propulsion Division of the NASA Engineering (NE) Directorate. I was immersed in the Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project for the majority of my time at KSC, primarily with the Ground Operations Demonstration Unit Liquid Oxygen (GODU L02) branch of IGODU. This project was established to develop advancements in cryogenic systems as a part of KSC's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. The vision of AES is to develop new approaches for human exploration, and operations in and beyond low Earth orbit. Advanced cryogenic systems are crucial to minimize the consumable losses of cryogenic propellants, develop higher performance launch vehicles, and decrease operations cost for future launch programs. During my internship, I conducted a flange torque tracking study that established a baseline configuration for the flanges in the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) at the KSC Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) - the testing environment for GODU L02.

  8. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K.; Sargent, K.A.

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  9. Lorentz symmetry and very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Hees, A.; Lambert, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard Model extension (SME). Recently, postfit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars led to an upper limit at the 10-4 level on the time-time coefficient s¯T T of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of s¯T T and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans, and with various Sun elongation cutoff angles, and by analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on s¯ T T=(-5 ±8 )×10-5 , directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor of 5 previous postfit analysis estimates.

  10. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  11. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Xucheng

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  12. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    DOEpatents

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  13. Parasites of flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in biological effects monitoring. C. Pollution effects on the parasite community and a comparison to biomarker responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V.; Zander, S.; Körting, W.; Broeg, K.; von Westernhagen, H.; Dizer, H.; Hansen, P. D.; Skouras, A.; Steinhagen, D.

    2003-10-01

    In the frame of an integrated biological effect monitoring programme, the parasite community of flounder (Platichthys flesus) was investigated at different locations in the German Bight from 1995 to 2000. In order to assess the impact of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic activities on the parasite community, selected parasitological parameters that displayed significant differences between the sampling sites were subjected to correlation analyses with site-specific contamination and individual pollution loads of their fish hosts. In addition, correlation analyses were conducted with the responses of selected genetic, biochemical, histopathological, physiological and immunological parameters of fish, used as potential biomarkers. In total, 802 flounder were analysed for these parameters. Information on the chemical background at the sampling sites was derived from sediment samples and from 120 samples of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue, collected at each of the sampling sites. Based on chemical data available from the sediment and blue mussel samples, a pollution gradient could be established between the sampling sites for individual contaminants. The relative abundance of Acanthochondria cornuta, Cucullanus heterochrous and Zoogonoides viviparus, and the community measures species richness and number of heteroxenous species decreased with increasing concentrations of individual heavy metals or hydrocarbons in sediment and blue mussel samples. Most of the parasitological parameters significantly reflected the established site-specific contamination gradient, when data were pooled over all sampling campaigns. Significant correlations were also found with the contamination level of individual flounder. The parasitological parameters included the parasite species Lepeophtheirus pectoralis and Lernaeocera branchialis, which were not correlated to site-specific contamination. Several biomarkers were significantly correlated to the abundance of

  14. Assessing the vulnerability of human and biological communities to changing ecosystem services using a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Labiosa, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe an application of a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support web tool that models and evaluates relative changes in ecosystem services to policy and land management decisions. The Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio (SCWEPM) was designed to provide credible forecasts of responses to ecosystem drivers and stressors and to illustrate the role of land use decisions on spatial and temporal distributions of ecosystem services within a binational (U.S. and Mexico) watershed. We present two SCWEPM sub-models that when analyzed together address bidirectional relationships between social and ecological vulnerability and ecosystem services. The first model employs the Modified Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index (M-SEVI), which assesses community vulnerability using information from U.S. and Mexico censuses on education, access to resources, migratory status, housing situation, and number of dependents. The second, relating land cover change to biodiversity (provisioning services), models changes in the distribution of terrestrial vertebrate habitat based on multitemporal vegetation and land cover maps, wildlife habitat relationships, and changes in land use/land cover patterns. When assessed concurrently, the models exposed some unexpected relationships between vulnerable communities and ecosystem services provisioning. For instance, the most species-rich habitat type in the watershed, Desert Riparian Forest, increased over time in areas occupied by the most vulnerable populations and declined in areas with less vulnerable populations. This type of information can be used to identify ecological conservation and restoration targets that enhance the livelihoods of people in vulnerable communities and promote biodiversity and ecosystem health.

  15. Monitoring Subsurface Microbial Biomass, Community Composition and Physiological Status during Biological Uranium Reduction with Acetate Addition using Lipid Analysis, DNA Arrays and q-PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, A. D.; Long, P. E.; N'Guessan, L.; Williams, K. H.; Chandler, D.

    2011-12-01

    Our objectives for this effort were to investigate microbial community dynamics during each of the distinct terminal electron accepting phases that occur during long-term acetate addition for the immobilization of Uranium. Groundwater was collected from four wells (one up gradient and three down gradient) at three different depths and at four different times (pre-acetate injection, peak iron reduction, iron/sulfate reduction transition and during heavy sulfate reduction). Phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) results from ground water showed that microbial biomass was highest during Iron reduction and then lower during the transition from Iron reduction to Sulfate reduction and lowest during Sulfate reduction. Microbial community composition parameters as measured by PLFA showed distinct differences with terminal electron accepting status. Monounsaturated PLFA that have been shown to correspond with Gram-negative bacteria and Geobacteracea increased markedly with Iron reduction and then decreased with the onset of sulfate reduction. Bacterial physiological stress levels as measured by PLFA fluctuated with terminal electron acceptor status. Low bacterial stress levels coincided with pre-donor addition and Iron reduction but were much higher during Iron to Sulfate transition and during Sulfate reduction. Microarray results showed the expected progression of microbial signatures from Iron to Sulfate -reducers with changes in acetate amendment and in situ field conditions. The microarray response for Geobacter was highly correlated with qPCR for the same target gene (R2 = 0.84). Probes targeting Desulfobacter and Desulfitobacterium were the most reactive during the Iron to Sulfate transition and into Sulfate reduction, with a consistent Desulfotomaculum signature throughout the field experiment and a general decrease in Geobacter signal to noise ratios during the onset of Sulfate reducing conditions. Nitrate reducers represented by Dechloromonas and Dechlorosoma

  16. All biology is computational biology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  17. All biology is computational biology.

    PubMed

    Markowetz, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science.

  18. The importance of natural history and research collections to environmental reconstruction and remediation, and the establishment of shifting baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopnarine, P. D.; Anderson, L.; Roopnarine, D.; Gillikin, D. P.; Leal, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's environments are changing more rapidly today than at almost any time in the Phanerozoic. These changes are driven by human activities, and include climate change, landscape alteration, fragmentation and destruction, environmental pollution, species overexploitation, and invasive species. The rapidity of the changes challenges our best efforts to document what is changing, how it has changed, and what has been lost. Central to these efforts, therefore, is the proper documentation, archiving and curation of past environments. Natural history and other research collections form the core of this documentation, and have proven vital to recent studies of environmental change. Those collections are, however, generally under-utilized and under-appreciated by the general research community. Also, their utility is hampered by insufficient availability of the data, and the very nature of what has been collected in the past. Past collections emphasized a typological approach, placing emphasis on individual specimens and diversity, whether geological or biological, while what is needed today is greater emphasis on archiving entire environments. The concept of shifting baselines establishes that even on historical time scales, the notion of what constitutes an unaltered environment is biased by a lack of documentation and understanding of environments in the recent past. Baselines are necessary, however, for the proper implementation of mitigating procedures, for environmental restoration or remediation, and for predicting the near-term future. Here we present results from a study of impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) on the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Natural history collections of specimens from the Gulf and elsewhere have been crucial to this effort, and serve as an example of how important such collections are to current events. We are examining the effects of spill exposure on shell growth and tissue development, as well as the potential

  19. Nonintrusive methodology for wellness baseline profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Danny Wen-Yaw; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Miaou, Shaou-Gang; Chang, Walter H.; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chen, Shia-Chung; Hong, Y. Y.; Chyang, C. S.; Chang, Quan-Shong; Hsu, Hon-Yen; Hsu, James; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Sin; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lee, Shi-Chen; Hsu, Charles; Miao, Lidan; Byrd, Kenny; Chouikha, Mohamed F.; Gu, Xin-Bin; Wang, Paul C.; Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    We develop an accumulatively effective and affordable set of smart pair devices to save the exuberant expenditure for the healthcare of aging population, which will not be sustainable when all the post-war baby boomers retire (78 millions will cost 1/5~1/4 GDP in US alone). To design an accessible test-bed for distributed points of homecare, we choose two exemplars of the set to demonstrate the possibility of translation of modern military and clinical know-how, because two exemplars share identically the noninvasive algorithm adapted to the Smart Sensor-pairs for the real world persistent surveillance. Currently, the standard diagnoses for malignant tumors and diabetes disorders are blood serum tests, X-ray CAT scan, and biopsy used sometime in the physical checkup by physicians as cohort-average wellness baselines. The loss of the quality of life in making second careers productive may be caused by the missing of timeliness for correct diagnoses and easier treatments, which contributes to the one quarter of human errors generating the lawsuits against physicians and hospitals, which further escalates the insurance cost and wasteful healthcare expenditure. Such a vicious cycle should be entirely eliminated by building an "individual diagnostic aids (IDA)," similar to the trend of personalized drug, developed from daily noninvasive intelligent databases of the "wellness baseline profiling (WBP)". Since our physiology state undulates diurnally, the Nyquist anti-aliasing theory dictates a minimum twice-a-day sampling of the WBP for the IDA, which must be made affordable by means of noninvasive, unsupervised and unbiased methodology at the convenience of homes. Thus, a pair of military infrared (IR) spectral cameras has been demonstrated for the noninvasive spectrogram ratio test of the spontaneously emitted thermal radiation from a normal human body at 37°C temperature. This invisible self-emission spreads from 3 microns to 12 microns of the radiation wavelengths

  20. 100-D Area technical baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.W.

    1993-08-20

    This document is prepared in support of the 100 Area Environmental Restoration activity at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of waste sites located at the 100-D Area. The report is based on an environmental investigation undertaken by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) History Office in support of the Environmental Restoration Engineering Function and on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings, and photographs, supplemented by site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigation or sampling was conducted. All Hanford coordinate locations are approximate locations taken from several different maps and drawings of the 100-D Area. Every effort was made to derive coordinate locations for the center of each facility or waste site, except where noted, using standard measuring devices. Units of measure are shown as they appear in reference documents. The 100-D Area is made up of three operable units: 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, and 100-DR-3. All three are addressed in this report. These operable units include liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, the 100-D and 100-DR Reactors. A fourth operable unit, 100-HR-3, is concerned with groundwater and is not addressed here. This report describes waste sites which include cribs, trenches, pits, french drains, retention basins, solid waste burial grounds, septic tanks, and drain fields. Each waste site is described separately and photographs are provided where available. A complete list of photographs can be found in Appendix A. A comprehensive environmental summary is not provided here but may be found in Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act Characterization (Cushing 1988), which describes the geology and soils, meteorology, hydrology, land use, population, and air quality of the area.

  1. Baseline Year for the Baseline Year Test (in 40 CFR 93.119)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA OTAQ's State and Local Transportation Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Updates on the adequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs), and transportation conformity regulations and guidance

  2. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 1. Baseline Studies. Volume VIII. Summary of Baseline Studies and Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    per- lcohol, counted, and identified to species. esults he phytoplankton communities of the Lake Conway system were with the green algae ( Chlorophyta ...conditions. During the baseline period, the phytoplankton commun- ity was dominated by green algae ( Chlorophyta ) for most of tie year with blue-greens

  3. Baseline Factors Predictive of SLT Response: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Bruen, Robin; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To study the response to Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) according to baseline medical treatment, angle pigmentation, age, diagnosis (open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension), and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods. 74 eyes of 74 patients were enrolled in this study. Baseline characteristics were recorded for each patient. IOP in the treated and fellow eyes was measured at baseline, and 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months following SLT. IOP changes in the different groups were compared using two-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation. Results. The mean age of our cohort was 71 ± 10 years. The mean baseline IOP was 21.5 ± 5 mmHg, and the mean change in IOP from baseline in the treated eye at one year was -4.67 ± 3.40 mmHg. Higher baseline IOP was highly correlated with greater absolute IOP decrease. Prostaglandin analogue use at baseline was shown to be associated with a statistically decreased IOP-lowering response following SLT when corrected for baseline IOP. No significant differences in IOP response were found when comparing groups stratified for age, angle pigmentation, phakic status, gender, or diagnosis. Discussion. The results of this study confirm the finding that higher baseline IOP is a predictor of greater IOP response following SLT, and that pretreatment with prostaglandin analogue therapy is associated with a decreased IOP-lowering response following SLT. The study is limited by the small number of eyes with data available for complete case analysis.

  4. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  5. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  6. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  7. Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program at Toolik Field Station, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kade, A.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Environmental Data Center at the Toolik Field Station, Alaska established a baseline environmental monitoring program in 2007 to provide a long-term record of key biotic and abiotic variables to the scientific community. We maintain a weather station for a long-term climate record at the field station and monitor the timing of key plant phenological events, bird migration and mammal sightings. With regards to plant phenology, we record event dates such as emergence of first leaves, open flowers and seed dispersal for twelve select species typical of the moist acidic tundra, following the ITEX plant phenology protocol. From 2007 to 2011, we observed earlier emergence of first leaves by approximately one week for species such as the dwarf birch Betula nana, sedge Carex bigelowii and evergreen lingonberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea, while seed dispersal for some of these species was delayed by more than two weeks. We also monitor the arrival and departure dates of thirty bird species common to the Toolik area. Yearlong residents included species such as the common raven, rock and willow ptarmigan, and some migrants such as yellow-billed loons and American tree sparrows could be detected for about four months at Toolik, while long-distance traveling arctic terns stayed only two months during the summer. The timing of bird migration dates did not show any clear trends over the past five years for most species. For the past two decades, we recorded climate data such as air, soil and lake temperature, radiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and barometric pressure. During this time period, monthly mean air temperatures varied from -31.7 to -12.8 °C in January and from 8.3 to 13.1 °C in July, with no trend over time. Our baseline data on plant phenological changes, timing of bird migration and climate variables are valuable in the light of long-term environmental monitoring efforts as they provide the context for other seasonality projects that are

  8. Using the Sediment Quality Triad to characterize baseline conditions in the Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA.

    PubMed

    McGee, Beth L; Pinkney, Alfred E; Velinsky, David J; Ashley, Jeffrey T F; Fisher, Daniel J; Ferrington, Leonard C; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2009-09-01

    The Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) consists of complementary measures of sediment chemistry, benthic community structure, and sediment toxicity. We applied the SQT at 20 stations in the tidal portion of the Anacostia River from Bladensburg, MD to Washington, DC to establish a baseline of conditions to evaluate the effects of management actions. Sediment toxicity was assessed using 10-day survival and growth tests with the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca and the midge, Chironomus dilutus. Triplicate grabs were taken at each station for benthic community analysis and the Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI) was used to interpret the data. Only one station, #92, exhibited toxicity related to sediment contamination. Sediments from this station significantly inhibited growth of both test species, had the highest concentrations of contaminants, and had a degraded benthic community, indicated by a B-IBI of less than 3. Additional sediment from this station was tested and sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures tentatively characterized organic compounds as the cause of toxicity. Overall, forty percent of the stations were classified as degraded by the B-IBI. However, qualitative and quantitative comparisons with sediment quality benchmarks indicated no clear relationship between benthic community health and contaminant concentrations. This study provides a baseline for assessing the effectiveness of management actions in the Anacostia River.

  9. Ecology, Ecosystem Management and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian F.; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This six-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on ecology, ecosystem management, and biology teaching. Chapter 1 discusses the basic elements of ecology (considering organisms and their environment, populations, and communities and ecosystems). Chapter 2 describes several aspects of human ecology and resources…

  10. Large short-baseline ν¯μ disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the LSND, KARMEN, and MiniBooNE data on short-baseline ν¯μ→ν¯e oscillations and the data on short-baseline ν¯e disappearance obtained in the Bugey-3 and CHOOZ reactor experiments in the framework of 3+1 antineutrino mixing, taking into account the MINOS observation of long-baseline ν¯μ disappearance and the KamLAND observation of very-long-baseline ν¯e disappearance. We show that the fit of the data implies that the short-baseline disappearance of ν¯μ is relatively large. We obtain a prediction of an effective amplitude sin⁡22ϑμμ≳0.1 for short-baseline ν¯μ disappearance generated by 0.2≲Δm2≲1eV2, which could be measured in future experiments.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project technical baseline document. Fiscal year 1995: Volume 1, Baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Womack, J.C.; Cramond, R.; Paedon, R.J.

    1995-03-13

    This document is a revision to WHC-SD-SNF-SD-002, and is issued to support the individual projects that make up the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project in the lower-tier functions, requirements, interfaces, and technical baseline items. It presents results of engineering analyses since Sept. 1994. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safety, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner that stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel, although other SNF is involved also.

  12. Determination of Baseline Definitions for Contracting Words and Phrases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Lfl DTI SELECTE JAN1290 OF ~ BD DETERMINATION OF BASELINE DEFINITIONS TFOR CONTRACTING WORDS AND PHRASES John E. Cannaday Captain USAF AFIT/GCM/LSQ...Impua M~ 90 01 11 010 AFIT/GCM/LSQ/89S-2 DETERMINATION OF BASELINE DEFINITIONS FOR CONTRACTING WORDS AND PHRASES THESIS John E. Cannaday Captain USAF...the Department of Defense. AFIT/GCM/LSQ/89S-2 DETERMINATION OF BASELINE DEFINITIONS FOR CONTRACTING WORDS AND PHRASES THESIS Presented to the Faculty

  13. Estimating Baselines From Constrained Data On GPS Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey I.

    1991-01-01

    Method of processing measurements of signals received at terrestrial stations from satellites in Global Positioning System (GPS) increases precision of estimates of both orbits of GPS satellites and locations of stations, computed from measurement and orbital data. Involves network of fiducial GPS stations collocated with very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) stations, for which independent VLBI determinations of baselines available. Locations of stations used to establish baselines for geodesy. Potential applications include measurements of seismic and volcanic displacements and movements of tectonic plates.

  14. Bayesian Inference of Baseline Fertility and Treatment Effects via a Crop Yield-Fertility Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer. PMID:25405353

  15. Bayesian inference of baseline fertility and treatment effects via a crop yield-fertility model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer.

  16. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Foxx, T.S.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  17. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  18. Brain atrophy associated with baseline and longitudinal measures of cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, V.A.; Chao, L.L.; Studholme, C.; Yaffe, K.; Miller, B.L.; Madison, C.; Buckley, S.T.; Mungas, D.; Schuff, N.; Weiner, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal was to identify patterns of brain atrophy associated with cognitive impairment and future cognitive decline in non-demented elders. Seventy-one participants were studied with structural MRI and neuropsychological testing at baseline and 1 year follow-up. Deformation-based morphometry was used to examine the relationship between regional baseline brain tissue volume with baseline and longitudinal measures of delayed verbal memory, semantic memory, and executive function. Smaller right hippocampal and entorhinal cortex (ERC) volumes at baseline were associated with worse delayed verbal memory performance at baseline while smaller left ERC volume was associated with greater longitudinal decline. Smaller left superior temporal cortex at baseline was associated with worse semantic memory at baseline, while smaller left temporal white and gray matter volumes were associated with greater semantic memory decline. Increased CSF and smaller frontal lobe volumes were associated with impaired executive function at baseline and greater longitudinal executive decline. These findings suggest that baseline volumes of prefrontal and temporal regions may underlie continuing cognitive decline due to aging, pathology, or both in non-demented elderly individuals. PMID:19446370

  19. Metabolic strategies of free-living and aggregate-associated bacterial communities inferred from biologic and chemical profiles in the Black Sea suboxic zone.

    PubMed

    Fuchsman, Clara A; Kirkpatrick, John B; Brazelton, William J; Murray, James W; Staley, James T

    2011-12-01

    The Black Sea is a permanently anoxic basin with a well-defined redox gradient. We combine environmental 16S rRNA gene data from clone libraries, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and V6 hypervariable region pyrosequences to provide the most detailed bacterial survey to date. Furthermore, this data set is informed by comprehensive geochemical data; using this combination of information, we put forward testable hypotheses regarding possible metabolisms of uncultured bacteria from the Black Sea's suboxic zone (microaerophily, nitrate reduction, manganese cycling, and oxidation of methane, ammonium, and sulfide). Dominant bacteria in the upper suboxic zone included members of the SAR11, SAR324, and Microthrix groups and in the deep suboxic zone included members of BS-GSO-2, Marine Group A, and SUP05. A particulate fraction (30 μm filter) was used to distinguish between free-living and aggregate-attached communities in the suboxic zone. The particulate fraction contained greater diversity of V6 tag sequences than the bulk water samples. Lentisphaera, Epsilonproteobacteria, WS3, Planctomycetes, and Deltaproteobacteria were enriched in the particulate fraction, whereas SAR11 relatives dominated the free-living fraction. On the basis of the bacterial assemblages and simple modeling, we find that in suboxic waters, the interior of sinking aggregates potentially support manganese reduction, sulfate reduction, and sulfur oxidation.

  20. Development of the concept of spatial-temporal mask for testing effects of discharge from well-drilling activities on biological communities.

    PubMed

    Pulgati, Fernando H; Ayup-Zouain, Ricardo N; Landau, Luiz; Fachel, Jandyra M G

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the use of Bayesian spatial models to develop the concept of a spatial-temporal mask for the purpose of identifying regions in which before and after drilling effects are most clearly defined and from which the consequences of exposure of macrofauna and meiofauna to the release of drilling discharges can be evaluated over time. To determine the effects of drilling fluids and drill-cuttings on the marine benthic community, it is essential to know not only where discharged materials ended up within the possible impact area, but also the chemical concentrations to which biota were exposed during and after drilling. Barium and light hydrocarbons were used as chemical tracers for water-based and non-aqueous-based fluids in a shallow water site in the Campos Basin, off the coast of Brazil. Since the site showed evidence of exposure to waste material from earlier drilling, the analysis needed to take into account the background concentrations of these compounds. Using the Bayesian models, concentrations at unsampled sites were predicted and regions altered and previously contaminated were identified.

  1. Application Of The Climafor Baseline To Determine Leakage: TheCase Of Scolel Te.

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, B.H.J.; Bazan, E. Esquivel; Quechulpa Montalvo, S.

    2007-06-01

    The acceptance of forestry-based project activities tomitigate greenhouse gases emissions has been subjected to a number ofmethodological questions to be answered, of which the most challengingare baseline establishment and identification of and measuring leakage.Here we pose hypotheses for and quantify leakage of the Scolel Te projectin Chiapas, Mexico. In this project small-scale farmers are implementingforestry, agroforestry, and forest conservation activities, with carbonsequestration as one of the goals. The main leakage monitoring domain isdefined as the area owned by the participating farmers or communitiesoutside the area where the specific project activities take place. Thenull-hypothesis (no leakage) is that non-project land owned by the farmeror community will experience the same carbon stock changes as predictedby the regional baseline, specifically developed for the project. Firstwe assessed the most likely causes and sources of leakage that may occurin the project. From this analysis, one type of leakage seems to beimportant, i.e., activity shifting. Second we estimated the leakage of asample of participating farmers and communities. Actual land use was thencompared with expected land use derived from the baseline. The Plan Vivoof each participant, complemented with readily available tools toidentify the main sources and drivers of leakage are used to developsimple leakage assessment procedures, as demonstrated in this paper.Negative leakage was estimated to be negligible in this study.Incorporating these procedures already in the project planning stage willreduce the uncertainties related to the actual carbon mitigationpotential of any forestry project.

  2. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts-Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions.

  3. Assessing the potential biological implications of recreational inshore fisheries on sub-tidal fish communities of Azores (north-east Atlantic Ocean) using catch and effort data.

    PubMed

    Diogo, H; Pereira, J G

    2014-04-01

    Recreational inshore fishing activities practiced on Faial and Pico Islands (Azorean archipelago) were surveyed between October 2004 and September 2005. Recreational inshore fishers employ three main methods of fishing (shore angling, spear fishing and intertidal collecting). The method that demanded the highest fishing effort (number of fishing operations) was shore angling, followed by intertidal collecting and spear fishing. Shore angling produced the highest diversity of catch composition (38), which is in part explained by the seven fishing techniques used by shore anglers. The estimates of annual catch were higher for shore angling than spear fishing (51·2 and 6·3 t) even though they were lower than commercial artisanal fishing (442 t). The weighted mean trophic level and vulnerability index values in the fish catch were higher for spear fishing (3·4 and 50·9) than for shore angling (3·1 and 44·5). Cumulative pressure by different recreational fishing activities was detected on species already subject to a heavy pressure from Azorean commercial fishing, and on vulnerable and top-predator species. There are important biological and ecological implications whereby fishery managers should implement additional regulations such as prohibiting catches of the most vulnerable species.

  4. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts—Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions. PMID:26422081

  5. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR): a model organism database providing a centralized, curated gateway to Arabidopsis biology, research materials and community.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Seung Yon; Beavis, William; Berardini, Tanya Z; Chen, Guanghong; Dixon, David; Doyle, Aisling; Garcia-Hernandez, Margarita; Huala, Eva; Lander, Gabriel; Montoya, Mary; Miller, Neil; Mueller, Lukas A; Mundodi, Suparna; Reiser, Leonore; Tacklind, Julie; Weems, Dan C; Wu, Yihe; Xu, Iris; Yoo, Daniel; Yoon, Jungwon; Zhang, Peifen

    2003-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely-studied plant today. The concerted efforts of over 11 000 researchers and 4000 organizations around the world are generating a rich diversity and quantity of information and materials. This information is made available through a comprehensive on-line resource called the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) (http://arabidopsis.org), which is accessible via commonly used web browsers and can be searched and downloaded in a number of ways. In the last two years, efforts have been focused on increasing data content and diversity, functionally annotating genes and gene products with controlled vocabularies, and improving data retrieval, analysis and visualization tools. New information include sequence polymorphisms including alleles, germplasms and phenotypes, Gene Ontology annotations, gene families, protein information, metabolic pathways, gene expression data from microarray experiments and seed and DNA stocks. New data visualization and analysis tools include SeqViewer, which interactively displays the genome from the whole chromosome down to 10 kb of nucleotide sequence and AraCyc, a metabolic pathway database and map tool that allows overlaying expression data onto the pathway diagrams. Finally, we have recently incorporated seed and DNA stock information from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC) and implemented a shopping-cart style on-line ordering system.

  6. Influence of CeO2 NPs on biological phosphorus removal and bacterial community shifts in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor with the differential effects of molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Wang, Peifang; You, Guoxiang; Miao, Lingzhan; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    The effects of CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) with established biological phosphorus (P) removal were investigated from the processes of anaerobic P release and aerobic P uptake. At low concentration (0.1mg/L), no significant impact was observed on total phosphorus (TP) removal after operating for 8h. However, at a concentration of 20mg/L, TP removal efficiency decreased from 83.68% to 55.88% and 16.76% when the CeO2 NPs were added at the beginning of the anaerobic and aerobic periods, respectively. Further studies illustrated that the inhibition of the specific P release rate was caused by the reversible states of Ce(3+) and Ce(4+), which inhibited the activity of exopolyphosphatase (PPX) and transformation of poly-β-hydoxyalkanoates (PHA) and glycogen, as well as the uptake of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The decrease in the specific P uptake rate was mainly attributed to the significantly suppressed energy generation and decreased abundance of Burkholderia caused by excess reactive oxygen species. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was not influenced by CeO2 NPs under aerobic conditions, due to the increased abundance of Acetobacter and Acidocella after exposure. The inhibitory effects of CeO2 NPs with molecular oxygen were reduced after anaerobic exposure due to the enhanced particle size and the presence of Ce(3+).

  7. Characterization of secondary ignition sources in unattended compartments and full-scale baseline test. [aircraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klink, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of five fuel loads burned within a metal lavatory were identified. In 15 of the tests the lavatory door remained closed for the 30-minute test period while in 15 additional tests the door was opened after the fire had developed. Upon completion of these tests the most severe source was selected for use in the baseline test. In the baseline test, the lavatory and adjacent panels, all of which were constructed of contemporary materials, were tested for a period of 1 hour. Thermal, environmental, and biological data were obtained for all fuel loads, door conditions, and the baseline test. All tests were conducted in a cabin fire simulator with separate ventilation of the cabin and lavatory representative of an inflight condition. The baseline test established that by using the most severe fuel source: (1) the exposed animal subject survived without complications; (2) no toxic levels of gas within the cabin were detected; (3) a propagating fire did not develop in adjacent structures; (4) the lavatory containing the fire remained structurally intact; (5) decomposition of portions of the lavatory did occur; and (6) cabin visibility would have presented a problem after 5 minutes.

  8. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 2: Baseline system navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Rains, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies related to the baseline navigation system for the orbiter are presented. The baseline navigation system studies include a covariance analysis of the Inertial Measurement Unit calibration and alignment procedures, postflight IMU error recovery for the approach and landing phases, on-orbit calibration of IMU instrument biases, and a covariance analysis of entry and prelaunch navigation system performance.

  9. 40 CFR 80.92 - Baseline auditor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... understand all technical details of the entire baseline audit process. (3)(i) The primary analyst shall have... baseline. (3) If an auditor is an organization, one or more persons shall be designated as primary analyst(s). The primary analyst(s) shall meet the requirements described in paragraphs (c) (2) and (3)...

  10. 40 CFR 80.92 - Baseline auditor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... understand all technical details of the entire baseline audit process. (3)(i) The primary analyst shall have... baseline. (3) If an auditor is an organization, one or more persons shall be designated as primary analyst(s). The primary analyst(s) shall meet the requirements described in paragraphs (c) (2) and (3)...

  11. 40 CFR 80.92 - Baseline auditor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... understand all technical details of the entire baseline audit process. (3)(i) The primary analyst shall have... baseline. (3) If an auditor is an organization, one or more persons shall be designated as primary analyst(s). The primary analyst(s) shall meet the requirements described in paragraphs (c) (2) and (3)...

  12. Adapting the M3 Surveillance Metrics for an Unknown Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael Scott; Abes, Jeff I.; Jaramillo, Brandon Michael Lee

    2016-11-30

    The original M3 surveillance metrics assume that the baseline is known. In this article, adapted M3 metrics are presented when the baseline is not known and estimated by available data. Deciding on how much available data is enough is also discussed.

  13. The Emergy Baseline of the Earth: Is it Arbitrary?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergy baseline for the Earth is used in determining the transformities of the products of all planetary processes and through these relationships it influences all emergy evaluations. Estimates of the emergy baseline made in the past have changed depending on the number of i...

  14. 48 CFR 1034.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integrated Baseline... Integrated Baseline Reviews. (a) When an EVMS is required, and depending on the DME CLIN value threshold, the... which the management process provides effective and integrated technical/schedule/cost planning...

  15. 48 CFR 1034.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integrated Baseline... Integrated Baseline Reviews. (a) When an EVMS is required, and depending on the DME CLIN value threshold, the... which the management process provides effective and integrated technical/schedule/cost planning...

  16. 48 CFR 1034.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integrated Baseline... Integrated Baseline Reviews. (a) When an EVMS is required, and depending on the DME CLIN value threshold, the... which the management process provides effective and integrated technical/schedule/cost planning...

  17. 48 CFR 334.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). 334.202 Section 334.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). (a) An IBR normally should be conducted as a post-award activity. A...

  18. 48 CFR 334.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). 334.202 Section 334.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). (a) An IBR normally should be conducted as a post-award activity. A...

  19. 48 CFR 334.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). 334.202 Section 334.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). (a) An IBR normally should be conducted as a post-award activity. A...

  20. 48 CFR 334.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). 334.202 Section 334.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). (a) An IBR normally should be conducted as a post-award activity. A...

  1. 48 CFR 334.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). 334.202 Section 334.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). (a) An IBR normally should be conducted as a post-award activity. A...

  2. Baselining Young People's Literacy in Middlesbrough in 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This report presents baseline information about the degree to which children and young people in Middlesbrough enjoy reading and writing, how often then engage in reading and writing, what types of materials they read and write and how they feel about reading and writing. It also outlines baseline information about their confidence in their own…

  3. 77 FR 26535 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 26, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions...

  4. 77 FR 31841 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 16, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of...

  5. Design of experiment for earth rotation and baseline parameter determination from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermanis, A.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of recovering earth rotation and network geometry (baseline) parameters are emphasized. The numerical simulated experiments performed are set up in an environment where station coordinates vary with respect to inertial space according to a simulated earth rotation model similar to the actual but unknown rotation of the earth. The basic technique of VLBI and its mathematical model are presented. The parametrization of earth rotation chosen is described and the resulting model is linearized. A simple analysis of the geometry of the observations leads to some useful hints on achieving maximum sensitivity of the observations with respect to the parameters considered. The basic philosophy for the simulation of data and their analysis through standard least squares adjustment techniques is presented. A number of characteristic network designs based on present and candidate station locations are chosen. The results of the simulations for each design are presented together with a summary of the conclusions.

  6. Dynamics of cover, UV-protective pigments, and quantum yield in biological soil crust communities of an undisturbed Mojave Desert shrubland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.; Smith, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are an integral part of dryland ecosystems. We monitored the cover of lichens and mosses, cyanobacterial biomass, concentrations of UV-protective pigments in both free-living and lichenized cyanobacteria, and quantum yield in the soil lichen species Collema in an undisturbed Mojave Desert shrubland. During our sampling time, the site received historically high and low levels of precipitation, whereas temperatures were close to normal. Lichen cover, dominated by Collema tenax and C. coccophorum, and moss cover, dominated by Syntrichia caninervis, responded to both increases and decreases in precipitation. This finding for Collema spp. at a hot Mojave Desert site is in contrast to a similar study conducted at a cool desert site on the Colorado Plateau in SE Utah, USA, where Collema spp. cover dropped in response to elevated temperatures, but did not respond to changes in rainfall. The concentrations of UV-protective pigments in free-living cyanobacteria at the Mojave Desert site were also strongly and positively related to rainfall received between sampling times (R2 values ranged from 0.78 to 0.99). However, pigment levels in the lichenized cyanobacteria showed little correlation with rainfall. Quantum yield in Collema spp. was closely correlated with rainfall. Climate models in this region predict a 3.5-4.0 ??C rise in temperature and a 15-20% decline in winter precipitation by 2099. Based on our data, this rise in temperature is unlikely to have a strong effect on the dominant species of the soil crusts. However, the predicted drop in precipitation will likely lead to a decrease in soil lichen and moss cover, and high stress or mortality in soil cyanobacteria as levels of UV-protective pigments decline. In addition, surface-disturbing activities (e.g., recreation, military activities, fire) are rapidly increasing in the Mojave Desert, and these disturbances quickly remove soil lichens and mosses. These stresses combined are likely to lead to

  7. Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    salinity close to the bottom, suggesting a link between suprabenthos abundance and changes in the oceanographic condition of water masses close to the bottom. It is suggested that a higher suprabenthos biomass recorded off Sóller in comparison to that off Cabrera in June could, in turn, be related to a seasonal inflow of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in April-June in this area at mid bathyal depths (350-650 m). This trend would be based on: 1) it was evident only at mid-slope depths between 350-750 m, coinciding with the LIW distribution, and 2) it was not recorded among zooplankton (collected throughout the water column). The possible effect of the fluctuations of suprabenthos and zooplankton on higher trophic levels has been explored studying the diet and food consumption rates of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, as indicator species by its dominance in bathyal communities. A. antennatus increased its food consumption from February to April-June 2004 off Sóller, which in the case of large (CL > 40 mm) specimens was found in both areas. In addition, there was a shift of diet from winter to spring-early summer. In this last period, A. antennatus preyed upon euphausiids and mesopelagic decapods and fish, while benthos (e.g. polychaetes and bivalves) decreased in the diet. This indicates an increase in the food consumption and probably in the caloric content of the diet in pre-spawning females in April-June 2004, which is synchronized with the period when gonad development begins in A. antennatus females (May-June). Anyway, macrozooplankton, and not suprabenthos, is crucial as a high energetic food source in the coupling between food intake and reproduction in the red shrimp.

  8. Predicting the effects of climate change on marine communities and the consequences for fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Simon; Brander, Keith

    2010-02-01

    the biological effects of climate change and a baseline for model comparisons.

  9. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  10. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Access to HIV Services at Non-Governmental and Community-Based Organizations among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Cameroon: An Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Claire E.; Papworth, Erin; Billong, Serge C.; Kassegne, Sethson; Petitbon, Fanny; Mondoleba, Valentin; Moukam, Laure Vartan; Macauley, Isaac; Eyene Ntsama, Simon Pierre; Yomb, Yves Roger; Eloundou, Jules; Mananga, Franz; Tamoufe, Ubald; Baral, Stefan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are more likely to be living with HIV than other adult men in low- and middle-income countries. MSM experience barriers to accessing HIV services including a lack of available specialized care, and community-level stigma and discrimination. This study aims to examine the uptake of HIV services at non-governmental and community-based organizations (NGOs/CBOs) to identify ways to improve coverage of HIV prevention and treatment among MSM. Methods An Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) survey was conducted in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon in 2011 using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) method to recruit and interview 239 MSM in Yaoundé and 272 MSM in Douala. Results MSM in Yaoundé were statistically significantly more likely to have accessed NGO/CBO services or been reached by an outreach worker in the past 12 months if they had any STI symptoms (aOR 2.17 CI 1.02-4.59. p=0.04), or if they had a larger MSM social network (aOR 1.02 CI 1.01-1.04. p<0.01). MSM in Douala were more likely to have accessed NGO/CBO services or been reached by an outreach worker in the past 12 months if they were living with HIV (aOR 3.60 CI 1.35-9.60. p=0.01), or if they reported higher numbers of male sexual partners (aOR 1.17 CI 1.00-1.36. p=0.046). Compared to men in Douala, MSM in Yaoundé were significantly less likely to have accessed NGO/CBO services or been reached by an outreach worker in the past 12 months (aOR 0.22 CI 0 .14-0.34. p=<0.01). Conclusions With appropriate funding and resources, community-based organizations that provide care specifically for MSM can improve access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Additionally, using social networks to reach MSM can connect greater numbers of the population to effective HIV interventions, which will improve health outcomes and decrease onward transmission of HIV. PMID:25906046

  12. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  13. Interplanetary navigation using a continental baseline large antenna arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeberle, Dennis W.; Spencer, David B.; Ely, Todd A.

    2004-01-01

    Navigation is a key component of interplanetary missions and must continue to be precise with the changing landscape of antenna design. Improvements for the Deep Space Network (DSN) may include the use of antenna arrays to simulate the power of a larger single antenna at much lower operating and construction costs. Therefore, it is necessary to test the performance of arrayed antennas from a navigational point-of-view. This initial investigation focuses on the performance of arrayed antennas from a navigational point-of-view. This initial investigation focuses on the performance of delta one-way range measurements using a shorter baseline with more data collection then current systems use. With all other parameter equal, the longer the baseline, the better the accuracy for navigation making the number of data packets very important. This trade study compares baseline distances ranging from 1 to 1000km with an in use baseline, looking at a due east baseline, a due north baseline at 45 degrees East of North. The precision of the baseline systems can be found through a simulated created for this purpose using the Jet Propulsion Lab based Monte navigation and mission design tool. The simulation combines the delta one-way range measurements with two-range and two-way Doppler measurements and puts the measurements through a Kalman filter to determine an orbit solution. Noise is added along with initial errors to give the simulation realism. This study is an important step towards the assessment of the utility of arrays for navigational purposes. The preliminary results have showed a decrease in reliability as the baseline is shortened but the larger continental baselines show comparable results t that of the current Goldstone to Canberra.

  14. The environmental program at Kennedy Space Center - Baseline to monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    KSC has developed an environmental program to ensure that its activities do not adversely affect the surrounding environment. Two essential elements of the total program are the baseline and monitoring programs. The goal of the baseline program is to collect sufficient information about the environment prior to Shuttle launches so that adverse changes in the environment - if and when they occur after the Shuttle program becomes active - can be detected and cause-effect relationships established when possible. The goal of the monitoring program is to use information from the baseline program along with survey and sampling operations during the period of initial Shuttle launches to document adverse changes in the environment.

  15. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    structurally suitable for ovigerity. Species with Pseudocalanus-type gonads are present from polar seas to the tropics, some of them being key species. The Acartia-type was scarce, found in only one species, Acartia clausi. Here all oocyte developmental stages are present, including intermediate stages, but only a few oocytes mature synchronously and are released together. High spawning frequency compensates for the small clutches, and hence egg production rate may be as high as in Calanus-type gonads. In the Aetidius-type gonad, the total number of oocytes in the diverticula is low as is the number of oocytes maturing synchronously. Less is known about the reproductive biology of species with Aetidius-type gonads; however, their distribution and feeding patterns suggest that this type is common in species inhabiting environments of low food availability. The differences in gonad structures also lead to differences in the egg size:female size ratio, as the space available for each mature oocyte depends on the total number of oocytes. Independent from gonad-type, the eggs are relatively large in species in which the gonads contain only few oocytes, whereas small eggs are produced by species with gonads filled with many oocytes. Since all species carrying their eggs in external sacs until hatching (ovigerous species) have Pseudocalanus-type gonads, the scatter in their egg size:female size ratio is low. The broadcast spawning species are of all gonad-types, and consequently the scatter among them is high. A major factor affecting the timing and magnitude of spawning of calanoid copepods is the energy supply for gonad development. Therefore, part of the review elucidates the role of internal and external resources in fuelling egg production. In many species, freshly assimilated food is transferred into egg material within a short period of time, and clutch size and spawning frequency are the two parameters that allow adjustment of egg production to food availability and

  16. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second

  17. A baseline survey of the Primary Healthcare system in south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwuani, Chinyere Mercellina; Olugboji, Akindeji; Akuto, Edward Erdorga; Odebunmi, Akim; Ezeilo, Ezenta; Ugbene, Emmanuel

    2006-07-01

    A baseline survey to audit the PHC operations and determine community perception and expectations of PHC service delivery was conducted in 72 communities in Enugu state, southeastern Nigeria. The study was intended to facilitate the development of intermediate performance indicators for monitoring the progress of an ongoing health sector reform and to gather baseline data for planning and policy formulation. The tools used for the operations audit assessed indicators for evaluating: (a) Stewardship, (b) Service Provision and (c) Administrative and financial management; while the community survey was assessed by, (a) utilization of health services, (b) perception of service delivery and (c) health care financing. One hundred and sixteen respondents from each of the facilities in the sample frame were interviewed using a structured self-assessment questionnaire and a qualitative assessment was undertaken in 53 of the facilities using an audit guide. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with the policy makers and planners in each of the 17 LGAs in the state. A total of 832 respondents were interviewed in the communities (using a structured questionnaire) and 42 community FGDs were conducted. The results indicate a lack of operational efficiency in the majority of the facilities audited. It was also observed that majority of the facilities do not provide all services required of it, are poorly maintained, do not have enough skilled health workers and operate without a budget. There appears to be no formal financial management system in place and no policy on financial resource generation. The community survey identified two major problems; low utilization of PHCs and poor service provision. The key indicator identified by the community for evaluating performance of the PHCs remains "access to essential drugs". The major prospect was the willingness of an appreciable number of respondents to invest in health financing through insurance schemes and payment of

  18. Communities Complicate Gene Transplant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1976-01-01

    Confrontations have arisen between local communities and universities involved in molecular biology research. The situation in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is described in which citizens have opposed work undertaken at Harvard and MIT. (LBH)

  19. Bulk soil and rhizosphere bacterial community PCR-DGGE profiles and beta-galactosidase activity as indicators of biological quality in soils contaminated by heavy metals and cultivated with Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Iñigo, M J; Pérez-Sanz, A; Ortiz, I; Alonso, J; Alarcón, R; García, P; Lobo, M C

    2009-06-01

    The biological quality of two heavy metal contaminated soils (soil C: Typic Calcixerept, pH 8.3 and soil H: Typic Haploxeraf, pH 7.3) was investigated after growing the metal-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke for two vegetative periods. The activity of the enzyme beta-galactosidase, which is sensitive to the presence of contaminants in soil, and the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of 16S rRNA gene fragments of culturable bacteria from bulk soil and rhizosphere were determined. The microbial enzymatic activity was higher in planted soils than in bare soils at the contamination level of 600 mg of total heavy metals kg(-1) soil. After growing S. vulgaris, beta-galactosidase activity was almost recovered in the calcareous soil. In this soil new bands appeared in the PCR-DGGE profiles of the rhizosphere bacterial community as a response to the exposure to heavy metals.

  20. Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Research 2012 May 2012 (historical) Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals How often a woman should have bone mineral density (BMD) tests to track bone mass is ...